A species of trematode blood flukes of the family Schistosomatidae. It is common in the Nile delta. The intermediate host is the planorbid snail. This parasite causes schistosomiasis mansoni and intestinal bilharziasis.
Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.
Agents destructive to snails and other mollusks.
Schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma mansoni. It is endemic in Africa, the Middle East, South America, and the Caribbean and affects mainly the bowel, spleen, and liver.
A genus of intestinal flukes of the family Echinostomatidae which consists of many species. They occur in man and other vertebrates. The intermediate hosts are frequently mollusks.
Marine, freshwater, or terrestrial mollusks of the class Gastropoda. Most have an enclosing spiral shell, and several genera harbor parasites pathogenic to man.
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
Any blood or formed element especially in invertebrates.
The blood/lymphlike nutrient fluid of some invertebrates.
The free-swimming larval forms of parasites found in an intermediate host.
Infection with flukes (trematodes) of the genus SCHISTOSOMA. Three species produce the most frequent clinical diseases: SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM (endemic in Africa and the Middle East), SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI (in Egypt, northern and southern Africa, some West Indies islands, northern 2/3 of South America), and SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM (in Japan, China, the Philippines, Celebes, Thailand, Laos). S. mansoni is often seen in Puerto Ricans living in the United States.
A genus of small freshwater snails of the order Pulmonata, found throughout Africa and the Middle East, where it is a vector of SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM.
A large plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE, order Euphorbiales, subclass Rosidae. They have a milky sap and a female flower consisting of a single pistil, surrounded by numerous male flowers of one stamen each. Euphorbia hirta is rarely called milkweed but that name is normally used for ASCLEPIAS.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
A genus of trematode flukes belonging to the family Schistosomatidae. There are over a dozen species. These parasites are found in man and other mammals. Snails are the intermediate hosts.
An antihelmintic that is active against most tapeworms. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p48)
The use of silver, usually silver nitrate, as a reagent for producing contrast or coloration in tissue specimens.
A milky, product excreted from the latex canals of a variety of plant species that contain cauotchouc. Latex is composed of 25-35% caoutchouc, 60-75% water, 2% protein, 2% resin, 1.5% sugar & 1% ash. RUBBER is made by the removal of water from latex.(From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed). Hevein proteins are responsible for LATEX HYPERSENSITIVITY. Latexes are used as inert vehicles to carry antibodies or antigens in LATEX FIXATION TESTS.
Zygote-containing cysts of sporozoan protozoa. Further development in an oocyst produces small individual infective organisms called SPOROZOITES. Then, depending on the genus, the entire oocyst is called a sporocyst or the oocyst contains multiple sporocysts encapsulating the sporozoites.
A country in northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula Its capital is Cairo.
Biological processes, properties, and characteristics of the whole organism in human, animal, microorganisms, and plants, and of the biosphere.
The name of two islands of the West Indies, separated by a narrow channel. Their capital is Basse-Terre. They were discovered by Columbus in 1493, occupied by the French in 1635, held by the British at various times between 1759 and 1813, transferred to Sweden in 1813, and restored to France in 1816. Its status was changed from colony to a French overseas department in 1946. Columbus named it in honor of the monastery of Santa Maria de Guadalupe in Spain. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p470 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p221)
The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.
A genus of parasitic nematodes of the superfamily METASTRONGYLOIDEA. Two species, ANGIOSTRONGYLUS CANTONENSIS and A. vasorum, infest the lungs of rats and dogs, respectively. A. cantonensis is transmissible to man where it causes frequently fatal infection of the central nervous system.
Inland bodies of still or slowly moving FRESH WATER or salt water, larger than a pond, and supplied by RIVERS and streams.
An independent state in the West Indies. Its capital is Castries. It was probably discovered by Columbus in 1502 and first settled by the English in 1605. Contended for by the French and English in the 17th century, it was regarded as neutral in 1748 but changed hands many times in the wars of the 19th century. It became a self-governing state in association with Great Britain in 1967 and achieved independence in 1979. Columbus named it for the day on which he discovered it, the feast of St. Lucy, a Sicilian virgin martyr. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1051 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p477)
Infection by flukes of the genus Echinostoma.
Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.
The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.
A family of flowering plants in the order Piperales best known for the black pepper widely used in SPICES, and for KAVA and Betel used for neuroactive properties.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of helminths.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members of this genus can cause CONTACT DERMATITIS.
Determination of parasite eggs in feces.
The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous plants, insects, or other animals. This includes control of plants that serve as habitats or food sources for animal pests.
Agents that act systemically to kill adult schistosomes.
An island in the Lesser Antilles, one of the Windward Islands. Its capital is Fort-de-France. It was discovered by Columbus in 1502 and from its settlement in 1635 by the French it passed into and out of Dutch and British hands. It was made a French overseas department in 1946. One account of the name tells of native women on the shore calling "Madinina" as Columbus approached the island. The meaning was never discovered but was entered on early charts as Martinique, influenced by the name of St. Martin. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p734 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p339)
A freshwater fish used as an experimental organism and for food. This genus of the family Cichlidae (CICHLIDS) inhabits Central and South America (one species extends north into Texas), West Indies, Africa, Madagascar, Syria, and coastal India.
An island in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies, south of Florida. With the adjacent islands it forms the Republic of Cuba. Its capital is Havana. It was discovered by Columbus on his first voyage in 1492 and conquered by Spain in 1511. It has a varied history under Spain, Great Britain, and the United States but has been independent since 1902. The name Cuba is said to be an Indian name of unknown origin but the language that gave the name is extinct, so the etymology is a conjecture. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p302 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p132)
Technique that utilizes low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with single primers of arbitrary sequence to generate strain-specific arrays of anonymous DNA fragments. RAPD technique may be used to determine taxonomic identity, assess kinship relationships, analyze mixed genome samples, and create specific probes.
The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
A species of trematode blood flukes of the family Schistosomatidae which occurs at different stages in development in veins of the pulmonary and hepatic system and finally the bladder lumen. This parasite causes urinary schistosomiasis.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
A genus of planorbid freshwater snails, species of which are intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.

The chemical ecology of Biomphalaria glabrata: the effects of ammonia on the growth rate of juvenile snails. (1/343)

When juvenile specimens of Biomphalaria glabrata were subjected to concentrations of ammonia ranging from 1-100 mug/ml in various media the following effects were observed: the addition of ammonia to borate buffered media caused mortality. Both borate and tris-buffered media caused a decrease in the growth rate of snails when compared with controls in SSW. The growth rates of the snails could be enhanced by increasing the concentration of ammonia to critical thresholds, but further increases beyond these thresholds resulted in growth inhibition. The toxicity of ammonia in ambient water was augmented by an an increase in pH. The possible causation and ecological significance of these effects are discussed. There are indications that the snails are physiologically well-adapted to utilize ammonia when required and also to control its excretion and uptake from the medium.  (+info)

Interleukin 5 (IL-5) is not required for expression of a Th2 response or host resistance mechanisms during murine schistosomiasis mansoni but does play a role in development of IL-4-producing non-T, non-B cells. (2/343)

During schistosomiasis, interleukin-5 (IL-5)-dependent eosinophil responses have been implicated in immunopathology, resistance to superinfection, synergistic interactions with chemotherapeutic agents, and the inductive phase of the egg-induced Th2 response. We examined these issues in IL-5-deficient (IL-5(-/-)) mice. IL-5(-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice were indistinguishable in terms of susceptibility to primary infections and the ability to resist secondary infections. Moreover, hepatic pathology was similar in both strains apart from a relative lack of eosinophils and, during chronic infection, a significantly larger mast cell component in the granulomas of IL-5(-/-) mice. Splenocyte cytokine production in response to soluble egg antigen (SEA) or anti-CD3 revealed no significant differences except for heightened tumor necrosis factor alpha production by cells from chronically infected IL-5(-/-) mice compared to WT animals. In contrast, ionomycin-stimulated non-B, non-T (NBNT) cells from IL-5(-/-) mice produced significantly smaller IL-4 amounts than did NBNT cells from WT animals. This difference was not apparent following plate-bound anti-immunoglobulin E or SEA stimulation. The absence of IL-5 failed to affect the induction of Th2 responses in naive mice. Peritoneal exudate cells recovered from egg-injected IL-5(-/-) or WT mice produced equivalent levels of IL-4 following restimulation with SEA or anti-CD3.  (+info)

Geographic information systems and the environmental risk of schistosomiasis in Bahia, Brazil. (3/343)

A geographic information system was constructed using maps of regional environmental features, Schistosoma mansoni prevalence in 30 representative municipalities, and snail distribution in Bahia, Brazil to study the spatial and temporal dynamics of infection and to identify environmental factors that influence the distribution of schistosomiasis. Results indicate that population density and the duration of annual dry period are the most important determinants of prevalence of schistosomiasis in the areas selected for study. Maximum rainfall, total precipitation during three consecutive months, annual maximum or minimum temperatures, and diurnal temperature difference were not shown to be significant factors influencing S. mansoni prevalence in local populations or distribution of snail hosts. Prevalence of the disease was highest in the coastal areas of the state. Higher prevalence tended to occur in areas with latossolo soil type and transitional vegetation.  (+info)

Intranasal administration of synthetic recombinant peptide-based vaccine protects mice from infection by Schistosoma mansoni. (4/343)

Schistosomiasis is the cause of a chronic debilitating disease which accounts for significant mortality and morbidity every year, especially in tropical and subtropical areas. An epitope derived from the protective surface protein 9B-Ag of Schistosoma mansoni, designated 9B peptide-1, was previously showed to be protective in mice when conjugated to bovine serum albumin and administered subcutaneously in complete Freund's adjuvant. In this work, this protective peptide was expressed in the flagellin of a Salmonella vaccine strain, and the isolated recombinant flagella were used for immunization of mice. Since during the invasion of the parasite into the host the schistosomula migrate first to the lungs, the intranasal route of administration was employed in order to halt the parasite at an early stage of the infection. Such intranasal immunization with this peptide expressed in flagellin, without the addition of adjuvants, resulted in a significant humoral response and also led to protection against challenge infection, manifested as a reduction of the worm burden by an average of 42%.  (+info)

The epidemiology of a recent focus of mixed Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni infections around the 'Lac de Guiers' in the Senegal River Basin, Senegal. (5/343)

A village with mixed Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium infections (probably in a early endemic phase) was identified around the Lac de Guiers in the Senegal River Basin. In documenting the epidemiology of both schistosomes, we focused on prevalence and intensity of infection, transmission patterns and the impact of treatment. S. mansoni prevalences (near 100%) and egg counts (overall geometric mean eggs per gram of faeces (epg) of 589 were high in all age groups, with 35% of individuals excreting > 1000 epg, and showing a slow decline in egg output only after the age of 30 years. The overall prevalence (28%) and egg counts (2% > 50 eggs/10 ml) of S. haematobium were low, with mean counts of 6.3 eggs/10 ml. Maximal mean S. mansoni egg counts were found in 5-9 year-old boys and in 15-19 year-old girls; S. haematobium maximal counts in 1-4 year-old boys and in girls aged 5-9. Extremely high Biomphalaria pfeifferi infection ratios were recorded over the whole year. Following a single treatment, re-infection was rapid with prevalences and mean egg counts of both Schistosoma species reaching pretreatment levels within 7 months.  (+info)

Changes in the behavioral and immunological parameters of the mollusk Biomphalaria tenagophila induced by disruption of the circadian cycle as a consequence of continuous illumination. (6/343)

In the present investigation we studied some behavioral and immunological parameters of adult gastropod mollusk, Biomphalaria tenagophila, which have been reproducing for several generations under laboratory conditions. One group of gastropods was kept on a 14-h light/10-h dark cycle, corresponding to a regular circadian cycle, and another group was exposed to continuous light for 48 h. Animals were studied along (behavioral groups) or immediately after (immunological groups) 48 h of regular circadian cycle or continuous light conditions. Stopping/floating, dragging and sliding were the behavioral aspects considered (N = 20 for regular cycle; N = 20 for continuous illumination) and number of hemocytes/microl hemolymph was the immunological parameter studied (N = 15 for regular cycle, N = 14 for continuous illumination). Animals under continuous illumination were more active (sliding = 33 episodes, dragging = 48 episodes) and displayed a lower number of hemocytes (78.0 +/- 24. 27/microl) when compared with mollusks kept on a regular circadian cycle (sliding = 18 episodes, dragging = 27 episodes; hemocytes = 157.6 +/- 53.27/microl). The data are discussed in terms of neural circuits and neuroimmunological relations with the possible stressful effect of continuous illumination.  (+info)

Profile of organic acid concentrations in the digestive gland and hemolymph of Biomphalaria glabrata under estivation. (7/343)

Using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis it was possible to determine simultaneously the concentration of organic acids (pyruvate, lactate, succinate, fumarate, malate, acetate, propionate, acetoacetate, and ss-hydroxybutyrate) in the digestive gland and the extracellular concentration of these same acids in the hemolymph of estivating Biomphalaria glabrata, the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni. After a 7 day period of estivation, there was a significant increase in the tissue levels of lactate, succinate, malate and acetate compared to non-estivating snails. After 14 days of estivation, the levels of lactate and acetate were also significantly elevated. The hemolymph concentrations of pyruvate and acetate increased significantly after 7 days and acetate concentrations continued to be significantly increased up to 14 days of estivation. The other organic acids studied, such as ketone body acetoacetate and ss-hydroxybutyrate or the volatile acid propionate, did not accumulate. Their tissue concentrations, however, increased on the 7th day of estivation and reached normal levels within two weeks of estivation for some of them. One should take into consideration how the reduction in metabolism can be handled under aerobic conditions, and what role anaerobic pathways may play in both energy formation and redox balance processes.  (+info)

Growth changes induced by gamma radiation on Biomphalaria straminea (Dunker, 1848). (8/343)

Doses of 60Co gamma radiation with 2.5; 5; 7.5; 10; 15; 20; 25; 30; 35; 40; 45; 50; 55; 60; 80; 160; 320 and 640 Gy were applied to 1, 080 snails Biomphalaria straminea, an intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni, divided in groups containing 30 mollusks. In addition, 60 non irradiated snails were kept as control. Fifty percent of the population was kept in colonies (allowing cross fertilization) while the other half was maintained in sexual isolation (allowing self fertilization) and during one month their growth was observed through the daily measurement of the shell diameter. Results showed that after 20 Gy doses the growth in shell diameter of irradiated snails was greater than that of the control group after 30 days. At this dose the snail size was the greatest, among all isolated groups. The 80 Gy doses also induced the final shell diameter of isolated snails to be greater then that observed in the control groups. As this effect was most evident among the isolated snails, a possible hormonal role may have been involved in the observed phenomena, which is under investigation with the objective of identifying any future applications that this could have to schistosomiasis control.  (+info)

Abstract Germfree Biomphalaria glabrata were successfully reared through their life cycle in isolators. The snails were fed a diet sterilized either by heat or by irradiation. Snails fed an irradiated diet had a better growth and higher reproduction rate than the ones fed an autoclaved diet. There was no difference in survival between the two groups.
The outcome of infection in the host snail Biomphalaria glabrata with the digenean parasite Schistosoma mansoni is determined by the initial molecular interplay occurring between them. The mechanisms by which schistosomes evade snail immune recognition to ensure survival are not fully understood, but one possibility is that the snail internal defence system is manipulated by the schistosome enabling the parasite to establish infection. This study provides novel insights into the nature of schistosome resistance and susceptibility in B. glabrata at the transcriptomic level by simultaneously comparing gene expression in haemocytes from parasite-exposed and control groups of both schistosome-resistant and schistosome-susceptible strains, 2 h post exposure to S. mansoni miracidia, using an novel 5K cDNA microarray. Differences in gene expression, including those for immune/stress response, signal transduction and matrix/adhesion genes were identified between the two snail strains and tests for ...
abstract = {We have identified and characterized a Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) family member in the Lophotrochozoan invertebrate, Biomphalaria glabrata, the snail intermediate host of the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni. In mammals, MIF is a widely expressed pleiotropic cytokine with potent pro-inflammatory properties that controls cell functions such as gene expression, proliferation or apoptosis. Here we show that the MIF protein from B. glabrata (BgMIF) is expressed in circulating immune defense cells (hemocytes) of the snail as well as in the B. glabrata embryonic (Bge) cell line that has hemocyte-like features. Recombinant BgMIF (rBgMIF) induced cell proliferation and inhibited NO-dependent p53-mediated apoptosis in Bge cells. Moreover, knock-down of BgMIF expression in Bge cells interfered with the in vitro encapsulation of S. mansoni sporocysts. Furthermore, the in vivo knock-down of BgMIF prevented the changes in circulating hemocyte populations that occur in ...
Transgenerational immune priming occurs when an adult is exposed to a parasite or other pathogen and then transmits information to its offspring through protective phenotypes to cope with the same pathogen (Moret, 2006). There has been evidence for transgenerational immune priming in various invertebrates (Tidbury et al. 2011). Here we tested for the presence of transgenerational immune priming in the Biomphalaria glabrata snails when challenged by exposure to the Schistosoma mansoni parasite. The experimental parent generation was challenged with a parasitic environment, while the control parent generation was not. The results were then determined based on the resistance or susceptibility of the F1 offspring generation. We found that parental challenge did not enhance offspring immunity through transgenerational immune priming ...
The effects of aestivation or starvation on the neutral lipid and phospholipid content of Biomphalaria glabrata patently infected with Schistosoma mansoni were determined by high-performance thin-layer chromatography-densitometry. Infected-aestivated snails were maintained in a moist chamber at 24 ± 1 C and a relative humidity of 98 ± 1%. Infected-starved snails were maintained in artificial spring water (ASW) at 23 ± 1 C without exogenous food. Infected snails (the controls) were maintained in ASW at 23 ± 1 C and fed lettuce ad libitum. The 3 groups were maintained in the laboratory for 7 days, and then the lipids from the digestive gland-gonad complex (DGG) were extracted and analyzed by class. Infected-aestivated snails exhibited greater mortality rate and weight loss after 7 days than did the infected-starved snails. The steryl ester concentration in the infected-starved snails was significantly increased (P = 0.010) compared with the controls but not compared with infected- aestivated ...
abstract = {Our present understanding of the functioning and evolutionary history of invertebrate innate immunity derives mostly from studies on a few model species belonging to ecdysozoa. In particular, the characterization of signaling pathways dedicated to specific responses towards fungi and Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria in Drosophila melanogaster challenged our original view of a non-specific immunity in invertebrates. However, much remains to be elucidated from lophotrochozoan species. To investigate the global specificity of the immune response in the fresh-water snail Biomphalaria glabrata, we used massive Illumina sequencing of 5-end cDNAs to compare expression profiles after challenge by Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria or after a yeast challenge. 5-end cDNA sequencing of the libraries yielded over 12 millions high quality reads. To link these short reads to expressed genes, we prepared a reference transcriptomic database through automatic assembly and annotation of ...
abstract = {Our present understanding of the functioning and evolutionary history of invertebrate innate immunity derives mostly from studies on a few model species belonging to ecdysozoa. In particular, the characterization of signaling pathways dedicated to specific responses towards fungi and Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria in Drosophila melanogaster challenged our original view of a non-specific immunity in invertebrates. However, much remains to be elucidated from lophotrochozoan species. To investigate the global specificity of the immune response in the fresh-water snail Biomphalaria glabrata, we used massive Illumina sequencing of 5-end cDNAs to compare expression profiles after challenge by Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria or after a yeast challenge. 5-end cDNA sequencing of the libraries yielded over 12 millions high quality reads. To link these short reads to expressed genes, we prepared a reference transcriptomic database through automatic assembly and annotation of ...
abstract = {Our present understanding of the functioning and evolutionary history of invertebrate innate immunity derives mostly from studies on a few model species belonging to ecdysozoa. In particular, the characterization of signaling pathways dedicated to specific responses towards fungi and Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria in Drosophila melanogaster challenged our original view of a non-specific immunity in invertebrates. However, much remains to be elucidated from lophotrochozoan species. To investigate the global specificity of the immune response in the fresh-water snail Biomphalaria glabrata, we used massive Illumina sequencing of 5-end cDNAs to compare expression profiles after challenge by Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria or after a yeast challenge. 5-end cDNA sequencing of the libraries yielded over 12 millions high quality reads. To link these short reads to expressed genes, we prepared a reference transcriptomic database through automatic assembly and annotation of ...
When starting her own lab at James Cook University, Australia, Jodie Rummer applied for a Travelling Fellowship from JEB to gather data on oxygen consumption rates of coral reef fishes at the Northern Great Barrier Reef. A few years later, Björn Illing, from the Institute for Hydrobiology and Fisheries Science, Germany, followed in Jodies footsteps and used a JEB Travelling Fellowship to visit Jodies lab. There, he studied the effects of temperature on the survival of larval cinnamon clownfish. Jodie and Björns collaboration was so successful that they have written a collaborative paper, and Björn has now returned to continue his research as a post-doc in Jodies Lab. Read their story here.. Where could your research take you? The deadline to apply for the current round of Travelling Fellowships is 30 Nov 2017. Apply now!. ...
Biomphalaria glabrata is an intermediate snail host for the digenean trematode, Schistosoma mansoni, which causes the human disease schistosomiasis. A lot of research has focused on the snail-schistosome interaction, especially in regards to the immune response of the snail. The nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) pathway, which is involved in regulating the immune response, can be triggered by the Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway. However, not much is known about the specific molecular mechanisms regulating these responses. Both NF-κB and TLR homologues have recently been reported in B. glabrata so it is of great interest to determine if BgNF-κB can regulate components of the pathway. We have used bioinformatics to identify putative κB sites upstream of 16 genes coding for members of the TLR pathway in B. glabrata. In order to determine if the snails NF-κB p65 protein can recognize the κB sites of interest, electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) were carried out. The functional
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Looking for Miracidia? Find out information about Miracidia. The ciliated first larva of a digenetic trematode; forms a sporocyst after penetrating intermediate host tissues. the first larva in the development of... Explanation of Miracidia
Roberts, Sabrina, Spencer-Smith, Russell, Shah, Mahwish, Nebel, Jean-Christophe, Cook, Richard T. and Snyder, Lori A. S. (2016) Correia repeat enclosed elements and non-coding RNAs in the Neisseria species. Microorganisms, 4(3), p. 31. ISSN (online) 2076-2607 Zukaite, Vainora, Cook, Richard T. and Walker, Anthony J. (2016) Multiple roles for protein kinase C in gastropod embryogenesis. Cell and Tissue Research, 364(1), pp. 117-124. ISSN (print) 0302-766X Lawton, Scott P., Lim, Rivka M., Dukes, Juliet P., Kett, Stephen M., Cook, Richard T., Walker, Anthony J. and Kirk, Ruth S. (2015) Unravelling the riddle of Radix : DNA barcoding for species identification of freshwater snail intermediate hosts of zoonotic digeneans and estimating their inter-population evolutionary relationships. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 35, pp. 63-74. ISSN (print) 1567-1348 Lawton, Scott P., Lim, Rivka M., Dukes, Juliet P., Cook, Richard T., Walker, Anthony J. and Kirk, Ruth S. (2014) Identification of a major ...
Take away the voids where trees could be….. Ill be at the Maitland Farmers Market to help you see where a tree could be in your yard and neighborhood. Come to the Farmers Market on April 27 between 9 a.m. and 2 p.m. and get a tree. Take it home and plant it where the sun does shine in your yard using right tree right place principles and water, water, water two-three times per week.. If you cant plant a tree; take time to walk around one of Maitlands many parks and take a breath. Imagine witnessing a breaching whale. Look at the trees and see it as one of the largest organisms on earth. Dont hold the lack of a central nervous system against it. It reacts as a symphony to the surrounding environment to open and close stoma in managing air and water systems, to operate a complex internal defense system of compartmentalization, to moving raw materials to a point of production and transporting product away…. Hug a tree.. Written by Brian Dierks, Arborist at the City of Maitland. ...
Discography of American Historical Recordings, s.v. Victor matrix BS-048771. America / Emile Coté ; Victor Mixed Chorus, accessed January 22, 2018, http://victor.library.ucsb.edu/index.php/matrix/detail/200043508/BS-048771-America.. Victor matrix BS-048771. America / Emile Coté ; Victor Mixed Chorus. (2018). In Discography of American Historical Recordings. Retrieved January 22, 2018, from http://victor.library.ucsb.edu/index.php/matrix/detail/200043508/BS-048771-America.. Victor matrix BS-048771. America / Emile Coté ; Victor Mixed Chorus. Discography of American Historical Recordings. UC Santa Barbara Library, 2018. Web. 22 January 2018.. ...
Discography of American Historical Recordings, s.v. Victor matrix BS-068384. Theres a long, long trail / Emile Coté ; Victor Mixed Chorus, accessed January 22, 2018, http://victor.library.ucsb.edu/index.php/matrix/detail/200052575/BS-068384-Theres_a_long_long_trail.. Victor matrix BS-068384. Theres a long, long trail / Emile Coté ; Victor Mixed Chorus. (2018). In Discography of American Historical Recordings. Retrieved January 22, 2018, from http://victor.library.ucsb.edu/index.php/matrix/detail/200052575/BS-068384-Theres_a_long_long_trail.. Victor matrix BS-068384. Theres a long, long trail / Emile Coté ; Victor Mixed Chorus. Discography of American Historical Recordings. UC Santa Barbara Library, 2018. Web. 22 January 2018.. ...
Forget traditional fine dining, starched napery and sommeliers with a forbidding attitude - travellers in the Australian bush are tapping into old-school bush tucker as the new immersion experience.
infections in mammals have contributed greatly in understanding the pathology and pathogenesis of human infection. The absence of earlier reviews regarding specific strains of the Amazon region prompted research, which the main objective was to describe histopathological lesions in different phases of schistosomiasis in a murine model using PC (Pará) and LILA (Maranhäo) S. mansoni strains. One hundred and eighty young female albino swiss mice (Mus musculus) were used and were randomly divided into five groups (PC-01, PC-02, LILA-01, LILA-02, and controls), according to the number of cercariae injected and the strain adopted. Animals were sacrificed in predetermined periods (35, 56, 112, 156, and 180 days) in an attempt to follow the evolution of the disease in the histological sections of their tissues at different phases of infection. Our findings were compatible with the data already described by others authors using different strains of S. mansoni, making it possible to identify some ...
Innate are nonspecific immunity are inherited in the structure of each organism to help fight off pathogens. They recognize the bodys tissue cells as self which allows them to recognize invaders. The best for detecting these invaders are the lipopolysaccharides. The first layer of defense is the top layer of skin called the epidermis. Many pathogens dont get passed this barrier. Along with the epidermis, gastric juice also helps fight off microogranisms before they can enter the body. External and internal defense mechanisms are both part of innate immunity. Once a pathogen gets through the epithelial tissue it is in the connective tissues and is now called a toxin. From there it can go into the persons blood stream or into the lymphatic capillaries where it then can travel to any other place in the body. Innate is also the first defense set off once a toxin is in the body to see if it cant get rid of it. There is a thing called the complement system that helps out the innate and adaptive ...
being exposed to the environment and building antibodies towards foreign invaders is what the bodys immune system does naturally. Without going into technical detail, vaccines are made of components similar to actual bugs (or a protein the bug makes) that provide the building block for antibodies to be created in the body. This means that if one who is vaccinated is exposed to the ACTUAL pathogen, there is a systemic response causing the body to remember this bug and kill it fairly easily. If there was no vaccine or prior exposure to something very similar, the body does not have an internal defense already in place . Instead, it has to create one, which takes time. This makes the body more susceptible to that pathogen. Essentially, if one is thus exposed to the pathogen, and is susceptible, the immune system may be overwhelmed and the person will begin to show symptoms of the disease. Once the illness is over, however, as long as the disease-causing pathogen does not evolve/change, the body ...
Outwitting winter colds: An athletes guide. Devereaux, K. // Womens Sports & Fitness;Oct/Nov88, Vol. 10 Issue 8, p46 Getting a cold or the flu can be avoided by bolstering the bodys internal defenses through proper diet and exercise, and sharpening the bodys external defenses. Dos and donts for staying healthy in public places; Vitamin C and Zinc; Exercise; Food guide. INSET: Should you exercise when you... ...
Despite the nasty clean-up that follows it, diarrhea is not necessarily a bad thing. It is actually the dogs internal defense to eliminate harmful substances from his body. As such, do not be alarmed when his increased stool movement is accompanied with some vomiting. As long as the canines do not show signs of lethargy, bloating, extremely high-fever and have… Read more ». ...
Despite the nasty clean-up that follows it diarrhea is not necessarily a bad thing. It is actually the dogs internal defense to eliminate harmful substances from his body. As such, do not be alarmed when his increased stool movement is accompanied with some vomiting. As long as the canines do not show signs of lethargy, bloating, extremely high-fever and have… Read more ». ...
Bioss Anti-CST8 Polyclonal, Catalog # BS-9216R. Tested in Western Blot (WB), Immunofluorescence (IF) and Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin) (IHC (P)) applications. This antibody reacts with Human, Mouse, Rat samples. Supplied as 100 µL purified antibody (1 mg/mL).
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TP53TG3, 0.1 ml. May play a significant role in TP53/p53-mediating signaling pathway.Tissue specificity:Strongly expressed in testis.
Dog IgG (H+L), 0.2 ml. Immunoglobulin G (IgG), is one of the most abundant proteins in serum with normal levels between 8-17 mg/mL in adult blood.
RESULTS:. A total of 2,661 molluscs were collected in São Luís and 1,726 in São Bento; and 3.72% (99/2,661) and 4.87% (84/1,726) of planorbids were positive for larval trematodes, respectively. In São Luís, the helminth fauna identified were Clinostomidae (0.41%), Diplostomidae (0.56%), Echinostomatidae (0.90%), Schistosomatidae (0.71%), Spirorchiidae (0.41%), and Strigeidae (0.71%) families; and in São Bento were Echinostomatidae (1.80%), Schistosomatidae (0.75%), Spirorchiidae (1.56%), and Strigeidae (0.75%) ones. Among cercariae in Schistosomatidae family of the both municipalities, only Schistosoma mansoni was reported. In São Luís, Biomphalaria species presented the following infection rates: 1.95% (52/2,661) for Biomphalaria straminea and 1.76% (47/2,661) for Biomphalaria glabrata. In São Bento, these rates were 4.46% (77/1,726) for B. glabrata and 0.40% (7/1,726) for B. straminea. ...
Leandro X. et, al, Quantitative Proteomics of Enriched Esophageal and Gut Tissues from the Human Blood Fluke Schistosoma mansoni Pinpoints Secreted Proteins for Vaccine Development, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jproteome.9b00531 Nov. 15, 2019.. Schistosomes are blood-dwelling helminth parasites that cause schistosomiasis, a debilitating disease resulting in inflammation and, in extreme cases, multiple organ damage. Major challenges to control the transmission persist, and the discovery of protective antigens remains of critical importance for vaccine development. Rhesus macaques can self-cure following schistosome infection, generating antibodies that target proteins from the tegument, gut, and esophagus, the last of which is the least investigated. We developed a dissection technique that permitted increased sensitivity in a comparative proteomics profiling of schistosome esophagus and gut. Proteome analysis of the male schistosome esophagus identified 13 proteins encoded by microexon genes ...
An account is given of a laboratory investigation designed to evaluate the extent to which the freshwater pulmonate snail Biomphalaria glabrata (Say) can utilize various species of aquatic plants, mainly macrophytes, when presented in the following forms over different time scales: (i) normal plants; (ii) dried plant material; (iii) homogenized plant material in calcium alginate matrices; (iv) water-soluble filtrates of plant homogenates in the medium. The following propositions, derived from the theory of phased coevolution of components of the module consisting of the epiphytic bacteria, algae, snails and macrophytes, are evaluated on the basis of the present results and others including those obtained in this laboratory, (i) That as the snails had become specialized to exploit surface communities of epiphytic algae, decaying plant material and dissolved organic matter (DOM) early in their evolutionary history they would continue to exploit these resources when they later become associated ...
Schistosoma mansoni is hosted by several species of Biomphalaria spp. snails in Africa. We were interested in determining if there were differences in compatibility of S. mansoni with Biomphalaria sudanica from Lake Victoria, or with B. pfeifferi from streams and smaller water bodies in Kenya. Does this parasite develop with equal efficiency in both snail species, and does this have implications for transmission in different habitat types? Primers for PCR amplification of the S. mansoni ND5 gene were designed and tested for sensitivity and specificity. We exposed laboratory-reared B. sudanica and field-derived B. pfeifferi to single miracidium infections and at 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 24 days post-exposure (dpe), snails were extracted for the PCR assay. Snails were also shed for cercariae and/or dissected prior to extraction. Additionally, B. sudanica and B. pfeifferi were collected from field locations and tested with the PCR assay. The ND5 PCR assay was sensitive (>0.1 fg S.
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Two species of Biomphalaria are reported from Egypt, the indigenous Biomphalaria alexandrina and Biomphalaria glabrata, the latter believed to be introduced during the past few decades. Both are known to be excellent hosts of Schistosoma mansoni, the human-infecting blood fluke common in Egypt. Given the concerns regarding the spread of the exotic B. glabrata, this study was carried out to get a more current picture of the status of Biomphalaria in Egypt. Snail collections were undertaken during 2002-2003 from regions between Alexandria and Ismailia in the north of the Nile Delta, to as far south as Abu Simbel at Lake Nasser. Biomphalaria snails were found in 37 out of 76 sampled localities and were widely distributed in the Nile Delta and along the Nile as far south as Aswan. According to the results of species-specific polymerase chain reaction assays that sampled both nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, and according to DNA sequence data, all Biomphalaria collected during this survey were B.
The shell of many Planorbidae is right turned (dextral), but their body is sinistral, a situation similar with the Lanistes genus of the Ampullariidae (apple snails), which have a sinistral shell and dextral body. Because collected shells are often empty, these snails are considered dextral for practical, determination reasons, but on anatomical grounds one could call these snail hyperstrophic dextral. On the other hand, some Planorbidae genera like Ameriana and Physastra from the Physastrini tribe have sinistral, globose conic shells, while the Ancylus genus have flat hood-shaped shells, similar to the Acroloxidae snails. The eggs of these hermaphroditic Planorbidae snails are laid in transparant clutches on plants, stones or other objects ...
The research presented in the following thesis sought to address the above themes, relating to the dynamics of S. mansoni and Biomphalaria in Lake Victoria. Through a series of four field expeditions to the Ugandan, Tanzanian and Kenyan shorelines of Lake Victoria, data were collected pertaining to the distribution of S. mansoni in school-age children; 27 schools in Uganda were first surveyed for prevalence and intensity of infection. Questionnaires revealed high levels of migration among the school-children, with high levels of itinerancy also associated with increased risk of being infected with S. mansoni and of missing school-based treatment with praziquantel. Later surveys in Tanzania and Kenya compared prevalence of infection as diagnosed by Kato-Katz stool thick smears against a novel, urine-based, rapid diagnostic called the cathodic cirulating antigen (CCA) dipstick. The CCA performed well, with good agreement against the Kato-Katz diagnostic and high sensitivity and specificity in this ...
Adult worms, which may live for many years in the bile ducts, produce eggs that are carried by the bile fluid into the intestinal lumen and passed into the environment with the feces. The eggs are unembryonated, operculated, large, ovoid, and brownish yellow and measure 130 to 150 μm by 63 to 90 μm. The miracidium develops within 1 to 2 weeks in water from 22 to 26°C and escapes from the egg to infect the snail intermediate host, Lymnaea sp. These snails are amphibious. Within 4 to 7 weeks, cercariae are liberated from the snail after the production of a sporocyst generation and two or three redia generations. Cercariae encyst on water vegetation, e.g., watercress. Humans are infected by ingestion of uncooked aquatic vegetation on which metacercariae are encysted. Metacercariae excyst in the duodenum and migrate through the intestinal wall into the peritoneal cavity. The larvae enter the liver by penetrating the capsule (Glissons capsule) and wander through the liver parenchyma for up to 9 ...
Freshwater snails are widely distributed across the world. There are over 600 species of freshwater snails in ponds, lakes and rivers in the United States.
Tibiri , Sandra Helena Cerrato et al. Biomphalaria spp. (Preston, 1910) snails in the municipality of Juiz de Fora, Zona da Mata Mineira mesoregion, ate of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Oct 2006, vol.101, suppl.1, p.179-184. ISSN 0074- ...
Five strains of Bacillus pfeifferi were isolated from a case of meningitis. These strains came from the spinal fluid, blood, nose, throat, and nasopharynx.. Immunologic reactions show no definite relations between these strains, although those from the nose, throat, and nasopharynx might be presumed to be related to one another. It is also presumable that the spinal fluid strain was derived from the upper air passages, and that the blood was invaded from the meninges. In spite of immunologic differences, it is believed that the five strains were genetically related.. The variations in these five strains from a single case are as great as those which have been found by others for strains from different cases, or individuals.. As determined by immunologic reactions, the number of so called strains of Bacillus pfeifferi is apparently limited only by the number of cultures which have been or might be isolated. It is inconceivable that under the designation Bacillus pfeifferi is included a ...
Adults of Schostosoma mansoni live in mesenteric veins which drain the intestine of the host. The female will generally move to smaller venules before depositing her eggs. The enclosed miracidium is under-developed at time of oviposition, but will be well-formed before reaching the lumen of an infected organ. The egg must penetrate and traverse multiple tissues and mucosal lining before entering the lumen of the gut or the bladder to escape to the environment. The passage of eggs from the blood stream to the lumen of the infected organ are induced by secretions that are part of the immune response of the host. Once the egg has reached the intestinal lumen, the egg can exit the host organism in either feces or urine.. Upon reaching fresh water, the miracidia are activated to hatch, because they are no longer under the inhibitory osmolarity of the hosts body fluids. Hatching occurs by rupturing the eggshell along the suture line. Free-swimming miracidia must find a suitable intermediate snail ...
Like all the other mollusks, snails are one nauseating creatures that can make your life completely miserable. Usually snails dwell on the aquatic environments especially the snail that lives nearby water and those snails are not as bad for the human kind as the garden snails. Garden snails are found in chunks at your gardens, orchards and porches. Snails are also called as slugs but there is a slight difference between snails and slugs and that is that the slugs have got no shells on their surfaces and on the other hand the garden snails have got shells on their surfaces. The main problem with the snails is that the breed in great number and it is quite difficult to control their reproduction, when they start reproducing they go on and on in a single month. They only need a month to reproduce as much as they can.. ...
Given that I studied an abundant snail during my PhD (actually, Potamopyrgus antipodarum is invasive throughout most of the world), this headline was alarming to me. But like many uncharismatic microfauna, snails are declining in record number across a number of different habitats. Read about it over at Scientific America, and save the snails!
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As I was saying, dunking is an old custom. The first dunker was Pharaohs daughter. She dunked Moses twice in the River Nile. Of course, we have had other important dunkers since then. Take Captain Kidd, for instance. When he dunked a man, that man stayed dunked. Today its different. The rules of dunking are laid down in every book of etiquette. Emily Post says you must never dunk above the knuckle. Some people, in reaching for olives in a jar, dunk up to the elbow. Thats not dunking, thats bathing. And the best dunkers never bathe. Believe me, I know. Some of my best friends are dunkers. Why, dunking is such a great art-- Why, its-- People have named their children after it.. ...
Boxem, M., Maliga, Z., Klitgord, N., Li, N., Lemmens, I., Mana, M., de Lichtervelde, L., Mul, J. D., van de Peut, D., Devos, M., Simonis, N., Yildirim, M. A., Cokol, M., Kao, H. L., de Smet, A. S., Wang, H., Schlaitz, A. L., Hao, T., Milstein, S., Fan, C. & 17 others, Tipsword, M., Drew, K., Galli, M., Rhrissorrakrai, K., Drechsel, D., Koller, D., Roth, F. P., Iakoucheva, L. M., Dunker, A. K., Bonneau, R., Gunsalus, K. C., Hill, D. E., Piano, F., Tavernier, J., van den Heuvel, S., Hyman, A. A. & Vidal, M., Aug 8 2008, In : Cell. 134, 3, p. 534-545 12 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ...
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Francisco, B.R. 1988. Terapia Ocupacional. Campinas: Papirus Ed. Jorge, Rui Chamone. 1981. Chance Para Uma Esquizofr nica. Belo Horizonte: Imprensa Oficial, 115p. ______ 1984. Terapia Ocupacional Psiqui trica; Aperfei oamento. Belo Horizonte: FUMAR/PUC-MG, 119p. ______ 1989. A Rela o Terapeuta Paciente: Notas Introdut rias. Belo Horizonte: UFMG, 75p. ______ 1990. O Objeto e a Especificidade da Terapia Ocupacional. Belo Horizonte: GES.TO, 95p. ______ 1991. Doen a e Trabalho. S o Carlos. Cadernos de Terapia Ocupacional da UFSCAR, p. 79-101. ______ 1991. A Media o na Terapia Ocupacional. Belo Horizonte: GES.TO. p 48-97. ______ 1995. Psicoterapia Ocupacional (Hist ria de Um Desenvolvimento).. Belo Horizonte: GES.TO. 153p ...
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The measurement of the Bs-, mu mu and Bd-,mu mu decays is one of the flagships of the LHCb experiment, the latest result in combination with CMS has recently been published on Nature. The aim of this project is to study the yields of other decays with a J/Psi in the final state, like B+ -, J/Psi K+ and Bs-, J/Psi Phi, that can be detected triggering on the muons decay products of the J/Psi. These yields are a crucial input to obtain the Bs-, mu mu and Bd-,mu mu decays branching fraction as they provide a relative normalization. Moreover, in order to use Bd decays to normalize the Bs-, mu mu yields we need to measure the relative probabilities for a b quark to hadronize into a Bs (f_s) or a Bd (f_d) meson, that can also be obtained from B+ -, J/Psi K+, Bs-, J/Psi Phi and Bd-, J/Psi K* decays. The ratio f_s/f_d is not a constant and is therefore important to measure it as a function of both the energy in the center of mass of the pp collision and the B mesons kinematics. The combination of ...
Binh My Eco-tourism Area (Binh My Commune, Cu Chi District) located near the Saigon River is a favourite destination for many people in Ho Chi Minh City and nearby areas for its abundance of unique rural tourism services such as fishing and canal cruising.
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The Print Ad titled Kanechom Intensive Care: Club was done by Filadelfia Belo Horizonte advertising agency for product: Kanechom Intensive Care (brand: Kanechom) in Brazil. It was released in Apr 2012.
Apresentação no Congresso de Interação Humano-Computador, Sociedade Brasileira de Computação. Belo Horizonte, outubro de 2010. Luiz Agner, Patricia Tavares e S…
Snails mostly prefer to live in shades and moist places during the day and mostly seen in huge number during the monsoon time. We can find them very often in our gardens eating our flowers and few green leaves. Despite their slow moments on land they play very important role in the ecosystem. Many bird species depend on them as a food source. Their dead shells form an important source of calcium for other animals in calcium-poor habitats. Land snails are important environmental indicators and biodiversity predictors and have a role to play in the monitoring of climate change. In this video we have shown the moment of few freshwater snails. For this we have increased the video speed ...
The replay result may differ depending on the CPU load and/or network traffic. To make good reproducibility, take longer delay for processing wait, stop touch at end point for dragging/flick, and more, try to Edit Sequence with image matching (see Tutorial category in support site ...
All of the Series A shares are owned by the Dunker Funds and Foundations, which were created through testamentary disposition by the founder of the Helsingborg and Trelleborg rubber-production plants, Henry Dunker ...
In striving to enrich the lives of all readers, TeachingBooks supports the First Amendment and celebrates the right to read.. ...
How to Feed a Snail. Snails can be great pets. They are especially great for school projects, and for teaching young children how to care for a living thing. Snails are also quite easy to feed, although there are some variations among...
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Mouse IgG (H+L), 0.2 ml. Immunoglobulin G (IgG), is one of the most abundant proteins in serum with normal levels between 8-17 mg/mL in adult blood.
If this is your first visit, be sure to check out the FAQ by clicking the link above. You may have to register before you can post: click the register link above to proceed. To start viewing messages, select the forum that you want to visit from the selection below ...
Stefan Collins is the author of this article in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: En generel metode til evaluering Inkubation af Saccharose Savner hos rotter
Study of the populations of freshwater molluscs, intermediate hosts of the parasite that causes bilharzia, in the Ferlo region (Senegal).
A 1-2-1 blue-white-blue vertical triband with the municipal arms centred in the central stripe.. The official website is at http://www.piranguinho.mg.gov.br ...
Jørgensen A., Kristensen T. K. & Stensgaard A-S. (2009). Biomphalaria camerunensis. In: IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened ... Planorbidae Africanogyrus coretus (de Blainville, 1826) Biomphalaria camerunensis (C. R. Boettger, 1941) Bulinus forskalii ( ...
Biomphalaria camerunensis (C.R. Boettger, 1941) Biomphalaria pfeifferi (Krauss, 1848) Bulinus camerunensis Mandahl-Barth, 1957 ... Biomphalaria camerunensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020: e.T175130A151147058. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN. ...
Cordeiro J. & Perez K. (2011). "Biomphalaria havanensis". In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. ... introduced Planorbidae Biomphalaria havanensis (Pfeiffer, 1839) Physidae Mayabina obtusa Clessin, 1885 Helicinidae Helicina ...
Experimental intermediate hosts of Angiostrongylus vasorum include: Biomphalaria glabrata - (experimental) Biomphalaria ... freshwater snails: Biomphalaria pfeifferi, Physa sp. Experimental definitive hosts of Angiostrongylus vasorum include: jackal ... emergence of third-stage larvae from infected Biomphalaria glabrata snails". Parasitology Research. 91 (6): 471-475. doi: ... "Effect of Angiostrongylus vasorum infection on Biomphalaria tenagophila susceptibility to Schistosoma mansoni". Acta Tropica. ...
skin exposure to water contaminated with infected Biomphalaria freshwater snails urinary blood fluke Schistosoma haematobium ...
interactions with Biomphalaria glabrata: Pointier J. P. (1993). "The introduction of Melanoides tuberculata (Mollusca: ... and Biomphalaria tenagophila (d´Orbigny, 1835) on Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil". Biota Neotropica. 7 (3): 361. doi: ... Biomphalaria Glabrata (Say, 1818) and a Possible Competitor, Melanoides Tuberculata (Muller, 1774): A Field Study". Journal of ... Thiaridae) to the island of Saint Lucia (West Indies) and its role in the decline of Biomphalaria glabrata, the snail ...
Moreover, it has relevance to human health because its host, the snail Biomphalaria glabrata, is also the intermediate host of ... C. owczarzaki was originally described as an amoeba-like "symbiont" of the fresh-water snail Biomphalaria glabrata. The amoebae ... sp., isolated from three strains of the pulmonate snail Biomphalaria glabrata is related to members of the Mesomycetozoea", ... sp., isolated from three strains of the pulmonate snail Biomphalaria glabrata is related to members of the Mesomycetozoea". ...
Planorbella duryi and Biomphalaria pfeifferi have similar shells. Because of its wide distribution, various aspects of ...
The intermediate hosts Biomphalaria snails are estimated to originate in South America 95-110 million years ago. But the ... Abou-El-Naga IF (2013). "Biomphalaria alexandrina in Egypt: past, present and future the country's of south America namely ... S. mansoni is transmitted through water, where freshwater snails of the genus Biomphalaria act as intermediate hosts. The ... The miracidium searches for a suitable freshwater snail belonging to the genus Biomphalaria. In South America, the principal ...
Cridland, C. C. (1967). "Resistance of Bulinus (Physopsis) globosus, Bulinus (Ph.) africanus, Biomphalaria pfeifferi and ...
Utzinger, J.; Tanner, M. (2000). "Microhabitat preferences of Biomphalaria pfeifferi and Lymnaea natalensis in a natural and a ... Nguma, J. F.; McCullough, F. S.; Masha, E. (1982). "Elimination of Biomphalaria pfeifferi, Bulinus tropicus and Lymnaea ... Cridland, C. C. (1967). "Resistance of Bulinus (Physopsis) globosus, Bulinus (Ph.) africanus, Biomphalaria pfeifferi and ...
... compete with the Biomphalaria vectors for food. They also eat the eggs of Biomphalaria, thereby effectively ... Marisa cornuarietis is used as a biological control to reduce the number of Biomphalaria snails, which are intermediate hosts ... Nguma, J. F.; McCullough, F. S.; Masha, E. (1982). "Elimination of Biomphalaria pfeifferi, Bulinus tropicus and Lymnaea ...
Albino freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata showing the red oxygen-transport pigment haemoglobin. Without its normal pigment ...
The seeds of the Balanites aegyptiaca have molluscicide effect on Biomphalaria pfeifferi. Where the species coexist, African ...
Planorbidae Biomphalaria straminea - introduced Helisoma duryi - introduced Amerianna carinata - introduced Gyraulus sp. - ...
Orestias fish and Biomphalaria snails live in the waters of Cotacotani Lake. Laram Q'awa (in Spanish) IRD en Chile: Lagunas ... "Phylogenetic relationships and taxonomy of Altiplano populations of Biomphalaria (Gastropoda: Planorbidae): inference from a ...
... is home to 28 species of freshwater snails (e.g., Bellamya, Biomphalaria, Bulinus, Cleopatra, Gabbiella, and ... Two of the snail genera, Biomphalaria and Bulinus, are intermediate hosts of the parasite bilharzia (schistosomiasis). Human ...
Corrêa JB, Dmytraczenko A, Duarte JH (February 1967). "Structure of a galactan found in the albumen gland of Biomphalaria ... Biomphalaria) is highly branched with only 5-8 % of the sugar residues in linear sections, and β(1→3) and β(1→6) bonds ... Biomphalaria glabrata, and Strophochelius oblongus. This polysaccharide was also identified in the Caenogastropoda Pila virens ... substituted galactose residues are found in the galactogen of individual species from various snail genera such as Biomphalaria ...
2007) Biomphalaria Preston, 1910 Menetus Adams & Adams, 1855 Planorbella Haldeman, 1843 Planorbula Haldeman, 1843 The following ... 1855 is a synonym for Biomphalaria. The shells of most species in this family are disk-like or button-like, being coiled in one ... 1954 Biomphalaria Preston, 1910 - type genus of tribe Biomphalariini Drepanotrema Crosse & Fischer, 1880 tribe Planorbini ... present here the complete cDNA and predicted amino acid sequence of two hemoglobin polypeptides from the planorbid Biomphalaria ...
Duval, D.; Galinier, R.; Mouahid, G.; Toulza, E.; Allienne, J. F. (2015). "A Novel Bacterial Pathogen of Biomphalaria glabrata ... Candidatus Paenibacillus glabratella causes white nodules and high mortality of Biomphalaria glabrata freshwater snails. This ... is potentially important because Biomphalaria glabrata is an intermediate host of schistosomiasis. Several Paenibacillus ...
Freshwater snails of the genus Biomphalaria are an important intermediate host for this trematode. Among final hosts humans are ...
"Toxicity of Some species of Annona Toward Artemia Salina Leach and Biomphalaria Glabrata Say". Natural Products in the New ...
Biomphalaria glabrata, another simultaneous hermaphrodite freshwater snail, does not exhibit sex-specific effects of partner ... "No effect of mate novelty on sexual motivation in the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata". Frontiers in Zoology. 66: 23. ...
2008)). Biomphalaria kuhniana (Clessin, 1883) - Previous reports of Biomphalaria straminea were probably Biomphalaria kuhniana ... Planorbidae Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818) - This species was reported from Dominica in 1980, but it seems that it was ... replaced by other Biomphalaria species, or it was eradicated (it was not found by Noblet & Damian (1991) nor by Reeves et al. ( ...
Three probably family-1 NRs from Biomphalaria glabrata possess a DBD along with an family 0B-like LBD. The placement of C. ... Kaur S, Jobling S, Jones CS, Noble LR, Routledge EJ, Lockyer AE (7 April 2015). "The nuclear receptors of Biomphalaria glabrata ...
Fernanda Cabrera; Sergio Martínez (2018). "A new species of Biomphalaria Preston, 1910 (Gastropoda, Planorbidae) from the Upper ...
"The nuclear receptors of Biomphalaria glabrata and Lottia gigantea: implications for developing new model organisms". PLOS ONE ...
... candidate species and vicariance in Biomphalaria snails (Mollusca: Planorbidae) from the Southern Andean Altiplano". Zoologica ...
Biomphalaria cousini Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818) Biomphalaria occidentalis Paraense, 1981 Biomphalaria oligoza Paraense, ... Biomphalaria tenagophila tenagophila (d'Orbigny, 1835) and Biomphalaria tenagophila guaibensis Paraense, 1984 Biomphalaria ... 1975 Biomphalaria peregrina (d'Orbigny, 1835) Biomphalaria schrammi (Crosse, 1864) Biomphalaria tenagophila (d'Orbigny, 1835 ... "Occurrence of Biomphalaria cousini (Mollusca: Gastropoda) in Brazil and its susceptibility to Schistosoma mansoni ( ...
sp., isolated from three strains of the pulmonate snail Biomphalaria glabrata is related to members of the Mesomycetozoea". ... "The destruction of Schistosoma mansoni mother sporocysts in vitro by amoebae isolated from Biomphalaria glabrata: an ...
Of the 30 or so described species of Biomphalaria, about two-thirds live in the New World (from the southern US in the north ... Molecular work has shown that it is actually more closely related to Biomphalaria which look different but which also inhabit ... Traditionally B. choanomphala was placed as the type species in a species complex which included other small Biomphalaria which ... DNA barcoding has similarly assisted in the identification of many African species of Biomphalaria, and resolved redundancies ...
Of the 34 Biomphalaria species, 4 (Biomphalaria glabrata, Biomphalaria pfeifferi, Biomphalaria straminea, and Biomphalaria ... Biomphalaria prona Biomphalaria schrammi (Crosse, 1864) Biomphalaria straminea (Dunker, 1848) Biomphalaria subprona (Martens, ... Biomphalaria alexandrina Biomphalaria angulosa Mandahl-Barth, 1957 Biomphalaria barthi Brown, 1973 Biomphalaria camerunensis ... 2018 Biomphalaria obstructa Biomphalaria occidentalis Paraense, 1981 Biomphalaria oligoza Paraense, 1974 Biomphalaria orbignyi ...
Biomphalaria schrammi is a species of snail in the family ramshorn snails. ...
... firstly collected in 1973 A cladogram showing phylogenic relations of species in the genus Biomphalaria: Biomphalaria straminea ... Biomphalaria straminea is a species of air-breathing freshwater snail, an aquatic pulmonate gastropod mollusk in the family ... Biomphalaria glabrata is a Neotropical species. It occurs in: Caribbean: Saint Lucia - reported since 1993 northeast of Brazil ... Schistosoma mansoni was not able to infect Biomphalaria straminea previously and it has adapted to this host. Pointier JP, ...
Biomphalaria glabrata (Bloodfluke planorb) (Freshwater snail)Imported. Automatic assertion inferred from database entriesi ... tr,A0A2C9JYF8,A0A2C9JYF8_BIOGL Uncharacterized protein OS=Biomphalaria glabrata OX=6526 GN=106072946 PE=4 SV=1 ...
Production of reactive oxygen species by hemocytes of Biomphalaria glabrata: carbohydrate-specific stimulation.. Hahn UK1, ... To investigate the nature of carbohydrates that evoke a defensive response in hemocytes of the gastropod Biomphalaria glabrata ...
active site found in the sequences participating in the PAS group of the Biomphalaria glabrata data. The residues involved in ... Biomphalaria glabrata is the major species used for the study of schistosomiasis-related parasite-host relationships, and ... location and distribution of the proteasome domain identified in the sequences of the PAS group of Biomphalaria glabrata. ... phylogenetic distribution of the E1 sequences found in Biomphalaria glabrata data against their orthologous organisms. ...
They were named granulocytes instead of amoebocytes to use the same terminology adopted for Biomphalaria glabrata in order to ... The blood cells of the pulmonate snail Biomphalaria tenagophila, an important transmiter of the trematode Schistosoma mansoni ... Morphological characterization of the hemocytes of the pulmonate snail Biomphalaria tenagophila. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz [ ...
Raghavan N., Knight M. (2006). The snail (Biomphalaria glabrata) genome project. Trends Parasitol. 22, 148-151.PubMedCrossRef ... Fluorescence in situ hybridization Snail chromosomes Biomphalaria glabrata Bge embryonic cell line Molluscan Planorbid ... Here, we describe the methodologies for the chromosomal mapping of nonrepetitive (single-copy) genes of the snail Biomphalaria ... Hansen, E.L. (1976). A cell line from embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata (Pulmonata): Establishment and characteristics. In: ...
2011). Here we tested for the presence of transgenerational immune priming in the Biomphalaria glabrata snails when challenged ... Test for Transgenerational Immune Priming in the Snail, Biomphalaria glabrata Public Deposited ...
Freshwater snails Biomphalaria tenagophila, Biomphalaria straminea and Biomphalaria glabrata are susceptible to A. ... Seleção de linhagens de Biomphalaria tenagophila e visando maior suscetibilidade ao Biomphalaria glabrataSchistosoma mansoni. ... Suscetibilidade de Biomphalaria glabrata submetida à infecção concomitante com Angiostrongylus costaricensis e Schistosoma ... Table 2 Comparison of infection rates shown by Biomphalaria glabrata exposed to Schistosoma mansoni through the odds ratios (OR ...
In previous studies true-breeding stocks of Biomphalaria glabrata were derived testing 100% or 0% susceptible as juveniles to a ... Susceptibility of adult Biomphalaria glabrata to Schistosoma mansoni infection * Charles S. Richards1 ... In previous studies true-breeding stocks of Biomphalaria glabrata were derived testing 100% or 0% susceptible as juveniles to a ...
Biomphalaria glabrata,/i,, and the Larvae of ,i,Aedes aegypti,/i, ... Biomphalaria glabrata, and the Larvae of Aedes aegypti. Table 3 ...
Two surveys conducted in 2017 and 2018 demonstrated Biomphalaria pfeifferi snails in Lake Malawi in Africa. Epidemiologic ... Biomphalaria pfeifferi Snails and Intestinal Schistosomiasis, Lake Malawi, Africa, 2017-2018 On This Page ... Biomphalaria pfeifferi Snails and Intestinal Schistosomiasis, Lake Malawi, Africa, 2017-2018. Emerging Infectious Diseases. ... Biomphalaria pfeifferi Snails and Intestinal Schistosomiasis, Lake Malawi, Africa, 2017-2018. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019;25(3):613- ...
The Biomphalaria shedding S. mansoni cercariae had a positive relationship with Biomphalaria populations (. , CI95 0.002-0.014 ... The Biomphalaria shedding S. mansoni cercariae showed a positive relationship with Biomphalaria population size (. , CI95 0.002 ... The Biomphalaria shedding cercariae were found throughout the months of the year. Biomphalaria shedding S. mansoni cercariae ( ... According to morphology, the most infected Biomphalaria species which shed S. mansoni cercariae were Biomphalaria stanleyi and ...
The first generation of Biomphalaria snails collected from five Egyptian governorates (Giza, Fayoum, Kafr El-Sheikh, Ismailia ... Lotfy, W.M., DeJong, R.J., Kader, A.A. and Loker, E.S. (2005) A molecular survey of Biomphalaria in Egypt: Is B. glabrata ... Vidigal, T.H.D.A., Dias Neto, E., Carvalho, O.S., Simpson, A.J.G. (1994). Biomphalaria glabrata: Extensive genetic variation in ... Identification of various Biomphalaria alexandrina strains collected from five Egyptian governorates using RAPD and species- ...
... the indigenous Biomphalaria alexandrina and Biomphalaria glabrata, the latter believed to be introduced during the past few ... Biomphalaria snails were found in 37 out of 76 sampled localities and were widely distributed in the Nile Delta and along the ... all Biomphalaria collected during this survey were B. alexandrina. There was no evidence of the presence of B. glabrata or of ... this study was carried out to get a more current picture of the status of Biomphalaria in Egypt. Snail collections were ...
DNA barcoding may therefore be a useful supporting tool for identifying Biomphalaria snails in areas at risk for ... The molecular taxonomy of Biomphalaria agreed with the morphological identification of specimens from the same collection ... DNA barcoding and morphological characters were used to identify adult snails belonging to the genus Biomphalaria from 17 ...
Key words: Dalbergia sissoo, Biomphalaria alexandrina, Schistosoma mansoni, egg masses. ... roots and stem bark against adult Biomphalaria alexandrina, the snail intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni in Egypt and ... Effect of ethanolic extract of Dalbergia sissoo plant parts on Biomphalaria alexandrina snail, the intermediate host of ... roots and stem bark against adult Biomphalaria alexandrina, the snail intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni in Egypt and ...
Effect on Biomphalaria glabrata intestinal rhythmicity assessed as potentiation of tissue contracture in presence of 10 uM ...
The mollusk Biomphalaria glabrata has been shown to be useful as an environmental indicator to assess the potential ecological ... Estevam EC, Nakano E, Kawano T, Pereira CAB, Amancio FF, Melo AMMA (2006) Dominant lethal effects of 2,4-D in Biomphalaria ... Assessment of toxicity of Moringa oleifera flower extract to Biomphalaria glabrata, Schistosoma mansoni and Artemia salina. ... acute toxicity and mutagenicity testing in freshwater snails Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Gastropoda) exposed to chromium ...
Physiological studies on Biomphalaria alexandrina and Bulinus truncatus, the snail vectors of Schistosommiasis ... Mycoflora of Biomphalaria alexandrina and Bulinus truncatus, the snail vectors of bilharziasis in the River Nile, Egypt. Assiut ... Physiological studies on Biomphalaria alexandrina and Bulinus truncatus, the snail vectors of schistosomiasis. I. Oxygen ... Laboratory studies on the direct effect of temperature on Bulinus truncatus and Biomphalaria alexandrina, the snail ...
Carbohydrate metabolism in uninfected and trematode-infected snails Biomphalaria alexandrina and Bulinus truncatus ... Effect of larval trematodes on the gonads and antibody response of the freshwater snails, Biomphalaria alexandrina and Bulinus ... Effect of some heavy metals on respiration, mean enzyme activity and total protein of the pulmonate snails Biomphalaria ... Effect of certain insecticides in the control of the fresh water snails, Biomphalaria alexandrina and Bulinus truncatus. ...
Karyological Studies of Biomphalaria tenagophila (dOrbigny, 1835) (Gastropoda: Planobidae) from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. *Gab ... Phylogeography of Biomphalaria glabrata and B. pfeifferi, important intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni in the New and ... Establishment of Biomphalaria tenagophila Snails in Europe. @article{Majoros2008EstablishmentOB, title={Establishment of ... Pattern of Genetic Divergence of Mitochondrial DNA Sequences in Biomphalaria tenagophila Complex Species Based on Barcode and ...
Protection Against Oxidative Damage Induced by Schistosoma mansoni using Susceptible/Resistant Nucleoproteins from Biomphalaria ... Protection Against Oxidative Damage Induced by Schistosoma mansoni using Susceptible/Resistant Nucleoproteins from Biomphalaria ... Protection Against Oxidative Damage Induced by Schistosoma mansoni using Susceptible/Resistant Nucleoproteins from Biomphalaria ... The aim of the present study was to investigate the action of susceptible and resistant nucleoprotein vaccine of Biomphalaria ...
Allelic variation in a recently discovered genomic region in the snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, influences their susceptibility ... variation partially regulates galactose-dependent hydrogen peroxide release from circulating hemocytes of the snailBiomphalaria ...
Schistosoma mansoni uses Biomphalaria glabrata as an intermediate host during its complex life cycle. In the snail, the ... Zahoor Z, Davies AJ, Kirk RS, Rollinson D, Walker AJ: Disruption of ERK signalling in Biomphalaria glabrata defence cells by ... Schistosoma mansoni uses Biomphalaria glabrata as an intermediate host during its complex life cycle. In the snail, the ... Hahn UK, Bender RC, Bayne CJ: Killing of Schistosoma mansoni sporocysts by hemocytes from resistant Biomphalaria glabrata: Role ...
The gastropod mollusc Biomphalaria glabrata is well known as a vector for the tropical disease schistosomiasis, which affects ... Biomphalaria glabrata ([47], image Fig. 1a) is a neotropical species, native to the Caribbean and northern parts of South ... Raghavan N, Knight M. The snail (Biomphalaria glabrata) genome project. Trends Parasitol. 2006;22:148-51.View ArticlePubMed ... a Adult albino Biomphalaria glabrata (image courtesy of Lewis et al., [32] CC BY 2.5). b Approximate native and introduced ...
Biomphalaria glabrata maintenance conditions. Biomphalaria glabrata snails of the NMRI strain (which reliably release cercariae ... An analysis from another species of Biomphalaria, Biomphalaria pfeifferi, has suggested that phospholipase activity is most ... Schistosoma mansoni and Biomphalaria: past history and future trends. Parasitology. 2001;123(Suppl):S211-28.PubMedCrossRef ... Schistosoma mansoni Biomphalaria glabrata Miracidia Excretory-secretory proteins Proteomics PPI Abbreviations. ESP. excretory- ...
We were interested in determining if there were differences in compatibility of S. mansoni with Biomphalaria sudanica from Lake ... Schistosoma mansoni is hosted by several species of Biomphalaria spp. snails in Africa. ... Detection of Schistosoma mansoni in Biomphalaria using nested PCR. J Parasitol. 1997;83:387-94.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar ... Fate of Schistosoma mansoni in Biomphalaria obstructa. J Parasitol. 1996;82:743-7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar. ...
  • Of the 34 Biomphalaria species, 4 (Biomphalaria glabrata, Biomphalaria pfeifferi, Biomphalaria straminea, and Biomphalaria tenagophila) have recently expanded their native ranges. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biomphalaria tenagophila potencial vector of Schistosoma mansoni in the Paraná River basin (Argentina and Paraguay)" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • The blood cells of the pulmonate snail Biomphalaria tenagophila, an important transmiter of the trematode Schistosoma mansoni in Brazil, were examined by ligth and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). (scielo.br)
  • Laboratory observations have shown that such populations from Paraíba do Sul River Valley (state of São Paulo) differ from each other because the murine isolate presents better adaptation to Biomphalaria tenagophila . (fiocruz.br)
  • Biomphalaria are hermaphrodite snails (Paraense & Deslandes 1955, Leal 1976) and their species glabrata, straminea and tenagophila (Paraense & Deslandes 1955) exist in Brazil. (fiocruz.br)
  • Biomphalaria tenagophila and Biomphalaria glabrata, species currently presenting a restricted distribution and small populations , displayed trematode infection rates of 15.2% (98/644) and 13% (83/640), respectively. (bvsalud.org)
  • The species collected were Lymnaea columella , Physa marmorata, Biomphalaria tenagophila, Biomphalaria sp. (scielo.cl)
  • Among the 11 species and one subspecies of mollusks of this genus recognized in Brazil, only Biomphalaria glabrata , Biomphalaria tenagophila and Biomphalaria straminea have been found naturally infected with S. mansoni so far. (scielosp.org)
  • Biomphalaria tenagophila has spread along the coastal strip from the south of the state of Bahia to Rio Grande do Sul. (scielosp.org)
  • Biomphalaria straminea is a species of air-breathing freshwater snail, an aquatic pulmonate gastropod mollusk in the family Planorbidae, the ram's horn snails. (wikipedia.org)
  • As an introduced species, it occurs in: Hong Kong - firstly collected in 1973 A cladogram showing phylogenic relations of species in the genus Biomphalaria: Biomphalaria straminea is an intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni and a vector of intestinal schistosomiasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Schistosoma mansoni was not able to infect Biomphalaria straminea previously and it has adapted to this host. (wikipedia.org)
  • introduced to southern China identified the snails as Biomphalaria straminea , one of the susceptible species implicated in S. mansoni transmission in South America. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 320 and 640 Gy were applied to 1,080 snails Biomphalaria straminea , an intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni , divided in groups containing 30 mollusks. (fiocruz.br)
  • Biomphalaria straminea is an invasive vector in China, posing a significant threat to public health. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In São Luís, Biomphalaria species presented the following infection rates: 1.95% (52/2,661) for Biomphalaria straminea and 1.76% (47/2,661) for Biomphalaria glabrata. (iec.gov.br)
  • Results Biomphalaria straminea displayed a high population density and distribution, and 13.7% (2,233/16,235) of the specimens collected were infected with larval trematodes other than Schistosoma mansoni . (bvsalud.org)
  • Biomphalaria straminea has the broadest geographical distribution and is present in almost all Brazilian river basins. (scielosp.org)
  • Biomphalaria is a genus of air-breathing freshwater snails, aquatic pulmonate gastropod mollusks in the family Planorbidae, the ram's horn snails and their allies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neotropical schistosomiasis: African affinity of the host snail Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropoda: Planorbidae). (ajtmh.org)
  • The invertebrate hosts are planorbidae mollusks of the Biomphalaria genus. (scielosp.org)
  • Endogenous retrotransposon sequences of the Schistosoma mansoni intermediate snail host, Biomphalaria glabrata . (springer.com)
  • Nimbus (BgI): an active non-LTR retrotransposon of the Schistosoma mansoni snail host Biomphalaria glabrata. (springer.com)
  • 2011). Here we tested for the presence of transgenerational immune priming in the Biomphalaria glabrata snails when challenged by exposure to the Schistosoma mansoni parasite. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The easy adaptation of Angiostrongylus costaricensis , nematode responsible for abdominal angiostrongyliasis to several species of terrestrial and freshwater molluscs and the differences observed in the interactions of trematodes with their intermediate hosts have induced us to study the concomitant infection of Biomphalaria glabrata with Schistosoma mansoni and A. costaricensis . (scielo.br)
  • A facilidade de adaptação do Angiostrongylus costaricensis , nematódeo responsável pela angiostrongiliase abdominal, a diversas espécies de moluscos terrestres e dulciaquícolas e as divergências observadas nas interações dos trematódeos com seus hospedeiros intermediários nos induziu a estudar a infecção concomitante de Biomphalaria glabrata com Schistosoma mansoni e A. costaricensis . (scielo.br)
  • In previous studies true-breeding stocks of Biomphalaria glabrata were derived testing 100% or 0% susceptible as juveniles to a Puerto Rican strain of Schistosoma mansoni. (ajtmh.org)
  • Throughout sub-Saharan Africa, Biomphalaria pfeifferi snails are freshwater intermediate hosts for Schistosoma mansoni blood flukes, which cause intestinal schistosomiasis ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Retained Biomphalaria were subsequently monitored in laboratory aquaria for shedding trematode cercariae, which were classified as either human infective ( Schistosoma mansoni ) or nonhuman infective. (hindawi.com)
  • Infection with S. mansoni gives rise to intestinal schistosomiasis and is transmitted by several species within the genus Biomphalaria [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • This study evaluated, using replicated laboratory bioassays, the toxicities of the ethanolic extracts of Dalbergia sissoo (family Leguminosae) fruits, leaves, roots and stem bark against adult Biomphalaria alexandrina , the snail intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni in Egypt and their egg masses. (academicjournals.org)
  • The rate of gluconeogenesis was decreased to 62% in Bulinus truncatus infected with Schistosoma haematobium and to 45% in Biomphalaria alexandrina infected with S. mansoni. (eurekamag.com)
  • Phylogeography of Biomphalaria glabrata and B. pfeifferi, important intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni in the New and Old World tropics. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate the action of susceptible and resistant nucleoprotein vaccine of Biomphalaria alexandrina on lipid peroxide and certain antioxidant defense system in the liver and serum of mice after Schistosoma mansoni infection. (scialert.net)
  • The results indicated that oxidative stress due to Schistosoma mansoni infection was ameliorated by susceptible and resistant nucleotide vaccines of Biomphalaria alexandrina snail with more regards to the vaccine of susceptible snails. (scialert.net)
  • Schistosoma mansoni uses Biomphalaria glabrata as an intermediate host during its complex life cycle. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Schistosoma mansoni is hosted by several species of Biomphalaria spp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We were interested in determining if there were differences in compatibility of S. mansoni with Biomphalaria sudanica from Lake Victoria, or with B. pfeifferi from streams and smaller water bodies in Kenya. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The outcome of infection in the host snail Biomphalaria glabrata with the digenean parasite Schistosoma mansoni is determined by the initial molecular interplay occurring between them. (brunel.ac.uk)
  • The research presented in the following thesis sought to address the above themes, relating to the dynamics of S. mansoni and Biomphalaria in Lake Victoria. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • The ability to quantify differences in DNA methylation between the genomes of normal vs. stressed Biomphalaria glabrata would help to profile changes potentially linked to resistance to Schistosoma mansoni infection. (gwu.edu)
  • Five neotropical species of Biomphalaria have been found to act as intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni in natural populations, while others have been shown to be susceptible in experimental infections, although not found infected in the field. (peerj.com)
  • Schistosomiasis mansoni is a form of the disease that is caused by the digenean trematode Schistosoma mansoni , transmitted through Biomphalaria spp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Some species of the genus Biomphalaria act as obligatory intermediate hosts for Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907, the parasite responsible for intestinal schistosomiasis in different parts of the world. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The freshwater tropical snail Biomphalaria glabrata is an intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni, the causative agent of human intestinal schistosomiasis, and strains differ in their susceptibility to parasite infection. (elsevier.com)
  • The digenetic trematode worm species Schistosoma mansoni that is responsible for causing the most common form of intestinal schistosomiasis requires the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata to serve as its primary intermediate host, where it multiplies and develops into its cercarial form that is infectious to humans. (unlv.edu)
  • The effects of aestivation or starvation on the neutral lipid and phospholipid content of Biomphalaria glabrata patently infected with Schistosoma mansoni were determined by high-performance thin-layer chromatography-densitometry. (allenpress.com)
  • Advances in the genomics and proteomics of the freshwater intermediate snail host of Schistosoma mansoni, Biomphalaria glabrata. (moluna.de)
  • The quantification of the Biomphalaria glabrata hemocytes was performed on groups of snails at 1, 5, 1, 15, 2 and 3 days post-infection that had been individually infected with 5, 1, 15 or 3 Schistosoma mansoni miracidia. (docplayer.com.br)
  • INTRODUCTION The resistance of Biomphalaria snails to parasitic infection with Schistosoma mansoni is directly related to the hemocyte capacity of the vector to phagocytose and destroy 1,2,3,4 newly penetrated parasites. (docplayer.com.br)
  • The objective of the present study was to evaluate the hemocyte production profile of captive Biomphalaria glabrata snails after experimental infection with different numbers of S. mansoni miracidia. (docplayer.com.br)
  • The characterization of the variability in hemocyte production is fundamental for understanding the resistance mechanisms of different Biomphalaria species for infection with S. mansoni. (docplayer.com.br)
  • The detection of Biomphalaria snails infected with S. mansoni is usually performed by cercariae shedding induced by artificial light exposure or by squeezing snails between two glass slides. (fiocruz.br)
  • However, few molecular markers linked to resistance have been identified and characterized in snails.Methodology/Principal FindingsHere we test six independent genetic loci for their influence on resistance to Schistosoma mansoni strain PR1 in the 13-16-R1 strain of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata. (chromoscience.com)
  • The last malacological study conducted in this urban reservoir was more than two decades ago, and thus, an update on the distribution of the species of Biomphalaria as well as new data on the presence of Schistosoma mansoni in this water body are required. (bvsalud.org)
  • Zahoor, Zahida , Davies, Angela J. , Kirk, Ruth S. , Rollinson, David and Walker, Anthony J. (2008) Disruption of ERK signalling in Biomphalaria glabrata defence cells by Schistosoma mansoni: implications for parasite survival in the snail host. (kingston.ac.uk)
  • Biomphalaria glabrata is an intermediate snail host for the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni. (kingston.ac.uk)
  • A quantificação dos hemócitos de Biomphalaria glabrata foi realizada em grupos de caramujos previamente infectados com 5, 10, 15 ou 30 miracídios de Schistosoma mansoni nos dias 1, 5, 10, 15, 20 e 30 pós-infecção. (iec.gov.br)
  • La cuantificación de los hemocitos de Biomphalaria glabrata se realizó en grupos de caracoles previamente infectados con 5, 10, 15 o 30 miracideos de Schistosoma mansoni en los días 1, 5, 10, 15, 20 y 30 pos infección. (iec.gov.br)
  • The snail, Biomphalaria glabrata is a major intermediate host for the parasitic trematode Schistosoma mansoni the causative agent of human schistosomiasis. (brunel.ac.uk)
  • and metazoan parasites, Echinostoma caproni or Schistosoma mansoni ) were exposed to hemocyte-free hemolymph from the gastropod Biomphalaria glabrata . (frontiersin.org)
  • Snails collected from aquatic environments in the study area were identified to species level and Biomphalaria pfeifferi snails, the intermediate host of S. mansoni ,, were individually exposed to artificial light in order to induce cercariae shedding. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We show that a specific set of highly variable immune receptors of the mollusc Biomphalaria glabrata forms immune complexes with highly polymorphic and individually variable mucin determinants from its specific trematode parasite S. mansoni . (plos.org)
  • Biomphalaria glabrata is the major species used for the study of schistosomiasis-related parasite-host relationships, and understanding its gene regulation may aid in this endeavor. (nih.gov)
  • Locations sampled for Biomphalaria pfeifferi snails and of 3 primary schools where children were tested for intestinal schistosomiasis in the region of Lake Malawi, Africa. (cdc.gov)
  • However, in November 2017, during malacologic surveillance for intermediate hosts of schistosomiasis in the Mangochi District, Malawi, along the southernmost tip of Lake Malawi, 2 discrete populations of Biomphalaria snails were unexpectedly encountered in submerged beds of Vallisneria spp. (cdc.gov)
  • The gastropod mollusc Biomphalaria glabrata is well known as a vector for the tropical disease schistosomiasis, which affects nearly 200 million people worldwide. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A detailed knowledge of the geographic distribution of Biomphalaria snails is important for the control of intestinal schistosomiasis and its epidemiologic surveillance [ 11 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A novel bacterial pathogen of Biomphalaria glabrata: a potential weapon for schistosomiasis control? (cdc.gov)
  • Conclusions The results indicate that the Pampulha reservoir remains a potential focus of urban schistosomiasis in Brazil , and significant changes in the occurrence patterns of Biomphalaria species were verified. (bvsalud.org)
  • Biomphalaria is the type genus of the tribe Biomphalariini. (wikipedia.org)
  • As of 2008 there were recognized 34 extant species in the genus Biomphalaria in total (22 American species and 12 Old World species). (wikipedia.org)
  • A cladogram showing phylogenic relations of (23 analyzed) species in the genus Biomphalaria: The origin of the genus Biomphalaria is American. (wikipedia.org)
  • All species in the genus Biomphalaria except of native Biomphalaria obstructa has not yet become established in the US, but they are considered to represent a potentially serious threat as a pest, an invasive species which could negatively affect agriculture, natural ecosystems, human health or commerce. (wikipedia.org)
  • Local transmission of the parasite is determined by the presence of compatible snails of the genus Biomphalaria. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Freshwater snails belonging to the genus Biomphalaria act as intermediate hosts for the parasite trematode Schistosomamansoni in Africa and in the neotropical region. (fiocruz.br)
  • Studies of Biomphalaria Snails Infected with Larval Trematodes Using Chromatography and Atomic Spectrometry. (moluna.de)
  • Effects of non-schistosome larval trematodes on Biomphalaria snails. (moluna.de)
  • Larval trematodes in Biomphalaria spp. (iec.gov.br)
  • To carry out a survey about larval trematodes in Biomphalaria spp. (iec.gov.br)
  • Production of reactive oxygen species by hemocytes of Biomphalaria glabrata: carbohydrate-specific stimulation. (nih.gov)
  • We studied hemocytes of Biomphalaria glabrata with the use of light and transmission microscopy and flow cytometry with LysoTracker and SYTO62. (unimore.it)
  • This study documented the population dynamics of Biomphalaria and associated natural infections with digenetic trematodes, along the shores of Lake Albert and Lake Victoria, recording local physicochemical factors. (hindawi.com)
  • Objectives: (a) To determine the natural infection rate of Bulinus truncatus and Biomphalaria pfeifferi snails with trematodes' cercariae. (elsevier.com)
  • Two surveys conducted in 2017 and 2018 demonstrated Biomphalaria pfeifferi snails in Lake Malawi in Africa. (cdc.gov)
  • Other than a report of a single Biomphalaria shell at Karonga in the far northern portion of Lake Malawi ( 3 ), considered to be from a marginal swamp ( 4 ), B. pfeifferi snails have not previously been found in Lake Malawi ( 5 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Overall, 413 Bulinus truncatus, 369 Bulinus forskalii and 108 Biomphalaria pfeifferi snails were collected and subjected to cercarial shedding. (geospatialhealth.net)
  • To investigate the nature of carbohydrates that evoke a defensive response in hemocytes of the gastropod Biomphalaria glabrata, we tested eight different carbohydrates, conjugated to bovine serum albumin (BSA), for generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). (nih.gov)
  • Among these potential intermediate hosts, Biomphalaria peregrina represents the most widespread species in South America, with confirmed occurrence records from Venezuela to northern Patagonia. (peerj.com)
  • Sympatric reared-laboratoryu00a0 Biomphalaria glabrata u00a0and C3H/He mice were used as experimental hosts. (fiocruz.br)
  • By manipulating parasite exposure and community diversity, we show that heterospecific communities cause a 25-50 per cent reduction in infection among snail hosts ( Biomphalaria glabrata ). (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Those belonging to Bulinus and Biomphalaria were examined for cercarial shedding. (geospatialhealth.net)
  • The epidermal receptor cells and their distribution throughout the body surface of Lymnaea stagnalis and Biomphalaria pfeifferi were studied by means of light and electron microscopic techniques. (brillonline.com)
  • Upon morphological identification, species of Biomphalaria infected included B. sudanica , B. pfeifferi , and B. stanleyi in Lake Albert and B. sudanica , B. pfeifferi , and B. choanomphala in Lake Victoria. (hindawi.com)
  • This study aimed to compare resistant, susceptible and naïve Biomphalaria glabrata snail-conditioned water (SCW) to identify potential attractants and deterrents. (springer.com)
  • Infection caused a marked decrease in glycogen content of the tissues of both snail species (75% in B. truncatus and 64% in Biomphalaria alexandrina). (eurekamag.com)
  • Molecular work has shown that it is actually more closely related to Biomphalaria which look different but which also inhabit Lake Victoria and the Nile - giving the group its name, the Nilotic species complex. (eol.org)
  • the taxonomy of Biomphalaria is confused and confusing, with two suspected species being present in Lake Victoria, but these populations have never been subject to detailed classification scrutiny. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Allelic variation in a recently discovered genomic region in the snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, influences their susceptibility to schistosomes. (ovid.com)
  • Infection occurs during contact with freshwater bodies that contain the appropriate species of infected snails ( Biomphalaria spp. (mdpi.com)
  • Laboratory Rearing of Biomphalaria glabrata Snails and Maintenance of Larval Schistosomes In Vivo and In Vitro. (moluna.de)
  • Effects of Larval Schistosomes on Biomphalaria snails. (moluna.de)
  • To test this hypothesis, we used the freshwater pulmonate snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, for which various genetic tools and a draft genome have recently become available, to investigate the effects of two steroid androgens on the development of mollusk secondary sexual organs. (brunel.ac.uk)
  • Fibrinogen Related Proteins (FREPs) from the mollusc Biomphalaria glabrata are an example of these putative immune receptors. (plos.org)
  • Immunobiology of Biomphalaria-Trematode Interactions. (moluna.de)
  • In contrast, the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata activates an additional pathway for metal inactivation by synthesizing phytochelatins, which compensate for the insufficient capacity of its non-selective MT system to detoxify Cd. (mdpi.com)
  • In order to clearly understand the molecular profile of the species, we constructed a phylogeny using mtDNA data (COI and 16S rRNA sequences) from six populations of Biomphalaria spp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Little genetic differentiation was observed within Biomphalaria populations collected. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Data obtained in the current study clearly show that the populations of Biomphalaria spp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In populations of Biomphalaria glabrata snails experiencing high mortalities, white nodules were visible on snail bodies. (cdc.gov)
  • The ancestor of Biomphalaria glabrata colonized Africa 2.3-4.5 or 2-5 millions years ago and speciated into all the African Biomphalaria species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Altogether about 30 species of parasites from Africa and at least 20 species from the Neotropics are known to parasitize Biomphalaria. (wikipedia.org)
  • scheme of the presence and distribution of the conserved domain ThiF (CL0063) in E1 sequences identified in the transcriptome of Biomphalaria glabrata . (nih.gov)
  • A cell line from embryos of Biomphalaria glabrata (Pulmonata): Establishment and characteristics. (springer.com)
  • Genome-wide identification, characterisation and expression profiling of the ubiquitin-proteasome genes in Biomphalaria glabrata. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we describe the methodologies for the chromosomal mapping of nonrepetitive (single-copy) genes of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata onto metaphase chromosomes derived from the only molluscan cell-line in existence. (springer.com)
  • Although morphological measurements have traditionally been used to identify species of Biomphalaria, new molecular tools are proving very useful in uncovering cryptic diversity. (eol.org)
  • Caldeira, R.L., Jannotti-Passos, L.K. and Carvalho, O.S. (2009) Molecular epidemiology of Brazilian Biomphalaria: A review of the identification of species and the detection of infected snails. (scirp.org)
  • We combined morphological and molecular taxonomy tools to precisely identify Biomphalaria spp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Both morphological and molecular evidences indicated a close affinity between Biomphalaria spp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Biomphalaria was introduced to Hong Kong, China in aquatic plants shipments coming from Brazil and the snail rapidly established its habitats in southern China. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The snail ( Biomphalaria glabrata ) genome project. (springer.com)
  • subspecies: Biomphalaria ruppellii ruppellii Auet. (wikipedia.org)