Schistosoma mansoni: A species of trematode blood flukes of the family Schistosomatidae. It is common in the Nile delta. The intermediate host is the planorbid snail. This parasite causes schistosomiasis mansoni and intestinal bilharziasis.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Molluscacides: Agents destructive to snails and other mollusks.Schistosomiasis mansoni: Schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma mansoni. It is endemic in Africa, the Middle East, South America, and the Caribbean and affects mainly the bowel, spleen, and liver.Echinostoma: A genus of intestinal flukes of the family Echinostomatidae which consists of many species. They occur in man and other vertebrates. The intermediate hosts are frequently mollusks.Snails: Marine, freshwater, or terrestrial mollusks of the class Gastropoda. Most have an enclosing spiral shell, and several genera harbor parasites pathogenic to man.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Hemocytes: Any blood or formed element especially in invertebrates.Hemolymph: The blood/lymphlike nutrient fluid of some invertebrates.Cercaria: The free-swimming larval forms of parasites found in an intermediate host.Schistosomiasis: Infection with flukes (trematodes) of the genus SCHISTOSOMA. Three species produce the most frequent clinical diseases: SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM (endemic in Africa and the Middle East), SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI (in Egypt, northern and southern Africa, some West Indies islands, northern 2/3 of South America), and SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM (in Japan, China, the Philippines, Celebes, Thailand, Laos). S. mansoni is often seen in Puerto Ricans living in the United States.Bulinus: A genus of small freshwater snails of the order Pulmonata, found throughout Africa and the Middle East, where it is a vector of SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM.Euphorbia: A large plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE, order Euphorbiales, subclass Rosidae. They have a milky sap and a female flower consisting of a single pistil, surrounded by numerous male flowers of one stamen each. Euphorbia hirta is rarely called milkweed but that name is normally used for ASCLEPIAS.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.BrazilSchistosoma: A genus of trematode flukes belonging to the family Schistosomatidae. There are over a dozen species. These parasites are found in man and other mammals. Snails are the intermediate hosts.Niclosamide: An antihelmintic that is active against most tapeworms. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p48)Silver Staining: The use of silver, usually silver nitrate, as a reagent for producing contrast or coloration in tissue specimens.Latex: A milky, product excreted from the latex canals of a variety of plant species that contain cauotchouc. Latex is composed of 25-35% caoutchouc, 60-75% water, 2% protein, 2% resin, 1.5% sugar & 1% ash. RUBBER is made by the removal of water from latex.(From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed). Hevein proteins are responsible for LATEX HYPERSENSITIVITY. Latexes are used as inert vehicles to carry antibodies or antigens in LATEX FIXATION TESTS.Oocysts: Zygote-containing cysts of sporozoan protozoa. Further development in an oocyst produces small individual infective organisms called SPOROZOITES. Then, depending on the genus, the entire oocyst is called a sporocyst or the oocyst contains multiple sporocysts encapsulating the sporozoites.Egypt: A country in northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula Its capital is Cairo.Biological Phenomena: Biological processes, properties, and characteristics of the whole organism in human, animal, microorganisms, and plants, and of the biosphere.Guadeloupe: The name of two islands of the West Indies, separated by a narrow channel. Their capital is Basse-Terre. They were discovered by Columbus in 1493, occupied by the French in 1635, held by the British at various times between 1759 and 1813, transferred to Sweden in 1813, and restored to France in 1816. Its status was changed from colony to a French overseas department in 1946. Columbus named it in honor of the monastery of Santa Maria de Guadalupe in Spain. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p470 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p221)Competitive Behavior: The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.Angiostrongylus: A genus of parasitic nematodes of the superfamily METASTRONGYLOIDEA. Two species, ANGIOSTRONGYLUS CANTONENSIS and A. vasorum, infest the lungs of rats and dogs, respectively. A. cantonensis is transmissible to man where it causes frequently fatal infection of the central nervous system.Lakes: Inland bodies of still or slowly moving FRESH WATER or salt water, larger than a pond, and supplied by RIVERS and streams.Saint Lucia: An independent state in the West Indies. Its capital is Castries. It was probably discovered by Columbus in 1502 and first settled by the English in 1605. Contended for by the French and English in the 17th century, it was regarded as neutral in 1748 but changed hands many times in the wars of the 19th century. It became a self-governing state in association with Great Britain in 1967 and achieved independence in 1979. Columbus named it for the day on which he discovered it, the feast of St. Lucy, a Sicilian virgin martyr. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1051 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p477)Echinostomiasis: Infection by flukes of the genus Echinostoma.Pest Control, Biological: Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.Lethal Dose 50: The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.ArgentinaPiperaceae: A family of flowering plants in the order Piperales best known for the black pepper widely used in SPICES, and for KAVA and Betel used for neuroactive properties.DNA, Helminth: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of helminths.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Dalbergia: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members of this genus can cause CONTACT DERMATITIS.Parasite Egg Count: Determination of parasite eggs in feces.Pest Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous plants, insects, or other animals. This includes control of plants that serve as habitats or food sources for animal pests.Schistosomicides: Agents that act systemically to kill adult schistosomes.Martinique: An island in the Lesser Antilles, one of the Windward Islands. Its capital is Fort-de-France. It was discovered by Columbus in 1502 and from its settlement in 1635 by the French it passed into and out of Dutch and British hands. It was made a French overseas department in 1946. One account of the name tells of native women on the shore calling "Madinina" as Columbus approached the island. The meaning was never discovered but was entered on early charts as Martinique, influenced by the name of St. Martin. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p734 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p339)Tilapia: A freshwater fish used as an experimental organism and for food. This genus of the family Cichlidae (CICHLIDS) inhabits Central and South America (one species extends north into Texas), West Indies, Africa, Madagascar, Syria, and coastal India.Cuba: An island in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies, south of Florida. With the adjacent islands it forms the Republic of Cuba. Its capital is Havana. It was discovered by Columbus on his first voyage in 1492 and conquered by Spain in 1511. It has a varied history under Spain, Great Britain, and the United States but has been independent since 1902. The name Cuba is said to be an Indian name of unknown origin but the language that gave the name is extinct, so the etymology is a conjecture. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p302 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p132)Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique: Technique that utilizes low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with single primers of arbitrary sequence to generate strain-specific arrays of anonymous DNA fragments. RAPD technique may be used to determine taxonomic identity, assess kinship relationships, analyze mixed genome samples, and create specific probes.DNA, Ribosomal Spacer: The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Schistosoma haematobium: A species of trematode blood flukes of the family Schistosomatidae which occurs at different stages in development in veins of the pulmonary and hepatic system and finally the bladder lumen. This parasite causes urinary schistosomiasis.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Biomphalaria: A genus of planorbid freshwater snails, species of which are intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.

The chemical ecology of Biomphalaria glabrata: the effects of ammonia on the growth rate of juvenile snails. (1/343)

When juvenile specimens of Biomphalaria glabrata were subjected to concentrations of ammonia ranging from 1-100 mug/ml in various media the following effects were observed: the addition of ammonia to borate buffered media caused mortality. Both borate and tris-buffered media caused a decrease in the growth rate of snails when compared with controls in SSW. The growth rates of the snails could be enhanced by increasing the concentration of ammonia to critical thresholds, but further increases beyond these thresholds resulted in growth inhibition. The toxicity of ammonia in ambient water was augmented by an an increase in pH. The possible causation and ecological significance of these effects are discussed. There are indications that the snails are physiologically well-adapted to utilize ammonia when required and also to control its excretion and uptake from the medium.  (+info)

Interleukin 5 (IL-5) is not required for expression of a Th2 response or host resistance mechanisms during murine schistosomiasis mansoni but does play a role in development of IL-4-producing non-T, non-B cells. (2/343)

During schistosomiasis, interleukin-5 (IL-5)-dependent eosinophil responses have been implicated in immunopathology, resistance to superinfection, synergistic interactions with chemotherapeutic agents, and the inductive phase of the egg-induced Th2 response. We examined these issues in IL-5-deficient (IL-5(-/-)) mice. IL-5(-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice were indistinguishable in terms of susceptibility to primary infections and the ability to resist secondary infections. Moreover, hepatic pathology was similar in both strains apart from a relative lack of eosinophils and, during chronic infection, a significantly larger mast cell component in the granulomas of IL-5(-/-) mice. Splenocyte cytokine production in response to soluble egg antigen (SEA) or anti-CD3 revealed no significant differences except for heightened tumor necrosis factor alpha production by cells from chronically infected IL-5(-/-) mice compared to WT animals. In contrast, ionomycin-stimulated non-B, non-T (NBNT) cells from IL-5(-/-) mice produced significantly smaller IL-4 amounts than did NBNT cells from WT animals. This difference was not apparent following plate-bound anti-immunoglobulin E or SEA stimulation. The absence of IL-5 failed to affect the induction of Th2 responses in naive mice. Peritoneal exudate cells recovered from egg-injected IL-5(-/-) or WT mice produced equivalent levels of IL-4 following restimulation with SEA or anti-CD3.  (+info)

Geographic information systems and the environmental risk of schistosomiasis in Bahia, Brazil. (3/343)

A geographic information system was constructed using maps of regional environmental features, Schistosoma mansoni prevalence in 30 representative municipalities, and snail distribution in Bahia, Brazil to study the spatial and temporal dynamics of infection and to identify environmental factors that influence the distribution of schistosomiasis. Results indicate that population density and the duration of annual dry period are the most important determinants of prevalence of schistosomiasis in the areas selected for study. Maximum rainfall, total precipitation during three consecutive months, annual maximum or minimum temperatures, and diurnal temperature difference were not shown to be significant factors influencing S. mansoni prevalence in local populations or distribution of snail hosts. Prevalence of the disease was highest in the coastal areas of the state. Higher prevalence tended to occur in areas with latossolo soil type and transitional vegetation.  (+info)

Intranasal administration of synthetic recombinant peptide-based vaccine protects mice from infection by Schistosoma mansoni. (4/343)

Schistosomiasis is the cause of a chronic debilitating disease which accounts for significant mortality and morbidity every year, especially in tropical and subtropical areas. An epitope derived from the protective surface protein 9B-Ag of Schistosoma mansoni, designated 9B peptide-1, was previously showed to be protective in mice when conjugated to bovine serum albumin and administered subcutaneously in complete Freund's adjuvant. In this work, this protective peptide was expressed in the flagellin of a Salmonella vaccine strain, and the isolated recombinant flagella were used for immunization of mice. Since during the invasion of the parasite into the host the schistosomula migrate first to the lungs, the intranasal route of administration was employed in order to halt the parasite at an early stage of the infection. Such intranasal immunization with this peptide expressed in flagellin, without the addition of adjuvants, resulted in a significant humoral response and also led to protection against challenge infection, manifested as a reduction of the worm burden by an average of 42%.  (+info)

The epidemiology of a recent focus of mixed Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni infections around the 'Lac de Guiers' in the Senegal River Basin, Senegal. (5/343)

A village with mixed Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium infections (probably in a early endemic phase) was identified around the Lac de Guiers in the Senegal River Basin. In documenting the epidemiology of both schistosomes, we focused on prevalence and intensity of infection, transmission patterns and the impact of treatment. S. mansoni prevalences (near 100%) and egg counts (overall geometric mean eggs per gram of faeces (epg) of 589 were high in all age groups, with 35% of individuals excreting > 1000 epg, and showing a slow decline in egg output only after the age of 30 years. The overall prevalence (28%) and egg counts (2% > 50 eggs/10 ml) of S. haematobium were low, with mean counts of 6.3 eggs/10 ml. Maximal mean S. mansoni egg counts were found in 5-9 year-old boys and in 15-19 year-old girls; S. haematobium maximal counts in 1-4 year-old boys and in girls aged 5-9. Extremely high Biomphalaria pfeifferi infection ratios were recorded over the whole year. Following a single treatment, re-infection was rapid with prevalences and mean egg counts of both Schistosoma species reaching pretreatment levels within 7 months.  (+info)

Changes in the behavioral and immunological parameters of the mollusk Biomphalaria tenagophila induced by disruption of the circadian cycle as a consequence of continuous illumination. (6/343)

In the present investigation we studied some behavioral and immunological parameters of adult gastropod mollusk, Biomphalaria tenagophila, which have been reproducing for several generations under laboratory conditions. One group of gastropods was kept on a 14-h light/10-h dark cycle, corresponding to a regular circadian cycle, and another group was exposed to continuous light for 48 h. Animals were studied along (behavioral groups) or immediately after (immunological groups) 48 h of regular circadian cycle or continuous light conditions. Stopping/floating, dragging and sliding were the behavioral aspects considered (N = 20 for regular cycle; N = 20 for continuous illumination) and number of hemocytes/microl hemolymph was the immunological parameter studied (N = 15 for regular cycle, N = 14 for continuous illumination). Animals under continuous illumination were more active (sliding = 33 episodes, dragging = 48 episodes) and displayed a lower number of hemocytes (78.0 +/- 24. 27/microl) when compared with mollusks kept on a regular circadian cycle (sliding = 18 episodes, dragging = 27 episodes; hemocytes = 157.6 +/- 53.27/microl). The data are discussed in terms of neural circuits and neuroimmunological relations with the possible stressful effect of continuous illumination.  (+info)

Profile of organic acid concentrations in the digestive gland and hemolymph of Biomphalaria glabrata under estivation. (7/343)

Using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis it was possible to determine simultaneously the concentration of organic acids (pyruvate, lactate, succinate, fumarate, malate, acetate, propionate, acetoacetate, and ss-hydroxybutyrate) in the digestive gland and the extracellular concentration of these same acids in the hemolymph of estivating Biomphalaria glabrata, the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni. After a 7 day period of estivation, there was a significant increase in the tissue levels of lactate, succinate, malate and acetate compared to non-estivating snails. After 14 days of estivation, the levels of lactate and acetate were also significantly elevated. The hemolymph concentrations of pyruvate and acetate increased significantly after 7 days and acetate concentrations continued to be significantly increased up to 14 days of estivation. The other organic acids studied, such as ketone body acetoacetate and ss-hydroxybutyrate or the volatile acid propionate, did not accumulate. Their tissue concentrations, however, increased on the 7th day of estivation and reached normal levels within two weeks of estivation for some of them. One should take into consideration how the reduction in metabolism can be handled under aerobic conditions, and what role anaerobic pathways may play in both energy formation and redox balance processes.  (+info)

Growth changes induced by gamma radiation on Biomphalaria straminea (Dunker, 1848). (8/343)

Doses of 60Co gamma radiation with 2.5; 5; 7.5; 10; 15; 20; 25; 30; 35; 40; 45; 50; 55; 60; 80; 160; 320 and 640 Gy were applied to 1, 080 snails Biomphalaria straminea, an intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni, divided in groups containing 30 mollusks. In addition, 60 non irradiated snails were kept as control. Fifty percent of the population was kept in colonies (allowing cross fertilization) while the other half was maintained in sexual isolation (allowing self fertilization) and during one month their growth was observed through the daily measurement of the shell diameter. Results showed that after 20 Gy doses the growth in shell diameter of irradiated snails was greater than that of the control group after 30 days. At this dose the snail size was the greatest, among all isolated groups. The 80 Gy doses also induced the final shell diameter of isolated snails to be greater then that observed in the control groups. As this effect was most evident among the isolated snails, a possible hormonal role may have been involved in the observed phenomena, which is under investigation with the objective of identifying any future applications that this could have to schistosomiasis control.  (+info)

*List of non-marine molluscs of Benin

Jørgensen A., Kristensen T. K. & Stensgaard A-S. (2009). Biomphalaria camerunensis. In: IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened ... Planorbidae Africanogyrus coretus (de Blainville, 1826) Biomphalaria camerunensis (C. R. Boettger, 1941) Bulinus forskalii ( ...

*List of non-marine molluscs of Honduras

Cordeiro J. & Perez K. (2011). "Biomphalaria havanensis". In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. ... introduced Planorbidae Biomphalaria havanensis (Pfeiffer, 1839) Physidae Mayabina obtusa Clessin, 1885 Helicinidae Helicina ...

*Angiostrongylus vasorum

Experimental intermediate hosts of Angiostrongylus vasorum include: Biomphalaria glabrata - (experimental) Biomphalaria ... freshwater snails: Biomphalaria pfeifferi, Physa sp. Experimental definitive hosts of Angiostrongylus vasorum include: jackal ... emergence of third-stage larvae from infected Biomphalaria glabrata snails". Parasitology Research 91(6): 471-475. doi:10.1007/ ... "Effect of Angiostrongylus vasorum infection on Biomphalaria tenagophila susceptibility to Schistosoma mansoni". Acta Tropica. ...

*Red-rimmed melania

interactions with Biomphalaria glabrata: Pointier J. P. (1993). "The introduction of Melanoides tuberculata (Mollusca: ... and Biomphalaria tenagophila (d´Orbigny, 1835) on Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil". Biota Neotropica. 7 (3): 361. doi: ... Biomphalaria Glabrata (Say, 1818) and a Possible Competitor, Melanoides Tuberculata (Muller, 1774): A Field Study". Journal of ... Thiaridae) to the island of Saint Lucia (West Indies) and its role in the decline of Biomphalaria glabrata, the snail ...

*Capsaspora

Moreover, it has relevance to human health because its host, the snail Biomphalaria glabrata, is also the intermediate host of ... C. owczarzaki was originally described as an amoeba-like "symbiont" of the fresh-water snail Biomphalaria glabrata. The amoebae ... sp., isolated from three strains of the pulmonate snail Biomphalaria glabrata is related to members of the Mesomycetozoea", ... sp., isolated from three strains of the pulmonate snail Biomphalaria glabrata is related to members of the Mesomycetozoea". ...

*Indoplanorbis

Planorbella duryi and Biomphalaria pfeifferi have similar shells. Because of its wide distribution, various aspects of ...

*Schistosoma mansoni

Abou-El-Naga IF (2013). "Biomphalaria alexandrina in Egypt: past, present and future". J. Biosci. 38 (3): 665-72. doi:10.1007/ ... S. mansoni is transmitted through water, where freshwater snails of the genus Biomphalaria act as intermediate hosts. The ... The miracidium searches for a suitable freshwater snail belonging to the genus Biomphalaria. In South America, the principal ... doi:10.1016/B978-0-7020-5101-2.00091-1. ISBN 978-0-7020-5101-2. Abou-El-Naga, IF (2013). "Biomphalaria alexandrina in Egypt: ...

*Bulinus africanus

Cridland, C. C. (1967). "Resistance of Bulinus (Physopsis) globosus, Bulinus (Ph.) africanus, Biomphalaria pfeifferi and ...

*Radix natalensis

Utzinger, J.; Tanner, M. (2000). "Microhabitat preferences of Biomphalaria pfeifferi and Lymnaea natalensis in a natural and a ... Nguma, J. F.; McCullough, F. S.; Masha, E. (1982). "Elimination of Biomphalaria pfeifferi, Bulinus tropicus and Lymnaea ... Cridland, C. C. (1967). "Resistance of Bulinus (Physopsis) globosus, Bulinus (Ph.) africanus, Biomphalaria pfeifferi and ...

*Marisa cornuarietis

... compete with the Biomphalaria vectors for food. They also eat the eggs of Biomphalaria, thereby effectively ... Marisa cornuarietis is used as a biological control to reduce the number of Biomphalaria snails, which are intermediate hosts ... Nguma, J. F.; McCullough, F. S.; Masha, E. (1982). "Elimination of Biomphalaria pfeifferi, Bulinus tropicus and Lymnaea ...

*List of parasites of humans

skin exposure to water contaminated with infected Biomphalaria freshwater snails urinary blood fluke Schistosoma haematobium ...

*Balanites aegyptiaca

The seeds of the Balanites aegyptiaca have molluscicide effect on Biomphalaria pfeifferi. Where the species coexist, African ...

*List of non-marine molluscs of Martinique

Planorbidae Biomphalaria straminea - introduced Helisoma duryi - introduced Amerianna carinata - introduced Gyraulus sp. - ...

*Albinism in biology

Albino freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata showing the red oxygen-transport pigment haemoglobin. Without its normal pigment ...

*Parasite increased trophic transmission

Minchella, D. and Loverde, P. (1981). A Cost of Increased Early Reproductive Effort in the Snail Biomphalaria glabrata. The ...

*Paenibacillus

2015). "A Novel Bacterial Pathogen of Biomphalaria glabrata: A Potential Weapon for Schistosomiasis Control?". PLOS Neglected ... Candidatus Paenibacillus glabratella causes white nodules and high mortality of Biomphalaria glabrata freshwater snails. This ... is potentially important because Biomphalaria glabrata is an intermediate host of schistosomiasis. Several Paenibacillus ...

*Schistosoma

Freshwater snails of the Biomphalaria genus are an important intermediate host for this trematode. Among final hosts humans are ...

*Magnoliids

"Toxicity of Some species of Annona Toward Artemia Salina Leach and Biomphalaria Glabrata Say". Natural Products in the New ...

*List of non-marine molluscs of Dominica

2008)). Biomphalaria kuhniana (Clessin, 1883) - Previous reports of Biomphalaria straminea were probably Biomphalaria kuhniana ... Planorbidae Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818) - This species was reported from Dominica in 1980, but it seems that it was ... replaced by other Biomphalaria species, or it was eradicated (it was not found by Noblet & Damian (1991) nor by Reeves et al. ( ...

*Lake Escara

... candidate species and vicariance in Biomphalaria snails (Mollusca: Planorbidae) from the Southern Andean Altiplano". Zoologica ...

*Lake Ballivián

The speciation of Biomphalaria snails may have also been influenced by the development of Lake Ballivián. The sponge ...

*List of non-marine molluscs of Brazil

Biomphalaria cousini Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818) Biomphalaria occidentalis Paraense, 1981 Biomphalaria oligoza Paraense, ... Biomphalaria tenagophila tenagophila (d'Orbigny, 1835) and Biomphalaria tenagophila guaibensis Paraense, 1984 Biomphalaria ... 1975 Biomphalaria peregrina (d'Orbigny, 1835) Biomphalaria schrammi (Crosse, 1864) Biomphalaria tenagophila (d'Orbigny, 1835 ... Teodoro T. M., Janotti-Passos L. K., Carvalho O. d. S. & Caldeira R. L. (2010). "Occurrence of Biomphalaria cousini (Mollusca: ...

*Parvularia atlantis

sp., isolated from three strains of the pulmonate snail Biomphalaria glabrata is related to members of the Mesomycetozoea". ... "The destruction of Schistosoma mansoni mother sporocysts in vitro by amoebae isolated from Biomphalaria glabrata: an ...

*Tarebia granifera

Butler J. M., Ferguson F. F., Palmer J. R. & Jobin W. R. (1980). "Displacement of a colony of Biomphalaria glabrata by an ... Prentice, M. A. (1983). "Displacement of Biomphalaria glabrata by the snail Thiara granifera in field habitats in St. Lucia, ... benthic gastropod species from rivers in Puerto Rico and have displaced the vegetation-associated pulmonate Biomphalaria ...

*Ouki

The Ouki lake was populated by species such as Pisidium bivalves, ostracodes and the Biomphalaria andecola snail. Waters had a ...
Abstract Germfree Biomphalaria glabrata were successfully reared through their life cycle in isolators. The snails were fed a diet sterilized either by heat or by irradiation. Snails fed an irradiated diet had a better growth and higher reproduction rate than the ones fed an autoclaved diet. There was no difference in survival between the two groups.
The outcome of infection in the host snail Biomphalaria glabrata with the digenean parasite Schistosoma mansoni is determined by the initial molecular interplay occurring between them. The mechanisms by which schistosomes evade snail immune recognition to ensure survival are not fully understood, but one possibility is that the snail internal defence system is manipulated by the schistosome enabling the parasite to establish infection. This study provides novel insights into the nature of schistosome resistance and susceptibility in B. glabrata at the transcriptomic level by simultaneously comparing gene expression in haemocytes from parasite-exposed and control groups of both schistosome-resistant and schistosome-susceptible strains, 2 h post exposure to S. mansoni miracidia, using an novel 5K cDNA microarray. Differences in gene expression, including those for immune/stress response, signal transduction and matrix/adhesion genes were identified between the two snail strains and tests for ...
Transgenerational immune priming occurs when an adult is exposed to a parasite or other pathogen and then transmits information to its offspring through protective phenotypes to cope with the same pathogen (Moret, 2006). There has been evidence for transgenerational immune priming in various invertebrates (Tidbury et al. 2011). Here we tested for the presence of transgenerational immune priming in the Biomphalaria glabrata snails when challenged by exposure to the Schistosoma mansoni parasite. The experimental parent generation was challenged with a parasitic environment, while the control parent generation was not. The results were then determined based on the resistance or susceptibility of the F1 offspring generation. We found that parental challenge did not enhance offspring immunity through transgenerational immune priming ...
abstract = {Our present understanding of the functioning and evolutionary history of invertebrate innate immunity derives mostly from studies on a few model species belonging to ecdysozoa. In particular, the characterization of signaling pathways dedicated to specific responses towards fungi and Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria in Drosophila melanogaster challenged our original view of a non-specific immunity in invertebrates. However, much remains to be elucidated from lophotrochozoan species. To investigate the global specificity of the immune response in the fresh-water snail Biomphalaria glabrata, we used massive Illumina sequencing of 5-end cDNAs to compare expression profiles after challenge by Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria or after a yeast challenge. 5-end cDNA sequencing of the libraries yielded over 12 millions high quality reads. To link these short reads to expressed genes, we prepared a reference transcriptomic database through automatic assembly and annotation of ...
abstract = {Our present understanding of the functioning and evolutionary history of invertebrate innate immunity derives mostly from studies on a few model species belonging to ecdysozoa. In particular, the characterization of signaling pathways dedicated to specific responses towards fungi and Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria in Drosophila melanogaster challenged our original view of a non-specific immunity in invertebrates. However, much remains to be elucidated from lophotrochozoan species. To investigate the global specificity of the immune response in the fresh-water snail Biomphalaria glabrata, we used massive Illumina sequencing of 5-end cDNAs to compare expression profiles after challenge by Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria or after a yeast challenge. 5-end cDNA sequencing of the libraries yielded over 12 millions high quality reads. To link these short reads to expressed genes, we prepared a reference transcriptomic database through automatic assembly and annotation of ...
abstract = {Our present understanding of the functioning and evolutionary history of invertebrate innate immunity derives mostly from studies on a few model species belonging to ecdysozoa. In particular, the characterization of signaling pathways dedicated to specific responses towards fungi and Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria in Drosophila melanogaster challenged our original view of a non-specific immunity in invertebrates. However, much remains to be elucidated from lophotrochozoan species. To investigate the global specificity of the immune response in the fresh-water snail Biomphalaria glabrata, we used massive Illumina sequencing of 5-end cDNAs to compare expression profiles after challenge by Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria or after a yeast challenge. 5-end cDNA sequencing of the libraries yielded over 12 millions high quality reads. To link these short reads to expressed genes, we prepared a reference transcriptomic database through automatic assembly and annotation of ...
abstract = {Our present understanding of the functioning and evolutionary history of invertebrate innate immunity derives mostly from studies on a few model species belonging to ecdysozoa. In particular, the characterization of signaling pathways dedicated to specific responses towards fungi and Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria in Drosophila melanogaster challenged our original view of a non-specific immunity in invertebrates. However, much remains to be elucidated from lophotrochozoan species. To investigate the global specificity of the immune response in the fresh-water snail Biomphalaria glabrata, we used massive Illumina sequencing of 5-end cDNAs to compare expression profiles after challenge by Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria or after a yeast challenge. 5-end cDNA sequencing of the libraries yielded over 12 millions high quality reads. To link these short reads to expressed genes, we prepared a reference transcriptomic database through automatic assembly and annotation of ...
When starting her own lab at James Cook University, Australia, Jodie Rummer applied for a Travelling Fellowship from JEB to gather data on oxygen consumption rates of coral reef fishes at the Northern Great Barrier Reef. A few years later, Björn Illing, from the Institute for Hydrobiology and Fisheries Science, Germany, followed in Jodies footsteps and used a JEB Travelling Fellowship to visit Jodies lab. There, he studied the effects of temperature on the survival of larval cinnamon clownfish. Jodie and Björns collaboration was so successful that they have written a collaborative paper, and Björn has now returned to continue his research as a post-doc in Jodies Lab. Read their story here.. Where could your research take you? The deadline to apply for the current round of Travelling Fellowships is 30 Nov 2017. Apply now!. ...
Biomphalaria glabrata is an intermediate snail host for the digenean trematode, Schistosoma mansoni, which causes the human disease schistosomiasis. A lot of research has focused on the snail-schistosome interaction, especially in regards to the immune response of the snail. The nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) pathway, which is involved in regulating the immune response, can be triggered by the Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway. However, not much is known about the specific molecular mechanisms regulating these responses. Both NF-κB and TLR homologues have recently been reported in B. glabrata so it is of great interest to determine if BgNF-κB can regulate components of the pathway. We have used bioinformatics to identify putative κB sites upstream of 16 genes coding for members of the TLR pathway in B. glabrata. In order to determine if the snails NF-κB p65 protein can recognize the κB sites of interest, electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) were carried out. The functional
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Looking for Miracidia? Find out information about Miracidia. The ciliated first larva of a digenetic trematode; forms a sporocyst after penetrating intermediate host tissues. the first larva in the development of... Explanation of Miracidia
Roberts, Sabrina, Spencer-Smith, Russell, Shah, Mahwish, Nebel, Jean-Christophe, Cook, Richard T. and Snyder, Lori A. S. (2016) Correia repeat enclosed elements and non-coding RNAs in the Neisseria species. Microorganisms, 4(3), p. 31. ISSN (online) 2076-2607 Zukaite, Vainora, Cook, Richard T. and Walker, Anthony J. (2016) Multiple roles for protein kinase C in gastropod embryogenesis. Cell and Tissue Research, 364(1), pp. 117-124. ISSN (print) 0302-766X Lawton, Scott P., Lim, Rivka M., Dukes, Juliet P., Kett, Stephen M., Cook, Richard T., Walker, Anthony J. and Kirk, Ruth S. (2015) Unravelling the riddle of Radix : DNA barcoding for species identification of freshwater snail intermediate hosts of zoonotic digeneans and estimating their inter-population evolutionary relationships. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 35, pp. 63-74. ISSN (print) 1567-1348 Lawton, Scott P., Lim, Rivka M., Dukes, Juliet P., Cook, Richard T., Walker, Anthony J. and Kirk, Ruth S. (2014) Identification of a major ...
Take away the voids where trees could be….. Ill be at the Maitland Farmers Market to help you see where a tree could be in your yard and neighborhood. Come to the Farmers Market on April 27 between 9 a.m. and 2 p.m. and get a tree. Take it home and plant it where the sun does shine in your yard using "right tree right place" principles and water, water, water two-three times per week.. If you cant plant a tree; take time to walk around one of Maitlands many parks and take a breath. Imagine witnessing a breaching whale. Look at the trees and see it as one of the largest organisms on earth. Dont hold the lack of a central nervous system against it. It reacts as a symphony to the surrounding environment to open and close stoma in managing air and water systems, to operate a complex internal defense system of compartmentalization, to moving raw materials to a point of production and transporting product away…. Hug a tree.. Written by Brian Dierks, Arborist at the City of Maitland. ...
Discography of American Historical Recordings, s.v. "Victor matrix BS-048771. America / Emile Coté ; Victor Mixed Chorus," accessed January 22, 2018, http://victor.library.ucsb.edu/index.php/matrix/detail/200043508/BS-048771-America.. Victor matrix BS-048771. America / Emile Coté ; Victor Mixed Chorus. (2018). In Discography of American Historical Recordings. Retrieved January 22, 2018, from http://victor.library.ucsb.edu/index.php/matrix/detail/200043508/BS-048771-America.. "Victor matrix BS-048771. America / Emile Coté ; Victor Mixed Chorus." Discography of American Historical Recordings. UC Santa Barbara Library, 2018. Web. 22 January 2018.. ...
Discography of American Historical Recordings, s.v. "Victor matrix BS-068384. Theres a long, long trail / Emile Coté ; Victor Mixed Chorus," accessed January 22, 2018, http://victor.library.ucsb.edu/index.php/matrix/detail/200052575/BS-068384-Theres_a_long_long_trail.. Victor matrix BS-068384. Theres a long, long trail / Emile Coté ; Victor Mixed Chorus. (2018). In Discography of American Historical Recordings. Retrieved January 22, 2018, from http://victor.library.ucsb.edu/index.php/matrix/detail/200052575/BS-068384-Theres_a_long_long_trail.. "Victor matrix BS-068384. Theres a long, long trail / Emile Coté ; Victor Mixed Chorus." Discography of American Historical Recordings. UC Santa Barbara Library, 2018. Web. 22 January 2018.. ...
Forget traditional fine dining, starched napery and sommeliers with a forbidding attitude - travellers in the Australian bush are tapping into old-school bush tucker as the new immersion experience.
infections in mammals have contributed greatly in understanding the pathology and pathogenesis of human infection. The absence of earlier reviews regarding specific strains of the Amazon region prompted research, which the main objective was to describe histopathological lesions in different phases of schistosomiasis in a murine model using PC (Pará) and LILA (Maranhäo) S. mansoni strains. One hundred and eighty young female albino swiss mice (Mus musculus) were used and were randomly divided into five groups (PC-01, PC-02, LILA-01, LILA-02, and controls), according to the number of cercariae injected and the strain adopted. Animals were sacrificed in predetermined periods (35, 56, 112, 156, and 180 days) in an attempt to follow the evolution of the disease in the histological sections of their tissues at different phases of infection. Our findings were compatible with the data already described by others authors using different strains of S. mansoni, making it possible to identify some ...
Innate are nonspecific immunity are inherited in the structure of each organism to help fight off pathogens. They recognize the bodys tissue cells as self which allows them to recognize invaders. The best for detecting these invaders are the lipopolysaccharides. The first layer of defense is the top layer of skin called the epidermis. Many pathogens dont get passed this barrier. Along with the epidermis, gastric juice also helps fight off microogranisms before they can enter the body. External and internal defense mechanisms are both part of innate immunity. Once a pathogen gets through the epithelial tissue it is in the connective tissues and is now called a toxin. From there it can go into the persons blood stream or into the lymphatic capillaries where it then can travel to any other place in the body. Innate is also the first defense set off once a toxin is in the body to see if it cant get rid of it. There is a thing called the complement system that helps out the innate and adaptive ...
being exposed to the environment and building antibodies towards foreign invaders is what the bodys immune system does naturally. Without going into technical detail, vaccines are made of components similar to actual bugs (or a protein the bug makes) that provide the building block for antibodies to be created in the body. This means that if one who is vaccinated is exposed to the ACTUAL pathogen, there is a systemic response causing the body to "remember" this bug and kill it fairly easily. If there was no vaccine or prior exposure to something very similar, the body does not have an internal defense already in place . Instead, it has to create one, which takes time. This makes the body more susceptible to that pathogen. Essentially, if one is thus exposed to the pathogen, and is susceptible, the immune system may be overwhelmed and the person will begin to show symptoms of the disease. Once the illness is over, however, as long as the disease-causing pathogen does not evolve/change, the body ...
Outwitting winter colds: An athletes guide. Devereaux, K. // Womens Sports & Fitness;Oct/Nov88, Vol. 10 Issue 8, p46 Getting a cold or the flu can be avoided by bolstering the bodys internal defenses through proper diet and exercise, and sharpening the bodys external defenses. Dos and donts for staying healthy in public places; Vitamin C and Zinc; Exercise; Food guide. INSET: Should you exercise when you... ...
Despite the nasty clean-up that follows it diarrhea is not necessarily a bad thing. It is actually the dogs internal defense to eliminate harmful substances from his body. As such, do not be alarmed when his increased stool movement is accompanied with some vomiting. As long as the canines do not show signs of lethargy, bloating, extremely high-fever and have… Read more ». ...
Despite the nasty clean-up that follows it, diarrhea is not necessarily a bad thing. It is actually the dogs internal defense to eliminate harmful substances from his body. As such, do not be alarmed when his increased stool movement is accompanied with some vomiting. As long as the canines do not show signs of lethargy, bloating, extremely high-fever and have… Read more ». ...
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TP53TG3, 0.1 ml. May play a significant role in TP53/p53-mediating signaling pathway.Tissue specificity:Strongly expressed in testis.
Dog IgG (H+L), 0.2 ml. Immunoglobulin G (IgG), is one of the most abundant proteins in serum with normal levels between 8-17 mg/mL in adult blood.
RESULTS:. A total of 2,661 molluscs were collected in São Luís and 1,726 in São Bento; and 3.72% (99/2,661) and 4.87% (84/1,726) of planorbids were positive for larval trematodes, respectively. In São Luís, the helminth fauna identified were Clinostomidae (0.41%), Diplostomidae (0.56%), Echinostomatidae (0.90%), Schistosomatidae (0.71%), Spirorchiidae (0.41%), and Strigeidae (0.71%) families; and in São Bento were Echinostomatidae (1.80%), Schistosomatidae (0.75%), Spirorchiidae (1.56%), and Strigeidae (0.75%) ones. Among cercariae in Schistosomatidae family of the both municipalities, only Schistosoma mansoni was reported. In São Luís, Biomphalaria species presented the following infection rates: 1.95% (52/2,661) for Biomphalaria straminea and 1.76% (47/2,661) for Biomphalaria glabrata. In São Bento, these rates were 4.46% (77/1,726) for B. glabrata and 0.40% (7/1,726) for B. straminea. ...
Leandro X. et, al, Quantitative Proteomics of Enriched Esophageal and Gut Tissues from the Human Blood Fluke Schistosoma mansoni Pinpoints Secreted Proteins for Vaccine Development, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jproteome.9b00531 Nov. 15, 2019.. Schistosomes are blood-dwelling helminth parasites that cause schistosomiasis, a debilitating disease resulting in inflammation and, in extreme cases, multiple organ damage. Major challenges to control the transmission persist, and the discovery of protective antigens remains of critical importance for vaccine development. Rhesus macaques can self-cure following schistosome infection, generating antibodies that target proteins from the tegument, gut, and esophagus, the last of which is the least investigated. We developed a dissection technique that permitted increased sensitivity in a comparative proteomics profiling of schistosome esophagus and gut. Proteome analysis of the male schistosome esophagus identified 13 proteins encoded by microexon genes ...
An account is given of a laboratory investigation designed to evaluate the extent to which the freshwater pulmonate snail Biomphalaria glabrata (Say) can utilize various species of aquatic plants, mainly macrophytes, when presented in the following forms over different time scales: (i) normal plants; (ii) dried plant material; (iii) homogenized plant material in calcium alginate matrices; (iv) water-soluble filtrates of plant homogenates in the medium. The following propositions, derived from the theory of phased coevolution of components of the module consisting of the epiphytic bacteria, algae, snails and macrophytes, are evaluated on the basis of the present results and others including those obtained in this laboratory, (i) That as the snails had become specialized to exploit surface communities of epiphytic algae, decaying plant material and dissolved organic matter (DOM) early in their evolutionary history they would continue to exploit these resources when they later become associated ...
Schistosoma mansoni is hosted by several species of Biomphalaria spp. snails in Africa. We were interested in determining if there were differences in compatibility of S. mansoni with Biomphalaria sudanica from Lake Victoria, or with B. pfeifferi from streams and smaller water bodies in Kenya. Does this parasite develop with equal efficiency in both snail species, and does this have implications for transmission in different habitat types? Primers for PCR amplification of the S. mansoni ND5 gene were designed and tested for sensitivity and specificity. We exposed laboratory-reared B. sudanica and field-derived B. pfeifferi to single miracidium infections and at 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 24 days post-exposure (dpe), snails were extracted for the PCR assay. Snails were also shed for cercariae and/or dissected prior to extraction. Additionally, B. sudanica and B. pfeifferi were collected from field locations and tested with the PCR assay. The ND5 PCR assay was sensitive (>0.1 fg S.
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Two species of Biomphalaria are reported from Egypt, the indigenous Biomphalaria alexandrina and Biomphalaria glabrata, the latter believed to be introduced during the past few decades. Both are known to be excellent hosts of Schistosoma mansoni, the human-infecting blood fluke common in Egypt. Given the concerns regarding the spread of the exotic B. glabrata, this study was carried out to get a more current picture of the status of Biomphalaria in Egypt. Snail collections were undertaken during 2002-2003 from regions between Alexandria and Ismailia in the north of the Nile Delta, to as far south as Abu Simbel at Lake Nasser. Biomphalaria snails were found in 37 out of 76 sampled localities and were widely distributed in the Nile Delta and along the Nile as far south as Aswan. According to the results of species-specific polymerase chain reaction assays that sampled both nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, and according to DNA sequence data, all Biomphalaria collected during this survey were B.
The research presented in the following thesis sought to address the above themes, relating to the dynamics of S. mansoni and Biomphalaria in Lake Victoria. Through a series of four field expeditions to the Ugandan, Tanzanian and Kenyan shorelines of Lake Victoria, data were collected pertaining to the distribution of S. mansoni in school-age children; 27 schools in Uganda were first surveyed for prevalence and intensity of infection. Questionnaires revealed high levels of migration among the school-children, with high levels of itinerancy also associated with increased risk of being infected with S. mansoni and of missing school-based treatment with praziquantel. Later surveys in Tanzania and Kenya compared prevalence of infection as diagnosed by Kato-Katz stool thick smears against a novel, urine-based, rapid diagnostic called the cathodic cirulating antigen (CCA) dipstick. The CCA performed well, with good agreement against the Kato-Katz diagnostic and high sensitivity and specificity in this ...
Adult worms, which may live for many years in the bile ducts, produce eggs that are carried by the bile fluid into the intestinal lumen and passed into the environment with the feces. The eggs are unembryonated, operculated, large, ovoid, and brownish yellow and measure 130 to 150 μm by 63 to 90 μm. The miracidium develops within 1 to 2 weeks in water from 22 to 26°C and escapes from the egg to infect the snail intermediate host, Lymnaea sp. These snails are amphibious. Within 4 to 7 weeks, cercariae are liberated from the snail after the production of a sporocyst generation and two or three redia generations. Cercariae encyst on water vegetation, e.g., watercress. Humans are infected by ingestion of uncooked aquatic vegetation on which metacercariae are encysted. Metacercariae excyst in the duodenum and migrate through the intestinal wall into the peritoneal cavity. The larvae enter the liver by penetrating the capsule (Glissons capsule) and wander through the liver parenchyma for up to 9 ...
Tibiri , Sandra Helena Cerrato et al. Biomphalaria spp. (Preston, 1910) snails in the municipality of Juiz de Fora, Zona da Mata Mineira mesoregion, ate of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Oct 2006, vol.101, suppl.1, p.179-184. ISSN 0074- ...
Five strains of Bacillus pfeifferi were isolated from a case of meningitis. These strains came from the spinal fluid, blood, nose, throat, and nasopharynx.. Immunologic reactions show no definite relations between these strains, although those from the nose, throat, and nasopharynx might be presumed to be related to one another. It is also presumable that the spinal fluid strain was derived from the upper air passages, and that the blood was invaded from the meninges. In spite of immunologic differences, it is believed that the five strains were genetically related.. The variations in these five strains from a single case are as great as those which have been found by others for strains from different cases, or individuals.. As determined by immunologic reactions, the number of so called strains of Bacillus pfeifferi is apparently limited only by the number of cultures which have been or might be isolated. It is inconceivable that under the designation Bacillus pfeifferi is included a ...
Adults of Schostosoma mansoni live in mesenteric veins which drain the intestine of the host. The female will generally move to smaller venules before depositing her eggs. The enclosed miracidium is under-developed at time of oviposition, but will be well-formed before reaching the lumen of an infected organ. The egg must penetrate and traverse multiple tissues and mucosal lining before entering the lumen of the gut or the bladder to escape to the environment. The passage of eggs from the blood stream to the lumen of the infected organ are induced by secretions that are part of the immune response of the host. Once the egg has reached the intestinal lumen, the egg can exit the host organism in either feces or urine.. Upon reaching fresh water, the miracidia are activated to hatch, because they are no longer under the inhibitory osmolarity of the hosts body fluids. Hatching occurs by rupturing the eggshell along the suture line. Free-swimming miracidia must find a suitable intermediate snail ...
Like all the other mollusks, snails are one nauseating creatures that can make your life completely miserable. Usually snails dwell on the aquatic environments especially the snail that lives nearby water and those snails are not as bad for the human kind as the garden snails. Garden snails are found in chunks at your gardens, orchards and porches. Snails are also called as slugs but there is a slight difference between snails and slugs and that is that the slugs have got no shells on their surfaces and on the other hand the garden snails have got shells on their surfaces. The main problem with the snails is that the breed in great number and it is quite difficult to control their reproduction, when they start reproducing they go on and on in a single month. They only need a month to reproduce as much as they can.. ...
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As I was saying, dunking is an old custom. The first dunker was Pharaohs daughter. She dunked Moses twice in the River Nile. Of course, we have had other important dunkers since then. Take Captain Kidd, for instance. When he dunked a man, that man stayed dunked. Today its different. The rules of dunking are laid down in every book of etiquette. Emily Post says you must never dunk above the knuckle. Some people, in reaching for olives in a jar, dunk up to the elbow. Thats not dunking, thats bathing. And the best dunkers never bathe. Believe me, I know. Some of my best friends are dunkers. Why, dunking is such a great art-- Why, its-- People have named their children after it.. ...
Boxem, M., Maliga, Z., Klitgord, N., Li, N., Lemmens, I., Mana, M., de Lichtervelde, L., Mul, J. D., van de Peut, D., Devos, M., Simonis, N., Yildirim, M. A., Cokol, M., Kao, H. L., de Smet, A. S., Wang, H., Schlaitz, A. L., Hao, T., Milstein, S., Fan, C. & 17 others, Tipsword, M., Drew, K., Galli, M., Rhrissorrakrai, K., Drechsel, D., Koller, D., Roth, F. P., Iakoucheva, L. M., Dunker, A. K., Bonneau, R., Gunsalus, K. C., Hill, D. E., Piano, F., Tavernier, J., van den Heuvel, S., Hyman, A. A. & Vidal, M., Aug 8 2008, In : Cell. 134, 3, p. 534-545 12 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ...
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Francisco, B.R. 1988. Terapia Ocupacional. Campinas: Papirus Ed. Jorge, Rui Chamone. 1981. Chance Para Uma Esquizofr nica. Belo Horizonte: Imprensa Oficial, 115p. ______ 1984. Terapia Ocupacional Psiqui trica; Aperfei oamento. Belo Horizonte: FUMAR/PUC-MG, 119p. ______ 1989. A Rela o Terapeuta Paciente: Notas Introdut rias. Belo Horizonte: UFMG, 75p. ______ 1990. O Objeto e a Especificidade da Terapia Ocupacional. Belo Horizonte: GES.TO, 95p. ______ 1991. Doen a e Trabalho. S o Carlos. Cadernos de Terapia Ocupacional da UFSCAR, p. 79-101. ______ 1991. A Media o na Terapia Ocupacional. Belo Horizonte: GES.TO. p 48-97. ______ 1995. Psicoterapia Ocupacional (Hist ria de Um Desenvolvimento).. Belo Horizonte: GES.TO. 153p ...
Binh My Eco-tourism Area (Binh My Commune, Cu Chi District) located near the Saigon River is a favourite destination for many people in Ho Chi Minh City and nearby areas for its abundance of unique rural tourism services such as fishing and canal cruising.
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The Print Ad titled Kanechom Intensive Care: Club was done by Filadelfia Belo Horizonte advertising agency for product: Kanechom Intensive Care (brand: Kanechom) in Brazil. It was released in Apr 2012.
Apresentação no Congresso de Interação Humano-Computador, Sociedade Brasileira de Computação. Belo Horizonte, outubro de 2010. Luiz Agner, Patricia Tavares e S…
The replay result may differ depending on the CPU load and/or network traffic. To make good reproducibility, take longer delay for processing wait, stop touch at end point for dragging/flick, and more, try to Edit Sequence with image matching (see Tutorial category in support site ...
All of the Series A shares are owned by the Dunker Funds and Foundations, which were created through testamentary disposition by the founder of the Helsingborg and Trelleborg rubber-production plants, Henry Dunker ...
How to Feed a Snail. Snails can be great pets. They are especially great for school projects, and for teaching young children how to care for a living thing. Snails are also quite easy to feed, although there are some variations among...
Mouse IgG (H+L), 0.2 ml. Immunoglobulin G (IgG), is one of the most abundant proteins in serum with normal levels between 8-17 mg/mL in adult blood.
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Stefan Collins is the author of this article in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: En generel metode til evaluering Inkubation af Saccharose Savner hos rotter
Some parasites may modify the behavior of their hosts. Altered behaviors may: 1) benefit the host in that they defend against the pathogen, 2) benefit the pathogen and represent manipulations of the host response, and 3) benefit neither the host or the pathogen and simply be a product of the host response to infection. In this thesis I examine four host/parasite systems. For each system, I explore host/parasite behavioral interactions, and examine them with regard to selective pressures that may be acting on both the host and the parasite. I test the Hamilton and Zuk hypothese in 26 species of lizards. I find an inverse relationship between a lizard species brightness and parasite prevalence. My result lend credence to criticisms of the Hamilton and Zuk Hypothesis. If infection does occur, animals may alter their behavior to impair the growth and reproduction of the parasite. To test this prediction, I examine behavioral thermoregulation in two strains of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata, one ...
Affiliation:鹿児島大学,国際島嶼教育研究センター,名誉教授, Research Field:Area studies,寄生虫学(含医用動物学),寄生虫学(含医用動物学),Parasitology (including Sanitary zoology), Keywords:Biomphalaria glabrata,Echinostoma paraensei,気候変動,Invertebrate,PCR,Schistosoma mansoni,生体防御,デング熱,Hemocyte,無脊椎動物, # of Research Projects:11, # of Research Products:12
Distribution and Schistosoma mansoni infection of Biomphalaria glabrata in different habitats in a rural area in the Jequitinhonha Valley, Minas Gerais, Brazil: environmental and epidemiological aspects ...
Most loaches will eat these snails. Whilst the Clown Loach is the most often quoted as doing this function it can grow quite large. If you want a smaller fish there are several species of loaches (like the Zebra Loach, Pakistan loach (Yo Yo)) that remain under 4" in length and will eat the snails when small. Puffers like the Ceylon Puffer will eat any type of snail once it grows bigger enough ...
Despite effective chemotherapy, schistosomiasis remains the second largest public health problem in the developing world. Currently, vaccination is the new strategy for schistosomiasis control. The presence of common antigenic fractions between Schistosoma mansoni and its intermediate host provides a source for the preparation of a proper vaccine. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the nucleoprotein extracted from either susceptible or resistant snails to protect against schistosomiasis. The vaccination schedule consisted of a subcutaneous injection of 50 µg protein of each antigen followed by another inoculation 15 days later. Analyses of marker enzymes for different cell organelles [succinate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glucose-6-phosphatase, acid phosphatase and 5-nucleotidase] were carried out. Energetic parameters (ATP, ADP, AMP, phosphate potentials, inorganic phosphate, amino acids and LDH isoenzymes) were also investigated. The work was extended to record worm ...
The blood flukes Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma japonicum inflict immense suffering as agents of human schistosomiasis. Previous investigations have found the nervous systems of these worms contain abundant immunoreactivity ...
The Faculty of Medical Sciences of Minas Gerais / Faculdade de Ciências Médicas (FCMMG) de Minas Gerais was born from the idealism of Lucas Monteiro Machado (LMM), highly regarded gynecologist and professor interested in founding a Faculty of Medicine that would be the second in Minas Gerais. Thus, he reunited ten physicians, chiefs of the Santa Casa de Belo Horizonte (SCBH) service, called the pioneers (1951). The plan was taken to the Belo Horizonte Archbishop, Dom Antônio dos Santos Cabral who was the director of the Sociedade Mineira de Cultura, thus the FCMMG was founded, incorporated to the Sociedade Mineira de Cultura, embryo of the Catholic University of Minas Gerais / Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais (UCMG). The first congregation was nominated by the pioneers and Dom Antônio, being then considered the founders, included Dom Antônio and José Maria Alkimim, Provider of the SCBH, Hospital Escola da FCMMG. The survivor founders are the Professors Caio Benjamim Dias and Nilton ...
The role of cytotoxic T lymphocytes in host defenses against infectious agents is unknown as these cells have not previously been demonstrated to kill microorganisms directly. We studied the cytotoxicity of T lymphocytes purified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy subjects for the multicellular schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni. Unstimulated and phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated T cells were cultured with schistosomula at a 5,000:1 effector/target (E:T) ratio for 18 h at 37 degrees C. Unstimulated T cells killed 2.1 +/- 0.6% of schistosomula as judged by dye uptake and did not change their infectivity for mice. In contrast, PHA-stimulated T cells killed 41.3 +/- 3.1% of schistosomula by dye uptake and 56.7 +/- 7.7% of these organisms could not mature to adult worms in vivo. Killing was associated with and dependent on increased binding of PHA-stimulated T lymphocytes to schistosomula. Significant schistosomula killing first was noted after 2 h of exposure to T cells to PHA ...
This dataset contains the digitized treatments in Plazi based on the original journal article Salvador, Rodrigo B. (2014): The fossil land and freshwater snails of Gündlkofen (Middle Miocene, Germany). Zootaxa 3785 (2): 271-287, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3785.2.9 ...
The Bibliotheca Alexandrina (BA) reading area is equipped with 330 computer stations for public use. Computers are located on all seven floors of the library, as well as within specialized libraries, on designated reading tables and within select study rooms. A centralized reservation system for all main reading hall and study room computers is located at the Computer Reservation Desk in the Main Hall lobby on the entrance level (E). All computers are equipped with internet access, as well as access to the wide selection of electronic resources offered by the BA.. Notepad is the only software available for public use, which allows the users to write texts and send them electronically. ...
As it can be easily observed from the table above, 100 grs of ready to eat snails contain only 60-90 calories. Protein is also within very high levels (10-16%) whereas the fat levels are particularly low, in the region of 0.5-1%. Snails are also rich in amino acids, a very important element for the human diet.. The fat of the snails is rich in omega 3 which is, in turn, is very beneficial to good health. Among other things the most famous contributions of omega 3 are in the reduction of triglycerides and stroke, cardiovascular and kidney disease prevention. It has also been proved very effective against arthritis, muscular pains and depression.. Snails are also a rich source of vitamins, especially those of the B complex such as Niacin (B3), Riboflavin (B2), B6, B12, as well as Vitamin E. Niacin is a good example of a vitamin with high contribution to the effective operation of the digestive, cardiovascular and cognitive system.. Snails are also significant source of minerals like Calcium, ...
Country manors in Galicia: culture and nature. Travel ideas. …(Galicia) These unique places to stay are a great option if you want to do rural tourism and discover Galicia. Legends, fairytales and poems talk about these country manors as part of Galician culture. These buildings ar…. ...
... is a newly constructed modern holiday home situated on our active organic Tipperary farm. Ideally located in the centre of Ireland, guests can enjoy an idyllic rural tourism break while still being within easy reach of Irelands most popular tourist attractions.
IL-13 specifically induces physiological changes in parasitized organs that are required to expel the offending organisms or their products. For example, expulsion from the gut of a variety of mouse helminths requires IL-13 secreted by Th2 cells. IL-13 induces several changes in the gut that create an environment hostile to the parasite, including enhanced contractions and glycoprotein hyper-secretion from gut epithelial cells, that ultimately lead to detachment of the organism from the gut wall and their removal. The eggs of the parasite Schistosoma mansoni may lodge in a variety of organs including the gut wall, liver, lung and even central nervous system, inducing the formation of granulomas under the control of IL-13. Here, however, the eventual result is organ damage and often profound or even fatal disease, not resolution of the infection. An emerging concept is that IL-13 may antagonize Th1 responses that are required to resolve intracellular infections. In this immune dysregulated ...
Sera Snail Collect - At AquaCave, we offer Best Prices, 5% Back, and Free Shipping on Sera Snail Collect. - Buy Sera Snail Collect - Now Only $14.95 - Sera Snail Collect Snails are attractive aquarium inhabitants - provided their number within the biotope is in order. In case of overpopulation they can quickly become a pest. The new snail trap sera snail collect limits the multiplication of the mollusks without any chemical agents! A second, immovable grid consisting of separate bars can be placed in front of the first one. The distance between the bars can be adjusted individually. Accordingly, the sera snail collect can be adjusted to the size of the animals to be caught - at the same time, no fish can enter and, in the worst case, die. The sera snail collect combines simplest usage with maximum safety!
The Belo Horizonte Lifecenter hotel is located in the Serra district. The hotel is inside the Lifecenter complex, one of the citys largest clinics.
This snail is considered tp be a potential agricultural pest. In Europe, Candidula snails are a recognized pest of apples, pears, plums and peaches, damaging fruit while still on the tree, which allows fungal attack and fruit rot. These snails are also reported to cause feeding damage to seeds, seedlings and young plants of spring grain ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
The Snail is a common term for insects that have a mollusk on their back. The life span for this bug is 15 - 20 years, although snails have been known to live for thirty or more. The Snail that we see in the game is a Terrestrial Snail. Terrestrial snails are herbivorous and they usually eat things such as leaves, stems, soft bark, fruit, vegetables and algae. Snails can be eaten and are called Escargot. ...
DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
Maybe different sub-species of snails are especially good at different things, making them attractive options for partnership in some communities. A snail that grants a superior sense of smell, letting snail children to scent valuable truffles, for example. A snail mage can concentrate on two spells at once. The heavy spiked shells of the war-snail serves admirably as a great helm. ...
\o7 Q: Where can I purchase decollete snails, the variety that eat common brown snails? I used them several years ago and they cleared my garden of snails, but now the common snails are back.--C.R.,
A freshwater snail common in ponds across Europe can adjust its pigmentation in response to certain environmental stressors, new research suggests.
Hotel Horizonte: I was only staying one night and this place... - See 179 traveler reviews, 64 candid photos, and great deals for Hotel Horizonte at TripAdvisor.
Chonin de Baixo (Governador Valadares, Minas Gerais, Brazil) with population statistics, charts, map, location, weather and web information.
Patrocínio de Caratinga (Caratinga, Minas Gerais, Brazil) with population statistics, charts, map, location, weather and web information.
Cataguases is a city found in Minas Gerais, Brazil. It is located -21.39 latitude and -42.7 longitude and it is situated at 180 meters above sea level
Oh no! Snails are getting a bad name in the U.S. I'm not talking about the delicate garlic-and-butter escargots that the French favor and savor. It&
Escargot is the French word for snail and has become a very popular dish world-wide. Cooked snails are ideally served on a plate like this one. Constructed from ceramic, this plate aims to enhance the presentation of your cooked snails. - Brown - Ston
A general analysis of....An In-Depth Analysis of a Piece of Shit: Distribution of Schistosoma mansoni and Hookwork Eggs in Human Stool. While the game of patience, CV-rewrites, recruitment calls and casual Im a solid team-player line-drops continue - Ive had a chance to read this bad-boy, along with Animal Farm and a layered spy novel by Ian…
Perkara itu diumumkan oleh timbalan ketua pesuruhjaya SPRM (pengurusan dan profesionalisme), Datuk Zakaria Jaafar dalam satu sidang akhbar di ibupejabat suruhanjaya itu di Putrajaya hari ini ...
The anatomy of a snail is very different from many other animals in the world. Some people find them to be fascinating while others thing they are ugly.. Read More » ...
Septins are guanosine-5-triphosphate-binding proteins involved in wide-ranging cellular processes including cytokinesis, vesicle trafficking, membrane remodelling and scaffolds, and with diverse binding partners. Precise roles for these structural proteins in most processes often remain elusive. Identification of small molecules that inhibit septins could aid in elucidating the functions of septins and has become increasingly important, including the description of roles for septins in pathogenic phenomena such as tumorigenesis. The plant growth regulator forchlorfenuron, a synthetic cytokinin known to inhibit septin dynamics, likely represents an informative probe for septin function. This report deals with septins of the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni and their interactions with forchlorfenuron. Recombinant forms of three schistosome septins, SmSEPT5, SmSEPT7.2 and SmSEPT10, interacted with forchlorfenuron, leading to rapid polymerization of filaments. Culturing developmental stages ...
Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith ...
Adult flukes live in fibrous capsules within the liver and release eggs that are swept into the intestines and shed in the feces. The eggs hatch in water where a free-swimming immature form of the liver fluke known as a miracidium emerges. The miracidium then penetrates snails (intermediate hosts) where they continue to develop and multiply. Several immature, free-swimming cercariae (the larval stage of the liver fluke) emerge from each infected snail and cling to vegetation in a protective form called a cyst. Encysted cercariae, known as metacercariae, infect new hosts when they are ingested with vegetation. They then migrate through the intestinal wall to the liver, where they become encased in fibrous cysts and develop into adults. The entire life cycle can be completed within 5 months under favorable conditions. There are three different categories of mammalian hosts for deer liver flukes: definitive hosts, dead-end hosts, and aberrant hosts. The flukes can complete their life cycle within ...
DE CARVALHO, Gílcia A.; UETA, Marlene T. e DE ANDRADE, Carlos F. S.. Search of natural occurrence of xiphidiocercariae (Trematoda) in fresh water snails of nine counties from São Paulo State, Brazil. Bol. chil. parasitol. [online]. 2001, vol.56, n.1-2, pp.3-9. ISSN 0365-9402. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0365-94022001000100003.. Xiphidiocercariae, aquatic larval stages of some trematodes are considered a potential instrument for biological control of mosquitoes. In this study we evaluated its natural occurrence in Campinas region and two places in Vale do Ribeira (Registro and Miracatu), São Paulo State. Snails were obtained from fresh water collections from September 1996 to February 1999. The species collected were Lymnaea columella, Physa marmorata, Biomphalaria tenagophila, Biomphalaria sp., Drepanotrema cimex, D. lucidum and Drepanotrema sp. Fasciola hepatica, xiphidiocercariae (Haematoloechidae) and echinostomatid cercariae were detected in the lymnaeids snails from Miracatu, SP. In the ...
Cercariae pass from the snail into the water column and use light and chemical cues to find a suitable definitive host within 24 hours. The cercariae penetrate the definitive host through the skin, and developing into schistosomula within a capillary, they migrate to the liver via the lungs where they begin to feed on red blood cells and to pair together. This process takes around 10 days. Next they migrate to the capillaries around the intestines in the case of S. mansoni and S. japonicum, or to the capillaries around the bladder wall or kidney for S. haematobium. The worms reach maturity at 6- 8 weeks, and adult worms generally live for 4 years, but can persist for much longer.. Transmission. Transmission requires contact with freshwater together with the presence of a suitable intermediate snail host in the water body. Children generally have higher rates of infection, as they generally have more frequent exposure by swimming and playing in infected water, also the immune response to ...
Vietri, Nicholas John, "Identification and partial characterization of glycoproteins in the serum of Biomphalaria glabrata and on the surface of Schistosoma mansoni" (1990). Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers. 7462 ...
A lectin from Sebastiania jacobinensis bark was isolated using a combination of acetone precipitation, ammonium sulphate fractionation, ion exchange and gel filtration chromatographies. the lectin purified, with a molecular mass of 52.0 kDa and composed of two subunits of 24 kDa, is a glycoprotein with a neutral carbohydrate content of 6.94%. the lectin shows maximum activity over the pH range 4.0-7.5 and heat stability up to 70 degrees C. Our results show that the lectin is an incompetitive inhibitor for trypsin, with a Ki of 0.39 +/- 0.02 mu M. Fluorescence spectroscopy indicated the existence of a hydrophobic surface. the percentages of secondary structure are 75% alpha-helix, 10% beta-sheet, 5% beta-turn and 10% unordered. Lectin inhibits the mycelial growth of Fusarium moniliforme and Fusarium oxysporum with an IC(50) value of 123 +/- 0.5 and 303 +/- 0.9 mu g, respectively. Artemia salina Leach and embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata are not affected by the lectin, indicating low environmental ...
Meet Dr. Ellen Strong, a zoologist at the National Museum of Natural History. Learn about the risks faced by snail populations in rapidly-changing freshwater ecosystems. Consider the ecological impacts of human activities such as damming and mining, which supply people with resources. Follow Ellen to freshwater streams around the U.S. as she studies vulnerable snail populations. See how Ellen discovers new species as she races to catalogue the biodiversity of freshwater snails, even as some species are faced with extinction.
Meet Dr. Ellen Strong, a zoologist at the National Museum of Natural History. Learn about the risks faced by snail populations in rapidly-changing freshwater ecosystems. Consider the ecological impacts of human activities such as damming and mining, which supply people with resources. Follow Ellen to freshwater streams around the U.S. as she studies vulnerable snail populations. See how Ellen discovers new species as she races to catalogue the biodiversity of freshwater snails, even as some species are faced with extinction.
Cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni alternate between active swimming and passive drifting. They began swimming in response to either an increase or decrease in irradiance experienced during the passive phase. The number of cercariae reacting to a shadow was proportional to the magnitude of the stimulus. The shadow response may be mediated by the cercarias ciliary receptors. About half as many cercariae reacted to an irradiance increase as to an equivalent decrease. This report is the first quantitative study of photosensory stimulus-response relationships in schistosome cercariae. ...
If you are reticent about trying snails, do not order a whole portion, snails are sold in dozens, and you may order just half-a-dozen in most restaurants. Ask. Consider dipping your little toe in first, just to test the water, and for that, you do not even have to eat a snail. Just like when you first ordered mussels order a small portion. In France when you order your first half portion of snails, order a demi-douzaine descargot, the smallest portion sold, of Escargots à la Bourguignonne, snails prepared in the manner of Burgundy. Your order will bring you half a dozen snails cooked in the style of Burgundy; Frances most famous recipe snail recipe. The sauce in which the snails are cooked, and served, in this dish is half the enjoyment. The snails are always cooked outside the shell so if you do not like the shell I am sure they will do the necessary, many bistros, in any case, serve snails without the shell ...
The African species of Biomphalaria appeared as a result of the relatively recent west-to-east trans-Atlantic dispersal of the Biomphalaria glabrata-like taxon. In Egypt, Biomphalaria alexandrina is the intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni. Biomphalaria alexandrina originated in the area between Alexandria and Rosetta and has historically been confined to the Nile Delta. Schistosoma mansoni reached Egypt via infected slaves and baboons from the Land of Punt through migrations that occurred as early as the Vth Dynasty. The suggestion of the presence of Schistosoma mansoni infection in Lower Egypt during Pharaonic times is discussed despite the fact that that there is no evidence of such infection in Egyptian mummies. It is only recently that Biomphalaria alexandrina colonized the Egyptian Nile from the Delta to Lake Nasser. This change was likely due to the construction of huge water projects, the development of new water resources essential for land reclamation projects and the movement of ...
The embryonated eggs are passed with urine and less commonly with stool outside the body of the definitive host. If these eggs gain access to water, ciliated miracidium larva hatches out from each egg. The larvae move freely in water in search of intermediate host, which are snails. The snails acting as intermediate host belongs to the genus Bulinus and Planobarius. The miracidium enters into the snails body by penetrating the soft tissues and ultimately reaches the liver. Inside the liver of the snail, the larva loses its cilia and within 4 to 8 weeks transform into the "sporocyst." The sporocyst multiplies to form a second generation of sporotocyst. The daughter sporocyst gives rise to forked tail "cercaria larva" which are infective stage larvae. A single miracidium produces 100,000 to 250,000 cercana. The cercaria larva breaks off from the sporocyst and finally makes its way out of the snail body mo water. Cercariae freely swims into water for 48 hours and during this period if they come in ...
Schistosomiasis, a debilitating and chronic disease caused by infection with blood flukes (digenetic trematodes) of the genus Schistosoma, remains one of the most significant parasitic diseases worldwide, afflicting more than 230 million people, with about 800 million exposed to the risk of the infection [1, 2]. Schistosomiasis caused about 3.31 million DALYs in 2010, exceeded only by intestinal nematode infections and leishmaniasis, in the list of global neglected tropical diseases [3]. Schistosoma mansoni, S. haematobium and S. japonicum are the three main species of clinical relevance. Currently, there are no practical anti-schistosome vaccines available. The repeated use of a single effective drug, praziquantel, is required for schistosomiasis treatment, while a variety of morbidity management strategies have been adopted for control of the disease [4, 5].. The schistosome life-cycle involves an aquatic snail as an intermediate host and a mammal as definitive host [6]. Schistosome cercariae ...
The epidermal receptor cells and their distribution throughout the body surface of Lymnaea stagnalis and Biomphalaria pfeifferi were studied by means of light and electron microscopic techniques. The investigations reveal general agreement between the two species. The receptor cells are primary sensory nerve cells with the cell bodies lying below the epidermis. The subepithelial cell bodies are frequently grouped together forming small ganglia, particularly in rich sensory regions, such as the lips and the tentacles. Dendrites extend from these sensory cell bodies between the epidermal cells and form free nerve endings at the surface of the epidermis. Six different types of free nerve endings are distinguished on the basis of the number of cilia present and on the length and structure of the cilia roots. A survey of the distribution of the sensory cells revealed that they are restricted primarily to the tentacles, lips, front edge of the foot, pneumostome and mantle edge, although they are also present
Author Summary Schistosomiasis is the second most common disease caused by a parasite, affecting over 200 million people. The parasites involved are flatworms of the genus Schistosoma. Unlike most non-parasitic flatworms, Schistosoma species have separate sexes, and the emergence of sex has been associated with the development of a parasitic lifestyle. The identification of gene products that are expressed in a sex-biased fashion permits the study of the origin of sexual dimorphism and, in the case of the schistosomes, the evolution of a human parasite. Here we investigated the differential expression of microRNAs in male and female individuals of the species Schistosoma mansoni. MicroRNAs are crucial gene regulators. We observed that many new microRNAs emerged in the evolutionary lineage leading to the schistosomes. However, many sex-biased microRNAs were present in the hermaphrodite ancestor of the flatworms, and therefore acquired sex-biased expression later on. Our results suggest that changes in
The effect of temperature and relative humidity (RH) on the survival of sporocysts of S. cruzi were investigated in vitro. Under all experimental conditions (temperature of 4°C, 37°C or room temperature; RH of 18%, 75%, or 100%) some sporozoites retained their viability to excyst for at least 90 days. The best conditions for survival were 4°C at 100% RH (more than 240 days) and 37°C at 18% RH (more than 180 days). Sporocysts maintained at room temperature at all humidities had the lowest level of survival. It is concluded that sporocysts of S. cruzi are able to survive in most environments for several months and that the fluctuation of the daily ambient temperature is likely to influence the viability of the sporocysts.. ...

Metabolic Profiling of an Echinostoma caproni Infection in the Mouse for Biomarker DiscoveryMetabolic Profiling of an Echinostoma caproni Infection in the Mouse for Biomarker Discovery

Sherma2006High-performance thin-layer chromatographic analysis of neutral lipids and phospholipids in Biomphalaria glabrata ... High-performance thin-layer chromatographic analysis of neutral lipids and phospholipids in Biomphalaria glabrata patently ...
more infohttp://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371/journal.pntd.0000254

Biomphalaria choanomphala - Overview - Encyclopedia of LifeBiomphalaria choanomphala - Overview - Encyclopedia of Life

Of the 30 or so described species of Biomphalaria, about two-thirds live in the New World (from the southern US in the north ... Molecular work has shown that it is actually more closely related to Biomphalaria which look different but which also inhabit ... Traditionally B. choanomphala was placed as the type species in a species complex which included other small Biomphalaria which ... DNA barcoding has similarly assisted in the identification of many African species of Biomphalaria, and resolved redundancies ...
more infohttp://eol.org/pages/4805253/overview

Biomphalaria schrammi Crosse 1864
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Encyclopedia of LifeBiomphalaria schrammi Crosse 1864 - Encyclopedia of Life

Biomphalaria schrammi is a species of snail in the family ramshorn snails. ...
more infohttps://eol.org/pages/11996381

Biomphalaria - WikipediaBiomphalaria - Wikipedia

Of the 34 Biomphalaria species, 4 (Biomphalaria glabrata, Biomphalaria pfeifferi, Biomphalaria straminea, and Biomphalaria ... Biomphalaria prona Biomphalaria schrammi (Crosse, 1864) Biomphalaria straminea (Dunker, 1848) Biomphalaria subprona (Martens, ... Biomphalaria alexandrina Biomphalaria angulosa Mandahl-Barth, 1957 Biomphalaria barthi Brown, 1973 Biomphalaria camerunensis ... Biomphalaria intermedia (Paraense & Deslandes, 1962) Biomphalaria kuhniana (Clessin, 1883) Biomphalaria obstructa Biomphalaria ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biomphalaria

Biomphalaria straminea - WikipediaBiomphalaria straminea - Wikipedia

... firstly collected in 1973 A cladogram showing phylogenic relations of species in the genus Biomphalaria: Biomphalaria straminea ... Biomphalaria straminea is a species of air-breathing freshwater snail, an aquatic pulmonate gastropod mollusk in the family ... Biomphalaria glabrata is a Neotropical species. It occurs in: Caribbean: Saint Lucia - reported since 1993 northeast of Brazil ... Schistosoma mansoni was not able to infect Biomphalaria straminea previously and it has adapted to this host. Pointier, J. P.; ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biomphalaria_straminea

Production of reactive oxygen species by hemocytes of Biomphalaria glabrata: carbohydrate-specific stimulation.  - PubMed - NCBIProduction of reactive oxygen species by hemocytes of Biomphalaria glabrata: carbohydrate-specific stimulation. - PubMed - NCBI

Production of reactive oxygen species by hemocytes of Biomphalaria glabrata: carbohydrate-specific stimulation.. Hahn UK1, ... To investigate the nature of carbohydrates that evoke a defensive response in hemocytes of the gastropod Biomphalaria glabrata ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10831788

Genome-wide identification, characterisation and expression profiling of the ubiquitin-proteasome genes in Biomphalaria...Genome-wide identification, characterisation and expression profiling of the ubiquitin-proteasome genes in Biomphalaria...

active site found in the sequences participating in the PAS group of the Biomphalaria glabrata data. The residues involved in ... Biomphalaria glabrata is the major species used for the study of schistosomiasis-related parasite-host relationships, and ... location and distribution of the proteasome domain identified in the sequences of the PAS group of Biomphalaria glabrata. ... phylogenetic distribution of the E1 sequences found in Biomphalaria glabrata data against their orthologous organisms. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?cmd=Search&term=Jeremias%20Cabral

Morphological characterization of the hemocytes of the pulmonate snail Biomphalaria tenagophilaMorphological characterization of the hemocytes of the pulmonate snail Biomphalaria tenagophila

They were named granulocytes instead of amoebocytes to use the same terminology adopted for Biomphalaria glabrata in order to ... The blood cells of the pulmonate snail Biomphalaria tenagophila, an important transmiter of the trematode Schistosoma mansoni ... Morphological characterization of the hemocytes of the pulmonate snail Biomphalaria tenagophila. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz [ ...
more infohttp://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_abstract&pid=S0074-02761993000100012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en

FISH on Chromosomes Derived from the Snail Model Organism Biomphalaria glabrata | SpringerLinkFISH on Chromosomes Derived from the Snail Model Organism Biomphalaria glabrata | SpringerLink

Raghavan N., Knight M. (2006). The snail (Biomphalaria glabrata) genome project. Trends Parasitol. 22, 148-151.PubMedCrossRef ... Fluorescence in situ hybridization Snail chromosomes Biomphalaria glabrata Bge embryonic cell line Molluscan Planorbid ... Here, we describe the methodologies for the chromosomal mapping of nonrepetitive (single-copy) genes of the snail Biomphalaria ... Hansen, E.L. (1976). A cell line from embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata (Pulmonata): Establishment and characteristics. In: ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/protocol/10.1007/978-1-60761-789-1_29

Test for Transgenerational Immune Priming in the Snail, Biomphalaria glabrataTest for Transgenerational Immune Priming in the Snail, Biomphalaria glabrata

2011). Here we tested for the presence of transgenerational immune priming in the Biomphalaria glabrata snails when challenged ... Test for Transgenerational Immune Priming in the Snail, Biomphalaria glabrata Public Deposited ...
more infohttps://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/undergraduate_thesis_or_projects/f1881n839

Susceptibility of adult Biomphalaria glabrata to Schistosoma mansoni infection | The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and...Susceptibility of adult Biomphalaria glabrata to Schistosoma mansoni infection | The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and...

In previous studies true-breeding stocks of Biomphalaria glabrata were derived testing 100% or 0% susceptible as juveniles to a ... Susceptibility of adult Biomphalaria glabrata to Schistosoma mansoni infection * Charles S. Richards1 ... In previous studies true-breeding stocks of Biomphalaria glabrata were derived testing 100% or 0% susceptible as juveniles to a ...
more infohttp://www.ajtmh.org/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.1973.22.748

Biomphalaria pfeifferi Snails and Intestinal Schistosomiasis, Lake Malawi, Africa, 2017-2018 - Volume 25, Number 3-March 2019 -...Biomphalaria pfeifferi Snails and Intestinal Schistosomiasis, Lake Malawi, Africa, 2017-2018 - Volume 25, Number 3-March 2019 -...

Two surveys conducted in 2017 and 2018 demonstrated Biomphalaria pfeifferi snails in Lake Malawi in Africa. Epidemiologic ... Biomphalaria pfeifferi Snails and Intestinal Schistosomiasis, Lake Malawi, Africa, 2017-2018 On This Page ... Biomphalaria pfeifferi Snails and Intestinal Schistosomiasis, Lake Malawi, Africa, 2017-2018. Emerging Infectious Diseases. ... Biomphalaria pfeifferi Snails and Intestinal Schistosomiasis, Lake Malawi, Africa, 2017-2018. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(3):613- ...
more infohttps://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/25/3/18-1601_article

Environmental Epidemiology of Intestinal Schistosomiasis in Uganda: Population Dynamics of Biomphalaria (Gastropoda:...Environmental Epidemiology of Intestinal Schistosomiasis in Uganda: Population Dynamics of Biomphalaria (Gastropoda:...

The Biomphalaria shedding S. mansoni cercariae had a positive relationship with Biomphalaria populations (. , CI95 0.002-0.014 ... The Biomphalaria shedding S. mansoni cercariae showed a positive relationship with Biomphalaria population size (. , CI95 0.002 ... The Biomphalaria shedding cercariae were found throughout the months of the year. Biomphalaria shedding S. mansoni cercariae ( ... According to morphology, the most infected Biomphalaria species which shed S. mansoni cercariae were Biomphalaria stanleyi and ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/717261/

Identification of various Biomphalaria alexandrina strains collected from five Egyptian governorates using RAPD and species...Identification of various Biomphalaria alexandrina strains collected from five Egyptian governorates using RAPD and species...

The first generation of Biomphalaria snails collected from five Egyptian governorates (Giza, Fayoum, Kafr El-Sheikh, Ismailia ... Lotfy, W.M., DeJong, R.J., Kader, A.A. and Loker, E.S. (2005) A molecular survey of Biomphalaria in Egypt: Is B. glabrata ... Vidigal, T.H.D.A., Dias Neto, E., Carvalho, O.S., Simpson, A.J.G. (1994). Biomphalaria glabrata: Extensive genetic variation in ... Identification of various Biomphalaria alexandrina strains collected from five Egyptian governorates using RAPD and species- ...
more infohttps://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?paperID=4702

A MOLECULAR SURVEY OF BIOMPHALARIA IN EGYPT: IS B. GLABRATA PRESENT? | The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and HygieneA MOLECULAR SURVEY OF BIOMPHALARIA IN EGYPT: IS B. GLABRATA PRESENT? | The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

... the indigenous Biomphalaria alexandrina and Biomphalaria glabrata, the latter believed to be introduced during the past few ... Biomphalaria snails were found in 37 out of 76 sampled localities and were widely distributed in the Nile Delta and along the ... all Biomphalaria collected during this survey were B. alexandrina. There was no evidence of the presence of B. glabrata or of ... this study was carried out to get a more current picture of the status of Biomphalaria in Egypt. Snail collections were ...
more infohttp://www.ajtmh.org/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2005.73.131

Molecular and morphological identification of Biomphalaria species from the state of São Paulo, BrazilMolecular and morphological identification of Biomphalaria species from the state of São Paulo, Brazil

DNA barcoding may therefore be a useful supporting tool for identifying Biomphalaria snails in areas at risk for ... The molecular taxonomy of Biomphalaria agreed with the morphological identification of specimens from the same collection ... DNA barcoding and morphological characters were used to identify adult snails belonging to the genus Biomphalaria from 17 ...
more infohttps://zookeys.pensoft.net/article/10562

Journal of Evolutionary Biology Research - effect of ethanolic extract of dalbergia sissoo plant parts on biomphalaria...Journal of Evolutionary Biology Research - effect of ethanolic extract of dalbergia sissoo plant parts on biomphalaria...

Key words: Dalbergia sissoo, Biomphalaria alexandrina, Schistosoma mansoni, egg masses. ... roots and stem bark against adult Biomphalaria alexandrina, the snail intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni in Egypt and ... Effect of ethanolic extract of Dalbergia sissoo plant parts on Biomphalaria alexandrina snail, the intermediate host of ... roots and stem bark against adult Biomphalaria alexandrina, the snail intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni in Egypt and ...
more infohttps://academicjournals.org/journal/JEBR/article-abstract/9AC69D34314

Biomphalaria spp. (Preston, 1910) snails in the municipality of Juiz de Fora, Zona da Mata Mineira mesoregion, ate of Minas...Biomphalaria spp. (Preston, 1910) snails in the municipality of Juiz de Fora, Zona da Mata Mineira mesoregion, ate of Minas...

Keywords : Biomphalaria; Biomphalaria straminea; schistosomiasis; geographic distribution; Juiz de Fora; Brazil. · text in ... TIBIRICA, Sandra Helena Cerrato et al. Biomphalaria spp. (Preston, 1910) snails in the municipality of Juiz de Fora, Zona da ... This study focuses on the geographic distribution of the snail of the genus Biomphalaria and evaluates its infectivity by ... Although we did not find specimens of Biomphalaria infected by S. mansoni, the data obtained indicate the presence of ...
more infohttp://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_abstract&pid=S0074-02762006000900028&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en

AID 336200 - Effect on Biomphalaria glabrata intestinal rhythmicity assessed as potentiation of tissue contracture in presence...AID 336200 - Effect on Biomphalaria glabrata intestinal rhythmicity assessed as potentiation of tissue contracture in presence...

Effect on Biomphalaria glabrata intestinal rhythmicity assessed as potentiation of tissue contracture in presence of 10 uM ...
more infohttps://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bioassay/336200

Cytotoxic and genotoxic effect of oxyfluorfen on hemocytes of Biomphalaria glabrata | Springer for Research & DevelopmentCytotoxic and genotoxic effect of oxyfluorfen on hemocytes of Biomphalaria glabrata | Springer for Research & Development

The mollusk Biomphalaria glabrata has been shown to be useful as an environmental indicator to assess the potential ecological ... Estevam EC, Nakano E, Kawano T, Pereira CAB, Amancio FF, Melo AMMA (2006) Dominant lethal effects of 2,4-D in Biomphalaria ... Assessment of toxicity of Moringa oleifera flower extract to Biomphalaria glabrata, Schistosoma mansoni and Artemia salina. ... acute toxicity and mutagenicity testing in freshwater snails Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Gastropoda) exposed to chromium ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11356-018-3848-3

Establishment of Biomphalaria tenagophila Snails in Europe - Semantic ScholarEstablishment of Biomphalaria tenagophila Snails in Europe - Semantic Scholar

Karyological Studies of Biomphalaria tenagophila (dOrbigny, 1835) (Gastropoda: Planobidae) from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. *Gab ... Phylogeography of Biomphalaria glabrata and B. pfeifferi, important intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni in the New and ... Establishment of Biomphalaria tenagophila Snails in Europe. @article{Majoros2008EstablishmentOB, title={Establishment of ... Pattern of Genetic Divergence of Mitochondrial DNA Sequences in Biomphalaria tenagophila Complex Species Based on Barcode and ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Establishment-of-Biomphalaria-tenagophila-Snails-in-Majoros-Feh%C3%A9r/2d2e0cddf352aa5280375677a6e039491978d81a

Allelic variation partially regulates galactose-dependent hydrogen peroxide release from circulating hemocytes of the snail ...Allelic variation partially regulates galactose-dependent hydrogen peroxide release from circulating hemocytes of the snail ...

Allelic variation in a recently discovered genomic region in the snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, influences their susceptibility ... variation partially regulates galactose-dependent hydrogen peroxide release from circulating hemocytes of the snailBiomphalaria ...
more infohttps://insights.ovid.com/fshimu/201801000/00013844-201801000-00014

Nitric oxide production by Biomphalaria glabrata haemocytes: effects of Schistosoma mansoni ESPs and regulation through the...Nitric oxide production by Biomphalaria glabrata haemocytes: effects of Schistosoma mansoni ESPs and regulation through the...

Schistosoma mansoni uses Biomphalaria glabrata as an intermediate host during its complex life cycle. In the snail, the ... Zahoor Z, Davies AJ, Kirk RS, Rollinson D, Walker AJ: Disruption of ERK signalling in Biomphalaria glabrata defence cells by ... Schistosoma mansoni uses Biomphalaria glabrata as an intermediate host during its complex life cycle. In the snail, the ... Hahn UK, Bender RC, Bayne CJ: Killing of Schistosoma mansoni sporocysts by hemocytes from resistant Biomphalaria glabrata: Role ...
more infohttps://parasitesandvectors.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1756-3305-2-18

Deep, multi-stage transcriptome of the schistosomiasis vector Biomphalaria glabrata provides platform for understanding...Deep, multi-stage transcriptome of the schistosomiasis vector Biomphalaria glabrata provides platform for understanding...

The gastropod mollusc Biomphalaria glabrata is well known as a vector for the tropical disease schistosomiasis, which affects ... Biomphalaria glabrata ([47], image Fig. 1a) is a neotropical species, native to the Caribbean and northern parts of South ... Raghavan N, Knight M. The snail (Biomphalaria glabrata) genome project. Trends Parasitol. 2006;22:148-51.View ArticlePubMed ... a Adult albino Biomphalaria glabrata (image courtesy of Lewis et al., [32] CC BY 2.5). b Approximate native and introduced ...
more infohttps://bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12879-016-1944-x

Comparative study of excretory-secretory proteins released by Schistosoma mansoni-resistant, susceptible and naïve Biomphalaria...Comparative study of excretory-secretory proteins released by Schistosoma mansoni-resistant, susceptible and naïve Biomphalaria...

Biomphalaria glabrata maintenance conditions. Biomphalaria glabrata snails of the NMRI strain (which reliably release cercariae ... An analysis from another species of Biomphalaria, Biomphalaria pfeifferi, has suggested that phospholipase activity is most ... Schistosoma mansoni and Biomphalaria: past history and future trends. Parasitology. 2001;123(Suppl):S211-28.PubMedCrossRef ... Schistosoma mansoni Biomphalaria glabrata Miracidia Excretory-secretory proteins Proteomics PPI Abbreviations. ESP. excretory- ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/article/10.1186%2Fs13071-019-3708-0
  • Molecular work has shown that it is actually more closely related to Biomphalaria which look different but which also inhabit Lake Victoria and the Nile - giving the group its name, the Nilotic species complex. (eol.org)
  • This study documented the population dynamics of Biomphalaria and associated natural infections with digenetic trematodes, along the shores of Lake Albert and Lake Victoria, recording local physicochemical factors. (hindawi.com)
  • the taxonomy of Biomphalaria is confused and confusing, with two suspected species being present in Lake Victoria, but these populations have never been subject to detailed classification scrutiny. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • The research presented in the following thesis sought to address the above themes, relating to the dynamics of S. mansoni and Biomphalaria in Lake Victoria. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Among these potential intermediate hosts, Biomphalaria peregrina represents the most widespread species in South America, with confirmed occurrence records from Venezuela to northern Patagonia. (peerj.com)
  • Although morphological measurements have traditionally been used to identify species of Biomphalaria, new molecular tools are proving very useful in uncovering cryptic diversity. (eol.org)
  • The morphological similarity seen between B. choanomphala and the other more distantly related Biomphalaria implies that there may be strong natural selection for a particular morphology in a particular habitat. (eol.org)
  • Of the 30 or so described species of Biomphalaria, about two-thirds live in the New World (from the southern US in the north down to southern Argentina, and including many Caribbean islands). (eol.org)
  • The study found the physicochemical factors that influenced Biomphalaria population and infections. (hindawi.com)
  • DNA barcoding has similarly assisted in the identification of many African species of Biomphalaria, and resolved redundancies in nomenclature. (eol.org)
  • For example, research has suggested that the presence of other gastropods could reduce the abundance of Biomphalaria, through competitive effects. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • these data could also lead to a greater understanding of the specific environmental conditions preferred by Biomphalaria, allowing for predictive mapping of suitable transmission environments. (nottingham.ac.uk)