Biopolymers: Polymers synthesized by living organisms. They play a role in the formation of macromolecular structures and are synthesized via the covalent linkage of biological molecules, especially AMINO ACIDS; NUCLEOTIDES; and CARBOHYDRATES.Acanthopanax: A plant genus of the family ARALIACEAE. Ciwujia extract, which is prepared from plants of this genus, contains ciwujianosides and is used to enhance PHYSICAL ENDURANCE.Evolution, Chemical: Chemical and physical transformation of the biogenic elements from their nucleosynthesis in stars to their incorporation and subsequent modification in planetary bodies and terrestrial biochemistry. It includes the mechanism of incorporation of biogenic elements into complex molecules and molecular systems, leading up to the origin of life.Biogenesis: The origin of life. It includes studies of the potential basis for life in organic compounds but excludes studies of the development of altered forms of life through mutation and natural selection, which is BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION.Chemical EngineeringPolymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Polyhydroxyalkanoates: Fatty acid biopolymers that are biosynthesized by microbial polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase enzymes. They are being investigated for use as biodegradable polyesters.Chitosan: Deacetylated CHITIN, a linear polysaccharide of deacetylated beta-1,4-D-glucosamine. It is used in HYDROGEL and to treat WOUNDS.ElastinViscosity: The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.Gels: Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.Nanotechnology: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Hydrogels: Water swollen, rigid, 3-dimensional network of cross-linked, hydrophilic macromolecules, 20-95% water. They are used in paints, printing inks, foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Elasticity: Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Rheology: The study of the deformation and flow of matter, usually liquids or fluids, and of the plastic flow of solids. The concept covers consistency, dilatancy, liquefaction, resistance to flow, shearing, thixotrophy, and VISCOSITY.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions: The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Microscopy, Atomic Force: A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)PolysaccharidesComputer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.MedlinePlus: NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Chemical Industry: The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Biofuels: Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).

Oligomerization and scaffolding functions of the erythropoietin receptor cytoplasmic tail. (1/1933)

Signal transduction by the erythropoietin receptor (EPOR) is activated by ligand-mediated receptor homodimerization. However, the relationship between extracellular and intracellular domain oligomerization remains poorly understood. To assess the requirements for dimerization of receptor cytoplasmic sequences for signaling, we overexpressed mutant EPORs in combination with wild-type (WT) EPOR to drive formation of heterodimeric (i.e. WT-mutant) receptor complexes. Dimerization of the membrane-proximal portion of the EPOR cytoplasmic region was found to be critical for the initiation of mitogenic signaling. However, dimerization of the entire EPOR cytoplasmic region was not required. To examine this process more closely, we generated chimeras between the intracellular and transmembrane portions of the EPOR and the extracellular domains of the interleukin-2 receptor beta and gammac chains. These chimeras allowed us to assess more precisely the signaling role of each receptor chain because only heterodimers of WT and mutant receptor chimeras form in the presence of interleukin-2. Coexpression studies demonstrated that a functional receptor complex requires the membrane-proximal region of each receptor subunit in the oligomer to permit activation of JAK2 but only one membrane-distal tail to activate STAT5 and to support cell proliferation. Thus, this study defines key relationships involved in the assembly and activation of the EPOR signal transduction complex which may be applicable to other homodimeric cytokine receptors.  (+info)

Mapping the functional domains of BRCA1. Interaction of the ring finger domains of BRCA1 and BARD1. (2/1933)

Breast cancer 1 (BRCA1) and BRCA1-associated RING domain 1 (BARD1) are multidomain proteins that interact in vivo via their N-terminal RING finger motif regions. To characterize functional aspects of the BRCA1/BARD1 interaction, we have defined the structural domains required for the interaction, as well as their oligomerization state, relative stability, and possible nucleic acid binding activity. We have found that the RING finger motifs do not themselves constitute stable structural domains but are instead part of larger domains comprising residues 1-109 of BRCA1 and residues 26-119 of BARD1. These domains exist as homodimers and preferentially form a stable heterodimer. Shorter BRCA1 RING finger constructs do not interact with BARD1 or with longer BRCA1 constructs, indicating that the heterodimeric and homodimer interactions are mediated by regions outside the canonical RING finger motif. Nucleic acid binding is a generally proposed function of RING finger domains. We show that neither the homodimers nor the heterodimer displays affinity for nucleic acids, indicating that the proposed roles of BRCA1 and BARD1 in DNA repair and/or transcriptional activation must be mediated either by other regions of the proteins or by additional cofactors.  (+info)

Recombinant human peroxisomal targeting signal receptor PEX5. Structural basis for interaction of PEX5 with PEX14. (3/1933)

Import of matrix proteins into peroxisomes requires two targeting signal-specific import receptors, Pex5p and Pex7p, and their binding partners at the peroxisomal membrane, Pex13p and Pex14p. Several constructs of human PEX5 have been overexpressed and purified by affinity chromatography in order to determine functionally important interactions and provide initial structural information. Sizing chromatography and electron microscopy suggest that the two isoforms of the human PTS1 receptor, PEX5L and PEX5S, form homotetramers. Surface plasmon resonance analysis indicates that PEX5 binds to the N-terminal fragment of PEX14-(1-78) with a very high affinity in the low nanomolar range. Stable complexes between recombinant PEX14-(1-78) and both the full-length and truncated versions of PEX5 were formed in vitro. Analysis of these complexes revealed that PEX5 possesses multiple binding sites for PEX14, which appear to be distributed throughout its N-terminal half. Coincidentally, this part of the molecule is also responsible for oligomerization, whereas the C-terminal half with its seven tetratricopeptide repeats has been reported to bind PTS1-proteins. A pentapeptide motif that is reiterated seven times in PEX5 is proposed as a determinant for the interaction with PEX14.  (+info)

Transforming growth factor-beta induces formation of a dithiothreitol-resistant type I/Type II receptor complex in live cells. (4/1933)

Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) binds to and signals via two serine-threonine kinase receptors, the type I (TbetaRI) and type II (TbetaRII) receptors. We have used different and complementary techniques to study the physical nature and ligand dependence of the complex formed by TbetaRI and TbetaRII. Velocity centrifugation of endogenous receptors suggests that ligand-bound TbetaRI and TbetaRII form a heteromeric complex that is most likely a heterotetramer. Antibody-mediated immunofluorescence co-patching of epitope-tagged receptors provides the first evidence in live cells that TbetaRI. TbetaRII complex formation occurs at a low but measurable degree in the absence of ligand, increasing significantly after TGF-beta binding. In addition, we demonstrate that pretreatment of cells with dithiothreitol, which inhibits the binding of TGF-beta to TbetaRI, does not prevent formation of the TbetaRI.TbetaRII complex, but increases its sensitivity to detergent and prevents TGF-beta-activated TbetaRI from phosphorylating Smad3 in vitro. This indicates that either a specific conformation of the TbetaRI. TbetaRII complex, disrupted by dithiothreitol, or direct binding of TGF-beta to TbetaRI is required for signaling.  (+info)

A novel PDZ domain containing guanine nucleotide exchange factor links heterotrimeric G proteins to Rho. (5/1933)

Small GTP-binding proteins of the Rho family play a critical role in signal transduction. However, there is still very limited information on how they are activated by cell surface receptors. Here, we used a consensus sequence for Dbl domains of Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) to search DNA data bases, and identified a novel human GEF for Rho-related GTPases harboring structural features indicative of its possible regulatory mechanism(s). This protein contained a tandem DH/PH domain closely related to those of Rho-specific GEFs, a PDZ domain, a proline-rich domain, and an area of homology to Lsc, p115-RhoGEF, and a Drosophila RhoGEF that was termed Lsc-homology (LH) domain. This novel molecule, designated PDZ-RhoGEF, activated biological and biochemical pathways specific for Rho, and activation of these pathways required an intact DH and PH domain. However, the PDZ domain was dispensable for these functions, and mutants lacking the LH domain were more active, suggesting a negative regulatory role for the LH domain. A search for additional molecules exhibiting an LH domain revealed a limited homology with the catalytic region of a newly identified GTPase-activating protein for heterotrimeric G proteins, RGS14. This prompted us to investigate whether PDZ-RhoGEF could interact with representative members of each G protein family. We found that PDZ-RhoGEF was able to form, in vivo, stable complexes with two members of the Galpha12 family, Galpha12 and Galpha13, and that this interaction was mediated by the LH domain. Furthermore, we obtained evidence to suggest that PDZ-RhoGEF mediates the activation of Rho by Galpha12 and Galpha13. Together, these findings suggest the existence of a novel mechanism whereby the large family of cell surface receptors that transmit signals through heterotrimeric G proteins activate Rho-dependent pathways: by stimulating the activity of members of the Galpha12 family which, in turn, activate an exchange factor acting on Rho.  (+info)

Prion domain initiation of amyloid formation in vitro from native Ure2p. (6/1933)

The [URE3] non-Mendelian genetic element of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an infectious protein (prion) form of Ure2p, a regulator of nitrogen catabolism. Here, synthetic Ure2p1-65 were shown to polymerize to form filaments 40 to 45 angstroms in diameter with more than 60 percent beta sheet. Ure2p1-65 specifically induced full-length native Ure2p to copolymerize under conditions where native Ure2p alone did not polymerize. Like Ure2p in extracts of [URE3] strains, these 180- to 220-angstrom-diameter filaments were protease resistant. The Ure2p1-65-Ure2p cofilaments could seed polymerization of native Ure2p to form thicker, less regular filaments. All filaments stained with Congo Red to produce the green birefringence typical of amyloid. This self-propagating amyloid formation can explain the properties of [URE3].  (+info)

Surface-induced polymerization of actin. (7/1933)

Living cells contain a very large amount of membrane surface area, which potentially influences the direction, the kinetics, and the localization of biochemical reactions. This paper quantitatively evaluates the possibility that a lipid monolayer can adsorb actin from a nonpolymerizing solution, induce its polymerization, and form a 2D network of individual actin filaments, in conditions that forbid bulk polymerization. G- and F-actin solutions were studied beneath saturated Langmuir monolayers containing phosphatidylcholine (PC, neutral) and stearylamine (SA, a positively charged surfactant) at PC:SA = 3:1 molar ratio. Ellipsometry, tensiometry, shear elastic measurements, electron microscopy, and dark-field light microscopy were used to characterize the adsorption kinetics and the interfacial polymerization of actin. In all cases studied, actin follows a monoexponential reaction-limited adsorption with similar time constants (approximately 10(3) s). At a longer time scale the shear elasticity of the monomeric actin adsorbate increases only in the presence of lipids, to a 2D shear elastic modulus of mu approximately 30 mN/m, indicating the formation of a structure coupled to the monolayer. Electron microscopy shows the formation of a 2D network of actin filaments at the PC:SA surface, and several arguments strongly suggest that this network is indeed causing the observed elasticity. Adsorption of F-actin to PC:SA leads more quickly to a slightly more rigid interface with a modulus of mu approximately 50 mN/m.  (+info)

Switch from an aquaporin to a glycerol channel by two amino acids substitution. (8/1933)

The MIP (major intrinsic protein) proteins constitute a channel family of currently 150 members that have been identified in cell membranes of organisms ranging from bacteria to man. Among these proteins, two functionally distinct subgroups are characterized: aquaporins that allow specific water transfer and glycerol channels that are involved in glycerol and small neutral solutes transport. Since the flow of small molecules across cell membranes is vital for every living organism, the study of such proteins is of particular interest. For instance, aquaporins located in kidney cell membranes are responsible for reabsorption of 150 liters of water/day in adult human. To understand the molecular mechanisms of solute transport specificity, we analyzed mutant aquaporins in which highly conserved residues have been substituted by amino acids located at the same positions in glycerol channels. Here, we show that substitution of a tyrosine and a tryptophan by a proline and a leucine, respectively, in the sixth transmembrane helix of an aquaporin leads to a switch in the selectivity of the channel, from water to glycerol.  (+info)

Biopolymers can be sustainable, carbon neutral and are always renewable, because they are made from plant materials which can be grown indefinitely. These plant materials come from agricultural non food crops. Therefore, the use of biopolymers would create a sustainable industry. In contrast, the feedstocks for polymers derived from petrochemicals will eventually deplete. In addition, biopolymers have the potential to cut carbon emissions and reduce CO2 quantities in the atmosphere: this is because the CO2 released when they degrade can be reabsorbed by crops grown to replace them: this makes them close to carbon neutral.. Biopolymers are biodegradable, and some are also compostable. Some biopolymers are biodegradable: they are broken down into CO2 and water by microorganisms. Some of these biodegradable biopolymers are compostable: they can be put into an industrial composting process and will break down by 90% within six months. Biopolymers that do this can be marked with a compostable ...
Sporopollenin is one of the most chemically inert biological polymers. It is a major component of the tough outer (exine) walls of plant spores and pollen grains. It is chemically very stable and is usually well preserved in soils and sediments. The exine layer is often intricately sculptured in species-specific patterns (see image at right), allowing material recovered from (for example) lake sediments to provide useful information to palynologists about plant and fungal populations in the past. Sporopollenin has found uses in the field of paleoclimatology as well. Sporopollenin is also found in the cell walls of several taxa of green alga, including Phycopeltis (an ulvophycean) and Chlorella. The chemical composition of sporopollenin is not exactly known, due to its unusual chemical stability and resistance to degradation by enzymes and strong chemical reagents. Analyses have revealed a mixture of biopolymers, containing mainly long chain fatty acids, phenylpropanoids, phenolics and traces of ...
Biopolymers are a special class of polymers produced by living organisms. Starch, proteins and peptides, DNA, and RNA are all examples of biopolymers, in which the monomer units, respectively, are sugars, amino acids, and nucleic acids.A major but defining difference between polymers and biopolymers can be found in their structures. Polymers, including biopolymers, are made of repetitive units called monomers. Biopolymers inherently have a well defined structure: The exact chemical composition and the sequence in which these units are arranged is called the primary structure. Many biopolymers spontaneously fold into characteristic compact shapes (see also "protein folding" as well as secondary structure and tertiary structure), which determine their biological functions and depend in a complicated way on their primary structures. Structural biology is the study of the structural properties of the biopolymers. In contrast most synthetic polymers have much simpler and more random (or statistic) ...
Description of Institute of Biopolymers and Chemical Fibres ( IBWCh).. The Institutes research and development activities are of an interdisciplinary character comprising: biopolymers, functional thermoplastics including biodegradable, bioprocesses, biocatalysis in polymers and fibres, biomaterials, nanotechnology, processing of polymers into film, fibrous nano-and micro-materials, non-woven and other products, paper technology, environment protection. Development works aim on the implementing of research results in medicine, agriculture , textile and plastic industry, packaging and paper materials. Important R& D domains are in the elaboration of technologies and materials for: medical devices like functional dressings, resorbable implants, sealants for blood vessels; agriculture like environment-friendly plant care and protection agents, and biodegradable agrotextiles; textiles like special, biodegradable and composite fibres and nonwoven. IBWCh is a Coordinator of Inter-regional ...
This handbook focuses on biopolymers for both environmental and biomedical applications. It shows recent advances in technology in all areas from chemical synthesis or biosynthesis to end use applications.
According to industry expert Tony OLenick, polymers are compounds made from monomers that are joined together in a chemical process. There are many different types, of which biopolymers have gained increasing interest.
View Notes - Lecture on Biomolecules from CH 302 at University of Texas. Polymers and Biopolymers In the previous lecture we learned that by using carbon as the primary backbone, we can create a
Scientific Publications from Pr. Luc Averous on biodegradable polymers, biopolymers, bioplastics and compostable materials e.g., products based on renewable resources such as starch, to develop packaging
Rapid depletion of natural resources with continued demands of an increasing population and high consumption rates of todays world will cause serious problems in the future. This, along with environmental concerns, has directed research towards finding alternatives in variety of sectors including sustainable and environmentally friendly consumer goods. Biopolymers of bacterial origin, with their vast range of applications, biodegradability and eco-friendly manufacturing processes, are one of the alternatives for a more sustainable future. However, the cost of their production is a drawback. Simultaneous production processes have always been an option for researchers in order to reduce cost, but the variable requirements of microorganisms to produce both different and valuable products are a hindering factor. This review will look at some examples and identify ideas towards developing a successful strategy for simultaneous production of bio-products.. ...
A open-source software for biopolymer network extraction and quantification in 2D and 3D
We use our expertise and our experimental tools to investigate the properties of biological materials and to study the behavior of cells. Much of our focus is on developing an understanding of the mechanical properties of biopolymer networks, formed by reconstituting proteins into gelled networks. These include networks of actin, microtubules, intermediate filaments, fibrin and collagen. We combine visualization of the network structure with probes of their mechanical properties to understand the nature of these properties.
As the molecular top-down causality emerging through comparative genomics is combined with the bottom-up dynamic chemical networks of biochemistry, the molecular symbiotic relationships driving growth of the tree of life becomes strikingly apparent. These symbioses can be mutualistic or parasitic across many levels, but most foundational is the complex and intricate mutualism of nucleic acids and proteins known as the central dogma of biological information flow. This unification of digital and analog molecular information within a common chemical network enables processing of the vast amounts of information necessary for cellular life. Here we consider the molecular information pathways of these dynamic biopolymer networks from the perspective of their evolution and use that perspective to inform and constrain pathways for the construction of mutualistic polymers.
A biopolymer is a polymer that is produced by a living organism, such as DNA, RNA, starch, cellulose and proteins. Cellulose is the most common biopolymer and organic compound found on...
This review sets out to examine the current trends in biopolymer science and is accompanied by over 400 abstracts from papers and books in the Rapra Polymer Library database, to facilitate further reading on this subject. A subject index and a company index are included.
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The order in which building blocks are arranged in the biopolymers DNA, RNA and proteins is highly meaningful. It constitutes the basis of biological information necessary for living matter to function. This information, however, is not inherent in the building blocks. The rules of chemistry define how building blocks such as the four types of deoxyribonucleotides may be linked to form DNA, much the same way as the rules of grammar define the order in which letters of the alphabet may be arranged to spell words or how words may be put in proper order to make meaningful sentences. The rules of grammar, however, are not adequate for choosing the letters to be arranged as words or words, which are to appear in sentences. This sort of information has to be superimposed upon the laws of grammar by the writer of words and sentences. Similarly, biological information residing in the biopolymers DNA, RNA and protein needs to be supplied by an intelligence, using the rules of chemistry ...
This conference will bring together researchers and students from fields related protein material, including new bioplastics, food production, biomedicine, and nanomaterials. This year we will have a special focus on how protein material research can help us move towards the UN sustainable development goals. The conference is an initiative of the Swedish Protein Materials Network (https://sweprotmat.biotech.kth.se). Thanks to generous support of the KTH sustainability office, FORMAS and the Swedish Research Council (VR), the conference is free of charge for all participants. We have already signed up a number of exceptional national and international speakers:. ...
The Biopolymers lab is room E17-415. Inside, there is a brown fridge with a clear plastic thing attached to the front. Put your request from in the clear plastic thing and your large eppendorf tube inside the fridge. Now you get to wait for your sequencing results to come back (usually 3-4 days). Note that the Biopolymers lab is generally only open during normal business hours, Mon-Fri, 9-5 ...
Savinskaya L. A., Usenko V. S., Lyzogubov V. V., Pogrebnoy P. V., Palchevsky S. S., Ovcharenko G. V., Cheshuk V. S., Gout I. T., Matsuka G. Kh., Filonenko V. V ...
Rybalko S. L., Khristova M. L., Shapiro A. V., Varbanets L. D., Zubkova N. L., Zadorozhna V. I., Ivanska N. V., Sorokulova I. B., Grytsak T. F., Furzikova T. M., Pinchuk I. I., Patskovski Yu. V., Diadiun S. T., Smirnov V. V., Urdaci M. A ...
ISSNs: 0006-3525. Additional searchable ISSN (Electronic): 1097-0282. John/Wiley & Sons, Inc. John/Wiley & Sons Ltd., United States. BFI (2018): BFI-level 1, Scopus rating (2016): CiteScore 1.83 SJR 0.803 SNIP 0.722, ISI indexed (2013): ISI indexed yes, Web of Science (2018): Indexed yes. Central database. Journal ...
The global biopolymer films market, in terms of volume is expected to exceed 17 million tons by 2022. It had a market demand of 5 million tons in 2013.
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Mucin networks are viscoelastic fibrillar aggregates formed through the complex self-association of biopolymeric glycoprotein chains. The networks form a lubricious, hydrated protective shield along epithelial regions within the human body. The critical role played by mucin networks in impacting the transport properties of biofunctional molecules (e.g., biogenic molecules, probes, nanoparticles), and its effect on bioavailability are well described in the literature. An alternate perspective is provided in this paper, presenting mucins complex network structure, and its interdependent functional characteristics in human physiology. We highlight the recent advances that were achieved through the use of mucin in diverse areas of bioengineering applications (e.g., drug delivery, biomedical devices and tissue engineering). Mucin network formation is a highly complex process, driven by wide variety of molecular interactions, and the network possess structural and chemical variations, posing a great
Biopolym. Cell is an open access peer-reviewed international journal that publishes original contributions in molecular biology and related areas. The journal was founded in 1985 as Биополимеры и клетка (1985-2009), Біополімери і клітина (2001-2009). In 2009 journal was renamed to Biopolymers and Cell (Biopolym. Cell). Biopolym. Cell is issued bimonthly, one volume per year. Since 2014 the articles are accepted and published in print version in English. Biopolymers and cell is indexed and/or abstracted in Scopus, SJR (2013 - 0.188), Cites per Doc. (2y) = 0.417 (it is computed using the same formula that journal impact factor TM(Thomson Reuters)), Index Copernicus, BIOSIS Previews, Biological Abstracts, DOAJ, elibrary.ru, Russian index of scientific citations, EBSCO, HINARI, referative journals "Dzherelo" (Ukraine), Medical Journal Links and VINITI (Russian Federation ...
... A number of bacteria, e.g., Alcaligenes eutrophus, have been employed to produce large amounts of intracellular polyester, poly-β-hydroxy butyrate or valerate. These polymer mixtures or copolymers are only sparingly soluble in water, and are stable between pH 3-11 under 10-100°C. These polymers are found to be ideal binders for soil that the strength of soil can be enhanced. For porous media such as sand or clay the permeability can be reduced to almost one million fold; therefore, the bacteria derived polymers are perfect plugging agents for stopping the plumes of subsurface pollutants. This is obviously usethl for on-site contaminant-control for hazardous wastes or chemicals. The microbial polymers, including the extracellulosic polymer, can be used as selective plugging agents, so that the concentration of pollutant can be partitioned (or bio-barrier) in different zones and pockets to allow bioremediation to follow (zonal bioremediation
The roles of different extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) fractions in microbial communities, such as periphytic biofilms, are unclear. In this study, three EPS fractions extracted from a periphytic biofilm were employed to investigate their ability to affect Fe2O3 nanoparticle (IONP) toxicity. The addi
Life is widely believed to have evolved from a far simpler, self-replicating molecular system. However, the origin of the informational biopolymers (i.e. proteins, RNA, DNA) and the evolutionary path that led to early life remains obscure. The RNA world hypothesis posits that a hypothetical period once existed when information storage (genetics) and chemical catalysis (enzymatic activity) was once solely, or more heavily, the responsibility of RNA, before the advent of DNA and coded protein synthesis. A persistent challenge to this hypothesis is the lack of a plausible prebiotic pathway for the spontaneous formation of RNA polymers. We are investigating the possible origins of the chemical building blocks of RNA, and the hypothesis that RNA is largely the result of evolution - the descendant of an ancestral RNA-like polymer that had a different backbone and different nucleobases, a polymer that was much easier to assemble than present day RNA. As part of this research, we have demonstrated that ...
Figure 1. Yearly number of publication related to mucins as reported by scicurve.com, using the keyword "mucins".. This is because mucin research spans over many fields. Biologists have been intrigued by mucins since long. But more recently, microbiologists studying our microbiome have new reasons to find this class of biopolymers particularly exciting. For instance, they realized that intestinal mucus plays key roles in the behavior of both pathogenic and commensal bacteria. This will surely lead to many more microbiology studies with mucus/mucins as a key component (1,2). Similarly, recent findings in immunology describing interactions between dendritic cells and mucin-associated glycans will also attract attention to secreted mucins in that field (3).. Some physicists and biophysicists are also fascinated by mucins. Tribologists are trying to understand and recreate mucins efficient lubricity that is so precious for a healthy mouth and gastrointestinal tract (4,5). The field of oral drug ...
This course comprises three main topics. Biopolymers - Covering aspects of the structures properties, and applications of major classes of biopolymeric material such as DNA, RNA and proteins, as well as a wide range of naturally occurring biopolymers derived from renewable resources, such as polyesters. Glycobiology - This section will introduce the role of carbohydrates in biological systems. Starting from basic concepts and terminology specific for carbohydrate chemistry, the following areas will be illuminated: properties and structures of common polysaccharides (e.g. amylose, cellulose, chitin, chitosan, peptidoglycans, pectins, dextrans, glycosaminoglycans, proteoglycans), chemical and enzymatic synthesis and degradation, complex carbohydrates (case studies: human and bacterial structures), glycoconjugates (case studies: glycoproteins, glycolipids), carbohydrates in medicine (case studies: lead structure, vaccine, inhibitor), carbohydrate recognition (case studies: lectins) in e.g. ...
In resting muscle, SCs are arrested in a reversible quiescent phase and they have capacity to rapidly reactivate in response to injury [45]. The molecular mechanisms involved in G0 exit have recently been the subject of intense studies [15, 46-48]. However, SCs are difficult to maintain in this quiescent state in vitro and the molecular analysis of quiescent SCs on the materials used as culture substrates (tissue culture polystyrene, plastic coated with proteins) is technically challenging due to the spontaneous shift toward commitment. Thus, most of the recent studies of quiescence in SCs are performed either directly in vivo [15, 46], in situ with SCs on the fiber [47] or ex vivo but a few hours after isolation [49], already with a potential and variable shift toward an activated state. These conditions greatly limit the amount of available cells and the full characterization of the studied cells. Furthermore, it is difficult to make direct comparisons between these studies due to the unknown ...
https://www.hexaresearch.com/research-report/biopolymer-films-market. Based on applications, the global biopolymer films market is divided into flexible packaging, rigid packaging, automotive, textiles, consumer goods, agriculture & horticulture, and others. Flexible packaging could be the largest application segment in the forthcoming years. It would generate nearly 27 million tons by 2024, at over 3.8% CAGR during the forecast period. This segment may generate over USD 106 billion by 2024, growing at a CAGR above 4.2% over the next eight years.. Demand for flexible packaging will fuel industry demand for biopolymer films. Flexible packaging offers benefits, such as additional shelf life and preservation. Hence, it could witness high demand from pharmaceuticals and food & beverages.. Biopolymer films used in agriculture & horticulture are known as mulch films. They prevent the loss of humus and provide soils with appropriate amounts of carbon. Environmental concerns along with low labor costs ...
TY - ABST. T1 - Biodegradable micromechanical sensors. AU - Keller,Stephan Sylvest. AU - Greve,Anders. AU - Schmid,Silvan. AU - Davis,Zachary James. AU - Boisen,Anja. PY - 2011. Y1 - 2011. N2 - The development of biopolymers for food packaging, medical engineering or drug delivery is a growing field of research [1]. At the same time, the interest in methods for detailed analysis of biopolymers is increasing. Micromechanical sensors are versatile tools for the characterization of mechanical and thermal properties of polymers. For example, measurements of the resonance frequency of cantilevers were used to characterize thin polymer coatings in various environmental conditions [2]. Also, the influence of humidity on the Youngs modulus of SU-8 was evaluated [3]. However, introduction of biopolymers to microfabrication is challenging, as these polymers are affected by common processes such as photolithography or wet etching. Here, we present two methods for fabrication of biodegradable ...
Using bacterial genomes that have been entirely recoded, Yale scientists have developed a way to induce cells to produce novel protein-based polymers that can be used for new materials and therapeutics.. Cells usually assemble proteins using 20 amino acids and scientists have found it difficult to incorporate synthetic amino acids in more than a single or few positions in proteins. The new technology, described Nov. 16 in the journal Nature Biotechnology, shows how it is possible to incorporate many new synthetic amino acids into proteins and thus go beyond the standard 20 building blocks to endow completely new function.. No longer will scientists be limited in the quantity and diversity of novel amino acids they can use to make new therapeutics and materials in bacterial factories, the authors say.. "Now we can introduce dozens of new synthetic building blocks with user-defined precision and at will - as many times as we want - to produce new compounds to improve drugs or functionalized ...
2-Methylene analogs of 1alpha-hydroxy-19-norvitamin D3: synthesis, biological activities and docking to the ligand binding domain of the rat vitamin D receptorGrzywacz, P. et al.The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 89-90, 13-7, 2004. ...
Two-dimensional proton NMR studies on poly(VPGVG) and its cyclic conformational correlate, cyclo(VPGVG)3 (pages 819-833). D. W. Urry, D. K. Chang, N. R. Krishna, D. H. Huang, T. L. Trapane and K. U. Prasad. Version of Record online: 1 FEB 2004 , DOI: 10.1002/bip.360280404. ...
This book provides basic and applied information for a plethora of scientists in diverse disciplines, as well as textbook and reference for graduate and advanced undergraduate students. A distinctive chapter is dedicated to the modern industrial and biomedical applications of exopolysaccharides.
Elastic filaments play an important role in the behaviour of cells and biological tissues. In this paper a two-dimensional nonlinear elastic framework, incorporating both bending and stretching, for the behaviour of biopolymer filaments treated as one-dimensional continua is developed. Explicit formulas for the extension-force relationship are obtained which include dependence on the initial end-to-end distance of the filament, unlike some existing models in the literature of, for example, the worm-like chain. The approach adopted allows treatment of both flexible and semi-flexible filaments and has the flexibility to accommodate different degrees of approximation. A key ingredient in the application of the model is inclusion of a body force term in the equilibrium equation. This is essential for finding non-trivial solutions of the governing equations and boundary conditions for filaments under tension. This highlights certain inconsistencies in the mechanics evident in the biophysics ...
Therapies using T cells that are programmed to express chimeric antigen receptors (CAR T cells) consistently produce positive results in patients with hematologic malignancies. However, CAR T cell treatments are less effective in solid tumors for several reasons. First, lymphocytes do not efficiently target CAR T cells; second, solid tumors create an immunosuppressive microenvironment that inactivates T cell responses; and third, solid cancers are typified by phenotypic diversity and thus include cells that do not express proteins targeted by the engineered receptors, enabling the formation of escape variants that elude CAR T cell targeting. Here, we have tested implantable biopolymer devices that deliver CAR T cells directly to the surfaces of solid tumors, thereby exposing them to high concentrations of immune cells for a substantial time period. In immunocompetent orthotopic mouse models of pancreatic cancer and melanoma, we found that CAR T cells can migrate from biopolymer scaffolds and ...
We have attempted to develop a tissue-engineered artery and heart valve based on the approach of entrapping tissue cells within a forming collagen gel. The ability to harness the cell traction-induced contraction of the network of collagen fibrils to obtain the desired alignment of fibrils and cells will be described and explained. Recent efforts to drive compositional remodeling following the structural remodeling obtained via mechanically-constrained contraction, using fibrin as an alternative biopolymer to collagen for cell entrapment, with the goal of attaining the requisite mechanical properties, will be presented. Unlike the early structural remodeling, the subsequent compositional remodeling and associated tissue growth that occurs in fibrin presents major modeling challenges ...
We report the controlled reversible and irreversible folding behavior of a biopolymer film simply by tuning the solvent characteristics. Generally, solvent triggered folding of soft membranes or film is achieved by unfolding. Here, we show that this unfolding behavior can be suppressed/delayed or even completely el
A biologically active conjugate is disclosed comprising a biopolymer and a therapeutic agent joined by a disulfide bond. The conjugate, when formulated in a pharmaceutical composition with a suitable carrier, has improved in vivo stability and activity, and can be targeted to a variety of cells, tissues and organs.
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There are four classes of biological molecules 3.3 Cells make a huge number of large molecules from a small set of small molecules There are four classes of biological molecules 1. Carbohydrates 2. Proteins 3. Lipids 4. Nucleic acids
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Research in the Lee group can be divided into six general areas: (1) selectively fluorinated organic thin films, (2) complex organic interfaces with controlled local composition, structure, and function, (3) biologically active interfaces, (4) nanoparticle growth and manipulation, (5) biopolymers and conducting polymers, and (6) polymerization catalyst development. The common thread that ties all of the research areas together is the use of synthesis be it organic, inorganic, organometallic, or solid-state to prepare new materials for technological applications. Progress in each of the areas requires the successful development and integration of a wide range of research skills, starting with the synthesis of new materials, followed by the collection and analysis of data, and ending with the oral and written communication of the results. As a natural consequence of this integrated approach, students departing from the Lee group are equipped with an unusually broad range of research capabilities. ...
A biofilm is a population of bacteria growing on a surface and surrounded by a complex extracellular polymeric substance composed of proteins, glycoproteins, gl...
PBS is associated to "LEcole Doctorale Normande de Chimie (EDN 508)" and to the inter-regional research federation, FR 3038 CNRS - INC3M (Institut Normand de Chimie Moléculaire, Macromoléculaire et Médicinal). This structure welcomes teacher/researchers from the University of Rouen and INSA of Rouen, researchers from CNRS, engineers, technicians and administrative staff from University and CNRS, PhD students and master students. Periodically, the laboratory welcomes also national or international researchers and interns for short visits.. The laboratory Polymers, Biopolymers, Surfaces is under the direction of Thierry JOUENNE, research director from CNRS.. The scientific project of the lab is focused on three thematic orientations:. ...
We apply the methods from statistical physics and fluid dynamics to study the dynamics of synthetic active systems - either colloidal, actuated with magnetic fields, or biochemical, consisting of biopolymers and motor proteins.. [more] ...
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Pasadena goes Greek this weekend, with the Annual Pasadena Greek Fest, September 16-18 at Santa Anita Park in Arcadia, California. "This event has always has ...
Worldwide scientific leaders are gathering from USA (America), Europe, Middle East, Australia and Africa at Biopolymers Conferences, Bioplastics Conferences, Biopolymers and Bioplastics Conferences held during October 19-21, 2017 San Francisco, USA.Top 50 Biopolymers conferences Worldwide.The Best 50 Biopolymers conferences 2017.
PAN, Xiangliang et al. A comparison of five extraction methods for extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from biofilm by using three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (3DEEM) fluorescence spectroscopy. Water SA [online]. 2010, vol.36, n.1, pp.111-116. ISSN 1816-7950.. Two physical methods (centrifugation and ultrasonication) and 3 chemical methods (extraction with EDTA, extraction with formaldehyde, and extraction with formaldehyde plus NaOH) for extraction of EPS from alga-bacteria biofilm were assessed. Pretreatment with ultrasound at low intensity doubled the EPS yield without significant modification of the composition of EPS. Extraction with EDTA or extraction with formaldehyde plus NaOH increased yield by about 1 order of magnitude compared with other methods. However, the protein and polysaccharide content in EPS prepared with EDTA or formaldehyde plus NaOH were low. Two fluorescence peaks belonging to protein-like peaks and 2 fluorescence peaks belonging to humic acid-like ...
Many biopolymers share the properties of being only slightly flexible and having a high negative surface charge. These general properties of the single filaments have many implications for the structure and mechanical properties of the macroscopic networks they form in physiologic settings. Two biochemically distinct polymers, F-actin and the filamentous viruses fD, M13, and
Biomolecular functional complexes often serve as inspiration for the development of artificial molecular nanostructures. The functionality of the biomolecular structures is based on complex and adaptable binding motifs that have evolved over billions of years. The detailed understanding of the underlying interactions is pivotal for the rational design and development of new materials, but often difficult to achieve as it requires submolecular resolution. In this thesis, I show how the molecular imaging of biopolymers by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and low-energy electron holography (LEEH) contributes to deciphering the structures and the respective binding motifs. These high-resolution imaging methods only perform well on surfaces in ultra-high vacuum (UHV) and for chemically identified species. Thus, electrospray ion beam deposition (ES-IBD) is essential for the controlled deposition for non-volatile species in UHV. The first part of the thesis focuses on the characterization of the ...
In a multi-layer polymeric structure having an interior oxygen barrier layer of a moisture sensitive polymeric material such as ethylene-vinyl alcohol, drying agents are incorporated in the structure, particularly in a layer or layers proximate to the barrier layer, to limit the moisture content of the barrier layer to maintain barrier properties.
Composite webs having one or more polymeric structures located on a substrate, closure systems comprising composite webs, and methods of attaching articles are disclosed. The polymeric structures are formed using thermoplastic compositions and are attached to a surface of a substrate. The polymeric structures include an area that is attached to the substrate and a detached area that is not attached to a surface of a substrate.
Glycerol, a byproduct of many industrial processes, mainly in biodiesel production, is generated in quantities far beyond current consumption in traditional applications, thus making it a residue for which interesting applications are lacking. The objective of this work was the conversion of the glycerol-rich byproduct obtained in biodiesel production facilities into biopolymers using a Pseudomonas strain. Two distinct biopolymers were simultaneously produced: an extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) and intracellular polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB). Under optimized EPS production conditions in fed-batch mode, the maximum cellular PHB content was 39 % of CDW and the maximum EPS concentration was 12 g/l. The process is rather versatile since it may be controlled to favor the production of one or both biopolymers. This new process constitutes a promising technology for the valorization of glycerol-rich byproduct, since it accomplishes attractive EPS productivities with relatively low production costs. In addition,
SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR BIOPOLYMER ENGINEERING - Methods, computer systems, and computer program products for biopolymer engineering. A variant set for a biopolymer of interest is constructed by identifying, using a plurality of rules, a plurality of positions in the biopolymer of interest and, for each respective position in the plurality of positions, substitutions for the respective position. The plurality of positions and the substitutions for each respective position in the plurality of positions collectively define a biopolymer sequence space. A variant set comprising a plurality of variants of the biopolymer of interest is selected. A property of all or a portion of the variants in the variant set is measured. A sequence-activity relationship is modeled between (i) one or more substitutions at one or more positions of the biopolymer of interest represented by the variant set and (ii) the property measured for all or the portion of the variants in the variant set. The variant set is ...
A process for producing a collagen-based cross-linked biopolymer is provided in which a collagen solution free of low-molecular impurities is saturated with nitrogen protoxide, its concentration is brought to maximum 80 mass percent and the solution is exposed to an ionizing radiation in a dose of 0.5 to 15 kGy. An implant for hermetization of corneal and scleral wounds involved in eye injuries prepared from said bipolymer has the shape and size that provide for complete hermetization of said wounds. The method for its preparation comprises saturation of a collagen solution free of impurities and having a concentration of 0.2 to 1.3 mass percent, with nitrous oxide, filling of a mould with said solution and its exposure to an ionizing radiation in a dose of 0.5 to 15 kGy. The resultant blank is dried to a moisture content in its biopolymer of 30 to 50 mass percent, whereupon the blank is given the shape and size of a required implant. The method of hermetization of said wounds is carried into effect by
The Proceedings of the Sixth European Conference on the Spectroscopy of Biological Molecules provides a critically comparative view of recent progress in the field. The majority of contributions deal with vibrational spectroscopy, but the development of other spectroscopic methods is also well covered. Molecular graphics simulations and new experimental and theoretical methods are also included. Audience: The state of the art in the field, of great interest to spectroscopists as well as those studying biological systems at the molecular level.Merlin, Jean C. is the author of Spectroscopy of Biological Molecules 6th European Conference on the Spectroscopy of Biological Molecules, 3-8 September 1995, Villeneuve DAscq, France with ISBN 9780792336280 and ISBN 0792336283. [read more] ...
Vasantha, Basavalingappa and Yamanappa, Hunashal and Raghothama, Srinivasarao and Balaram, Padmanabhan (2017) Conformational properties and aggregation of homo-oligomeric beta(3)(R)-valine peptides in organic solvents. In: BIOPOLYMERS, 108 (3). Vijayasarathy, Marimuthu and Basheer, Soorej M and Franklin, Jayaseelan Benjamin and Balaram, Padmanabhan (2017) Contryphan Genes and Mature Peptides in the Venom of Nine Cone Snail Species by Transcriptomic and Mass Spectrometric Analysis. In: JOURNAL OF PROTEOME RESEARCH, 16 (2). pp. 763-772. Vasantha, Basavalingappa and George, Gijo and Raghothama, Srinivasarao and Balaram, Padmanabhan (2017) Homooligomeric beta(3)(R)-valine peptides: transformation between C-14 and C-12 helical structures induced by a guest Aib residue. In: BIOPOLYMERS, 108 (1, SI). Pareek, Vidhi and Samanta, Moumita and Joshi, Niranjan V and Balaram, Hemalatha and Murthy, Mathur RN and Balaram, Padmanabhan (2016) Connecting Active-Site Loop Conformations and Catalysis in ...
The paradigm behind this work is one of comparative differences. Using Pseudomonas aeruginosa as a model organism, exopolymers (EPS) collected from parallel cultures grown under different conditions are characterized by both chemical composition and functional properties. Cultures grow in both saturated and unsaturated conditions, using no substrata, hydrophobic (polystyrene) substrata, and hydrophilic (sand) substrata. The bacteria also are grown on a variety of carbon sources with varying hydrophobicity, including glucose, decane, and hexadecane. Using measured values from these experiments as parameters, a simple numerical model will be constructed describing the transfer of pollutants to the bacteria on a microscale. The models predictions will be compared with long-term small-scale laboratory bioremediation experiments. ...
This article was originally published online as an accepted preprint. The "Published Online" date corresponds to the preprint version. You can request a copy of the preprint by emailing the Biopolymers editorial office at [email protected] com ...
The development of sustainable and efficient refining of food supply chain wastes is dependent on the production of various end-products with diversifying market outlets and the identification of...
Theoretical study of molecular mechanism of binding TRAP220 coactivator to Retinoid X Receptor alpha, activated by 9-cis retinoic acidKurcinski, M. & Koliński, A.The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 121, 124-9, 2010. ...
Quark helped Perma-Fix Medical form a consortium with Polands National Centre for Nuclear Research - Radioisotope Centre POLATOM in Otwock; the Institute for Biopolymers and Chemical Fibers - Department of Biopolymers in Lodz; Warsaw Medical University - Department of Nuclear Administration; and the Institute of Industrial Organic Chemistry Branch in Pszczyna. The consortium is collaborating to further develop and commercialize a novel prototype generator for the production of Technetium-99m (Tc-99m) for use in cancer and cardiac imaging.. The Perma-Fix Medical consortium was awarded a 10 million PLN (2.7 million USD) European Union grant. The project was ranked third on the list of 97 STRATEGMED Program grant submissions.. ...
View Notes - Ch. 2 Biological molecules and cells Part II from BIO 101 at Point Loma. Biological molecules What types of molecules are in your food? Total fat Cholesterol Sodium Carbohydrates
Biopolymer HA-24 is an association complex of Polyquaternium-24 and Hyaluronic Acid (Animal derived). This opalescent viscous liquid combines the moisturization properties of hyaluronic acid with the substantivity of a lauryl-substituted quaternized hydroxyethylcellulose, creating a substantive hyaluronic acid that can be utilized in a myriad of skin care applications. Key Benefits:. ...
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Cross-links are bonds that link one polymer chain to another. These bonds can either be covalent or ionic in nature. In polymer science, the use of cross-links to promote a difference in a polymers physical properties is referred to as cross-linking. When polymer chains are linked together by cross-links, they lose some of their ability to move as individual polymer chains. For example, a liquid polymer, which possesses freely flowing chains can be turned into a "solid" or "gel" by cross-linking the chains together. Cross-linking inhibits close packing of the polymer chains, preventing the formation of crystalline regions. The restricted molecular mobility of a cross-linked structure limits the extension of the polymer material under loading. This means that when a polymer is stretched, the cross-links prevent the individual chains from sliding past each other. In the process, the chains may straighten out, but once the stress is removed they return to their original position and the object ...
Because of polymer complexity, property variability must be taken into consideration. In this section, we will discuss possible sources of polymer inconsistency and offer suggestions to recognize and reduce these errors. Chemical or compositional heterogeneity refers to the chemical or structural difference among chains of the same polymer. Thus a measured property of a chemically heterogeneous sample will be an averaged value dependent upon sample source. For chemically homogeneous samples, property variability will not be a concern. In a similar fashion, polymers that are polydisperse in molecular weight have averaged property values, while monodisperse samples will give accurate data. Obviously, samples that are both chemically homogeneous and monodisperse will give the most accurate and precise values. As compared to synthetic polymers, almost all nucleic acids and mammalian proteins are compositionally (chemically) homogeneous and monodisperse, if not there would be no life; biopolymers ...
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Carbohydrates constitute one of the three major classes of biomolecules found in all living cells and, unlike nucleic acids and proteins, their polymeric structures are not based on a template. The structural diversity of these molecules confers them an enormous capacity to encode information in biological systems, acting as efficient mediators in the interaction of the cell with the environment. In order to understand the roles of glycans in biological processes it is of key importance to have a detailed understanding of their structures and conformational preferences, and NMR spectroscopy is one of most powerful techniques for the study of these molecules in solution.. This thesis is focused on the structural and conformational analysis of lipopolysaccharides from Gram-negative bacteria. In the first two projects (Chapter 2 and 3) the structural analyses of the biological repeating units of the O-antigen polysaccharides from E. coli O174ab and O115 are described; in both cases a combination of ...
Pond slime is made of biofilms-colonies of microbes, often a mix of one-celled algae and bacteria, whose cells are glued together by their secretions. The glue is EPS, which stands for both extracellular polymeric substance and exopolysaccharide. Sewage-treatment engineers and pollution researchers already know that algae, like certain larger plants, can neutralize a variety of impurities in water. But the exact role of EPS in algal biofilms is less well studied-unless youre biology major Katie Scheu 07 and her algaphile professor, David Domozych. When Scheu wanted to learn how to use Skidmores scanning electron microscope, Domozych suggested a research project on EPS. Along with sticking the biofilm onto stones or other solids, EPS may supply nutrients for the member microbes, and its expansion can even help them move by gliding along with it. Domozych is currently studying how cells produce EPS and how it forms and maintains biofilms in the acidic environment of bogs ...
It is well accepted that microorganisms can exist as self-organized communities attached to surfaces and one another (i.e., biofilm), often surrounded by extracellular polymeric substances (E
BACKGROUND: Polysaccharides often are necessary components of bacterial biofilms and capsules. Production of these biopolymers constitutes a drain on key components in the central carbon metabolism, but so far little is known concerning if and how the cells divide their resources between cell growth.... ...
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SEMINAR PRESENTATION ONGREEN POLYMERS PRESENTED BY: GAUTAM AHUJA M.TECH- POLYMER TECHNOLOGY 1st Year ROLL NO: 2k11/PTE/02 WHAT ...
Pollen as a sperm cell carrier is mainly protected by outer pollen wall (called exine) from physical and biological stresses. The major composition of exine is the highly resistant biopolymer sporopol
Tsukuba, Japan, Dec 12, 2012 - (ACN Newswire) - In their recently published review article in the Science and Technology of Advanced Materials, Yasuhiko Iwasaki
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Laboratory experiments and field tests were conducted to determine the effect of inorganic cations on effluent from activated-sludge systems. Laboratory experiments showed that monovalent cations tend to increase the concentration of solution biological polymers(biopolymers), whereas divalent cations tend to retain the biopolymers in the floc. Biopolymers in solution affect effluent chemical oxygen demand (COD). Coagulation tests were performed on the effluent with ferric chloride. Ferric hydroxide can coagulate protein through possible adsorptive interactions and may be responsible for some biopolymer retention in the flocs. In the field study, it was found that sodium ions in the influent wastewater caused an increase in proteins and polysaccharides in solution, thereby increasing the effluent COD concentration of the treated municipal wastewater. The attachment or release of these microbially derived organic biopolymers and recalcitrant influent substrate may depend on the ...
A novel approach combining the atomic force microscopy probing of nacre biopolymer strand and the inverse finite element analysis has been used to directly measure the elastic modulus of nacre biopolymer matrix. An elastic modulus of 11 ± 3 GPa was determined for the first time from the direct measurement of the nacre biopolymer matrix. This property is essential for a fundamental understanding of the roles that the biopolymer matrix plays in nacres strengthening and toughening, and provides guidelines in selecting engineering polymers for biomimetic materials design and fabrication. Such coupled experimental and modeling techniques should find more applications in studying the mechanical behavior of biological materials.
The last two decades have seen a number of significant advances in the methodology for evaluating the molecular weight distributions of polydispersed macromolecular systems in solution at the molecular level. This reference presents reviews on the progress in different analytical and characterization methods of biopolymers. Readers will find useful information about combinations of complex biopolymer analysis such as chromatographic or membrane based fractionation procedures combined with multiple detectors on line (multi-angle laser light scattering or MALLS). Key topics include: • refractive index, UV-Vis absorbance and intrinsic viscosity detection systems, • advances in SEC-MALLS (size exclusion chromatography coupled to multi-angle laser light scattering) and FFF-MALLS (field flow fractionation coupled on line to MALLS), • HPSEC-A4F-MALLS, matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization (MALDI) • electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry • nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) ...
3 images. Fire in Pasadena Hills, 30 October 1961. General views of fire and fire fighting; neg. of fire showing Pasadena City Hall and First Baptist Church.; Caption slip reads: "Photographer: Olmo. Date: 1961-10-30. Reporter: MacMillin. Assignment: Fire. 2: Flames on hillside above 1670 Hasting Ranch Dr., Pasadena. 3/4: Fire on hill behind 1680 Hastings Ranch Dr. Resident wets down wood roof at 1580 Carriage House Rd.".; Caption slip reads: "Photographer: Rustan. Date: 1961-10-30. Reporter: Sorgatz. Assignment: Arcadia fire. 81/82: Dramatic panorama of fire showing Pasadena City Hall (dome bldg, foreground); & First Baptist Church square tower".; Caption slip reads: "Photographer: Swaim. Date: 1961-10-30. Assignment: Fire. 27: B17 bomber making 1600 gallon borate drop on fire near Pasadena Glen. 3/4: Various shots of fire in Pasadena Glen area. 19/20: (1 from across Pasadena Hi School football field. Another shows TV cameraman (who else but Watson?) with clothes covered by borate from drop ...
Your Pasadena holistic medicine resource for anyone who wants to explore alternative medicine. Find the local information and resources you need in Pasadena, CA. Whether youre looking for Pasadena acupuncture, aromatherapy, or light therapy, this page will help you get the information you are searching for.
About PSET The Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Experimental Therapeutics houses two divisions: The Division of Medicinal and Natural Products Chemistry (MNPC) The MNPC Division offers research programs in drug metabolism, biocatalysis, pharmaceutical toxicology, organic synthesis, drug design, biopolymeric drugs, biotechnology and structural biology, computer aided drug discovery, structure-activity relationships, bioanalytical chemistry, and molecular pharmacology.
Global Markets Directs, Cell Division Protein FtsZ (ftsz) - Pipeline Review, H2 2016, provides in depth analysis on Cell Division Protein FtsZ (ftsz) targeted pipeline therapeutics. The
Biopolymers[edit]. Linear structure of cellulose -- the most common component of all organic plant life on Earth. * Note the ...
Linear biopolymers[edit]. All living organisms are dependent on three essential biopolymers for their biological functions: DNA ... Branched biopolymers[edit]. Raspberry ellagitannin, a tannin composed of core of glucose units surrounded by gallic acid esters ... 3 Linear biopolymers *3.1 Structural features *3.1.1 DNA is optimised for encoding information ... The most common macromolecules in biochemistry are biopolymers (nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates and lipids) and large ...
Biopolymers. 22 (12): 2577-637. doi:10.1002/bip.360221211. PMID 6667333.. .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}. ...
Biopolymers. 55 (1): 31-49. doi:10.1002/1097-0282(2000)55:1,31::AID-BIP40,3.0.CO;2-9. PMID 10931440.. ...
"Biopolymers. 99 (2): 98-111. doi:10.1002/bip.22128. PMC 4017165 . PMID 23175385.. ...
Biopolymers. 91 (11): 943-52. doi:10.1002/bip.21282. PMID 19603496.. ...
Biopolymers. 31 (6): 605-12. doi:10.1002/bip.360310604. PMID 1932561.. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ...
A biopolymer comprising multiple linked nucleotides (as in DNA) is called a polynucleotide.[14] ... Wahl MC, Sundaralingam M (1997). "Crystal structures of A-DNA duplexes". Biopolymers. 44 (1): 45-63. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097- ...
Cooperman BS (2003). "Oligopeptide inhibition of class I ribonucleotide reductases". Biopolymers. 71 (2): 117-31. doi:10.1002/ ...
Biotechnology of Biopolymers. ISBN 978-953-307-179-4.. *^ Xie, W.; McMahan, C.M.; Distefano, A.J. DeGraw, M.D.; et al. (2008 ...
Painter PC, Mosher LE, Rhoads C (July 1982). "Low-frequency modes in the Raman spectra of proteins". Biopolymers. 21 (7): 1469- ...
2009). «Human tropoelastin sequence: dynamics of polypeptide coded by exon 6 in solution». Biopolymers. 91 (11): 943-52. PMID ...
There are other biopolymers such as rubber, suberin, melanin, and lignin. Modification of natural polymers. Naturally occurring ... There are three main classes of biopolymers: polysaccharides, polypeptides, and polynucleotides. In living cells, they may be ... Laboratory synthesis of biopolymers, especially of proteins, is an area of intensive research. ... Polymers range from familiar synthetic plastics such as polystyrene to natural biopolymers such as DNA and proteins that are ...
Biopolymers. 1997, 44 (3): 217-239. PMID 9591477. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0282(1997)44:3,217::AID-BIP3,3.0.CO;2-Y.. (pdf) ...
Linear biopolymersEdit. All living organisms are dependent on three essential biopolymers for their biological functions: DNA, ... Branched biopolymersEdit. Raspberry ellagitannin, a tannin composed of core of glucose units surrounded by gallic acid esters ... The most common macromolecules in biochemistry are biopolymers (nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates and lipids) and large ...
"In Chang, J. Y. (ed.). Biopolymers · PVA Hydrogels, Anionic Polymerisation Nanocomposites. Advances in Polymer Science. 153. pp ...
Polysaccharides, such as cellulose, chitin, and starch, are biopolymers derived from sugars. The polynucleic acids DNA and RNA ... Biopolymers are the structural and functional materials that comprise most of the organic matter in organisms. One major class ... Polymers can be subdivided into biopolymers and synthetic polymers according to their origin. Each one of these classes of ... of biopolymers are proteins, which are derived from amino acids. ... Biopolymer Synthesis[edit]. *Protein Biosynthesis. *Cell-Free ...
Angell, C. A. (1995). "Formation of Glasses from Liquids and Biopolymers". Science. 267 (5206): 1924-35. Bibcode:1995Sci... ...
Biopolymers of sugars are common in nature. Through photosynthesis, plants produce glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P), a ...
... that is the most abundant biopolymer, as well as hemicellulose. 2) Lignin is the second most abundant biopolymer. Cellulose and ...
Vekshin N. L. Energy Transfer in Macromolecules, SPIE, 1997; Vekshin N. L. Photonics of Biopolymers, Springer, 2002. ...
Biopolymers 71, Nr. 2, 2003, 169-189; PMID 12767117. ...
Biopolymers. 84 (6): 615-24. doi:10.1002/bip.20595. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Chaudhary, N., Singh, S., ... Biopolymers. 90 (6): 783-791. doi:10.1002/bip.21087. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Arthropod defensin ...
Biopolymers. 59 (4): 243-56. doi:10.1002/1097-0282(20011005)59:4. 3.0.CO;2-H. PMC 3282060 . PMID 11473349. Nakayama N, Miyajima ...
Biopolymers. 91 (12): 1126-1134. doi:10.1002/bip.21170. PMID 19226623. Manzano C, Contreras-Martel C, El Mortaji L, et al. ( ...
Painter PC, Mosher LE, Rhoads C (Jul 1982). "Low-frequency modes in the Raman spectra of proteins". (primary). Biopolymers. 21 ... Painter PC, Mosher LE, Rhoads C (1981). "Low-frequency modes in the Raman spectrum of DNA". (primary). Biopolymers. 20: 243-247 ... Chou KC, Mao B (Nov 1988). "Collective motion in DNA and its role in drug intercalation". (primary). Biopolymers. 27 (11): 1795 ... Biopolymers. 34 (1): 143-53. doi:10.1002/bip.360340114. PMID 8110966. Sinkala Z (Aug 2006). "Soliton/exciton transport in ...
... biopolymers; rheology and phase behavior of associative polymer solutions; polymeric materials processing. ... biopolymers; nanostructured materials for clinical diagnostics, synthetic biology and cancer immunotherapy. ...
Biopolymers and Biomedical Applications. *Bioreactor Design and Control. *Enzyme Catalysis and Enzyme Engineering ...
Such a sequence is called the primary structure of the biopolymer.. Sugars[edit]. Sugar-based biopolymers are often difficult ... Biopolymers are biodegradable, and some are also compostable. Some biopolymers are biodegradable: they are broken down into CO2 ... As a result, biopolymers have a polydispersity index of 1.[8]. Conventions and nomenclature[edit]. Polypeptides[edit]. The ... Biopolymers are polymers produced by living organisms; in other words, they are polymeric biomolecules. Since they are polymers ...
Biopolymers are made from organic substances, such as plants and microorganisms. Learn more about biopolymers and recycling ... Fermentation: Bacteria or other microorganisms mass-produce the biopolymers in bioreactors (fermentation tanks). The ... Furthermore, new research into biopolymers may produce new bioplastic products from renewable resources that are biodegradable ... biopolymers (lactic acid, polyesters) are extracted from the bioreactors and chemically processed into plastics. ...
Microalgae Screening Cultivation Biopolymers Carbohydrates Sugar analysis This is a preview of subscription content, log in to ... Halaj M, Paulovičová E, Paulovičová L, Jantová S, Cepák V, Lukavský J, Capek P (2018) Biopolymer of Dictyosphaerium ...
Purchase Handbook of Biopolymers and Biodegradable Plastics - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9781455728343, ... Handbook of Biopolymers and Biodegradable Plastics 1st Edition. Properties, Processing and Applications. Write a review ... bio-polymer processors and fabricators - and for industry sectors utilizing biopolymers - automotive, packaging, construction, ... Biopolymers and Biodegradable Plastics are a hot issue across the Plastics industry, and for many of the industry sectors that ...
This book provides basic and applied information for a plethora of scientists in diverse disciplines, as well as textbook and reference for graduate and advanced undergraduate students. A distinctive chapter is dedicated to the modern industrial and biomedical applications of exopolysaccharides.
This review describes how these biopolymers have been successfully incorporated into the internal and external aqueous phases ...
... Petr Slepička,1 Iva Michaljaničová,1 Nikola Slepičková Kasálková ... "Cytocompatibility of Plasma and Thermally Treated Biopolymers," Journal of Nanomaterials, vol. 2013, Article ID 238742, 10 ...
DuPont Launches Next Family of Bio-Polymers; Energy and Greenhouse Gas Savings. DuPont Launches Next Family of Bio-Polymers; ... DuPont to Produce New High-Performance Bio-Polymers for Automotive, Other Markets. DuPont to Produce New High-Performance Bio- ... Posted on 27 September 2007 in Bio-polymers, Biodiesel, Biomass, Biotech, Cellulosic ethanol, Fuels , Permalink , Comments (1) ... Posted on 11 October 2006 in Bio-polymers, Biodiesel, Biotech, Cellulosic ethanol, Ethanol, Fuels , Permalink , Comments (10) ...
Can it be done? That is, development of a sustainable green chemistry platform for production of acetone and downstream drop-in fuel and commodity products ...
Two-dimensional proton NMR studies on poly(VPGVG) and its cyclic conformational correlate, cyclo(VPGVG)3 (pages 819-833). D. W. Urry, D. K. Chang, N. R. Krishna, D. H. Huang, T. L. Trapane and K. U. Prasad. Version of Record online: 1 FEB 2004 , DOI: 10.1002/bip.360280404. ...
Purchase Structural Studies on Nucleic acids and Other Biopolymers - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780122229022, ... Structural Studies on Nucleic acids and Other Biopolymers 1st Edition. Write a review ... Volume II basically deals with the structural studies on nucleic acids and other biopolymers. This volume gives much emphasis ...
... biopolymer hydrogel self-assembly and how to control this to develop tissue scaffolds, and the control of biopolymer self- ... biopolymer hydrogel self-assembly and how to control this to develop tissue scaffolds, and the control of biopolymer self- ...
Biopolymers and Cell Web site Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics of NASU Web site 2010-Biopolymers and Cell Celebrates ... Biopolymers and Cell (Biopolym. Cell) is a scientific journal issued by the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and ... Biopolymers and Cell is indexed and/or abstracted in: Scopus, SJR, Index Copernicus, BIOSIS Previews, elibrary.ru, Medical ... Matsuka, the founder of Biopolymers and Cell was a director of [Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics]. He was succeeded ...
Biopolymers is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering the study of biopolymers from a biochemical and biophysical ... "Publishers Announcement". Biopolymers. 70 (4): v-v. December 2003. doi:10.1002/bip.10588. "Journal". American Peptide Society ... merged with Biopolymers in 2004). Peptide Science is the affiliate journal of the American Peptide Society. According to the ...
... A number of bacteria, e.g., Alcaligenes eutrophus, have been ... Biopolymers for Geotechnical Applications by Teh Fu Yen, Iris C. Y. Yang, Shiva Karimi, Geoffrey R. Martin, Document Type: ...
A biologically active conjugate is disclosed comprising a biopolymer and a therapeutic agent joined by a disulfide bond. The ... wherein the biopolymer is hyaluronic acid. 4. The chemically modified biopolymer of claim 1, wherein the biopolymer is selected ... wherein the biopolymer is hyaluronic acid. 12. The chemically modified biopolymer of claim 9, wherein the biopolymer is ... The chemically modified biopolymer of claims 9. or 13. wherein R is an amino group. 16. The chemically modified biopolymer of ...
Backbone reversal produces a biopolymer that has an identical sequence as the parent biopolymer if read from the C- to the N- ... 2009). To characterize the inverse transition temperature of phase transition biopolymers, the optical density of biopolymer ... 1992) Biopolymers 32:1243-1250).. FIG. 19 is a graph showing self-assembly of EIP with sequence (VTPAVG)20, comprised of a ... A "random" biopolymer was designed the size of a short protein-domain (30 amino acids in length). Polymers of this domain ...
Cellulose is the most common biopolymer and organic compound found on... ... A biopolymer is a polymer that is produced by a living organism, such as DNA, RNA, starch, cellulose and proteins. ... Many biopolymers are biodegradable and used in compost. These biopolymers can break down up to 90 percent in as little as six ... A biopolymer is a polymer that is produced by a living organism, such as DNA, RNA, starch, cellulose and proteins. Cellulose is ...
Malinova, I., Kunz, H-H., Alseekh, S., Herbst, K., Fernie, A.R., Gierth, M., and Fettke, J. (2014). Reduction of the cytosolic phosphoglucomutase in Arabidopsis reveals impact on plant growth, seed and root development, and carbohydrate partitioning. PLoS One 9(11): e112468. Zhang, Y., Sun, F., Fettke, J., Schöttler, MA., Ramsden, L., Fernie, A.R., and Lim B.L. (2014). Heterologous expression of AtPAP2 in transgenic potato influences carbon metabolism and tuber development. FEBS Lett. 588: 3726-31. Kunz, H-H., Zamani-Nour, S., Haeusler, R.E., Ludewig, K., Schroeder, J.I., Malinova, I., Fettke, J., Flügge, U-I., and Gierth, M. (2014). Loss of Cytosolic Phosphoglucose Isomerase (cPGI) affects carbohydrate metabolism in leaves and is essentail for fertility of Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Physiol. 166: 753-65. Brust, H., Lehmann, T., D´Hulst, C., and Fettke, J. (2014). Analysis of the functional interaction of Arabidopsis starch synthase and branching enzyme isoforms reveals that the cooperative ...
Welcome to the Biopolymer Analytics Group led by apl Prof. Dr. habil Joerg Fettke. Our lab is interested in primary metabolism ...
Home , All Products & Services Categories , Plastics, Polymers & Resins , Bio Polymers Home , All Products & Services ... Home , All Products & Services Categories , Plastics, Polymers & Resins , Bio Polymers Home , All Products & Services ...
Structural Characterization of Biopolymers by Analytical Separation Techniques with Advanced Detectors. *Absolute Molar Mass ... Structural Characterization of Biopolymers by Analytical Separation Techniques with Advanced Detectors. *Absolute Molar Mass ... Structural Characterization of Biopolymers by Analytical Separation Techniques with Advanced Detectors. *Absolute Molar Mass ... Biopolymers Application Notes. Branching ratios, absolute molar mass and size of natural polymers. ...
Phys.org internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Space Science, Earth Science, Health and Medicine
  • Cellulose is the most common organic compound and biopolymer on Earth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sugars and cellulose are abundant biopolymers and some of the most common organic compounds. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • Chitin is second only to cellulose as the most abundant biopolymer found in nature. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In a follow-up to the 2010 paper, MacLachlan's group has now conducted a comprehensive study of the preparation of chiral nematic mesoporous silica, published online on August 2, 2013, in Advanced Functional Materials ( 'Biopolymer Templated Glass with a Twist: Controlling the Chirality, Porosity, and Photonic Properties of Silica with Cellulose Nanocrystals' ). (nanowerk.com)
  • In brown seaweeds, the capacity of removing several metallic species is attributed to the biochemical constitution of their cellular wall, which is basically composed by three types of biopolymers: alginate, fucoidan and cellulose, which might provide several functional groups as binding sites (amino, carboxyl, sulfates). (scielo.br)
  • Recently several exciting new directions have been pursued in this area, including developments in understanding amyloid fibrillization, liposome and polymersome self-assembly, DNA superstructure formation, biopolymer hydrogel self-assembly and how to control this to develop tissue scaffolds, and the control of biopolymer self-assemblies for applications in biomedicine. (rsc.org)
  • There should be tons of articles on this topic considering these are subjects that have been studied AT LEAST since I was a grad student (one of my friends was working on biopolymers as scaffolds for ligament repair). (physicsforums.com)
  • These biopolymers may be appropriate for the development of new tissue engineering scaffolds to restore vision by reconstructing the ocular surface. (arvojournals.org)
  • Such a sequence is called the primary structure of the biopolymer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Provided is an optical element comprising a biopolymer having an oriented structure and a photoresponsive compound, such as a photochromic compound, wherein at least a portion of the photoresponsive compound is incorporated within the oriented structure of the biopolymer and wherein the oriented structure is laminar with the planes of the laminar orientation being aligned perpendicular to a surface of the optical element. (mvssolutions.com)
  • The 5th Edition of ACI's European Biopolymer Summit will be taking place on 14th - 15th February 2018 in Dusseldorf, Germany . (wplgroup.com)
  • In this report, the global Degradable Biopolymers market is valued at USD XX million in 2017 and is expected to reach USD XX million by the end of 2025, growing at a CAGR of XX% between 2017 and 2025. (reportsnreports.com)
  • The specific lymphatic uptake and increased nodal retention of HA conjugates indicate significant potential for development as a natural biopolymer for intralymphatic drug delivery and imaging. (mdpi.com)
  • In this study, we developed a strategy to use a natural biopolymer from durian seed, durian seed gum (DSG), to address these issues. (frontiersin.org)
  • To explore how the microbial environment affects the degradation process of biopolymer/natural fiber composites, anaerobic digesters will be operated on composite samples, optimizing the microbial community by natural selection to degrade the specific substrate. (epa.gov)
  • The presently disclosed subject matter concerns a microbial biopolymer comprising fucose in its composition. (patents.com)
  • Recent efforts to drive compositional remodeling following the structural remodeling obtained via mechanically-constrained contraction, using fibrin as an alternative biopolymer to collagen for cell entrapment, with the goal of attaining the requisite mechanical properties, will be presented. (umn.edu)
  • The same model is also effective for describing the stiffening of actin, collagen, and other biopolymer networks. (purdue.edu)
  • In this thesis, I show how the molecular imaging of biopolymers by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and low-energy electron holography (LEEH) contributes to deciphering the structures and the respective binding motifs. (epfl.ch)
  • To accomplish this, the study will undertake a series of experiments in thin biopolymer films, where diffraction and microscopy techniques will be used to characterize the morphology of the films during degradation. (epa.gov)
  • A major defining difference between biopolymers and synthetic polymers can be found in their structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most significant feature of these nanoscale biopolymers is that they are specifically pre-programmed within a synthetic gene template and can be controlled precisely in terms of sizes, compositions and functions at the molecular level. (epa.gov)
  • Synthetic genes encoding for the tunable biopolymers will be specifically tailored for the desired properties. (epa.gov)
  • Strain-Stiffening in Synthetic and Biopolymer Networks" by Kendra Erk, Kevin J. Henderson et al. (purdue.edu)
  • Strain-stiffening behavior common to biopolymer networks is difficult to reproduce in synthetic networks. (purdue.edu)
  • and Shull, Kenneth R., "Strain-Stiffening in Synthetic and Biopolymer Networks" (2010). (purdue.edu)
  • We report the controlled reversible and irreversible folding behavior of a biopolymer film simply by tuning the solvent characteristics. (rsc.org)
  • The pore size of biopolymer networks governs their mechanical properties and strongly impacts the behavior of embedded cells. (nih.gov)
  • In addition to these structural (and functional) complexities, an individual biopolymer is typically present at low concentration in samples that contain many similar and similarly complex compounds. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • This has resulted in a multitude of healthcare products on the market that use biopolymers in the formulation as a functional excipient or even as an active ingredient. (hud.ac.uk)
  • 7. The conjugate of claim 1 , wherein the biopolymer is selected from the group consisting of polyacrylic acid, poly-α-glutamic acid, poly-γ-glutamic acid, carrageenan, calcium alginate and sodium alginate. (google.com)
  • This paper studies the bioadsorption of Pb 2+ , Cu 2+ , Cd 2+ and Zn 2+ ions by marine alga Sargassum filipendula and by the alginate biopolymer extracted from this alga. (scielo.br)
  • Alginate is its main polysaccharide, and the presence of mannuronic (M) and guluronic (G) acids in this biopolymer is directly related to the bioadsorption capacity of metallic ions. (scielo.br)
  • The alginate biopolymer represents up to 40% dry matter in brown marine algae. (scielo.br)
  • The alginate biopolymer is extracted as sodium alginate and can be characterized by determining the M/G ratio using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NRS). (scielo.br)
  • This study used the jellification process for the preparation of calcium alginate used as the bioadsorbent, where the bioadsorption of Pb 2+ , Cu 2+ , Cd 2+ and Zn 2+ ions by marine alga Sargassum filipendula and by the alginate biopolymer extracted from this alga in the form of calcium alginate were evaluated. (scielo.br)
  • Here, we demonstrate through experiments and simulations that the rigidity and connectivity of filaments in active biopolymer networks regulates the anisotropy and the length scale of the underlying deformations, yielding materials with variable contractility. (pnas.org)
  • In this paper a two-dimensional nonlinear elastic framework, incorporating both bending and stretching, for the behaviour of biopolymer filaments treated as one-dimensional continua is developed. (diva-portal.org)
  • Since the behaviour of individual filaments has a strong influence on the behaviour of networks of filaments the theory developed here can serve as a basis for analyzing the elasticity of networks such as actin and other filamentous biopolymer networks. (diva-portal.org)
  • The expected results of this research are a better understanding of how the fundamental properties of biopolymer-based composites affect its degradation in anaerobic environments. (epa.gov)
  • Forces generated by molecular motors on biopolymers must underlie these dynamics, but how molecular-scale forces give rise to cellular-scale shape changes is unknown. (pnas.org)
  • The dynamics of biopolymers in solution and in crowded molecular environments, which mimic some features of the interior of a biochemical cell, will be discussed. (aps.org)
  • Here, a molecular dynamics approach is used to investigate the physical response of a typical hydrophilic biopolymer in softwood hemicellulose-xylan-when subjected to moisture adsorption. (springer.com)
  • In fact, as their synthesis is controlled by a template-directed process in most in vivo systems, all biopolymers of a type (say one specific protein) are all alike: they all contain the similar sequences and numbers of monomers and thus all have the same mass. (wikipedia.org)
  • Catherine Picart's research focuses on the assembly of biopolymers, protein/lipid interactions, and musculo-skeletal tissue engineering. (wiley.com)
  • Biopolymers are increasing in popularity in cosmetic science since they are natural and sustainable raw materials. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • Typically, a biopolymer is made from biomass (non-fossil origin) materials. (omicsonline.org)
  • During its life cycle, a biopolymer product isolate atmospheric CO 2 from plant or animal raw materials, and at the end of product life it will turn into compost, to provide the raw materials for the next generation of materials. (omicsonline.org)
  • Their project, SYNBIOMICS, is focused on upgrading key biopolymers from trees using enzymes, to create materials that provide higher value than what otherwise might be realized. (genomecanada.ca)
  • This chapter intends to provide an overview on the chemical and physical properties of biopolymers used as wound healing materials and how these properties are exploited as dressings. (hud.ac.uk)
  • The aim of this study is to investigate the genotoxic potential of clays that can be used in biopolymers for food contact materials. (dtu.dk)
  • Matsuka, the founder of Biopolymers and Cell was a director of [Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics]. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many methods have been developed to test and evaluate the mechanical properties of the biopolymer from castor oil employed in implants and osteo-repositions, among other things. (scielo.br)
  • As an important parameter to be taken into consideration, moisture strongly influences the mechanical and thermodynamic properties of hydrophilic biopolymers. (springer.com)
  • Structural biology is the study of the structural properties of the biopolymers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Physico-chemical Properties of Nucleic Acids, Volume II basically deals with the structural studies on nucleic acids and other biopolymers. (elsevier.com)
  • Exopolysaccharides (EPSs) are high molecular weight carbohydrate biopolymers that are composed of sugar residues linked together through glycosidic bonds, and secreted by microorganisms into the surrounding environment with certain properties and functions. (aiche.org)
  • The overall objective of this research is to develop high-affinity, nanoscale biopolymers with tunable properties for the selective removal of heavy metals such as cadmium, mercury and arsenic. (epa.gov)
  • The electrochemical and charge storage properties of different lignins inside biopolymer electrodes were studied and correlated with the chemical variations of the lignins as indicated from the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic data. (diva-portal.org)
  • Whelk egg capsule biopolymer (WECB) possesses unusual tensile properties ( Rapoport and Shadwick, 2002 ). (biologists.org)
  • In addition to this moisture-induced crossover, many properties of the hydrated biopolymer are found to obey simple material models. (springer.com)
  • Genotoxicity of clays with potential use in biopolymers for food packaging Plastics produced from biopolymers are of commercial interest as they are manufactured from renewable resources such as agricultural crop wastes and have the potential to meet environmental and health requirements. (dtu.dk)
  • We have developed a macromolecular carrier based on the sequence of the biopolymer elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) that is able to aggregate upon reaching the externally heated tumor environment. (dovepress.com)
  • Elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) is a macromolecular biopolymer that can be used as a drug delivery targeting system. (dovepress.com)
  • Preferably, the biopolymer is a liquid crystal polypeptide, such as ferroelectric liquid crystal poly(.gamma. (mvssolutions.com)
  • Estimating the 3D pore size distribution of biopolymer networks from directionally biased data. (nih.gov)
  • Biopolymer Congress shares an insight into the recent research and Polymer nanotechnology, which gains immense interest with the colossal and exuberant presence of adepts, young and brilliant researchers, business delegates and talented student communities. (internano.org)
  • It's also provides platform to meet experts form other industries such food & beverage, product & packaging and automotive to discuss the latest strategies on commercialisation, application and market access of biopolymer products and methods to overcome current market challenges and maximise the opportunities. (wplgroup.com)
  • This indicates that quinones generated on S-units can contribute more to charge storage in the biopolymer electrodes. (diva-portal.org)
  • A drug delivery model based on swellable and reswellable low density biopolymers has been designed to evaluate its drug release profile using ranitidine (RNT) as a model drug and formulations have been prepared utilizing 3 2 factorial designs. (hindawi.com)
  • The objective is to evaluate the importance of this biopolymer in removing different metallic ions by the marine alga S. filipendula. (scielo.br)