Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Breast: In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.Biopsy, Needle: Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast: An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.Breast Diseases: Pathological processes of the BREAST.Breast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.Breast Neoplasms, Male: Any neoplasms of the male breast. These occur infrequently in males in developed countries, the incidence being about 1% of that in females.Mammography: Radiographic examination of the breast.Receptors, Estrogen: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.Fibrocystic Breast Disease: A common and benign breast disease characterized by varying degree of fibrocystic changes in the breast tissue. There are three major patterns of morphological changes, including FIBROSIS, formation of CYSTS, and proliferation of glandular tissue (adenosis). The fibrocystic breast has a dense irregular, lumpy, bumpy consistency.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Receptor, erbB-2: A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.Breast Implants: Implants used to reconstruct and/or cosmetically enhance the female breast. They have an outer shell or envelope of silicone elastomer and are filled with either saline or silicone gel. The outer shell may be either smooth or textured.Receptors, Progesterone: Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.Breast Self-Examination: The inspection of one's breasts, usually for signs of disease, especially neoplastic disease.Tamoxifen: One of the SELECTIVE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATORS with tissue-specific activities. Tamoxifen acts as an anti-estrogen (inhibiting agent) in the mammary tissue, but as an estrogen (stimulating agent) in cholesterol metabolism, bone density, and cell proliferation in the ENDOMETRIUM.Image-Guided Biopsy: Conducting a biopsy procedure with the aid of a MEDICAL IMAGING modality.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating: A noninvasive (noninfiltrating) carcinoma of the breast characterized by a proliferation of malignant epithelial cells confined to the mammary ducts or lobules, without light-microscopy evidence of invasion through the basement membrane into the surrounding stroma.Biopsy, Large-Core Needle: The use of needles usually larger than 14-gauge to remove tissue samples large enough to retain cellular architecture for pathology examination.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Biopsy, Fine-Needle: Using fine needles (finer than 22-gauge) to remove tissue or fluid specimens from the living body for examination in the pathology laboratory and for disease diagnosis.Ultrasonography, Mammary: Use of ultrasound for imaging the breast. The most frequent application is the diagnosis of neoplasms of the female breast.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Mastectomy: Surgical procedure to remove one or both breasts.Carcinoma, Lobular: A infiltrating (invasive) breast cancer, relatively uncommon, accounting for only 5%-10% of breast tumors in most series. It is often an area of ill-defined thickening in the breast, in contrast to the dominant lump characteristic of ductal carcinoma. It is typically composed of small cells in a linear arrangement with a tendency to grow around ducts and lobules. There is likelihood of axillary nodal involvement with metastasis to meningeal and serosal surfaces. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1205)Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy: A diagnostic procedure used to determine whether LYMPHATIC METASTASIS has occurred. The sentinel lymph node is the first lymph node to receive drainage from a neoplasm.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal: Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)Genes, BRCA1: A tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) located on human CHROMOSOME 17 at locus 17q21. Mutations of this gene are associated with the formation of HEREDITARY BREAST AND OVARIAN CANCER SYNDROME. It encodes a large nuclear protein that is a component of DNA repair pathways.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Postmenopause: The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.Mastectomy, Segmental: Removal of only enough breast tissue to ensure that the margins of the resected surgical specimen are free of tumor.Breast Cyst: A fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM and found in the BREAST. It may appear as a single large cyst in one breast, multifocal, or bilateral in FIBROCYSTIC BREAST DISEASE.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Fibroadenoma: An adenoma containing fibrous tissue. It should be differentiated from ADENOFIBROMA which is a tumor composed of connective tissue (fibroma) containing glandular (adeno-) structures. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Axilla: Area of the human body underneath the SHOULDER JOINT, also known as the armpit or underarm.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Mammaplasty: Surgical reconstruction of the breast including both augmentation and reduction.Milk, HumanNipples: The conic organs which usually give outlet to milk from the mammary glands.Chemotherapy, Adjuvant: Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mammary Glands, Human: Glandular tissue in the BREAST of human that is under the influence of hormones such as ESTROGENS; PROGESTINS; and PROLACTIN. In WOMEN, after PARTURITION, the mammary glands secrete milk (MILK, HUMAN) for the nourishment of the young.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Estrogen Receptor alpha: One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has marked affinity for ESTRADIOL. Its expression and function differs from, and in some ways opposes, ESTROGEN RECEPTOR BETA.Carcinoma in Situ: A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.Estrogens: Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.Premenopause: The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.MCF-7 Cells: An estrogen responsive cell line derived from a patient with metastatic human breast ADENOCARCINOMA (at the Michigan Cancer Foundation.)Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Menopause: The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Breast Implantation: Surgical insertion of an inert sac filled with silicone or other material to augment the female form cosmetically.Carcinoma, Ductal: Malignant neoplasms involving the ductal systems of any of a number of organs, such as the MAMMARY GLANDS, the PANCREAS, the PROSTATE, or the LACRIMAL GLAND.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.BRCA2 Protein: A large, nuclear protein, encoded by the BRCA2 gene (GENE, BRCA2). Mutations in this gene predispose humans to breast and ovarian cancer. The BRCA2 protein is an essential component of DNA repair pathways, suppressing the formation of gross chromosomal rearrangements. (from Genes Dev. 2000;14(11):1400-6)Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.BRCA1 Protein: The phosphoprotein encoded by the BRCA1 gene (GENE, BRCA1). In normal cells the BRCA1 protein is localized in the nucleus, whereas in the majority of breast cancer cell lines and in malignant pleural effusions from breast cancer patients, it is localized mainly in the cytoplasm. (Science 1995;270(5237):713,789-91)Genes, BRCA2: A tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) located on human chromosome 13 at locus 13q12.3. Mutations in this gene predispose humans to breast and ovarian cancer. It encodes a large, nuclear protein that is an essential component of DNA repair pathways, suppressing the formation of gross chromosomal rearrangements. (from Genes Dev 2000;14(11):1400-6)Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent: Certain tumors that 1, arise in organs that are normally dependent on specific hormones and 2, are stimulated or caused to regress by manipulation of the endocrine environment.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Genes, erbB-2: The erbB-2 gene is a proto-oncogene that codes for the erbB-2 receptor (RECEPTOR, ERBB-2), a protein with structural features similar to the epidermal growth factor receptor. Its name originates from the viral oncogene homolog (v-erbB) which is a truncated form of the chicken erbB gene found in the avian erythroblastosis virus. Overexpression and amplification of the gene is associated with a significant number of adenocarcinomas. The human c-erbB-2 gene is located at 17q21.2.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms: Breast neoplasms that do not express ESTROGEN RECEPTORS; PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS; and do not overexpress the NEU RECEPTOR/HER-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Inflammatory Breast Neoplasms: Metastatic breast cancer characterized by EDEMA and ERYTHEMA of the affected breast due to LYMPHATIC METASTASIS and eventual obstruction of LYMPHATIC VESSELS by the cancer cells.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Estrogen Antagonists: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the action or biosynthesis of estrogenic compounds.Aromatase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit AROMATASE in order to reduce production of estrogenic steroid hormones.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Vacuum: A space in which the pressure is far below atmospheric pressure so that the remaining gases do not affect processes being carried on in the space.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)False Negative Reactions: Negative test results in subjects who possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of diseased persons as healthy when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Neoadjuvant Therapy: Preliminary cancer therapy (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone/endocrine therapy, immunotherapy, hyperthermia, etc.) that precedes a necessary second modality of treatment.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Ki-67 Antigen: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Mastectomy, Modified Radical: Total mastectomy with axillary node dissection, but with preservation of the pectoral muscles.Cyclophosphamide: Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Adenofibroma: A benign neoplasm composed of glandular and fibrous tissues, with a relatively large proportion of glands. (Stedman, 25th ed)Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators: A structurally diverse group of compounds distinguished from ESTROGENS by their ability to bind and activate ESTROGEN RECEPTORS but act as either an agonist or antagonist depending on the tissue type and hormonal milieu. They are classified as either first generation because they demonstrate estrogen agonist properties in the ENDOMETRIUM or second generation based on their patterns of tissue specificity. (Horm Res 1997;48:155-63)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Neoplasm Grading: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the level of CELL DIFFERENTIATION in neoplasms as increasing ANAPLASIA correlates with the aggressiveness of the neoplasm.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Epirubicin: An anthracycline which is the 4'-epi-isomer of doxorubicin. The compound exerts its antitumor effects by interference with the synthesis and function of DNA.Tissue Array Analysis: The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Lymph Node Excision: Surgical excision of one or more lymph nodes. Its most common use is in cancer surgery. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p966)Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized: Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Radiotherapy, Adjuvant: Radiotherapy given to augment some other form of treatment such as surgery or chemotherapy. Adjuvant radiotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Gene Amplification: A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.Survivors: Persons who have experienced a prolonged survival after serious disease or who continue to live with a usually life-threatening condition as well as family members, significant others, or individuals surviving traumatic life events.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Nitriles: Organic compounds containing the -CN radical. The concept is distinguished from CYANIDES, which denotes inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.RNA, Neoplasm: RNA present in neoplastic tissue.Taxoids: A group of diterpenoid CYCLODECANES named for the taxanes that were discovered in the TAXUS tree. The action on MICROTUBULES has made some of them useful as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.Precancerous Conditions: Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Germ-Line Mutation: Any detectable and heritable alteration in the lineage of germ cells. Mutations in these cells (i.e., "generative" cells ancestral to the gametes) are transmitted to progeny while those in somatic cells are not.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Fluorouracil: A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Mucin-1: Carbohydrate antigen elevated in patients with tumors of the breast, ovary, lung, and prostate as well as other disorders. The mucin is expressed normally by most glandular epithelia but shows particularly increased expression in the breast at lactation and in malignancy. It is thus an established serum marker for breast cancer.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Stereotaxic Techniques: Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.United StatesNeoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Parity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Neoplasms, Second Primary: Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Prostate: A gland in males that surrounds the neck of the URINARY BLADDER and the URETHRA. It secretes a substance that liquefies coagulated semen. It is situated in the pelvic cavity behind the lower part of the PUBIC SYMPHYSIS, above the deep layer of the triangular ligament, and rests upon the RECTUM.Tumor Burden: The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Antigens, CD24: A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Neoplasms, Multiple Primary: Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.SEER Program: A cancer registry mandated under the National Cancer Act of 1971 to operate and maintain a population-based cancer reporting system, reporting periodically estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program is a continuing project of the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health. Among its goals, in addition to assembling and reporting cancer statistics, are the monitoring of annual cancer incident trends and the promoting of studies designed to identify factors amenable to cancer control interventions. (From National Cancer Institute, NIH Publication No. 91-3074, October 1990)Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.TriazolesMastectomy, Radical: Removal of the breast, pectoral muscles, axillary lymph nodes, and associated skin and subcutaneous tissue.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Genetic Testing: Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.Gynecomastia: Enlargement of the BREAST in the males, caused by an excess of ESTROGENS. Physiological gynecomastia is normally observed in NEWBORNS; ADOLESCENT; and AGING males.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Estrogen Replacement Therapy: The use of hormonal agents with estrogen-like activity in postmenopausal or other estrogen-deficient women to alleviate effects of hormone deficiency, such as vasomotor symptoms, DYSPAREUNIA, and progressive development of OSTEOPOROSIS. This may also include the use of progestational agents in combination therapy.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Paraffin Embedding: The infiltrating of tissue specimens with paraffin, as a supporting substance, to prepare for sectioning with a microtome.False Positive Reactions: Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Lymphedema: Edema due to obstruction of lymph vessels or disorders of the lymph nodes.Bronchoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.Frozen Sections: Thinly cut sections of frozen tissue specimens prepared with a cryostat or freezing microtome.Neoplasms, Basal Cell: Neoplasms composed of cells from the deepest layer of the epidermis. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the stratum basale.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Mammary Glands, Animal: MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Rectum: The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.Cytodiagnosis: Diagnosis of the type and, when feasible, the cause of a pathologic process by means of microscopic study of cells in an exudate or other form of body fluid. (Stedman, 26th ed)Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.DNA Methylation: Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Aromatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the desaturation (aromatization) of the ring A of C19 androgens and converts them to C18 estrogens. In this process, the 19-methyl is removed. This enzyme is membrane-bound, located in the endoplasmic reticulum of estrogen-producing cells of ovaries, placenta, testes, adipose, and brain tissues. Aromatase is encoded by the CYP19 gene, and functions in complex with NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE in the cytochrome P-450 system.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.
Benign prostatic hyperplasia, Hyperplasia of the breast(many more)[1][2]. Diagnostic method. Biopsy[3]. ... Hyperplasia of the breast - "Hyperplastic" lesions of the breast include usual ductal hyperplasia, a focal expansion of the ... Koerner, Frederick C. (2009). Diagnostic Problems in Breast Pathology. Elsevier Health Sciences. ISBN 978-1416026129. .. ... In the case of endometrial hyperplasia usually a Pap smear is done, also a biopsy during the pelvic examination, may be done of ...
"Fluid Biopsy in Patients with Metastatic Prostate, Pancreatic and Breast Cancers". Physical Biology. 9 (1): 016003. Bibcode ... "The significance of circulating epithelial cells in Breast Cancer patients by a novel negative selection method". Breast Cancer ... "Breast Cancer Res. 7 (6): R975-979. doi:10.1186/bcr1328. PMC 1410761. PMID 16280045.. ... 2002). "Monitoring Expression of HER-2 on Circulating Epithelial Cells in Patients with advanced Breast Cancer". Int J Oncol. ...
On July 3, 2009, it was announced that Arroyo had undergone a biopsy to examine lumps discovered in her breast and groin. Press ... TJ Burgonio (July 3, 2009). "Biopsy, not breast job for Arroyo - Palace". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original ... Charissa M. Luci (July 3, 2009). "Palace confirms biopsy". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved July 3, 2009. ... editions of the Manila Bulletin and the Philippine Star that Arroyo had undergone surgery for the removal or repair of breast ...
Core needle biopsy. Hematoxylin and eosin stain. Invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast. H&E stain. Histopathology of invasive ... Invasive carcinoma of no special type (NST) is the most common form of invasive breast cancer. It accounts for 55% of breast ... Breast cancer (Infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the breast) assayed with anti HER-2 (ErbB2) antibody. Histopathology of ... Histopathology of invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast. H&E stain. The presence of cancer cell in small blood vessels is ...
... core-needle biopsy and surgical biopsy. The method of biopsy depends on the appearance, size and location of the breast mass.[ ... Fibroadenomas are sometimes called breast mice or a breast mouse owing to their high mobility in the breast.[3] ... Not to be confused with Fibrocystic breast changes.. Fibroadenomas are benign breast tumours characterized by an admixture of ... Since both fibroadenomas, and breast lumps as a sign of breast cancer can appear similar, it is recommended to perform ...
ISBN 978-0-7020-4967-5. Schnitt, Stuart (2013). Biopsy interpretation of the breast. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/ ... test Thyroid blood tests Head CT scan or MRI to look for pituitary tumor Mammography Ultrasound of the breast Breast biopsy ... after breast lumps and breast pain. It is also known to occur in adolescent boys and girls going through puberty. Nipple ... Fibrocystic breast (normal lumpiness in the breast) Use of certain medicines Use of certain herbs, such as anise and fennel ...
a b Aziza Nassar Core Needle Biopsy Versus Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy in Breast-A Historical Perspective and Opportunities ... a b S.-M. Vimpeli, I. Saarenmaa Large-Core Needle Biopsy versus Fine-Needle Aspiration Biopsy in Solid Breast Lesions: ... 30.Diseases of the breast. Needle Localization Breast Biopsy. W: Courtney M. Townsend JR, R. Daniel Beauchamp, B. Mark Evers: ... Fine needle aspiration cytology as an adjunct to core biopsy in the assessment of symptomatic breast carcinoma. Breast 2005;14: ...
Liberman, Laura (May 1, 2000). "Percutaneous imaging-guided core breast biopsy". American Journal of Roentgenology. 174 (5): ... taking special interest in radiation treatment for oral and breast cancers. Pfahler was the 1910-11 president of the American ...
Vasich, Tom (August 31, 2015). "Better than biopsies". UCI News. Retrieved 20 October 2015. Cruz, Sherri (November 29, 2013). " ... "Beckman's portable laser breast scanner detects cancer and guides treatment". The Orange County Register. Retrieved 20 October ... and monitoring of the effects of chemotherapy in breast cancer patients. Faculty at the Beckman Laser Institute have included: ...
... breast cancer that has spread to the lung is called metastatic breast cancer. Metastases often have a characteristic round ... It is based on the results of imaging studies (such as CT scans and PET scans) and biopsy results. Surgical staging is ... Bronchoscopy or CT-guided biopsy is often used to sample the tumor for histopathology.[16] ... This makes it the most common cause of cancer-related death in men and second most common in women after breast cancer.[19] The ...
Thompson, Dennis (2015-03-17). "Breast biopsy results may not be accurate, UW study finds". The Seattle Times. Retrieved 2017- ... "Doctors often disagree on when to call abnormal breast cells cancer". Reuters. 2016-03-21. Retrieved 2017-08-31. Thompson, ... such as biopsies. Medicine, UW. "Joann G. Elmore M.D., M.P.H". www.uwmedicine.org. Retrieved 2017-08-31. "Elmore, Joann". epi. ... Dennis (2017-06-30). "Melanoma biopsy results can differ, worrying patients". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2017-08-31. ...
Steph finds a lump in her breast and fears that her cancer has returned. She goes to the hospital for a biopsy. When Lyn tries ... After finding a lump in her breast, Steph is told that she has cancer. Steph struggles to cope with the news and ends her ... battling breast cancer, pregnancy, being the victim of a stabbing and infidelity. Upon her return, Steph revealed that she had ... One of the biggest storylines for Steph saw her being diagnosed with breast cancer. Bonner wanted to play the scenes with ...
Thus, a biopsy is rarely called for, especially if the lesion is homogeneous and smaller than 3 centimeters. Follow-up images ... Breast adenomas are called fibroadenomas. They are often very small and difficult to detect. Often there are no symptoms. ... Biopsy usually confirms the growth to be an adenoma, but, sometimes, excision at surgery is required, especially when the cells ... Treatments can include a needle biopsy, and/or removal. Adenomas can also appear in the appendix. The condition is extremely ...
"Study: 600,000 Women Get Unneeded Biopsies". Retrieved 2016-06-24. "Study of Breast Biopsies Finds Surgery Used Too Extensively ... "Quality Assurance Initiative at One Institution for Minimally Invasive Breast Biopsy as the Initial Diagnostic Technique". ... Breast J. 22: 303-9. doi:10.1111/tbj.12573. PMID 26854189. Suzuki K, Bower M, Cassaro S, Patel RI, Karpeh MS, Leitman IM (2015 ... Leitman is also known for his research on the outcomes following the surgical treatment of breast cancer, colon cancer, lower ...
A biopsy will establish the diagnosis. The histology of the lesion is the same as for Paget's disease of the breast.[citation ... Paget's disease of the breast is almost always associated with an underlying invasive malignancy, i.e. breast cancer (e.g. ... Marques-Costa, JC; Cuzzi, T; Carneiro, S; Parish, LC; Ramos-e-Silva, M (May-Jun 2012). "Paget's disease of the breast". Skinmed ...
Other cases have made screening for breast cancer difficult and in some cases impossible due to the number and density of the ... The diagnosis of PASH is by biopsy. The important differential diagnosis is angiosarcoma, from which it was first ... In breast pathology, pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia, commonly abbreviated PASH, is an overgrowth of myofibroblastic ... There have been cases of PASH diagnosed where the tumors co-exist with breast cancer. ...
Histopathology of intraductal papilloma of the breast by excisional biopsy. Hematoxylin and eosin stain. Histopathology of ... On the other hand, the peripheral type are often multiple papillomas arising at the peripheral breasts, and are usually found ... Ahmadiyeh N, Stoleru MA, Raza S, Lester SC, Golshan M (August 2009). "Management of intraductal papillomas of the breast: an ... Intraductal papillomas of the breast are benign lesions with an incidence of approximately 2-3% in humans. Two types of ...
Mannu, Gurdeep S.; Navi, Ali; Hussien, Maged (2015). "Sentinel lymph node biopsy before mastectomy and immediate breast ... "Breast Reconstruction: Immediate or Delayed".. *^ "Breast reconstruction using body tissue." Breast cancer , Lets Beat Cancer! ... Breast reconstruction is the rebuilding of a breast, usually in women. It involves using autologous tissue or prosthetic ... "Breast cancer , Breast reconstruction using body tissue , Cancer Research UK". www.cancerresearchuk.org.. ...
Evaluation of a skin biopsy clearly distinguishes FCP from viral warts. FCP is associated with underlying cancer of the breast ... The underlying cancer is most often gastric adenocarcinoma but also with breast cancer, bladder cancer, hepatobiliary cancer, ...
SDC are diagnosed by examination of tissue, e.g. a biopsy. Their histologic appearance is similar to ductal breast carcinoma. ...
"Heat shock proteins and cell proliferation in human breast cancer biopsy samples". Cancer Detection and Prevention. 21 (5): 441 ... High levels of Hsp27 were also found in sera of breast cancer patients; therefore Hsp27 could be a potential diagnostic marker ... breast cancers, and lung cancers, which led to its use as a prognostic marker for these cancers. Notably, phosphorylated Hsp27 ... "Use of serological proteomic methods to find biomarkers associated with breast cancer". Proteomics. 3 (4): 433-9. doi:10.1002/ ...
It is considered a viable breast conservation therapy, as the amount of tissue removed is limited compared to a full-breast ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Zujewski J, Eng-Wong J (2005). "Sentinel lymph node biopsy in the management of ... of breast cancer in the US. Although early treatment of DCIS was similar to invasive breast cancer, involving full mastectomy ... 2011). "Breast cancer statistics". CA Cancer J Clin. 61: 409-418. doi:10.3322/caac.20134. Fisher B, Redmond C, Poisson R; et al ...
AT Still University, School of osteopathic medicine, lecture on breast biopsies. October 2012.. ... mammography and needle biopsy. If the results of a TTS are greater than five, an excisional biopsy is indicated.[citation ... The triple test score (TTS) is a diagnostic tool for examining potentially cancerous breasts. Diagnostic accuracy of the triple ...
Radiation to the breast reduces the ability of that breast to produce milk and increases the risk of mastitis. Also, when ... It is then typically further investigated by medical imaging and confirmed by biopsy. Many cancers can be prevented by not ... for breast cancer, see Carlson RW, Allred DC, Anderson BO, Burstein HJ, Carter WB, Edge SB, et al. (February 2009). "Breast ... Recommends mammography for breast cancer screening every two years from ages 50-74, but does not recommend either breast self- ...
Small amounts of chloroquine are excreted in the breast milk of lactating women. However, because this drug can be safely ... Electron microscopy of cardiac biopsies show pathognomonic cytoplasmic inclusion bodies. Pancytopenia, aplastic anemia, ...
If candidal leukoplakia is suspected, a biopsy may be indicated. Smears and biopsies are usually stained with periodic acid- ... with the breast of the bird of the same name. Many pseudoscientific claims by proponents of alternative medicine surround the ... If a biopsy is taken, the histopathologic appearance can be variable depending upon the clinical type of candidiasis. ... Kumaraswamy, KL; Vidhya, M; Rao, PK; Mukunda, A (Apr-Jun 2012). "Oral biopsy: oral pathologist's perspective". Journal of ...
Therefore, frozen section analysis of all SLNs during breast cancer surgery in patients with ILC should remain the standard of ... 100%) for frozen section analysis for confirming the presence of metastatic disease within SLNs during breast cancer surgery ... of intraoperative frozen section analysis for confirming the presence of metastatic disease within SLNs during breast cancer ... biopsy is the standard of care for the surgical assessment of the axilla during breast cancer surgery. However, the diagnostic ...
... , Axilary Lymph Node Biopsy and Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy For Breast Cancer - Lazoi.com, What is a ... Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy, Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy In Breast Cancer, ... Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy In Breast Cancer. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy In Breast Cancer. Dr. Charles E. Cox, of the Breast ... Sentinel Node Biopsy. Sentinel Node Biopsy. A sentinel node biopsy determines if breast cancer has spread to the lymph nodes. ...
It may not be breast cancer; it could be a Fibrocystic Breast Condition. ... It is not related to breast cancer in any way. Feeling a lump can be very scary and concerning. You need to seek the advice of ... Fibrocystic breast disease. It really isnt a disease at all. ... My aunt went so far as to having one of her lumps biopsied. If ... Symptoms of fibrocystic breasts include pain or discomfort in the breasts. You may or may not have lumps present. The breasts ...
I had read that fibrocystic breasts can be caused by consuming caffeine, but my doctor didn t tell me to stop. Should I? Can ... Fibrocystic Breasts, Caffeine and Estrogen Q: I recently had a stereotactic biopsy done on my right breast after my routine ... with fibrocystic breasts do not have a higher incidence of breast cancer than women without fibrocystic breasts. You should ... Will I be in greater danger from breast cancer now?. I would really appreciate hearing from you. I read your column in First ...
... affecting more than one-half of women at some point in their lives and was once known as fibrocystic breast disease. ... Fibrocystic breast changes cause noncancerous growths in the breasts, most often in premenopausal women. The condition is quite ... Diagnosing Fibrocystic Breast Changes with Biopsies. Some women may require a fine-needle aspiration or breast biopsy to ... Fibrocystic Breast Changes: Prognosis. Having fibrocystic breasts does not raise a womans risk of getting breast cancer later ...
A breast biopsy may be carried out to identify the reason for the lump.. [102] A 1996 critique examining the blind research ... For over 50 percent of all male infants (Mayo Clinic, 2011), male breast enlargement can take place on account of too much in ... Mammogram can be a check that provides an image of the breast tissue on film. The technique is referred to as mammography. ... If important symptomatic breast enlargement proceeds despite other treatment, surgical procedure could be a possibility to ...
Our new Wiki page Sentinel Node Biopsy has updated and replaced this page ... Lymphedema and breast cancer - Updated April 3, 2008 Updated 2011 Lymphedema and total knee replacement - Updated May 10, 2008 ...
Sentinel Node Biopsy, Lymphoscintigraphy, Axillary Node Biopsy, Complications of Lymphedema, Arm and Leg Swelling in A Baby, ... Breast cancer patients should do hand and arm exercises as instructed after mastectomy. Patients who have surgery that affects ... Breast cancer patients who follow instructions about skin care and proper exercise after mastectomy are less likely to ... Outside the tropics, the number one cause of secondary lymphedema is the removal of lymph nodes for cancer biopsies. For these ...
At Mass General, only specially trained breast radiologists do these procedures. ... A breast biopsy is a common procedure that uses a thin needle to remove a small amount of breast tissue to determine whether ... A breast biopsy is a common procedure that uses a thin needle to remove a small amount of breast tissue to determine whether ... Most results of breast biopsies are not cancer. Instead, they can show benign changes in the breast such as fibrous growths, ...
Its used if other breast tests or a physical exam show there might be a chance of breast cancer. Learn more. ... A breast biopsy is a test that can confirm or rule out breast cancer. ... What is a breast biopsy?. A breast biopsy is a procedure that removes a small sample of breast tissue for testing. The tissue ... Why do I need a breast biopsy?. You may need a breast biopsy if:. *You or your health care provider felt a lump in your breast ...
If a mammogram and other tests show breast changes, a doctor may recommend a biopsy to find out if further treatment is needed ... A breast biopsy involves the removal of some breast tissue or cells to find out whether there is any cancer. ... A breast biopsy is the removal of a sample of breast tissue or cells to be tested for breast cancer. The doctor may recommend a ... There are several ways of doing a breast biopsy. Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). If there is a palpable lump, a biopsy ...
A breast biopsy is the removal of breast tissue to examine it for signs of breast cancer or other disorders. ... Biopsy - breast - ultrasound; Ultrasound-guided breast biopsy; Core needle breast biopsy - ultrasound; Breast cancer - breast ... A breast biopsy is the removal of breast tissue to examine it for signs of breast cancer or other disorders. ... There are several types of breast biopsies, including stereotactic, ultrasound-guided, MRI-guided, and excisional breast biopsy ...
Its simply removal of some of the lump youve felt in your breast, or some of the tissue identified as ... A biopsy is acknowledged to be the single most important tool available for diagnosing cancer. ... Which, of course, is more distressing than the biopsy itself. But take heart; 80% of breast biopsies show no cancer, and ... A. Needle biopsies come in two types, basically: a fine needle biopsy, or a core biopsy. They both involve sticking a needle ...
If a core biopsy done on the same location (right breast) but different lesion would I be able to code this as x2. (both at 2: ... Breast biopsy with no breast tissue. By lindacoder in forum Diagnosis Coding ... Please help! If a core biopsy done on the same location (right breast) but different lesion would I be able to code this as x2 ...
Here are some questions to help you talk with your health care providers about breast biopsy. ... There are different types of breast biopsies. Each has pros and cons. ... Questions to Ask Before a Breast Biopsy. There are different types of breast biopsies. Its important to understand the type of ... Will the size of my breast affect the way the biopsy is done? ... Breast Biopsy * Questions to Ask Before a Breast Biopsy * Fine ...
A breast biopsy is a small piece of breast tissue that is removed and checked in a lab. This is done to see if cancer or other ... What is a breast biopsy?. A biopsy is a small piece of tissue that is removed and checked in a lab. For a breast biopsy, breast ... Types of breast biopsies. There are several types of breast biopsy procedures. The type of biopsy that you have will depend on ... Why might I need a breast biopsy?. Breast biopsies may be done:. * To check a lump or mass that can be felt (is palpable) in ...
Your doctor will order a breast biopsy if theyre concerned about the results of an imaging study or if a lump was found during ... Why a breast biopsy is performed. A breast biopsy is typically performed to investigate a lump in the breast. Most breast lumps ... What is a breast biopsy?. A breast biopsy is a simple medical procedure in which a sample of breast tissue is removed and sent ... What the risks of a breast biopsy are. Although a breast biopsy is relatively simple and its risks are low, every surgical ...
Stereotactic breast biopsy. During a stereotactic breast biopsy, your breast will be firmly compressed between two plates. X- ... to determine the exact location for the biopsy. A sample of breast tissue in the area of concern is then removed with a needle. ...
WebMD explains how sentinel node biopsy helps treat breast cancer. ... Breast Cancer and the Sentinel Node Biopsy. In this Article. In this Article In this Article * How is a Sentinel Node Biopsy ... What Are the Advantages of a Sentinel Node Biopsy? In breast cancer, a sentinel node biopsy pinpoints the first few lymph nodes ... What Are the Advantages of a Sentinel Node Biopsy?. Research suggests that the sentinel node biopsy procedure can be useful in ...
A stereotactic breast biopsy uses special mammogram machines to help guide a biopsy that can show whether breast cancer is ... What is a breast biopsy? A breast biopsy involves the removal of some breast tissue or cells to find out whether there is any ... A stereotactic breast biopsy uses mammography imaging to guide the procedure. A stereotactic breast biopsy is a specific kind ... A stereotactic biopsy is a type of biopsy that can help to diagnose cancerous cells in breast tissue. Using a mammography ...
Get detailed information about a core needle biopsy of the breast including what it is, special types, what to expect, and what ... Breast Biopsy. 2017. UpToDate. Accessed at www.uptodate.com/contents/breast-biopsy on September 5, 2017. ... Core Needle Biopsy of the Breast. If other tests show you might have breast cancer, your doctor may refer you for a core needle ... All biopsies can cause bleeding and can lead to swelling. This can make it seem like the breast lump is larger after the biopsy ...
Breast biopsy day has arrived. Stephanie, the ultrasound technician from yesterday was back, and she ... Living with Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Series, Part 4: ... Needles in the breast.. The actual biopsy procedure was ... The Purpose of a Breast Biopsy. From Mayo Clinic: "It may take a few days before your biopsy results are available. After the ... Living with Triple-Negative Breast Cancer. (#4 in a series). Breast biopsy day has arrived. Stephanie, the ultrasound ...
There are several ways to perform a breast biopsy and learn more about possible cancerous changes in the breast. Learn how we ... the next step is likely to be a biopsy. During a breast biopsy, a tissue sample is taken from your breast. Its then examined ... We may recommend a surgical biopsy for two main reasons. The first is if other breast biopsy procedures dont provide a clear ... For most women, this type of breast biopsy can spare them a more uncomfortable and expensive surgical biopsy. It may also ...
I was told that a small metal marker in the shape of the classic pink breast cancer loop symbol would be place... ... What are my rights in refusing the titanium marker from my stereotactic breast biopsy? ... my stereotactic breast biopsy? I was told that a small metal marker in the shape of the classic pink breast cancer loop symbol ... The said since the main thing was to find out if I had cancer they decided to do the biopsy. They asked me to sign a paper ...
How Is Stereotactic Breast Biopsy Performed?. Stereotactic breast biopsies are performed either prone or seated. If prone, a ... New ultrasound technique helps identify patients who need breast biopsies. When Is a Stereotactic Breast Biopsy Performed?. ... The biopsy is done below the table after raising it to gain access to your breast. If the biopsy is performed with you seated, ... What Is Stereotactic Needle Core Breast Biopsy (Vacuum Assisted)?. In many cases it is not possible to tell from a mammogram ...
  • The benign masses may be free-moving within the breast and can appear and disappear suddenly. (facty.com)
  • Since the diagnostic accuracy of intraoperative frozen section analysis for confirming the presence of metastatic disease within SLNs for ILC versus IDC has long been contended, in the current report, we present a comparison of intraoperative frozen section analysis for confirming the presence of metastatic disease within SLNs during breast cancer surgery for ILC and IDC. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The main problem with the fibrocystic breasts is the threat of breast cancer. (edenfantasys.com)
  • While the condition was once known as fibrocystic breast disease, the medical profession has stopped calling it that because the changes seen with fibrocystic breasts are not indicative of disease. (facty.com)
  • Fibrocystic breasts contain certain characteristics when viewed under a microscope. (facty.com)
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