Polymers synthesized by living organisms. They play a role in the formation of macromolecular structures and are synthesized via the covalent linkage of biological molecules, especially AMINO ACIDS; NUCLEOTIDES; and CARBOHYDRATES.
A plant genus of the family ARALIACEAE. Ciwujia extract, which is prepared from plants of this genus, contains ciwujianosides and is used to enhance PHYSICAL ENDURANCE.
Chemical and physical transformation of the biogenic elements from their nucleosynthesis in stars to their incorporation and subsequent modification in planetary bodies and terrestrial biochemistry. It includes the mechanism of incorporation of biogenic elements into complex molecules and molecular systems, leading up to the origin of life.
The origin of life. It includes studies of the potential basis for life in organic compounds but excludes studies of the development of altered forms of life through mutation and natural selection, which is BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION.
"Chemical Engineering is a branch of engineering that deals with the design, construction, and operation of plants and machinery for large-scale chemical processing of raw materials into finished or partially finished products and for the disposal or recycling of byproducts."
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Fatty acid biopolymers that are biosynthesized by microbial polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase enzymes. They are being investigated for use as biodegradable polyesters.
Deacetylated CHITIN, a linear polysaccharide of deacetylated beta-1,4-D-glucosamine. It is used in HYDROGEL and to treat WOUNDS.
'Elastin' is a highly elastic protein in connective tissue that allows many tissues in the body to resume their shape after stretching or contracting, such as the skin, lungs, and blood vessels.
The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.
Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Water swollen, rigid, 3-dimensional network of cross-linked, hydrophilic macromolecules, 20-95% water. They are used in paints, printing inks, foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The study of the deformation and flow of matter, usually liquids or fluids, and of the plastic flow of solids. The concept covers consistency, dilatancy, liquefaction, resistance to flow, shearing, thixotrophy, and VISCOSITY.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates consisting of long, often branched chains of repeating monosaccharide units joined together by glycosidic bonds, which serve as energy storage molecules (e.g., glycogen), structural components (e.g., cellulose), and molecular recognition sites in various biological systems.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.

Oligomerization and scaffolding functions of the erythropoietin receptor cytoplasmic tail. (1/1933)

Signal transduction by the erythropoietin receptor (EPOR) is activated by ligand-mediated receptor homodimerization. However, the relationship between extracellular and intracellular domain oligomerization remains poorly understood. To assess the requirements for dimerization of receptor cytoplasmic sequences for signaling, we overexpressed mutant EPORs in combination with wild-type (WT) EPOR to drive formation of heterodimeric (i.e. WT-mutant) receptor complexes. Dimerization of the membrane-proximal portion of the EPOR cytoplasmic region was found to be critical for the initiation of mitogenic signaling. However, dimerization of the entire EPOR cytoplasmic region was not required. To examine this process more closely, we generated chimeras between the intracellular and transmembrane portions of the EPOR and the extracellular domains of the interleukin-2 receptor beta and gammac chains. These chimeras allowed us to assess more precisely the signaling role of each receptor chain because only heterodimers of WT and mutant receptor chimeras form in the presence of interleukin-2. Coexpression studies demonstrated that a functional receptor complex requires the membrane-proximal region of each receptor subunit in the oligomer to permit activation of JAK2 but only one membrane-distal tail to activate STAT5 and to support cell proliferation. Thus, this study defines key relationships involved in the assembly and activation of the EPOR signal transduction complex which may be applicable to other homodimeric cytokine receptors.  (+info)

Mapping the functional domains of BRCA1. Interaction of the ring finger domains of BRCA1 and BARD1. (2/1933)

Breast cancer 1 (BRCA1) and BRCA1-associated RING domain 1 (BARD1) are multidomain proteins that interact in vivo via their N-terminal RING finger motif regions. To characterize functional aspects of the BRCA1/BARD1 interaction, we have defined the structural domains required for the interaction, as well as their oligomerization state, relative stability, and possible nucleic acid binding activity. We have found that the RING finger motifs do not themselves constitute stable structural domains but are instead part of larger domains comprising residues 1-109 of BRCA1 and residues 26-119 of BARD1. These domains exist as homodimers and preferentially form a stable heterodimer. Shorter BRCA1 RING finger constructs do not interact with BARD1 or with longer BRCA1 constructs, indicating that the heterodimeric and homodimer interactions are mediated by regions outside the canonical RING finger motif. Nucleic acid binding is a generally proposed function of RING finger domains. We show that neither the homodimers nor the heterodimer displays affinity for nucleic acids, indicating that the proposed roles of BRCA1 and BARD1 in DNA repair and/or transcriptional activation must be mediated either by other regions of the proteins or by additional cofactors.  (+info)

Recombinant human peroxisomal targeting signal receptor PEX5. Structural basis for interaction of PEX5 with PEX14. (3/1933)

Import of matrix proteins into peroxisomes requires two targeting signal-specific import receptors, Pex5p and Pex7p, and their binding partners at the peroxisomal membrane, Pex13p and Pex14p. Several constructs of human PEX5 have been overexpressed and purified by affinity chromatography in order to determine functionally important interactions and provide initial structural information. Sizing chromatography and electron microscopy suggest that the two isoforms of the human PTS1 receptor, PEX5L and PEX5S, form homotetramers. Surface plasmon resonance analysis indicates that PEX5 binds to the N-terminal fragment of PEX14-(1-78) with a very high affinity in the low nanomolar range. Stable complexes between recombinant PEX14-(1-78) and both the full-length and truncated versions of PEX5 were formed in vitro. Analysis of these complexes revealed that PEX5 possesses multiple binding sites for PEX14, which appear to be distributed throughout its N-terminal half. Coincidentally, this part of the molecule is also responsible for oligomerization, whereas the C-terminal half with its seven tetratricopeptide repeats has been reported to bind PTS1-proteins. A pentapeptide motif that is reiterated seven times in PEX5 is proposed as a determinant for the interaction with PEX14.  (+info)

Transforming growth factor-beta induces formation of a dithiothreitol-resistant type I/Type II receptor complex in live cells. (4/1933)

Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) binds to and signals via two serine-threonine kinase receptors, the type I (TbetaRI) and type II (TbetaRII) receptors. We have used different and complementary techniques to study the physical nature and ligand dependence of the complex formed by TbetaRI and TbetaRII. Velocity centrifugation of endogenous receptors suggests that ligand-bound TbetaRI and TbetaRII form a heteromeric complex that is most likely a heterotetramer. Antibody-mediated immunofluorescence co-patching of epitope-tagged receptors provides the first evidence in live cells that TbetaRI. TbetaRII complex formation occurs at a low but measurable degree in the absence of ligand, increasing significantly after TGF-beta binding. In addition, we demonstrate that pretreatment of cells with dithiothreitol, which inhibits the binding of TGF-beta to TbetaRI, does not prevent formation of the TbetaRI.TbetaRII complex, but increases its sensitivity to detergent and prevents TGF-beta-activated TbetaRI from phosphorylating Smad3 in vitro. This indicates that either a specific conformation of the TbetaRI. TbetaRII complex, disrupted by dithiothreitol, or direct binding of TGF-beta to TbetaRI is required for signaling.  (+info)

A novel PDZ domain containing guanine nucleotide exchange factor links heterotrimeric G proteins to Rho. (5/1933)

Small GTP-binding proteins of the Rho family play a critical role in signal transduction. However, there is still very limited information on how they are activated by cell surface receptors. Here, we used a consensus sequence for Dbl domains of Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) to search DNA data bases, and identified a novel human GEF for Rho-related GTPases harboring structural features indicative of its possible regulatory mechanism(s). This protein contained a tandem DH/PH domain closely related to those of Rho-specific GEFs, a PDZ domain, a proline-rich domain, and an area of homology to Lsc, p115-RhoGEF, and a Drosophila RhoGEF that was termed Lsc-homology (LH) domain. This novel molecule, designated PDZ-RhoGEF, activated biological and biochemical pathways specific for Rho, and activation of these pathways required an intact DH and PH domain. However, the PDZ domain was dispensable for these functions, and mutants lacking the LH domain were more active, suggesting a negative regulatory role for the LH domain. A search for additional molecules exhibiting an LH domain revealed a limited homology with the catalytic region of a newly identified GTPase-activating protein for heterotrimeric G proteins, RGS14. This prompted us to investigate whether PDZ-RhoGEF could interact with representative members of each G protein family. We found that PDZ-RhoGEF was able to form, in vivo, stable complexes with two members of the Galpha12 family, Galpha12 and Galpha13, and that this interaction was mediated by the LH domain. Furthermore, we obtained evidence to suggest that PDZ-RhoGEF mediates the activation of Rho by Galpha12 and Galpha13. Together, these findings suggest the existence of a novel mechanism whereby the large family of cell surface receptors that transmit signals through heterotrimeric G proteins activate Rho-dependent pathways: by stimulating the activity of members of the Galpha12 family which, in turn, activate an exchange factor acting on Rho.  (+info)

Prion domain initiation of amyloid formation in vitro from native Ure2p. (6/1933)

The [URE3] non-Mendelian genetic element of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an infectious protein (prion) form of Ure2p, a regulator of nitrogen catabolism. Here, synthetic Ure2p1-65 were shown to polymerize to form filaments 40 to 45 angstroms in diameter with more than 60 percent beta sheet. Ure2p1-65 specifically induced full-length native Ure2p to copolymerize under conditions where native Ure2p alone did not polymerize. Like Ure2p in extracts of [URE3] strains, these 180- to 220-angstrom-diameter filaments were protease resistant. The Ure2p1-65-Ure2p cofilaments could seed polymerization of native Ure2p to form thicker, less regular filaments. All filaments stained with Congo Red to produce the green birefringence typical of amyloid. This self-propagating amyloid formation can explain the properties of [URE3].  (+info)

Surface-induced polymerization of actin. (7/1933)

Living cells contain a very large amount of membrane surface area, which potentially influences the direction, the kinetics, and the localization of biochemical reactions. This paper quantitatively evaluates the possibility that a lipid monolayer can adsorb actin from a nonpolymerizing solution, induce its polymerization, and form a 2D network of individual actin filaments, in conditions that forbid bulk polymerization. G- and F-actin solutions were studied beneath saturated Langmuir monolayers containing phosphatidylcholine (PC, neutral) and stearylamine (SA, a positively charged surfactant) at PC:SA = 3:1 molar ratio. Ellipsometry, tensiometry, shear elastic measurements, electron microscopy, and dark-field light microscopy were used to characterize the adsorption kinetics and the interfacial polymerization of actin. In all cases studied, actin follows a monoexponential reaction-limited adsorption with similar time constants (approximately 10(3) s). At a longer time scale the shear elasticity of the monomeric actin adsorbate increases only in the presence of lipids, to a 2D shear elastic modulus of mu approximately 30 mN/m, indicating the formation of a structure coupled to the monolayer. Electron microscopy shows the formation of a 2D network of actin filaments at the PC:SA surface, and several arguments strongly suggest that this network is indeed causing the observed elasticity. Adsorption of F-actin to PC:SA leads more quickly to a slightly more rigid interface with a modulus of mu approximately 50 mN/m.  (+info)

Switch from an aquaporin to a glycerol channel by two amino acids substitution. (8/1933)

The MIP (major intrinsic protein) proteins constitute a channel family of currently 150 members that have been identified in cell membranes of organisms ranging from bacteria to man. Among these proteins, two functionally distinct subgroups are characterized: aquaporins that allow specific water transfer and glycerol channels that are involved in glycerol and small neutral solutes transport. Since the flow of small molecules across cell membranes is vital for every living organism, the study of such proteins is of particular interest. For instance, aquaporins located in kidney cell membranes are responsible for reabsorption of 150 liters of water/day in adult human. To understand the molecular mechanisms of solute transport specificity, we analyzed mutant aquaporins in which highly conserved residues have been substituted by amino acids located at the same positions in glycerol channels. Here, we show that substitution of a tyrosine and a tryptophan by a proline and a leucine, respectively, in the sixth transmembrane helix of an aquaporin leads to a switch in the selectivity of the channel, from water to glycerol.  (+info)

Biopolymers are large molecules composed of repeating subunits known as monomers, which are derived from living organisms or synthesized by them. They can be natural or synthetic and are often classified based on their origin and structure. Some examples of biopolymers include proteins, nucleic acids (DNA and RNA), polysaccharides (such as cellulose and starch), and some types of polyesters (such as polyhydroxyalkanoates or PHAs). Biopolymers have a wide range of applications in various industries, including medicine, food, packaging, and biotechnology.

"Acanthopanax" is a genus of shrubs and small trees in the family Araliaceae. It includes several species native to Asia, such as Acanthopanax senticosus (also known as Eleutherococcus senticosus or Siberian ginseng) and Acanthopanax gracilistylus (also known as Mikania cordata or Japanese tea). These plants have been used in traditional medicine for various purposes, including boosting the immune system, increasing energy, and reducing stress. However, it's important to note that the scientific evidence supporting these uses is limited, and more research is needed before any firm conclusions can be drawn.

Therefore, "Acanthopanax" itself does not have a specific medical definition as it refers to a genus of plants with various proposed medicinal properties.

Chemical evolution is a term that refers to the set of processes thought to have given rise to life from simple inorganic compounds. It is a prebiotic process, meaning it occurred before the existence of life. The fundamental idea behind chemical evolution is that simple chemicals underwent a series of transformations, eventually leading to the formation of complex organic molecules necessary for life, such as amino acids, nucleotides, and lipids. These building blocks then came together to form the first self-replicating entities, which are considered the precursors to modern cells.

The concept of chemical evolution is based on several key observations and experiments. For example, it has been shown that simple inorganic compounds can be transformed into more complex organic molecules under conditions believed to have existed on early Earth, such as those found near hydrothermal vents or in the presence of ultraviolet radiation. Additionally, experiments using simulated prebiotic conditions have produced a variety of biologically relevant molecules, supporting the plausibility of chemical evolution.

It is important to note that chemical evolution does not necessarily imply that life emerged spontaneously or randomly; rather, it suggests that natural processes led to the formation of complex molecules that eventually gave rise to living organisms. The exact mechanisms and pathways by which this occurred are still subjects of ongoing research and debate in the scientific community.

Biogenesis is the biological process by which living organisms reproduce or generate new individuals through reproduction. This term also refers to the idea that a living organism can only arise from another living organism, and not from non-living matter. It was first proposed as a hypothesis by Thomas Henry Huxley in 1870, and later supported by the work of Louis Pasteur in the mid-19th century, who demonstrated that microorganisms could not spontaneously generate from non-living matter. This concept is now widely accepted in biology and is a fundamental principle of modern cell theory.

Chemical engineering is a branch of engineering that deals with the design, construction, and operation of plants and machinery for the large-scale production or processing of chemicals, fuels, foods, pharmaceuticals, and biologicals, as well as the development of new materials and technologies. It involves the application of principles of chemistry, physics, mathematics, biology, and economics to optimize chemical processes that convert raw materials into valuable products. Chemical engineers are also involved in developing and improving environmental protection methods, such as pollution control and waste management. They work in a variety of industries, including pharmaceuticals, energy, food processing, and environmental protection.

In the context of medical definitions, polymers are large molecules composed of repeating subunits called monomers. These long chains of monomers can have various structures and properties, depending on the type of monomer units and how they are linked together. In medicine, polymers are used in a wide range of applications, including drug delivery systems, medical devices, and tissue engineering scaffolds. Some examples of polymers used in medicine include polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and biodegradable polymers such as polylactic acid (PLA) and polycaprolactone (PCL).

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are naturally occurring, biodegradable polyesters accumulated by some bacteria as intracellular granules under conditions of limiting nutrients, typically carbon source excess and nutrient deficiency. They serve as a form of energy reserve and can be produced from renewable resources such as sugars, lipids, or organic acids. PHAs have potential applications in various fields including packaging, agriculture, pharmaceuticals, and medicine due to their biodegradability and biocompatibility.

Chitosan is a complex carbohydrate that is derived from the exoskeletons of crustaceans, such as shrimp and crabs. It is made up of chains of N-acetyl-d-glucosamine and d-glucosamine units. Chitosan has been studied for its potential medical and health benefits, including its ability to lower cholesterol levels, promote weight loss, and help control blood sugar levels. It is also used in wound care products due to its antibacterial and absorbent properties. However, more research is needed to confirm these potential benefits and establish recommended dosages and safety guidelines.

Elastin is a protein that provides elasticity to tissues and organs, allowing them to resume their shape after stretching or contracting. It is a major component of the extracellular matrix in many tissues, including the skin, lungs, blood vessels, and ligaments. Elastin fibers can stretch up to 1.5 times their original length and then return to their original shape due to the unique properties of this protein. The elastin molecule is made up of cross-linked chains of the protein tropoelastin, which are produced by cells called fibroblasts and then assembled into larger elastin fibers by enzymes called lysyl oxidases. Elastin has a very long half-life, with some estimates suggesting that it can remain in the body for up to 70 years or more.

Viscosity is a physical property of a fluid that describes its resistance to flow. In medical terms, viscosity is often discussed in relation to bodily fluids such as blood or synovial fluid (found in joints). The unit of measurement for viscosity is the poise, although it is more commonly expressed in millipascals-second (mPa.s) in SI units. Highly viscous fluids flow more slowly than less viscous fluids. Changes in the viscosity of bodily fluids can have significant implications for health and disease; for example, increased blood viscosity has been associated with cardiovascular diseases, while decreased synovial fluid viscosity can contribute to joint pain and inflammation in conditions like osteoarthritis.

Biocompatible materials are non-toxic and non-reacting substances that can be used in medical devices, tissue engineering, and drug delivery systems without causing harm or adverse reactions to living tissues or organs. These materials are designed to mimic the properties of natural tissues and are able to integrate with biological systems without being rejected by the body's immune system.

Biocompatible materials can be made from a variety of substances, including metals, ceramics, polymers, and composites. The specific properties of these materials, such as their mechanical strength, flexibility, and biodegradability, are carefully selected to meet the requirements of their intended medical application.

Examples of biocompatible materials include titanium used in dental implants and joint replacements, polyethylene used in artificial hips, and hydrogels used in contact lenses and drug delivery systems. The use of biocompatible materials has revolutionized modern medicine by enabling the development of advanced medical technologies that can improve patient outcomes and quality of life.

In medical terms, "gels" are semi-solid colloidal systems in which a solid phase is dispersed in a liquid medium. They have a viscous consistency and can be described as a cross between a solid and a liquid. The solid particles, called the gel network, absorb and swell with the liquid component, creating a system that has properties of both solids and liquids.

Gels are widely used in medical applications such as wound dressings, drug delivery systems, and tissue engineering due to their unique properties. They can provide a moist environment for wounds to heal, control the release of drugs over time, and mimic the mechanical properties of natural tissues.

Nanotechnology is not a medical term per se, but it is a field of study with potential applications in medicine. According to the National Nanotechnology Initiative, nanotechnology is defined as "the understanding and control of matter at the nanoscale, at dimensions between approximately 1 and 100 nanometers, where unique phenomena enable novel applications."

In the context of medicine, nanotechnology has the potential to revolutionize the way we diagnose, treat, and prevent diseases. Nanomedicine involves the use of nanoscale materials, devices, or systems for medical applications. These can include drug delivery systems that target specific cells or tissues, diagnostic tools that detect biomarkers at the molecular level, and tissue engineering strategies that promote regeneration and repair.

While nanotechnology holds great promise for medicine, it is still a relatively new field with many challenges to overcome, including issues related to safety, regulation, and scalability.

In the context of medical terminology, "solutions" refers to a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances, in which one substance (the solute) is uniformly distributed within another substance (the solvent). The solvent is typically the greater component of the solution and is capable of dissolving the solute.

Solutions can be classified based on the physical state of the solvent and solute. For instance, a solution in which both the solvent and solute are liquids is called a liquid solution or simply a solution. A solid solution is one where the solvent is a solid and the solute is either a gas, liquid, or solid. Similarly, a gas solution refers to a mixture where the solvent is a gas and the solute can be a gas, liquid, or solid.

In medical applications, solutions are often used as vehicles for administering medications, such as intravenous (IV) fluids, oral rehydration solutions, eye drops, and topical creams or ointments. The composition of these solutions is carefully controlled to ensure the appropriate concentration and delivery of the active ingredients.

Biotechnology is defined in the medical field as a branch of technology that utilizes biological processes, organisms, or systems to create products that are technologically useful. This can include various methods and techniques such as genetic engineering, cell culture, fermentation, and others. The goal of biotechnology is to harness the power of biology to produce drugs, vaccines, diagnostic tests, biofuels, and other industrial products, as well as to advance our understanding of living systems for medical and scientific research.

The use of biotechnology has led to significant advances in medicine, including the development of new treatments for genetic diseases, improved methods for diagnosing illnesses, and the creation of vaccines to prevent infectious diseases. However, it also raises ethical and societal concerns related to issues such as genetic modification of organisms, cloning, and biosecurity.

A chemical model is a simplified representation or description of a chemical system, based on the laws of chemistry and physics. It is used to explain and predict the behavior of chemicals and chemical reactions. Chemical models can take many forms, including mathematical equations, diagrams, and computer simulations. They are often used in research, education, and industry to understand complex chemical processes and develop new products and technologies.

For example, a chemical model might be used to describe the way that atoms and molecules interact in a particular reaction, or to predict the properties of a new material. Chemical models can also be used to study the behavior of chemicals at the molecular level, such as how they bind to each other or how they are affected by changes in temperature or pressure.

It is important to note that chemical models are simplifications of reality and may not always accurately represent every aspect of a chemical system. They should be used with caution and validated against experimental data whenever possible.

Hydrogels are defined in the medical and biomedical fields as cross-linked, hydrophilic polymer networks that have the ability to swell and retain a significant amount of water or biological fluids while maintaining their structure. They can be synthesized from natural, synthetic, or hybrid polymers.

Hydrogels are known for their biocompatibility, high water content, and soft consistency, which resemble natural tissues, making them suitable for various medical applications such as contact lenses, drug delivery systems, tissue engineering, wound dressing, and biosensors. The physical and chemical properties of hydrogels can be tailored to specific uses by adjusting the polymer composition, cross-linking density, and network structure.

Molecular conformation, also known as spatial arrangement or configuration, refers to the specific three-dimensional shape and orientation of atoms that make up a molecule. It describes the precise manner in which bonds between atoms are arranged around a molecular framework, taking into account factors such as bond lengths, bond angles, and torsional angles.

Conformational isomers, or conformers, are different spatial arrangements of the same molecule that can interconvert without breaking chemical bonds. These isomers may have varying energies, stability, and reactivity, which can significantly impact a molecule's biological activity and function. Understanding molecular conformation is crucial in fields such as drug design, where small changes in conformation can lead to substantial differences in how a drug interacts with its target.

In medicine, elasticity refers to the ability of a tissue or organ to return to its original shape after being stretched or deformed. This property is due to the presence of elastic fibers in the extracellular matrix of the tissue, which can stretch and recoil like rubber bands.

Elasticity is an important characteristic of many tissues, particularly those that are subjected to repeated stretching or compression, such as blood vessels, lungs, and skin. For example, the elasticity of the lungs allows them to expand and contract during breathing, while the elasticity of blood vessels helps maintain normal blood pressure by allowing them to expand and constrict in response to changes in blood flow.

In addition to its role in normal physiology, elasticity is also an important factor in the diagnosis and treatment of various medical conditions. For example, decreased elasticity in the lungs can be a sign of lung disease, while increased elasticity in the skin can be a sign of aging or certain genetic disorders. Medical professionals may use techniques such as pulmonary function tests or skin biopsies to assess elasticity and help diagnose these conditions.

Molecular models are three-dimensional representations of molecular structures that are used in the field of molecular biology and chemistry to visualize and understand the spatial arrangement of atoms and bonds within a molecule. These models can be physical or computer-generated and allow researchers to study the shape, size, and behavior of molecules, which is crucial for understanding their function and interactions with other molecules.

Physical molecular models are often made up of balls (representing atoms) connected by rods or sticks (representing bonds). These models can be constructed manually using materials such as plastic or wooden balls and rods, or they can be created using 3D printing technology.

Computer-generated molecular models, on the other hand, are created using specialized software that allows researchers to visualize and manipulate molecular structures in three dimensions. These models can be used to simulate molecular interactions, predict molecular behavior, and design new drugs or chemicals with specific properties. Overall, molecular models play a critical role in advancing our understanding of molecular structures and their functions.

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the genetic material present in the cells of organisms where it is responsible for the storage and transmission of hereditary information. DNA is a long molecule that consists of two strands coiled together to form a double helix. Each strand is made up of a series of four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - that are linked together by phosphate and sugar groups. The sequence of these bases along the length of the molecule encodes genetic information, with A always pairing with T and C always pairing with G. This base-pairing allows for the replication and transcription of DNA, which are essential processes in the functioning and reproduction of all living organisms.

Rheology is not a term that is specific to medicine, but rather it is a term used in the field of physics to describe the flow and deformation of matter. It specifically refers to the study of how materials flow or deform under various stresses or strains. This concept can be applied to various medical fields such as studying the flow properties of blood (hematology), understanding the movement of tissues and organs during surgical procedures, or analyzing the mechanical behavior of biological materials like bones and cartilages.

Proteins are complex, large molecules that play critical roles in the body's functions. They are made up of amino acids, which are organic compounds that are the building blocks of proteins. Proteins are required for the structure, function, and regulation of the body's tissues and organs. They are essential for the growth, repair, and maintenance of body tissues, and they play a crucial role in many biological processes, including metabolism, immune response, and cellular signaling. Proteins can be classified into different types based on their structure and function, such as enzymes, hormones, antibodies, and structural proteins. They are found in various foods, especially animal-derived products like meat, dairy, and eggs, as well as plant-based sources like beans, nuts, and grains.

Molecular structure, in the context of biochemistry and molecular biology, refers to the arrangement and organization of atoms and chemical bonds within a molecule. It describes the three-dimensional layout of the constituent elements, including their spatial relationships, bond lengths, and angles. Understanding molecular structure is crucial for elucidating the functions and reactivities of biological macromolecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates. Various experimental techniques, like X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), are employed to determine molecular structures at atomic resolution, providing valuable insights into their biological roles and potential therapeutic targets.

Nucleic acid conformation refers to the three-dimensional structure that nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) adopt as a result of the bonding patterns between the atoms within the molecule. The primary structure of nucleic acids is determined by the sequence of nucleotides, while the conformation is influenced by factors such as the sugar-phosphate backbone, base stacking, and hydrogen bonding.

Two common conformations of DNA are the B-form and the A-form. The B-form is a right-handed helix with a diameter of about 20 Å and a pitch of 34 Å, while the A-form has a smaller diameter (about 18 Å) and a shorter pitch (about 25 Å). RNA typically adopts an A-form conformation.

The conformation of nucleic acids can have significant implications for their function, as it can affect their ability to interact with other molecules such as proteins or drugs. Understanding the conformational properties of nucleic acids is therefore an important area of research in molecular biology and medicine.

Temperature, in a medical context, is a measure of the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment. It is usually measured using a thermometer and reported in degrees Celsius (°C), degrees Fahrenheit (°F), or kelvin (K). In the human body, normal core temperature ranges from about 36.5-37.5°C (97.7-99.5°F) when measured rectally, and can vary slightly depending on factors such as time of day, physical activity, and menstrual cycle. Elevated body temperature is a common sign of infection or inflammation, while abnormally low body temperature can indicate hypothermia or other medical conditions.

Hydrophobic interactions: These are the interactions that occur between non-polar molecules or groups of atoms in an aqueous environment, leading to their association or aggregation. The term "hydrophobic" means "water-fearing" and describes the tendency of non-polar substances to repel water. When non-polar molecules or groups are placed in water, they tend to clump together to minimize contact with the polar water molecules. These interactions are primarily driven by the entropy increase of the system as a whole, rather than energy minimization. Hydrophobic interactions play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as protein folding, membrane formation, and molecular self-assembly.

Hydrophilic interactions: These are the interactions that occur between polar molecules or groups of atoms and water molecules. The term "hydrophilic" means "water-loving" and describes the attraction of polar substances to water. When polar molecules or groups are placed in water, they can form hydrogen bonds with the surrounding water molecules, which helps solvate them. Hydrophilic interactions contribute to the stability and functionality of various biological systems, such as protein structure, ion transport across membranes, and enzyme catalysis.

Peptides are short chains of amino acid residues linked by covalent bonds, known as peptide bonds. They are formed when two or more amino acids are joined together through a condensation reaction, which results in the elimination of a water molecule and the formation of an amide bond between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another.

Peptides can vary in length from two to about fifty amino acids, and they are often classified based on their size. For example, dipeptides contain two amino acids, tripeptides contain three, and so on. Oligopeptides typically contain up to ten amino acids, while polypeptides can contain dozens or even hundreds of amino acids.

Peptides play many important roles in the body, including serving as hormones, neurotransmitters, enzymes, and antibiotics. They are also used in medical research and therapeutic applications, such as drug delivery and tissue engineering.

Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is a type of microscopy that allows visualization and measurement of surfaces at the atomic level. It works by using a sharp probe, called a tip, that is mounted on a flexible cantilever. The tip is brought very close to the surface of the sample and as the sample is scanned, the forces between the tip and the sample cause the cantilever to deflect. This deflection is measured and used to generate a topographic map of the surface with extremely high resolution, often on the order of fractions of a nanometer. AFM can be used to study both conductive and non-conductive samples, and can operate in various environments, including air and liquid. It has applications in fields such as materials science, biology, and chemistry.

Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is a type of infrared spectroscopy that uses the Fourier transform mathematical technique to convert the raw data obtained from an interferometer into a more interpretable spectrum. This technique allows for the simultaneous collection of a wide range of wavelengths, resulting in increased sensitivity and speed compared to traditional dispersive infrared spectroscopy.

FTIR spectroscopy measures the absorption or transmission of infrared radiation by a sample as a function of frequency, providing information about the vibrational modes of the molecules present in the sample. This can be used for identification and quantification of chemical compounds, analysis of molecular structure, and investigation of chemical interactions and reactions.

In summary, FTIR spectroscopy is a powerful analytical technique that uses infrared radiation to study the vibrational properties of molecules, with increased sensitivity and speed due to the use of Fourier transform mathematical techniques and an interferometer.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "thermodynamics" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is a branch of physics that deals with the relationships between heat and other forms of energy. However, the principles of thermodynamics can be applied to biological systems, including those in the human body, such as in the study of metabolism or muscle function. But in a medical context, "thermodynamics" would not be a term used independently as a diagnosis, treatment, or any medical condition.

Tissue engineering is a branch of biomedical engineering that combines the principles of engineering, materials science, and biological sciences to develop functional substitutes for damaged or diseased tissues and organs. It involves the creation of living, three-dimensional structures that can restore, maintain, or improve tissue function. This is typically accomplished through the use of cells, scaffolds (biodegradable matrices), and biologically active molecules. The goal of tissue engineering is to develop biological substitutes that can ultimately restore normal function and structure in damaged tissues or organs.

Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) is a non-invasive diagnostic technique that provides information about the biochemical composition of tissues, including their metabolic state. It is often used in conjunction with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to analyze various metabolites within body tissues, such as the brain, heart, liver, and muscles.

During MRS, a strong magnetic field, radio waves, and a computer are used to produce detailed images and data about the concentration of specific metabolites in the targeted tissue or organ. This technique can help detect abnormalities related to energy metabolism, neurotransmitter levels, pH balance, and other biochemical processes, which can be useful for diagnosing and monitoring various medical conditions, including cancer, neurological disorders, and metabolic diseases.

There are different types of MRS, such as Proton (^1^H) MRS, Phosphorus-31 (^31^P) MRS, and Carbon-13 (^13^C) MRS, each focusing on specific elements or metabolites within the body. The choice of MRS technique depends on the clinical question being addressed and the type of information needed for diagnosis or monitoring purposes.

Solubility is a fundamental concept in pharmaceutical sciences and medicine, which refers to the maximum amount of a substance (solute) that can be dissolved in a given quantity of solvent (usually water) at a specific temperature and pressure. Solubility is typically expressed as mass of solute per volume or mass of solvent (e.g., grams per liter, milligrams per milliliter). The process of dissolving a solute in a solvent results in a homogeneous solution where the solute particles are dispersed uniformly throughout the solvent.

Understanding the solubility of drugs is crucial for their formulation, administration, and therapeutic effectiveness. Drugs with low solubility may not dissolve sufficiently to produce the desired pharmacological effect, while those with high solubility might lead to rapid absorption and short duration of action. Therefore, optimizing drug solubility through various techniques like particle size reduction, salt formation, or solubilization is an essential aspect of drug development and delivery.

Polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates consisting of long chains of monosaccharide units (simple sugars) bonded together by glycosidic linkages. They can be classified based on the type of monosaccharides and the nature of the bonds that connect them.

Polysaccharides have various functions in living organisms. For example, starch and glycogen serve as energy storage molecules in plants and animals, respectively. Cellulose provides structural support in plants, while chitin is a key component of fungal cell walls and arthropod exoskeletons.

Some polysaccharides also have important roles in the human body, such as being part of the extracellular matrix (e.g., hyaluronic acid) or acting as blood group antigens (e.g., ABO blood group substances).

A computer simulation is a process that involves creating a model of a real-world system or phenomenon on a computer and then using that model to run experiments and make predictions about how the system will behave under different conditions. In the medical field, computer simulations are used for a variety of purposes, including:

1. Training and education: Computer simulations can be used to create realistic virtual environments where medical students and professionals can practice their skills and learn new procedures without risk to actual patients. For example, surgeons may use simulation software to practice complex surgical techniques before performing them on real patients.
2. Research and development: Computer simulations can help medical researchers study the behavior of biological systems at a level of detail that would be difficult or impossible to achieve through experimental methods alone. By creating detailed models of cells, tissues, organs, or even entire organisms, researchers can use simulation software to explore how these systems function and how they respond to different stimuli.
3. Drug discovery and development: Computer simulations are an essential tool in modern drug discovery and development. By modeling the behavior of drugs at a molecular level, researchers can predict how they will interact with their targets in the body and identify potential side effects or toxicities. This information can help guide the design of new drugs and reduce the need for expensive and time-consuming clinical trials.
4. Personalized medicine: Computer simulations can be used to create personalized models of individual patients based on their unique genetic, physiological, and environmental characteristics. These models can then be used to predict how a patient will respond to different treatments and identify the most effective therapy for their specific condition.

Overall, computer simulations are a powerful tool in modern medicine, enabling researchers and clinicians to study complex systems and make predictions about how they will behave under a wide range of conditions. By providing insights into the behavior of biological systems at a level of detail that would be difficult or impossible to achieve through experimental methods alone, computer simulations are helping to advance our understanding of human health and disease.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Protein conformation refers to the specific three-dimensional shape that a protein molecule assumes due to the spatial arrangement of its constituent amino acid residues and their associated chemical groups. This complex structure is determined by several factors, including covalent bonds (disulfide bridges), hydrogen bonds, van der Waals forces, and ionic bonds, which help stabilize the protein's unique conformation.

Protein conformations can be broadly classified into two categories: primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures. The primary structure represents the linear sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain. The secondary structure arises from local interactions between adjacent amino acid residues, leading to the formation of recurring motifs such as α-helices and β-sheets. Tertiary structure refers to the overall three-dimensional folding pattern of a single polypeptide chain, while quaternary structure describes the spatial arrangement of multiple folded polypeptide chains (subunits) that interact to form a functional protein complex.

Understanding protein conformation is crucial for elucidating protein function, as the specific three-dimensional shape of a protein directly influences its ability to interact with other molecules, such as ligands, nucleic acids, or other proteins. Any alterations in protein conformation due to genetic mutations, environmental factors, or chemical modifications can lead to loss of function, misfolding, aggregation, and disease states like neurodegenerative disorders and cancer.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Mechanical stress, in the context of physiology and medicine, refers to any type of force that is applied to body tissues or organs, which can cause deformation or displacement of those structures. Mechanical stress can be either external, such as forces exerted on the body during physical activity or trauma, or internal, such as the pressure changes that occur within blood vessels or other hollow organs.

Mechanical stress can have a variety of effects on the body, depending on the type, duration, and magnitude of the force applied. For example, prolonged exposure to mechanical stress can lead to tissue damage, inflammation, and chronic pain. Additionally, abnormal or excessive mechanical stress can contribute to the development of various musculoskeletal disorders, such as tendinitis, osteoarthritis, and herniated discs.

In order to mitigate the negative effects of mechanical stress, the body has a number of adaptive responses that help to distribute forces more evenly across tissues and maintain structural integrity. These responses include changes in muscle tone, joint positioning, and connective tissue stiffness, as well as the remodeling of bone and other tissues over time. However, when these adaptive mechanisms are overwhelmed or impaired, mechanical stress can become a significant factor in the development of various pathological conditions.

Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that are among the earliest known life forms on Earth. They are typically characterized as having a cell wall and no membrane-bound organelles. The majority of bacteria have a prokaryotic organization, meaning they lack a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles.

Bacteria exist in diverse environments and can be found in every habitat on Earth, including soil, water, and the bodies of plants and animals. Some bacteria are beneficial to their hosts, while others can cause disease. Beneficial bacteria play important roles in processes such as digestion, nitrogen fixation, and biogeochemical cycling.

Bacteria reproduce asexually through binary fission or budding, and some species can also exchange genetic material through conjugation. They have a wide range of metabolic capabilities, with many using organic compounds as their source of energy, while others are capable of photosynthesis or chemosynthesis.

Bacteria are highly adaptable and can evolve rapidly in response to environmental changes. This has led to the development of antibiotic resistance in some species, which poses a significant public health challenge. Understanding the biology and behavior of bacteria is essential for developing strategies to prevent and treat bacterial infections and diseases.

Medical definitions of water generally describe it as a colorless, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for all forms of life. It is a universal solvent, making it an excellent medium for transporting nutrients and waste products within the body. Water constitutes about 50-70% of an individual's body weight, depending on factors such as age, sex, and muscle mass.

In medical terms, water has several important functions in the human body:

1. Regulation of body temperature through perspiration and respiration.
2. Acting as a lubricant for joints and tissues.
3. Facilitating digestion by helping to break down food particles.
4. Transporting nutrients, oxygen, and waste products throughout the body.
5. Helping to maintain healthy skin and mucous membranes.
6. Assisting in the regulation of various bodily functions, such as blood pressure and heart rate.

Dehydration can occur when an individual does not consume enough water or loses too much fluid due to illness, exercise, or other factors. This can lead to a variety of symptoms, including dry mouth, fatigue, dizziness, and confusion. Severe dehydration can be life-threatening if left untreated.

Biomechanics is the application of mechanical laws to living structures and systems, particularly in the field of medicine and healthcare. A biomechanical phenomenon refers to a observable event or occurrence that involves the interaction of biological tissues or systems with mechanical forces. These phenomena can be studied at various levels, from the molecular and cellular level to the tissue, organ, and whole-body level.

Examples of biomechanical phenomena include:

1. The way that bones and muscles work together to produce movement (known as joint kinematics).
2. The mechanical behavior of biological tissues such as bone, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments under various loads and stresses.
3. The response of cells and tissues to mechanical stimuli, such as the way that bone tissue adapts to changes in loading conditions (known as Wolff's law).
4. The biomechanics of injury and disease processes, such as the mechanisms of joint injury or the development of osteoarthritis.
5. The use of mechanical devices and interventions to treat medical conditions, such as orthopedic implants or assistive devices for mobility impairments.

Understanding biomechanical phenomena is essential for developing effective treatments and prevention strategies for a wide range of medical conditions, from musculoskeletal injuries to neurological disorders.

Hydrogen-ion concentration, also known as pH, is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. It is defined as the negative logarithm (to the base 10) of the hydrogen ion activity in a solution. The standard unit of measurement is the pH unit. A pH of 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, and greater than 7 is basic.

In medical terms, hydrogen-ion concentration is important for maintaining homeostasis within the body. For example, in the stomach, a high hydrogen-ion concentration (low pH) is necessary for the digestion of food. However, in other parts of the body such as blood, a high hydrogen-ion concentration can be harmful and lead to acidosis. Conversely, a low hydrogen-ion concentration (high pH) in the blood can lead to alkalosis. Both acidosis and alkalosis can have serious consequences on various organ systems if not corrected.

RNA (Ribonucleic Acid) is a single-stranded, linear polymer of ribonucleotides. It is a nucleic acid present in the cells of all living organisms and some viruses. RNAs play crucial roles in various biological processes such as protein synthesis, gene regulation, and cellular signaling. There are several types of RNA including messenger RNA (mRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), small nuclear RNA (snRNA), microRNA (miRNA), and long non-coding RNA (lncRNA). These RNAs differ in their structure, function, and location within the cell.

An algorithm is not a medical term, but rather a concept from computer science and mathematics. In the context of medicine, algorithms are often used to describe step-by-step procedures for diagnosing or managing medical conditions. These procedures typically involve a series of rules or decision points that help healthcare professionals make informed decisions about patient care.

For example, an algorithm for diagnosing a particular type of heart disease might involve taking a patient's medical history, performing a physical exam, ordering certain diagnostic tests, and interpreting the results in a specific way. By following this algorithm, healthcare professionals can ensure that they are using a consistent and evidence-based approach to making a diagnosis.

Algorithms can also be used to guide treatment decisions. For instance, an algorithm for managing diabetes might involve setting target blood sugar levels, recommending certain medications or lifestyle changes based on the patient's individual needs, and monitoring the patient's response to treatment over time.

Overall, algorithms are valuable tools in medicine because they help standardize clinical decision-making and ensure that patients receive high-quality care based on the latest scientific evidence.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Biopolymers and Cell Web site Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics of NASU Web site 2010-Biopolymers and Cell Celebrates ... Biopolymers and Cell (Biopolym. Cell) is a scientific journal issued by the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and ... Biopolymers and Cell is indexed and/or abstracted in: Scopus, SJR, Index Copernicus, BIOSIS Previews, elibrary.ru, Medical ... Matsuka, the founder of Biopolymers and Cell was a director of [Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics]. He was succeeded ...
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Metabolix winds down biopolymers business by Michael McCoy August 1, 2016 , A version of this story appeared in Volume 94, ...
Biopolymers are of two main types: biopolymers that come from living organisms; and, biopolymers which need to be polymerized ... Biopolymers introduction Types of biopolymers Carbohydrates Proteins Lipids Nucleic acids Contents 3. So biopolymers have ... Biopolymers of a particular type contain the same sequence and number of monomers and thus all have the same mass. Biopolymers ... Each biopolymer and many of them we understand as a examples of biopolymers made up of two or more molecules, together..., ...
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With the advent of new biopolymer systems, it is necessary to obtain insights into the fundamental structures of these systems ... The synthesis of nanoparticles and nanofibers from biopolymers provides a green platform relative to the conventional methods ... biopolymers have the advantage of biocompatibility and biodegradability, an imperative requirement. ... Natural biopolymers, a class of materials extracted from renewable sources, is garnering interest due to growing concerns over ...
Insight on Extraction and Characterisation of Biopolymers as the Green Coagulants for Microalgae Harvesting by Teik-Hun Ang ... Lim, B.-C.; Lim, J.-W.; Ho, Y.-C. Garden cress mucilage as a potential emerging biopolymer for improving turbidity removal in ... When acid is added, the free amino groups are protonated and the biopolymer becomes fully soluble [66]. Most of the preparation ... There is also strong evidence that the use of biopolymer and plant-based materials has been increasing and penetrating into ...
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Metabolix Finds New Production Partner for Mirel PHA Biopolymer It will be fall planting season soon and with that the ...
Han J, Du Y, Shang W, Yan J, Wu H, Zhu B, Xiao H. Fabrication of surface-active antioxidant biopolymers by using a grafted ... "Biopolymers" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Hu Y, Liu F, Pang J, McClements DJ, Zhou Z, Li B, Li Y. Biopolymer Additives Enhance Tangeretin Bioavailability in Emulsion- ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Biopolymers" by people in this website by year, and whether " ...
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... Tweet India Science Wire New Delhi, Tuesday, 31 January, 2023 Team of ... Radhika Tandon, Department of Ophthalmology, have developed a biopolymer-based scaffold, PCL, as a substitute to HAM (Human ...
This review sets out to examine the current trends in biopolymer science and is accompanied by over 400 abstracts from papers ... Biopolymers may offer a solution to both these issues in the long-term. The ideal biopolymer is both of renewable biological ... 4. Uses of Biopolymers. 4.1 General Uses. 4.2 Uses of Specific Polymer Types 5. Manufacturing Technologies for Biopolymers. 5.1 ... 6. Fillers and Reinforcement for Biopolymers 7.The Markets and Economics for Biopolymers 8.Compostability Certification 9.The ...
The initiative is an important advance in the companys ambition to increase the production of biopolymers to one million tons ... Braskem Invests $87 Million More in Brazilian Biopolymer Production. Article-Braskem Invests $87 Million More in Brazilian ...
2015) Nonlinearities of biopolymer gels increase the range of force transmission Physical Review E 92:032728. ... Deformation fields in non-linear biopolymer networks.. (a) Brightfield image of a tumor spheroid grown from 4000 primary, ... 2016) Three-dimensional force microscopy of cells in biopolymer networks Nature Methods 13:171-176. ... Deformation fields in non-linear biopolymer networks. The collapse of the normalized deformation versus distance relationship ...
  • Gray-colored materials are standard commodity, engineering, and performance-grade polymers (not biopolymers) for reference. (3dprintingindustry.com)
  • Biopolymers , Engineering Polymers and Synthetic Fibers . (nurel.com)
  • United Biopolymers, S.A. was founded in 2015 with the purpose of bringing to market the patented BIOPAR® Technology, which allows the production of a next gen starch-based bioplastics. (unitedbiopolymers.com)
  • At Prime Biopolymers, a bioplastics company , we have ZwickRoell's support to add state-of-the-art technology to our R&D lab. (primebiopol.com)
  • The primary factor driving the growth of the bioplastics & biopolymers market is the rapidly growing need to adopt environmental-friendly measures. (time.ly)
  • The World Bioplastics and Biopolymers summit will bring together more than 150+ industry experts from biopolymers manufacturers, chemical companies, major associations, raw materials, and technology companies, consultants, to discuss the latest developments, cutting-edge technologies, new challenges and opportunities in bioplastics and sustainable biocomposites. (time.ly)
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  • A cost-effective, high-throughput fibre-based food packaging approach using non-toxic, biodegradable biopolymer materials offers a strategy to considerably increase food safety and security while minimizing food waste. (nature.com)
  • In this chapter, a brief overview has been presented on the fabrication of biodegradable plastic using biopolymers to reduce its detrimental effects on the environment. (benthamscience.com)
  • Potential Application of Biopolymers as Biodegradable Plastic, Biopolymers Towards Green and Sustainable Development (2022) 1: 139. (benthamscience.com)
  • Biopolymer composite has gained huge attention for its beneficial properties such as biodegradable and less impact to the environment. (techscience.com)
  • Biopolymers hold great promise for fiber production because they are based on renewable raw materials, are biodegradable and have good physiological properties. (ditf.de)
  • BASF has been researching biodegradable, bio-based and certified compostable biopolymers for more than 30 years. (basf.com)
  • Biopolymers comprise a whole family of materials - from bio-based to biodegradable. (basf.com)
  • EMAILWIRE.COM , April 01, 2019 ) OG Analysis, a global market research firm, has announced the release of their 2019 Future Of Global Biopolymer Packaging Market Outlook to 2025 Report proposes complete outlook of the market including comprehensive market analysis, Market Share, Market Size, Market Drivers, Challenges and Opportunities. (emailwire.com)
  • Clariant will be a sponsor of The European Biopolymer Summit - Feb. 13-14, 2019 in Ghent, Belgium - ACI announced. (coatingsworld.com)
  • 220+ Pages Report] According to the report published by Facts Factors, the global biopolymers market size was worth around USD 5.4 billion in 2019 and is predicted to grow to around USD 12.1 billion by 2026 with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of roughly 11.2% between 2020 and 2026. (fnfresearch.com)
  • ATLANTA, September, 27, 2022 - CP Kelco , a global leader of nature-based ingredient solutions that is owned by J.M. Huber Corporation, and ExoPolymer, Inc ., a biotechnology startup company focused on developing new-to-the-world, polysaccharide-based biopolymers, are excited to announce a partnership to develop and commercialize a portfolio of new functional ingredients for the personal care industry and beyond. (cpkelco.com)
  • Biopolymers (2022 Mar) 113:e23481. (nih.gov)
  • Using the Kano Model, Quality Function Deployment for Environment (QFDE), morphological map, and Analytic Hierarchy Method (AHP) framework combination, this paper presents the conceptual design of a natural fibre reinforced biopolymer composites take-out food container. (techscience.com)
  • The main focus of our research projects is on functional biopolymers such as chitosans and their synthesising, modifying, and degrading enzymes. (uni-muenster.de)
  • Wood has partnered with Cuantec to develop separation facilities that will process shellfish waste to extract chitin, a 100 % compostable biopolymer. (process-worldwide.com)
  • Aberdeen/UK - Wood will work with Cuantec, a Scottish circular economy business, to develop cutting edge separation facilities that will process shellfish waste to extract chitin, a naturally occurring, 100 % compostable biopolymer with a wide range of applications in the pharmaceutical, cosmetics and food industries. (process-worldwide.com)
  • BASF's biopolymers are certified compostable and partly bio-based plastics which contribute to a circular economy by increasing organic recycling and closing the loop of the food value chain. (basf.com)
  • Browse here and explore how certified compostable biopolymers contribute to a sustainable lifestyle and how we can help you solve your challenges. (basf.com)
  • SYNPOL aims to propel the sustainable production of new biopolymers from feedstock. (europa.eu)
  • This project offers a timely strategic action that will enable the EU to lead worldwide the syngas fermentation technology for waste revalorisation and sustainable biopolymer production. (europa.eu)
  • Email [email protected] for a direct introduction to our key contact at Biopolymer Network Ltd. (sustainable.org.nz)
  • The protein of egg white, albumen, can be polymerized to make a synthetic biopolymer that might have a role to play in a sustainable future in health and 'green' technologies, according to researchers from the USA and India. (materialstoday.com)
  • What is sustainable about biopolymers? (basf.com)
  • More and more brands and manufacturers are embracing the potential of biopolymers, and policy makers are increasingly streamlining their efforts to create frameworks that benefit the growth of sustainable bio-industries. (time.ly)
  • The proof of the complete biological degradability of a particular biopolymer grade is verified by independent certificates based on these approved standards. (basf.com)
  • The report presents near term and long term forecast of the addressable Biopolymer Packaging market value to 2025. (emailwire.com)
  • The report delivers value to the clients through market forecasts by types, different segments and end-user applications of global and regional Biopolymer Packaging markets to 2025. (emailwire.com)
  • The latter will produce biopolymer building-blocks and polyhydroxyalkanoates that will serve to synthesize novel bio-based plastic prototypes by chemical and enzymatic catalysis. (europa.eu)
  • Meanwhile, microbiologically produced biopolymers called polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) hold an enormous potential as an alternative to petrochemical-based plastics, given their comparable physiochemical properties, biodegradability and biocompatibility. (kth.se)
  • SYNPOL will thereto establish a platform that integrates biopolymer production through modern processing technologies, with bacterial fermentation of syngas, and the pyrolysis of highly complex biowaste (e.g. municipal, commercial, sludge, agricultural). (europa.eu)
  • The Marie Skłodowska Curie Innovative Training Network "Drug-Free Antibacterial Hybrid Biopolymers for Medical Applications", HyMedPoly, focused on the production of drug-free antibacterial hybrid biopolymers as therapeutic materials to prevent, control and remove such occurrences. (europa.eu)
  • Biopolymer developer Meridian Inc. and Tate & Lyle plc have reported successful pilot production of Meridian's process to make polyhydroxyalkanoate, a naturally derived polymer it touts as an alternative to conventional plastics. (plasticsnews.com)
  • The initial focus of this partnership will be to scale up production of ExoPolymer's first product, a polysaccharide-based biopolymer to be used in high-end, skin care formulations for hydration, anti-aging, and anti-wrinkle performance. (cpkelco.com)
  • Special airgap spinning processes enable the production of highly oriented biopolymer fibers that can be used as filament fibers in technical applications, for example as precursors for carbon fibers or as reinforcing fibers in composite materials. (ditf.de)
  • Since 2015 we have invested in state-of-the-art compounding facilities for our INZEA biopolymers production. (nurel.com)
  • Ingeo biopolymer produced at this site will be made from sugarcane, an annually renewable feedstock that is locally abundant and will be sourced from farms within a 50-kilometer radius of the Nakhon Sawan site. (dutchnews.nl)
  • PLYMOUTH, Minn.-(BUSINESS WIRE)- NatureWorks , a leading manufacturer of polylactic acid (PLA) biopolymers made from renewable resources, has made significant progress on the construction of their new fully integrated Ingeo™️ PLA biopolymer manufacturing facility in Nakhon Sawan Province, Thailand. (dutchnews.nl)
  • NatureWorks is an advanced materials company offering a broad portfolio of biopolymers and biochemicals made from renewable resources. (dutchnews.nl)
  • To meet this demand, we offer a range of biopolymers developed from widely available renewable resources that are non-persistent in the environment yet high performing. (nouryon.com)
  • NUREL BIOPOLYMERS manufacturing is focused to guarantee high quality materials with consistent properties to replace conventional non-renewable plastics . (nurel.com)
  • It is one of the first industrial biotechnology startup companies to develop a completely new portfolio of polysaccharide-based biopolymer ingredients for markets such as personal care, healthcare and home care, for which sustainability has become an increasingly important characteristic to consumers and performance of currently available biopolymers is lacking. (cpkelco.com)
  • Abundance of studies have been done on the development and characterization of biopolymer composite materials for food packaging application, but work on the conceptual design of biopolymer composite packaging product is hardly found. (techscience.com)
  • While FMC BioPolymer continues to identify and implement productivity improvement programs to mitigate the impact of rising costs, continued increases in raw materials, energy and transportation costs make this pricing action necessary in order to continue to provide the highest quality products to the food, personal care, industrial and pharmaceutical industries," the company said. (bakingbusiness.com)
  • At Prime Biopolymers we work on the latest developments and solutions in the industry and devote a wealth of knowledge and resources to the research and development of new materials. (primebiopol.com)
  • ENGLISH ABSTRACT: There is growing interest to utilise xylan as speciality biopolymers in similar ways as high molecular weight polysaccharides such as starch and cellulose. (sun.ac.za)
  • Further, to provide detailed insights into the operating companies, business, SWOT and Financial profiles of leading Biopolymer Packaging companies are included in the report. (emailwire.com)
  • The biopolymers market report additionally employs SWOT analysis and PESTLE analysis models for further in-depth analysis. (fnfresearch.com)
  • Do you want to know all the news of Nurel Biopolymers? (nurel.com)
  • Thus biopolymers like BASF's ecoflex ® (PBAT) and the compound ecovio ® make an important contribution to circular economy by increasing organic recycling and closing the loop of the food value chain. (basf.com)
  • Correctly employed, biopolymers can contribute to reducing food waste, returning nutrients to the soil by means of greater volumes of compost generated or to avoiding the accumulation of microplastics in agricultural soil caused by thin mulch films made of polyethylene. (basf.com)
  • The Biopolymers and Cell Editorial Board is composed of prominent international scientists. (wikipedia.org)
  • The multi-client study on Global Biopolymer Packaging markets provides in-depth research and analysis into Biopolymer Packaging industry trends, new market dynamics and technological insights. (emailwire.com)
  • The research work assists transformation of client businesses through a comprehensive analysis on Biopolymer Packaging industry. (emailwire.com)
  • The report work provides data and analysis of Biopolymer Packaging penetration across application segments across countries and regions. (emailwire.com)
  • The report presents strategic analysis of the global Biopolymer Packaging market through key drivers, challenges, opportunities and growth contributors. (emailwire.com)
  • The global Biopolymer Packaging market delivers value to customers through reliable market size for 2018 on the basis of demand and price analysis. (emailwire.com)
  • Most of the leading Biopolymer Packaging providers are designing their strategies for long term future instead of short term cost savings. (emailwire.com)
  • Country by Country analysis and Biopolymer Packaging market growth potential of each country is provided in the report. (emailwire.com)
  • Further, five regions across the world along with their growth prospects are analyzed across Biopolymer Packaging types, segments and application verticals. (emailwire.com)
  • Key strategic developments in the biopolymers market competitive landscape such as acquisitions & mergers, inaugurations of different products and services, partnerships & joint ventures, MoU agreements, VC & funding activities, R&D activities, and geographic expansion among other noteworthy activities by key players of the biopolymers market are appropriately highlighted in the report. (fnfresearch.com)
  • Matsuka, the founder of Biopolymers and Cell was a director of [Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics]. (wikipedia.org)
  • PerkinElmer acquired chemagen Biopolymer-Technologie to raise its presence in the molecular diagnostics and research markets. (genengnews.com)
  • The R&D activities will focus on the integration of innovative physico-chemical, biochemical, downstream and synthetic technologies to produce a wide range of new biopolymers. (europa.eu)
  • Synthetic biopolymers from egg white albumen. (materialstoday.com)
  • Research activities at the DITF focus on the chemical and technological aspects of how these biopolymer fibers are produced. (ditf.de)
  • Their decades of industry leadership, experience in producing biopolymer ingredients, and understanding what it takes to scale a fermentation process substantially de-risk our path to commercial success. (cpkelco.com)
  • The biopolymers market report analyzes and notifies the industry statistics at the global as well as regional and country levels in order to acquire a thorough perspective of the entire biopolymers market. (fnfresearch.com)
  • The rationales which directly or indirectly impact the biopolymers industry are exemplified through parameters such as growth drivers, restraints, challenges, and opportunities among other impacting factors. (fnfresearch.com)
  • Throughout our research report, we have encompassed all the proven models and tools of industry analysis and extensively illustrated all the key business strategies and business models adopted in the biopolymers industry. (fnfresearch.com)
  • The report utilizes established industry analysis tools and models such as Porter's Five Forces framework to analyze and recognize critical business strategies adopted by various stakeholders involved in the entire value chain of the biopolymers industry. (fnfresearch.com)
  • The report study further includes an in-depth analysis of industry players' market shares and provides an overview of leading players' market position in the biopolymers sector. (fnfresearch.com)
  • This lecture describes classification, manufacturing and properties of technical biopolymers. (jku.at)
  • The facility will have an annual capacity of 75,000 tons of Ingeo biopolymer and produce the full portfolio of Ingeo grades. (dutchnews.nl)
  • The development stage for various bio-based thermoplastics is identified by color, with commercially available 3D printable biopolymers in green, biopolymers that have been successfully printed in a noncommercial setting in yellow, and those still in development for traditional manufacturing in red. (3dprintingindustry.com)
  • With the development of every new application, it should always be considered if and how the option for organic recycling of biopolymers offers an added value. (basf.com)
  • The Minnesota Safety Council awarded NatureWorks the Award of Honor, their top award, for employee safety efforts at their global headquarters and advanced biopolymers R&D facility in Plymouth, Minn. The Nebraska National Safety Council recognized the NatureWorks manufacturing facility in Blair, Nebr. (dutchnews.nl)
  • The report analyzes the global biopolymers market drivers, restraints/challenges, and the effect they have on the demands during the projection period. (fnfresearch.com)
  • For example, polysaccharide-based biopolymer ingredients deliver a range of important benefits in food and beverage products and provide key functionality in alternative protein-based products. (cpkelco.com)
  • We have seen a rise in demand for Ingeo biopolymers throughout the Asia Pacific region, and this new complex will allow us to continue to sustainably and efficiently supply our markets with the highest quality biopolymers. (dutchnews.nl)
  • Dayton Horvath and Olivia Hentz of Lux Research take a look at opportunities for biopolymers in 3D printing. (3dprintingindustry.com)
  • Biopolymers extend end-of-life options for plastic products and reduce green house gas emissions. (basf.com)
  • In addition, the report explores emerging opportunities in the biopolymers market. (fnfresearch.com)
  • In 1967, Goldberg were a legal book Biopolymers · PVA Hydrogels, Anionic of Resolution 242, which made the 1967 Article money between Israel and the next donations. (tyniec.com)
  • From Prime Biopolymers we trust them because they are a world-leading company. (primebiopol.com)