Biophysics: The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.Biophysical Phenomena: The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.Biophysical Processes: Physical forces and actions in living things.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Biochemistry: The study of the composition, chemical structures, and chemical reactions of living things.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Molecular Dynamics Simulation: A computer simulation developed to study the motion of molecules over a period of time.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Copyright: It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)Organizations, Nonprofit: Organizations which are not operated for a profit and may be supported by endowments or private contributions.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.MedlinePlus: NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.Computer Security: Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Osmotic Pressure: The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.TRPV Cation Channels: A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after vanilloid receptor. They are very sensitive to TEMPERATURE and hot spicy food and CAPSAICIN. They have the TRP domain and ANKYRIN repeats. Selectivity for CALCIUM over SODIUM ranges from 3 to 100 fold.Capsaicin: An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.Vertebrates: Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.Educational Measurement: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.Newcastle disease virus: The most well known avian paramyxovirus in the genus AVULAVIRUS and the cause of a highly infectious pneumoencephalitis in fowl. It is also reported to cause CONJUNCTIVITIS in humans. Transmission is by droplet inhalation or ingestion of contaminated water or food.Newcastle Disease: An acute febrile, contagious, viral disease of birds caused by an AVULAVIRUS called NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS. It is characterized by respiratory and nervous symptoms in fowl and is transmissible to man causing a severe, but transient conjunctivitis.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Students, Medical: Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.Education, Medical, Undergraduate: The period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D.Chemistry, Physical: The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.Physics: The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Bloodless Medical and Surgical Procedures: The treatment of patients without the use of allogeneic BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS or blood products.Friction: Surface resistance to the relative motion of one body against the rubbing, sliding, rolling, or flowing of another with which it is in contact.Life Change Events: Those occurrences, including social, psychological, and environmental, which require an adjustment or effect a change in an individual's pattern of living.Microscopy, Atomic Force: A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Organomercury Compounds: Organic compounds which contain mercury as an integral part of the molecule.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)

Calculation of a Gap restoration in the membrane skeleton of the red blood cell: possible role for myosin II in local repair. (1/6267)

Human red blood cells contain all of the elements involved in the formation of nonmuscle actomyosin II complexes (V. M. Fowler. 1986. J. Cell. Biochem. 31:1-9; 1996. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 8:86-96). No clear function has yet been attributed to these complexes. Using a mathematical model for the structure of the red blood cell spectrin skeleton (M. J. Saxton. 1992. J. Theor. Biol. 155:517-536), we have explored a possible role for myosin II bipolar minifilaments in the restoration of the membrane skeleton, which may be locally damaged by major mechanical or chemical stress. We propose that the establishment of stable links between distant antiparallel actin protofilaments after a local myosin II activation may initiate the repair of the disrupted area. We show that it is possible to define conditions in which the calculated number of myosin II minifilaments bound to actin protofilaments is consistent with the estimated number of myosin II minifilaments present in the red blood cells. A clear restoration effect can be observed when more than 50% of the spectrin polymers of a defined area are disrupted. It corresponds to a significant increase in the spectrin density in the protein free region of the membrane. This may be involved in a more complex repair process of the red blood cell membrane, which includes the vesiculation of the bilayer and the compaction of the disassembled spectrin network.  (+info)

Free energy landscapes of encounter complexes in protein-protein association. (2/6267)

We report the computer generation of a high-density map of the thermodynamic properties of the diffusion-accessible encounter conformations of four receptor-ligand protein pairs, and use it to study the electrostatic and desolvation components of the free energy of association. Encounter complex conformations are generated by sampling the translational/rotational space of the ligand around the receptor, both at 5-A and zero surface-to-surface separations. We find that partial desolvation is always an important effect, and it becomes dominant for complexes in which one of the reactants is neutral or weakly charged. The interaction provides a slowly varying attractive force over a small but significant region of the molecular surface. In complexes with no strong charge complementarity this region surrounds the binding site, and the orientation of the ligand in the encounter conformation with the lowest desolvation free energy is similar to the one observed in the fully formed complex. Complexes with strong opposite charges exhibit two types of behavior. In the first group, represented by barnase/barstar, electrostatics exerts strong orientational steering toward the binding site, and desolvation provides some added adhesion within the local region of low electrostatic energy. In the second group, represented by the complex of kallikrein and pancreatic trypsin inhibitor, the overall stability results from the rather nonspecific electrostatic attraction, whereas the affinity toward the binding region is determined by desolvation interactions.  (+info)

Solid-state NMR and hydrogen-deuterium exchange in a bilayer-solubilized peptide: structural and mechanistic implications. (3/6267)

Hydrogen-deuterium exchange has been monitored by solid-state NMR to investigate the structure of gramicidin M in a lipid bilayer and to investigate the mechanisms for polypeptide insertion into a lipid bilayer. Through exchange it is possible to observe 15N-2H dipolar interactions in oriented samples that yield precise structural constraints. In separate experiments the pulse sequence SFAM was used to measure dipolar distances in this structure, showing that the dimer is antiparallel. The combined use of orientational and distance constraints is shown to be a powerful structural approach. By monitoring the hydrogen-deuterium exchange at different stages in the insertion of peptides into a bilayer environment it is shown that dimeric gramicidin is inserted into the bilayer intact, i.e., without separating into monomer units. The exchange mechanism is investigated for various sites and support for a relayed imidic acid mechanism is presented. Both acid and base catalyzed mechanisms may be operable. The nonexchangeable sites clearly define a central core to which water is inaccessible or hydroxide or hydronium ion is not even momentarily stable. This provides strong evidence that this is a nonconducting state.  (+info)

Molecular dynamics on a model for nascent high-density lipoprotein: role of salt bridges. (4/6267)

The results of an all-atom molecular dynamics simulation on a discoidal complex made of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) and a synthetic alpha-helical 18-mer peptide with an apolipoprotein-like charge distribution are presented. The system consists of 12 acetyl-18A-amide (Ac-18A-NH2) (. J. Biol. Chem. 260:10248-10255) molecules and 20 molecules of POPC in a bilayer, 10 in each leaflet, solvated in a sphere of water for a total of 28,522 atoms. The peptide molecules are oriented with their long axes normal to the bilayer (the "picket fence" orientation). This system is analogous to complexes formed in nascent high-density lipoprotein and to Ac-18A-NH2/phospholipid complexes observed experimentally. The simulation extended over 700 ps, with the last 493 ps used for analysis. The symmetry of this system allows for averaging over different helices to improve sampling, while maintaining explicit all-atom representation of all peptides. The complex is stable on the simulated time scale. Several possible salt bridges between and within helices were studied. A few salt bridge formations and disruptions were observed. Salt bridges provide specificity in interhelical interactions.  (+info)

Molecular dynamics study of substance P peptides in a biphasic membrane mimic. (5/6267)

Two neuropeptides, substance P (SP) and SP-tyrosine-8 (SP-Y8), have been studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation in a TIP3P water/CCl4 biphasic solvent system as a mimic for the water-membrane system. Initially, distance restraints derived from NMR nuclear Overhauser enhancements (NOE) were incorporated in the restrained MD (RMD) in the equilibration stage of the simulation. The starting orientation/position of the peptides for the MD simulation was either parallel to the water/CCl4 interface or in a perpendicular/insertion mode. In both cases the peptides equilibrated and adopted a near-parallel orientation within approximately 250 ps. After equilibration, the conformation and orientation of the peptides, the solvation of both the backbone and the side chain of the residues, hydrogen bonding, and the dynamics of the peptides were analyzed from trajectories obtained in the RMD or the subsequent free MD (where the NOE restraints were removed). These analyses showed that the peptide backbone of nearly all residues are either solvated by water or are hydrogen-bonded. This is seen to be an important factor against the insertion mode of interaction. Most of the interactions with the hydrophobic phase come from the hydrophobic interactions of the side chains of Pro-4, Phe-7, Phe-8, Leu-10, and Met-11 for SP, and Phe-7, Leu-10, Met-11 and, to a lesser extent, Tyr-8 in SP-Y8. Concerted conformational transitions took place in the time frame of hundreds of picoseconds. The concertedness of the transition was due to the tendency of the peptide to maintain the necessary secondary structure to position the peptide properly with respect to the water/CCl4 interface.  (+info)

Molecular dynamics study of substance P peptides partitioned in a sodium dodecylsulfate micelle. (6/6267)

Two neuropeptides, substance P (SP) and SP-tyrosine-8 (SP-Y8), have been studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation in an explicit sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) micelle. Initially, distance restraints derived from NMR nuclear Overhauser enhancements (NOE) were incorporated in the restrained MD (RMD) during the equilibration stage of the simulation. It was shown that when SP-Y8 was initially placed in an insertion (perpendicular) configuration, the peptide equilibrated to a surface-bound (parallel) configuration in approximately 450 ps. After equilibration, the conformation and orientation of the peptides, the solvation of both the backbone and the side chain of the residues, hydrogen bonding, and the dynamics of the peptides were analyzed from trajectories obtained from the RMD or the subsequent free MD (where the NOE restraints were removed). These analyses showed that the peptide backbones of all residues are either solvated by water or are hydrogen-bonded. This is seen to be an important factor against the insertion mode of interaction. Most of the interactions come from the hydrophobic interaction between the side chains of Lys-3, Pro-4, Phe-7, Phe-8, Leu-10, and Met-11 for SP, from Lys-3, Phe-7, Leu-10, and Met-11 in SP-Y8, and the micellar interior. Significant interactions, electrostatic and hydrogen bonding, between the N-terminal residues, Arg-Pro-Lys, and the micellar headgroups were observed. These latter interactions served to affect both the structure and, especially, the flexibility, of the N-terminus. The results from simulation of the same peptides in a water/CCl4 biphasic cell were compared with the results of the present study, and the validity of using the biphasic system as an approximation for peptide-micelle or peptide-bilayer systems is discussed.  (+info)

Charge pairing of headgroups in phosphatidylcholine membranes: A molecular dynamics simulation study. (7/6267)

Molecular dynamics simulation of the hydrated dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) bilayer membrane in the liquid-crystalline phase was carried out for 5 ns to study the interaction among DMPC headgroups in the membrane/water interface region. The phosphatidylcholine headgroup contains a positively charged choline group and negatively charged phosphate and carbonyl groups, although it is a neutral molecule as a whole. Our previous study (Pasenkiewicz-Gierula, M., Y. Takaoka, H. Miyagawa, K. Kitamura, and A. Kusumi. 1997. J. Phys. Chem. 101:3677-3691) showed the formation of water cross-bridges between negatively charged groups in which a water molecule is simultaneously hydrogen bonded to two DMPC molecules. Water bridges link 76% of DMPC molecules in the membrane. In the present study we show that relatively stable charge associations (charge pairs) are formed between the positively and negatively charged groups of two DMPC molecules. Charge pairs link 93% of DMPC molecules in the membrane. Water bridges and charge pairs together form an extended network of interactions among DMPC headgroups linking 98% of all membrane phospholipids. The average lifetimes of DMPC-DMPC associations via charge pairs, water bridges and both, are at least 730, 1400, and over 1500 ps, respectively. However, these associations are dynamic states and they break and re-form several times during their lifetime.  (+info)

Pathways of electron transfer in Escherichia coli DNA photolyase: Trp306 to FADH. (8/6267)

We describe the results of a series of theoretical calculations of electron transfer pathways between Trp306 and *FADH. in the Escherichia coli DNA photolyase molecule, using the method of interatomic tunneling currents. It is found that there are two conformationally orthogonal tryptophans, Trp359 and Trp382, between donor and acceptor that play a crucial role in the pathways of the electron transfer process. The pathways depend vitally on the aromaticity of tryptophans and the flavin molecule. The results of this calculation suggest that the major pathway of the electron transfer is due to a set of overlapping orthogonal pi-rings, which starts from the donor Trp306, runs through Trp359 and Trp382, and finally reaches the flavin group of the acceptor complex, FADH.  (+info)

  • Featuring high-quality illustrations that illuminate the concepts described in the text, as well as extensive references that enable the reader to pursue further study, Mass Spectrometry in Structural Biology and Biophysics is an indispensable resource for researchers and graduate students working in biophysics, structural biology, protein chemistry, and related fields. (
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  • The Physics department Biophysics Seminars are usually on Thursday afternoons from 4:15-6:00 pm in the Kenwood Interdisciplinary Research Complex (KIRC) Room KEN 2175. (
  • Studies include the biophysics of movement, electrophysiology, membrane physics, the three-dimensional structure of proteins, protein-DNA interactions, glycoprotein structure and function, gene expression, and network theories applied to cellular metabolism and macromolecular interactions. (
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  • From 1965 to 1970 assistant professor in Jena, from 1970 to 2000 full professor of biophysics at the Humboldt University, Berlin (research: biophysics of cell surfaces, shape and ionic states of erythrocytes, electro-manipulation of cells). (
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  • 1 Molecular Biophysics Biological macromolecules such as proteins, de-oxy/ribose nucleic acid (DNA/RNA), carbohydrates and lipids play a diverse role in regulating cellular functions, and thus are easential to sustain life. (
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