Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Biopsy, Needle: Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.Image-Guided Biopsy: Conducting a biopsy procedure with the aid of a MEDICAL IMAGING modality.Biopsy, Large-Core Needle: The use of needles usually larger than 14-gauge to remove tissue samples large enough to retain cellular architecture for pathology examination.Biopsy, Fine-Needle: Using fine needles (finer than 22-gauge) to remove tissue or fluid specimens from the living body for examination in the pathology laboratory and for disease diagnosis.Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy: A diagnostic procedure used to determine whether LYMPHATIC METASTASIS has occurred. The sentinel lymph node is the first lymph node to receive drainage from a neoplasm.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Vacuum: A space in which the pressure is far below atmospheric pressure so that the remaining gases do not affect processes being carried on in the space.Prostate: A gland in males that surrounds the neck of the URINARY BLADDER and the URETHRA. It secretes a substance that liquefies coagulated semen. It is situated in the pelvic cavity behind the lower part of the PUBIC SYMPHYSIS, above the deep layer of the triangular ligament, and rests upon the RECTUM.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.False Negative Reactions: Negative test results in subjects who possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of diseased persons as healthy when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Bronchoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Rectum: The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Stereotaxic Techniques: Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.Celiac Disease: A malabsorption syndrome that is precipitated by the ingestion of foods containing GLUTEN, such as wheat, rye, and barley. It is characterized by INFLAMMATION of the SMALL INTESTINE, loss of MICROVILLI structure, failed INTESTINAL ABSORPTION, and MALNUTRITION.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Duodenum: The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.Graft Rejection: An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Breast: In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Kidney Transplantation: The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Interventional: Minimally invasive procedures guided with the aid of magnetic resonance imaging to visualize tissue structures.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Ultrasonography, Interventional: The use of ultrasound to guide minimally invasive surgical procedures such as needle ASPIRATION BIOPSY; DRAINAGE; etc. Its widest application is intravascular ultrasound imaging but it is useful also in urology and intra-abdominal conditions.Gastroscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the stomach.Gastritis: Inflammation of the GASTRIC MUCOSA, a lesion observed in a number of unrelated disorders.Bone Marrow Examination: Removal of bone marrow and evaluation of its histologic picture.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Gastric Mucosa: Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.Ultrasonography, Mammary: Use of ultrasound for imaging the breast. The most frequent application is the diagnosis of neoplasms of the female breast.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Helicobacter pylori: A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Precancerous Conditions: Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Neoplasm Seeding: The local implantation of tumor cells by contamination of instruments and surgical equipment during and after surgical resection, resulting in local growth of the cells and tumor formation.Digital Rectal Examination: A physical examination in which the qualified health care worker inserts a lubricated, gloved finger of one hand into the RECTUM and may use the other hand to press on the lower ABDOMEN or pelvic area to palpate for abnormalities in the lower rectum, and nearby organs or tissues. The method is commonly used to check the lower rectum, the PROSTATE gland in men, and the UTERUS and OVARIES in women.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Helicobacter Infections: Infections with organisms of the genus HELICOBACTER, particularly, in humans, HELICOBACTER PYLORI. The clinical manifestations are focused in the stomach, usually the gastric mucosa and antrum, and the upper duodenum. This infection plays a major role in the pathogenesis of type B gastritis and peptic ulcer disease.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Radiography, Interventional: Diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that are invasive or surgical in nature, and require the expertise of a specially trained radiologist. In general, they are more invasive than diagnostic imaging but less invasive than major surgery. They often involve catheterization, fluoroscopy, or computed tomography. Some examples include percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, percutaneous transthoracic biopsy, balloon angioplasty, and arterial embolization.Endoscopy: Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Kidney Diseases: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.Stomach: An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.Needles: Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.Cytodiagnosis: Diagnosis of the type and, when feasible, the cause of a pathologic process by means of microscopic study of cells in an exudate or other form of body fluid. (Stedman, 26th ed)Ultrasound, High-Intensity Focused, Transrectal: Tissue ablation of the PROSTATE performed by ultrasound from a transducer placed in the RECTUM. The procedure is used to treat prostate cancer (PROSTATIC NEOPLASMS) and benign prostatic hypertrophy (PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA).Sural Nerve: A branch of the tibial nerve which supplies sensory innervation to parts of the lower leg and foot.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Mammography: Radiographic examination of the breast.Endoscopy, Digestive System: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the digestive tract.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Carcinoma in Situ: A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the gastrointestinal tract.Metaplasia: A condition in which there is a change of one adult cell type to another similar adult cell type.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Fiber Optic Technology: The technology of transmitting light over long distances through strands of glass or other transparent material.Colitis, Ulcerative: Inflammation of the COLON that is predominantly confined to the MUCOSA. Its major symptoms include DIARRHEA, rectal BLEEDING, the passage of MUCUS, and ABDOMINAL PAIN.Prostatectomy: Complete or partial surgical removal of the prostate. Three primary approaches are commonly employed: suprapubic - removal through an incision above the pubis and through the urinary bladder; retropubic - as for suprapubic but without entering the urinary bladder; and transurethral (TRANSURETHRAL RESECTION OF PROSTATE).Axilla: Area of the human body underneath the SHOULDER JOINT, also known as the armpit or underarm.Frozen Sections: Thinly cut sections of frozen tissue specimens prepared with a cryostat or freezing microtome.Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Glomerulonephritis, IGA: A chronic form of glomerulonephritis characterized by deposits of predominantly IMMUNOGLOBULIN A in the mesangial area (GLOMERULAR MESANGIUM). Deposits of COMPLEMENT C3 and IMMUNOGLOBULIN G are also often found. Clinical features may progress from asymptomatic HEMATURIA to END-STAGE KIDNEY DISEASE.Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Barrett Esophagus: A condition with damage to the lining of the lower ESOPHAGUS resulting from chronic acid reflux (ESOPHAGITIS, REFLUX). Through the process of metaplasia, the squamous cells are replaced by a columnar epithelium with cells resembling those of the INTESTINE or the salmon-pink mucosa of the STOMACH. Barrett's columnar epithelium is a marker for severe reflux and precursor to ADENOCARCINOMA of the esophagus.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Lymphatic Diseases: Diseases of LYMPH; LYMPH NODES; or LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Hematuria: Presence of blood in the urine.

Effect of trauma on plasma glucagon and insulin concentrations in sheep. (1/14535)

Portal plasma glucagon and insulin concentrations were measured before and after acute trauma (liver biosy). The trauma was sufficient to increase glucagon concentrations and depress insulin concentrations. These changes were associated with a marked hyperglycemia. Infusion of glucagon was insufficient to prevent stress inhibition of insulin secretion. The stimulation of glucagon secretion and inhibition of insulin secretion were of about one hour duration. These findings indicate that glucagon and insulin in conjunction with the nervous system may play an important role in the development of stress related hyperglycemia.  (+info)

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis: experimental production in calves with antigens of Micropolyspora faeni. (2/14535)

Pneumonitis was induced in calves by exposure to aerosols of Micropolyspora faeni with or without prior sensitization of the animals by subcutaneous injection of antigen. The pneumonitis primarily involved centrolobular areas and was characterized by alveolar septal thickening and loss of air space by cellular infiltration. Vasculitis and focal haemorrhage occurred in certain individuals and haemoproteinaceous exudate appeared within septa and alveolar lumina. The pneumonitis was compared with human farmer's lung, pneumonitis of housed cattle and other experimental hypersensitivity pneumonitides.  (+info)

Level of retinoblastoma protein expression correlates with p16 (MTS-1/INK4A/CDKN2) status in bladder cancer. (3/14535)

Recent studies have shown that patients whose bladder cancer exhibit overexpression of RB protein as measured by immunohistochemical analysis do equally poorly as those with loss of RB function. We hypothesized that loss of p16 protein function could be related to RB overexpression, since p16 can induce transcriptional downregulation of RB and its loss may lead to aberrant RB regulation. Conversely, loss of RB function has been associated with high p16 protein expression in several other tumor types. In the present study RB negative bladder tumors also exhibited strong nuclear p16 staining while each tumor with strong, homogeneous RB nuclear staining were p16 negative, supporting our hypothesis. To expand on these immunohistochemical studies additional cases were selected in which the status of the p16 encoding gene had been determined at the molecular level. Absent p16 and high RB protein expression was found in the tumors having loss of heterozygosity within 9p21 and a structural change (mutation or deletion) of the remaining p16 encoding gene allele, confirming the staining results. These results strongly support the hypothesis that the RB nuclear overexpression recently associated with poor prognosis in bladder cancer is also associated with loss of p16 function and implies that loss of p16 function could be equally deleterious as RB loss in bladder and likely other cancers.  (+info)

Precancerous lesions in two counties of China with contrasting gastric cancer risk. (4/14535)

BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide and shows remarkable geographical variation even within countries such as China. Linqu County in Shandong Province of northeast China has a GC rate that is 15 times higher than that of Cangshan County in Shandong, even though these counties are within 200 miles of each other. METHOD: In order to evaluate the frequency of precancerous gastric lesions in Linqu and Cangshan Counties we examined 3400 adults in Linqu County and 224 adults in Cangshan County. An endoscopic examination with four biopsies was performed in each individual of the two populations. RESULTS: The prevalence of intestinal metaplasia (IM) and dysplasia (DYS) was 30% and 15.1%, respectively, in Linqu compared to 7.9% and 5.6% in Cangshan (P < 0.01). Within these histological categories, advanced grades were found more often in Linqu than in Cangshan. The prevalences of IM and DYS were more common at each biopsy site in Linqu, where the lesions also tended to affect multiple sites. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study support the concept that IM and DYS are closely correlated with risks of GC and represent late stages in the multistep process of gastric carcinogenesis.  (+info)

Measurement of serum TSH in the investigation of patients presenting with thyroid enlargement. (5/14535)

In otherwise euthyroid patients presenting with thyroid enlargement, reduction in serum thyrotrophin (TSH) concentrations measured in a sensitive assay may be a marker of thyroid autonomy and may therefore indicate a benign underlying pathology. We investigated prospectively a cohort of 467 subjects presenting consecutively to our thyroid clinic with nodular or diffuse enlargement of the thyroid. Subjects were divided into those with normal (0.4-5.5 mU/l), low but detectable (0.1-0.39 mU/l) or undetectable (< 0.1 mU/l) serum TSH concentrations. The final pathological diagnosis was defined by fine-needle aspiration cytology and clinical follow-up of at least 2 years or by fine-needle aspiration cytology and histology following surgical treatment. Serum TSH concentrations below normal were found in 75 patients (16.1%), those with low serum TSH results having higher mean free T4 concentrations, were older and were more likely to be female. In those with undetectable serum TSH, no patient had a diagnosis of thyroid neoplasia and in those with low but detectable TSH, thyroid neoplasms were diagnosed in two patients (3.4%). In those with normal serum TSH, 12.0% had a final diagnosis of thyroid neoplasm (p = 0.013). Overall, thyroid malignancy was found in one patient (1.3%) of those with a serum TSH measurement below the normal range and 6.9% of those with normal serum TSH (p < 0.06). Reduction in serum TSH at presentation may identify a group which requires less intensive investigation and follow-up than those without biochemical evidence of thyroid autonomy.  (+info)

Coeliac disease detected by screening is not silent--simply unrecognized. (6/14535)

Coeliac disease (CD) is associated with a wide spectrum of clinical presentation and may be overlooked as a diagnosis. There is some evidence that untreated CD is associated with a doubling of mortality, largely due to an increase in the incidence of malignancy and small intestinal lymphoma, which is decreased by a strict gluten-free diet. We studied the clinical features of screening-detected coeliacs compared to age- and sex-matched controls as a 3-year follow-up to a population screening survey, and followed-up subjects who had had CD-associated serology 11 years previously to determine whether they have CD or an increased mortality rate compared to the general population. Samples of the general population (MONICA 1991 and 1983) were screened for CD-associated serology and followed-up after 3 and 11 years, respectively, and assessed by a clinical questionnaire, screening blood tests and jejunal biopsy. Mortality rates for 'all deaths' and 'cancer deaths' were compared in subjects with positive serology in 1983 with reference to the general population. Thirteen coeliacs were diagnosed by villous atrophy following screening, compared to two patients with clinically detected CD, giving a prevalence of 1:122. Clinical features or laboratory parameters were not indicative of CD compared to controls. Subjects with positive serology followed up after 11 years did not have an excess mortality for either cancer deaths or all causes of death. Screening-detected CD is rarely silent and may be associated with significant symptoms and morbidity. In this limited study with small numbers, there does not appear to be an increased mortality from screening-detected CD, although the follow-up may be too short to detect any difference.  (+info)

Mammography and 99mTc-MIBI scintimammography in suspected breast cancer. (7/14535)

The aim of this work has been to evaluate whether a diagnostic protocol based on the joint use of mammography and 99mTc-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile (MIBI) scintimammography is capable of reducing the number of biopsies required in patients with suspected breast cancer. METHODS: We performed prone scintimammography in 90 patients with suspected breast cancer, involving 97 lesions. In all patients, the diagnosis was established by way of biopsy. On mammography, we evaluated the degree of suspicion of malignancy and the size of the lesion (smaller or larger than 1 cm in diameter). RESULTS: The results of only 41 of the biopsies indicated malignancy. On mammography, 20 lesions (of which 1 was breast cancer) were considered to be of low suspicion of malignancy, 31 (of which 4 were breast cancer) as indeterminate and 46 (of which 36 were breast cancer) as high. Fourteen lesions (2 low probability, 2 indeterminate and 10 high) were smaller than 1 cm, whereas 83 (18 low probability, 29 indeterminate and 36 high) were larger. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of scintimammography were 85%, 79%, 74% and 88%, respectively. Scintimammography was positive in all cases of breast cancer that initially had a low or indeterminate suspicion of malignancy according to mammography, as well as in 30 cases of breast cancer that initially were highly suspicious. Six false-negative scintimammography studies were obtained in lesions with a high suspicion of malignancy. CONCLUSION: We propose a diagnostic protocol with a biopsy performed on lesions that have a high suspicion of malignancy as well as those with low or indeterminate suspicion that are smaller than 1 cm or with positive scintimammography results. This would have reduced the total number of biopsies performed by 34%. More importantly, there would have been a 65% reduction in number of biopsies performed in the low and indeterminate mammographic suspicion groups. All 41 cases of breast cancer would have been detected.  (+info)

Oesophageal epithelial innervation in health and reflux oesophagitis. (8/14535)

BACKGROUND: The response of the oesophagus to refluxed gastric contents is likely to depend on intact neural mechanisms in the oesophageal mucosa. The epithelial innervation has not been systematically evaluated in health or reflux disease. AIMS: To study oesophageal epithelial innervation in controls, and also inflamed and non-inflamed mucosa in patients with reflux oesophagitis and healed oesophagitis. PATIENTS: Ten controls, nine patients with reflux oesophagitis, and five patients with healed oesophagitis. METHODS: Oesophageal epithelial biopsy specimens were obtained at endoscopy. The distribution of the neuronal marker protein gene product 9.5 (PGP), and the neuropeptides calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP), neuropeptide Y (NPY), substance P (SP), and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) were investigated by immunohistochemistry. Density of innervation was assessed by the proportion of papillae in each oesophageal epithelial biopsy specimen containing immunoreactive fibres (found in the subepithelium and epithelial papillae, but not penetrating the epithelium). RESULTS: The proportion of papillae positive for PGP immunoreactive nerve fibres was significantly increased in inflamed tissue when compared with controls, and non-inflamed and healed tissue. There was also a significant increase in VIP immunoreactive fibres within epithelial papillae. Other neuropeptides showed no proportional changes in inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: Epithelial biopsy specimens can be used to assess innervation in the oesophagus. The innervation of the oesophageal mucosa is not altered in non-inflamed tissue of patients with oesophagitis but alters in response to inflammation, where there is a selective increase (about three- to fourfold) in VIP containing nerves.  (+info)

  • Whether therapeutic removal of a cancerous lesion at initial biopsy is a viable option is certainly an issue people have thought about, but we haven t been doing it (one-stop removal) long enough to know, she said. (
  • There is concern because the biopsy can cut across a lesion s margins, but that occurs in 30% of surgeries as well. (
  • Providence Tarzana performs MRI-assisted breast biopsy procedures on women with abnormal breast MRI findings, allowing physicians to biopsy the lesion in the MRI suite. (
  • DEAR DR. ROACH: My husband acquired a drug-resistant E. coli infection from a prostate biopsy. (
  • I did some reading right after he got sick and learned about the increasing number of men becoming ill after prostate biopsies with drug-resistant E. coli - nearly 4 percent. (
  • On the plus side, the prostate biopsy was negative. (
  • ANSWER: A prostate biopsy is most commonly done to confirm suspected prostate cancer after an abnormal PSA test or physical exam. (
  • The increasing use of MRI scanning to guide prostate biopsy may decrease the need for so many biopsies, and hopefully decrease infection rates. (
  • Obese and overweight men who are diagnosed with prostate cancer by biopsy are more likely than healthy weight men to actually have a more aggressive case of the disease than the biopsy results would indicate, according to a study led by a Duke University Medical Center researcher. (
  • The finding suggests that misleading biopsy results may be causing many obese and overweight men to receive inadequate or inappropriate treatment that is not aggressive enough to combat the true nature of their disease, said study leader Stephen Freedland, M.D., an assistant professor in the Division of Urology and the Duke Prostate Center. (
  • We already know that it's more difficult to diagnose prostate cancer in obese men because they have lower levels of prostate-specific antigen, or PSA, a common blood marker for prostate cancer, and because their larger-sized prostates make it more likely for a biopsy to miss the cancer," he said. (
  • Gaining a better understanding of links between biopsies and prostate cancer also may help physicians improve patient treatment, said Freedland, who also holds an appointment in surgery at the Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center. (
  • If we can determine through additional biopsies that an obese or overweight man has more aggressive prostate cancer, we can discuss whether the cancer should be treated with more than one approach, such as combining hormonal therapy with radiation, to reduce the risk of the cancer spreading and improve the chances of cure," Freedland said. (
  • To perform a biopsy, a physician inserts a needle into the prostate and removes tissue for analysis. (
  • They compared the aggressiveness of each patient's cancer as suggested by examination of samples obtained during diagnostic biopsy with the actual aggressiveness of disease found by microscopic examination of the diseased prostate tissue removed at the time of surgery. (
  • Obese men were 89 percent more likely than healthy weight men to have a more aggressive form of prostate cancer than was indicated by biopsy, Freedland said. (
  • To help reduce the number of obese men whose prostate cancers are incorrectly classified, doctors should conduct biopsies on more areas of the prostate gland, Freedland said. (
  • 1) In this case, the patient's punch biopsy results came back positive for clonal mast cell infiltration of the papillary dermis (FIGURES 2A AND 2B), and her physician elicited a slightly positive Darier sign during a follow-up visit. (
  • The firm scalpel handle provides a broad base with tactile feedback in determining how much pressure needs to be applied with the punch biopsy to uniformly excise the epithelial tract, while simultaneously stabilizing the earlobe soft tissue. (
  • In a cadaveric study evaluating ST in human face, full-thickness 4 mm punch biopsy samples were obtained from 39 surgically relevant anatomic locations of the face from 10 human cadaveric heads. (
  • It is a pre-sterilized prepacked single-use skin punch biopsy gadget, which has a circular sharp edge acting as a knife. (
  • To manufacture RCH-01, dermal sheath cup cells are isolated from a small punch biopsy taken from the back of a subject's scalp. (
  • Biopsies help doctors to diagnose many diseases, especially cancer. (
  • We must also keep in mind that even if a well-done biopsy shows low-grade cancer in an obese patient, there is still a reasonable likelihood that the patient may have high-grade disease. (
  • Doctors typically conduct a biopsy when cancer is indicated by screening tests, such as a blood test for PSA, or by an irregular finding on a digital rectal exam. (
  • A benign biopsy was chosen as fibroglandular (fib) tissue whereas biopsies with cancer were approximated as consisting of fib tissue and a cluster of epithelial cells. (
  • Our radiologists work with your primary care provider and surgeon to insure the most accurate and least invasive method of biopsy is planned. (
  • In an endoscopic biopsy, a small pinching instrument at the end of the endoscope is used to snip off a small tissue sample. (
  • Some endoscopies that might be done to take a biopsy include a cystoscopy , a bronchoscopy and a laryngoscopy . (
  • This type of biopsy is performed through a fiberoptic bronchoscope (a long, thin tube that has a close-focusing telescope on the end for viewing) through the main airways of the lungs (bronchoscopy). (
  • If the suspicious growth cannot be reached by a bronchoscopy, your physician may recommend a needle biopsy through the chest wall. (
  • Because there are several different types of biopsy procedures, your preparation will depend on your specific biopsy. (
  • Q. Are there different types of biopsy, or is it one size fits all? (
  • And there are other types of biopsy between those two extremes. (
  • They may choose from several types of biopsy, depending on the most suitable for the individual. (
  • While much touted, liquid biopsies have yet to really prove their mettle when it comes to improving patient care. (
  • The authors conclude that liquid biopsy-guided treatment is "feasible, rapid, and useful. (
  • Each patient had the liquid biopsy test performed on a blood sample. (
  • Among the most important benefits of the liquid biopsy was the quick turnaround time. (
  • If I see that a patient has a liquid biopsy result that is positive … I'm confident that I can match the patient to a therapy and treat that patient immediately. (
  • But if a liquid biopsy turns up a targetable mutation, doctors can act on it right away. (
  • In the study, just over 45% of the patients were found by liquid biopsy to have a mutation that could be targeted by an approved or investigational drug. (
  • GATC Biotech has expanded its liquid biopsy service with GATCLIQUID ONCOTARGET. (
  • Today, Proxy Life Science Holdings launched a patent licensing program for its Liquid Biopsy technology which promises not only to detect early disease but also to pinpoint affected organs. (
  • Proxy's exosome RNA technology has the potential to identify diseases early, determine molecular susceptibility to treatment, track disease progression and determine the affected organs, all via a simple blood, urine or other "liquid biopsy" method. (
  • Proxy's Liquid Biopsy method will prove to be an essential healthcare tool" stated Dr. Pietrzkowski, President and Co-founder. (
  • The Proxysome™ platform is foundational to the field of Liquid Biopsies and promises to become a pillar of precision medicine. (
  • Could 'Liquid Biopsy' Detect Vascular Complications in Diabetes? (
  • This "liquid biopsy" has the potential to be a noninvasive, clinically convenient test that can analyze DNA by using highly sensitive blood biomarkers and be predictive of vascular complications, said study coauthor Chuan He, PhD, John T. Wilson Distinguished Service Professor at the University of Chicago, Illinois. (
  • Bei der Liquid Biopsy werden zellfreie Nukleins uren, meist zirkulierende freie Desoxyribonukleins uren ( circulating free DNA, cfDNA) in K rperfl ssigkeiten wie Blut, analysiert. (
  • Die Liquid Biopsy erlaubt gegen ber der Gewebebiopsie eine patientenschonende Materialgewinnung, hat aber bestimmte Limitationen. (
  • Die Liquid Biopsy kann bei der Therapie des nichtkleinzelligen Karzinoms der Lunge (NSCLC) eingesetzt werden, wenn kein Gewebe zur Biopsie zur Verf gung steht. (
  • Liquid Biopsy und Gewebeanalysen erg nzen sich in der therapierelevanten tumorgenetischen Untersuchung und stehen sich somit nicht als Alternativen gegen ber. (
  • Um weitere Indikationen f r Liquid Biopsies in der Tumordiagnostik zu bestimmen, sind Vergleichsstudien notwendig. (
  • Die Liquid Biopsy bezeichnet eine Diagnostik, bei der zellfreie Nukleins uren aus K rperfl ssigkeiten, in der Regel zirkulierende freie Desoxyribonukleins uren ( cirulating free DNA, cfDNA) aus dem Blut, angereichert und anschlie end untersucht werden. (
  • Als Folge entwickelten sich die Liquid Biopsy und die Untersuchung von cfDNA zu einem Standard in der Pr nataldiagnostik ( 3 ). (
  • Damit wurde die M glichkeit der Liquid Biopsy f r die tumorgenetische Diagnostik (Mutationsanalyse) erkannt und die Methode konsequent weiterentwickelt, um Tumorleiden abzukl ren ( 3 ). (
  • Mit einer Liquid Biopsy werden vor allem zellfreie Nukleins uren im peripheren Blut untersucht. (
  • Although liquid biopsy offers huge potential, wide adoption has been hindered by lack of clinical validation, sensitivity, specificity, standardization and scalability. (
  • At QIAGEN, our mission is to speed up the development and application of liquid biopsy so you have the best tools and services to continue improving patients' lives. (
  • About five to 10 milliliters of blood is all that is needed for a liquid biopsy. (
  • To drive the adoption of liquid biopsy in clinical and research laboratories, we have applied years of experience in the field to develop a dedicated Sample to Insight workflow. (
  • From sample collection to data interpretation - we provide the most robust technologies and resources to help you discover, detect and validate biomarkers for all three emerging liquid biopsy approaches: circulating cell-free nucleic acids, CTCs and exosomes. (
  • Hear expert answers to top FAQs on liquid biopsy challenges & clinical application. (
  • What is a liquid biopsy? (
  • What are the advantage and challenges of liquid biopsy? (
  • Liquid biopsies can be useful when a tissue sample is limited or hard to reach and if regular monitoring is needed. (
  • Jan 7 (Reuters) - Genetic testing company Sequenom Inc said on Thursday it will cut 110 jobs, or about 20 percent of its workforce, and will seek partners to commercialize its liquid biopsy test. (
  • Sequenom said a commercial partner for the oncology liquid biopsy would help cut research spending in the rapidly developing area. (
  • Liquid biopsy" uses gene-sequencing technology to screen blood samples for trace amounts of DNA associated with different cancers. (
  • Researchers from the University Hospital Basel, the University of Porto and the Hospital of Sao Joao looked at matched tissue and liquid biopsies from 159 NSCLC patients. (
  • While concordance was extremely high when liquid biopsy was conducted immediately after the initial tissue biopsy, the researchers observed it dropped to 72 percent when plasma NGS analysis was performed at later stages. (
  • In contrast, multiple studies have highlighted that liquid biopsy can identify genetic markers associated with resistance to treatment even before clinical signs manifest,' said co-author Luca Quagliata , PhD, global head of medical affairs for clinical NGS and oncology, Thermo Fisher Scientific. (
  • We use liquid biopsy testing to monitor response to therapy in our daily clinical practice. (
  • This study is yet another valuable example highlighting the potential of using liquid biopsy in routine practice. (
  • Thought leaders Stefanie Jeffrey and Mehmet Toner introduce the Lab on a Chip Personalised Medicine: Liquid Biopsy thematic collection. (
  • QIAGEN offers a complete, efficient and streamlined workflow to empower your liquid biopsy research. (
  • The Biomarker Insights blog covers hot topics in liquid biopsy research. (
  • Explore liquid biopsy products and find the right solutions for your research. (
  • A scrape or brush biopsy is used to scrape cells from the surface of a sore or growth or from the cervix during a Pap test. (
  • In a brush biopsy, a small brush passes through the endoscope to rub off cells from the pancreas. (
  • Some people here report that, based on the geno-type, some docs may not order a biopsy before treatment. (
  • Complications from a biopsy are rare. (
  • I am not keen on the conventional biopsy as I understand it can lead to complications such as bleeding and infections. (
  • This invention relates in general to surgical needles and, more particularly, to improvements in a biopsy needle construction which minimizes hemorrhagic complications upon removal of the needle from a site in a patient. (
  • Age 60 to 69 was also associated with significantly higher risk compared with younger and older age at biopsy for all three types of complications. (
  • We suspect the lower risk for complications in younger patients [under reflects a relatively healthier population, whereas the lower risk in older patients [over suggests that physicians may reserve biopsy for older adults who are healthy enough to tolerate treatment if the nodule is malignant," Wiener's group explained in the paper. (
  • This is called a shave biopsy. (
  • Twenty-one tumours diagnosed by shave biopsy (12%) were T-upstaged. (
  • Initial Misidentification of Thumb Poroma by Shave Biopsy. (
  • Residual Squamous Cell Carcinoma After Shave Biopsy in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients. (
  • Data were collected for 117 SOTRs and 117 age-matched nonimmunosuppressed controls diagnosed with shave biopsy -proven cSCC who underwent subsequent wide local excision from January 2004 to December 2016. (
  • References Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing) These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term " Shave Biopsy . (
  • A shave biopsy is used to scrape off a top layer of skin. (
  • Pressure is applied at the biopsy site to stop any bleeding and a bandage is placed over it. (
  • A local or general anesthetic may be used depending on the size and location of the biopsy site. (
  • This is especially important if the tumour requires surgery as part of the treatment because poor biopsy technique can affect the success of future surgeries. (
  • The type of biopsy needed depends on many factors, including the characteristics and location of the tumour. (
  • A biopsy removes a small amount of tissue or an entire tumour. (