Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.
The use of needles usually larger than 14-gauge to remove tissue samples large enough to retain cellular architecture for pathology examination.
Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
A small, often impalpable benign papilloma arising in a lactiferous duct and frequently causing bleeding from the nipple. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Use of ultrasound for imaging the breast. The most frequent application is the diagnosis of neoplasms of the female breast.
Using fine needles (finer than 22-gauge) to remove tissue or fluid specimens from the living body for examination in the pathology laboratory and for disease diagnosis.
A space in which the pressure is far below atmospheric pressure so that the remaining gases do not affect processes being carried on in the space.
In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.
Conducting a biopsy procedure with the aid of a MEDICAL IMAGING modality.
A common and benign breast disease characterized by varying degree of fibrocystic changes in the breast tissue. There are three major patterns of morphological changes, including FIBROSIS, formation of CYSTS, and proliferation of glandular tissue (adenosis). The fibrocystic breast has a dense irregular, lumpy, bumpy consistency.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Pathological processes of the BREAST.
Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.
A noninvasive (noninfiltrating) carcinoma of the breast characterized by a proliferation of malignant epithelial cells confined to the mammary ducts or lobules, without light-microscopy evidence of invasion through the basement membrane into the surrounding stroma.
The use of ultrasound to guide minimally invasive surgical procedures such as needle ASPIRATION BIOPSY; DRAINAGE; etc. Its widest application is intravascular ultrasound imaging but it is useful also in urology and intra-abdominal conditions.
An adenoma containing fibrous tissue. It should be differentiated from ADENOFIBROMA which is a tumor composed of connective tissue (fibroma) containing glandular (adeno-) structures. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Neoplasms of whatever cell type or origin, occurring in the extraskeletal connective tissue framework of the body including the organs of locomotion and their various component structures, such as nerves, blood vessels, lymphatics, etc.
An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.
Radiographic examination of the breast.
Diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that are invasive or surgical in nature, and require the expertise of a specially trained radiologist. In general, they are more invasive than diagnostic imaging but less invasive than major surgery. They often involve catheterization, fluoroscopy, or computed tomography. Some examples include percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, percutaneous transthoracic biopsy, balloon angioplasty, and arterial embolization.
An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Negative test results in subjects who possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of diseased persons as healthy when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Methods of preparing cells or tissues for examination and study of their origin, structure, function, or pathology. The methods include preservation, fixation, sectioning, staining, replica, or other technique to allow for viewing using a microscope.
A field of anatomical pathology in which living tissue is surgically removed for the purpose of diagnosis and treatment.
A infiltrating (invasive) breast cancer, relatively uncommon, accounting for only 5%-10% of breast tumors in most series. It is often an area of ill-defined thickening in the breast, in contrast to the dominant lump characteristic of ductal carcinoma. It is typically composed of small cells in a linear arrangement with a tendency to grow around ducts and lobules. There is likelihood of axillary nodal involvement with metastasis to meningeal and serosal surfaces. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1205)
A membrane in the midline of the THORAX of mammals. It separates the lungs between the STERNUM in front and the VERTEBRAL COLUMN behind. It also surrounds the HEART, TRACHEA, ESOPHAGUS, THYMUS, and LYMPH NODES.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Florida" is a geographical location and not a medical term or condition with a specific definition. It is the 27th largest state by area in the United States, located in the southeastern region of the country and known for its diverse wildlife, beautiful beaches, and theme parks. If you have any medical questions or terms that need clarification, please feel free to ask!
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A type of connective tissue neoplasm typically arising from intralobular stroma of the breast. It is characterized by the rapid enlargement of an asymmetric firm mobile mass. Histologically, its leaf-like stromal clefts are lined by EPITHELIAL CELLS. Rare phyllodes tumor of the prostate is also known.
Tumors or cancer located in muscle tissue or specific muscles. They are differentiated from NEOPLASMS, MUSCLE TISSUE which are neoplasms composed of skeletal, cardiac, or smooth muscle tissue, such as MYOSARCOMA or LEIOMYOMA.
A circumscribed benign epithelial tumor projecting from the surrounding surface; more precisely, a benign epithelial neoplasm consisting of villous or arborescent outgrowths of fibrovascular stroma covered by neoplastic cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.
Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Usage of a single needle among two or more people for injecting drugs. Needle sharing is a high-risk behavior for contracting infectious disease.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
Preliminary cancer therapy (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone/endocrine therapy, immunotherapy, hyperthermia, etc.) that precedes a necessary second modality of treatment.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.
Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.
Conducting a fine needle biopsy with the aid of ENDOSCOPIC ULTRASONOGRAPHY.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Instruments used for injecting or withdrawing fluids. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The local implantation of tumor cells by contamination of instruments and surgical equipment during and after surgical resection, resulting in local growth of the cells and tumor formation.
Penetrating stab wounds caused by needles. They are of special concern to health care workers since such injuries put them at risk for developing infectious disease.
A diagnostic procedure used to determine whether LYMPHATIC METASTASIS has occurred. The sentinel lymph node is the first lymph node to receive drainage from a neoplasm.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
Incision of tissues for injection of medication or for other diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. Punctures of the skin, for example may be used for diagnostic drainage; of blood vessels for diagnostic imaging procedures.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Ultrasonography of internal organs using an ultrasound transducer sometimes mounted on a fiberoptic endoscope. In endosonography the transducer converts electronic signals into acoustic pulses or continuous waves and acts also as a receiver to detect reflected pulses from within the organ. An audiovisual-electronic interface converts the detected or processed echo signals, which pass through the electronics of the instrument, into a form that the technologist can evaluate. The procedure should not be confused with ENDOSCOPY which employs a special instrument called an endoscope. The "endo-" of endosonography refers to the examination of tissue within hollow organs, with reference to the usual ultrasonography procedure which is performed externally or transcutaneously.
A plant species of the genus PINUS that contains isocupressic acid.
A gland in males that surrounds the neck of the URINARY BLADDER and the URETHRA. It secretes a substance that liquefies coagulated semen. It is situated in the pelvic cavity behind the lower part of the PUBIC SYMPHYSIS, above the deep layer of the triangular ligament, and rests upon the RECTUM.
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
Minimally invasive procedures guided with the aid of magnetic resonance imaging to visualize tissue structures.
Surgical procedures conducted with the aid of computers. This is most frequently used in orthopedic and laparoscopic surgery for implant placement and instrument guidance. Image-guided surgery interactively combines prior CT scans or MRI images with real-time video.
Apparatus, devices, or supplies intended for one-time or temporary use.
A secondary headache disorder attributed to low CEREBROSPINAL FLUID pressure caused by SPINAL PUNCTURE, usually after dural or lumbar puncture.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Diagnosis of the type and, when feasible, the cause of a pathologic process by means of microscopic study of cells in an exudate or other form of body fluid. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A small circumscribed mass in the THYROID GLAND that can be of neoplastic growth or non-neoplastic abnormality. It lacks a well-defined capsule or glandular architecture. Thyroid nodules are often benign but can be malignant. The growth of nodules can lead to a multinodular goiter (GOITER, NODULAR).
Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.
Tapping fluid from the subarachnoid space in the lumbar region, usually between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae.
A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen trees mainly in temperate climates.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A plant species of the genus PINUS which is the source of pinosylvin. It is sometimes called Scotch pine or Scots pine, which is also a common name for other species of this genus.
Production of an image when x-rays strike a fluorescent screen.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The removal of secretions, gas or fluid from hollow or tubular organs or cavities by means of a tube and a device that acts on negative pressure.
Treatment of disease by inserting needles along specific pathways or meridians. The placement varies with the disease being treated. It is sometimes used in conjunction with heat, moxibustion, acupressure, or electric stimulation.
Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.
Space between the dura mater and the walls of the vertebral canal.
The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Tumors or cancer of the MEDIASTINUM.
Disorders of the mediastinum, general or unspecified.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
The injection of solutions into the skin by compressed air devices so that only the solution pierces the skin.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Infection of the lymph nodes by tuberculosis. Tuberculous infection of the cervical lymph nodes is scrofula.
Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.

What is the added value of combined core biopsy and fine needle aspiration in the diagnostic process of renal tumours? (1/60)


Contemporary pathologic characteristics and oncologic outcomes of prostate cancers missed by 6- and 12-core biopsy and diagnosed with a 21-core biopsy protocol. (2/60)


Lowering oral contraceptive norethindrone dose increases estrogen and progesterone receptor levels with no reduction in proliferation of breast epithelium: a randomized trial. (3/60)


The effect of cold ischemic time on the immunohistochemical evaluation of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER2 expression in invasive breast carcinoma. (4/60)


The prognostic and predictive power of redox protein expression for anthracycline-based chemotherapy response in locally advanced breast cancer. (5/60)


Prediction of pathological and oncological outcomes based on extended prostate biopsy results in patients with prostate cancer receiving radical prostatectomy: a single institution study. (6/60)

BACKGROUND: The prediction of pathological outcomes prior to surgery remains a challenging problem for the appropriate surgical indication of prostate cancer. This study was performed to identify preoperative values predictive of pathological and oncological outcomes based on standardized extended prostate biopsies with core histological results diagrammed/mapped in patients receiving radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer clinically diagnosed as localized or locally advanced disease. METHODS: In 124 patients with clinically localized or locally advanced prostate cancer (cT1c-cT3a) without prior treatment, pathological outcomes on the surgical specimen including seminal vesicle involvement (SVI), positive surgical margin (PSM), and perineural invasion (PNI) were studied in comparison with clinical parameters based on the results of 14-core prostate biopsies comprising sextant, laterally-directed sextant, and bilateral transition zone (TZ) sampling. RESULTS: Concerning the association of pathological outcomes with oncological outcomes, patients with PSM and PNI on surgical specimens had poorer biochemical-progression-free survival than those without PSM (logrank p = 0.002) and PNI (p = 0.003); it was also poorer concerning SVI, although the difference was not significant (p = 0.120). Concerning the impact of clinical parameters on these pathological outcomes, positive TZ and multiple positive biopsy cores in the prostatic middle were independent values predictive of SVI with multivariate analyses (p = 0.020 and p = 0.025, respectively); both positive TZ and multiple positive prostatic middle biopsies were associated with larger tumor volume (p < 0.001 in both). The percentage of positive biopsy cores (%positive cores) and biopsy Gleason score were independent values predictive of PSM (p = 0.001) and PNI (p = 0.001), respectively. Multiple positive cores in the prostatic base were associated with proximal/bladder-side PSM (p < 0.001), and also linked to poorer biochemical-progression-free survival (p = 0.004). Clinical T stage had no association with these pathological outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: %positive cores and Gleason score in extended biopsies were independent values predictive of PSM and PNI in prostate cancer clinically diagnosed as localized or locally advanced disease, respectively, which were associated with poorer oncological outcomes. When diagramming biopsy-core results, extended biopsy may provide additional information for predicting oncological and pathological outcomes including SVI in patients clinically diagnosed as having localized or locally advanced disease. VIRTUAL SLIDES: The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here:  (+info)

Nasopharynx carcinoma: a rare primary for bilateral breast metastasis. (7/60)


Malignant priapism secondary to adenocarcinoma of the prostate. (8/60)


A needle biopsy is a medical procedure in which a thin, hollow needle is used to remove a small sample of tissue from a suspicious or abnormal area of the body. The tissue sample is then examined under a microscope to check for cancer cells or other abnormalities. Needle biopsies are often used to diagnose lumps or masses that can be felt through the skin, but they can also be guided by imaging techniques such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI to reach areas that cannot be felt. There are several types of needle biopsy procedures, including fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and core needle biopsy. FNA uses a thin needle and gentle suction to remove fluid and cells from the area, while core needle biopsy uses a larger needle to remove a small piece of tissue. The type of needle biopsy used depends on the location and size of the abnormal area, as well as the reason for the procedure.

A "large-core needle biopsy" is a medical procedure in which a large-bore needle is used to obtain a tissue sample from the body for diagnostic examination. This type of biopsy allows for the removal of a larger piece of tissue than what can be obtained with a fine-needle aspiration biopsy, and it is often used when a mass or abnormality can be felt during a physical exam.

During the procedure, the healthcare provider will use imaging guidance (such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI) to help guide the needle into the appropriate location. Once the needle is in place, it is advanced into the mass or abnormality and a core of tissue is removed for analysis. The sample is then sent to a laboratory where a pathologist will examine the tissue under a microscope to determine if there are any abnormal cells present that may indicate cancer or other diseases.

Large-core needle biopsies are generally considered safe, but like all medical procedures, they do carry some risks, such as bleeding, infection, and discomfort at the biopsy site. Patients should discuss any concerns with their healthcare provider before undergoing the procedure.

In the context of medicine, "needles" are thin, sharp, and typically hollow instruments used in various medical procedures to introduce or remove fluids from the body, administer medications, or perform diagnostic tests. They consist of a small-gauge metal tube with a sharp point on one end and a hub on the other, where a syringe is attached.

There are different types of needles, including:

1. Hypodermic needles: These are used for injections, such as intramuscular (IM), subcutaneous (SC), or intravenous (IV) injections, to deliver medications directly into the body. They come in various sizes and lengths depending on the type of injection and the patient's age and weight.
2. Blood collection needles: These are used for drawing blood samples for diagnostic tests. They have a special vacuum-assisted design that allows them to easily penetrate veins and collect the required amount of blood.
3. Surgical needles: These are used in surgeries for suturing (stitching) wounds or tissues together. They are typically curved and made from stainless steel, with a triangular or reverse cutting point to facilitate easy penetration through tissues.
4. Acupuncture needles: These are thin, solid needles used in traditional Chinese medicine for acupuncture therapy. They are inserted into specific points on the body to stimulate energy flow and promote healing.

It is essential to follow proper infection control procedures when handling and disposing of needles to prevent the spread of bloodborne pathogens and infectious diseases.

A biopsy is a medical procedure in which a small sample of tissue is taken from the body to be examined under a microscope for the presence of disease. This can help doctors diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as cancer, infections, or autoimmune disorders. The type of biopsy performed will depend on the location and nature of the suspected condition. Some common types of biopsies include:

1. Incisional biopsy: In this procedure, a surgeon removes a piece of tissue from an abnormal area using a scalpel or other surgical instrument. This type of biopsy is often used when the lesion is too large to be removed entirely during the initial biopsy.

2. Excisional biopsy: An excisional biopsy involves removing the entire abnormal area, along with a margin of healthy tissue surrounding it. This technique is typically employed for smaller lesions or when cancer is suspected.

3. Needle biopsy: A needle biopsy uses a thin, hollow needle to extract cells or fluid from the body. There are two main types of needle biopsies: fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and core needle biopsy. FNA extracts loose cells, while a core needle biopsy removes a small piece of tissue.

4. Punch biopsy: In a punch biopsy, a round, sharp tool is used to remove a small cylindrical sample of skin tissue. This type of biopsy is often used for evaluating rashes or other skin abnormalities.

5. Shave biopsy: During a shave biopsy, a thin slice of tissue is removed from the surface of the skin using a sharp razor-like instrument. This technique is typically used for superficial lesions or growths on the skin.

After the biopsy sample has been collected, it is sent to a laboratory where a pathologist will examine the tissue under a microscope and provide a diagnosis based on their findings. The results of the biopsy can help guide further treatment decisions and determine the best course of action for managing the patient's condition.

Intraductal papilloma is a benign (non-cancerous) tumor that develops within the breast ducts. It is called "papilloma" because of its characteristic growth pattern, which resembles a small sea anemone or a fern frond, with finger-like projections called papillae.

Intraductal papillomas are typically small and can be solitary (single) or multiple. They usually occur in the larger milk ducts just behind the nipple. When they become numerous or are located deeper within the breast, they are referred to as "multiple intraductal papillomas" or "papillomatosis."

These growths can cause various symptoms, such as a discharge from the nipple (often clear or blood-streaked), a lump in the breast, or pain. While intraductal papillomas are generally benign, they can sometimes undergo malignant transformation into papillary carcinoma or ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Therefore, it is essential to have any suspicious symptoms evaluated by a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and management.

Mammary ultrasonography, also known as breast ultrasound, is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses high-frequency sound waves to produce detailed images of the internal structures of the breast tissue. It is often used in conjunction with mammography to help identify and characterize breast abnormalities, such as lumps, cysts, or tumors, and to guide biopsy procedures.

Ultrasonography is particularly useful for evaluating palpable masses, assessing the integrity of breast implants, and distinguishing between solid and fluid-filled lesions. It is also a valuable tool for monitoring treatment response in patients with known breast cancer. Because it does not use radiation like mammography, mammary ultrasonography is considered safe and can be repeated as often as necessary. However, its effectiveness is highly dependent on the skill and experience of the sonographer performing the examination.

A fine-needle biopsy (FNB) is a medical procedure in which a thin, hollow needle is used to obtain a sample of cells or tissue from a suspicious or abnormal area in the body, such as a lump or mass. The needle is typically smaller than that used in a core needle biopsy, and it is guided into place using imaging techniques such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI.

The sample obtained during an FNB can be used to diagnose various medical conditions, including cancer, infection, or inflammation. The procedure is generally considered safe and well-tolerated, with minimal risks of complications such as bleeding, infection, or discomfort. However, the accuracy of the diagnosis depends on the skill and experience of the healthcare provider performing the biopsy, as well as the adequacy of the sample obtained.

Overall, FNB is a valuable diagnostic tool that can help healthcare providers make informed decisions about treatment options and improve patient outcomes.

In the context of medical terminology, "vacuum" is not typically used as a standalone term with a specific medical definition. However, it can be used in certain medical procedures or conditions in relation to creating a partial vacuum or absence of pressure. For example:

1. In surgical procedures, such as a vacuum-assisted closure, a vacuum is applied to help promote wound healing by removing fluids and infectious materials from the wound site.
2. In some cases, a therapeutic vacuum may be used to treat soft tissue injuries or conditions like lymphedema, where controlled negative pressure is applied to improve circulation, reduce swelling, and promote healing.
3. A rare medical condition called "spontaneous intracranial hypotension" can occur when there is a leak in the dura mater (the protective membrane surrounding the brain and spinal cord), causing cerebrospinal fluid to escape and creating a negative pressure or vacuum-like effect within the skull, which may result in headaches, neck pain, or other neurological symptoms.

In general, "vacuum" is not a commonly used medical term with a specific definition but can be found in relation to certain procedures or conditions where a partial vacuum or absence of pressure is involved.

The breast is the upper ventral region of the human body in females, which contains the mammary gland. The main function of the breast is to provide nutrition to infants through the production and secretion of milk, a process known as lactation. The breast is composed of fibrous connective tissue, adipose (fatty) tissue, and the mammary gland, which is made up of 15-20 lobes that are arranged in a radial pattern. Each lobe contains many smaller lobules, where milk is produced during lactation. The milk is then transported through a network of ducts to the nipple, where it can be expressed by the infant.

In addition to its role in lactation, the breast also has important endocrine and psychological functions. It contains receptors for hormones such as estrogen and progesterone, which play a key role in sexual development and reproduction. The breast is also a source of sexual pleasure and can be an important symbol of femininity and motherhood.

It's worth noting that males also have breast tissue, although it is usually less developed than in females. Male breast tissue consists mainly of adipose tissue and does not typically contain functional mammary glands. However, some men may develop enlarged breast tissue due to conditions such as gynecomastia, which can be caused by hormonal imbalances or certain medications.

An image-guided biopsy is a medical procedure in which imaging technologies, such as ultrasound, CT (computed tomography), MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), or mammography, are used to guide the removal of tissue samples from a suspicious area in the body for further examination and diagnosis. This technique allows healthcare professionals to obtain biopsy specimens precisely and accurately, even from deep-seated or hard-to-reach locations, minimizing injury to surrounding tissues and improving diagnostic confidence. The type of imaging modality used depends on the location, size, and nature of the suspected abnormality.

Fibrocystic breast disease, also known as fibrocystic change or chronic cystic mastitis, is not actually a disease but a condition that affects many women at some point in their lives. It is characterized by the formation of benign (non-cancerous) lumps or cysts in the breasts, often accompanied by breast pain, tenderness, and swelling.

The condition is caused by hormonal fluctuations that affect the breast tissue, making it more prone to developing fibrous tissue and fluid-filled sacs called cysts. Fibrocystic breast changes are usually harmless and do not increase the risk of breast cancer. However, in some cases, they can make it harder to detect early signs of breast cancer through mammography or self-examination.

The symptoms of fibrocystic breast change may vary from woman to woman and can range from mild to severe. They tend to be more noticeable just before a woman's menstrual period and may improve after menopause. Treatment options for fibrocystic breast changes include pain relievers, hormonal medications, and lifestyle modifications such as reducing caffeine intake and wearing a well-supportive bra. In some cases, draining or removing the cysts may be necessary to alleviate symptoms.

Breast neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the breast tissue that can be benign or malignant. Benign breast neoplasms are non-cancerous tumors or growths, while malignant breast neoplasms are cancerous tumors that can invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body.

Breast neoplasms can arise from different types of cells in the breast, including milk ducts, milk sacs (lobules), or connective tissue. The most common type of breast cancer is ductal carcinoma, which starts in the milk ducts and can spread to other parts of the breast and nearby structures.

Breast neoplasms are usually detected through screening methods such as mammography, ultrasound, or MRI, or through self-examination or clinical examination. Treatment options for breast neoplasms depend on several factors, including the type and stage of the tumor, the patient's age and overall health, and personal preferences. Treatment may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, or targeted therapy.

Breast diseases refer to a wide range of conditions that affect the breast tissue. These can be broadly categorized into non-cancerous and cancerous conditions.

Non-cancerous breast diseases include:

1. Fibrocystic breast changes: This is a common condition where the breast tissue becomes lumpy, tender, and sometimes painful. It is caused by hormonal changes and is most common in women aged 20 to 50.
2. Mastitis: This is an infection of the breast tissue, usually occurring in breastfeeding women. Symptoms include redness, swelling, warmth, and pain in the affected area.
3. Breast abscess: This is a collection of pus in the breast tissue, often caused by bacterial infection. It can be painful and may require surgical drainage.
4. Fibroadenomas: These are benign tumors made up of glandular and fibrous tissue. They are usually round, firm, and mobile, and can be removed if they cause discomfort.
5. Intraductal papillomas: These are small, wart-like growths that occur in the milk ducts. They may cause nipple discharge, which can be bloody or clear.

Cancerous breast diseases include:

1. Breast cancer: This is a malignant tumor that starts in the breast tissue. It can spread to other parts of the body if left untreated. There are several types of breast cancer, including ductal carcinoma, lobular carcinoma, and inflammatory breast cancer.
2. Paget's disease of the nipple: This is a rare form of breast cancer that affects the skin of the nipple and areola. It can cause symptoms such as redness, itching, burning, and flaking of the nipple skin.
3. Phyllodes tumors: These are rare breast tumors that can be benign or malignant. They usually grow quickly and may require surgical removal.

It is important to note that not all breast lumps are cancerous, and many non-cancerous conditions can cause breast changes. However, any new or unusual breast symptoms should be evaluated by a healthcare professional to rule out serious conditions such as breast cancer.

Stereotaxic techniques are minimally invasive surgical procedures used in neuroscience and neurology that allow for precise targeting and manipulation of structures within the brain. These methods use a stereotactic frame, which is attached to the skull and provides a three-dimensional coordinate system to guide the placement of instruments such as electrodes, cannulas, or radiation sources. The main goal is to reach specific brain areas with high precision and accuracy, minimizing damage to surrounding tissues. Stereotaxic techniques are widely used in research, diagnosis, and treatment of various neurological disorders, including movement disorders, pain management, epilepsy, and psychiatric conditions.

Intraductal carcinoma, noninfiltrating is a medical term used to describe a type of breast cancer that is confined to the milk ducts of the breast. It is also sometimes referred to as ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Noninfiltrating means that the cancer cells have not spread beyond the ducts into the surrounding breast tissue or elsewhere in the body.

In this type of cancer, abnormal cells line the milk ducts and fill the inside of the ducts. These abnormal cells may look like cancer cells under a microscope, but they have not grown through the walls of the ducts into the surrounding breast tissue. However, if left untreated, noninfiltrating intraductal carcinoma can progress to an invasive form of breast cancer where the cancer cells spread beyond the milk ducts and invade the surrounding breast tissue.

It is important to note that while noninfiltrating intraductal carcinoma is considered a precancerous condition, it still requires medical treatment to prevent the development of invasive breast cancer. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, or hormone therapy, depending on the size and location of the tumor and other individual factors.

Interventional ultrasonography is a medical procedure that involves the use of real-time ultrasound imaging to guide minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. This technique combines the advantages of ultrasound, such as its non-ionizing nature (no radiation exposure), relatively low cost, and portability, with the ability to perform precise and targeted procedures.

In interventional ultrasonography, a specialized physician called an interventional radiologist or an interventional sonographer uses high-frequency sound waves to create detailed images of internal organs and tissues. These images help guide the placement of needles, catheters, or other instruments used during the procedure. Common interventions include biopsies (tissue sampling), fluid drainage, tumor ablation, and targeted drug delivery.

The real-time visualization provided by ultrasonography allows for increased accuracy and safety during these procedures, minimizing complications and reducing recovery time compared to traditional surgical approaches. Additionally, interventional ultrasonography can be performed on an outpatient basis, further contributing to its appeal as a less invasive alternative in many clinical scenarios.

A fibroadenoma is a benign (noncancerous) breast tumor that is most commonly found in women between the ages of 15 and 35, although it can occur at any age. It is composed of glandular and connective tissue. The tumor typically feels firm, smooth, and rubbery, and its size may vary from quite small to over 2 inches in diameter.

Fibroadenomas are usually mobile within the breast tissue, which means they can be moved around easily when touched. They can occur as a single lump or multiple lumps (known as fibroadenomatosis). The exact cause of fibroadenomas is not known, but hormonal factors may play a role in their development.

Fibroadenomas are generally not painful, although some women may experience discomfort or tenderness, especially before their menstrual period. In most cases, fibroadenomas do not require treatment and can be monitored with regular breast exams and imaging studies such as mammography or ultrasound. However, if a fibroadenoma grows larger or becomes uncomfortable, it may be removed through a surgical procedure.

Soft tissue neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the soft tissues of the body. Soft tissues include muscles, tendons, ligaments, fascia, nerves, blood vessels, fat, and synovial membranes (the thin layer of cells that line joints and tendons). Neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), and their behavior and potential for spread depend on the specific type of neoplasm.

Benign soft tissue neoplasms are typically slow-growing, well-circumscribed, and rarely spread to other parts of the body. They can often be removed surgically with a low risk of recurrence. Examples of benign soft tissue neoplasms include lipomas (fat tumors), schwannomas (nerve sheath tumors), and hemangiomas (blood vessel tumors).

Malignant soft tissue neoplasms, on the other hand, can grow rapidly, invade surrounding tissues, and may metastasize (spread) to distant parts of the body. They are often more difficult to treat than benign neoplasms and require a multidisciplinary approach, including surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Examples of malignant soft tissue neoplasms include sarcomas, such as rhabdomyosarcoma (arising from skeletal muscle), leiomyosarcoma (arising from smooth muscle), and angiosarcoma (arising from blood vessels).

It is important to note that soft tissue neoplasms can occur in any part of the body, and their diagnosis and treatment require a thorough evaluation by a healthcare professional with expertise in this area.

Hyperplasia is a medical term that refers to an abnormal increase in the number of cells in an organ or tissue, leading to an enlargement of the affected area. It's a response to various stimuli such as hormones, chronic irritation, or inflammation. Hyperplasia can be physiological, like the growth of breast tissue during pregnancy, or pathological, like in the case of benign or malignant tumors. The process is generally reversible if the stimulus is removed. It's important to note that hyperplasia itself is not cancerous, but some forms of hyperplasia can increase the risk of developing cancer over time.

Mammography is defined as a specialized medical imaging technique used to create detailed X-ray images of the breast tissue. It's primarily used as a screening tool to detect early signs of breast cancer in women who have no symptoms or complaints, as well as a diagnostic tool for further evaluation of abnormalities detected by other imaging techniques or during a clinical breast exam.

There are two primary types of mammography: film-screen mammography and digital mammography. Film-screen mammography uses traditional X-ray films to capture the images, while digital mammography utilizes digital detectors to convert X-rays into electronic signals, which are then displayed on a computer screen. Digital mammography offers several advantages over film-screen mammography, including lower radiation doses, improved image quality, and the ability to manipulate and enhance the images for better interpretation.

Mammography plays a crucial role in reducing breast cancer mortality by enabling early detection and treatment of this disease. Regular mammography screenings are recommended for women over a certain age (typically starting at age 40 or 50, depending on individual risk factors) to increase the chances of detecting breast cancer at an early stage when it is most treatable.

Interventional radiography is a subspecialty of radiology that uses imaging guidance (such as X-ray fluoroscopy, ultrasound, CT, or MRI) to perform minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. These procedures typically involve the insertion of needles, catheters, or other small instruments through the skin or a natural body opening, allowing for targeted treatment with reduced risk, trauma, and recovery time compared to traditional open surgeries.

Examples of interventional radiography procedures include:

1. Angiography: Imaging of blood vessels to diagnose and treat conditions like blockages, narrowing, or aneurysms.
2. Biopsy: The removal of tissue samples for diagnostic purposes.
3. Drainage: The removal of fluid accumulations (e.g., abscesses, cysts) or the placement of catheters to drain fluids continuously.
4. Embolization: The blocking of blood vessels to control bleeding, tumor growth, or reduce the size of an aneurysm.
5. Stenting and angioplasty: The widening of narrowed or blocked vessels using stents (small mesh tubes) or balloon catheters.
6. Radiofrequency ablation: The use of heat to destroy tumors or abnormal tissues.
7. Cryoablation: The use of extreme cold to destroy tumors or abnormal tissues.

Interventional radiologists are medical doctors who have completed specialized training in both diagnostic imaging and interventional procedures, allowing them to provide comprehensive care for patients requiring image-guided treatments.

Carcinoma, ductal, breast is a type of breast cancer that begins in the milk ducts (the tubes that carry milk from the lobules of the breast to the nipple). It is called "ductal" because it starts in the cells that line the milk ducts. Ductal carcinoma can be further classified as either non-invasive or invasive, based on whether the cancer cells are confined to the ducts or have spread beyond them into the surrounding breast tissue.

Non-invasive ductal carcinoma (also known as intraductal carcinoma or ductal carcinoma in situ) is a condition where abnormal cells have been found in the lining of the milk ducts, but they have not spread outside of the ducts. These cells have the potential to become invasive and spread to other parts of the breast or body if left untreated.

Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) is a type of breast cancer that starts in a milk duct and then grows into the surrounding breast tissue. From there, it can spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream and lymphatic system. IDC is the most common form of breast cancer, accounting for about 80% of all cases.

Symptoms of ductal carcinoma may include a lump or thickening in the breast, changes in the size or shape of the breast, dimpling or puckering of the skin on the breast, nipple discharge (especially if it is clear or bloody), and/or redness or scaling of the nipple or breast skin. However, many cases of ductal carcinoma are detected through mammography before any symptoms develop.

Treatment for ductal carcinoma depends on several factors, including the stage and grade of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and personal preferences. Treatment options may include surgery (such as a lumpectomy or mastectomy), radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and/or targeted therapies.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Carcinoma in situ is a medical term used to describe the earliest stage of cancer, specifically a type of cancer that begins in the epithelial tissue, which is the tissue that lines the outer surfaces of organs and body structures. In this stage, the cancer cells are confined to the layer of cells where they first developed and have not spread beyond that layer into the surrounding tissues or organs.

Carcinoma in situ can occur in various parts of the body, including the skin, cervix, breast, lung, prostate, bladder, and other areas. It is often detected through routine screening tests, such as Pap smears for cervical cancer or mammograms for breast cancer.

While carcinoma in situ is not invasive, it can still be a serious condition because it has the potential to develop into an invasive cancer if left untreated. Treatment options for carcinoma in situ may include surgery, radiation therapy, or other forms of treatment, depending on the location and type of cancer. It is important to consult with a healthcare provider to determine the best course of action for each individual case.

Reproducibility of results in a medical context refers to the ability to obtain consistent and comparable findings when a particular experiment or study is repeated, either by the same researcher or by different researchers, following the same experimental protocol. It is an essential principle in scientific research that helps to ensure the validity and reliability of research findings.

In medical research, reproducibility of results is crucial for establishing the effectiveness and safety of new treatments, interventions, or diagnostic tools. It involves conducting well-designed studies with adequate sample sizes, appropriate statistical analyses, and transparent reporting of methods and findings to allow other researchers to replicate the study and confirm or refute the results.

The lack of reproducibility in medical research has become a significant concern in recent years, as several high-profile studies have failed to produce consistent findings when replicated by other researchers. This has led to increased scrutiny of research practices and a call for greater transparency, rigor, and standardization in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

A "false negative" reaction in medical testing refers to a situation where a diagnostic test incorrectly indicates the absence of a specific condition or disease, when in fact it is present. This can occur due to various reasons such as issues with the sensitivity of the test, improper sample collection, or specimen handling and storage.

False negative results can have serious consequences, as they may lead to delayed treatment, misdiagnosis, or a false sense of security for the patient. Therefore, it is essential to interpret medical test results in conjunction with other clinical findings, patient history, and physical examination. In some cases, repeating the test or using a different diagnostic method may be necessary to confirm the initial result.

Histocytoлогиcal preparation techniques are methods used to prepare tissue samples for examination under a microscope in order to study the structure and function of cells, specifically histiocytes. These techniques involve fixing, processing, embedding, sectioning, and staining the tissue samples to preserve their cellular details and enhance the visibility of various cellular components.

The process typically begins with fixing the tissue sample in a fixative solution, such as formalin or alcohol, to preserve its structure and prevent decomposition. The fixed tissue is then dehydrated using a series of increasing concentrations of ethanol and cleared with a clearing agent, such as xylene, to remove the ethanol and make the tissue more transparent.

Next, the tissue is infiltrated with a liquid embedding material, such as paraffin or plastic, and solidified into a block. The block is then cut into thin sections using a microtome, and the sections are mounted onto glass slides.

Finally, the sections are stained with various dyes to highlight different cellular components, such as the nucleus, cytoplasm, or specific organelles. Common staining techniques used in histocytoлогиcal preparation include hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), immunohistochemistry (IHC), and special stains for specific cell types or structures.

These techniques allow pathologists to examine the tissue sample at a microscopic level, identify any abnormalities or diseases, and make an accurate diagnosis.

"Surgical Pathology" is a medical specialty that focuses on the examination of tissue specimens removed during surgery or biopsy procedures. The primary goal is to provide a definitive diagnosis of various diseases, including cancer and other abnormalities. This involves a detailed microscopic examination of the tissue architecture, cellular morphology, and molecular features. Surgical pathologists work closely with surgeons and other healthcare professionals to guide treatment decisions and assess patient prognosis based on their findings. They also play a crucial role in identifying new disease patterns and contributing to medical research.

Carcinoma, lobular is a type of breast cancer that begins in the milk-producing glands (lobules) of the breast. It can be either invasive or non-invasive (in situ). Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) occurs when the cancer cells break through the wall of the lobule and invade the surrounding breast tissue, and can potentially spread to other parts of the body. Non-invasive lobular carcinoma (LCIS), on the other hand, refers to the presence of abnormal cells within the lobule that have not invaded nearby breast tissue.

ILC is usually detected as a mass or thickening in the breast, and it may not cause any symptoms or show up on mammograms until it has grown quite large. It tends to grow more slowly than some other types of breast cancer, but it can still be serious and require extensive treatment. LCIS does not typically cause any symptoms and is usually found during a biopsy performed for another reason.

Treatment options for carcinoma, lobular depend on several factors, including the stage of the cancer, the patient's overall health, and their personal preferences. Treatment may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, or targeted therapy. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor for recurrence or the development of new cancers.

The mediastinum is the medical term for the area in the middle of the chest that separates the two lungs. It contains various vital organs and structures, including:

* The heart and its blood vessels
* The trachea (windpipe) and esophagus (tube connecting the throat to the stomach)
* The thymus gland
* Lymph nodes
* Nerves, including the vagus nerve and phrenic nerves
* Connective tissue and fat

The mediastinum is enclosed by the breastbone in front, the spine in back, and the lungs on either side. Abnormalities in the structures contained within the mediastinum can lead to various medical conditions, such as tumors or infections.

I'm not aware of any medical definition for the term "Florida." It is primarily used to refer to a state in the United States located in the southeastern region. If you have any specific medical context in which this term was used, please let me know and I will do my best to provide a relevant answer.

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures used to describe the performance of a diagnostic test or screening tool in identifying true positive and true negative results.

* Sensitivity refers to the proportion of people who have a particular condition (true positives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true positive rate" or "recall." A highly sensitive test will identify most or all of the people with the condition, but may also produce more false positives.
* Specificity refers to the proportion of people who do not have a particular condition (true negatives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true negative rate." A highly specific test will identify most or all of the people without the condition, but may also produce more false negatives.

In medical testing, both sensitivity and specificity are important considerations when evaluating a diagnostic test. High sensitivity is desirable for screening tests that aim to identify as many cases of a condition as possible, while high specificity is desirable for confirmatory tests that aim to rule out the condition in people who do not have it.

It's worth noting that sensitivity and specificity are often influenced by factors such as the prevalence of the condition in the population being tested, the threshold used to define a positive result, and the reliability and validity of the test itself. Therefore, it's important to consider these factors when interpreting the results of a diagnostic test.

A Phyllodes tumor is a rare type of breast tumor that originates from the connective tissue (stroma) that supports the breast lobules and ducts. These tumors can be benign, borderline, or malignant, depending on their level of invasiveness and cellular atypia.

Phyllodes tumors are typically large, firm, and well-circumscribed masses with a leaf-like (phyllode) internal architecture. They can grow quickly and may cause symptoms such as pain, swelling, or a palpable lump in the breast. Surgical excision is the primary treatment for Phyllodes tumors, and the extent of surgery depends on the tumor's size, grade, and margins. Regular follow-up is necessary to monitor for recurrence.

Muscle neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the muscle tissue. They can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign muscle neoplasms are typically slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the body, while malignant muscle neoplasms, also known as soft tissue sarcomas, can grow quickly, invade nearby tissues, and metastasize (spread) to distant parts of the body.

Soft tissue sarcomas can arise from any of the muscles in the body, including the skeletal muscles (voluntary muscles that attach to bones and help with movement), smooth muscles (involuntary muscles found in the walls of blood vessels, digestive tract, and other organs), or cardiac muscle (the specialized muscle found in the heart).

There are many different types of soft tissue sarcomas, each with its own set of characteristics and prognosis. Treatment for muscle neoplasms typically involves a combination of surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy, depending on the type, size, location, and stage of the tumor.

A papilloma is a benign (noncancerous) tumor that grows on a stalk, often appearing as a small cauliflower-like growth. It can develop in various parts of the body, but when it occurs in the mucous membranes lining the respiratory, digestive, or genitourinary tracts, they are called squamous papillomas. The most common type is the skin papilloma, which includes warts. They are usually caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and can be removed through various medical procedures if they become problematic or unsightly.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

The Predictive Value of Tests, specifically the Positive Predictive Value (PPV) and Negative Predictive Value (NPV), are measures used in diagnostic tests to determine the probability that a positive or negative test result is correct.

Positive Predictive Value (PPV) is the proportion of patients with a positive test result who actually have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true positives divided by the total number of positive results (true positives + false positives). A higher PPV indicates that a positive test result is more likely to be a true positive, and therefore the disease is more likely to be present.

Negative Predictive Value (NPV) is the proportion of patients with a negative test result who do not have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true negatives divided by the total number of negative results (true negatives + false negatives). A higher NPV indicates that a negative test result is more likely to be a true negative, and therefore the disease is less likely to be present.

The predictive value of tests depends on the prevalence of the disease in the population being tested, as well as the sensitivity and specificity of the test. A test with high sensitivity and specificity will generally have higher predictive values than a test with low sensitivity and specificity. However, even a highly sensitive and specific test can have low predictive values if the prevalence of the disease is low in the population being tested.

Bone neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the bone. They can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign bone neoplasms do not spread to other parts of the body and are rarely a threat to life, although they may cause problems if they grow large enough to press on surrounding tissues or cause fractures. Malignant bone neoplasms, on the other hand, can invade and destroy nearby tissue and may spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body.

There are many different types of bone neoplasms, including:

1. Osteochondroma - a benign tumor that develops from cartilage and bone
2. Enchondroma - a benign tumor that forms in the cartilage that lines the inside of the bones
3. Chondrosarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops from cartilage
4. Osteosarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops from bone cells
5. Ewing sarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops in the bones or soft tissues around the bones
6. Giant cell tumor of bone - a benign or occasionally malignant tumor that develops from bone tissue
7. Fibrosarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops from fibrous tissue in the bone

The symptoms of bone neoplasms vary depending on the type, size, and location of the tumor. They may include pain, swelling, stiffness, fractures, or limited mobility. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the tumor but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these treatments.

Calcinosis is a medical condition characterized by the abnormal deposit of calcium salts in various tissues of the body, commonly under the skin or in the muscles and tendons. These calcium deposits can form hard lumps or nodules that can cause pain, inflammation, and restricted mobility. Calcinosis can occur as a complication of other medical conditions, such as autoimmune disorders, kidney disease, and hypercalcemia (high levels of calcium in the blood). In some cases, the cause of calcinosis may be unknown. Treatment for calcinosis depends on the underlying cause and may include medications to manage calcium levels, physical therapy, and surgical removal of large deposits.

A precancerous condition, also known as a premalignant condition, is a state of abnormal cellular growth and development that has a higher-than-normal potential to progress into cancer. These conditions are characterized by the presence of certain anomalies in the cells, such as dysplasia (abnormal changes in cell shape or size), which can indicate an increased risk for malignant transformation.

It is important to note that not all precancerous conditions will eventually develop into cancer, and some may even regress on their own. However, individuals with precancerous conditions are often at a higher risk of developing cancer compared to the general population. Regular monitoring and appropriate medical interventions, if necessary, can help manage this risk and potentially prevent or detect cancer at an early stage when it is more treatable.

Examples of precancerous conditions include:

1. Dysplasia in the cervix (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or CIN)
2. Atypical ductal hyperplasia or lobular hyperplasia in the breast
3. Actinic keratosis on the skin
4. Leukoplakia in the mouth
5. Barrett's esophagus in the digestive tract

Regular medical check-ups, screenings, and lifestyle modifications are crucial for individuals with precancerous conditions to monitor their health and reduce the risk of cancer development.

Needle sharing is the reuse of needles or syringes by more than one person, often in the context of injecting drugs. This behavior is considered high-risk as it can lead to the transmission of bloodborne pathogens such as HIV, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C. It's a significant public health concern due to its association with intravenous drug use.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

Viral core proteins are the structural proteins that make up the viral capsid or protein shell, enclosing and protecting the viral genome. These proteins play a crucial role in the assembly of the virion, assist in the infection process by helping to deliver the viral genome into the host cell, and may also have functions in regulating viral replication. The specific composition and structure of viral core proteins vary among different types of viruses.

Neoadjuvant therapy is a treatment regimen that is administered to patients before they undergo definitive or curative surgery for their cancer. The main goal of neoadjuvant therapy is to reduce the size and extent of the tumor, making it easier to remove surgically and increasing the likelihood of complete resection. This type of therapy often involves the use of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or targeted therapy, and it can help improve treatment outcomes by reducing the risk of recurrence and improving overall survival rates. Neoadjuvant therapy is commonly used in the treatment of various types of cancer, including breast, lung, esophageal, rectal, and bladder cancer.

Tumor markers are substances that can be found in the body and their presence can indicate the presence of certain types of cancer or other conditions. Biological tumor markers refer to those substances that are produced by cancer cells or by other cells in response to cancer or certain benign (non-cancerous) conditions. These markers can be found in various bodily fluids such as blood, urine, or tissue samples.

Examples of biological tumor markers include:

1. Proteins: Some tumor markers are proteins that are produced by cancer cells or by other cells in response to the presence of cancer. For example, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a protein produced by normal prostate cells and in higher amounts by prostate cancer cells.
2. Genetic material: Tumor markers can also include genetic material such as DNA, RNA, or microRNA that are shed by cancer cells into bodily fluids. For example, circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is genetic material from cancer cells that can be found in the bloodstream.
3. Metabolites: Tumor markers can also include metabolic products produced by cancer cells or by other cells in response to cancer. For example, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an enzyme that is released into the bloodstream when cancer cells break down glucose for energy.

It's important to note that tumor markers are not specific to cancer and can be elevated in non-cancerous conditions as well. Therefore, they should not be used alone to diagnose cancer but rather as a tool in conjunction with other diagnostic tests and clinical evaluations.

"ErbB-2" is also known as "HER2" or "human epidermal growth factor receptor 2." It is a type of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) found on the surface of some cells. ErbB-2 does not bind to any known ligands, but it can form heterodimers with other ErbB family members, such as ErbB-3 and ErbB-4, which do have identified ligands. When a ligand binds to one of these receptors, it causes a conformational change that allows the ErbB-2 receptor to become activated through transphosphorylation. This activation triggers a signaling cascade that regulates cell growth, differentiation, and survival.

Overexpression or amplification of the ERBB2 gene, which encodes the ErbB-2 protein, is observed in approximately 20-30% of breast cancers and is associated with a more aggressive disease phenotype and poorer prognosis. Therefore, ErbB-2 has become an important target for cancer therapy, and several drugs that target this receptor have been developed, including trastuzumab (Herceptin), lapatinib (Tykerb), and pertuzumab (Perjeta).

Progesterone receptors (PRs) are a type of nuclear receptor proteins that are expressed in the nucleus of certain cells and play a crucial role in the regulation of various physiological processes, including the menstrual cycle, embryo implantation, and maintenance of pregnancy. These receptors bind to the steroid hormone progesterone, which is produced primarily in the ovaries during the second half of the menstrual cycle and during pregnancy.

Once progesterone binds to the PRs, it triggers a series of molecular events that lead to changes in gene expression, ultimately resulting in the modulation of various cellular functions. Progesterone receptors exist in two main isoforms, PR-A and PR-B, which differ in their size, structure, and transcriptional activity. Both isoforms are expressed in a variety of tissues, including the female reproductive tract, breast, brain, and bone.

Abnormalities in progesterone receptor expression or function have been implicated in several pathological conditions, such as uterine fibroids, endometriosis, breast cancer, and osteoporosis. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying PR signaling is essential for developing novel therapeutic strategies to treat these disorders.

Prognosis is a medical term that refers to the prediction of the likely outcome or course of a disease, including the chances of recovery or recurrence, based on the patient's symptoms, medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests. It is an important aspect of clinical decision-making and patient communication, as it helps doctors and patients make informed decisions about treatment options, set realistic expectations, and plan for future care.

Prognosis can be expressed in various ways, such as percentages, categories (e.g., good, fair, poor), or survival rates, depending on the nature of the disease and the available evidence. However, it is important to note that prognosis is not an exact science and may vary depending on individual factors, such as age, overall health status, and response to treatment. Therefore, it should be used as a guide rather than a definitive forecast.

Estrogen receptors (ERs) are a type of nuclear receptor protein that are expressed in various tissues and cells throughout the body. They play a critical role in the regulation of gene expression and cellular responses to the hormone estrogen. There are two main subtypes of ERs, ERα and ERβ, which have distinct molecular structures, expression patterns, and functions.

ERs function as transcription factors that bind to specific DNA sequences called estrogen response elements (EREs) in the promoter regions of target genes. When estrogen binds to the ER, it causes a conformational change in the receptor that allows it to recruit co-activator proteins and initiate transcription of the target gene. This process can lead to a variety of cellular responses, including changes in cell growth, differentiation, and metabolism.

Estrogen receptors are involved in a wide range of physiological processes, including the development and maintenance of female reproductive tissues, bone homeostasis, cardiovascular function, and cognitive function. They have also been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as breast cancer, endometrial cancer, and osteoporosis. As a result, ERs are an important target for therapeutic interventions in these diseases.

Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration (EUS-FNA) is a medical procedure that combines the use of endoscopy and ultrasound to guide the fine needle aspiration biopsy of internal organs or lesions. This technique allows for the sampling of tissue from inside the gastrointestinal tract and adjacent organs such as the pancreas, lymph nodes, and liver.

During the procedure, an endoscope equipped with an ultrasound probe is inserted through the patient's mouth and advanced to the area of interest. The ultrasound probe provides real-time images of the internal organs and lesions, allowing the physician to guide the fine needle into the target tissue. Once the needle is in position, suction is applied to collect a sample of cells or fluid for further examination under a microscope.

EUS-FNA is commonly used to diagnose and stage various types of cancer, as well as to evaluate other conditions such as pancreatitis, chronic liver disease, and gastrointestinal submucosal tumors. The procedure is generally safe and well-tolerated, with minimal risks and complications. However, as with any medical procedure, there are potential risks and benefits that should be discussed with a healthcare provider before undergoing EUS-FNA.

Neoplasm invasiveness is a term used in pathology and oncology to describe the aggressive behavior of cancer cells as they invade surrounding tissues and organs. This process involves the loss of cell-to-cell adhesion, increased motility and migration, and the ability of cancer cells to degrade the extracellular matrix (ECM) through the production of enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs).

Invasive neoplasms are cancers that have spread beyond the original site where they first developed and have infiltrated adjacent tissues or structures. This is in contrast to non-invasive or in situ neoplasms, which are confined to the epithelial layer where they originated and have not yet invaded the underlying basement membrane.

The invasiveness of a neoplasm is an important prognostic factor in cancer diagnosis and treatment, as it can indicate the likelihood of metastasis and the potential effectiveness of various therapies. In general, more invasive cancers are associated with worse outcomes and require more aggressive treatment approaches.

Neoplasm staging is a systematic process used in medicine to describe the extent of spread of a cancer, including the size and location of the original (primary) tumor and whether it has metastasized (spread) to other parts of the body. The most widely accepted system for this purpose is the TNM classification system developed by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC).

In this system, T stands for tumor, and it describes the size and extent of the primary tumor. N stands for nodes, and it indicates whether the cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes. M stands for metastasis, and it shows whether the cancer has spread to distant parts of the body.

Each letter is followed by a number that provides more details about the extent of the disease. For example, a T1N0M0 cancer means that the primary tumor is small and has not spread to nearby lymph nodes or distant sites. The higher the numbers, the more advanced the cancer.

Staging helps doctors determine the most appropriate treatment for each patient and estimate the patient's prognosis. It is an essential tool for communication among members of the healthcare team and for comparing outcomes of treatments in clinical trials.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

A syringe is a medical device used to administer or withdraw fluids, typically liquids or gases. It consists of a narrow tube, usually made of plastic or glass, connected to a handle that contains a plunger. The plunger is used to draw fluid into the tube by creating a vacuum, and then to expel the fluid when pressure is applied to the plunger. Syringes come in various sizes and are used for a wide range of medical procedures, including injections, wound care, and specimen collection. They are an essential tool in the medical field and are used daily in hospitals, clinics, and other healthcare settings.

Neoplasm seeding, also known as tumor seeding or iatrogenic implantation, is a rare complication that can occur during surgical procedures. It refers to the accidental spread of cancer cells from the primary tumor site to other locations in the body, usually along the path of a surgical incision or via bodily fluids. This can result in new tumor growths (metastases) at these sites, which may complicate treatment and worsen the patient's prognosis.

Neoplasm seeding is more commonly associated with certain types of surgeries, such as those involving the liver, pancreas, or other organs with highly vascular tumors. It can also occur during biopsy procedures, where a needle is used to remove tissue samples for diagnostic purposes. While neoplasm seeding is a known risk of these procedures, it is relatively uncommon and often outweighed by the benefits of timely and effective treatment.

Needlestick injuries are sharp object injuries typically involving hollow-bore needles, which can result in exposure to bloodborne pathogens. They often occur during the use or disposal of contaminated needles in healthcare settings. These injuries pose a significant risk for transmission of infectious diseases such as HIV, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C. It is essential to follow strict protocols for handling and disposing of needles and other sharp objects to minimize the risk of needlestick injuries.

A sentinel lymph node biopsy is a surgical procedure used in cancer staging to determine if the cancer has spread beyond the primary tumor to the lymphatic system. This procedure involves identifying and removing the sentinel lymph node(s), which are the first few lymph nodes to which cancer cells are most likely to spread from the primary tumor site.

The sentinel lymph node(s) are identified by injecting a tracer substance (usually a radioactive material and/or a blue dye) near the tumor site. The tracer substance is taken up by the lymphatic vessels and transported to the sentinel lymph node(s), allowing the surgeon to locate and remove them.

The removed sentinel lymph node(s) are then examined under a microscope for the presence of cancer cells. If no cancer cells are found, it is unlikely that the cancer has spread to other lymph nodes or distant sites in the body. However, if cancer cells are present, further lymph node dissection and/or additional treatment may be necessary.

Sentinel lymph node biopsy is commonly used in the staging of melanoma, breast cancer, and some types of head and neck cancer.

Equipment design, in the medical context, refers to the process of creating and developing medical equipment and devices, such as surgical instruments, diagnostic machines, or assistive technologies. This process involves several stages, including:

1. Identifying user needs and requirements
2. Concept development and brainstorming
3. Prototyping and testing
4. Design for manufacturing and assembly
5. Safety and regulatory compliance
6. Verification and validation
7. Training and support

The goal of equipment design is to create safe, effective, and efficient medical devices that meet the needs of healthcare providers and patients while complying with relevant regulations and standards. The design process typically involves a multidisciplinary team of engineers, clinicians, designers, and researchers who work together to develop innovative solutions that improve patient care and outcomes.

Bronchoscopy is a medical procedure that involves the examination of the inside of the airways and lungs with a flexible or rigid tube called a bronchoscope. This procedure allows healthcare professionals to directly visualize the airways, take tissue samples for biopsy, and remove foreign objects or secretions. Bronchoscopy can be used to diagnose and manage various respiratory conditions such as lung infections, inflammation, cancer, and bleeding. It is usually performed under local or general anesthesia to minimize discomfort and risks associated with the procedure.

Hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) is a protein found in the core of the hepatitis B virus (HBV). It is present during active replication of the virus and plays a crucial role in the formation of the viral capsid or core. The antibodies produced against HBcAg (anti-HBc) can be detected in the blood, which serves as a marker for current or past HBV infection. It is important to note that HBcAg itself is not detectable in the blood because it is confined within the viral particle. However, during the serological testing of hepatitis B, the detection of anti-HBc IgM indicates a recent acute infection, while the presence of anti-HBc IgG suggests either a past resolved infection or an ongoing chronic infection.

A puncture, in medical terms, refers to a small hole or wound that is caused by a sharp object penetrating the skin or other body tissues. This can result in damage to underlying structures such as blood vessels, nerves, or organs, and may lead to complications such as bleeding, infection, or inflammation.

Punctures can occur accidentally, such as from stepping on a nail or getting pricked by a needle, or they can be inflicted intentionally, such as during medical procedures like injections or blood draws. In some cases, puncture wounds may require medical attention to clean and close the wound, prevent infection, and promote healing.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Endosonography, also known as endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), is a medical procedure that combines endoscopy and ultrasound to obtain detailed images and information about the digestive tract and surrounding organs. An endoscope, which is a flexible tube with a light and camera at its tip, is inserted through the mouth or rectum to reach the area of interest. A high-frequency ultrasound transducer at the tip of the endoscope generates sound waves that bounce off body tissues and create echoes, which are then translated into detailed images by a computer.

Endosonography allows doctors to visualize structures such as the esophageal, stomach, and intestinal walls, lymph nodes, blood vessels, and organs like the pancreas, liver, and gallbladder. It can help diagnose conditions such as tumors, inflammation, and infections, and it can also be used to guide biopsies or fine-needle aspirations of suspicious lesions.

Overall, endosonography is a valuable tool for the diagnosis and management of various gastrointestinal and related disorders.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Pinus ponderosa" is not a medical term. It is the scientific name for a species of pine tree commonly known as the western yellow pine or ponderosa pine. This tree is native to North America and is one of the most widely distributed pine species in the continent.

Here's a brief overview of its botanical characteristics:

Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Pinophyta
Class: Pinopsida
Order: Pinales
Family: Pinaceae
Genus: Pinus
Species: P. ponderosa

The ponderosa pine is a large evergreen tree, reaching heights of 150-250 feet (46-76 meters) tall and trunk diameters up to 8 feet (2.4 meters). Its needle-like leaves are grouped in bundles of three, and its cones are long and slender, typically 3-6 inches (7.6-15.2 cm) in length.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or healthcare topics, please feel free to provide them, and I'd be happy to help.

The prostate is a small gland that is part of the male reproductive system. Its main function is to produce a fluid that, together with sperm cells from the testicles and fluids from other glands, makes up semen. This fluid nourishes and protects the sperm, helping it to survive and facilitating its movement.

The prostate is located below the bladder and in front of the rectum. It surrounds part of the urethra, the tube that carries urine and semen out of the body. This means that prostate problems can affect urination and sexual function. The prostate gland is about the size of a walnut in adult men.

Prostate health is an important aspect of male health, particularly as men age. Common prostate issues include benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), which is an enlarged prostate not caused by cancer, and prostate cancer, which is one of the most common types of cancer in men. Regular check-ups with a healthcare provider can help to detect any potential problems early and improve outcomes.

Prostatic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the prostate gland, which can be benign or malignant. The term "neoplasm" simply means new or abnormal tissue growth. When it comes to the prostate, neoplasms are often referred to as tumors.

Benign prostatic neoplasms, such as prostate adenomas, are non-cancerous overgrowths of prostate tissue. They usually grow slowly and do not spread to other parts of the body. While they can cause uncomfortable symptoms like difficulty urinating, they are generally not life-threatening.

Malignant prostatic neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancerous growths. The most common type of prostate cancer is adenocarcinoma, which arises from the glandular cells in the prostate. Prostate cancer often grows slowly and may not cause any symptoms for many years. However, some types of prostate cancer can be aggressive and spread quickly to other parts of the body, such as the bones or lymph nodes.

It's important to note that while prostate neoplasms can be concerning, early detection and treatment can significantly improve outcomes for many men. Regular check-ups with a healthcare provider are key to monitoring prostate health and catching any potential issues early on.

Interventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique that combines the diagnostic capabilities of MRI with minimally invasive image-guided procedures. It uses a strong magnetic field, radio waves, and computer software to produce detailed images of the body's internal structures and soft tissues.

In interventional MRI, the technology is used in real-time to guide the placement of needles, catheters, or other medical instruments for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. This can include biopsies, tumor ablations, or targeted drug deliveries. The primary advantage of interventional MRI over traditional interventional radiology techniques is its ability to provide high-resolution imaging without the use of radiation, making it a safer option for certain patients. However, it requires specialized equipment and trained personnel to perform these procedures.

Computer-assisted surgery (CAS) refers to the use of computer systems and technologies to assist and enhance surgical procedures. These systems can include a variety of tools such as imaging software, robotic systems, and navigation devices that help surgeons plan, guide, and perform surgeries with greater precision and accuracy.

In CAS, preoperative images such as CT scans or MRI images are used to create a three-dimensional model of the surgical site. This model can be used to plan the surgery, identify potential challenges, and determine the optimal approach. During the surgery, the surgeon can use the computer system to navigate and guide instruments with real-time feedback, allowing for more precise movements and reduced risk of complications.

Robotic systems can also be used in CAS to perform minimally invasive procedures with smaller incisions and faster recovery times. The surgeon controls the robotic arms from a console, allowing for greater range of motion and accuracy than traditional hand-held instruments.

Overall, computer-assisted surgery provides a number of benefits over traditional surgical techniques, including improved precision, reduced risk of complications, and faster recovery times for patients.

Disposable equipment in a medical context refers to items that are designed to be used once and then discarded. These items are often patient-care products that come into contact with patients or bodily fluids, and are meant to help reduce the risk of infection transmission. Examples of disposable medical equipment include gloves, gowns, face masks, syringes, and bandages.

Disposable equipment is intended for single use only and should not be reused or cleaned for reuse. This helps ensure that the equipment remains sterile and free from potential contaminants that could cause harm to patients or healthcare workers. Proper disposal of these items is also important to prevent the spread of infection and maintain a safe and clean environment.

Post-dural puncture headache (PDPH) is a type of headache that can occur following a procedure where the dura mater, the outer layer of the meninges that surrounds the brain and spinal cord, is punctured. This most commonly occurs during lumbar punctures (spinal taps), epidural anesthesia or central line placements.

The headache is typically described as a positional headache, meaning it worsens with sitting upright or standing and improves with lying down. The exact cause of PDPH is not fully understood, but it's thought to be due to the loss of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that cushions the brain and spinal cord. This leads to traction on pain-sensitive structures in the head and neck.

PDPH usually begins within 48 hours of the procedure, but can sometimes occur up to five days later. In addition to positional headache, symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, neck stiffness, photophobia (light sensitivity), tinnitus (ringing in the ears), and hearing loss. The headache usually resolves on its own within a few days or weeks, but in some cases, it can last for months or even become chronic. Treatment options include hydration, caffeine, analgesics, and in some refractory cases, an epidural blood patch.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Cytodiagnosis is the rapid, initial evaluation and diagnosis of a disease based on the examination of individual cells obtained from a body fluid or tissue sample. This technique is often used in cytopathology to investigate abnormalities such as lumps, bumps, or growths that may be caused by cancerous or benign conditions.

The process involves collecting cells through various methods like fine-needle aspiration (FNA), body fluids such as urine, sputum, or washings from the respiratory, gastrointestinal, or genitourinary tracts. The collected sample is then spread onto a microscope slide, stained, and examined under a microscope for abnormalities in cell size, shape, structure, and organization.

Cytodiagnosis can provide crucial information to guide further diagnostic procedures and treatment plans. It is often used as an initial screening tool due to its speed, simplicity, and cost-effectiveness compared to traditional histopathological methods that require tissue biopsy and more extensive processing. However, cytodiagnosis may not always be able to distinguish between benign and malignant conditions definitively; therefore, additional tests or follow-up evaluations might be necessary for a conclusive diagnosis.

A thyroid nodule is a growth or lump that forms within the thyroid gland, a small butterfly-shaped endocrine gland located in the front of your neck. Thyroid nodules can be solid or fluid-filled (cystic) and vary in size. Most thyroid nodules are benign (noncancerous) and do not cause symptoms. However, some thyroid nodules may be cancerous or overproduce hormones, leading to hyperthyroidism. The exact cause of thyroid nodules is not always known, but factors such as iodine deficiency, Hashimoto's disease, and family history can increase the risk of developing them. A healthcare professional typically diagnoses a thyroid nodule through physical examination, imaging tests like ultrasound, or fine-needle aspiration biopsy to determine if further treatment is necessary.

An injection is a medical procedure in which a medication, vaccine, or other substance is introduced into the body using a needle and syringe. The substance can be delivered into various parts of the body, including into a vein (intravenous), muscle (intramuscular), under the skin (subcutaneous), or into the spinal canal (intrathecal or spinal).

Injections are commonly used to administer medications that cannot be taken orally, have poor oral bioavailability, need to reach the site of action quickly, or require direct delivery to a specific organ or tissue. They can also be used for diagnostic purposes, such as drawing blood samples (venipuncture) or injecting contrast agents for imaging studies.

Proper technique and sterile conditions are essential when administering injections to prevent infection, pain, and other complications. The choice of injection site depends on the type and volume of the substance being administered, as well as the patient's age, health status, and personal preferences.

A spinal puncture, also known as a lumbar puncture or a spinal tap, is a medical procedure in which a thin, hollow needle is inserted between two vertebrae in the lower back to extract cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from the subarachnoid space. This procedure is typically performed to diagnose conditions affecting the central nervous system, such as meningitis, encephalitis, or subarachnoid hemorrhage, by analyzing the CSF for cells, chemicals, bacteria, or viruses. Additionally, spinal punctures can be used to administer medications or anesthetics directly into the CSF space, such as in the case of epidural anesthesia during childbirth.

The medical definition of a spinal puncture is: "A diagnostic and therapeutic procedure that involves introducing a thin needle into the subarachnoid space, typically at the lumbar level, to collect cerebrospinal fluid or administer medications."

I apologize for any confusion, but "Pinus" is not a medical term. It is the genus name for a group of plants commonly known as pine trees, which belong to the family Pinaceae in the kingdom Plantae. These evergreen coniferous resinous trees are widely distributed throughout the Northern Hemisphere, with some species also found in the Southern Hemisphere.

If you have any medical terms or concepts that you would like me to define or explain, please feel free to ask!

Lymphatic diseases refer to a group of conditions that affect the lymphatic system, which is an important part of the immune and circulatory systems. The lymphatic system consists of a network of vessels, organs, and tissues that help to transport lymph fluid throughout the body, fight infection, and remove waste products.

Lymphatic diseases can be caused by various factors, including genetics, infections, cancer, and autoimmune disorders. Some common types of lymphatic diseases include:

1. Lymphedema: A condition that causes swelling in the arms or legs due to a blockage or damage in the lymphatic vessels.
2. Lymphoma: A type of cancer that affects the lymphatic system, including Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
3. Infections: Certain bacterial and viral infections can affect the lymphatic system, such as tuberculosis, cat-scratch disease, and HIV/AIDS.
4. Autoimmune disorders: Conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and scleroderma can cause inflammation and damage to the lymphatic system.
5. Congenital abnormalities: Some people are born with abnormalities in their lymphatic system, such as malformations or missing lymph nodes.

Symptoms of lymphatic diseases may vary depending on the specific condition and its severity. Treatment options may include medication, physical therapy, surgery, or radiation therapy. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience symptoms of a lymphatic disease, as early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes.

In medical terms, the skin is the largest organ of the human body. It consists of two main layers: the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (inner layer), as well as accessory structures like hair follicles, sweat glands, and oil glands. The skin plays a crucial role in protecting us from external factors such as bacteria, viruses, and environmental hazards, while also regulating body temperature and enabling the sense of touch.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

"Pinus sylvestris" is the scientific name for a species of tree, not a medical term. It is commonly known as the Scotch Pine or Scots Pine and is native to Eurasia, ranging from Western Europe to Eastern Siberia. The tree can also be found in other parts of the world as an introduced species.

Here's some information about Pinus sylvestris that you might find interesting:
* Pinus sylvestris is a coniferous evergreen tree that typically grows to a height of 30-40 meters (98-131 feet) but can reach up to 60 meters (197 feet) in some cases.
* The bark of the tree is thick, scaly, and orange-reddish in color, while the leaves are needle-shaped, green, and grow in clusters of two.
* Pinus sylvestris produces both male and female cones, with the male cones releasing pollen and the female cones producing seeds.
* The tree is an important source of timber and is commonly used for construction, pulp and paper production, and as a Christmas tree.
* Pinus sylvestris has several medicinal uses, including as a treatment for respiratory conditions such as bronchitis and asthma, as well as for skin conditions like eczema and psoriasis. The needles and bark of the tree contain compounds with anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antioxidant properties that are believed to be responsible for these therapeutic effects.

Fluoroscopy is a type of medical imaging that uses X-rays to obtain real-time moving images of the internal structures of the body. A continuous X-ray beam is passed through the body part being examined, and the resulting fluoroscopic images are transmitted to a monitor, allowing the medical professional to view the structure and movement of the internal organs and bones in real time.

Fluoroscopy is often used to guide minimally invasive procedures such as catheterization, stent placement, or joint injections. It can also be used to diagnose and monitor a variety of medical conditions, including gastrointestinal disorders, musculoskeletal injuries, and cardiovascular diseases.

It is important to note that fluoroscopy involves exposure to ionizing radiation, and the risks associated with this exposure should be carefully weighed against the benefits of the procedure. Medical professionals are trained to use the lowest possible dose of radiation necessary to obtain the desired diagnostic information.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

In medical terms, suction refers to the process of creating and maintaining a partial vacuum in order to remove fluids or gases from a body cavity or wound. This is typically accomplished using specialized medical equipment such as a suction machine, which uses a pump to create the vacuum, and a variety of different suction tips or catheters that can be inserted into the area being treated.

Suction is used in a wide range of medical procedures and treatments, including wound care, surgical procedures, respiratory therapy, and diagnostic tests. It can help to remove excess fluids such as blood or pus from a wound, clear secretions from the airways during mechanical ventilation, or provide a means of visualizing internal structures during endoscopic procedures.

It is important to use proper technique when performing suctioning, as excessive or improperly applied suction can cause tissue damage or bleeding. Medical professionals are trained in the safe and effective use of suction equipment and techniques to minimize risks and ensure optimal patient outcomes.

Acupuncture therapy is a form of traditional Chinese medicine that involves the insertion of thin needles into specific points on the body to stimulate the flow of energy (Qi), balance the vital force (Chi), and promote healing. It is based on the concept of meridians, or pathways, through which this energy flows. Acupuncture therapy is used to treat a variety of conditions, including pain, stress, anxiety, insomnia, digestive disorders, and reproductive health issues. According to Western medicine, acupuncture may work by stimulating the nervous system, increasing blood flow, and releasing natural pain-relieving chemicals called endorphins. It is generally considered safe when performed by a qualified practitioner using sterile needles.

A nerve block is a medical procedure in which an anesthetic or neurolytic agent is injected near a specific nerve or bundle of nerves to block the transmission of pain signals from that area to the brain. This technique can be used for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, such as identifying the source of pain, providing temporary or prolonged relief, or facilitating surgical procedures in the affected region.

The injection typically contains a local anesthetic like lidocaine or bupivacaine, which numbs the nerve, preventing it from transmitting pain signals. In some cases, steroids may also be added to reduce inflammation and provide longer-lasting relief. Depending on the type of nerve block and its intended use, the injection might be administered close to the spine (neuraxial blocks), at peripheral nerves (peripheral nerve blocks), or around the sympathetic nervous system (sympathetic nerve blocks).

While nerve blocks are generally safe, they can have side effects such as infection, bleeding, nerve damage, or in rare cases, systemic toxicity from the anesthetic agent. It is essential to consult with a qualified medical professional before undergoing this procedure to ensure proper evaluation, technique, and post-procedure care.

Lymph nodes are small, bean-shaped organs that are part of the immune system. They are found throughout the body, especially in the neck, armpits, groin, and abdomen. Lymph nodes filter lymph fluid, which carries waste and unwanted substances such as bacteria, viruses, and cancer cells. They contain white blood cells called lymphocytes that help fight infections and diseases by attacking and destroying the harmful substances found in the lymph fluid. When an infection or disease is present, lymph nodes may swell due to the increased number of immune cells and fluid accumulation as they work to fight off the invaders.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Ultrasonography, also known as sonography, is a diagnostic medical procedure that uses high-frequency sound waves (ultrasound) to produce dynamic images of organs, tissues, or blood flow inside the body. These images are captured in real-time and can be used to assess the size, shape, and structure of various internal structures, as well as detect any abnormalities such as tumors, cysts, or inflammation.

During an ultrasonography procedure, a small handheld device called a transducer is placed on the patient's skin, which emits and receives sound waves. The transducer sends high-frequency sound waves into the body, and these waves bounce back off internal structures and are recorded by the transducer. The recorded data is then processed and transformed into visual images that can be interpreted by a medical professional.

Ultrasonography is a non-invasive, painless, and safe procedure that does not use radiation like other imaging techniques such as CT scans or X-rays. It is commonly used to diagnose and monitor conditions in various parts of the body, including the abdomen, pelvis, heart, blood vessels, and musculoskeletal system.

The epidural space is the potential space located outside the dura mater, which is the outermost of the three membranes covering the brain and spinal cord (the meninges). This space runs the entire length of the spinal canal and contains fatty tissue, blood vessels, and nerve roots. It is often used as a route for administering anesthesia during childbirth or surgery, as well as for pain management in certain medical conditions. The injection of medications into this space is called an epidural block.

The rectum is the lower end of the digestive tract, located between the sigmoid colon and the anus. It serves as a storage area for feces before they are eliminated from the body. The rectum is about 12 cm long in adults and is surrounded by layers of muscle that help control defecation. The mucous membrane lining the rectum allows for the detection of stool, which triggers the reflex to have a bowel movement.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

Mediastinal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors located in the mediastinum, which is the central compartment of the thoracic cavity that lies between the lungs and contains various vital structures such as the heart, esophagus, trachea, blood vessels, lymph nodes, and nerves. Mediastinal neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), and they can arise from any of the tissues or organs within the mediastinum.

Benign mediastinal neoplasms may include thymomas, lipomas, neurofibromas, or teratomas, among others. These tumors are typically slow-growing and rarely spread to other parts of the body. However, they can still cause symptoms or complications by compressing adjacent structures within the mediastinum, such as the airways, blood vessels, or nerves.

Malignant mediastinal neoplasms are cancerous tumors that can invade and destroy surrounding tissues and may spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body. Common types of malignant mediastinal neoplasms include thymic carcinomas, lymphomas, germ cell tumors, and neuroendocrine tumors. These tumors often require aggressive treatment, such as surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy, to control their growth and spread.

It is important to note that mediastinal neoplasms can present with various symptoms depending on their location, size, and type. Some patients may be asymptomatic, while others may experience cough, chest pain, difficulty breathing, hoarseness, or swallowing difficulties. A thorough diagnostic workup, including imaging studies and biopsies, is necessary to confirm the diagnosis and determine the best course of treatment for mediastinal neoplasms.

Mediastinal diseases refer to a group of conditions that affect the mediastinum, which is the area in the chest separating the lungs and containing various vital structures such as the heart, esophagus, trachea, thymus gland, lymph nodes, blood vessels, and nerves. These diseases can be benign or malignant (cancerous) and may cause symptoms due to compression or invasion of surrounding tissues. Examples of mediastinal diseases include:

1. Mediastinal tumors: Abnormal growths in the mediastinum, which can be benign or malignant. Common types include thymomas, germ cell tumors, lymphomas, and neurogenic tumors.
2. Mediastinitis: Inflammation of the mediastinal tissues, often caused by infections, trauma, or complications from medical procedures.
3. Enlarged lymph nodes: Abnormal swelling of the lymph nodes in the mediastinum can be a sign of various conditions, including infections, cancer, and autoimmune disorders.
4. Mediastinal cysts: Fluid-filled sacs that develop in the mediastinum, which are usually benign but may cause symptoms due to compression or infection.
5. Aneurysms or dissections of the aorta: Abnormal weakening or tearing of the aortic wall within the mediastinum, which can lead to life-threatening complications if not treated promptly.
6. Esophageal diseases: Conditions affecting the esophagus, such as tumors, strictures, or motility disorders, may present with symptoms related to the mediastinum.
7. Thyroid disorders: Enlargement of the thyroid gland (goiter) can extend into the mediastinum and cause compression symptoms.
8. Hematomas or effusions: Accumulation of blood (hematoma) or fluid (effusion) in the mediastinal space due to trauma, surgery, or other underlying conditions.

Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are crucial for managing mediastinal diseases and improving patient outcomes.

Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) is a glycoprotein enzyme produced by the epithelial cells of the prostate gland. It is primarily involved in liquefying semen after ejaculation, allowing sperm mobility.

In clinical medicine, PSA is used as a tumor marker, mainly for monitoring the treatment and recurrence of prostate cancer. Elevated levels of PSA can indicate inflammation, infection, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), or prostate cancer. However, it's important to note that an elevated PSA level does not necessarily confirm cancer; further diagnostic tests like digital rectal examination, transrectal ultrasound, and prostate biopsy are often required for definitive diagnosis.

Doctors may also use PSA isoforms or derivatives, such as free PSA, total PSA, and PSA density, to help improve the specificity of cancer detection and differentiate between malignant and benign conditions.

A jet injection is a type of medical injection that uses a high-pressure stream of medication to deliver the dose through the skin and into the underlying tissue. This method does not require the use of a hypodermic needle and is also known as a "needle-free" injection. Jet injectors have been used for various purposes, including vaccination, pain management, and treatment of some skin conditions. However, their use has declined in recent years due to concerns about potential safety issues, such as the risk of cross-contamination between patients and the possibility of injury to the tissue.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

Tuberculosis (TB) of the lymph node, also known as scrofula or tuberculous lymphadenitis, is a specific form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. It involves the infection and inflammation of the lymph nodes (lymph glands) by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacterium. The lymph nodes most commonly affected are the cervical (neck) and supraclavicular (above the collarbone) lymph nodes, but other sites can also be involved.

The infection typically spreads to the lymph nodes through the bloodstream or via nearby infected organs, such as the lungs or intestines. The affected lymph nodes may become enlarged, firm, and tender, forming masses called cold abscesses that can suppurate (form pus) and eventually rupture. In some cases, the lymph nodes may calcify, leaving hard, stone-like deposits.

Diagnosis of tuberculous lymphadenitis often involves a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies (such as CT or MRI scans), and microbiological or histopathological examination of tissue samples obtained through fine-needle aspiration biopsy or surgical excision. Treatment typically consists of a standard anti-tuberculosis multi-drug regimen, which may include isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide for at least six months. Surgical intervention might be necessary in cases with complications or treatment failure.

A feasibility study is a preliminary investigation or analysis conducted to determine the viability of a proposed project, program, or product. In the medical field, feasibility studies are often conducted before implementing new treatments, procedures, equipment, or facilities. These studies help to assess the practicality and effectiveness of the proposed intervention, as well as its potential benefits and risks.

Feasibility studies in healthcare typically involve several steps:

1. Problem identification: Clearly define the problem that the proposed project, program, or product aims to address.
2. Objectives setting: Establish specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound (SMART) objectives for the study.
3. Literature review: Conduct a thorough review of existing research and best practices related to the proposed intervention.
4. Methodology development: Design a methodology for data collection and analysis that will help answer the research questions and achieve the study's objectives.
5. Resource assessment: Evaluate the availability and adequacy of resources, including personnel, time, and finances, required to carry out the proposed intervention.
6. Risk assessment: Identify potential risks and challenges associated with the implementation of the proposed intervention and develop strategies to mitigate them.
7. Cost-benefit analysis: Estimate the costs and benefits of the proposed intervention, including direct and indirect costs, as well as short-term and long-term benefits.
8. Stakeholder engagement: Engage relevant stakeholders, such as patients, healthcare providers, administrators, and policymakers, to gather their input and support for the proposed intervention.
9. Decision-making: Based on the findings of the feasibility study, make an informed decision about whether or not to proceed with the proposed project, program, or product.

Feasibility studies are essential in healthcare as they help ensure that resources are allocated efficiently and effectively, and that interventions are evidence-based, safe, and beneficial for patients.

Lung neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the lung tissue. These tumors can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant lung neoplasms are further classified into two main types: small cell lung carcinoma and non-small cell lung carcinoma. Lung neoplasms can cause symptoms such as cough, chest pain, shortness of breath, and weight loss. They are often caused by smoking or exposure to secondhand smoke, but can also occur due to genetic factors, radiation exposure, and other environmental carcinogens. Early detection and treatment of lung neoplasms is crucial for improving outcomes and survival rates.

Adenocarcinoma is a type of cancer that arises from glandular epithelial cells. These cells line the inside of many internal organs, including the breasts, prostate, colon, and lungs. Adenocarcinomas can occur in any of these organs, as well as in other locations where glands are present.

The term "adenocarcinoma" is used to describe a cancer that has features of glandular tissue, such as mucus-secreting cells or cells that produce hormones. These cancers often form glandular structures within the tumor mass and may produce mucus or other substances.

Adenocarcinomas are typically slow-growing and tend to spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system or bloodstream. They can be treated with surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these treatments. The prognosis for adenocarcinoma depends on several factors, including the location and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and age.

Large-core needle biopsy of nonpalpable breast lesions. JAMA 1999; 281:1638-1641 Darling, M. L. R.; Smith, D. N.; Lester, S. C ... A stereotactic biopsy may be used, with x-ray guidance, for performing a fine needle aspiration for cytology and needle core ... Stereotactic biopsy, also known as stereotactic core biopsy, is a biopsy procedure that uses a computer and imaging performed ... "Atypical Ductal Hyperplasia and Ductal Carcinoma in Situ as Revealed by Large-Core Needle Breast Biopsy". American Journal of ...
It also offers 10x the tissue of core needle biopsy. Yu, Ying-Hua; Liang, Chi; Yuan, Xi-Zi (2010). "Diagnostic value of vacuum- ... VAB is characterized by single insertion, acquisition of contiguous and larger tissue samples, and directional sample ... Vacuum-assisted breast biopsy (VAB) is a minimally invasive procedure (biopsy) to help in the diagnosis of breast cancer. ... v t e (All stub articles, Pathology stubs, Breast surgery, Biopsy, Breast cancer). ...
Diagnosis may be difficult in part due to the use of core needle biopsy over open biopsy. Similarities among bland spindle-cell ... lesions lead to a large number of possibilities in diagnosis, including fibroblastic sarcomas, Gardner fibroma, scar tissue or ... A biopsy is always indicated as the definitive method to determine the nature of the tumor. ...
Core needle biopsy: similar to fine needle aspiration, only involving the use of larger needles to excise the tissue. Vacuum ... Fine needle aspiration: biopsy with a fine needle trying to obtain tissue diagnosis by examining the tumour cells. ... similar to core needle aspiration but using vacuum assistance to gather the sample. Vacuum assisted breast biopsy may provide a ... biopsy needles, ablation electrodes, intravascular catheters) to allow targeted and precise treatment of solid tumours (also ...
... core biopsy). Smaller diameter needles collect cells and cell clusters, fine needle aspiration biopsy. Pathologic examination ... In contrast to a biopsy that merely samples a lesion, a larger excisional specimen called a resection may come to a pathologist ... An incisional biopsy or core biopsy samples a portion of the abnormal tissue without attempting to remove the entire lesion or ... the procedure is called a needle aspiration biopsy. Biopsies are most commonly performed for insight into possible cancerous or ...
... for colorectal secondaries Ultrasound scan CT scan Biopsy under ultrasound control Micrograph of a liver core needle biopsy ... Cross section of a human liver, taken at autopsy examination, showing multiple large pale tumor deposits. The tumor is an ... but if tumor emboli are larger, they tend to become lodged in the portal venous branches. Hepatomegaly - with a nodular free ...
A core needle biopsy is the primary tool used to provide a definitive diagnose for a phyllodes tumors. Other biopsy techniques ... A large case series from the M.D. Anderson Cancer Centre reported the incidence of each type of phyllodes tumor as benign (58 ... Diagnosis is made via a core-needle biopsy and treatment is typically surgical resection with wide margins (>1 cm), due to ... Komenaka IK, El-Tamer M, Pile-Spellman E, Hibshoosh H (September 2003). "Core needle biopsy as a diagnostic tool to ...
... including fine-needle, core-needle, stereotactic biopsy and surgical approach. A fine-needle aspiration biopsy is usually ... The needle used in this procedure is slightly larger than the one used in a fine-needle biopsy because the procedure is ... The core-needle biopsy is normally performed under local anesthesia and in a physician's office. ... The biopsy is performed in a similar manner, by using a needle to remove a tissue sample, but locating the specific area of the ...
Types of biopsies include core biopsies, which are obtained through the use of large-bore needles, sometimes under the guidance ... Excisional biopsies of skin lesions and gastrointestinal polyps are very common. The pathologist's interpretation of a biopsy ... Diagnostic specimens are often obtained via bronchoscopic transbronchial biopsy, CT-guided percutaneous biopsy, or video- ... biopsies and surgical resections. A biopsy is a small piece of tissue removed primarily for surgical pathology analysis, most ...
Types of biopsies include core biopsies, which are obtained through the use of large-bore needles, sometimes under the guidance ... Core biopsies, which preserve tissue architecture, should not be confused with fine-needle aspiration specimens, which are ... Excisional biopsies of skin lesions and gastrointestinal polyps are very common. The pathologist's interpretation of a biopsy ... There are two major types of specimens submitted for surgical pathology analysis: biopsies and surgical resections. A biopsy is ...
... the initial biopsy of a suspected DFSP is usually done with a core needle or a surgical incision. Clinical palpation is not ... Larger resection margins are suggested for WLE than MMS. Recurrence rate with WLE is about 8.5% with a lower recurrence rate ... DFSP is a malignant tumor diagnosed with a biopsy, when a portion of the tumor is removed for examination. In order to ensure ... Kransdorf, M. J. (January 1995). "Malignant soft-tissue tumors in a large referral population: distribution of diagnoses by age ...
The different types of breast biopsies include fine-needle aspiration (FNA), vacuum-assisted biopsy, core needle biopsy, and ... method of breast biopsy that became more popular than FNA in the 1990s due to the larger sample of tissue CNB provides. This ... or the need for additional biopsies. Vacuum-assisted breast biopsy (VABB) is a more recent version of core needle biopsy using ... Similarly to core needle biopsy, the needle has a lateral ("from the side") opening and can be rotated, allowing multiple ...
... biopsy, following the diagnosis of ADH on a core (needle) biopsy varies considerably from hospital-to-hospital (range 4-54%). ... In two large studies, the conversion of an ADH on core biopsy to breast cancer on surgical excision, known as "up-grading", is ... In the context of a core (needle) biopsy, ADH is considered an indication for a breast lumpectomy, also known as a surgical ( ... If ADH is found on a core (needle) biopsy (a procedure which generally does not excise a suspicious mammographic abnormality), ...
When there is post-operative swelling after breast surgery or core needle biopsy, a breast ultrasound examination may be ... Large breast hematomas, or those that are not becoming smaller or that are causing discomfort, usually require drainage. Also ... Larger hematomas are more likely to lead to inflammation or fibrosis. Breast hematomas can sometimes lead to skin discoloration ... If a differentiation from breast cancer is necessary, a hematoma biopsy may be indicated. A careful consideration of the case ...
Biopsies are categorised into four different processes: "fine-needle aspirate (FNA), core needle, incisional and, excisional". ... A large portion of patients are at risk of death when diagnosed with malignancy as the disease has usually progressed for a ... In the case of an existing tumour, a biopsy would be then required to make a diagnosis and distinguish whether the tumour is ... In the case of deeply pigmented or larger tumours, a stronger course of this treatment process is required in order to be ...
A core needle biopsy is discouraged except in case a lymph node is not easily accessible. Fine-needle aspiration is only ... large B cell lymphoma T cell/histiocyte-rich large B-cell lymphoma Primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, leg type ( ... Primary cutaneous DLBCL, leg type) EBV positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the elderly Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma ... associated with chronic inflammation Fibrin-associated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma Primary testicular diffuse large B-cell ...
There are three types of biopsies: fine-needle aspiration, core-needle biopsy and surgical biopsy. The method of biopsy depends ... Generally, surgery is only recommended if the fibroadenoma gets larger or causes increased symptoms. They are removed with a ... Core needle biopsy. Hematoxylin & eosin stain. Histopathologic image of breast fibroadenoma showing proliferation of ... Because needle biopsy is often a reliable diagnostic investigation, some doctors may decide not to operate to remove the lesion ...
"An artificial intelligence algorithm for prostate cancer diagnosis in whole slide images of core needle biopsies: a blinded ... "Largest-ever 3D map of the universe released by scientists". Sky News. Retrieved 18 August 2020. "No need to Mind the Gap: ... 2 September The largest known black hole merger, detected in May 2019, is confirmed, which also provides the first clear ... The latter object, WD 1856+534, is the left-over remnant of an earlier much larger Sun-like star. A genetic analysis of more ...
"An artificial intelligence algorithm for prostate cancer diagnosis in whole slide images of core needle biopsies: a blinded ... "Large volcanic eruption caused the largest mass extinction". Retrieved 8 December 2020. Kaiho, Kunio; Aftabuzzaman, ... Scientists release the largest and most detailed 3D maps of the Universe, called "PS1-STRM". The data of the MAST was created ... "Largest-ever 3D map of the universe released by scientists". Sky News. Retrieved 18 August 2020. "No need to Mind the Gap: ...
In the tissue microarray technique, a hollow needle is used to remove tissue cores as small as 0.6 mm in diameter from regions ... of interest in paraffin-embedded tissues such as clinical biopsies or tumor samples. These tissue cores are then inserted in a ... The possibility to assemble a large number of representative cancer samples from a defined patient cohort that also has a ... Cytomics "Yale University Core Tissue MicroArray Facility". Archived from the original on 10 May 2009. Gremel, Gabriela; ...
Tissue sampling procedures include fine needle aspiration (FNA) and core needle biopsy (bigger needle comparing to FNA). Both ... Though it is classified as a benign tumor, pleomorphic adenomas have the capacity to grow to large proportions and may undergo ... Core needle biopsy can also be done in outpatient setting. It is more invasive but is more accurate compared to FNA with ... Ultrasound is also frequently used to guide FNA or core needle biopsy. CT allows direct, bilateral visualization of the ...
The cells can be removed as liquid (to perform a smear to look at the cell morphology) or they can be removed via a core biopsy ... A small number of Hematopoietic stem cells can expand to generate a very large number of daughter Hematopoietic stem cells. ... Stem and progenitor cells can be taken from the pelvis, at the iliac crest, using a needle and syringe. ... In adults, haematopoiesis occurs in the red bone marrow, in the core of most bones. The red bone marrow is derived from the ...
In some case, these may be large groups controlled by an HMO or other large health care organization. In others, they are in ... individual cells obtained from exfoliation or fine-needle aspirates. Cytopathologists are trained to perform fine-needle ... The use of haematoxylin and eosin-stained slides to provide specific diagnoses based on morphology is considered to be the core ... Surgical pathology involves the gross and microscopic examination of surgical specimens, as well as biopsies submitted by non- ...
Study Shows Rotary Powered Bone Marrow Access Device Results in Shorter Procedure Time, Less Residual Pain, Larger Core ... Vidacare's OnControl Bone Marrow System was created to improve the procedures involving bone marrow biopsies and aspirations ... Non-Emergent Situations Vidacare Corporation's EZ-IO Intraosseous Infusion System Hits Growth Milestone with One Million Needle ... These applications included vascular access, bone marrow biopsies and aspirations, regenerative medicine, and more.[citation ...
August 2020). "An artificial intelligence algorithm for prostate cancer diagnosis in whole slide images of core needle biopsies ... A large part of industry focus of implementation of AI in the healthcare sector is in the clinical decision support systems. As ... "Cambridge Core - Journals & Books Online , Cambridge University Press". Cambridge Core. Retrieved 2022-12-17. Forcier MB (16 ... The trend of large health companies merging allows for greater health data accessibility. Greater health data lays the ...
Tests are interpreted by board-certified pathologists who have experience in breast core biopsies, GI biopsies, Pap tests, and ... With this transaction, CellNetix Pathology and Laboratories became one of the largest independent, pathologist-owned groups in ... Services include cytology, histology, fine needle aspiration (FNA) services, flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, ... prostate biopsies.[citation needed] CellNetix is expanding the utilization of molecular biology to identify the root cause of ...
In the case of blind biopsy, this will not be used. A loud click may be heard as the spring-loaded biopsy needle is fired into ... A pathologist or pathology scientist may be present at the biopsy to examine the core(s) of kidney tissue for adequacy under a ... or bleeding from larger blood vessels that lie adjacent the kidney. If blood clots in the bladder, this can obstruct the ... "needle-swing" to confirm appropriate placement of biopsy equipment (blind renal biopsy). Before 1951, the only way of obtaining ...
This might be done with scalpel biopsy, punch biopsy, fine or core needle biopsy. In this procedure, the surgeon cuts all, or a ... One large pooled analysis found a 36% increase in incidence of oral cancer among never-smokers never-drinkers who used ... may also be completed such as fine needle aspiration, biopsy of lymph nodes, and sentinel node biopsy. When the cancer has ... With the first biopsy, the pathologist will provide a tissue diagnosis (e.g. squamous cell carcinoma), and classify the cell ...
... s can be definitively diagnosed through biopsy, including fine-needle aspiration (FNA), core biopsy, or subtotal ... Large cell carcinoma Composed of large, monotonous rounded or overtly polygonal-shaped cells with abundant cytoplasm. Small ... needle or surgical biopsy, direct washing or brushing of tumor tissue, sputum cytopathology, etc. A pathologist then examines ... There are a large number of rare subtypes of anaplastic, undifferentiated carcinoma. Some of the more well known include the ...
This typically involves the insertion, under local anaesthetic and ultrasound or CT guidance, of a core biopsy needle into the ... Founded in 1966, the American Society of Nephrology (ASN) is the world's largest professional society devoted to the study of ... Where definitive diagnosis is required, a biopsy of the kidney (renal biopsy) may be performed. ... and bone biopsy. Bone biopsies are now unusual. India To become a nephrologist in India, one has to complete an MBBS (5 and 1/2 ...
Large-core needle biopsy of nonpalpable breast lesions. JAMA 1999; 281:1638-1641 Darling, M. L. R.; Smith, D. N.; Lester, S. C ... A stereotactic biopsy may be used, with x-ray guidance, for performing a fine needle aspiration for cytology and needle core ... Stereotactic biopsy, also known as stereotactic core biopsy, is a biopsy procedure that uses a computer and imaging performed ... "Atypical Ductal Hyperplasia and Ductal Carcinoma in Situ as Revealed by Large-Core Needle Breast Biopsy". American Journal of ...
Core biopsy: A larger piece of tissue is removed with a thick needle. This may be done with an ultrasound or CT scan to guide ... Fine needle aspiration (FNA): A thin needle removes a piece of tissue for testing. This may be done using an ultrasound or CT ... Excisional biopsy: The whole tumor is removed.. In some cases, lymph nodes or other tissues may also be tested. The biopsy ... Incisional biopsy: A small part of tumor or abnormal tissue is removed for testing. ...
The investigators reviewed evidence on ultrasonographic guidance for breast biopsy and provide suggestions on how to minimize ... From board to bedside: how the application of financial structures to safety and quality can drive accountability in a large ... Missed breast cancers at US-guided core needle biopsy: how to reduce them. Citation Text:. Youk JH, Kim E-K, Kim MJ, et al. ... Missed breast cancers at US-guided core needle biopsy: how to reduce them. Radiographics. 2007;27(1):79-94. ...
11] FNAB and core needle biopsy (CNB) are indicated. Mediastinoscopy provides a large tissue sample. ... Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy (FNAB) may allow an outpatient diagnosis for planning definite treatment or nonoperative ... Mediastinal masses: alternative approaches to CT-guided needle biopsy. Radiology. 1994 May. 191 (2):391-6. [QxMD MEDLINE Link] ... Type 6 - Large medullary cells that are found around and in the Hassall corpuscles, characteristic of the medulla; may contain ...
Core-needle biopsy of the larger lesion revealed NHL deposits in the lung. ... large, paravertebral soft-tissue mass involving the psoas muscle. Biopsy confirmed non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). ... Long-term results of the R-CHOP study in the treatment of elderly patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: a study by the ... Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL): ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Ann Oncol. ...
... a large needle. This is called aspiration. Or solid bone marrow tissue may be removed with a needle. This is called a core ... Lymph node biopsy. A tiny piece of tissue (called a sample) can be taken out of a swollen lymph node or the whole lymph node ... A lymph node biopsy is needed to diagnose Hodgkin lymphoma. * CT scan. This may be done for the neck, abdomen, chest, pelvis, ... An MRI uses large powerful magnets, radio waves, and a computer to make detailed pictures of the inside of the body. This test ...
core needle biopsy, which involves using a larger needle to remove a bigger tissue sample ... fine needle aspiration biopsy, which involves using a fine needle to remove a small tissue sample from a lymph node or tumor ... bone marrow biopsy or aspiration, which involves taking a sample of liquid bone marrow or bone from the pelvic bone to examine ...
Key Words: Thyroid, Cytopathology, Nodule, Papillary cancer, Fine needle, Biopsy Core tip: Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) ... Papillary structures are not as common as it was believed, because intact papillae are often too large to enter the fine needle ... Ultrasonography-guided core needle biopsy for the thyroid nodule: does the procedure hold any benefit for the diagnosis when ... would be the utilization of ultrasonography-guided core needle biopsy[39]. This technique is conclusive for the majority of ...
Large-core needle biopsy of nonpalpable breast lesions. JAMA. 1999 May 05; 281(17):1638-41. PMID: 10235159. ... Atypical ductal hyperplasia and ductal carcinoma in situ as revealed by large-core needle breast biopsy: results of surgical ...
A core needle biopsy uses a larger needle to remove a sample. ... A fine needle aspiration biopsy uses a very thin needle to ... In general, a biopsy may be done using:. *A hollow needle inserted through your skin. Imaging tests, such as ultrasound, may be ... There are many ways to do a biopsy. The type of biopsy you have depends on the type of cancer you have and where the tumor is ... ...
A sex cord stromal tumor of the testis that is composed of an intratubular neoplastic proliferation of large Sertoli cells and ... Testis, right, core needle biopsy: * Intratubular large cell hyalinizing Sertoli cell neoplasia ... Large cell calcifying Sertoli cell tumor: * Associated with Carney complex * Invasive malignancy * Larger and more readily ... Intratubular large cell hyalinizing Sertoli cell neoplasia *Large cell calcifying Sertoli cell neoplasm *Sertoli cell nodule ...
Approximately 90% of focal lesions larger than 2 cm can be demonstrated. CT scan-guided fine-needle aspirations and core-needle ... Intrahepatic pseudoaneurysms usually result from percutaneous biopsy, biliary procedures, or infection. Pseudoaneurysms, ... Although large vessels and bile ducts must be ligated, control of hemorrhage and bile leakage from the cut surface is possible ... A large volume of ascites can form after liver transplantation; they can result from cardiac decompensation with passive ...
It turned turned out 3 of the nodules have grown and the largest was 1.3cm. ... and was just diagnosed with Adenocarcinoma In Situ based on needle biopsy done on a 1.3cm nodule in my right middle robe. ... RIGHT LUNG MASS CORE NEEDLE BIOPSY:. - ADENOCARCINOMA IN SITU. (SEE COMMENT). Comment. Multiple deeper sections into the ... I am 56-year old former smoker (quit 7 years ago) and was just diagnosed with Adenocarcinoma In Situ based on needle biopsy ...
stereotactic needle biopsy, a type of large core needle biopsy, which uses special imaging equipment to pinpoint the tissue to ... large core needle biopsy, which allows larger pieces of tissue to be removed ... A breast biopsy can be done in different ways. These include:. *fine-needle aspiration, which uses a thin needle to withdraw ... If the lump is solid, your doctor probably will recommend a breast biopsy. During a biopsy, a small amount of breast tissue is ...
A larger tissue obtained by core needle biopsy allows more architectural, cytological, and immunohistochemical studies and ... or core needle biopsy (CNB), mediastinoscopy, video-assisted thoracoscopy, and open surgical biopsy. Open surgical biopsy is ... a study of 50 cases by fine needle aspiration cytology and core needle biopsy as a diagnostic procedure," South Asian Journal ... A core needle biopsy was taken from the mediastinal mass and showed epithelial tumor cells arranged in nesting pattern with ...
Core biopsy. Under ultrasound, MRI or mammogram for accurate identification of the affected area of the breast, a needle is ... Surgical biopsy Sometimes the results may be unclear from the biopsy. Surgery such as a surgical biopsy (a larger sample of ... Vacuum-assisted core biopsy (VAB). A needle that has suction equipment attached, is inserted through a small incision in the ... A larger amount of tissue can be removed as the needle is able to be rotated. The placement of the needle is usually guided by ...
In a biopsy, a doctor takes a small amount of tissue from the area of the body where cancer may be present. The tissue is sent ... Other tests can suggest that cancer is in the body, but only a biopsy can ... Your doctor may recommend a biopsy if they think you might have cancer. ... A core needle biopsy uses a larger needle to remove a larger tissue sample than a fine needle biopsy. A vacuum-assisted biopsy ...
Core Needle Breast Biopsies. A hollow core needle is larger than a fine needle as it is used to remove a small amount of tissue ... Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsies. A fine needle aspiration biopsy is carried out as you would imagine with a very fine needle ... Surgical Breast Biopsy. Needle biopsies are typically carried out first, but if the test comes back as positive or inconclusive ... What is Involved in a Breast Biopsy?. So now that you have you breast biopsy booked in your next concern is will it be painful ...
The value of needle-core biopsy specimens for measurement of metal concentrations is questionable. ... The largest range of metal concentrations was detected in wedge biopsy specimens. In tissues with high metal concentrations, ... Procedures-Fresh frozen liver specimens (obtained via simulated needle-core and wedge biopsy), fresh hepatic tissue, and ... copper and iron concentrations were significantly lower in needle-core versus wedge biopsy specimens. A higher zinc ...
Needle core biopsy. For larger tissue samples, your physician may use a needle core biopsy. In this procedure, the doctor ... What is a core biopsy of the kidney?. Needle core biopsy. In this procedure, the doctor removes a larger sample of kidney ... removes a larger sample of kidney tissue using a spring-loaded needle. If youre having a needle core biopsy, youll hear a ... How is a kidney biopsy done for kidney failure?. Kidney biopsy During a kidney biopsy, your doctor uses a needle to remove a ...
Breast Biopsy market growth is primarily driven owing to growing advancements in technologies related to molecular imaging ... The global Breast Biopsy market size reached USD 2.96 Billion in 2022 and is expected to reach USD 5.14 Billion in 2032 ... The core needle biopsy segment accounted for a significantly large revenue share in 2022. Significant effectivity of core ... On the basis of product, the global breast biopsy market is segmented into vacuum assisted biopsy, core needle biopsy, and ...
If a core needle biopsy doesnt give a clear answer, a surgical biopsy is typically the next step. For this type of biopsy, a ... larger piece of breast tissue is removed through a small cut (incision) in the breast. Surgical biopsies are often done under ... The most common breast biopsy technique is a core needle biopsy, which uses a hollow needle to remove the pieces of breast ... A breast biopsy (removing a piece of the abnormal area to check it for cancer cells) is often another option, especially if ...
Stereotaxic large-core needle biopsy of 450 non-palpable breast lesions with surgical correlation in lesions with cancer or ... Two women had no preoperative needle biopsy.. Conclusions: In 22 of 36 benign biopsies, the initial core biopsy categorisation ... Atypical ductal hyperplasia and ductal carcinoma in situ as revealed by large-core needle breast biopsy: results of surgical ... The role and histological classification of needle core biopsy in comparison with fine needle aspiration cytology in the pre- ...
I had a diagnostic mammogram w/tomo, a sonogram, and two biopsies...needle biopsy to lymph node and core biopsy to the largest ... UPDATE: My core biopsy result just popped up in My Chart. So far its IDC, but of course the punch biopsy and MRI could tell a ... results back from the core biopsy yet but the lymph node was positive for cancer so Im pretty sure I know what the core biopsy ... A: Right breast, 10:00, 12 cm from nipple, ultrasound-guided core biopsy:. INVASIVE DUCTAL CARCINOMA, NOTTINGHAM HISTOLOGIC ...
Get exceptional Ultrasound-Guided Biopsy services from highly experienced & loving pet care professionals in Los Angeles, CA. ... A larger needle may be used to retrieve a small piece of solid tissue for a core-biopsy to analyze the architecture of the ... Ultrasound-Guided Biopsy Following assessment of an organ and the surrounding structures, ultrasound imaging is used to guide ... A sample of tissue or fluid may be drawn through the needle as an aspirate to analyze the cells or other contents of the sample ...
See Fine Needle Aspiration biopsy brochure) or core biopsy (a biopsy obtained using a larger needle) is performed. Once the ... FNA Biopsy of Thyroid Nodules. Goiter. Graves Disease. Hashimotos Thyroiditis. Hyperthyroidism (Overactive). Hypothyroidism ( ... Unfortunately, in many cases, surgery is not possible due to the large size, location and invasive behavior of the tumor. It ... FNA Biopsy of Thyroid Nodules in Children & Adolescents. Hyperthyroidism in Children and Adolescents. ...
A core needle biopsy is performed. Which of the following findings represents a lesion that can progress to ductal carcinoma? ( ... Morphology: presence of large tumor cells lying singly or in small lusters within the epidermis and its appendages ... Morphology: central fibrovascular core extends from the wall of a duct. The papillae arborize within the lumen and are lined by ... Biopsy showed an intact squamous epithelium with some cells showing dark, angulated nuclei surrounded by a clear cytoplasm. The ...
Therefore, it is important to complete the diagnosis by taking a large core liver biopsy sample (16G biopsy needle). It is very ... Ultrasound-guided puncture of the gall bladder with a thin needle (22G) is diagnostic. Bile should be examined cytologically ... Occasionally the typical eggs are seen in liver biopsy samples within the bile ductuli. ... and evaluated with repeated ultrasonography and liver biopsies, we have found that this medication had no significant effect on ...
  • However, large tumors, which are the main candidates for preoperative chemotherapy, are potentially more heterogeneous than smaller ones, which questions the reliability of histologic analyses of needle core biopsy (NCB) specimens compared with whole surgical specimens (WSS). (
  • We studied the histologic concordance between NCB specimens and WSS in tumors larger than 2 cm. (
  • In neoadjuvant settings, needle core biopsy (NCB) specimens are, until the final surgery, the only available material for invasive carcinoma diagnosis and determination of prognosis and predictive factors. (
  • Mitochondrial genome deletion aids in the identification of false- and true-negative prostate needle core biopsy specimens. (
  • We report the usefulness of a 3.4-kb mitochondrial genome deletion (3.4 mtdelta) for molecular definition of benign, malignant, and proximal to malignant (PTM) prostate needle biopsy specimens. (
  • In a pilot study of 38 benign, 29 malignant, and 41 PTM biopsy specimens, the difference between benign and malignant core biopsy specimens was well differentiated (P & .0001), with PTM indistinguishable from malignant samples (P = .833). (
  • Aspiration biopsies may be performed with fine needles or with needles of a larger gauge, but the intent is to obtain only cytologic specimens. (
  • However, proteins recovered from OCT-embedded specimens pose a challenge for LC-MS/MS experiments, due to the large amounts of polymers present in OCT. Here we present a simple workflow for whole proteome analysis of OCT-embedded NSCLC tissue samples, which involves a simple trichloroacetic acid precipitation step. (
  • US-guided core-needle biopsy of the breast: How many specimens are necessary? (
  • CONCLUSION: A minimum of four specimens, preferably those that are nonfragmented and that sink, should be obtained with 14-gauge US-guided breast biopsy. (
  • Dive into the research topics of 'US-guided core-needle biopsy of the breast: How many specimens are necessary? (
  • Molecular characterization of breast cancer needle core biopsy specimens by the 21-gene Breast Recurrence Score test. (
  • Do not use heparin when collecting CT- or ultrasound-guided aspirates, core biopsies, FNA specimens or bone marrow. (
  • 2-3 smaller specimens are better than one large sample, but avoid creating 'diced' specimens. (
  • [ 1 ] Stereotactic needle biopsy is an important tool in the diagnosis of breast lesions as part of the triple assessment, which includes clinical, radiologic, and cytohistopathologic studies. (
  • The importance of achieving preoperative diagnosis is further emphasized in the quality objectives of the United Kingdom's national breast-screening program to minimize unnecessary benign surgical biopsy and to ensure that more than 70% of women with cancer have a preoperative diagnosis. (
  • 26. Nova Scotia Breast Screening Program experience: use of needle core biopsy in the diagnosis of screening-detected abnormalities. (
  • 29. Improved fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology results with a near patient diagnosis service for breast lesions. (
  • Fine needle aspiration is not considered to be adequate for diagnosis. (
  • The diagnosis of NHL relies on pathologic confirmation following appropriate tissue biopsy. (
  • To highlight the utility of a tangential approach in the fine-needle aspiration (FNA) technique for obtaining cellular material adequate for a conclusive diagnosis in diffusely enlarged breast without a discrete lump. (
  • Akhtar M: Fine-needle biopsy technique for diagnosis of inflammatory carcinoma of the breast. (
  • Moreover, the diagnosis of breast cancer at early stages is quite affordable to women for best prognosis, thereby triggering the demand for breast biopsy procedures globally. (
  • The core needle biopsy (CNB) segment held the largest revenue share in 2016, and is estimated to maintain its lead status throughout the forecast period, owing to less invasive nature as compared to others and offering definitive diagnosis. (
  • This trend indicates the significant rise in demand for breast biopsy processes for screening and diagnosis at early stages. (
  • However, the accuracy of needle biopsy in the diagnosis of musculoskeletal lesions has not yet been established. (
  • Our purpose was to evaluate fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) versus Tru-Cut biopsy (TCNB) in MBC diagnosis. (
  • In a large population-based study of 5,494 cases of MBC, the mean age of diagnosis was 65.8 years ( 12 ). (
  • If a diagnosis is inconclusive due to the limited size of the tissue sample taken, a larger needle may be used to obtain a slightly larger piece of tissue. (
  • Sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with a needle core biopsy diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ: is it justified? (
  • The neurologist made a diagnosis of left spinal accessory nerve injury, due to the previous lymph node biopsy. (
  • A biopsy involves taking a sample of tissue from the neck mass to make a diagnosis. (
  • Core needle biopsy may also provide a more accurate analysis and diagnosis than fine needle aspiration because tissue is removed, rather than just cells. (
  • A biopsy is mostly used for diagnosis of cancers. (
  • Compared with open surgical biopsy, needle biopsy causes less trauma and disfigurement and is performed as an outpatient procedure with the patient under local anesthetic. (
  • Stereotactic images obtained during a prone-table biopsy procedure. (
  • During this procedure, the doctor uses a hollow needle to take out pieces of breast tissue from the area of concern. (
  • Stereotactic biopsy, also known as stereotactic core biopsy, is a biopsy procedure that uses a computer and imaging performed in at least two planes to localize a target lesion (such as a tumor or microcalcifications in the breast) in three-dimensional space and guide the removal of tissue for examination by a pathologist under a microscope. (
  • If you aren't having the tumor removed, you may have a biopsy , which is a procedure to remove a small amount of tissue for testing. (
  • A: No, the radiology department is not required to report a biopsy procedure code based upon the way the specimen is evaluated by the pathologist. (
  • The selected biopsy code reported by the radiologist should reflect the biopsy technique used for the procedure. (
  • The procedure was performed using a 10 cm 3 syringe with a tangential approach of a 23-gauge needle in all 4 quadrants with extra passes in the antigravity areas. (
  • The ultrasound guided biopsy segment is expected to grow at the highest rate during the forecast period, owing to the usage of sound waves over ionizing radiation for locating abnormality or lump and less invasive procedure. (
  • As much as five percent of prostate biopsies develop infections from the procedure-or about 50,000 Americans every year, and an equal number in Europe. (
  • A needle biopsy is a procedure to obtain a sample of cells from your body for laboratory testing. (
  • The role of surgery in the management of lung cancer is twofold - first to acquire the tissue to be analyzed through a biopsy procedure, and second, to treat the cancer by surgical removal in selected patients. (
  • In this procedure, a hollow needle is inserted between the ribs to drain the fluid. (
  • If open lymph node biopsy is necessary, the procedure, even though considered minor and routine, should be performed by an experienced surgeon who is aware of the potential for injury to surrounding structures, such as the spinal accessory nerve in the case of posterior triangle node biopsy. (
  • A biopsy is a procedure that involves removing cells or tissue from a suspicious area of the breast and then examining them under a microscope. (
  • The needle used in this procedure is very small (smaller than those used to draw blood). (
  • This procedure is similar to fine needle aspiration, but the needle is larger, enabling a larger sample to be obtained from the breast. (
  • Biopsy is a procedure of removal of tissues from the body part to examine whether the tissue or a tumour is cancerous or to determine the cause of an unexplained infection or inflammation. (
  • Based on product type the biopsy device market is categorized into needle-based biopsy instruments, procedure trays, localization wires and other products including brushes, curettes and punches. (
  • Stereotactic breast needle biopsy refers to the sampling of nonpalpable or indistinct breast lesions by using techniques that enable the spatial localization of the lesion within the breast. (
  • Stereotactic core biopsy makes use of the underlying principle of parallax to determine the depth or "Z-dimension" of the target lesion. (
  • A stereotactic biopsy may be used, with x-ray guidance, for performing a fine needle aspiration for cytology and needle core biopsy to evaluate a breast lesion. (
  • Q: The radiology department performed a diagnostic solid lesion biopsy using a smaller gauge needle. (
  • Each specimen was graded for whether it was nonfragmented or fragmented and for whether it sank or floated, and each pass was graded for whether or not the needle passed through the lesion. (
  • 001) showed correlation with being diagnostic, but needle visualization within the lesion did not. (
  • The patients underwent SLN detection for biopsy via the HEMS following the injection of ICG solution around the primary lesion before neck dissection. (
  • However, unlike surgical biopsy, needle biopsies cannot remove the entire lesion and misdiagnosis may occur. (
  • This is often the preferred type of biopsy if breast cancer is suspected, because it removes more breast tissue than a fine needle aspiration (FNA) , but it doesn't require surgery . (
  • However, that type of biopsy is also sometimes performed without any imaging guidance, and typically, stereotactic guidance is used for core biopsies or vacuum-assisted mammotomy. (
  • The type of biopsy you have depends on the type of cancer you have and where the tumor is located. (
  • Note: Because of these potential inaccuracies, a fine needle aspiration that does not find cancer may need to be followed up with another type of biopsy, like a core needle or surgical biopsy. (
  • Depending on the situation, different types of biopsies are performed. (
  • In the past, impalpable breast lesions would have been surgically excised after needle localization, resulting in a vast number of surgeries for nonmalignant mammographic abnormalities. (
  • Definitively diagnosing these lesions with needle biopsy has several advantages. (
  • Because most of the lesions detected during screening are impalpable, subsequent needle biopsy must be image-guided. (
  • Ultrasonography-guided biopsy is usually the most straightforward approach, but lesions better seen on mammography images, particularly microcalcifications, require stereotactic localization. (
  • X-ray-guided stereotactic biopsy is used for impalpable lesions that are not visible on ultrasound. (
  • Large-core needle biopsy of nonpalpable breast lesions. (
  • 1 , 2 ] The incidence increases with age, although girls aged 12 to 16 years tend to have larger lesions than women aged 17 years and older. (
  • Pathological examination of the core needle biopsy specimen may either underestimate or overestimate the aggressiveness of lesions when compared with what is found on excision in about 13% of patients. (
  • The morphologically heterogeneous (intra)ductal lesions of the prostate frequently present a diagnostic challenge, particularly when found within prostate needle biopsies. (
  • 2 Thus, following this approach, prostatic ductal lesions are derived from the large periurethral ducts, and the lesional cells tend to share their tall columnar morphology. (
  • soft tissue, 72) performed on 157 consecutive patients using a Jamshidi needle or an Ostycut needle for bone lesions, or a Tru-cut needle for soft tissue lesions were compared with the final diagnoses made by open biopsy and/or a definitive operation. (
  • Obtaining undamaged cores from very hard bony lesions or sclerotic cyst walls proved difficult. (
  • Conclusion: The results indicate that needle biopsy is safe and accurate for diagnosing musculoskeletal lesions. (
  • Purpose: To determine the upstage rate from nonmalignant papillary breast lesions obtained at imaging-guided core needle biopsy (CNB) and if there are any clinical, imaging, or pathologic features that can be used to predict eventual upstaging to malignancy. (
  • Needle core biopsy (NCB) is frequently used in assessing screen-detected breast lesions. (
  • Larger lesions with a spiculated appearance that have increased in size are more likely to be malignant. (
  • If the calcifications exhibit the classic "teacup" appearance of benign fibrocystic changes, then a biopsy is usually not necessary. (
  • Numerous case reports and small series question the diagnostic value of cervical node biopsy because the pathology report is almost always benign/ reactive. (
  • In the knowledge that the vast majority of cases are benign and self-limiting, there is no indication to proceed to biopsy early in the clinical course. (
  • For women whose abnormal area was considered unlikely to be cancer at initial evaluations, a benign test result means they will likely avoid a surgical biopsy. (
  • Atypical hyperplasia occurs in about 5% of benign breast biopsies. (
  • The needle may be attached to a spring-loaded tool that moves the needle in and out of the tissue quickly, or it may be attached to a suction device that helps pull breast tissue into the needle (known as a vacuum-assisted core biopsy ). (
  • A total of 5,324 patients underwent NCB between 2000 and 2010, including 14G (ultrasound-guided) and 10G vacuum-assisted biopsies (stereo-guided). (
  • The needle-based biopsy instruments segment is further classified into core biopsy devices, aspiration biopsy needles and vacuum-assisted biopsy devices. (
  • Background: We sought to determine whether percutaneous core needle biopsy (CNB) of suspicious axillary lymph nodes in patients with breast cancer offers improved diagnostic accuracy compared with fine-needle aspiration (FNA). (
  • Percutaneous biopsy results were compared with results of sentinel lymph node biopsy or axillary lymph node dissection. (
  • Background: Percutaneous needle biopsy has many advantages over open biopsy in the treatment of neoplasms. (
  • Safety and accuracy of aortic and periaortic CT-guided percutaneous core needle biopsy . (
  • Here we report a proteogenomics approach for core biopsies using tissue-sparing specimen processing and microscaled proteomics. (
  • Is the radiology department required to report the aspiration biopsy code based upon the pathologist's processing of the specimen? (
  • however, there may be circumstances when a core biopsy specimen is sent to pathology for histological evaluation and it may not be possible to process the specimen as intended. (
  • PURPOSE: To analyze the diagnostic yield for each specimen obtained at 14-gauge ultrasonography (US)-guided breast biopsy and compare these findings with mass, procedural, and specimen characteristics that could affect yield. (
  • Specifically, our clinical task is to use mammographic features to predict whether ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) identified at needle core biopsy will be later upstaged or shown to contain invasive breast cancer. (
  • These techniques offer more options and greater flexibility in performing stereotactic biopsy. (
  • Stereotactic core biopsy is extensively used by radiologists specializing in breast imaging to obtain tissue samples containing microcalcifications, which can be an early sign of breast cancer. (
  • Stereotactic core biopsy is necessary for evaluating atypical appearing calcifications found on mammogram of the breast. (
  • Stereotactic biopsy entry in the public domain NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms This article incorporates public domain material from Dictionary of Cancer Terms. (
  • Methods: Records of 400 patients were reviewed to identify patients undergoing ultrasound-guided biopsy followed by surgical axillary evaluation (sentinel lymph node biopsy or axillary lymph node dissection). (
  • The technique needs to be assessed in a larger cohort of women with diffusely enlarged breast to evaluate its diagnostic utility. (
  • Biopsy is one of the most common diagnostic tools in medicine. (
  • Based on end user, the global biopsy device market is categorized into hospitals, academic & research institutes and diagnostic & Imaging Centres. (
  • A fine needle aspiration biopsy uses a very thin needle to remove a sample of cells and/or fluid. (
  • In a fine needle aspiration biopsy, the doctor guides a thin, hollow needle into the area while looking at the lung with either fluoroscopy (similar to an x-ray, except the image is shown on a screen) or CT scans. (
  • Comparison of low-cost phantoms for ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy training. (
  • Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNA) - An FNA is the best initial test to diagnose a neck mass. (
  • This study aims to analyse a large screening dataset to establish positive predictive values (PPVs) for malignancy on excision biopsy, for different classifications of B3 and for B4 NCBs. (
  • Our findings indicate that NCBs reported as B4 should be excised as they have a high likelihood of malignancy on excision biopsy. (
  • An excision biopsy of one of the nodes was advised and performed two weeks later under general anaesthetic. (
  • The commonest cause of injury to the spinal accessory nerve is iatrogenic, occurring as it does during surgical excision biopsy of cervical lymph nodes in the posterior triangle of the neck. (
  • The reason I had the biopsy was to determine how the calcifications looked and get a pathology report. (
  • We used multivariate analysis to examine whether total percent of prostate needle biopsy cores with cancer, percent of cores positive from each side of the prostate and other clinical variables were significant predictors of adverse pathology and time to prostate specific antigen (PSA) recurrence following radical prostatectomy. (
  • Conclusions: Percent of positive cores in the prostate needle biopsy was a significant predictor of adverse pathology and biochemical failure following radical prostatectomy, and the cut points of less than 34%, 34% to 50% and greater than 50% can be used to risk stratify patients preoperatively. (
  • The use of needles usually larger than 14-gauge to remove tissue samples large enough to retain cellular architecture for pathology examination. (
  • The Ibex Second Read (SR) system was deployed in the pathology institute of Maccabi Healthcare Services, one of the largest healthcare providers in Israel and Ibex's strategic partner. (
  • The institute is a centralised pathology unit which deals with 160,000 histology accessions annually, around 700 of which are prostate core needle biopsies (PCNBs). (
  • As a demonstration, we analyze core needle biopsies from ERBB2 positive breast cancers before and 48-72 h after initiating neoadjuvant trastuzumab-based chemotherapy. (
  • 22. [Comparison of breast cancers diagnosed in and outside of the large scale mammography program of the Ariana area of Tunisia]. (
  • PSA (prostate-specific antigen) testing detected many more cancers-which led to many more biopsies and treatments. (
  • The greater risk, however, is that biopsies can cause cancers to spread, usually along the path of the biopsy needle, a phenomenon called " needle track seeding . (
  • In the future, the global biopsy devices market growth is predicted to boost due to increasing research & development, technological advancement, awareness about cancers and rising prevalence for minimally invasive surgeries. (
  • In certain cases, the entire tumor will be removed (an excisional biopsy). (
  • 40. Effect of core-needle biopsy vs fine-needle aspiration on pathologic measurement of tumor size in breast cancer. (
  • 3 ] These tumors can be difficult to distinguish from phyllodes tumors when a tumor sample is obtained using fine needle aspiration or core needle biopsy. (
  • The indications include tumor size at presentation of 2 cm to 5 cm (or larger), tumor enlargement during 2 to 12 months of observation, and multiple breast masses or bilateral breast masses. (
  • At the same time, the active surveillance approach also recommends multiple biopsies to monitor the progression of the tumor. (
  • A 2004 study concluded that manipulation of an intact tumor, either by fine needle biopsy or by large-gauge needle core biopsy, is associated with an increase in metastases , perhaps due in part to the mechanical disruption of the tumor by the needle. (
  • Using an isobaric labeling strategy, we quantified more than 5400 proteins in tumor versus normal OCT-embedded core needle biopsy samples. (
  • Fine needle aspiration can miss a cancerous tumor and take a sample of normal cells instead. (
  • Fine needle aspiration only provides limited information about the tumor. (
  • Fulciniti F, Losito S, Botti G, et al: Metastases to the breast: role of fine-needle cytology samples. (
  • An ultrasound is also used to guide a biopsy during endoscopic procedures. (
  • There are several types of biopsy including bone marrow biopsy, endoscopic biopsy, needle biopsy and skin biopsy. (
  • For a CNB, the doctor uses a hollow needle to take out pieces of breast tissue from a suspicious area the doctor has felt on exam or has seen on an imaging test. (
  • A hollow needle inserted through your skin. (
  • If suspicious areas are seen on the ultrasound, a hollow needle can be passed through the bronchoscope and guided into these areas to obtain a biopsy. (
  • If these lymph nodes are identified, a hollow needle can be passed through the endoscope to obtain samples. (
  • Performed under local anesthesia, the surgeon uses a fine hollow needle that is attached to a syringe to extract fluid from a cyst or cells from an abnormal area of the breast. (
  • How Reliable Are Gene Expression-Based and Immunohistochemical Biomarkers Assessed on a Core-Needle Biopsy? (
  • Results from this research program will improve the understanding of how biopsy collection, processing, and storage procedures may affect all aspects of analytical performance for current and emerging clinical biomarkers, as well as expedite clinical biomarker assay development through the evidence-based standardization of biopsy handling practices. (
  • 5 years) and 10 controls underwent transcutaneous needle core biopsies of the submandibular gland. (
  • NCB for large breast tumors allowed reliable determination of ER/PR expression. (
  • Moreover, large tumors are potentially more heterogeneous, [ 5 ] and concordance between NCB and WSS analysis has been poorly studied in T2 or higher tumors, [ 6-8 ] although these tumors constitute good candidates for breast conservation strategies upon preoperative therapies. (
  • The rarity of these tumors has prevented the performance of large epidemiological studies to identify risk factors. (
  • Phyllodes tumors can be very large, and hence, they can be challenging to treat surgically in women with smaller breasts. (
  • Because lung cancer frequently spreads to lymph nodes in the mediastinum, biopsies of this area are often necessary. (
  • Following an appropriate history and physical examination, and provided there are no alarming features (large node size, hard consistency, associated skin induration) a three to fourweek period of observation is appropriate, followed by a review. (
  • If you already had a biopsy to diagnose your cancer, the same tissue sample may be used to test for PD-L1. (
  • Introduction: Finding a peripheral tissue biopsy site to diagnose early PD would be of value for clinical care, biomarker validation, and as research enrollment criteria. (
  • In the United States, it is estimated that more than a million surgical breast biopsies are performed, and in only 15%-30% are the samples subsequently found to be malignant. (
  • Fine needle aspiration is only recommended for suspicious areas that can be felt (palpable masses). (
  • Surgery may be done to remove a sample of tissue (an incisional biopsy). (
  • Three to six needle insertions are needed to obtain an adequate sample of tissue. (
  • Dodd LG, Layfield LJ: Fine-needle aspiration of inflammatory carcinoma of the breast. (
  • Common needle biopsy procedures include fine-needle aspiration and core needle biopsy. (
  • To allay anxiety, and in some other instances, fine needle aspiration (FNA) of the node can be performed, and where the node(s) are larger, core biopsy could be considered. (
  • Fine needle aspiration is the easiest and fastest method of obtaining a breast biopsy, and is very effective for women who have fluid filled cysts. (
  • Conclusions: Submandibular gland needle biopsies identified phosphorylated alpha-synuclein staining in 74% of early PD subjects. (
  • Indications for core needle biopsy or excision of a suspected fibroadenoma in children and adolescents are not based on evidence. (
  • The tall columnar cells lining the larger ducts resemble the cells lining the smaller ducts and acini in their staining patterns with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP). (
  • 3741 core needle biopsies (CNBs) received from two centers were used for training. (
  • Underutilization of Lynch Syndrome Screening at Two Large Veterans Affairs Medical Centers. (
  • Needle procedures are performed in doctors' offices, clinics, surgical centers and hospitals. (
  • Use Needle biopsy may be used to take tissue or fluid samples from muscles, bones, and other organs, such as the liver or lungs. (
  • It is used to look for a buildup of fluid around the lungs and to guide a biopsy or removal of fluid in the chest cavity. (
  • In needle biopsy, a needle is used to aspirate (draw out) fluid or tissue from a breast lump. (
  • Patients 18 years of age and older with stage II, III or IV diffuse or intravascular large B-cell lymphoma or any stage mediastinal (thymic) large B-cell lymphoma who have not previously been treated with chemotherapy may be eligible for this study. (
  • We post this as it may provide talking points when patients make inquires about how to harvest tissue optimally at biopsies. (
  • According to a report published by Allied Market Research, the global breast biopsy market garnered $977 million in 2016, and is expected to generate $1.42 billion by 2023, registering a CAGR of 5.3% from 2017 to 2023. (
  • Based on the report, the core needle biopsy (CNB) segment held nearly half of the market share in 2016. (
  • The core of tissue may be obtained with a needle of any size, such as a small caliber needle or a larger gauge "cutting" needle. (
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-three consecutive biopsies of breast masses were performed by using a 14-gauge handheld biopsy device. (
  • Collect core biopsies using an 1-14 gauge needle to yield a core biopsy ~0.2 cm in diameter by at least 1 cm in length. (
  • We evaluate whether either percent of cores with cancer or percent of cores positive from the most and least involved side of the prostate needle biopsy was associated with a worse outcome among men treated with radical prostatectomy. (
  • In recent years, greater numbers of prostate biopsy cores are being submitted for histopathological assessment, with a concomitant increase in workload for the pathologist. (
  • The finding that percent of positive cores from the most involved side of the biopsy was a stronger predictor of PSA failure than the total percent of cores involved suggests that multiple positive biopsies from a single side might be a better predictor of a larger total cancer volume and thus correlate with clinical outcome. (
  • If confirmed in larger studies with eventual autopsy confirmation, the potential value of submandibular gland biopsies for early PD may be to aid in clinical trial inclusion/exclusion and eventually serve as a gold standard for biomarker studies short of autopsy confirmation. (
  • This Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) will support extramural research to investigate and mitigate challenges facing clinical assay development due to biopsy biospecimen preanalytical variability. (
  • In this article, Professor Patrick Broe, retired Consultant Surgeon and Clinical Director at the RCSI Hospital Group, highlights the causes of surgical injury to the spinal accessory nerve, which is frequently not recognised, and discusses the risks with performing surgical cervical lymph node biopsy. (
  • Purpose: Recent studies have suggested that the percent of positive cores in the prostate needle biopsy is a significant predictor of outcome among men undergoing radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy for prostate cancer. (
  • The biopsy needle is put into the breast tissue through this cut to remove the tissue sample. (
  • The report analyses the biopsy devices market based on product, application, end user and geography. (
  • Remington's MLL-Style Soft Tissue Biopsy Needle is compatible with the Bard® Magnum® Biopsy Instrument. (
  • For any type of CNB, a thin needle will be used first to put numbing medicine (local anesthesia) into the area to be biopsied. (