The use of statistical and mathematical methods to analyze biological observations and phenomena.
Measurement of distances or movements by means of the phenomena caused by the interference of two rays of light (optical interferometry) or of sound (acoustic interferometry).
A method of differentiating individuals based on the analysis of qualitative or quantitative biological traits or patterns. This process which has applications in forensics and identity theft prevention includes DNA profiles or DNA fingerprints, hand fingerprints, automated facial recognition, iris scan, hand geometry, retinal scan, vascular patterns, automated voice pattern recognition, and ultrasound of fingers.
The distance between the anterior and posterior poles of the eye, measured either by ULTRASONOGRAPHY or by partial coherence interferometry.
Refraction of LIGHT effected by the media of the EYE.
A system of government in which there is free and equal participation by the people in the political decision-making process.
The space in the eye, filled with aqueous humor, bounded anteriorly by the cornea and a small portion of the sclera and posteriorly by a small portion of the ciliary body, the iris, and that part of the crystalline lens which presents through the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p109)
The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.
The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.
Deviations from the average or standard indices of refraction of the eye through its dioptric or refractive apparatus.
The weight of the FETUS in utero. It is usually estimated by various formulas based on measurements made during PRENATAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY.
Regulations to assure protection of property and equipment.
A refractive error in which rays of light entering the EYE parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus in front of the RETINA when accommodation (ACCOMMODATION, OCULAR) is relaxed. This results from an overly curved CORNEA or from the eyeball being too long from front to back. It is also called nearsightedness.
The condition of where images are correctly brought to a focus on the retina.
The commitment in writing, as authentic evidence, of something having legal importance. The concept includes certificates of birth, death, etc., as well as hospital, medical, and other institutional records.
The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)
Morphological and physiological development of FETUSES.
Artificial implanted lenses.
The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.
Control which is exerted by the more stable organizations of society, such as established institutions and the law. They are ordinarily embodied in definite codes, usually written.
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
A refractive error in which rays of light entering the eye parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus behind the retina, as a result of the eyeball being too short from front to back. It is also called farsightedness because the near point is more distant than it is in emmetropia with an equal amplitude of accommodation. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The human being as a non-anatomical and non-zoological entity. The emphasis is on the philosophical or artistic treatment of the human being, and includes lay and social attitudes toward the body in history. (From J. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)
Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the eye or of vision disorders.
In utero measurement corresponding to the sitting height (crown to rump) of the fetus. Length is considered a more accurate criterion of the age of the fetus than is the weight. The average crown-rump length of the fetus at term is 36 cm. (From Williams Obstetrics, 18th ed, p91)
Scientific study of human skeletal remains with the express purpose of identification. This includes establishing individual identity, trauma analysis, facial reconstruction, photographic superimposition, determination of time interval since death, and crime-scene recovery. Forensic anthropologists do not certify cause of death but provide data to assist in determination of probable cause. This is a branch of the field of physical anthropology and qualified individuals are certified by the American Board of Forensic Anthropology. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1992 Jun;13(2):146)
The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
A procedure for removal of the crystalline lens in cataract surgery in which an anterior capsulectomy is performed by means of a needle inserted through a small incision at the temporal limbus, allowing the lens contents to fall through the dilated pupil into the anterior chamber where they are broken up by the use of ultrasound and aspirated out of the eye through the incision. (Cline, et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed & In Focus 1993;1(1):1)
A parasympatholytic anticholinergic used solely to obtain mydriasis or cycloplegia.
A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.
The fundamental principles and laws adopted by an organization for the regulation and governing of its affairs.
The rights of individuals to act and make decisions without external constraints.
That portion of the body that lies between the THORAX and the PELVIS.
The middle third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 15th through the 28th completed week (99 to 196 days) of gestation.
The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Insertion of an artificial lens to replace the natural CRYSTALLINE LENS after CATARACT EXTRACTION or to supplement the natural lens which is left in place.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
One of a pair of irregularly shaped quadrilateral bones situated between the FRONTAL BONE and OCCIPITAL BONE, which together form the sides of the CRANIUM.
A form of glaucoma in which the intraocular pressure increases because the angle of the anterior chamber is blocked and the aqueous humor cannot drain from the anterior chamber.
The front third of the eyeball that includes the structures between the front surface of the cornea and the front of the VITREOUS BODY.
The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.
Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.
Agents that dilate the pupil. They may be either sympathomimetics or parasympatholytics.
The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.
The dioptric adjustment of the EYE (to attain maximal sharpness of retinal imagery for an object of regard) referring to the ability, to the mechanism, or to the process. Ocular accommodation is the effecting of refractive changes by changes in the shape of the CRYSTALLINE LENS. Loosely, it refers to ocular adjustments for VISION, OCULAR at various distances. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
A condition of an inequality of refractive power of the two eyes.
A method of stopping internal bleeding or blood flow, or the closure of a wound or body cavity, achieved by applying pressure or introducing an absorbent liquid, gel, or tampon.
Absence of the crystalline lens resulting from cataract extraction.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.
A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Measurements of the height, weight, length, area, etc., of the human and animal body or its parts.
The aperture in the iris through which light passes.
Descriptive anatomy based on three-dimensional imaging (IMAGING, THREE-DIMENSIONAL) of the body, organs, and structures using a series of computer multiplane sections, displayed by transverse, coronal, and sagittal analyses. It is essential to accurate interpretation by the radiologist of such techniques as ultrasonic diagnosis, MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING, and computed tomography (TOMOGRAPHY, X-RAY COMPUTED). (From Lane & Sharfaei, Modern Sectional Anatomy, 1992, Preface)
The most anterior portion of the uveal layer, separating the anterior chamber from the posterior. It consists of two layers - the stroma and the pigmented epithelium. Color of the iris depends on the amount of melanin in the stroma on reflection from the pigmented epithelium.
An objective determination of the refractive state of the eye (NEARSIGHTEDNESS; FARSIGHTEDNESS; ASTIGMATISM). By using a RETINOSCOPE, the amount of correction and the power of lens needed can be determined.
The application of STATISTICS to biological systems and organisms involving the retrieval or collection, analysis, reduction, and interpretation of qualitative and quantitative data.
Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.
Examination of the angle of the anterior chamber of the eye with a specialized optical instrument (gonioscope) or a contact prism lens.
The transparent, semigelatinous substance that fills the cavity behind the CRYSTALLINE LENS of the EYE and in front of the RETINA. It is contained in a thin hyaloid membrane and forms about four fifths of the optic globe.
An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.
The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).
The measurement of the dimensions of the HEAD.

The role of optical defocus in regulating refractive development in infant monkeys. (1/1682)

Early in life, the two eyes of infant primates normally grow in a coordinated manner toward the ideal refractive state. We investigated the extent to which lens-induced changes in the effective focus of the eye affected refractive development in infant rhesus monkeys. The main finding was that spectacle lenses could predictably alter the growth of one or both eyes resulting in appropriate compensating refractive changes in both the hyperopic and myopic directions. Although the effective operating range of the emmetropization process in young monkeys is somewhat limited, the results demonstrate that emmetropization in this higher primate, as in a number of other species, is an active process that is regulated by optical defocus associated with the eye's effective refractive state.  (+info)

The growing eye: an autofocus system that works on very poor images. (2/1682)

It is unknown which retinal image features are analyzed to control axial eye growth and refractive development. On the other hand, identification of these features is fundamental for the understanding of visually acquired refractive errors. Cyclopleged chicks were individually kept in the center of a drum with only one viewing distance possible. Defocusing spectacle lenses were used to stimulate the retina with defined defocus of similar magnitude but different sign. If spatial frequency content and contrast were the only cues analyzed by the retina, all chicks should have become myopic. However, compensatory eye growth was still always in the right direction. The most likely cues for emmetropization, spatial frequency content and image contrast, do therefore not correlate with the elongation of the eye. Rather, the sign of defocus was extracted even from very poor images.  (+info)

The refractive development of untreated eyes of rhesus monkeys varies according to the treatment received by their fellow eyes. (3/1682)

To determine the extent to which the visual experience of one eye may influence the refractive development of its fellow eye, we analyzed the data of untreated (UT) eyes of monkeys that received different types of unilateral pattern deprivation. Subjects were 15 juvenile rhesus monkeys, with five monkeys in each of three treatment groups: aphakic eyes with optical correction (AC), aphakic eyes with no correction (ANC), and eyes that were occluded with an opaque contact lens (OC). Under general anaesthesia, refractive error (D) was determined by cycloplegic retinoscopy and axial length (mm) was determined with A-scan ultrasonography. For measurements of refractive error of the UT eyes, there was a significant main effect of groups according to the treatment of the fellow eyes, F(2, 12) = 6.6. While UT eyes paired with AC fellow eyes (mean = +4.2 D) were significantly more hyperopic than the eyes of age-matched normal monkeys (mean = +2.4 D), t(25), = 2.5, UT eyes paired with OC fellow eyes (mean = -0.5 D) were significantly more myopic than the eyes of normal monkeys, t(25) = -9. UT eyes paired with ANC fellow eyes (mean = +1.9 D) were not significantly different from normal eyes. For measurements of axial length there was also a significant main effect of groups, F(2, 12) = 6.9. While UT eyes paired with AC fellow eyes (mean = 16.9 mm) were significantly shorter than the eyes of age-matched normal monkeys (mean = 17.5 mm), t(25) = 2.3, UT eyes paired with OC fellow eyes (mean = 18.1 mm) were significantly longer than the eyes of normal monkeys, t(25) = 2.3. UT eyes paired with ANC fellow eyes (mean = 17.5 mm) were not significantly different from the eyes of normal monkeys. The measurements of axial length and of refractive error of the UT eyes were also significantly correlated with one another, probably indicating that the differences in refractive error were due to differences in axial length, r = -0.8. The present data reveal that despite normal visual experience, UT eyes can have their refractive development altered, systematically, simply as a function of the type of pattern deprivation received by their fellow eyes. These data add to the growing evidence that there is an interocular mechanism that is active during emmetropization. As a consequence, future models of eye growth will need to consider both: (1) the direct influence of visual input on the growing eye; as well as (2) the indirect influence coming from the fellow eye.  (+info)

Biometrical threshold of biparietal diameter for certain fetal sex assignment by ultrasound. (4/1682)

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to establish the biometric threshold of biparietal diameter (BPD), assumed to be an independent variable of gestational age, at which 100% accuracy in the assessment of fetal sex by ultrasonography is achievable. METHODS: Transvaginal and/or transabdominal sonography was used for detecting the 'sagittal sign' as a marker of fetal sex in 385 fetuses with BPD between 18 and 29 mm. The results of ultrasound examination were compared with sex at birth or with karyotype obtained from amniotic fluid cells or chorionic villus sampling. RESULTS: Fetal sex assignment was feasible in 337 of 385 cases (87.5%). Of the 312 fetuses with known fetal sex outcome, 164 were males and 148 were females. An accuracy rate of 100% was achieved when a BPD of > or = 23 mm was obtained. CONCLUSION: This study provides important information about the earliest stage of fetal development, expressed in terms of BPD, at which a diagnosis of fetal sex can be made with 100% accuracy.  (+info)

Morphological changes in the retina of Aequidens pulcher (Cichlidae) after rearing in monochromatic light. (5/1682)

We investigate the processing of chromatic information in the outer retina of a cichlid fish, Aequidens pulcher. The colour opponent response characteristics of some classes of cone-specific horizontal cells in the fish retina are the result of feedforward-feedback loops with cone photoreceptors. To interfere with the reciprocal transmissions of signals, animals were reared in monochromatic lights which preferentially stimulated the spectrally different cone types. Here we report the effects on the cones. Their absorbance spectra were largely unaffected, indicating no change in photopigment gene expression. Significant changes were observed in the cone outer segment lengths and the frequencies of spectral cone types. Quantum catch efficiency and survival of cones appear to be controlled in a spectrally selective way. Our results suggest that the retina responds to spectral deprivation in a compensatory fashion aimed at balancing the input from the different cone types to second order neurons.  (+info)

Long-term changes in retinal contrast sensitivity in chicks from frosted occluders and drugs: relations to myopia? (6/1682)

Experiments in animal models have shown that the retinal analyzes the image to identify the position of the plane of focus and fine-tunes the growth of the underlying sclera. It is fundamental to the understanding of the development of refractive errors to know which image features are processed. Since the position of the image plane fluctuates continuously with accommodative status and viewing distance, a meaningful control of refractive development can only occur by an averaging procedure with a long time constant. As a candidate for a retinal signal for enhanced eye growth and myopia we propose the level of contrast adaptation which varies with the average amount of defocus. Using a behavioural paradigm, we have found in chickens (1) that contrast adaptation (CA, here referred to as an increase in contrast sensitivity) occurs at low spatial frequencies (0.2 cyc/deg) already after 1.5 h of wearing frosted goggles which cause deprivation myopia, (2) that CA also occurs with negative lenses (-7.4D) and positive lenses (+6.9D) after 1.5 h, at least if accommodation is paralyzed and, (3) that CA occurs at a retinal level or has, at least, a retinal component. Furthermore, we have studied the effects of atropine and reserpine, which both suppress myopia development, on CA. Quisqualate, which causes retinal degeneration but leaves emmetropization functional, was also tested. We found that both atropine and reserpine increase contrast sensitivity to a level where no further CA could be induced by frosted goggles. Quisqualate increased only the variability of refractive development and of contrast sensitivity. Taken together, CA occurring during extended periods of defocus is a possible candidate for a retinal error signal for myopia development. However, the situation is complicated by the fact that there must be a second image processing mode generating a powerful inhibitory growth signal if the image is in front of the retina, even with poor images (Diether, S., & Schaeffel, F. (1999).  (+info)

Statistical limitations in functional neuroimaging. I. Non-inferential methods and statistical models. (7/1682)

Functional neuroimaging (FNI) provides experimental access to the intact living brain making it possible to study higher cognitive functions in humans. In this review and in a companion paper in this issue, we discuss some common methods used to analyse FNI data. The emphasis in both papers is on assumptions and limitations of the methods reviewed. There are several methods available to analyse FNI data indicating that none is optimal for all purposes. In order to make optimal use of the methods available it is important to know the limits of applicability. For the interpretation of FNI results it is also important to take into account the assumptions, approximations and inherent limitations of the methods used. This paper gives a brief overview over some non-inferential descriptive methods and common statistical models used in FNI. Issues relating to the complex problem of model selection are discussed. In general, proper model selection is a necessary prerequisite for the validity of the subsequent statistical inference. The non-inferential section describes methods that, combined with inspection of parameter estimates and other simple measures, can aid in the process of model selection and verification of assumptions. The section on statistical models covers approaches to global normalization and some aspects of univariate, multivariate, and Bayesian models. Finally, approaches to functional connectivity and effective connectivity are discussed. In the companion paper we review issues related to signal detection and statistical inference.  (+info)

Statistical limitations in functional neuroimaging. II. Signal detection and statistical inference. (8/1682)

The field of functional neuroimaging (FNI) methodology has developed into a mature but evolving area of knowledge and its applications have been extensive. A general problem in the analysis of FNI data is finding a signal embedded in noise. This is sometimes called signal detection. Signal detection theory focuses in general on issues relating to the optimization of conditions for separating the signal from noise. When methods from probability theory and mathematical statistics are directly applied in this procedure it is also called statistical inference. In this paper we briefly discuss some aspects of signal detection theory relevant to FNI and, in addition, some common approaches to statistical inference used in FNI. Low-pass filtering in relation to functional-anatomical variability and some effects of filtering on signal detection of interest to FNI are discussed. Also, some general aspects of hypothesis testing and statistical inference are discussed. This includes the need for characterizing the signal in data when the null hypothesis is rejected, the problem of multiple comparisons that is central to FNI data analysis, omnibus tests and some issues related to statistical power in the context of FNI. In turn, random field, scale space, non-parametric and Monte Carlo approaches are reviewed, representing the most common approaches to statistical inference used in FNI. Complementary to these issues an overview and discussion of non-inferential descriptive methods, common statistical models and the problem of model selection is given in a companion paper. In general, model selection is an important prelude to subsequent statistical inference. The emphasis in both papers is on the assumptions and inherent limitations of the methods presented. Most of the methods described here generally serve their purposes well when the inherent assumptions and limitations are taken into account. Significant differences in results between different methods are most apparent in extreme parameter ranges, for example at low effective degrees of freedom or at small spatial autocorrelation. In such situations or in situations when assumptions and approximations are seriously violated it is of central importance to choose the most suitable method in order to obtain valid results.  (+info)

Myopia occurs when the eyeball is too long or the cornea is too steep, causing light to focus in front of the retina instead of directly on it. Hyperopia is the opposite, where the eyeball is too short or the cornea is too flat, causing light to focus behind the retina. Astigmatism is caused by an irregularly shaped cornea, which causes light to focus at multiple points instead of one. Presbyopia is a loss of near vision that occurs as people age, making it harder to see close objects clearly.

In addition to these common refractive errors, there are other, less common conditions that can affect the eyes and cause blurred vision, such as amblyopia (lazy eye), strabismus (crossed eyes), and retinal detachment. These conditions can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, injury, or disease.

Refractive errors can have a significant impact on daily life, affecting everything from work and school performance to social interactions and overall quality of life. Fortunately, with the help of corrective lenses or surgery, many people are able to achieve clear vision and lead fulfilling lives.

Fetal weight refers to the weight of a developing fetus during pregnancy. It is typically measured in grams or ounces and is used to assess fetal growth and development. Fetal weight is calculated using ultrasound measurements, such as biparietal diameter (BPD) or head circumference, and can be used to detect potential growth restrictions or other complications during pregnancy.

Example Sentence:

The estimated fetal weight based on the ultrasound measurements was 250 grams, indicating that the baby was slightly smaller than average for gestational age.

Myopia can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

1. Genetics: Myopia can run in families, and people with a family history of myopia are more likely to develop the condition.
2. Near work: Spending too much time doing close-up activities such as reading or using digital devices can increase the risk of developing myopia.
3. Poor posture: Slouching or leaning forward can cause the eye to focus incorrectly, leading to myopia.
4. Nutritional deficiencies: A diet lacking in essential nutrients such as vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acids may contribute to the development of myopia.
5. Eye stress: Prolonged eye strain due to excessive near work or other activities can lead to myopia.

Symptoms of myopia include:

1. Difficulty seeing distant objects clearly
2. Headaches or eye strain from trying to focus on distant objects
3. Squinting or rubbing the eyes to try to see distant objects more clearly
4. Difficulty seeing in low light conditions
5. Blurry vision at a distance, with close objects appearing clear.

Myopia can be diagnosed with a comprehensive eye exam, which includes a visual acuity test, refraction test, and retinoscopy. Treatment options for myopia include:

1. Glasses or contact lenses: These corrective lenses refract light properly onto the retina, allowing clear vision of both close and distant objects.
2. Laser eye surgery: Procedures such as LASIK can reshape the cornea to improve its curvature and reduce myopia.
3. Orthokeratology (ORTHO-K): A non-surgical procedure that uses a specialized contact lens to reshape the cornea while you sleep.
4. Myopia control: This involves using certain treatments or techniques to slow down the progression of myopia in children and young adults.
5. Multifocal lenses: These lenses have multiple focal points, allowing for clear vision of both near and distant objects without the need for glasses or contact lenses.

In conclusion, myopia is a common vision condition that can be caused by a variety of factors and symptoms can include difficulty seeing distant objects clearly, headaches, and eye strain. Treatment options include glasses or contact lenses, laser eye surgery, ORTHO-K, myopia control, and multifocal lenses. It is important to consult an eye doctor for a comprehensive evaluation and to determine the best course of treatment for your specific case of myopia.

Hyperopia, also known as farsightedness, is a common vision condition in which close objects appear blurry while distant objects appear clear. This occurs when the eyeball is shorter than normal or the cornea is not curved enough, causing light rays to focus behind the retina rather than directly on it. Hyperopia can be treated with glasses, contact lenses, or refractive surgery.

Word origin: Greek "hyper" (beyond) + "ops" (eye) + -ia (suffix denoting a condition or state)

First recorded use: 1690s

Symptoms: blurred vision, halos around lights, redness and pain in the eye, nausea and vomiting, and sensitivity to light.

Diagnosis: a comprehensive eye exam, including measurements of intraocular pressure (IOP) and assessment of the angle of the eye.

Treatment: may include medication to reduce IOP, laser or surgical treatment to improve drainage, and in some cases, vitrectomy (removal of the vitreous gel).

Prognosis: with prompt and appropriate treatment, vision can be preserved. However, if left untreated, angle-closure glaucoma can lead to permanent vision loss.

Etiology: can be caused by a variety of factors, including age-related changes, cataract surgery, trauma, and inflammation.

Prevalence: is more common in certain populations, such as those of Asian descent, and in those with a family history of the condition.

Anisometropia is typically diagnosed with a comprehensive eye exam, which includes visual acuity testing, refraction, and retinoscopy. Treatment options for anisometropia depend on the underlying cause and severity of the condition, and may include glasses or contact lenses, prism lenses, or surgery. In some cases, anisometropia can be treated with orthokeratology (OK) or corneal reshaping, which involves wearing a specialized contact lens at night to reshape the cornea and improve vision during the day.

Anisometropia is relatively rare, but it can have a significant impact on quality of life, particularly in children and young adults. If you suspect that you or your child may have anisometropia, it's important to schedule an eye exam as soon as possible to determine the underlying cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Synonyms for Aphakia, postcataract include:

* Postoperative aphakia
* Postcataract aphakia
* Aphakic vision loss
* Blindness following cataract surgery

Causes and risk factors for Aphakia, postcataract:

* Cataract surgery: The most common cause of aphakia, postcataract is complications from cataract surgery. During the procedure, the natural lens of the eye may be damaged or removed accidentally.
* Infection: Infections after cataract surgery can cause inflammation and damage to the eye, leading to aphakia.
* Vitreous loss: During cataract surgery, the vitreous gel in the eye may be disturbed or lost, leading to vision loss.

Symptoms of Aphakia, postcataract:

* Blindness or vision loss
* Difficulty seeing objects clearly
* Double vision or ghosting
* Sensitivity to light
* Reduced peripheral vision

Diagnosis and treatment of Aphakia, postcataract:

* Comprehensive eye exam: An ophthalmologist will perform a comprehensive eye exam to determine the cause of the aphakia and assess the extent of vision loss.
* Visual acuity testing: The ophthalmologist will perform visual acuity tests to measure the patient's ability to see objects clearly.
* Retinal imaging: Imaging tests such as ultrasound or MRI may be used to evaluate the retina and diagnose any underlying conditions.
* Glasses or contact lenses: In some cases, glasses or contact lenses may be prescribed to improve vision.
* Intracorneal implant: An intracorneal implant may be recommended to improve vision in cases where the natural lens has been removed and there is no cataract present.
* Corneal transplant: In severe cases of aphakia, a corneal transplant may be necessary to restore vision.

Prevention of Aphakia, postcataract:

* Early detection and treatment of cataracts: Regular eye exams can help detect cataracts early, which can improve the chances of preserving vision and avoiding aphakia.
* Proper follow-up care after cataract surgery: Patients who have undergone cataract surgery should follow their postoperative instructions carefully and attend follow-up appointments to ensure that any complications are detected and treated promptly.
* Preventing eye injuries: Protective eyewear can help prevent eye injuries, which can lead to aphakia.

Prognosis of Aphakia, postcataract:
The prognosis for aphakia after cataract surgery is generally good if the condition is detected and treated promptly. With appropriate treatment, many patients can regain some or all of their vision. However, in severe cases or those with complications, the prognosis may be poorer.

It's important to note that aphakia is a rare complication of cataract surgery, and the vast majority of patients who undergo the procedure do not experience this condition. If you have undergone cataract surgery and are experiencing any unusual symptoms, it is important to seek medical attention promptly to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment.

Examples of fetal diseases include:

1. Down syndrome: A genetic disorder caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21, which can cause delays in physical and intellectual development, as well as increased risk of heart defects and other health problems.
2. Spina bifida: A birth defect that affects the development of the spine and brain, resulting in a range of symptoms from mild to severe.
3. Cystic fibrosis: A genetic disorder that affects the respiratory and digestive systems, causing thick mucus buildup and recurring lung infections.
4. Anencephaly: A condition where a portion of the brain and skull are missing, which is usually fatal within a few days or weeks of birth.
5. Clubfoot: A deformity of the foot and ankle that can be treated with casts or surgery.
6. Hirschsprung's disease: A condition where the nerve cells that control bowel movements are missing, leading to constipation and other symptoms.
7. Diaphragmatic hernia: A birth defect that occurs when there is a hole in the diaphragm, allowing organs from the abdomen to move into the chest cavity.
8. Gastroschisis: A birth defect where the intestines protrude through a opening in the abdominal wall.
9. Congenital heart disease: Heart defects that are present at birth, such as holes in the heart or narrowed blood vessels.
10. Neural tube defects: Defects that affect the brain and spine, such as spina bifida and anencephaly.

Early detection and diagnosis of fetal diseases can be crucial for ensuring proper medical care and improving outcomes for affected babies. Prenatal testing, such as ultrasound and blood tests, can help identify fetal anomalies and genetic disorders during pregnancy.

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Fisher, R. A. (1948). "Biometry". Biometrics. 4 (3): 217-219. JSTOR 3001567. PMID 18098453. Fisher, R. A.; Snell, G. D. (1948 ...
Sky Biometry. Archived from the original on 19 April 2021. Retrieved 19 April 2021. Krawczyk, Daniel C. (2018). Reasoning; The ...
In Biometry, it is a variance-ratio in which a part is expressed as a fraction of the whole: that is, a coefficient of ... ISBN 0-471-02995-5. Balaam, L. N. (1972). Fundamentals of biometry. London: George Allen & Unwin. ISBN 0-04-519008-9. In the ...
Sokal RR, Rohlf FJ (1995). Biometry (3rd ed.). New York: Freeman. pp. 813-819. ISBN 0-7167-2411-1. Guillot G, Rousset F (2013 ...
"Biometry: Seeing Is Believing". Tedx El Paso. TedxElPaso. Retrieved 30 January 2019. "Search Results - Cincinnati Country Day ...
"The World of Biometry". Biometrics. 50 (4): 899-916. doi:10.2307/2533431. JSTOR 2533431. PMID 7787005 - via JSTOR. "ENAR Spring ...
Cock AG (1973). "William Bateson, Mendelism and biometry". Journal of the History of Biology. 6: 1-36. doi:10.1007/BF00137297. ...
NCI) Biometry The science of collecting and analyzing biologic or health data using statistical methods. Biometry may be used ... Also called biometry and biometrics. (NCI) Blind A randomized trial is "Blind" if the participant is not told which arm of the ...
Case Studies in Biometry (eds. N. Lange, L. Ryan, L. Billard, D. Brillinger, L. Conquest and J. Greenhouse). 1994. John Wiley. ...
Causton, David R. (1981). The biometry of plant growth. Venus, Jill C. London: Edward Arnold. ISBN 0713128127. OCLC 8154990. ...
Biometry of three species in Israel". Revista Española de Herpetología 7: 47-64. Werner YL, Sivan N (1994). "Systematics and ...
... a multivariate study of their biometry. Ardea 78(3): 441-458. HTML abstract Sangster, George; Knox, Alan G.; Helbig, Andreas J ...
Two types of A-scan ultrasound biometry are currently in use. The first is contact applanation biometry. This technique ... immersion biometry has been shown to be more accurate than contact applanation biometry in several studies. The main limitation ... For optical biometry, it is not as critical how the media change because the correction factor that must be applied is much ... A mean shortening of 0.25-0.33mm can translate into an error of IOL power by approximately 1 D In A-scan ultrasound biometry, a ...
"BMS-ANed - Awards & funds - Biometry award". BMS-ANed, a joint association of the Biometrics Section of Dutch Statistical ...
"Communications in Biometry and Crop Science". "Statistical Applications in Genetics and Molecular Biology ... Biostatistics (also known as biometry) are the development and application of statistical methods to a wide range of topics in ... and Biostatistics Biostatistics and Public Health Biometrics Biometrika Biometrical Journal Communications in Biometry and Crop ...
Jan 1994). "Fetal biometry at 14-40 weeks' gestation". Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 4 (1): 34-48. doi:10.1046/j.1469-0705.1994. ...
Bulmer, Michael (2003). Francis Galton: Pioneer of Heredity and Biometry. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 191- ...
Reports from Biometry Department, University College, London. Séguy, Drosophila subobscura, 1938, Mem. Mjs. Hist. nat. Paris (n ... The species was then bred at the Department of Biometry in University College in London to be genetically experimented on. Here ...
Bulmer, Michael (2003). Francis Galton: Pioneer of Heredity and Biometry. Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 35. ISBN 0-8018- ...
International Series in Applied Statistics and Biometry. Vol. 2. Pergamom Press. ISBN 9781483157894. Wilk, Martin; Gnanadesikan ...
Dynamics of Human Reproduction: Biology, Biometry, Demography. Transaction Publishers. pp. 333-. ISBN 978-0-202-36570-1. Horst- ...
Bulmer, Michael G. (2003). Francis Galton : pioneer of heredity and biometry. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press. ...
Color based soft biometry for hooligans detection. Published in ISCAS 2010. Person recognition using a bag of facial soft ...
Wood JW (1994). Dynamics of Human Reproduction: Biology, Biometry, Demography. Hawthorne, N.Y.: Aldine de Gruyter Publishers. ... Wood JW (December 31, 1994). Dynamics of Human Reproduction: Biology, Biometry, Demography. Piscataway, New Jersey: Aldine ...
1999). "The Role of Orthoptists in Biometry". Br Orthopt J. 56: 19-21. Georgievski, Z; Koklanis, K; Fenton, A; Koukouras, I. ( ... stable glaucoma management Biometry (includes sonography work) Fundus photography and screening Visual electrodiagnosis ...
Biometry (3rd Ed). New York: Freeman, 1995. p. 58. ISBN 0-7167-2411-1 Limpert, Eckhard; Stahel, Werner A.; Abbt, Markus (2001 ...
Wolcott, T.G. (1980). "Optical and radio-optical techniques for tracking nocturnal animals". A Handbook for Biometry and Radio ...
Indian documents ancient science of Anthro-Biometry. Deccan Herald. ::... Reach The High Life ...::. ::... ...
2011)‎. Sonographic fetal biometry charts for a Pakistani cohort. EMHJ - Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, 17 (‎12)‎, 969- ...
The Biometry Group Template is container for a biometric value and its associated growth metrics. ... The discrete measurements of the biometry type including derived measurements such as mean. One of the measurements may be ...
Sonographic fetal biometry charts for a Pakistani cohort ... Ultrasound fetal biometry charts for a North American Caucasian ... Nevertheless, we suggest that the fetal biometry charts derived in this study can be reliably used for the assessment of fetal ... Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal , All issues , Volume 17, 2011 , Volume 17, issue 12 , Sonographic fetal biometry charts ... Fetal biometry at 14-40 weeks gestation. Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1994, 4:34-38. ...
Augustijn, M., Gentier, I., Deforche, B., Tanghe, A., De Bourdeaudhuij, I., Lenoir, M. & DHondt, E., 2013, p. Conference proceedings: 26.. Research output: Unpublished contribution to conference › Unpublished abstract ...
Please be aware that this master class is not at all any kind of financial consulting or any kind of advisement how and in what to invest. The only propose of this class is to inform about technologies, concepts and use cases. Although we gave our best to create this class, we cant guarantee that all information provided in this class are correct and without any mistakes. Use of any content provided during this class or publish on any media are on your own responsibility.. ...
By 2025, about 1.4 billion people are expected to use facial recognition technology to authenticate payments. The Mastercard program has already been launched in five St Marche grocery stores in Sao Paulo, Brazil.. For the new payment scheme, Mastercard has developed a set of standards to ensure the protection of user data. The company is working with several firms to launch this feature, including Fujitsu, NEC, Payface, Aurus, PaybyFace and PopID, and in the coming years it will be available in the US, Europe, Asia and the Middle East.. According to Mastercard management, Mastercard biometric tools are planned to be used within the payment infrastructure of the metaverses. At a media briefing in London, Mastercard demonstrated an augmented reality headset that warns the user if he is on a potentially fraudulent site. Another feature that the company is experimenting with allows users to select and buy products in a virtual store using only their eyes.. ...
Text; Format: print Publication details: Boca Raton, Fla. : CRC Press, 1984 [1985 printing]Availability: Items available for loan: WHO HQ (1)Call number: QH 323.5 84CO. ...
Decoding Borders : Biometry, Drones, Data flows, ESAA, Aix en Provence, 13-14 february 2013. ... 9h30-11h30 Workshop 2: From Identification to Biometry. Président: Cédric Parizot (anthropologue du politique, IMéRA, IREMAM, ... In the first workshop, the speakers will discuss the increasingly sophisticated technologies (robots, drones, biometry, ...
Comparison between ocular biometry parameters in patients with unilateral congenital glauc Comparison between ocular biometry ... Patients who had a follow-up of 3 years from diagnosis with ocular biometry parameters being recorded at least thrice (once a ...
Not all products, uses, treatment options and protocols referenced are officially approved or supported by a products intended use in every market. Approved labeling and instructions may vary from one country to another. Product specifications are subject to change in design and scope of delivery as a result of ongoing technical development ...
Professor (W2) of biometry and deputy of the Institute of Clinical Epidemiology and Biometry, University of Würzburg. ... Venia legendi for Medical Biometry and Epidemiology, University Leipzig. 2008. 2nd doctoral degree (Dr. rer. med., summa cum ...
A-Scan Biometry * 20021219573-overview. Diseases & Conditions Presbyopia - Cause and Treatment * 20021228601-overview ...
Biometry. 3rd edition. New York: W. H. Freeman and Co.; 1995.. *. Kulagin CM, Fedorova H, Ketiladze EC. Laboratory outbreak of ...
SE ESTER 3, BOTANY - GENERAL Paper : SEC-A-1 (Plant Breeding and Biometry). ...
A-Scan Biometry * 2003/viewarticle/970743Clinical Case. Patient and Lens Selection: An In-Depth Exploration of Intraocular ...
Department of Medical Biometry and Medical Informatics. University Medical Centre. Freiburg, Germany ...
Biometry / instrumentation* * Colorimetry / instrumentation* * Equipment Design * Equipment Failure Analysis * Erythema / ...
Biometry Makes its Debut in Schengen Area Free A consortium led by Frances Sagem -- now part of the new group Safran alongside ...
Absorption • Adult • Alcohol Drinking • Algorithms • Animals • Artifacts • Artificial Intelligence • Biometry • Birds • ...
Software Developer, Biometry Hub [email] +61 8 8313 4054 Edwards Alexander Faculty Administrative Officer [email] ...
Biometry 120. Credits: 16.00. Module content:. Simple statistical analysis: Data collection and analysis: Samples, tabulation, ...
Division of Biometry and Epidemiology. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. 5600 Fishers Lane, Room 14C-26. ...
BIO 502 - Biometry (3 hours) Gen. Ed. Principles of biological measurement. Topics include the nature of data, sampling, ...
Optical Coherence Tomography-based ocular biometry and biomechanics. View Project Details. Publications. * *. Summers JA. ...
Categories: Biometry Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted 1 images ...
Biometry. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company.. SUN, Y.-H., BRIDGMAN, C.L., WU, H.-L., LEE, C.-F., LIU, M., CHIANG, P.-J. & CHEN ...
Biometry. W. H. Freeman, New York, NY, xviii + 859 pp.. *TSCHUDY, R. H. 1973. Stratigraphic distribution of significant Eocene ...
in Mathematical Biometry, Ulm University, Germany, 2012.. Thesis: A Classification Method Based on Random Forests and its ...
eCommons will become read-only at noon on May 26 for an infrastructure update. Submissions will not be accepted at this time. We anticipate that this update will be completed by June 2 at 5 p.m.. Please contact us at eco[email protected] if you have questions or concerns.. ...
  • The cross-sectional course "Epidemiology, Medical Biometry and Medical Informatics", offered by the IMB, is used to convey methodical fundamentals in the named fields. (
  • hydroxyprogesterone caproate affect fetal biometry and birth weight in twin pregnancy? (
  • This study aimed to assess whether exposure to 17-OHPC during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy affects fetal biometry in twin gestations. (
  • The use of 17-OHPC has no adverse effects on fetal biometry and birth weight in twins . (
  • One of the most critical components of cataract surgery is accurate measurement of the eye's dimensions, which is where laser biometry comes in. (
  • Laser biometry offers several advantages over traditional measurement methods, such as manual A-scan biometry, which uses sound waves to measure the eye's dimensions. (
  • Laser biometry is fast, non-invasive, and provides more detailed information than traditional measurement methods. (
  • Annals of Biometry & Biostatistics journal aims to cover both the Biometrics and Biostatistics where, Biometrics is the science related to measuring and measurably separating normal information. (
  • The discrete measurements of the biometry type including derived measurements such as mean. (
  • In this article, we will explore the importance of laser biometry in cataract surgery and how it can help to ensure a successful outcome. (
  • If you are considering cataract surgery, be sure to ask your surgeon about the use of laser biometry in your treatment plan. (
  • Biometry: its relation to the practice of medicine : a paper read before the Section on Practical Medicine, of the American Medical Association, at its Annual Session, held in Louisville, Ky. (