Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.
Determination of the quantity of a material present in a mixture by measurement of its effect on the electrical conductivity of the mixture. (Webster, 3d ed)
A trace element that constitutes about 27.6% of the earth's crust in the form of SILICON DIOXIDE. It does not occur free in nature. Silicon has the atomic symbol Si, atomic number 14, and atomic weight [28.084; 28.086].
Microdevices that combine microfluidics technology with electrical and/or mechanical functions for analyzing very small fluid volumes. They consist of microchannels etched into substrates made of silicon, glass, or polymer using processes similar to photolithography. The test fluids in the channels can then interact with different elements such as electrodes, photodetectors, chemical sensors, pumps, and valves.
The utilization of an electrical current to measure, analyze, or alter chemicals or chemical reactions in solution, cells, or tissues.
A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.
A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.
A methodology for chemically synthesizing polymer molds of specific molecules or recognition sites of specific molecules. Applications for molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) include separations, assays and biosensors, and catalysis.
A 60-kDa extracellular protein of Streptomyces avidinii with four high-affinity biotin binding sites. Unlike AVIDIN, streptavidin has a near neutral isoelectric point and is free of carbohydrate side chains.
Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.
Electrical devices that are composed of semiconductor material, with at least three connections to an external electronic circuit. They are used to amplify electrical signals, detect signals, or as switches.
Nanometer-scale wires made of materials that conduct electricity. They can be coated with molecules such as antibodies that will bind to proteins and other substances.
Materials that have a limited and usually variable electrical conductivity. They are particularly useful for the production of solid-state electronic devices.
A class of devices combining electrical and mechanical components that have at least one of the dimensions in the micrometer range (between 1 micron and 1 millimeter). They include sensors, actuators, microducts, and micropumps.
Manufacturing technology for making microscopic devices in the micrometer range (typically 1-100 micrometers), such as integrated circuits or MEMS. The process usually involves replication and parallel fabrication of hundreds or millions of identical structures using various thin film deposition techniques and carried out in environmentally-controlled clean rooms.
Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
The study of fluid channels and chambers of tiny dimensions of tens to hundreds of micrometers and volumes of nanoliters or picoliters. This is of interest in biological MICROCIRCULATION and used in MICROCHEMISTRY and INVESTIGATIVE TECHNIQUES.
Small holes of nanometer dimensions in a membrane, that can be used as single molecule detectors. The pores can be biological or synthetic.
An allotropic form of carbon that is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in matches and explosives. It is obtained by mining and its dust can cause lung irritation.
LIGHT, it's processes and properties, and the characteristics of materials interacting with it.
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
Methods utilizing the principles of MICROFLUIDICS for sample handling, reagent mixing, and separation and detection of specific components in fluids.
Coating with a metal or alloy by electrolysis.
Nanometer sized fragments of semiconductor crystalline material which emit PHOTONS. The wavelength is based on the quantum confinement size of the dot. They can be embedded in MICROBEADS for high throughput ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES.
Products or parts of products used to detect, manipulate, or analyze light, such as LENSES, refractors, mirrors, filters, prisms, and OPTICAL FIBERS.
Nanometer-sized tubes composed of various substances including carbon (CARBON NANOTUBES), boron nitride, or nickel vanadate.
The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.
Concentration or quantity that is derived from the smallest measure that can be detected with reasonable certainty for a given analytical procedure.
Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of beta-D-glucose and oxygen to D-glucono-1,5-lactone and peroxide. It is a flavoprotein, highly specific for beta-D-glucose. The enzyme is produced by Penicillium notatum and other fungi and has antibacterial activity in the presence of glucose and oxygen. It is used to estimate glucose concentration in blood or urine samples through the formation of colored dyes by the hydrogen peroxide produced in the reaction. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.3.4.
Nucleotide sequences, generated by iterative rounds of SELEX APTAMER TECHNIQUE, that bind to a target molecule specifically and with high affinity.
The use of a quartz crystal microbalance for measuring weights and forces in the micro- to nanogram range. It is used to study the chemical and mechanical properties of thin layers, such as polymer coatings and lipid membranes; and interactions between molecues.
Measurement of distances or movements by means of the phenomena caused by the interference of two rays of light (optical interferometry) or of sound (acoustic interferometry).
Enzymes which are immobilized on or in a variety of water-soluble or water-insoluble matrices with little or no loss of their catalytic activity. Since they can be reused continuously, immobilized enzymes have found wide application in the industrial, medical and research fields.
Electrodes which can be used to measure the concentration of particular ions in cells, tissues, or solutions.
The study, control, and application of the conduction of ELECTRICITY through gases or vacuum, or through semiconducting or conducting materials. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A specific protein in egg albumin that interacts with BIOTIN to render it unavailable to mammals, thereby producing biotin deficiency.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
The physical effects involving the presence of electric charges at rest and in motion.
Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
Devices that control the supply of electric current for running electrical equipment.
A water-soluble, enzyme co-factor present in minute amounts in every living cell. It occurs mainly bound to proteins or polypeptides and is abundant in liver, kidney, pancreas, yeast, and milk.
Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.
Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.
Nanometer-sized tubes composed mainly of CARBON. Such nanotubes are used as probes for high-resolution structural and chemical imaging of biomolecules with ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY.
Discrete concentrations of energy, apparently massless elementary particles, that move at the speed of light. They are the unit or quantum of electromagnetic radiation. Photons are emitted when electrons move from one energy state to another. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.
Binary compounds of oxygen containing the anion O(2-). The anion combines with metals to form alkaline oxides and non-metals to form acidic oxides.
Silver. An element with the atomic symbol Ag, atomic number 47, and atomic weight 107.87. It is a soft metal that is used medically in surgical instruments, dental prostheses, and alloys. Long-continued use of silver salts can lead to a form of poisoning known as ARGYRIA.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
The study of MAGNETIC PHENOMENA.
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.

Direct interaction of lignin and lignin peroxidase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium. (1/3180)

Binding properties of lignin peroxidase (LiP) from the basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium against a synthetic lignin (dehydrogenated polymerizate, DHP) were studied with a resonant mirror biosensor. Among several ligninolytic enzymes, only LiP specifically binds to DHP. Kinetic analysis revealed that the binding was reversible, and that the dissociation equilibrium constant was 330 microM. The LiP-DHP interaction was controlled by the ionization group with a pKa of 5.3, strongly suggesting that a specific amino acid residue plays a role in lignin binding. A one-electron transfer from DHP to oxidized intermediates LiP compounds I and II (LiPI and LiPII) was characterized by using a stopped-flow technique, showing that binding interactions of DHP with LiPI and LiPII led to saturation kinetics. The dissociation equilibrium constants for LiPI-DHP and LiPII-DHP interactions were calculated to be 350 and 250 microM, and the first-order rate constants for electron transfer from DHP to LiPI and to LiPII were calculated to be 46 and 16 s-1, respectively. These kinetic and spectral studies strongly suggest that LiP is capable of oxidizing lignin directly at the protein surface by a long-range electron transfer process. A close look at the crystal structure suggested that LiP possesses His-239 as a possible lignin-binding site on the surface, which is linked to Asp-238. This Asp residue is hydrogen-bonded to the proximal His-176. This His-Asp...proximal-His motif would be a possible electron transfer route to oxidize polymeric lignin.  (+info)

Absorption of solar radiation by an ellipsoid sensor simulated the human body. (2/3180)

Assessment of heat gain in man caused by solar radiation is one of the most important problems in research of the human heat balance outdoors. The purpose of the present study was to investigate a new method for estimation of solar heat income. Absorption of short wave radiation (direct, diffuse and reflected) was measured with an ellipsoid sensor representing a simple, physical model of man. Measurements were performed in climatic chamber with the use of an iodide CSI solar lamp. The absorbed quantity of solar radiation varied as a result of sun altitude as well as of a colour and insulation of fabric covering the ellipsoid sensor. The new coefficients derived from our investigations for estimating doses of absorbed solar radiation should be applicable for a standing man. They correlate better with mean skin temperature observed on subjects outdoor than previous results obtained based on a cylinder as an analogue model of man. The ellipsoid sensor covered by a black fabric absorbed about 6 times more of solar radiation than when covered by a white textile.  (+info)

T cell receptor and coreceptor CD8 alphaalpha bind peptide-MHC independently and with distinct kinetics. (3/3180)

The T cell surface glycoprotein CD8 enhances T cell antigen recognition by binding to MHC class I molecules. We show that human CD8 alphaalpha binds to the MHC class I molecule HLA-A2 with an extremely low affinity (Kd approximately 0.2 mM at 37 degrees C) and with kinetics that are between 2 and 3 orders of magnitude faster than reported for T cell receptor/peptide-MHC interactions. Furthermore, CD8 alphaalpha had no detectable effect on a T cell receptor (TCR) binding to the same peptide-MHC class I complex. These binding properties provide an explanation as to why the CD8/MHC class I interaction is unable to initiate cell-cell adhesion and how it can enhance TCR recognition without interfering with its specificity.  (+info)

Qualitative and quantitative differences in T cell receptor binding of agonist and antagonist ligands. (4/3180)

The kinetics of interaction between TCR and MHC-peptide show a general relationship between affinity and the biological response, but the reported kinetic differences between antigenic and antagonistic peptides are very small. Here, we show a remarkable difference in the kinetics of TCR interactions with strong agonist ligands at 37 degrees C compared to 25 degrees C. This difference is not seen with antagonist/positive selecting ligands. The interaction at 37 degrees C shows biphasic binding kinetics best described by a model of TCR dimerization. The altered kinetics greatly increase the stability of complexes with agonist ligands, accounting for the large differences in biological response compared to other ligands. Thus, there may be an allosteric, as well as a kinetic, component to the discrimination between agonists and antagonists.  (+info)

Evaluation of relative contributions of two enzymes supposed to metabolise hydrogen peroxide in Paracoccus denitrificans. (5/3180)

A biosensor exploiting an electrochemically mediated enzyme-catalysed reaction was used to quantify relative contributions of cytoplasmic catalase and periplasmic cytochrome c peroxidase to the overall rate of hydrogen peroxide breakdown in cells of Paracoccus denitrificans. The effects of antimycin (an inhibitor of electron flow to cytochrome c peroxidase), the reaction rate versus substrate concentration profiles for the whole cells and subcellular fractions, and the time courses of oxygen concentration demonstrated a profound decrease in the capacity of cytochrome c peroxidase to reduce H2O2 under in vivo conditions. The reason is suggested to be a competition for available electrons between the enzyme and terminal oxidases metabolising oxygen produced by catalase.  (+info)

Sortilin/neurotensin receptor-3 binds and mediates degradation of lipoprotein lipase. (6/3180)

Lipoprotein lipase and the receptor-associated protein (RAP) bind to overlapping sites on the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein/alpha2-macroglobulin receptor (LRP). We have investigated if lipoprotein lipase interacts with the RAP binding but structurally distinct receptor sortilin/neurotensin receptor-3. We show, by chemical cross-linking and surface plasmon resonance analysis, that soluble sortilin binds lipoprotein lipase with an affinity similar to that of LRP. The binding was inhibited by heparin and RAP and by the newly discovered sortilin ligand neurotensin. In 35S-labeled 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with the cross-linker dithiobis(succinimidyl propionate), lipoprotein lipase-containing complexes were isolated by anti-sortilin antibodies. To elucidate function in cells, sortilin-negative Chinese hamster ovary cells were transfected with full-length sortilin and shown to express about 8% of the receptors on the cell surface. These cells degraded 125I-labeled lipoprotein lipase much faster than the wild-type cells. The degradation was inhibited by unlabeled lipoprotein lipase, indicating a saturable pathway, and by RAP and heparin. Moreover, inhibition by the weak base chloroquine suggested that degradation occurs in an acidic vesicle compartment. The results demonstrate that sortilin is a multifunctional receptor that binds lipoprotein lipase and, when expressed on the cell surface, mediates its endocytosis and degradation.  (+info)

Sodium dodecyl sulfate stability of HLA-DR1 complexes correlates with burial of hydrophobic residues in pocket 1. (7/3180)

Certain class II MHC-peptide complexes are resistant to SDS-induced dissociation. This property, which has been used as an in vivo as well as an in vitro peptide binding assay, is not understood at the molecular level. Here we have investigated the mechanistic basis of SDS stability of HLA-DR1 complexes by using a biosensor-based assay and SDS-PAGE with a combination of wild-type and mutant HLA-DR1 and variants of hemagglutinin peptide HA306-318. Experiments with wild-type DR1 along with previously published results establish that the SDS-stable complexes are formed only when the hydrophobic pocket 1 (P1) is occupied by a bulky aromatic (Trp, Phe, Tyr) or an aliphatic residue (Met, Ile, Val, Leu). To further explore whether the SDS sensitivity is primarily due to the exposed hydrophobic regions, we mutated residue beta Gly86 at the bottom of P1 to tyrosine, presumably reducing the depth of the pocket and the exposure of hydrophobic residues and increasing the contacts between subunits. In direct contrast to wild-type DR1, the peptide-free mutant DR1 exists as an alpha/beta heterodimer in SDS. Moreover, the presence of a smaller hydrophobic residue, such as alanine, as P1 anchor with no contribution from any other anchor is sufficient to enhance the SDS stability of the mutant complexes, demonstrating that the basis of SDS resistance may be localized to P1 interactions. The good correlation between SDS sensitivity and the exposure of hydrophobic residues provides a biochemical rationale for the use of this assay to investigate the maturation of class II molecules and the longevity of the complexes.  (+info)

Recombinant domain IV of perlecan binds to nidogens, laminin-nidogen complex, fibronectin, fibulin-2 and heparin. (8/3180)

Domain IV of mouse perlecan, which consists of 14 immunoglobulin superfamily (IG) modules, was prepared from recombinant human cell culture medium in the form of two fragments, IV-1 (IG2-9, 100 kDa) and IV-2 (IG10-15, 66 kDa). Both fragments bound to a heparin column, being eluted at ionic strengths either below (IV-2) or above (IV-1) physiological level, and could thus be readily purified. Electron microscopy demonstrated an elongated shape (20-25 nm), and folding into a native structure was indicated by immunological assay and CD spectroscopy. Solid-phase and surface plasmon resonance assays demonstrated strong binding of fragment IV-1 to fibronectin, nidogen-1, nidogen-2 and the laminin-1-nidogen-1 complex, with Kd values in the range 4-17 nM. The latter binding apparently occurs through nidogen-1, as shown by the formation of ternary complexes. Only moderate binding was observed for fibulin-2 and collagen IV and none for fibulin-1 and BM-40. Fragment IV-2 showed a more restricted pattern of binding, with only weaker binding to fibronectin and fibulin-2. None of these activities could be demonstrated for recombinant fragments corresponding to the N-terminal perlecan domains I to III. This indicates a special role for domain IV in the integration of perlecan into basement membranes and other extracellular structures via protein-protein interactions.  (+info)

Biosensor technology is a powerful alternative to conventional techniques, harnessing the specificity and sensitivity of biological systems in small, low cost devices. Despite the promising biosensors developed in research laboratories, there are not many reports of applications in agricultural monitoring. The authors review biosensor technology and discuss the different bio-receptor systems and methods of transduction. The difference between a biosensor and a truly integrated biosensor system are defined and the main reasons for the slow technology transfer of biosensors to the marketplace are reported. Biosensor research and development has been directed mainly towards health care, environmental applications and the food industry. The most commercially important application is the hand-held glucose meter used by diaberics. The agricultural/veterinary testing market has seen a number of diagnostic tests but no true biosensor systems have made an impact. The need for fast, on-line and accurate ...
Ink-jet printing has been demonstrated as a manufacturing technique that facilitates the rapid, reproducible and economical production of amperometric glucose biosensors. Glucose was chosen as the analyte for demonstrating the process. For eight electrodes produced, the relative standard deviation of the response was less than 5%. The technique is extremely versatile, and will enable a wide variety of reagents to be placed on virtually any sensor design. This technique will be of particular benefit for the mass manufacture of intricate devices, where existing production techniques, such as screen-printing, may not be suitable.. ...
A biosensor system determines analyte concentration from an output signal generated by an oxidation/reduction reaction of the analyte. The biosensor system adjusts a correlation for determining analyte concentrations from output signals at one temperature to determining analyte concentrations from output signals at other temperatures. The temperature-adjusted correlation between analyte concentrations and output signals at a reference temperature may be used to determine analyte concentrations from output signals at a sample temperature.
A Rutgers-led team has created better biosensor technology that may help lead to safe stem cell therapies for treating Alzheimers and Parkinsons diseases and other neurological disorders. The technology, which features a unique graphene and gold-based platform and high-tech imaging, monitors the fate of stem cells by detecting genetic material (RNA) involved in turning such cells into brain cells (neurons), according to a study in the journal Nano Letters.
Antibacterials are among of the most important medications used in health care. However, their efficacy is increasingly impeded by a tremendous and globally spread bacterial resistance phenomenon. This bacterial resistance is accelerated by inadequate application of antibacterial drugs in humans, the widespread veterinary use of antibacterials, and antibacterial occurrence in the environment and food. Further, there is a lack of development of innovative novel drugs. Therefore, the search for novel antibacterials has to be intensified and the spread of antibacterials in the environment has to be restricted. Due to the fundamental progress in biosensor development and promising applications in the antibiotic field, this review gives for the first time an overview on the use and prospects of biosensor applications in that area. A number of reports have applied biosensors of different design and techniques to search for antibacterials in environmental and foodstuff matrices. These studies are discussed
In recent years, there has been rapidly growing interest in developing hand held, sensitive and cost-effective on-chip biosensing systems that directly translate the presence of certain bioanalytes (e.g., biomolecules, cells and viruses) into an electronic signal. The impressive and rapid progress in micro- and nanotechnology as well as in biotechnology enables the integration of a variety of analytical functions in a single chip. All necessary sample handling and analysis steps are then performed within the chip. Microfluidic systems for biomedical analysis usually consist of a set of units, which guarantees the manipulation, detection and recognition of bioanalytes in a reliable and flexible manner. Additionally, the use of magnetic fields for performing the aforementioned tasks has been steadily gaining interest. This is because magnetic fields can be well tuned and applied either externally or from a directly integrated solution in the biosensing system. In combination with these applied magnetic
Ms. Witz led GE Healthcares Healthcare Systems Interventional global business, which researches and develops innovative medical technologies to help physicians diagnose and treat disease earlier, faster and more accurately. Leading the GE Medical Diagnostics team is an honor, said Witz. Im eager to continue the mission of advancing medicine through novel diagnostic agents. We will raise the bar in diagnosing critical diseases such as Parkinsons disease, Alzheimers and heart failure.. Pascale has a breadth of experience that makes her an ideal person to lead the Medical Diagnostics business, said Dineen. She brings an extensive background in molecular biology as well as imaging, both of which are critical to driving Medical Diagnostics development of its portfolio of innovative molecular diagnostic imaging agents.. For more information: www.gehealthcare.com. ...
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Biosensors are devices that use biological components to detect important analytes. Biosensing systems have various applications in areas such as medicine, environmental monitoring, and process control. Classical biosensors are often based on bacteria or purified enzymes that have limitations on efficiency or stability. I have developed several new biosensors to overcome these disadvantages. Two preliminary biosensors were first created based on the extremely strong and specific interaction between biotin and (strept)avidin. Both biosensors showed high sensitivity and reliability for measuring biotin with detection limits of 50-1000 pg/ml and 20-100 ng/ml, respectively. Following these, a new biosensor was developed by coupling a mobile, functionalized microsurface with cell-free expression approaches. This biosensor demonstrated a dynamic range of 1- 100 ng/ml. In addition, I also explored the possibility of combining these biosensing systems with engineered living cells. By leveraging the ...
To boost our understanding of Taspase1s substrate specificity we used our biosensor assay mixed with positional scanning mutagenesis
Biosensors are poised to make a large impact in environmental, food, and biomedical applications, as they clearly offer advantages over standard analytical methods, including minimal sample preparation and handling, real-time detection, rapid detection of analytes, and the ability to be used by non-skilled personnel. Covering numerous applications of biosensors used in food and the environment, Portable Biosensing of Food Toxicants and Environmental Pollutants presents basic knowledge on biosensor technology at a postgraduate level and explores the latest advances in chemical sensor technology for researchers. By providing useful, state-of-the-art information on recent developments in biosensing devices, the book offers both newcomers and experts a roadmap to this technology. In the book, distinguished researchers from around the world show how portable and handheld nanosensors, such as dynamic DNA and protein arrays, enable rapid and accurate detection of environmental pollutants and pathogens. ...
Fluorescent glucose biosensors are devices that measure the concentration of glucose in diabetic patients by means of sensitive protein that relays the concentration by means of fluorescence, an alternative to amperometric sension of glucose. No device has yet entered the medical market, but, due to the prevalence of diabetes, it is the prime drive in the construction of fluorescent biosensors. Keeping glucose levels in check is crucial to minimize the onset of the damage caused by diabetes. As a consequence, in conjunction with insulin administrations, the prime requirement for diabetic patients is to regularly monitor their blood glucose levels. The monitoring systems currently in general use have the drawback of below optimal number of readings, due to their reliance on a drop of fresh blood. Some continuous glucose monitors are commercially available, but suffer from the severe drawback of a short working life of the probe. The majority of these work amperometrically. As a result, there is ...
A novel biosensing approach for the label-free detection of nucleic acid sequences of short and large lengths has been implemented, with special emphasis on targeting RNA sequences with secondary structures. The approach is based on selecting 8-aminoadenine-modified parallel-stranded DNA tail-clamps as affinity bioreceptors. These receptors have the ability of creating a stable triplex-stranded helix at neutral pH upon hybridization with the nucleic acid target. A surface plasmon resonance biosensor has been used for the detection. With this strategy, we have detected short DNA sequences (32-mer) and purified RNA (103-mer) at the femtomol level in a few minutes in an easy and level-free way. This approach is particularly suitable for the detection of RNA molecules with predicted secondary structures, reaching a limit of detection of 50fmol without any label or amplification steps. Our methodology has shown a marked enhancement for the detection (18 for short DNA and 54 for RNA), when compared ...
Books Biofunctionalization of Nanomaterials Nanotechnologies for the Life Sciences, Vol. 1 Edited by Challa Kumar. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim 2005. 425 pp., hardcover E 139.00.-ISBN 3-527-31381-8 With this first volume, Biofunctionalization of Nanomaterials, Wiley-VCH and the editor, Challa Kumar, introduce a series that has an ambitious aim. The plan is for a ten-volume encyclopedia that will collect together and critically evaluate all aspects of the current state of knowledge about the use of nanotechnology in the life sciences. This is certainly one of the most dynamic areas of research at present, and therefore to attempt a comprehensive summary and evaluation is a challenging task. Moreover, this field has the distinction that, perhaps more than any other current area of research, it has inputs from chemistry, biology, biochemistry, materials science, and physics. Therefore, it is important that the knowledge must be communicated in a way that extends beyond the boundaries of the classical ...
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A new approach is presented to obtain fluorescent sensors for pH windows that work in water and under biomimetic conditions. A single molecule that features all-covalently linked components is used, thus making it capable of working as a fluorescent sensor with an OFF/ON/OFF response to pH value. The components are a tertiary amine, a pyridine, and a fluorophore (pyrene). The forms with both protonated bases or both neutral bases quench the pyrene fluorescence, whereas the form with the neutral pyridine and protonated amine groups is fluorescent. The molecular sensor is also equipped with a long alkyl chain to make it highly hydrophobic in all its protonated and unprotonated forms, that is, either when neutral or charged. Accordingly, it can be confined at any pH value either in traditional (i.e., low-molecular-weight) nonionic surfactant micelles or inside polymeric, biocompatible micellar containers. Relevant for future applications in vivo, thanks to its strong hydrophobicity, no leakage of ...
The aim of this work is the development of a cost effective, rapid, portable analysis system for the measurement of bioavailable toxic metal or organic contaminants, which may be present at natural attenuation landfill sites requiring remediation. The proposed system is intended to be used as a tool in the monitoring or characterisation of a site by discrete measurement. A portable system will be developed, comprising a miniaturised extraction and separation device employing capillary electrophoresis, detectors for specific analyses (metals or organics) by biosensors or immunosensors and dedicated instrumentation to process the signals generated. Development of extraction procedures for the analysis of plant material will also be part of the project, to be used when phytoremediation is employed as part of the site remediation process. Biosensors to detect toxic metal will use bioengineered proteins to interact with bioavailable metals on an electrode surface. The conformational change in the
We describe a novel biosensor system for reporting proximity between cell surface proteins in live cultured cells. The biosensor takes advantage of recently developed fluorogen-activating proteins (FAPs) that display fluorescence only when bound to otherwise-nonfluorescent fluorogen molecules. To demonstrate feasibility for the approach, two recombinant rapamycin-binding proteins were expressed as...
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Neural Networks for an Analysis of the Hemometabolites Biosensor Response: 10.4018/ijehmc.2013100106: In this work, the concentration dependent response of amperometric biosensor array for the biomarkers glucose, cholesterol and urease was explored, using
TY - JOUR. T1 - Engineered cells as biosensing systems in biomedical analysis. AU - Raut, Nilesh. AU - OConnor, Gregory. AU - Pasini, Patrizia. AU - Daunert, Sylvia. N1 - Funding Information: Acknowledgments This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation (grant CHE-0416553); the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Superfund Research Program (grant P42ES07380); the Broad Foundation, Broad Medical Research Program (grant IBD-0198R); the National Institute of Hometown Security; and the Childrens Miracle Network. S.D. is grateful for support from the Lucille P. Markey Chair in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of the Miller School of Medicine of the University of Miami, as well as from a Gill Eminent Professorship from the University of Kentucky. N. R. acknowledges support from a Research Challenge Trust Fund Fellowship from the University of Kentucky.. PY - 2012/4. Y1 - 2012/4. N2 - Over the past two decades there have been great advances in biotechnology, ...
Contamination of drinking water with arsenic is a recurring problem in both industrialized and developing countries. Supplies for large populations can have concentrations much higher than the permissible levels, set by the World Health Organization (WHO) to 10 μg As/L for most European countries and the United States and to 50 μg As/L elsewhere. As arsenic analysis requires high-end instruments, which are largely unavailable in developing countries, bioassays based on genetically engineered bacteria have been proposed as suitable alternatives. Yet, such tests would profit from better standardization and direct incorporation into sensing devices. The final objective of this work was to develop a microfluidic device in which bacterial bioreporters could be embedded, actively maintained for at least one week, exposed to arsenic and which allowed direct detection of the reporter signal produced, as a further step towards a complete miniaturized bacterial biosensor. The signal element in the biosensor is
The importance of nanotechnology in medical technologies, especially biomedical diagnostics, is indubitable. By taking advantages of nanomaterials, many medical diagnostics methods have been developed so far, including electrochemical nanobiosensors. They have been used for quantification of different clinical biomarkers for detecting, screening, or follow up a disease. microRNAs (miRNAs) are one of the most recent and reliable biomarkers used for biomedical diagnosis of various diseases including different cancer types. In addition, there are many electrochemical nanobiosensors explained in publications, patents, and/or a commercial device which have been fabricated for detection or quantification of valuable miRNAs. The aim of this article is to review the concept of medical diagnostics, biosensors, electrochemical biosensors and to emphasize the role of nanotechnology in nanobiosensor development and performance for application in microRNAs detection for biomedical diagnosis. We have also summarized
The global Glucose Biosensor Market is anticipated to witness lucrative growth during the period of 2015 to 2022. The homecare diagnostics Glucose Biosensor Market is projected to flourish over the forecast period. Ease-of-use, quick results, and low costs of the tests are some aspects supporting market growth. On the other hand, the hospital-based Glucose Biosensor Market is projected to grow at a significant CAGR of 10.3% during the period 2015 to 2022.. Browse Detail Report With TOC @ http://www.hexareports.com/report/glucose-biosensor-market/details. Some key factors attributing to the growth of this market include the increasing incidence of diabetes across the globe, development of technologically advanced products, growing demand for minimally and non-invasive products, patient awareness levels, and the need for early diabetes detection. However, presence of other alternatives for management of the diabetes, such as laboratory methods is expected to restrict market growth.. Request A ...
Analysis of biological components is central in bioprocess monitoring, process control, product quality control and cell based toxicity assaying. One of these themes that is pursued in this thesis is the use of biosensors for monitoring of molecular markers, exploiting the natural selectivity of biomolecules. Another is the use of glycoconjugates to monitor the activity of biomolecules in a flu vaccine process is studied and were the sensor is based on the concept of weak affinity giving fast response time for the sensor.. A third theme is monitoring of cell cultures used for toxicity testing different protein markers is of interest.. When developing biosensor surfaces for new antigens commercial preparations of antibodies are often used. In this work we have chosen to look at lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and describe the preparation and characterisation of antibody used in biosensor surface development.. The design of a sensor surface is important for the characteristics of a sensor. By binding ...
Genetically-encoded fluorescent sensor proteins are attractive tools for studying intracellular Zn2+ homeostasis and signaling. Here we provide an overview of recently developed sensors based on Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET). The pros and cons of the various sensors are discussed with respect to Z Iron and zinc sensing in cells and the body
The Nova StatStrip Glucose Hospital Meter System (StatStrip) and the StatStrip Xpress2 Glucose Hospital Meter System (StatStrip Xpress2) are the only glucose analyzers cleared by the FDA for use in all types of hospital patients, including critically ill patients receiving intensive medical intervention. For healthcare settings other than critical care, StatStrip and StatStrip Xpress2 are cleared for use with capillary finger stick, arterial, venous, neonatal heel stick and neonatal arterial specimens. When using the system to measure glucose on critically ill patients, StatStrip and StatStrip Xpress2 are cleared for use with arterial, venous, neonatal heel stick and neonatal arterial specimens. StatStrip and StatStrip Xpress2 are not cleared for capillary specimens on patients receiving intensive medical intervention/therapy because capillary samples from these patients, particularly those with decreased peripheral blood flow, may not truly reflect a patients physiological state. Some ...
Researchers at Harvard University have developed a non-toxic wearable sensor consisting of a silicon-rubber that attaches to the hand and capable of mearin | Technology
Waltham, MA, January 2011 - Nova Biomedical today announced that, in response to rapid growth in its diabetes and whole blood point-of-care testing products business, it has purchased an additional 80,000 square-foot manufacturing/warehouse facility in Billerica, MA. According to Lou Borrelli, Nova Biomedical CFO, This additional state of the art manufacturing facility will ensure that our manufacturing capabilities keep pace with the increasing demand for our StatStrip Hospital Glucose products as well as our Nova Max consumer diabetes products.. One of the main drivers for Novas strong growth is the rapid adoption of its StatStrip Hospital Glucose Monitoring System. Since its inception just four years ago, StatStrip has become the fastest growing hospital glucose meter in the world. StatStrip uses a novel glucose test strip technology that measures hematocrit and other common interferences such as maltose, galactose, xylose, acetaminophen, ascorbic acid and oxygen, and eliminates erroneous ...
The most rapid and reliable way of detecting HIV is to search for the HIV genetic material directly in blood, using a process called PCR (polymerase chain reaction). This has the advantage of not needing to wait for such a long time after exposure, being used after only 3 days. Traditionally this process, known as molecular diagnostics, has been performed in a laboratory by trained personnel. Recent technological advances have however brought the possibility of conducting molecular diagnostics out of the laboratory and next to the patient at the point-of-care ...
Boyce Thompson Insitute scientist Maria Harrison will collaborate with Wayne Versaw of Texas A&M University to create a new imaging system to visualize and measure the movement of phosphate from soil fungi into plant root cells in a $1.2 million DOE-funded project.
TY - JOUR. T1 - A contour-mode film bulk acoustic resonator of high quality factor in a liquid environment for biosensing applications. AU - Xu, Wencheng. AU - Choi, Seokheun. AU - Chae, Junseok. PY - 2010/2/17. Y1 - 2010/2/17. N2 - This letter reports an acoustic resonator of high quality factors (Qs) operating in liquid media. The film bulk acoustic resonator (FBAR) is made of a ring-shaped piezoelectric aluminum nitride thin film, and is excited in a contour mode. By having a low motional resistance upon coupling with liquids, the contour mode FBAR achieved Qs up to 189, more than 12× over the state-of-the-art FBARs in liquids. The resonator was characterized by an aptamer-thrombin binding pair for a biosensor and showed a mass resolution of 1.78 ng/ cm2.. AB - This letter reports an acoustic resonator of high quality factors (Qs) operating in liquid media. The film bulk acoustic resonator (FBAR) is made of a ring-shaped piezoelectric aluminum nitride thin film, and is excited in a contour ...
This thesis treats the development of an integrated optical sensor array. The sensors are slot-waveguide ring resonators, integrated with on-chip surface grating couplers and light splitters, for alignment tolerant, real-time, refractive index sensing, and label-free biosensing. The work includes: the design of components and system layouts, the development of fabrication methods, the fabrication of sensor chips, the characterization of the chips, and the development of physical system models for accurate extraction of resonance wavelengths in measured spectra.. The main scientific achievements include: The evaluation of a novel type of nano-structured optical waveguide for biochemical sensing. The realization of an array of such slot-waveguide sensors, integrated with microfluidic sample handling, for multiplex assays. The first study of the thermal behavior of slot-waveguide sensors and the discovery of unique temperature compensation capabilities.. From an application perspective, the use of ...
View details for this PhD Studentship: The Computational Design of Drug Sensors and Adsorbents for Environmental Applications job vacancy at...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The ongoing quest for understanding the novel environmental applications and implications of nanotechnology. AU - Cledon, Maximiliano. AU - Hristovski, Kiril. PY - 2018/3/15. Y1 - 2018/3/15. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85040322403&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85040322403&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.09.122. DO - 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.09.122. M3 - Editorial. C2 - 29066206. AN - SCOPUS:85040322403. VL - 618. JO - Science of the Total Environment. JF - Science of the Total Environment. SN - 0048-9697. ER - ...
Environmental Applications of Nanoscale and Microscale Reactive Metal Particles takes the reader from current laboratory studies in the function and use of these particles through scale-up and finally to the state-of-the-science in field-scale demonstrations and applications.
Cornings benchtop label-free detection system features a compact design, a more affordable price point, simple data collection software, and whole microplate analysis using charge-coupled device (CCD) detection of wavelength shift. This innovative new system is designed to improve your assay capabilities and allows researchers, including academic laboratories, easy access to the Epic label-free detection technology.. ...
Cornings benchtop label-free detection system features a compact design, a more affordable price point, simple data collection software, and whole microplate analysis using charge-coupled device (CCD) detection of wavelength shift. This innovative new system is designed to improve your assay capabilities and allows researchers, including academic laboratories, easy access to the Epic label-free detection technology.. ...
A method for determining one member of an enzyme-substrate pair (the analyte), comprises bringing the members of the pair into contact so as to form, directly or indirectly, a soluble reaction product at or adjacent the surface of an optical waveguide biosensor. The biosensor is preferably a resonant optical biosensor based on the principle of frustrated total reflection.
A solid-state electrochemiluminescence (ECL) switch biosensor using Ru(bpy)32+/β-cyclodextrin-Pd nanoparticles (β-CY-PdNPs)/Gelatin (Gel) complex and ferrocene-labeled DNA probe (Fer-DNA) for the detection of Hg2+ was successfully developed. The ECL biosensor includes an ECL substrate and an ECL signal switc
John Fourkas, a chemistry professor at the University of Maryland, and his research team have developed materials and nanofabrication techniques to build miniaturized versions of components needed for sensors, medical diagnostics and other applications.. This approach allows for faster analysis at a lower cost with small sample volumes. The materials provide simultaneous 3D manipulation of microscopic objects using optical tweezers and a unique method for lithography, which is the process of using light in etching silicon or other substrates to create electronic components. These techniques allow complex 3D structures to be created from many microscopic components.. Previous work by this UMD research team found a breakthrough in the use of visible light for making small structures for applications including optical communications, cell behavior control and the manufacturing of integrated circuits.. Fourkas said, One of the exciting aspects of this set of techniques is that it is compatible with ...
Title:Sol-Gel Chemistry in Biosensing Devices of Electrical Transduction: Application to CEA Cancer Biomarker. VOLUME: 15 ISSUE: 3. Author(s):Liliana A.A.N.A. Truta and M. Goreti F. Sales. Affiliation:BioMark Sensor Research, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto, R. Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 431, 4200-072 Porto, Portugal.. Keywords:Antibody, Biosensors, Cancer Biomarker, CEA, Sol-gel.. Abstract:Sol-gel chemistry allows the immobilization of organic molecules of biological origin on suibtable solid supports, permitting their integration into biosensing devices widening the possibility of local applications. The present work is an application of this principle, where the link between electrical receptor platform and the antibody acting as biorecognition element is made by sol-gel chemistry. The immunosensor design was targeted for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), an important biomarker for screening the colorectal cancer, by electrochemical techniques, namely electrochemical impedance ...
A molecular sensor or chemosensor is a molecule that interacts with an analyte to produce a detectable change. Molecular sensors combine molecular recognition with some form of reporter so the presence of the guest can be observed. The term supramolecular analytical chemistry has recently been coined to describe the application of molecular sensors to analytical chemistry. Early examples of molecular sensors are crown ethers with large affinity for sodium ions but not for potassium and forms of metal detection by so-called complexones which are traditional pH indicators retrofitted with molecular groups sensitive to metals. This receptor-spacer-reporter concept is a recurring theme often with the reporter displaying photoinduced electron transfer (PET). One example is a sensor sensitive to heparin. Other receptors are sensitive not to a specific molecule but to a molecular compound class. One example is the grouped analysis of several tannic acids that accumulate in ageing Scotch whisky in oak ...
Worden, a professor in the MSU Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science (CHEMS), began working in oxidation-reduction reactions, also known as redox, in the late 1990s. These chemical reactions are important in a number of areas, including biofuel production. As the research progressed, Worden developed expertise in nanotechnology and biocatalysts, which are often used to perform chemical transformations on organic compounds.. Over the years, various stages of this project received funding from the National Science Foundation (NSF) and other organizations. In looking at various aspects of these reactions and trying to exploit their economic benefits, Worden developed a biosensor system that was recently patented by MSU.. Now Worden is collaborating on a new NSF project with Paul Satoh, MSU adjunct professor in engineering and food science and former vice president of research at Neogen, a Lansing-based company that develops and markets products dedicated to food and animal ...
Global Gold Nanoparticles Market is expected to reach USD 4.86 billion by 2020, according to a new study by Grand View Research, Inc. Medical & dentistry was the largest end-use segment for the gold nanoparticles and accounted for over 50% of total demand in 2013. Growing metal nanomaterials use in medical diagnostics & imaging especially for drug delivery systems in cancer & tumor cell detection is expected to drive gold nanoparticles demand over the forecast period.. North America dominated the global gold nanoparticles market accounting for over 30% of global volume in 2013. Increasing R&D spending by individual nanotechnology companies and universities along with expanding medical diagnostics industry is expected to be the major factors driving gold nanoparticles demand in the region. Asia Pacific is estimated to witness the fastest growth at a CAGR of over 25% from 2014 to 2020. Growth of nanomaterials industry in countries including China, Taiwan, South Korea and Japan along with emergence ...
ACCESS RESTRICTED TO THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI AT AUTHORS REQUEST.] Low-temperature plasma polymerization was performed to coat the individual nanomaterial not only for better suspension but also for thermal conductivity enhancement with water. With the increased hydrophilicity of nanomaterials surfaces, more stable nanomaterials-in-water suspension resulted in the anomalous thermal conductivity increase of fluid. Electrochemical DNA biosensor is the device to detect the DNA specifically related to the pathogenic microbes. A basic DNA biosensor is designed by the immobilization of a single-stranded oligonucleotide (probe) on a transducer surface to recognize its complementary (target) DNA sequence via hybridization. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and direct pulse voltammetry (DPV) were used to measure the electrochemical response before and after target hybridization with two red-ox indicators, Ru(III) and Fe(III). Consequently, developed nanostructured microelectrode exhibited atto-molar sensitivity ...
en] Surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based biosensors are very powerful tools for the study of biomolecular interactions, chemical detection and immunoassays. This paper reviews the performance of various SPR structures and detection schemes focusing on propagating surface plasmons generated in planar structures. Some aspects of their surface functionalization, the key element which imparts biofunctionality to these structures and hence transforming them into biosensors, will also be discussed accordingly. The ultimate performance of SPR-based biosensors will thus be determined by both their inherent optical performance and suitable surface functionalization. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved ...
The scope of this thesis is the synthesis of nanostructured materials, their functionalization and use for optical lactate biosensing applications. Rapid detection of L-lactate is important in many applications in the clinical sector, in the food industry, or in biotechnology. The formation of enzyme loaded nanostructured materials is a promising approach to obtain performing, reliable and stable enzyme-based optical biosensors. Two different sensing schemes are proposed: the development of lactate-responsive films (pathches) and the development of a microparticle based lactate detection system. The content of this work can be divided in three main tasks: (i) the synthesis of nanostructured support materials for enzyme immobilization, (ii) the functionalization of these materials towards lactate detection, and (iii) the assessment of the performance and sensitivity of these enzyme-loaded films and particles for biosensor applications. The design of porous supports aims at providing large surface ...
Handheld electrochemical sensors are part of the daily routine for millions of people with diabetes around the globe who monitor their blood sugar levels with electric glucometers. While such sensors have revolutionized at-home medical testing for diabetics, they have not yet been successfully applied to diagnosing other conditions. Sensors like glucometers detect glucose in blood based on the activity of an enzyme, and there are only a limited number of enzymes that can be used to sense biomarkers of human disease. An alternative detection strategy based on binding events between antibodies and their molecular targets have been investigated to expand the use of electrochemical sensors for medicine, but these sensors fall victim to the rapid accumulation of fouling substances from biological fluids on their conductive surfaces, which deactivate them. Existing antifouling coatings are difficult to mass-manufacture, suffer from quality and consistency issues, and are not very effective.. ...
Over the past decade, the development and applications of immunoassays have continued to grow exponentially. This book focuses on some of the latest advances in immunoassay technology, which include new materials and methods. The book contains nine invited chapters that are divided into three sections. In the first section, the basics for producing recombinant antibodies, the use of polyacrylonitrile fibre as a solid surface, and the nature of interference in immunoassays are summarized. The second section begins with a chapter on the basic concepts of different types of immunosensors, some of which allow label-free detection of specific analytes. This is followed by chapters on piezoelectric immunosensors and surface plasmon resonance biosensors. A chapter on using nanopores as a label-free biosensing platform and its potential for immunosensing is also included in the second section. The third section starts with a chapter that describes different platforms for carrying out multiplexed ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Oligonucleotide-based systems. T2 - DNA, microRNAs, DNA/RNA aptamers. AU - Jolly, Pawan. AU - Estrela, Pedro. AU - Ladomery, Michael. N1 - Special volume Biosensor technologies for detection of biomolecules (Ed: P. Estrela) PY - 2016/6/30. Y1 - 2016/6/30. N2 - There is an increasing number of applications that have been developed for oligonucleotide-based biosensing systems in genetics and biomedicine. Oligonucleotide-based biosensors are those where the probe to capture the analyte is a strand of DNA, RNA or a synthetic analogue to naturally occurring nucleic acids. This chapter will draw light upon various types of nucleic acids such as DNA, RNA (particularly microRNAs), their role and their application in biosensing. Also, it will cover DNA/RNA aptamers, which can be used as bioreceptors to a wide range of targets such as proteins, small molecules, bacteria and even cells. It will also highlight how the invention of synthetic oligonucleotides like PNA or LNA has pushed the ...
Ultrafast molecular sensors, used with high-speed multiphoton microscopy, enable direct visualization of chemical changes in the brain. Rumiana Bakalo
This dissertation presents one-dimensional nanostructures for novel biosensors and transparent electronics applications. In chapter 1, background information regarding nanomaterials studied in this dissertation is described. ❧ In chapter 2, I describe the first application of antibody mimic proteins (AMPs) in the field of nanobiosensors. In2O3 nanowire based biosensors have been configured with an AMP (Fibronectin, Fn) to detect nucleocapsid (N) protein, a biomarker for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Using these devices, N protein was detected at sub-nanomolar concentration in the presence of 44 µM bovine serum albumin as a background. Furthermore, the binding constant of the AMP to Fn was determined from the concentration dependence of the response of our biosensors. ❧ In chapter 3, I demonstrate an In2O3 nanowire-based biosensing system that is capable of performing rapid, label-free, electrical detection of cancer biomarkers directly from human whole blood collected by a ...
This dissertation presents one-dimensional nanostructures for novel biosensors and transparent electronics applications. In chapter 1, background information regarding nanomaterials studied in this dissertation is described. ❧ In chapter 2, I describe the first application of antibody mimic proteins (AMPs) in the field of nanobiosensors. In2O3 nanowire based biosensors have been configured with an AMP (Fibronectin, Fn) to detect nucleocapsid (N) protein, a biomarker for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Using these devices, N protein was detected at sub-nanomolar concentration in the presence of 44 µM bovine serum albumin as a background. Furthermore, the binding constant of the AMP to Fn was determined from the concentration dependence of the response of our biosensors. ❧ In chapter 3, I demonstrate an In2O3 nanowire-based biosensing system that is capable of performing rapid, label-free, electrical detection of cancer biomarkers directly from human whole blood collected by a ...
By Ajit Sadana. Biosensors are discovering expanding purposes in several components. during the last few years the parts the place biosensors can be utilized successfully has elevated dramatically. This publication just like the past 4 books on analyte-receptor binding and dissociation kinetics via this writer addresses the customarily missed sector. The kinetics of binding and dissociation in technique to acceptable receptors immobilized on biosensor surfaces happens less than diffusional barriers on established surfaces. The receptors immobilized at the biosensor floor give a contribution to the measure of heterogeneity at the sensor chip floor. The fractal research examples provided through the publication offer a handy capability to make quantitative the measure of heterogeneity current at the sensor floor, and relates it to the binding and dissociation cost coefficients. The fractal measurement is a quantitative degree of the measure of heterogeneity current at the biosensor floor. The ...
1. A system comprising: a first medical device including: a sensor signal processor configured to receive a plurality of electrical sensor signals produced by a plurality of sensors and at least one sensor signal produced by an implantable sensor; a decision circuit configured to apply a detection threshold to a sensor signal to determine whether an event associated with worsening heart failure (HF) occurred in a subject, and to output an indication of whether the event associated with worsening HF occurred to a user or process; and a first communication circuit configured to communicate information with a second separate device; and a second medical device including: a second communication circuit configured to communicate information with the first device; a port configured to receive information from a third device via a communication network, wherein the information indicates a co-morbidity of a subject; a sensor signal selection circuit configured to select a sensor signal to monitor from ...
The Journal of Nanotechnology is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that reports original research, as well as review articles, in all areas related to the science and technology of nanosized and nanostructured materials. Importantly, a special emphasis in published work is placed on materials design, characterisation, functionality, and preparation for implementation in systems and devices. The journal is naturally multidisciplinary, and welcomes submissions across biological, physical, engineering and computer sciences. Contributions from both academia and industry are equally encouraged.
Solar visible light is a source of clean and cheap energy. Herein, a new kind of hierarchical CuO/ZnO nanomaterial was synthesized using a facile process. Characterized by FESEM, TEM, XRD, XPS, and so forth, this CuO/ZnO naomaterial shows a special hierarchical nanostructure with CuO nanoparticles grown on ZnO nanorods. By assembling the hierarchical CuO/ZnO nanomaterials on a piece of commercial glassfiber membrane, a novel hierarchical CuO/ZnO membrane was fabricated. This CuO/ZnO membrane demonstrated excellent environmental applications, such as improved photodegradation of contaminants and antibacterial activity, under the irradiation of visible light. Compared with pure ZnO nanorod membrane, the improved photodegradation and antibacterial capacities of this hierarchical CuO/ZnO membrane result from the special hierarchical nanostructure of CuO/ZnO nanomaterials, which could enhance light utilization rate, enlarge specific surface area, and retard the recombination of electrons and holes at ...
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Reduced Graphene Oxide (rGO) is a good absorber of light, and is a potential material for use in photothermal therapy. rGO-based nanocomposites have been considered for cancer theranostics, but this method has rarely been used for pathogen destruction. This is even more surprising considering the widespread commercial availability of graphene oxide.. Graphenea explored the possibility of destroying E. coli pathogens in its study featured in the Journal of Materials Chemistry B. Reduced graphene oxide (rGO-PEG- NH2) and Au nanorods (Nrs) coated with rGO-PEG-NH2 were used to destroy the pathogens by laser irradiation. The rGO-PEG coating serves a dual purpose by mitigating the toxicity of Au NRs and improving the overall photo-thermal process and so the temperatures reachable.. In this paper, Graphenea showed 99% bacterial killing efficiency at low concentrations (20-49mg/ml) in a water solution, demonstrating the potential of reduced graphene oxide as an effective anti-pathogen agent.. In another ...
Get this from a library! The physical chemistry of materials : energy and environmental applications. [Rolando M A Roque-Malherbe] -- This text provides comprehensive data on the physical chemistry of materials used in these resources, including adsorbents, ion exchangers and conductors, catalysts, and permeable materials.
Aptamers, which are in vitro-selected functional oligonucleotides, have been employed to design novel aptasensor due to their inherent high selectivity and affinity compared to traditional biorecognition elements. This report presents a novel aptamer biosensor for determining the endocrine disrupting compound (EDC), 17~-estradiol (E2), which was constructed from a SELEX-synthesized 76-mer biotinylated aptamer for 17~-estradiol incorporated in a dendritic generation 1 poly(propylene imine)- poly thiophene (G 1PPT-co-PEDOT) star copolymer-functionalised Au electrode via biotin-avidin interaction. The sensor platform and aptasensor were interrogated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), FTIR, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV). The kinetic parameters of the sensor platform were determined by modelling the [Fe(CN)6r3/ - 4 (redox probe) Nyquist and Bode impedimetric spectra to the appropriate equivalent electrical circuit. The ...
PROMEGA NOTES WWW.PROMEGA.COM NUMBER 100 SEPTEMBER 2008 LIVE-CELL BIOSENSOR is required. A standard luminometer with injectors is suf- Intracellular biosensor technologies remain an area of keen ficient to detect signal readout and obtain real-time interest that until recently was dominated mostly by flu- kinetic data, all without any loss in the information that orescent approaches. The most common examples are can be collected. As evident in Figure 2, signal kinetics FRET-based biosensors using variants of GFP. However, of reversible agonists and antagonists can be obtained in FRET-based biosensors suffer from low dynamic range of minutes following treatment. Important to HTS applica- response due to characteristics inherent in the detection tions, these assays can be performed at room temperature modality (2). The results are FRET ratios of 30-100% or with little difference in the range of response and more 2-fold response at best, which can be a significant draw- stable kinetics ...
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted disease, transmitted through intimate skin contact or mucosal membrane. The HPV virus consists of a double-stranded circular DNA and the role of HPV virus in cervical cancer has been studied extensively. Thus it is critical to develop rapid identification method for early detection of the virus. A portable biosensing device could give rapid and reliable results for the identification and quantitative determination of the virus. The fabrication of electrochemical biosensors is one of the current techniques utilized to achieve this aim. In such electrochemical biosensors, a single-strand DNA is immobilized onto an electrically conducting surface and the changes in electrical parameters due to the hybridization on the electrode surface are measured. This review covers the recent developments in electrochemical DNA biosensors for the detection of HPV virus. Due to the several advantages of electrochemical DNA biosensors, their ...
The focus of the research reported in this dissertation has focused on two areas: (1) Synthesis of silane-containing polymers and (2) the application of these polymers to surface modification of substrates such as PDMS (for microfluidic applications), glass, quartz, silicon wafers and various nanoparticles (magnetic iron oxide, silica) for use in chemical and biological sensing and separation applications as well as in biofunctionalization of magnetic nanoparticles. Chapter 1 of this dissertation described the preparation of a library of silane containing co- and terpolymer prepared with various substituted maleimides along with their characterization by FTIR, UV-Visible, 1H- and 13C-NMR, TGA and DSC. The ability to control the reactive functionalities incorporated into the polymer structure affords direct control over the resulting properties of the materials. Chapter 2 describes the conversation of the polymers prepared in chapter 1 into various functional forms that can be used in the design of
This paper presents a novel ultrasensitive and rapid impedimetric biosensor with new immobilisation materials for parathyroid hormone (PTH) with the aim to determine the PTH level in serum for the diagnosis and monitoring of parathyroid diseases such as hyperparathyroidism, adenoma, and thyroid cancer. The interaction between PTH and the biosensor was investigated with an electrochemical method. The biosensor was based on the gold electrode modified by mercaptohexanol (6-MHL). Anti-parathyroid hormone (anti-PTH) was covalently immobilised onto a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) by using epiclorhidrina (EPI) with ethanolamine (EA). The EPI-EA interaction represents the first use of these for the construction of biosensors in published reports. The immobilisation of the anti-PTH was monitored by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. After the optimisation studies of immobilisation materials such as 6-MHL, EPI, EA and ...
A technology for detecting chemical vapors using low power, low cost, tunable microsensors. This technology is based on metal nanoparticles encapsulated by a single layer of organic molecules.
Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensors are used to characterize and quantify biomolecular interactions. Real-time and fast measurement, high sensitivity and specificity, no need of labeled reagents are the unique properties of SPR biosensors. SPR biosensors have been used for detection of several analytes. Recently, molecular imprinting technology is used for creation of biorecognition surfaces on the SPR biosensors. Molecular imprinting is the technology of designing materials with robust recognition sites suitable for interaction with the print molecule. Due to their stability in complex matrices under tough conditions, ease of preparation, low cost, reusability, high recognition capacity to the template molecule and binding characteristics as high as those of natural binders, molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are extensively used in a variety of areas, such as catalysis, separations, solid-phase extractions and biosensors. In this study, an SPR biosensor was prepared for prostate ...
BACKGROUND: Direct acting antivirals (DAAs) provide efficient hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy and clearance for a majority of patients, but are not available or effective for all patients. They risk developing HCV-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), for which the mechanism remains obscure and therapy is missing. Annexin A2 (AnxA2) has been reported to co-precipitate with the non-structural (NS) HCV proteins NS5B and NS3/NS4A, indicating a role in HCC tumorigenesis and effect on DAA therapy.. METHODS: Surface plasmon resonance biosensor technology was used to characterize direct interactions between AnxA2 and HCV NS5B, NS3/NS4 and RNA, and the subsequent effects on catalysis and inhibition.. RESULTS: No direct interaction between AnxA2 and NS3/NS4A was detected, while AnxA2 formed a slowly dissociating, high affinity (K D = 30 nM), complex with NS5B, decreasing its catalytic activity and affinity for the allosteric inhibitor filibuvir. The RNA binding of the two proteins was independent and ...
A. Heiniger, B. L. Miller, and P. M. Fauchet, Limits of Diffusive Transport to an Optical Biosensor and the Impact of Optical Forces, in Frontiers in Optics 2012/Laser Science XXVIII, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper FTu4C.7 ...
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Bioelectron. 19, 1497-1504. Oh, B. , Chun, B. , Bae, Y. , Lee, W. , and Choi, J. W. (2005). The fabrication of protein chip based on surface plasmon resonance for detection of pathogens. Biosens. Bioelectron. 20, 1847-1850. , and Matsunaga, T. (1999). Electrochemical detection of allergen in small-volume whole blood using an array microelectrode: A simple method for detection of allergic reaction. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 65, 480-484. Okrend, A. J. , Rose, B. , and Lattuda, C. P. (1992). Isolation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 using O157 specific antibody coated beads. Lee, W. , and Choi, J. W. (2005). The fabrication of protein chip based on surface plasmon resonance for detection of pathogens. Biosens. Bioelectron. 20, 1847-1850. , and Matsunaga, T. (1999). Electrochemical detection of allergen in small-volume whole blood using an array microelectrode: A simple method for detection of allergic reaction. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 65, 480-484. Okrend, A. J. , Rose, B. , and Lattuda, C. P. (1992). Isolation ...
Cardiac myocytes have provided a key paradigm for the concept of the compartmentalized cAMP generation sensed by AKAP-anchored PKA. Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) provide the sole route for degrading cAMP in cells and are thus poised to regulate intracellular cAMP gradients. PDE3 and PDE4 represent the major cAMP degrading activities in rat ventriculocytes. By performing real-time imaging of cAMP in situ, we establish the hierarchy of these PDEs in controlling cAMP levels in basal conditions and on stimulation with a beta-adrenergic receptor agonist. PDE4, rather than PDE3, appears to be responsible for modulating the amplitude and duration of the cAMP response to beta-agonists. PDE3 and PDE4 localize to distinct compartments and this may underpin their different functional roles. Our findings indicate the importance of distinctly localized PDE isoenzymes in determining compartmentalized cAMP signaling.
Cardiac myocytes have provided a key paradigm for the concept of the compartmentalized cAMP generation sensed by AKAP-anchored PKA. Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) provide the sole route for degrading cAMP in cells and are thus poised to regulate intracellular cAMP gradients. PDE3 and PDE4 represent the major cAMP degrading activities in rat ventriculocytes. By performing real-time imaging of cAMP in situ, we establish the hierarchy of these PDEs in controlling cAMP levels in basal conditions and on stimulation with a beta-adrenergic receptor agonist. PDE4, rather than PDE3, appears to be responsible for modulating the amplitude and duration of the cAMP response to beta-agonists. PDE3 and PDE4 localize to distinct compartments and this may underpin their different functional roles. Our findings indicate the importance of distinctly localized PDE isoenzymes in determining compartmentalized cAMP signaling.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Simultaneous live cell imaging using dual FRET sensors with a single excitation light. AU - Niino, Yusuke. AU - Hotta, Kohji. AU - Oka, Kotaro. PY - 2009/6/24. Y1 - 2009/6/24. N2 - Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between fluorescent proteins is a powerful tool for visualization of signal transduction in living cells, and recently, some strategies for imaging of dual FRET pairs in a single cell have been reported. However, these necessitate alteration of excitation light between two different wavelengths to avoid the spectral overlap, resulting in sequential detection with a lag time. Thus, to follow fast signal dynamics or signal changes in highly motile cells, a single-excitation dual-FRET method should be required. Here we reported this by using four-color imaging with a single excitation light and subsequent linear unmixing to distinguish fluorescent proteins. We constructed new FRET sensors with Sapphire/RFP to combine with CFP/YFP, and accomplished simultaneous ...
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PROCESS FOR ADJUSTING THE ANGULAR POSITION OF THE CAMSHAFT OF A RECIPROCATING INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE RELATIVE TO THE CRANKSHAFT - In a method for setting the rotary angle position of the camshaft of a reciprocating piston internal combustion engine relative to the crankshaft, the crankshaft is connected to the camshaft by means of a triple-shaft gear mechanism. This triple-shaft gear mechanism has a drive shaft which is fixed to the crankshaft, an output shaft which is fixed to the camshaft, and an adjusting shaft which is driven by an electric motor. A crankshaft sensor signal is detected which changes its state when the rotary angle of the crankshaft changes. Furthermore, an adjusting shaft sensor signal is detected which changes its state when the rotary position of the adjusting shaft changes. A phase angle signal is updated, starting from a reference rotary angle value, when the state of the crankshaft sensor signal and/or of the adjusting shaft sensor signal changes, and is adjusted to ...
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Universal Biosensors, Inc. operates in the Electromedical Equipment sector. Universal Biosensors, Inc.. Universal Biosensors, Inc. is a specialist medical diagnostics company. The Company is focused on the research, development and manufacture of in vitro diagnostic test devices for consumer and professional point-of-care use. The Companys subsidiary, Universal Biosensors Pty Ltd, conducts its research, development and manufacturing activities. The Company uses its electrochemical cell technology platform to develop point-of-care testing systems for a range of different markets. The Company is engaged in the development of its own Prothrombin Time International Normalized Ratio (PT-INR) test for use in decentralized settings, including the patient self-test market. It is engaged in demonstrating the various applications of its technology platform, including its application to diagnostic tests based on enzymatic, immunoassay and molecular diagnostic methods. It has developed a blood glucose test with
Early detection of pathogenic bacteria is critical to prevent disease outbreaks and preserve public health. This has led to urgent demands to develop highly efficient strategies for isolating and detecting this microorganism in connection to food safety, medical diagnostics, water quality, and counter-terrorism. A team of scientists has now developed a novel approach to interfacing passive, wireless graphene nanosensors onto biomaterials via silk bioresorption. The nanoscale nature of graphene allows for high adhesive conformality after biotransfer and highly sensitive detection. The team demonstrates their nanosensor by attaching it to a tooth for battery-free, remote monitoring of respiration and bacteria detection in saliva.
In addition to the amplification function in biosensing applications, RCA technique can be apply to the construction of DNA ... This technique combines two fields: RCA, which allows nucleotide amplification, and immunoassay, which uses antibodies specific ... This amplification technique is named as Rolling circle amplification (RCA). Different from conventional DNA amplification ... Various derivatives of RCA were widely used in the field of biosensing. For example, RCA has been successfully used for ...
Some techniques that can be used to characterize functionalized nanomaterial catalysts include X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy ... The nanozymes have found wide applications in many areas, from biosensing and bioimaging to therapeutics and water treatment. ...
The technique was developed at Imperial College London by Drs. Robert Chapman and Adam Gormley in the lab of Prof. Molly ... Gormley, Adam J. "Polymerization Amplified Detection for Nanoparticle-Based Biosensing". Nano Letters. 14: 6368-6373. doi: ... Enz-RAFT is a RAFT polymerization technique which allows for controlled oxygen-sensitive polymerization in an open vessel. Enz- ... With Enz-RAFT, polymerizations do not require prior degassing making this technique convenient for the preparation of most ...
Inorganic compounds are directly formed on the surface of CNTs via a variety of techniques including electrochemical techniques ... Because of the excellent biological compatibility of Au, they are so frequently used in biosensing, medical and other related ... Hydrothermal techniques are developed in recent years. The advantage of this method is to get crystalline particles or films ... The characterization techniques of CNTs supported catalysts are varied. The most common methods include X-ray diffraction (XRD ...
Optical detection includes fluorescence-based techniques, chemiluminescence-based techniques, and surface plasmon resonance ( ... The most common bioreceptors used in biosensing are based on antibody-antigen interactions, nucleic acid interactions, ... Conventional micromachining techniques such as wet etching, dry etching, deep reactive ion etching, sputtering, anodic bonding ... Techniques for micropatterning paper include photolithography, laser cutting, ink jet printing, plasma treatment, and wax ...
A stacking technique for SRRs was published in 2007 that uses dielectric spacers to apply a planarization procedure to flatten ... Other potential applications include biosensing using nanoscale particles to deflect light to angles steep enough to travel ... Nanoscale fabrication techniques exist to accomplish subwavelength geometries. Metals such as gold, silver, aluminum and copper ... Fabrication techniques include electron beam lithography, nanostructuring with a focused ion beam and interference lithography ...
Being a FET device can also be taken advantage of when using single SiNWs as biosensing devices. SiNW sensors are nanowires ... scientists who have developed new spectroscopic techniques to interrogate these molecules at the solid-liquid interface, and ... and regenerative medicine Computational and modeling approaches to biointerfaces Membranes and membrane-based biosensing ...
By using interferometric techniques, nanometer changes can be detected. Applications for IRIS include microarray format ... is a system that can be used as a biosensing platform capable of high-throughput multiplexing of protein-protein, protein-DNA, ...
Three American patients have received whole cultured bladders with the help of doctors who use nanobiology techniques in their ... biosensing, biological mechanisms s.a. mechanosensing), nanoscience of disease (e.g. genetic disease, cancer, organ/tissue ... Measurement in biology using wave guide techniques, such as dual polarization interferometry, are another example. Applications ...
His contributions in these directions have been of major impact in the development of electrochemical sensing techniques and ... to a novel motion-based DNA biosensing, and nanomachine-enabled isolation of biological targets, e.g. cancer-cell isolation and ... Monitoring of Environmental Pollutants in Field Electrochemistry of Nucleic Acids and Proteins Electrochemical Techniques in ...
He is renowned for his understanding of the mechanics of materials, and for pioneering techniques that led to the study of ... Her nano-materials for biosensing have enabled the most sensitive facile enzyme detection to date and she is actively pursuing ...
He also developed techniques for the manipulation of biological particles. He has so far published more than 100 scientific ... 38 (4) 724-32 (1999) T. Ruckstuhl, M. Rankl, S. Seeger: Highly sensitive biosensing using a Supercritical Angle Fluorescence ( ...
STM and nanolithography techniques were used to demonstrate that these nanotubes are quantum wires at the single-molecule level ... and resolved the mechanism of biosensing with carbon nanotubes 2008, first observation of protein-coated DNA translocation ... and discovery of a new technique for fabricating solid-state nanopores for DNA translocation 2004, discovery of new physics in ... and demonstration of an AFM technique for single-molecule manipulation of nanotubes 2001, discovery of single-electron ...
"Refinement of the Nanoparticle Emission Assessment Technique into the Nanomaterial Exposure Assessment Technique (NEAT 2.0)". ... They are an emerging type of artificial enzyme, which have been used for wide applications in such as biosensing, bioimaging, ... There are traditional techniques developed during 20th century in Interface and Colloid Science for characterizing ... There is also a group of traditional techniques for characterizing surface charge or zeta potential of nano-particles in ...
The technique fuses wires as small as 10 nm.[24] For nanowires with diameters less than 10 nm, existing welding techniques, ... This method is investigated both for the synthesis of metallic nanowires in electronic components and for biosensing ... In one technique, the polyol synthesis, ethylene glycol is both solvent and reducing agent. This technique is particularly ... A common technique for creating a nanowire is vapor-liquid-solid method (VLS), which was first reported by Wagner and Ellis in ...
The technique provides a method for determination of the analyte diffusion coefficient and can be used to assess whether the ... Determination of kinetic/affinity interaction constants and diffusion coefficients in label-free biosensing. "Science Direct." ...
... is an emerging non-invasive technique used to provide insights to the health of the human body. Common sweat ... and biosensing implications." Biomicrofluidics 9, 031301 (2015). DOI: 10.1063/1.4921039 Sato, K.; Kang, W. H.; Saga, K. & Sato ... Development of devices, sensing techniques and biomarker identification in sweat continues to be an expanding field for medical ... then the patch is analyzed utilizing techniques such as GC-MS which are accurate but the suffer the drawback in lack of ...
"Refinement of the Nanoparticle Emission Assessment Technique into the Nanomaterial Exposure Assessment Technique (NEAT 2.0)". ... which have been used for wide applications in such as biosensing, bioimaging, tumor diagnosis,[38] antibiofouling and more. In ... There are traditional techniques developed during the 20th century in interface and colloid science for characterizing ... There is also a group of traditional techniques for characterizing surface charge or zeta potential of nano-particles in ...
38 (4) 724-32 (1999) T. Ruckstuhl, M. Rankl, S. Seeger: Highly sensitive biosensing using a Supercritical Angle Fluorescence ( ... Supercritical angle fluorescence microscopy (SAF) is a technique to detect and characterize fluorescent species (proteins, ...
Through these techniques with Cd-free QDs as stable fluorescent labels, researchers can observe the cell and tissue structure ... These QDs are promising candidates as fluorescent labels in various biological applications such as bioimaging, biosensing and ... For example, various techniques are used for the Cd-free QDs imaging including confocal/multiphoton microscopy, CARS imaging. ... The ability to produce the LSPR without Cadmium is useful other labeling techniques like lateral flow immunoassay, which the ...
In 1990, two labs independently developed the technique of selection: the Gold lab, using the term SELEX for their process of ... Aptamers can be used in: Affinity reagents Bioimaging probes Biosensing Therapeutics, e.g. Pegaptanib. Aptamers have an innate ... many researchers such as the Ellington lab have been developing diagnostic techniques for aptamer based plasma protein ...
This inconsistency may be due to differences in isolation techniques. Cigar culture molded with an Aspergillus was described to ... Seo, Janghoo; Kato, Shinsuke; Tatsuma, Tetsu; Chino, Satoko; Takada, Kazutake; Notsu, Hideo (1 July 2008). "Biosensing of an ...
Four-wave mixing technique[edit]. For the four-wave mixing technique, we can describe four beams (j = 1, 2, 3, 4) with electric ... "Optical trapping-assisted SERS platform for chemical and biosensing applications: Design perspectives". Coordination Chemistry ... The reversed beam is called a conjugate beam, and thus the technique is known as optical phase conjugation[21][22] (also called ... With this technique, the 1064 nm output from Nd:YAG lasers or the 800 nm output from Ti:sapphire lasers can be converted to ...
The beginning concept applying enzymatic biofuel cells for self-powered biosensing applications was introduced in 2001.[13] ... The former technique is possible only with certain types of enzymes whose activation sites are close to the enzyme's surface, ... which meant that it was unusable until after immobilization techniques were devised.[2] In addition, developers of enzymatic ...
Using the microemulsion technique, metallic cobalt, cobalt/platinum alloys, and gold-coated cobalt/platinum nanoparticles have ... magnetic spectroscopy and biosensing etc. Iron oxide nanoparticles Tadic, Marin; Kralj, Slavko; Jagodic, Marko; Hanzel, Darko; ... although this technique still needs further development to achieve optimal delivery to solid tumors. Another potential ...
Nanotubes has also been used in the developments of electrochemical biosensing platforms and has proved to have great potential ... as the top-down method of miniaturizing device using sophisticated lithography and etching techniques has reached a physical ...
Other scientists have developed techniques for using melanophores as biosensors, and for rapid disease detection (based on the ... biomimic-based biosensing". Biosens Bioelectron. 21 (1): 111-20. doi:10.1016/j.bios.2004.08.043. PMID 15967358. Karlsson, JO; ...
Wu P, Yan XP (June 2013). "Doped quantum dots for chemo/biosensing and bioimaging". Chemical Society Reviews. 42 (12): 5489-521 ... which is a clinically used technique for the purification of blood and is based on surface adsorption. These advantages are ...
This technique is popular due to the ability to add a variety of functionality to the exposed silica surface. A number of ... "Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence from Silver Nanowires with High Aspect Ratio on Glass Slides for Biosensing Applications". J. Phys ... Though many different techniques for silver nanoprism synthesis exist, several methods employ a seed-mediated approach, which ... A new, very promising wet-chemical technique was found by Elsupikhe et al. (2015). They have developed a green ultrasonically- ...
Their multi-functionality is what makes them ideal candidates as the active component in miniaturized on-chip biosensing ... sensitive and cost-effective on-chip biosensing systems that directly translate the presence of certain bioanalytes (e.g., ... magnetic fields can be well tuned and applied either externally or from a directly integrated solution in the biosensing system ... The reported technique for simultaneous MNP manipulation and detection was demonstrated on a linear array of bistable 1 μm × 8 ...
Artificial Intelligence Techniques for Colorectal Cancer Drug Metabolism: Ontologies and Complex Networks. Current Drug ... Sol-Gel Chemistry in Biosensing Devices of Electrical Transduction: Application to CEA Cancer Biomarker. Author(s): Liliana A.A ... Liliana A.A.N.A. Truta and M. Goreti F. Sales, "Sol-Gel Chemistry in Biosensing Devices of Electrical Transduction: Application ... Title:Sol-Gel Chemistry in Biosensing Devices of Electrical Transduction: Application to CEA Cancer Biomarker ...
This technique does not require additional markers for the transduction and can be used in a label-free operation mode and ... The main aim of this work is the elaboration and testing of robust and reproducible biosensing strategies using IDEA and 3D- ... Interdigitated electrode arrays (idea) impedimetric transducers for bacterial biosensing applications. Brosel Oliu, Sergi ... Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy is a widely studied technique to characterize biosystems because it allows to monitor ...
High impact information on Biosensing Techniques. *Using a FRET biosensor, we find that LGN behaves as a conformational switch ... Psychiatry related information on Biosensing Techniques. *The biosensor operated at 0.450 V, had a fast response time (t90% , ... Associations of Biosensing Techniques with chemical compounds. *Using genetically targeted PIP2-sensitive inward rectifier ... Gene context of Biosensing Techniques. *Using an optical biosensor, we found that CD4-induced (CD4i) epitopes recognized by ...
... electrode through a simple dropping technique. Direct electr … ... Biosensing Techniques / instrumentation * Biosensing Techniques ... Direct electrochemistry of hemoglobin at a graphene gold nanoparticle composite film for nitric oxide biosensing Sensors (Basel ... electrode through a simple dropping technique. Direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of the hemoglobin-modified ...
Biosensing Techniques. Chenxiang Lin, PhD Associate Professor of Cell Biology. Research Interests. Biophysics; Biosensing ... Techniques; Cell Biology; Cell Membrane; DNA; Membrane Fusion; Membranes, Artificial; Nanostructures; Nanotechnology; Nuclear ...
Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on (1). J. McSpadden, L. Fan, and K. Chang, "Design and experiments of a ... Theoretical biosensing performance of surface plasmon polariton Bragg gratings Kholoud Gazzaz and Pierre Berini. Appl. Opt. 54( ... F. Mazzotta, G. Wang, C. Hgglund, F. Hk, and M. P. Jonsson, "Nanoplasmonic biosensing with on-chip electrical detection," ... F. Mazzotta, G. Wang, C. Hgglund, F. Hk, and M. P. Jonsson, "Nanoplasmonic biosensing with on-chip electrical detection," ...
This chapter summarizes the fundamentals of biosensing techniques based on fluorescence spectroscopy and the protagonism of ... 2. Principles and evolution of biosensing techniques. Biosensors are devices that can perform the measurement of a ... This chapter summarizes the fundamentals of biosensing techniques based on fluorescence spectroscopy and the protagonism of ... In biosensing, materials based on graphene had promoted efficient detection of biomarkers and have proportioned an important ...
aggression; autism spectrum disorder; autonomic nervous system; biosensing techniques; inpatients. PMID:. 31225952. DOI:. ...
EPJ Techniques and Instrumentationvolume 2, Article number: 1 (2015) , Download Citation ... Characterization of a gold coated cantilever surface for biosensing applications. *Ann-Lauriene Haag1. , ... allowing signal averaging techniques to be used. If clean gold surfaces are used, the resultant reproducible time dependent ... different cleaning procedures by quantifying surface cleanliness electrochemically in situ and using surface science techniques ...
Biosensing techniques‎ (35 F). *. ► Biotechnology databases‎ (1 C). C. *. ► Cell culture techniques‎ (5 C, 274 F) ...
Biosensing techniques‎ (35 Ն). *. ► Biotechnology databases‎ (1 Կ). C. *. ► Cell culture techniques‎ (5 Կ, 275 Ն) ...
Biosensing Techniques * Humans * Interleukin-2 / metabolism * Kinetics * Ligands * Protein Binding * Radioligand Assay ...
Nanofabrication Techniques for Fully Integrated Sensing Platforms. M. Mujeeb-U-Rahman, D. Adalian, M. Sencan, A. Scherer. ... In vitro biosensing based on magnetically induced motion of magnetic nanoparticles. A. Dangl, G. Kokkinis, F. Keplinger, I. ... Biosensing, Diagnostics & Imaging Chapter 1. A Nanodiamond is Forever: Functionalizable fluorescent nanodiamonds that do not ...
Two Microscopy Techniques Combine for Nanoscale Brain-Wide Optical Imaging 1 day ago. ... Quantum-Enhanced Plasmonic Sensing Could Improve Biosensing, Chemical Detection. Photonics.com. May 2018 NORMAN, Okla., May 21 ...
Theme: "Exploring the latest Techniques in Orthopedics and Osteoporosis". This conference concentrates on the newest and ... OMsignals Biosensing Clothing That Monitors Heart Rate and Activity (VIDEO). September 6th, 2013 Gaurav Diagnostics, Military ... OMSignals product stands out from the numerous biosensing smart products such as bracelets, watches and phones, as this ... techniques to identify those genetic pathways, and the use of genetics and genomics as tools to develop therapeutics. ...
Dynamic biosensing. We explore the dynamics of fluorescence staining as an unprecedented source of information about the ... Print-and-peel (PAP) fabrication techniques, developed in our lab, allow for facile and expedient prototyping of microdevices, ... Bioinspired abiotic interfaces set the foundation for our biosensing research. Fundamental and advanced concepts of physical ... organic chemistry and biophysics, along with various synthetic, fabrication and analytical techniques, allow us to address ...
bioenergetics • Biophysics • Biosensing Techniques • Chemistry, Physical • chemistry, physical and theoretical • Chemistry, ...
Biosensing Using Magnetic Particle Detection Techniques.. Chen YT, Kolhatkar AG, Zenasni O, Xu S, Lee TR. ... A Nanoparticle-Decorated Biomolecule-Responsive Polymer Enables Robust Signaling Cascade for Biosensing. ...
Biosensing Using Magnetic Particle Detection Techniques. Next Article in Special Issue. A Review of Hybrid Fiber-Optic ...
Advancements in Control of Rapid Prototyping of Biosensing Devices Using Model-based and Data-driven Techniques. Closing date: ... using HPLC and mass spectrometry complemented with other techniques such as RAMAN/FTIR. However, we have the exciting ...
Biosensing Techniques*. Extraterrestrial Environment*. Gene Expression Regulation, Plant*. Genes, Reporter. Green Fluorescent ...
... and reduce Rayleigh scattering based on a hyphenated technique of fluorescence and ... Biosensing Techniques; Blood Glucose; Carbon; Glucose Oxidase; Humans; Hydrogen Peroxide; Limit of Detection; Metal ... and reduce Rayleigh scattering based on a hyphenated technique of fluorescence and second-order Rayleigh scattering (SRS). The ...
Acetophenones; Biosensing Techniques; Breast Neoplasms; Breath Tests; Catalysis; Female; Humans; Luminescence; Nanoparticles; ...
Washless (Titration) LbL Technique. Formation of LbL Shells on Nanocores. Drug Release Study. Conclusions. CELLULOSE FIBERS AND ... CONTROLLED ARCHITECTURES IN LBL FILMS FOR SENSING AND BIOSENSING. Introduction. LbL-Based Sensors and Biosensors. Special ... Experimental Techniques. Analysis of QCR Data. VOLUME 2. PART II: Applications. ELECTROSTATIC AND COORDINATIVE SUPRAMOLECULAR ... Preparation Techniques for Polyelectrolyte Multilayers. Types of Polyelectrolytes. Preparation Parameters. Influence of ...
Biosensing and Bioelectronics. The major in Biosensing and Bioelectronics combines both theoretical and practical studies in ... microfabrication techniques,. *biomaterials science,. *biochemical recognition of biomolecules,. *physical transducers,. * ... The majors offered are Bioinformatics and Digital Health, Biomedical Engineering, Biosensing and Bioelectronics, Biosystems and ...
CV and amperometric i-t curve techniques were used for the electrochemical characterization of the biosensors. CV was also used ... Graphene versus Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes for Electrochemical Glucose Biosensing by Dan Zheng 1,2, Sandeep Kumar Vashist 1, ... Zheng, D.; Vashist, S.K.; Al-Rubeaan, K.; Luong, J.H.T.; Sheu, F.S. Mediatorless amperometric glucose biosensing using 3- ... Guo, C.X.; Li, C.M. Direct electron transfer of glucose oxidase and biosensing of glucose on hollow sphere-nanostructured ...
The potential applications of this powerful technique are not limited to biosensing and point-of-care diagnostics, and will ... However, the biosensing capabilities of these chiral metamaterials have not been fully explored. Ultrasensitive detection and ... Planar chiral metamaterials for biosensing applications Author(s): Sangeeta Murugkar; Israel De Leon; Matthew Horton; Hammam ... We report a novel plasmonic tuning technique which allows colorimetric, naked-eye detection of protein-protein binding at ...
Optical biosensing techniques. *External Reflection techniques, backscattering multispectral polarimetry. *Total internal ... Linear and Nonlinear Techniques for Image Processing. *Advanced image enhancement and processing algorithms ... Image System Design, Image Instrumentation and Measuring Techniques. *Image system design parameters, such as spectral response ... IJSISE provides the interface between basic research, algorithms and techniques in signal and image processing/analysis/ ...
... technique,makes,probing,puzzling,proteins,possible,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news, ... Biosensing nanodevice to revolutionize health screenings. 8. NCI grant launches clinical trials for colon cancer screening. 9. ... The new technique relies on the same broad-spectrum probes previously used for ABPP, but instead of gel techniques, the team ... Already, the new technique, described in the March 29, 2009 edition of the journal Nature Biotechnology, has allowed the team ...
  • La tecnologia dels biosensors, basada en dispositius analítics que combinen un bioreceptor amb una unitat de transducció, s'ha aplicat en nombroses àrees de recerca per a la detecció de diferents analits d'interès. (tesisenred.net)
  • In this thesis, the use of impedimetric transducers based on interdigitated electrode arrays (IDEA) has been proposed as a tool for the development of bacterial biosensing applications. (tesisenred.net)
  • This technique does not require additional markers for the transduction and can be used in a label-free operation mode and hence simplifying the biosensing assays. (tesisenred.net)
  • Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy is a widely studied technique to characterize biosystems because it allows to monitor electrical events occurring on the surface of electrodes. (tesisenred.net)
  • This chapter summarizes the fundamentals of biosensing techniques based on fluorescence spectroscopy and the protagonism of state-of-the-art luminescent biosensors in a wide range of scientific areas, from environmental monitoring to diagnostics and decease treatment, focusing on the paramount contribution of biosensors based on the Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) transducing mechanism. (intechopen.com)
  • The major in Biosensing and Bioelectronics combines both theoretical and practical studies in designing, developing, fabricating and characterizing biosensors, biomedical devices and medical instrumentations. (aalto.fi)
  • Nanoparticle biosensors have the potential to enhance or supersede current analytical techniques, and their introduction could have a great impact in research and clinical practice. (sciencemag.org)
  • Looking toward high-impact applications, the main challenges are to develop techniques to synthesize reproducible high-quality nanoparticle biosensors on a mass scale and to maximize performance in physiological conditions. (sciencemag.org)
  • Chapters in part 2 go on to look at materials and fabrication of medical biosensors while the next part looks at different technologies and operational techniques. (schweitzer-online.de)
  • While "Biosensors" are analytical devices incorporating a biological sensing element, "Biosensing" covers the use of any sensor to monitor a living system and includes chemical sensors, such as gas sensors and ion-selective electrodes, as well as Biosensors. (liu.se)
  • La tecnologia dels biosensors, basada en dispositius analítics que combinen un bioreceptor amb una unitat de transducció, s'ha aplicat en nombroses àrees de recerca per a la detecció de diferents analits d'interès. (tesisenred.net)
  • At the nanobiofabrication group of Tufts University, we exploit several unique properties of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) for facile synthesis of catalytically active palladium (Pd) nanoparticles and fabrication of high capacity biosensing platforms. (aiche.org)
  • Here, a new ratiometric optical sensing strategy for HO detection is developed by etching silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to deactivate fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and reduce Rayleigh scattering based on a hyphenated technique of fluorescence and second-order Rayleigh scattering (SRS). (americanelements.com)
  • These functionalized nanoparticles were investigated with several techniques. (nsti.org)
  • This translational process relies on the availability of high-quality nanoparticles with precisely engineered surfaces and biosensing mechanisms that allow detection with high sensitivity and specificity. (sciencemag.org)
  • DNA directed assembly of nanoparticles, in conjunction with surface patterning techniques, provides a promising route for massively parallel fabrication of nanodevices. (asu.edu)
  • This review discusses the recent advances in DNA biosensing techniques based on metal nanoparticles. (aspbs.com)
  • biosensor, interface engineering, homogeneity, orientation control, fused proteins, DNA nanostructures INTRODUCTION The biosensing interface between the solid-liquid phases plays an important role for mass transfer, electron mobility, energy exchange and signal transduction. (deepdyve.com)
  • Construction of biomacromolecular nanostructures represents a promising means to mimic their intracellular counterpart and engineer biosensing interfaces in a programmable way [14]. (deepdyve.com)
  • All the nanostructures used for the biosensing applications have two characteristics. (nanowerk.com)
  • Next, a novel and low-cost coating deposition technique capable of production of several types of nanostructures is introduced through simple calculations and several illustrations. (springer.com)
  • A time-domain-based amplifier concept is proposed to obtain high-voltage gains with low power consumption and at an ultra-low supply voltage of 0.35 V. A prototype instrumentation amplifier designed using the proposed technique in the 180 nm technology consumes 210 nW of power and 0.1 mm 2 of the active area. (digchip.com)
  • The immunosensor design was targeted for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), an important biomarker for screening the colorectal cancer, by electrochemical techniques, namely electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and square wave voltammetry (SVW). (eurekaselect.com)
  • Nanomedical Diagnostics ("Nanomed") is a life science company based in San Diego, CA. Nanomed has developed a breakthrough electrical assay based on proprietary Field Effect Biosensing (FEB) technology that delivers sensitive label-free kinetic characterization of biomolecular interactions for accelerated drug discovery. (prweb.com)
  • He went on to add that microfluidics-based biosensing could have very positive implications across areas like biological engineering, biomedical studies, point-of-care diagnostics, and environmental monitoring. (thebetterindia.com)
  • Our core methods are X-ray crystallography, enzymology, and other classical protein chemistry techniques for biophysical characterization. (dtu.dk)
  • aims to bring together leading academic scientists, researchers and research scholars to exchange and share their experiences and research results on all aspects of Forensic Analytical Chemistry and Surface Characterization Techniques. (waset.org)
  • Also, high quality research contributions describing original and unpublished results of conceptual, constructive, empirical, experimental, or theoretical work in all areas of Forensic Analytical Chemistry and Surface Characterization Techniques are cordially invited for presentation at the conference. (waset.org)
  • ICFACSCT 2020 has teamed up with the Special Journal Issue on Forensic Analytical Chemistry and Surface Characterization Techniques . (waset.org)
  • In recent years, there has been rapidly growing interest in developing hand held, sensitive and cost-effective on-chip biosensing systems that directly translate the presence of certain bioanalytes (e.g., biomolecules, cells and viruses) into an electronic signal. (mdpi.com)
  • A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. (umassmed.edu)
  • The majors offered are Bioinformatics and Digital Health, Biomedical Engineering, Biosensing and Bioelectronics, Biosystems and Biomaterials Engineering, Complex Systems , and Human Neuroscience and Technology with a possibility to combine different fields with minor and elective studies. (aalto.fi)
  • Els bacteris, especialment els bacteris patògens, són agents biològics importants per ser detectats en diversos camps com el diagnòstic clínic, la indústria alimentària o la qualitat de l'aigua per prevenir malalties en els éssers humans. (tesisenred.net)
  • The RCA mechanism is widely used in molecular biology & biomedical nanotechnology, especially in the field of biosensing (as a method of signal amplification). (wikipedia.org)
  • Jiang H, Ju H (2007) Enzyme-quantum dots architecture for highly sensitive electrochemiluminescence biosensing of oxidase substrates. (springer.com)
  • In the biosensing area, we have enlisted TMV's dual functionality coupled with robust replica molding (RM) for facile fabrication of high-capacity biomolecular assembly platforms. (aiche.org)
  • We envision that our approach to seamlessly integrate these three traits would lead to promising fabrication schemes for high-capacity biosensing platforms. (aiche.org)
  • Frog melanophores cultured on fluorescent microbeads: Biomimic-based biosensing. (diva-portal.org)
  • The power of SERS lies in its ability to identify chemical species and obtain structural information in a wide variety of fields including polymer and materials science, biochemistry and biosensing, catalysis, and electrochemistry. (laserglow.com)
  • Hemoglobin (Hb) was successfully immobilized on the surface of a basal plane graphite (BPG) electrode through a simple dropping technique. (nih.gov)
  • En aquesta tesi es proposa l'ús de transductors impedimètrics basats en elèctrodes de tipus interdigitat (interdigitated electrode arrays, IDEA de les sigles en anglès) com a instrument per al desenvolupament d'aplicacions biosensores bacterianes. (tesisenred.net)
  • Capturing biological objects like EVs with antibodies is well described in the literature through different biosensing techniques. (rsc.org)
  • it is only recently that function-based techniques have been applied to the detection of biological warfare agents. (nap.edu)
  • Nowadays, however, microwave technique for localized testing biological objects is at a rudimentary level. (comsol.com)
  • Remote measurement and manipulation of biological systems can be achieved using magnetic techniques, but a missing link is the availability of highly magnetic handles on cellular or molecular function. (mit.edu)
  • As a simplified version of natural rolling circle replication, an isothermal DNA amplification technique, Rolling Circle Amplification (RCA) was developed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Third, simple and robust RM technique leads to scalable fabrication of shape-controlled polymeric microparticles. (aiche.org)
  • Print-and-peel (PAP) fabrication techniques, developed in our lab, allow for facile and expedient prototyping of microdevices, providing venues for broadening the accessibility to microfluidics technology. (google.com)
  • DNA sequencing and fragment analysis, fluorescence staining for bioimaging and fluorescence immunoassays are all based on fluorescence techniques. (intechopen.com)
  • The new technique relies on the same broad-spectrum probes previously used for ABPP, but instead of gel techniques, the team has shown that it can rapidly read experimental results by instead using a technique known as fluorescence polarization. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Specific bioprobes with fluorescence turn-on response are highly desirable for high contrast biosensing and imaging. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This video introduces the field of biosensing, and reviews common types of biosensor technologies. (jove.com)
  • En el primer cas, s'ha dut a terme la detecció de bacteris o endotoxines bacterianes en mostres líquides, mentre que en el segon s'ha desenvolupat un biosensor del tipus microbià. (tesisenred.net)
  • Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy is a widely studied technique to characterize biosystems because it allows to monitor electrical events occurring on the surface of electrodes. (tesisenred.net)
  • At the undergraduate level, the group is involved in Modern imaging, spectroscopy and diffraction techniques and several other courses. (chalmers.se)
  • The first one detects the viral genome and uses techniques such as genomic sequencing, CRISPR, and reverse transcription real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). (diwou.com)
  • This is because magnetic fields can be well tuned and applied either externally or from a directly integrated solution in the biosensing system. (mdpi.com)
  • Advantages and limitations of magnetic biosensing compared to other techniques are discussed. (fz-juelich.de)
  • Along the lines to address these questions, a number of strategies have been proposed to develop high-performance biosensing interfaces with improved biomolecular recognition efficiency and reduced non-specific adsorption [11]. (deepdyve.com)
  • The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding. (umassmed.edu)
  • Already, the new technique, described in the March 29, 2009 edition of the journal Nature Biotechnology , has allowed the team to identify inhibitors for two enzymes thought to play significant roles in cancer progression. (bio-medicine.org)
  • This study demonstrates a peptide-enabled self-assembly technique for designing well-defined protein arrays over a metal surface. (cambridge.org)
  • New high-throughput screening technique makes probing puzzling protein. (bio-medicine.org)
  • To nudge proteomics research forward, the Cravatt team several years ago developed a now widely used technique called Activity-Based Protein Profiling (ABPP). (bio-medicine.org)
  • Complementary to crystallographic techniques, such solution interaction studies can provide information on the assembly principles of structurally polymorph multi-protein complexes. (nih.gov)
  • Using purified protein components and OLA, an on-chip liposome production technique that we have developed, we wish to understand, for example, blebbing motility exhibited by cells in 3D environments. (wur.nl)
  • In a paper published on the preprint server medRxiv *, researchers from the Carnegie Mellon University and University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine discuss a newly developed 3D printed biosensing platform called the 3DcC that can sense SARS-CoV-2 antibodies within seconds. (diwou.com)
  • Bioinspired abiotic interfaces set the foundation for our biosensing research. (google.com)
  • Analytical techniques reveal that spherical calcium phosphate particles are the first mineralized structures to be formed in the calcification process in cardiovascular tissues. (london-nano.com)
  • Emotion recognition is a technique used in software which provides a program with the access to read emotions on a human face by means of advanced image processing technology. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • The functionalization of nanostructured silica films for L-lactate biosensing was explored using two different enzymes. (epfl.ch)
  • In particular, this partnership offers the student the opportunity to study the effect of our DiP system on damage to amino acids and DNA, using HPLC and mass spectrometry complemented with other techniques such as RAMAN/FTIR. (ulster.ac.uk)