Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Lipid A: Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.Lipid Metabolism Disorders: Pathological conditions resulting from abnormal anabolism or catabolism of lipids in the body.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.TriglyceridesLipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Biosynthetic Pathways: Sets of enzymatic reactions occurring in organisms and that form biochemicals by making new covalent bonds.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Lipid Peroxides: Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Metabolism: The chemical reactions that occur within the cells, tissues, or an organism. These processes include both the biosynthesis (ANABOLISM) and the breakdown (CATABOLISM) of organic materials utilized by the living organism.Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Lipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Metabolic Networks and Pathways: Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.PPAR alpha: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR GAMMA is important to metabolism of LIPIDS. It is the target of FIBRATES to control HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Lipolysis: The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1: A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates expression of GENES involved in FATTY ACIDS metabolism and LIPOGENESIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Lipogenesis: De novo fat synthesis in the body. This includes the synthetic processes of FATTY ACIDS and subsequent TRIGLYCERIDES in the LIVER and the ADIPOSE TISSUE. Lipogenesis is regulated by numerous factors, including nutritional, hormonal, and genetic elements.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Mice, Inbred C57BLEscherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Sterols: Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)Acyltransferases: Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Hyperlipidemias: Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.Orphan Nuclear Receptors: A broad category of receptor-like proteins that may play a role in transcriptional-regulation in the CELL NUCLEUS. Many of these proteins are similar in structure to known NUCLEAR RECEPTORS but appear to lack a functional ligand-binding domain, while in other cases the specific ligands have yet to be identified.Lipoprotein Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.34.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Fatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Fatty Acids, Unsaturated: FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Sphingolipids: A class of membrane lipids that have a polar head and two nonpolar tails. They are composed of one molecule of the long-chain amino alcohol sphingosine (4-sphingenine) or one of its derivatives, one molecule of a long-chain acid, a polar head alcohol and sometimes phosphoric acid in diester linkage at the polar head group. (Lehninger et al, Principles of Biochemistry, 2nd ed)Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Lipid Metabolism, Inborn Errors: Errors in the metabolism of LIPIDS resulting from inborn genetic MUTATIONS that are heritable.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.3.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Acyl Coenzyme A: S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.Membrane Microdomains: Detergent-insoluble CELL MEMBRANE components. They are enriched in SPHINGOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL and clustered with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins.Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Proteins: Sterol regulatory element binding proteins are basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factors that bind the sterol regulatory element TCACNCCAC. They are synthesized as precursors that are threaded into the MEMBRANES of the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Oleic Acid: An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Diet, High-Fat: Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.Cholesterol, HDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Glycolipids: Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Inositol: An isomer of glucose that has traditionally been considered to be a B vitamin although it has an uncertain status as a vitamin and a deficiency syndrome has not been identified in man. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1379) Inositol phospholipids are important in signal transduction.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors: TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that are activated by ligands and heterodimerize with RETINOID X RECEPTORS and bind to peroxisome proliferator response elements in the promoter regions of target genes.Oleic Acids: A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Fatty Acid Synthases: Enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA derivatives.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Terpenes: A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.Hypolipidemic Agents: Substances that lower the levels of certain LIPIDS in the BLOOD. They are used to treat HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.Cholesterol, LDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Lipoproteins, VLDL: A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.Adipose Tissue, White: Fatty tissue composed of WHITE ADIPOCYTES and generally found directly under the skin (SUBCUTANEOUS FAT) and around the internal organs (ABDOMINAL FAT). It has less vascularization and less coloration than the BROWN FAT. White fat provides heat insulation, mechanical cushion, and source of energy.TritiumEating: The consumption of edible substances.Metabolome: The dynamic collection of metabolites which represent a cell's or organism's net metabolic response to current conditions.Apolipoproteins B: Major structural proteins of triacylglycerol-rich LIPOPROTEINS. There are two forms, apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein B-48, both derived from a single gene. ApoB-100 expressed in the liver is found in low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). ApoB-48 expressed in the intestine is found in CHYLOMICRONS. They are important in the biosynthesis, transport, and metabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Plasma Apo-B levels are high in atherosclerotic patients but non-detectable in ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.Microsomes: Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Apolipoproteins E: A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Coenzyme A Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.Glycerides: GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Lipoproteins, LDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.DiglyceridesMethionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Mevalonic AcidMixed Function Oxygenases: Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.PPAR gamma: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA is important in regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism and CELL GROWTH PROCESSES. It is a target of THIAZOLIDINEDIONES for control of DIABETES MELLITUS.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Phosphatidylinositols: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.Enzymes: Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Apolipoproteins: Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Sphingomyelins: A class of sphingolipids found largely in the brain and other nervous tissue. They contain phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine as their polar head group so therefore are the only sphingolipids classified as PHOSPHOLIPIDS.Carnitine: A constituent of STRIATED MUSCLE and LIVER. It is an amino acid derivative and an essential cofactor for fatty acid metabolism.Diacylglycerol O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyses the last step of the TRIACYLGLYCEROL synthesis reaction in which diacylglycerol is covalently joined to LONG-CHAIN ACYL COA to form triglyceride. It was formerly categorized as EC 2.3.1.124.Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases: Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of alpha-carboxyl group of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to yield MEVALONIC ACID.EstersMultienzyme Complexes: Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.Acyl-CoA Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the first and rate-determining steps of peroxisomal beta-oxidation of fatty acids. It acts on COENZYME A derivatives of fatty acids with chain lengths from 8 to 18, using FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE as a cofactor.Palmitic Acids: A group of 16-carbon fatty acids that contain no double bonds.Peptide Synthases: Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.Carnitine O-Palmitoyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the conversion of palmitoyl-CoA to palmitoylcarnitine in the inner mitochondrial membrane. EC 2.3.1.21.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 2: A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates GENES involved in CHOLESTEROL synthesis and uptake.Sterol Esterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and some other sterol esters, to liberate cholesterol plus a fatty acid anion.Phosphatidate Phosphatase: A phosphomonoesterase involved in the synthesis of triacylglycerols. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidates with the formation of diacylglycerols and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.4.Choline: A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.Metabolic Diseases: Generic term for diseases caused by an abnormal metabolic process. It can be congenital due to inherited enzyme abnormality (METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS) or acquired due to disease of an endocrine organ or failure of a metabolically important organ such as the liver. (Stedman, 26th ed)Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Ceramides: Members of the class of neutral glycosphingolipids. They are the basic units of SPHINGOLIPIDS. They are sphingoids attached via their amino groups to a long chain fatty acyl group. They abnormally accumulate in FABRY DISEASE.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Polyketide Synthases: Large enzyme complexes composed of a number of component enzymes that are found in STREPTOMYCES which biosynthesize MACROLIDES and other polyketides.Citric Acid Cycle: A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.3T3-L1 Cells: A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.Apolipoprotein A-I: The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Glycosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glycosyl groups to an acceptor. Most often another carbohydrate molecule acts as an acceptor, but inorganic phosphate can also act as an acceptor, such as in the case of PHOSPHORYLASES. Some of the enzymes in this group also catalyze hydrolysis, which can be regarded as transfer of a glycosyl group from the donor to water. Subclasses include the HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES; PENTOSYLTRANSFERASES; SIALYLTRANSFERASES; and those transferring other glycosyl groups. EC 2.4.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins: Intracellular proteins that reversibly bind hydrophobic ligands including: saturated and unsaturated FATTY ACIDS; EICOSANOIDS; and RETINOIDS. They are considered a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed family of proteins that may play a role in the metabolism of LIPIDS.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Peroxisomes: Microbodies which occur in animal and plant cells and in certain fungi and protozoa. They contain peroxidase, catalase, and allied enzymes. (From Singleton and Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)Lipoproteins, HDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.Lipid Mobilization: LIPOLYSIS of stored LIPIDS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE to release FREE FATTY ACIDS. Mobilization of stored lipids is under the regulation of lipolytic signals (CATECHOLAMINES) or anti-lipolytic signals (INSULIN) via their actions on the hormone-sensitive LIPASE. This concept does not include lipid transport.
This enzyme participates in ether lipid metabolism. Wientzek M, Man RY, Choy PC (1987). "Choline glycerophospholipid ... biosynthesis in the guinea pig heart". Biochem. Cell Biol. 65 (10): 860-8. doi:10.1139/o87-112. PMID 3447597. Molecular and ...
KANFER J, KENNEDY EP (1964). "METABOLISM AND FUNCTION OF BACTERIAL LIPIDS. II. BIOSYNTHESIS OF PHOSPHOLIPIDS IN ESCHERICHIA ... This enzyme participates in glycine, serine and threonine metabolism and glycerophospholipid metabolism. It has 2 cofactors: ...
This enzyme participates in ether lipid metabolism. Waku K, Lands WE (1968). "Acyl coenzyme A:1-alkenyl-glycero-3- ... phosphorylcholine acyltransferase action in plasmalogen biosynthesis". J. Biol. Chem. 243 (10): 2654-9. PMID 5689955. Molecular ...
This enzyme participates in ether lipid metabolism as a step in glycerolipid biosynthesis. Abeles RH, Brownstein AM, Randles CH ...
... and ether lipid metabolism. KENNEDY EP, WEISS SB (1956). "The function of cytidine coenzymes in the biosynthesis of ... This enzyme participates in 3 metabolic pathways: aminophosphonate metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, ...
This enzyme participates in ether lipid metabolism. Rock CO, Snyder F (1974). "Biosynthesis of 1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate ...
"L-ornithine supplementation attenuates physical fatigue in healthy volunteers by modulating lipid and amino acid metabolism". ... "Ornithine Biosynthesis". School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary, University of London. Retrieved 2007-08-17.. ... However, in mammalian non-hepatic tissues, the main use of the urea cycle is in arginine biosynthesis, so, as an intermediate ... hydrochloride ingestion on performance during incremental exhaustive ergometer bicycle exercise and ammonia metabolism during ...
2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholines are a class of phospholipids that are intermediates in the metabolism of lipids. Because ... "Penicillium chrysogenum Wisconsin 54-1255 Pathway: triacylglycerol biosynthesis". FungiCyc - an organism-specific database of ... "Acyltransferases and transacylases involved in fatty acid remodeling of phospholipids and metabolism of bioactive lipids in ... The formation of various other lipids generates 1-lysoPC as a by-product. Other synonyms for this class of compounds are 2- ...
... serves as a major link between carbohydrate metabolism and lipid metabolism. It is also a ... GPDH plays a major role in lipid biosynthesis. Through the reduction of dihydroxyacetone phosphate into glycerol 3-phosphate, ... as well as its role in lipid metabolism, makes GDPH a factor in lipid imbalance diseases, such as obesity. Enhanced GPDH ... Since glycerol is a main subunit in lipid metabolism, its abundance can easily lead to an increase in triglyceride accumulation ...
Hartmann, Marie-Andrée (2003). "Lipid Metabolism and Membrane Biogenesis". Topics in Current Genetics. 6: 183. doi:10.1007/978- ... The regulation of the biosynthesis of both sterols and some specific lipids occurs during membrane biogenesis. Through 13C- ... The biosynthesis of β-sitosterol from cycloartenol is summarized below. The double bond of cycloartenol (compound 7 in diagram ... The biosynthesis of cycloartenol begins as one molecule of isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and two molecules of dimethylallyl ...
Lipid metabolism[edit]. PLP is an essential component of enzymes that facilitate the biosynthesis of sphingolipids.[4] ... Amino acid metabolism[edit]. *PLP is a cofactor in the biosynthesis of five important neurotransmitters: serotonin, dopamine, ... Glucose metabolism[edit]. PLP is a required coenzyme of glycogen phosphorylase, the enzyme necessary for glycogenolysis to ... Its active form, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate, serves as a coenzyme in some 100 enzyme reactions in amino acid, glucose, and lipid ...
... with CHILD syndrome which is a X-linked dominant disorder of lipid metabolism with disturbed cholesterol biosynthesis, and ... This enzyme is localized in the endoplasmic reticulum and is involved in cholesterol biosynthesis. Mutations in the NSDHL gene ... Caldas H, Herman GE (2004). "NSDHL, an enzyme involved in cholesterol biosynthesis, traffics through the Golgi and accumulates ... Guggenberger C, Ilgen D, Adamski J (2007). "Functional analysis of cholesterol biosynthesis by RNA interference". J. Steroid ...
Lipid Biosynthesis. The Plant Cell 7, 957-970. *^ Steer, Brian E.S. Gunning, Martin W. (1996). Plant cell biology : structure ... "Chloroplast proteomics highlights the subcellular compartmentation of lipid metabolism". Progress in Lipid Research. 49 (2): ... Acetate in the cytosol is unavailable for lipid biosynthesis in the plastid[165]. The typical length of fatty acids produced in ... Plastoglubuli contain both structural proteins and enzymes involved in lipid synthesis and metabolism. They contain many types ...
... that O-GlcNAc modification impacts many cellular activities such as lipid/carbohydrate metabolism and hexosamine biosynthesis. ... O-GlcNAcylation is a form of glycosylation, the site-specific enzymatic addition of saccharides to proteins and lipids. This ...
Lipid metabolism. Defining the enzymes involved in triglyceride biosynthesis and the cell biology underlying lipid storage in ...
... lipid metabolism, biosynthesis of antibiotics and natural products etc. The vast majority of known radical SAM enzymes belong ... thiazole biosynthesis protein ThiH (cofactor biosynthesis - thiamine) TrnC - thuricin biosynthesis TrnD - thuricin biosynthesis ... cofactor biosynthesis - FeMo cofactor) NirJ - heme d1 biosynthesis radical SAM protein NirJ (cofactor biosynthesis - heme d1) ... cofactor biosynthesis - PQQ) PylB - pyrrolysine biosynthesis protein PylB (amino acid biosynthesis - pyrrolysine) QhpD (PeaB ...
... lipid metabolism, etc. Some radical SAM-e enzymes use a second SAM-e as a methyl donor. Radical SAM enzymes are much more ... amino acid metabolism; transsulfuration; and more. In plants, SAM-e is crucial to the biosynthesis of ethylene, an important ... More than 40 methyl transfers from SAM-e are known, to various substrates such as nucleic acids, proteins, lipids and secondary ... In bacteria, SAM-e is bound by the SAM riboswitch, which regulates genes involved in methionine or cysteine biosynthesis. In ...
... nervonic acid appears to be beneficial for the treatment of genetic disorders of the lipid metabolism, such as Zellweger ... In the same way, recent studies have concluded that nervonic acid is implicated as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of nerve ... "Journal of Lipid Research" (PDF). Journal of Lipid Research. 39. 1998. "Production of Nervonic acid in Brassica carinata for ... Appelqvist (1976) Lipids in Cruciferae. In: Vaughan JG, Macleod AJ (Eds), The biology and the Chemistry of Cruciferae. Academic ...
New insights into sphingolipid metabolism and function in budding yeast". Journal of Lipid Research. 49 (5): 909-21. doi: ... Cowart LA, Obeid LM (March 2007). "Yeast sphingolipids: recent developments in understanding biosynthesis, regulation, and ... Bartke N, Hannun YA (April 2009). "Bioactive sphingolipids: metabolism and function". Journal of Lipid Research. 50 Suppl: S91- ... New insights into sphingolipid metabolism and function in budding yeast". Journal of Lipid Research. 49 (5): 909-21. doi: ...
... in which choline obtained either by dietary consumption or by metabolism of choline-containing lipids is converted to PC, ... "Sequential synthesis and methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine promote lipid droplet biosynthesis and stability in tissue ... This is largely a result of lower levels of VLDL lipids in the PEMT-deficient mice. Furthermore, the decreased lipid (PC) ... 16 September 2013). "Phosphatidylcholine and Related Lipids". AOCS Lipid Library. AOCS. Retrieved 13 February 2014. DeLong CJ, ...
"The biosynthesis and metabolism of carotenoids and retinol (vitamin A)" (PDF). J.of Lipid Research. 5 (3): 281-298. ...
The process of lipid metabolism synthesizes and degrades the lipid stores and produces the structural and functional lipids ... Swiezewska E, Danikiewicz W (July 2005). "Polyisoprenoids: structure, biosynthesis and function". Progress in Lipid Research. ... LIPID MAPS - Comprehensive lipid and lipid-associated gene/protein databases.. *LipidBank - Japanese database of lipids and ... Sterol lipids[edit]. Sterol lipids, such as cholesterol and its derivatives, are an important component of membrane lipids,[43] ...
... was estimated to exist at a concentration of less than 2000 molecules per bacterial cell. Lipid II biosynthesis is ... "Membrane intermediates in the peptidoglycan metabolism of Escherichia coli: possible roles of PBP 1b and PBP 3". J. Bacteriol. ... It has been hypothesized that maintaining lipid II biosynthesis reflects its role in prokaryotic cell division. In the ... September 2009). "Functional conservation of the lipid II biosynthesis pathway in the cell wall-less bacteria Chlamydia and ...
... their roles and interactions with lipid metabolism". Prog. Lipid Res. 44 (1): 1-51. doi:10.1016/j.plipres.2004.10.001. PMID ... Smith WL, Urade Y, Jakobsson PJ (October 2011). "Enzymes of the cyclooxygenase pathways of prostanoid biosynthesis". Chem. Rev ... Through metabolism of EETs and other lipid mediators, sEH plays a role in several diseases, including hypertension, cardiac ... Conversely, the sEH plays a major role in the in vivo metabolism of endogenous lipid epoxides, such as the EETs and squalene ...
... their regulation and roles in metabolism" Progress in Lipid Research 2006, volume 45, pp. 237-249. doi:10.1016/j.plipres. ... Their biosynthesis occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum. VLCFA's can represent up to a few percent of the total fatty acid ... 2006.01.004 "Very-long-chain fatty acids from the animal and plant kingdoms" Rezanka, Tomas Progress in Lipid Research 1989, ...
Metabolism[edit]. Androgens are metabolized mainly in the liver.. Medical uses[edit]. Main article: Anabolic steroid § Medical ... Biosynthesis[edit]. Androgens are synthesized from cholesterol and are produced primarily in the gonads (testicles and ovaries ... Recent results indicate androgens inhibit the ability of some fat cells to store lipids by blocking a signal transduction ... The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 89 (10): 5245-55. doi:10.1210/jc.2004-0084. PMID 15472231.. ...
The process of lipid metabolism synthesizes and degrades the lipid stores and produces the structural and functional lipids ... Swiezewska E, Danikiewicz W (July 2005). "Polyisoprenoids: structure, biosynthesis and function". Progress in Lipid Research. ... LIPID MAPS - Comprehensive lipid and lipid-associated gene/protein databases.. *LipidBank - Japanese database of lipids and ... Sterol lipids[edit]. Sterol lipids, such as cholesterol and its derivatives, are an important component of membrane lipids,[43] ...
Metabolism was quantified by measuring extracellular acidification and oxygen consumption rates. Omega 3 significantly induced ... Omega 3 fatty acids appear to enhance glycolytic, oxidative, and total metabolism. Moreover, both omega 3 and CLA treatment ... but the effects on overall muscle metabolism are less established. We evaluated the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) ... metabolic genes as well as oxidative metabolism (oxygen consumption), glycolytic capacity (extracellular acidification), and ...
Triterpenoid biosynthesis in Euphorbia lathyris. In: The Metabolism, Structure, and Function of Plant Lipids. (P. K. Stumpf, J ... Carotenoid biosynthesis and carotenogenic enzymes in plants. In: The Metabolism, Structure, and Function of Plant Lipids. (P.K ... Lipid metabolism. In: The Lipid Handbook. (F.D. Gunstone, J.L. Harwood, F.B. Padley, eds.), Chapman and Hall, London - New York ... Plant growth regulation by mevinolin and other sterol biosynthesis inhibitors. In: Ecology and Metabolism of Plant Lipids. (G. ...
Alterations in membrane lipid composition lead to improved plant salt tolerance. Gibberellic acid (GA3) has also been widely ... Gigon A, Matos AR, Laffray D, Zuily-Fodil Y, Pham-Thi AT (2004) Effect of drought stress on lipid metabolism in the leaves of ... effects on membrane lipid composition and expression of lipid biosynthesis genes. Physiol Plantarum 146:272-284CrossRefGoogle ... However, little is known about whether exogenous application of GA3 participates in up-regulation of lipid biosynthesis under ...
Gene co-expression network analysis identified three callus-specific modules enriched with various lipid metabolism categories ... neither FA biosynthesis/β-oxidation nor other lipid metabolic pathways showed clear indications of concerted differential ... However, the genes involved in the biosynthesis of precursors, intermediates, and transcriptional regulation remains to be ... supporting the roles of FA metabolism in planta, gene duplication as a potential source of new genes, and co-regulation of ...
Nucleotide metabolism *. Sugar metabolism *. Aromatics metabolism *. Polyketide biosynthesis ... Lipid metabolism *. Sterol biosynthesis *. M00102 Ergocalciferol biosynthesis *. Amino acid metabolism *. Aromatic amino acid ... Polyketide sugar unit biosynthesis *. M00793 dTDP-L-rhamnose biosynthesis *. M00794 dTDP-6-deoxy-D-allose biosynthesis ... Biosynthesis of terpenoids and polyketides *. Terpenoid backbone biosynthesis *. M00849 C5 isoprenoid biosynthesis, mevalonate ...
Nucleotide metabolism *. Sugar metabolism *. Aromatics metabolism *. Polyketide biosynthesis ... Lipid metabolism *. Sterol biosynthesis *. M00102 Ergocalciferol biosynthesis *. Lipid metabolism *. M00113 Jasmonic acid ... Histidine metabolism *. M00026 Histidine biosynthesis, PRPP => histidine *. Aromatic amino acid metabolism *. M00022 Shikimate ... Carbohydrate metabolism *. Other carbohydrate metabolism *. M00114 Ascorbate biosynthesis, plants, glucose-6P => ascorbate *. ...
Biosynthesis; Lipid metabolism; Nitrogen fixation; Amino acid; Biosynthesis and proteins; Purines; Pyrimidines; Nucleic acids; ... Physiology Krebs cycle Lipids Lipids--Metabolism Macromolecules Metabolism Mevalonic acid Molecular biology Nitrogen Nitrogen-- ... Nature, distribution and biosynthesis; Function; Metabolism in senescent and store tissue; Analytical methods ... Sterol biosynthesis. Nature and distribution of terpene quinones. The biosynthesis of terpenoid quinones. Polyprenols. ...
... in Lipid Metabolism in Plants. ed Moore T (CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL), pp 340-388. ... Effects of different elicitors and inhibitors of the jasmonate biosynthesis on the induction of volatile biosynthesis in lima ... 1995) Lipoxygenase-catalyzed oxygenation of storage lipids is implicated in lipid mobilization during germination. Proc Natl ... Linking the events of octadecanoid biosynthesis and those of the induced terpenoid biosynthesis to specific cellular organelles ...
This review summarizes the current knowledge on sterol biosynthesis leading to provitamin D. It also addresses the occurrence ... This review summarizes the current knowledge on sterol biosynthesis leading to provitamin D. It also addresses the occurrence ... Hartmann, M. A. (2004). Sterol metabolism and functions in higher plants. Lipid Metab. Membr. Biogenesis 6, 57-81. ... Vitamin D Biosynthesis. Vitamin D biosynthesis is taking place along the normal sterol pathway, i.e., vitamin D2 is formed by ...
It also revealed that relation may exist between enhanced beta-carotene accumulation and lipid metabolism. For the talent of ... Biosynthesis and regulation of carotenoids in Dunaliella: progresses and prospects.. Ye ZW1, Jiang JG, Wu GH. ...
Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) biosynthesis, PA =, PS =, PEPathway module; Carbohydrate and lipid metabolism; Lipid metabolism ... mutant with a partial defect in the synthesis of CDP-diacylglycerol and altered regulation of phospholipid biosynthesis. [J ... mutant with a partial defect in the synthesis of CDP-diacylglycerol and altered regulation of phospholipid biosynthesis.. Klig ...
This review summarizes the relationship between lipid metabolism and key stages in the production of infectious HCV. ... The liver is highly metabolically active and one of its key functions is to control the balance of lipid throughout the body. A ... number of pathologies have been linked to the impact of HCV infection on liver metabolism. However, there is also growing ... lipid metabolism. lipid droplets. fatty acid biosynthesis. cholesterol biosynthesis. VLDL assembly. RNA replication. ...
The Hedgehog signalling pathway is a master regulator of lipid metabolic processes and their zonation in the adult liver of ... Furthermore, we measured the activity of several lipid metabolism pathways in cultured hepatocytes. Fatty acid biosynthesis, as ... including those involved in lipid metabolism. The Hedgehog pathway has been found to control the metabolism of lipids in fat ... Fatty acid and sterol biosynthesis. Request a detailed protocol The biosynthesis of non-saponifiable lipids (sterols) and free ...
Nucleotide metabolism *. Sugar metabolism *. Aromatics metabolism *. Polyketide biosynthesis ... Lipid metabolism *. Sterol biosynthesis *. M00102 Ergocalciferol biosynthesis *. Amino acid metabolism *. Aromatic amino acid ... Polyketide sugar unit biosynthesis *. M00793 dTDP-L-rhamnose biosynthesis *. M00794 dTDP-6-deoxy-D-allose biosynthesis ... Biosynthesis of terpenoids and polyketides *. Terpenoid backbone biosynthesis *. M00849 C5 isoprenoid biosynthesis, mevalonate ...
Lipid metabolism * Sterol biosynthesis * M00107 Steroid hormone biosynthesis * M00108 C21-Steroid hormone biosynthesis ... nt06019 Steroid hormone biosynthesis * N00759 Steroid hormone biosynthesis, cholesterol to prognenolone/progesterone ... Steroid hormone biosynthesis - Reference pathway [ Pathway menu , Pathway entry , Show description , Image (png) file , Help ] ...
This enzyme participates in ether lipid metabolism. Wientzek M, Man RY, Choy PC (1987). "Choline glycerophospholipid ... biosynthesis in the guinea pig heart". Biochem. Cell Biol. 65 (10): 860-8. doi:10.1139/o87-112. PMID 3447597. Molecular and ...
Fasting / metabolism * Fatty Acids / biosynthesis * Female * Humans * Lipid Metabolism* * Lipids / biosynthesis* * Lipogenesis ... 1 Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Metabolism (C.P., C.A.M., F.K., L.H.), Oxford Centre for Clinical Magnetic ... Participants and methods: Fasting and postprandial hepatic FA metabolism was studied in 22 healthy men (n = 11) and women with ... Sex-specific differences in hepatic dietary fatty acid (FA) metabolism have not been well characterized. We compared fasting ...
"Biosynthesis of nervonic acid and perspectives for its production by microalgae and other microorganisms, Applied Microbiology ... Lipid production in Yarrowia lipolytica is maximized by engineering cytosolic redox metabolism ... Although the metabolism of fatty acid has been studied for decades, the biosynthesis of NA has yet to be illustrated. Generally ... Although the metabolism of fatty acid has been studied for decades, the biosynthesis of NA has yet to be illustrated. Generally ...
Lipid Metabolism in Plants. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL pp 339-388 ... Biosynthesis of the Monoterpenes Limonene and Carvone in the ... 1988) Biosynthesis and metabolism of sesquiterpenoid phytoalexins and triterpenoids in potato cell suspension cultures. ... The biosynthesis of the monoterpenes limonene and carvone in the fruit of caraway (Carum carvi L.) proceeds from geranyl ... 1993) Prenyltransferases and cyclases. in Methods in Plant Biochemistry, Vol 9: Enzymes of Secondary Metabolism. ed Lea PJ ( ...
KANFER J, KENNEDY EP (1964). "METABOLISM AND FUNCTION OF BACTERIAL LIPIDS. II. BIOSYNTHESIS OF PHOSPHOLIPIDS IN ESCHERICHIA ... This enzyme participates in glycine, serine and threonine metabolism and glycerophospholipid metabolism. It has 2 cofactors: ...
Lipid metabolism; fatty acid biosynthesis. CC -!- SUBUNIT: Homodimer (By similarity). CC -!- SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Cytoplasm ( ... Fatty acid biosynthesis; Lipid synthesis; Multifunctional enzyme; KW Transferase. SQ SEQUENCE 332 AA; UNKNOWN MW; UNKNOWN CRC64 ... Its CC substrate specificity determines the biosynthesis of branched- CC chain and/or straight-chain of fatty acids (By ...
... steroid biosynthesis. This protein is involved in the pathway steroid biosynthesis, which is part of Lipid metabolism.. View ... all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the pathway steroid biosynthesis and in Lipid metabolism. ... Aromatic hydrocarbons catabolism, Lipid degradation, Lipid metabolism, Steroid metabolism. Ligand. Flavoprotein, FMN. ...
... steroid biosynthesis. This protein is involved in the pathway steroid biosynthesis, which is part of Lipid metabolism.. View ... all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the pathway steroid biosynthesis and in Lipid metabolism. ...
Over the past 30 years, lipid metabolism has emerged as a central theme in biochemistry. Vytas Bankaitis (University of North ... membrane protein biosynthesis; protein folding and quality control and protein aggregation and autophagy. ... "Lipid and Membrane Metabolism" theme focused on this topic. The symposium will address current discoveries and new ideas in ... phospholipase D and phosphatidic acid signaling and the biology of neutral lipid metabolism and trafficking. ...
  • The team has a long history in studying the physiology of mycobacteria, notably the biogenesis of the mycobacterial envelopes as well as an outstanding expertise in analytical and structural biochemistry of lipids and polysaccharides, with multiple collaborations including pharmaceutical groups. (ipbs.fr)
  • The team was also successful in setting up and performing a biochemical screening on a validated target from the mycolic acid biosynthesis (FadD32), with selected hits obtained and a pharmacophore defined for further high potential for MedChem development. (ipbs.fr)
  • this is one of a select group of books in the lipid field that I would expect to find in every biological library. (elsevier.com)
  • The homeostatic regulation of lipid metabolism is essential for the maintenance of key cellular processes involved in a plethora of biological functions. (mdpi.com)
  • The diverse roles that eicosanoids and other bioactive lipids play in these biological phenomena including the participation of lipid oxidation in conversion of procarcinogens, positive and negative modulation of tumor growth, immunomodulation, tissue injury, and yet protection and enhancement of cancer therapy, necessitated scientific interaction to sort out and understand these complex and sometimes contradictory observations. (weltbild.de)
  • We offer a selection of recent papers on a variety of topics from the Journal of Biological Chemistry , the Journal of Lipid Research and Molecular & Cellular Proteomics . (asbmb.org)
  • It is intended as an advanced and up-to-date textbook for teachers and students who are familiar with the basic concepts of lipid biochemistry and will also serve as a general reference book for scientists studying lipids, lipoproteins and membranes. (elsevier.com)
  • A special focus is set on the description of orphan enzymes in ether lipid metabolism and on the successful strategies how four previous orphans have recently been assigned a sequence. (nih.gov)
  • even the stereochemistry of the glycerol phosphate has some exceptions, as shown by the recent discovery of archaeal-like sn -glycerol-1-phosphate specific lipids in some bacteria [ 16 ] and in eukaryotic endosomes [ 17 ]. (hindawi.com)