Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Weight-Bearing: The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.Finite Element Analysis: A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.Cadaver: A dead body, usually a human body.Tensile Strength: The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)Elasticity: Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.Compressive Strength: The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)Range of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.Bone Screws: Specialized devices used in ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY to repair bone fractures.Models, Anatomic: Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.Bone Plates: Implantable fracture fixation devices attached to bone fragments with screws to bridge the fracture gap and shield the fracture site from stress as bone heals. (UMDNS, 1999)Elastic Modulus: Numerical expression indicating the measure of stiffness in a material. It is defined by the ratio of stress in a unit area of substance to the resulting deformation (strain). This allows the behavior of a material under load (such as bone) to be calculated.Internal Fixators: Internal devices used in osteosynthesis to hold the position of the fracture in proper alignment. By applying the principles of biomedical engineering, the surgeon uses metal plates, nails, rods, etc., for the correction of skeletal defects.Lumbar Vertebrae: VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Femur: The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.Gait: Manner or style of walking.Tendons: Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.Spine: The spinal or vertebral column.Bony Callus: The bony deposit formed between and around the broken ends of BONE FRACTURES during normal healing.Mechanical Processes: The behaviors of materials under force.X-Ray Microtomography: X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.Knee Joint: A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Spinal Fusion: Operative immobilization or ankylosis of two or more vertebrae by fusion of the vertebral bodies with a short bone graft or often with diskectomy or laminectomy. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p236; Dorland, 28th ed)Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Tibia: The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.Fracture Fixation, Internal: The use of internal devices (metal plates, nails, rods, etc.) to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment.Intervertebral Disc: Any of the 23 plates of fibrocartilage found between the bodies of adjacent VERTEBRAE.Torque: The rotational force about an axis that is equal to the product of a force times the distance from the axis where the force is applied.Bite Force: The force applied by the masticatory muscles in dental occlusion.Vocal Cords: A pair of cone-shaped elastic mucous membrane projecting from the laryngeal wall and forming a narrow slit between them. Each contains a thickened free edge (vocal ligament) extending from the THYROID CARTILAGE to the ARYTENOID CARTILAGE, and a VOCAL MUSCLE that shortens or relaxes the vocal cord to control sound production.Equipment Failure Analysis: The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.Cartilage, Articular: A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Patellar Ligament: A band of fibrous tissue that attaches the apex of the PATELLA to the lower part of the tubercle of the TIBIA. The ligament is actually the caudal continuation of the common tendon of the QUADRICEPS FEMORIS. The patella is embedded in that tendon. As such, the patellar ligament can be thought of as connecting the quadriceps femoris tendon to the tibia, and therefore it is sometimes called the patellar tendon.Fracture Healing: The physiological restoration of bone tissue and function after a fracture. It includes BONY CALLUS formation and normal replacement of bone tissue.Anterior Cruciate Ligament: A strong ligament of the knee that originates from the posteromedial portion of the lateral condyle of the femur, passes anteriorly and inferiorly between the condyles, and attaches to the depression in front of the intercondylar eminence of the tibia.Rotation: Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Thoracic Vertebrae: A group of twelve VERTEBRAE connected to the ribs that support the upper trunk region.Tendon Injuries: Injuries to the fibrous cords of connective tissue which attach muscles to bones or other structures.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Mechanotransduction, Cellular: The process by which cells convert mechanical stimuli into a chemical response. It can occur in both cells specialized for sensing mechanical cues such as MECHANORECEPTORS, and in parenchymal cells whose primary function is not mechanosensory.Prostheses and Implants: Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Torsion, Mechanical: A twisting deformation of a solid body about an axis. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Cervical Vertebrae: The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.Achilles Tendon: A fibrous cord that connects the muscles in the back of the calf to the HEEL BONE.Pliability: The quality or state of being able to be bent or creased repeatedly. (From Webster, 3d ed)Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Ankle Joint: The joint that is formed by the inferior articular and malleolar articular surfaces of the TIBIA; the malleolar articular surface of the FIBULA; and the medial malleolar, lateral malleolar, and superior surfaces of the TALUS.Raynaud Disease: An idiopathic vascular disorder characterized by bilateral Raynaud phenomenon, the abrupt onset of digital paleness or CYANOSIS in response to cold exposure or stress.Phonation: The process of producing vocal sounds by means of VOCAL CORDS vibrating in an expiratory blast of air.Musculoskeletal Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM.Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.Ligaments: Shiny, flexible bands of fibrous tissue connecting together articular extremities of bones. They are pliant, tough, and inextensile.Joint Instability: Lack of stability of a joint or joint prosthesis. Factors involved are intra-articular disease and integrity of extra-articular structures such as joint capsule, ligaments, and muscles.Orthopedic Fixation Devices: Devices which are used in the treatment of orthopedic injuries and diseases.Foot: The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Femoral Fractures: Fractures of the femur.Ligaments, Articular: Fibrous cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE that attach bones to each other and hold together the many types of joints in the body. Articular ligaments are strong, elastic, and allow movement in only specific directions, depending on the individual joint.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Tibial FracturesShear Strength: The internal resistance of a material to moving some parts of it parallel to a fixed plane, in contrast to stretching (TENSILE STRENGTH) or compression (COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH). Ionic crystals are brittle because, when subjected to shear, ions of the same charge are brought next to each other, which causes repulsion.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Orthopedic Procedures: Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.Orthotic Devices: Apparatus used to support, align, prevent, or correct deformities or to improve the function of movable parts of the body.Suture Techniques: Techniques for securing together the edges of a wound, with loops of thread or similar materials (SUTURES).Sclera: The white, opaque, fibrous, outer tunic of the eyeball, covering it entirely excepting the segment covered anteriorly by the cornea. It is essentially avascular but contains apertures for vessels, lymphatics, and nerves. It receives the tendons of insertion of the extraocular muscles and at the corneoscleral junction contains the canal of Schlemm. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Back Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the posterior part of the trunk. It includes injuries to the muscles of the back.Biomedical Engineering: Application of principles and practices of engineering science to biomedical research and health care.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Acceleration: An increase in the rate of speed.Zygapophyseal Joint: The joint that occurs between facets of the interior and superior articular processes of adjacent VERTEBRAE.Bone Wires: Steel wires, often threaded through the skin, soft tissues, and bone, used to fix broken bones. Kirschner wires or apparatus also includes the application of traction to the healing bones through the wires.Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Lifting: Moving or bringing something from a lower level to a higher one. The concept encompasses biomechanic stresses resulting from work done in transferring objects from one plane to another as well as the effects of varying techniques of patient handling and transfer.Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.Walking: An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.Suture Anchors: Implants used in arthroscopic surgery and other orthopedic procedures to attach soft tissue to bone. One end of a suture is tied to soft tissue and the other end to the implant. The anchors are made of a variety of materials including titanium, stainless steel, or absorbable polymers.Rupture: Forcible or traumatic tear or break of an organ or other soft part of the body.Compliance: Distensibility measure of a chamber such as the lungs (LUNG COMPLIANCE) or bladder. Compliance is expressed as a change in volume per unit change in pressure.Tissue Scaffolds: Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.Polymethyl Methacrylate: Polymerized methyl methacrylate monomers which are used as sheets, moulding, extrusion powders, surface coating resins, emulsion polymers, fibers, inks, and films (From International Labor Organization, 1983). This material is also used in tooth implants, bone cements, and hard corneal contact lenses.Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Total Disc Replacement: The replacement of intervertebral discs in the spinal column with artificial devices. The procedure is done in the lumbar or cervical spine to relieve severe pain resulting from INTERVERTEBRAL DISC DEGENERATION.Postural Balance: A POSTURE in which an ideal body mass distribution is achieved. Postural balance provides the body carriage stability and conditions for normal functions in stationary position or in movement, such as sitting, standing, or walking.Cumulative Trauma Disorders: Harmful and painful condition caused by overuse or overexertion of some part of the musculoskeletal system, often resulting from work-related physical activities. It is characterized by inflammation, pain, or dysfunction of the involved joints, bones, ligaments, and nerves.Knee: A region of the lower extremity immediately surrounding and including the KNEE JOINT.Pronation: Applies to movements of the forearm in turning the palm backward or downward. When referring to the foot, a combination of eversion and abduction movements in the tarsal and metatarsal joints (turning the foot up and in toward the midline of the body).Knee Injuries: Injuries to the knee or the knee joint.Titanium: A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)Connective Tissue: Tissue that supports and binds other tissues. It consists of CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS embedded in a large amount of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.Humerus: Bone in humans and primates extending from the SHOULDER JOINT to the ELBOW JOINT.Temporomandibular Joint: An articulation between the condyle of the mandible and the articular tubercle of the temporal bone.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Spinal Fractures: Broken bones in the vertebral column.Osseointegration: The growth action of bone tissue as it assimilates surgically implanted devices or prostheses to be used as either replacement parts (e.g., hip) or as anchors (e.g., endosseous dental implants).Reconstructive Surgical Procedures: Procedures used to reconstruct, restore, or improve defective, damaged, or missing structures.Video Recording: The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).Menisci, Tibial: The interarticular fibrocartilages of the superior surface of the tibia.Patella: The flat, triangular bone situated at the anterior part of the KNEE.Hip: The projecting part on each side of the body, formed by the side of the pelvis and the top portion of the femur.Bone Cements: Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.Fractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Viscosity: The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Temporomandibular Joint Disc: A plate of fibrous tissue that divides the temporomandibular joint into an upper and lower cavity. The disc is attached to the articular capsule and moves forward with the condyle in free opening and protrusion. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p92)Osteotomy: The surgical cutting of a bone. (Dorland, 28th ed)Fracture Fixation, Intramedullary: The use of nails that are inserted into bone cavities in order to keep fractured bones together.Fibrocartilage: A type of CARTILAGE whose matrix contains large bundles of COLLAGEN TYPE I. Fibrocartilage is typically found in the INTERVERTEBRAL DISK; PUBIC SYMPHYSIS; TIBIAL MENISCI; and articular disks in synovial JOINTS. (From Ross et. al., Histology, 3rd ed., p132,136)Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Fibrillar Collagens: A family of structurally related collagens that form the characteristic collagen fibril bundles seen in CONNECTIVE TISSUE.Back: The rear surface of an upright primate from the shoulders to the hip, or the dorsal surface of tetrapods.Hip Joint: The joint that is formed by the articulation of the head of FEMUR and the ACETABULUM of the PELVIS.Lumbosacral Region: Region of the back including the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, SACRUM, and nearby structures.Jaw: Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.Dinosaurs: General name for two extinct orders of reptiles from the Mesozoic era: Saurischia and Ornithischia.Osteoporosis: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.Prosthesis Implantation: Surgical insertion of a prosthesis.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Corneal Topography: The measurement of curvature and shape of the anterior surface of the cornea using techniques such as keratometry, keratoscopy, photokeratoscopy, profile photography, computer-assisted image processing and videokeratography. This measurement is often applied in the fitting of contact lenses and in diagnosing corneal diseases or corneal changes including keratoconus, which occur after keratotomy and keratoplasty.Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.Mandible: The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.Elastic Tissue: Connective tissue comprised chiefly of elastic fibers. Elastic fibers have two components: ELASTIN and MICROFIBRILS.Sutures: Materials used in closing a surgical or traumatic wound. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Keratoconus: A noninflammatory, usually bilateral protrusion of the cornea, the apex being displaced downward and nasally. It occurs most commonly in females at about puberty. The cause is unknown but hereditary factors may play a role. The -conus refers to the cone shape of the corneal protrusion. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Intervertebral Disc Degeneration: Degenerative changes in the INTERVERTEBRAL DISC due to aging or structural damage, especially to the vertebral end-plates.Lubrication: The application of LUBRICANTS to diminish FRICTION between two surfaces.Intraocular Pressure: The pressure of the fluids in the eye.Bone Transplantation: The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.Bone Substitutes: Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.Ankle: The region of the lower limb between the FOOT and the LEG.Chondrocytes: Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Skull: The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.Joints: Also known as articulations, these are points of connection between the ends of certain separate bones, or where the borders of other bones are juxtaposed.Bone Nails: Rods of bone, metal, or other material used for fixation of the fragments or ends of fractured bones.Rotator Cuff: The musculotendinous sheath formed by the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis, and teres minor muscles. These help stabilize the head of the HUMERUS in the glenoid fossa and allow for rotation of the SHOULDER JOINT about its longitudinal axis.Thumb: The first digit on the radial side of the hand which in humans lies opposite the other four.Dental Implants: Biocompatible materials placed into (endosseous) or onto (subperiosteal) the jawbone to support a crown, bridge, or artificial tooth, or to stabilize a diseased tooth.Torso: The central part of the body to which the neck and limbs are attached.Foot Deformities: Alterations or deviations from normal shape or size which result in a disfigurement of the foot.No-Reflow Phenomenon: Markedly reduced or absent REPERFUSION in an infarct zone following the removal of an obstruction or constriction of an artery.Vibration: A continuing periodic change in displacement with respect to a fixed reference. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Mastication: The act and process of chewing and grinding food in the mouth.Bone Remodeling: The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Task Performance and Analysis: The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.Dental Stress Analysis: The description and measurement of the various factors that produce physical stress upon dental restorations, prostheses, or appliances, materials associated with them, or the natural oral structures.Periodontal Ligament: The fibrous CONNECTIVE TISSUE surrounding the TOOTH ROOT, separating it from and attaching it to the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS).Sacrum: Five fused VERTEBRAE forming a triangle-shaped structure at the back of the PELVIS. It articulates superiorly with the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, inferiorly with the COCCYX, and anteriorly with the ILIUM of the PELVIS. The sacrum strengthens and stabilizes the PELVIS.ShoesFibula: The bone of the lower leg lateral to and smaller than the tibia. In proportion to its length, it is the most slender of the long bones.Hardness: The mechanical property of material that determines its resistance to force. HARDNESS TESTS measure this property.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Fractures, Comminuted: A fracture in which the bone is splintered or crushed. (Dorland, 27th ed)Running: An activity in which the body is propelled by moving the legs rapidly. Running is performed at a moderate to rapid pace and should be differentiated from JOGGING, which is performed at a much slower pace.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.External Fixators: External devices which hold wires or pins that are placed through one or both cortices of bone in order to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment. These devices allow easy access to wounds, adjustment during the course of healing, and more functional use of the limbs involved.Metatarsal Bones: The five long bones of the METATARSUS, articulating with the TARSAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF TOES distally.Numerical Analysis, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted study of methods for obtaining useful quantitative solutions to problems that have been expressed mathematically.Tooth Movement: Orthodontic techniques used to correct the malposition of a single tooth.Deltoid Muscle: Thick triangular muscle in the SHOULDER whose function is to abduct, flex, and extend the arm. It is a common site of INTRAMUSCULAR INJECTIONS.Artificial Limbs: Prosthetic replacements for arms, legs, and parts thereof.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.ElastinMicroscopy, Acoustic: A scientific tool based on ULTRASONOGRAPHY and used not only for the observation of microstructure in metalwork but also in living tissue. In biomedical application, the acoustic propagation speed in normal and abnormal tissues can be quantified to distinguish their tissue elasticity and other properties.Nonlinear Dynamics: The study of systems which respond disproportionately (nonlinearly) to initial conditions or perturbing stimuli. Nonlinear systems may exhibit "chaos" which is classically characterized as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Chaotic systems, while distinguished from more ordered periodic systems, are not random. When their behavior over time is appropriately displayed (in "phase space"), constraints are evident which are described by "strange attractors". Phase space representations of chaotic systems, or strange attractors, usually reveal fractal (FRACTALS) self-similarity across time scales. Natural, including biological, systems often display nonlinear dynamics and chaos.Tonometry, Ocular: Measurement of ocular tension (INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE) with a tonometer. (Cline, et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Bone Regeneration: Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.Microscopy, Polarization: Microscopy using polarized light in which phenomena due to the preferential orientation of optical properties with respect to the vibration plane of the polarized light are made visible and correlated parameters are made measurable.Fracture Fixation: The use of metallic devices inserted into or through bone to hold a fracture in a set position and alignment while it heals.Spinal DiseasesShoulder: Part of the body in humans and primates where the arms connect to the trunk. The shoulder has five joints; ACROMIOCLAVICULAR joint, CORACOCLAVICULAR joint, GLENOHUMERAL joint, scapulathoracic joint, and STERNOCLAVICULAR joint.Arm: The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Radius: The outer shorter of the two bones of the FOREARM, lying parallel to the ULNA and partially revolving around it.Periosteum: Thin outer membrane that surrounds a bone. It contains CONNECTIVE TISSUE, CAPILLARIES, nerves, and a number of cell types.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Femur Head: The hemispheric articular surface at the upper extremity of the thigh bone. (Stedman, 26th ed)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Sports Equipment: Equipment required for engaging in a sport (such as balls, bats, rackets, skis, skates, ropes, weights) and devices for the protection of athletes during their performance (such as masks, gloves, mouth pieces).Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Olecranon Process: A prominent projection of the ulna that that articulates with the humerus and forms the outer protuberance of the ELBOW JOINT.Sus scrofa: A species of SWINE, in the family Suidae, comprising a number of subspecies including the domestic pig Sus scrofa domestica.Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.Soccer: A game in which a round inflated ball is advanced by kicking or propelling with any part of the body except the hands or arms. The object of the game is to place the ball in opposite goals.Microscopy, Atomic Force: A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.Diskectomy: Excision, in part or whole, of an INTERVERTEBRAL DISC. The most common indication is disk displacement or herniation. In addition to standard surgical removal, it can be performed by percutaneous diskectomy (DISKECTOMY, PERCUTANEOUS) or by laparoscopic diskectomy, the former being the more common.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.

Cerebellar Purkinje cell simple spike discharge encodes movement velocity in primates during visuomotor arm tracking. (1/12618)

Pathophysiological, lesion, and electrophysiological studies suggest that the cerebellar cortex is important for controlling the direction and speed of movement. The relationship of cerebellar Purkinje cell discharge to the control of arm movement parameters, however, remains unclear. The goal of this study was to examine how movement direction and speed and their interaction-velocity-modulate Purkinje cell simple spike discharge in an arm movement task in which direction and speed were independently controlled. The simple spike discharge of 154 Purkinje cells was recorded in two monkeys during the performance of two visuomotor tasks that required the animals to track targets that moved in one of eight directions and at one of four speeds. Single-parameter regression analyses revealed that a large proportion of cells had discharge modulation related to movement direction and speed. Most cells with significant directional tuning, however, were modulated at one speed, and most cells with speed-related discharge were modulated along one direction; this suggested that the patterns of simple spike discharge were not adequately described by single-parameter models. Therefore, a regression surface was fitted to the data, which showed that the discharge could be tuned to specific direction-speed combinations (preferred velocities). The overall variability in simple spike discharge was well described by the surface model, and the velocities corresponding to maximal and minimal discharge rates were distributed uniformly throughout the workspace. Simple spike discharge therefore appears to integrate information about both the direction and speed of arm movements, thereby encoding movement velocity.  (+info)

Flow-mediated vasodilation and distensibility of the brachial artery in renal allograft recipients. (2/12618)

BACKGROUND: Alterations of large artery function and structure are frequently observed in renal allograft recipients. However, endothelial function has not yet been assessed in this population. METHODS: Flow-mediated vasodilation is a useful index of endothelial function. We measured the diameter and distensibility of the brachial artery at rest using high-resolution ultrasound and Doppler frequency analysis of vessel wall movements in the M mode. Thereafter, changes in brachial artery diameter were measured during reactive hyperemia (after 4 min of forearm occlusion) in 16 cyclosporine-treated renal allograft recipients and 16 normal controls of similar age and sex ratio. Nitroglycerin-mediated vasodilation was measured to assess endothelium-independent vasodilation. Brachial artery blood pressure was measured using an automatic sphygmomanometer, and brachial artery flow was estimated using pulsed Doppler. RESULTS: Distensibility was reduced in renal allograft recipients (5.31 +/- 0. 74 vs. 9.10 +/- 0.94 x 10-3/kPa, P = 0.003, mean +/- sem), while the brachial artery diameter at rest was higher (4.13 +/- 0.14 vs. 3.25 +/- 0.14 mm, P < 0.001). Flow-mediated vasodilation was significantly reduced in renal allograft recipients (0.13 +/- 0.08 vs. 0.60 +/- 0.08 mm or 3 +/- 2 vs. 19 +/- 3%, both P < 0.001). However, nitroglycerin-mediated vasodilation was similar in renal allograft recipients and controls (0.76 +/- 0.10 vs. 0.77 +/- 0.09 mm, NS, or 19 +/- 3 vs. 22 +/- 2%, NS). There were no significant differences in brachial artery flow at rest and during reactive hyperemia between both groups. The impairments of flow-mediated vasodilation and distensibility in renal allograft recipients remained significant after correction for serum cholesterol, creatinine, parathyroid hormone concentrations, end-diastolic diameter, as well as blood pressure levels, and were also present in eight renal allograft recipients not treated with cyclosporine. Flow-mediated vasodilation was not related to distensibility in either group. CONCLUSIONS: The results show impaired endothelial function and reduced brachial artery distensibility in renal allograft recipients. The impairments of flow-mediated vasodilation and distensibility are not attributable to a diminished brachial artery vasodilator capacity, because endothelium-independent vasodilation was preserved in renal allograft recipients.  (+info)

Phase reversal of biomechanical functions and muscle activity in backward pedaling. (3/12618)

Computer simulations of pedaling have shown that a wide range of pedaling tasks can be performed if each limb has the capability of executing six biomechanical functions, which are arranged into three pairs of alternating antagonistic functions. An Ext/Flex pair accelerates the limb into extension or flexion, a Plant/Dorsi pair accelerates the foot into plantarflexion or dorsiflexion, and an Ant/Post pair accelerates the foot anteriorly or posteriorly relative to the pelvis. Because each biomechanical function (i.e., Ext, Flex, Plant, Dorsi, Ant, or Post) contributes to crank propulsion during a specific region in the cycle, phasing of a muscle is hypothesized to be a consequence of its ability to contribute to one or more of the biomechanical functions. Analysis of electromyogram (EMG) patterns has shown that this biomechanical framework assists in the interpretation of muscle activity in healthy and hemiparetic subjects during forward pedaling. Simulations show that backward pedaling can be produced with a phase shift of 180 degrees in the Ant/Post pair. No phase shifts in the Ext/Flex and Plant/Dorsi pairs are then necessary. To further test whether this simple yet biomechanically viable strategy may be used by the nervous system, EMGs from 7 muscles in 16 subjects were measured during backward as well as forward pedaling. As predicted, phasing in vastus medialis (VM), tibialis anterior (TA), medial gastrocnemius (MG), and soleus (SL) were unaffected by pedaling direction, with VM and SL contributing to Ext, MG to Plant, and TA to Dorsi. In contrast, phasing in biceps femoris (BF) and semimembranosus (SM) were affected by pedaling direction, as predicted, compatible with their contribution to the directionally sensitive Post function. Phasing of rectus femoris (RF) was also affected by pedaling direction; however, its ability to contribute to the directionally sensitive Ant function may only be expressed in forward pedaling. RF also contributed significantly to the directionally insensitive Ext function in both forward and backward pedaling. Other muscles also appear to have contributed to more than one function, which was especially evident in backward pedaling (i.e. , BF, SM, MG, and TA to Flex). We conclude that the phasing of only the Ant and Post biomechanical functions are directionally sensitive. Further, we suggest that task-dependent modulation of the expression of the functions in the motor output provides this biomechanics-based neural control scheme with the capability to execute a variety of lower limb tasks, including walking.  (+info)

Kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of lipid translocation in biological membranes. (4/12618)

A theoretical analysis of the lipid translocation in cellular bilayer membranes is presented. We focus on an integrative model of active and passive transport processes determining the asymmetrical distribution of the major lipid components between the monolayers. The active translocation of the aminophospholipids phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine is mathematically described by kinetic equations resulting from a realistic ATP-dependent transport mechanism. Concerning the passive transport of the aminophospholipids as well as of phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin, and cholesterol, two different approaches are used. The first treatment makes use of thermodynamic flux-force relationships. Relevant forces are transversal concentration differences of the lipids as well as differences in the mechanical states of the monolayers due to lateral compressions. Both forces, originating primarily from the operation of an aminophospholipid translocase, are expressed as functions of the lipid compositions of the two monolayers. In the case of mechanical forces, lipid-specific parameters such as different molecular surface areas and compression force constants are taken into account. Using invariance principles, it is shown how the phenomenological coefficients depend on the total lipid amounts. In a second approach, passive transport is analyzed in terms of kinetic mechanisms of carrier-mediated translocation, where mechanical effects are incorporated into the translocation rate constants. The thermodynamic as well as the kinetic approach are applied to simulate the time-dependent redistribution of the lipid components in human red blood cells. In the thermodynamic model the steady-state asymmetrical lipid distribution of erythrocyte membranes is simulated well under certain parameter restrictions: 1) the time scales of uncoupled passive transbilayer movement must be different among the lipid species; 2) positive cross-couplings of the passive lipid fluxes are needed, which, however, may be chosen lipid-unspecifically. A comparison of the thermodynamic and the kinetic approaches reveals that antiport mechanisms for passive lipid movements may be excluded. Simulations with kinetic symport mechanisms are in qualitative agreement with experimental data but show discrepancies in the asymmetrical distribution for sphingomyelin.  (+info)

A pilot study on the human body vibration induced by low frequency noise. (5/12618)

To understand the basic characteristics of the human body vibration induced by low frequency noise and to use it to evaluate the effects on health, we designed a measuring method with a miniature accelerometer and carried out preliminary measurements. Vibration was measured on the chest and abdomen of 6 male subjects who were exposed to pure tones in the frequency range of 20 to 50 Hz, where the method we designed was proved to be sensitive enough to detect vibration on the body surface. The level and rate of increase with frequency of the vibration turned out to be higher on the chest than on the abdomen. This difference was considered to be due to the mechanical structure of the human body. It also turned out that the measured noise-induced vibration negatively correlated with the subject's BMI (Body Mass Index), which suggested that the health effects of low frequency noise depended not only on the mechanical structure but also on the physical constitution of the human body.  (+info)

Morphology and mechanics of tongue movement in the African pig-nosed frog Hemisus marmoratum: a muscular hydrostatic model. (6/12618)

The goal of this study was to investigate morphological adaptations associated with hydrostatic elongation of the tongue during feeding in the African pig-nosed frog Hemisus marmoratum. Whereas previous studies had suggested that the tongue of H. marmoratum elongates hydraulically, the anatomical observations reported here favour a muscular hydrostatic mechanism of tongue elongation. H. marmoratum possesses a previously undescribed compartment of the m. genioglossus (m. genioglossus dorsoventralis), which is intrinsic to the tongue and whose muscle fibres are oriented perpendicular to the long axis of the tongue. On the basis of the arrangement and orientation of muscle fibres in the m. genioglossus and m. hyoglossus, we propose a muscular hydrostatic model of tongue movement in which contraction of the m. genioglossus dorsoventralis, together with unfolding of the intrinsic musculature of the tongue, results in a doubling in tongue length. Electron micrographs of sarcomeres from resting and elongated tongues show that no special adaptations of the sarcomeres are necessary to accommodate the observed doubling in tongue length during feeding. Rather, the sarcomeres of the m. genioglossus longitudinalis are strikingly similar to those of anuran limb muscles. The ability to elongate the tongue hydrostatically, conferred by the presence of the m. genioglossus dorsoventralis, is associated with the appearance of several novel aspects of feeding behaviour in H. marmoratum. These include the ability to protract the tongue slowly, thereby increasing capture success, and the ability to aim the tongue in azimuth and elevation relative to the head. Compared with other frogs, the muscular hydrostatic system of H. marmoratum allows more precise, localized and diverse tongue movements. This may explain why the m. genioglossus of H. marmoratum is composed of a larger number of motor units than that of other frogs.  (+info)

The role of ventral medial wall motor areas in bimanual co-ordination. A combined lesion and activation study. (7/12618)

Two patients with midline tumours and disturbances of bimanual co-ordination as the presenting symptoms were examined. Both reported difficulties whenever the two hands had to act together simultaneously, whereas they had no problems with unimanual dexterity or the use of both hands sequentially. In the first patient the lesion was confined to the cingulate gyrus; in the second it also invaded the corpus callosum and the supplementary motor area. Kinematic analysis of bimanual in-phase and anti-phase movements revealed an impairment of both the temporal adjustment between the hands and the independence of movements between the two hands. A functional imaging study in six volunteers, who performed the same bimanual in-phase and anti-phase tasks, showed strong activations of midline areas including the cingulate and ventral supplementary motor area. The prominent activation of the ventral medial wall motor areas in the volunteers in conjunction with the bimanual co-ordination disorder in the two patients with lesions compromising their function is evidence for their pivotal role in bimanual co-ordination.  (+info)

Experimental assessment of proximal stent-graft (InterVascular) fixation in human cadaveric infrarenal aortas. (8/12618)

OBJECTIVES: This paper investigates the radial deformation load of an aortic endoluminal prosthesis and determines the longitudinal load required to cause migration in a human cadaveric aorta of the endoprosthesis. DESIGN AND METHODS: The endovascular prosthesis under investigation was a 24 mm diameter, nitinol, self-expanding aortoaortic device (InterVascular, Clearwater, Florida, U.S.A.). Initially, a motorised digital force gauge developed an incremental load which was applied to the ends of five stent-grafts, to a maximum of 10 mm (42%) compression. Secondly, using a simple bench model, each ends of four stent-grafts were deployed into 10 cadaveric experimental aneurysm necks and a longitudinal load applied to effect distraction. RESULTS: Increasing load produced increasing percentage deformation of the stent-grafts. The mean longitudinal distraction load for an aneurysm neck of 20 mm was 409 g (200-480 g), for 15 mm was 277 g (130-410 g) and for 10 mm was 218 g (130-340 g). The aneurysm diameter and aortic calcification had p values of 0.002 and 0.047, respectively, while the p value for aneurysm neck length was less than 0.00001. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that there is a theoretical advantage of oversizing an aortic prosthesis and that sufficient anchorage is achieved in an aortic neck of 10 mm to prevent migration when fully deployed.  (+info)

Several investigators have suggested the presence of a link between Chronic Low Back Pain (CLBP) and lower limbs kinematics that can contribute to functional limitations and disability. Moreover, CLBP has been connected to postural and structural asymmetry. Understanding the movement pattern of lower extremities and its asymmetry during walking can provide a basis for examination and rehabilitation in people with CLBP. The present study focuses on lower limbs kinematics in individuals with CLBP during walking. Three-dimensional movements of the pelvic, hip, knee and ankle joints were tracked using a seven-camera Qualysis motion capture system. Functional dada analysis (FDA) was applied for the statistical analysis of pelvic and lower limbs motion patterns in 40 participants (20 CLBP and 20 controls). The CLBP group showed significantly different hip motion pattern in the transvers plane, altered knee and ankle motion pattern in the sagittal plane on the dominant side and different hip motion ...
We evaluated the corneal biomechanical properties in a population of healthy children in China. As far as we know, this is the first report of quantitative assessment of the corneal biomechanics in children population using CST. We used the newly updated CST software, which provided two more parameters (A1DA and A2DA) than previous versions. This helped to measure corneal deformation more comprehensively. We also assessed the symmetry of corneal biomechanics between the both eyes and found obviously interocular symmetry in SE, CCT, IOP, and corneal biomechanics in healthy children eyes. We also found that several CST biomechanical parameters in children are modified by CCT and IOP, while age, SE, and sex exert little influence on the CST measurements in this population.. Our observations of interocular symmetric biometry were consistent with previous studies [19-21]. Using ORA, Zheng et al. [22] demonstrated an obvious symmetry of CH and CRF in bilateral rabbit corneas. We also identified two ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - 3D biomechanical analysis of foot in diabetes with and without peripheral neuropathy-a pilot study. AU - Hazari, Animesh. AU - Maiya, Arun G.. AU - Shivashankara, K. N.. AU - Ashma Monteiro, M. S.. AU - Shashi Kumar, C. G.. AU - Rao, Kartik. AU - Kumar, Sampath. AU - Maiya, Shreemathi S.. AU - Jadhav, Radhika. PY - 2016. Y1 - 2016. N2 - There has been a profound increase in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus especially among the Asian The biomechanical alteration in the foot structure and function are an important predictive risk factor for development of foot complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus. The routine biomechanical analysis using advanced motion analysis software in a clinical population like diabetes mellitus is still lacking in Indian settings. Therefore the aim of the study was to analyse and compare the biomechanical parameters of foot in diabetes mellitus with and without neuropathy and normal individuals of similar age group. The study was conducted in the ...
Context: The presence or absence of biomechanical differences between the sexes before puberty may provide clues about the onset of adult landing pattern differences, which may help to explain the greater number of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in females than in males and provide the basis for interventions to reduce those injuries. Objective: To identify developmental sex-related and biomechanical differences during vertical jump landings. Design: A 2 3 2 developmental stage (prepubescent or postpubescent) 3 sex (male or female) between-subjects design. Setting: Controlled laboratory setting. Patients or Other Participants: Thirty prepubescent subjects (15 boys, age 5 9.63 6 0.95 years; 15 girls, age 5 9.19 6 1.00 years) and 28 postpubescent subjects (14 men, age 5 23.57 6 3.23 years; 14 women, age 5 24.22 6 2.27 years). Intervention: Subjects performed a vertical jump to a target set at 50% of their maximum vertical jump height ability. Main Outcome Measure(s): Hip and knee kinematics of the
TY - JOUR. T1 - Kinematic differences between faster and slower sprinters during the acceleration phase of sprint running. AU - Kobayashi, K.. AU - Tsuchie, H.. AU - Kanehisa, H.. AU - Yanai, Toshimasa. AU - Kawakami, Yasuo. PY - 2015/4/1. Y1 - 2015/4/1. N2 - Aim: The purpose of this study was to examine kinematic differences between faster and slower sprinters during the acceleration phase of sprint running. Methods: Nineteen collegiate sprinters were divided into FAST (N.=9) and SLOW (N.=10) groups, based on their best 100 m race times. A two-dimensional videographic technique was used to record the side views of 40 m sprint performances using four high-speed digital camcorders. Using the recorded images, kinematic variables such as contact time, flight time, horizontal velocity, and horizontal acceleration were determined from the 1st step to the 19th step. A two-way repeated measures ANOVA (two groups of 10 steps each) with a Tukey post-hoc test was used to analyze the obtained data. ...
Ground reaction forces (GRF), knee flexion angles, angular velocities and joint powers are unknown at large landing heights, which are infeasible for laboratory testing. However, this information is important for understanding lower extremity injury mechanisms. We sought to determine regression relationships of landing height with these parameters during landing so as to facilitate estimation of these parameters at large landing heights. Five healthy male subjects performed landing tasks from heights of 0.15-1.05 m onto a force-plate. Motion capture system was used to obtain knee flexion angles during landing via passive markers placed on the lower body. An iterative regression model, involving simple linear/exponential/natural logarithmic functions, was used to fit regression equations to experimental data. Peak GRF followed an exponential regression relationship (R2 = 0.90-0.99, p , 0.001; power = 0.987-0.998). Peak GRF slope and impulse also had an exponential relationship (R2 = 0.90-0.96, p ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - An examination of kinematic variability of motion analysis in sprint hurdles. AU - Salo, Aki. AU - Grimshaw, Paul N.. PY - 1998/5. Y1 - 1998/5. N2 - Eight trials each of 7 athletes (4 women and 3 men) were videotaped and digitized in order to investigate the variation sources and kinematic variability of video motion analysis in sprint hurdles. Mean coefficients of variation (CVs) of individuals ranged from 1.0 to 92.2% for women and from 1.2 to 209.7% for men. There were 15 and 14 variables, respectively, in which mean CVs revealed less than 5% variation. In redigitizing, CVs revealed ,1.0% for 12 variables for the womens trials and 10 variables for the mens trials. These results, together with variance components (between-subjects, within-subject, and redigitizing), showed that one operator and the analysis system together produced repeatable values for most of the variables. The most repeatable variables by this combination were displacement variables. However, further data ...
Linear, Cubic and Quintic Coordinate-Dependent Forces and Kinematic Characteristics of a Spring-Mass System. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
The E-32 study was designed to capture the subjects physiological and biomechanical data such as ECG data and rate, respiratory data and rate, and body orientation, motion and movement (accelerometry) during typical events such as walking, sitting, running and sleeping in order to help build a database of stereotypical human activity ...
Introduction: Kinetic, kinematic and electromyographic activity of the lower limb have been shown to be influenced by various footwear-generated biomechanical manipulations (e.g. soles. Insoles, orthoses). A novel biomechanical device comprising four modular elements attached onto foot-worn platforms was recently developed. Each element can be individually calibrated (Position, convexity, height and resilience) to induce a specific biomechanical challenge.. Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of specific biomechanical challenges on Kinetics, kinematics and electromyographic activity of the lower limb.. Design: Prospective, case control Setting: Motion analyses will be conducted during level walking with (1) a three-dimensional motion analysis system and (2) ground reaction force analysis using force platforms (3) Electro-Myography system. Each subject will be examined in 16 different settings of the biomechanical system ...
Despite the continuing research effort, data regarding the material properties and biomechanical parameters of spinal elements, particularly the ligaments, remains sparse.. The ligaments, discs, and vertebrae of the human spinal column were tested for their biomechanical strength. 65 samples of human vertebrae were tested in direct axial compression to failure in an M.T.S. testing machine. Average values of force at failure ranged from 2587N in the cervical spine to 4590N in the lumbar spine. Average values of stress at failure decreased from 7.9N/mm² in the cervical spine to 2.8N/mm² in the lumbar spine. Mean values of engineering strain at failure ranged from 24.4% to 33.9%.. Overall, 33 samples of the human intervertebral disc were tested in direct axial tension to failure. Average values of force at failure ranged from 592N in the cervical spine to 1254N in the lumbar spine. Deformations to failure ranged from 8.9mm to 11.1mm. Mean values of stiffness of the disc increased from 64.2N/mm in ...
Dec. 3l, 1968 D. c. RIDEOUT 3,418,896 REFLECTIVE MARKERS AND REFLECTIVE ELEMENTS THEREFOR Filed Feb. 3, 1967 INVENTOR Donald C. Rideau? ATTORNEY United States Patent O 3,418,896 REFLECTIVE MARKERS AND REFLECTIVE ELEMENTS THEREFOR Donald C. Rideout, Huntingdon, Pa., assignor to Prismo Safety Corporation, Huntingdon, Pa., a corporation of Pennsylvania Filed Feb. 3, 1967, Ser. No. 613,878 10 Claims. (Cl. 94-1.5) ABSTRACT F THE DISCLOSURE The invention relates to reflective elements which are flat on their upper and lower surfaces and which have vertical side walls covered by a plurality of Small glass spheres partially embedded in the vertical side walls, the width of the flat surfaces being at least twice the thickness of the elements and the thickness being in the order of ls-l/z and the width not exceeding 1". The reflective elements can be incorporated into reflective markers for improved night-time retroreflectivity especially in rainy weather. The elements can be incorporated into a hot ...
The main biomechanical function of the knee meniscus is to enlarge the contact area of the tibiofemoral joint leading to a reduction in articular cartilage contact stress. The meniscal attachments are essential for converting the axial load into circumferential tension in the meniscal periphery. Consequently, meniscal substitutes need sufficient anchorage to the tibial plateau to adequately restore the biomechanical function of a replaced meniscus. Therefore the aim of the present study was to investigate the loads acting on the meniscotibial attachments under various joint loads ...
Leg stiffness is often computed from ground reaction force (GRF) registrations of vertical hops to estimate the force-resisting capacity of the lower-extremity during ground contact, with leg stiffness values incorporated in a spring-mass model to describe human motion. Individual biomechanical characteristics, including leg stiffness, were investigated in 40 healthy males. Our aim is to report and discuss the use of 13 different computational methods for evaluating leg stiffness from a double-legged repetitive hopping task, using only GRF registrations. Four approximations for the velocity integration constant were combined with three mathematical expressions, giving 12 methods for computing stiffness using double integrations. One frequency-based method that considered ground contact times was also trialled. The 13 methods thus defined were used to compute stiffness in four extreme cases, which were the stiffest, and most compliant, consistent and variable subjects. All methods provided ...
This module introduces vibrations using the simple model of a single degree of freedom system represented by a spring-mass. Equations of motion for a spring-mass system are developed and concepts such as natural frequency and phase differences are discussed. Examples of analogous systems that can be represented using a spring-mass model are also discussed. Numerical examples, interactive plots, and steps to create MapleSim simulations are included to enhance the learning experience.
The classic book on human movement in biomechanics, newly updated Widely used and referenced, David Winters Biomechanics and Motor Control of Human Movement is a classic examination of techniques used to measure and analyze all body movements as mechanical systems, including such everyday movements as walking. It fills the gap in human movement science area where modern science and technology are integrated with anatomy, muscle physiology, and electromyography to assess and understand human movement. In light of the explosive growth of the field, this new edition updates and enhances the text with: Expanded coverage of 3D kinematics and kinetics New materials on biomechanical movement synergies and signal processing, including auto and cross correlation, frequency analysis, analog and digital filtering, and ensemble averaging techniques Presentation of a wide spectrum of measurement and analysis techniques Updates to all existing chapters Basic physical and physiological principles in capsule form for
A device for sensing a state change of a mechanical system, comprises at least one sound emitter (E), a receiver (R) as well as an electronic circuit (4) which allows to compare the received sound signal with reference values. The state of the mechanical system, such as the existence or the absence of contact among parts, is monitored by the processing of the signals corresponding to the emitted and received sound signals with the aim to allow to recognize the monitored state by the difference between the received signals and reference values. The sensing device may be used to monitor a number of variables such as contact, location, orientation, etc. of the mechanical parts by the same sensors there where traditionally different kinds of sensors were traditionally needed.
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TY - CONF. T1 - Mechanical control of stem cell differentiation using microengineered matrix. AU - Fu, Jianping. AU - Wang, Yang-Gao. AU - Yang, Michael T.. AU - Lee, Ted T.. AU - Chen, Christopher S.. PY - 2008/1/1. Y1 - 2008/1/1. N2 - In this work, we explore the molecular mechanisms by which local mechanical properties (e.g., rigidity) of the extracellular matrix (ECM) cooperates with soluble cues to regulate lineage commitment of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). We have established different micropost array substrates that can definitively decouple matrix rigidity from other properties including adhesiveness. We applied these substrates to investigate the influences of matrix rigidity on cell adhesion, cytoskeleton assembly/contractility, cell spreading, and proliferation. We further show that matrix rigidity regulates commitment of hMSCs to either adipogenic or osteogenic fate: soft matrix facilitates adipogenic differentiation while stiff matrix proves osteogenic.. AB - In this work, ...
The Orthopaedic Biomechanics Laboratories at Michigan State University utilize research capacities and methods to foster student development.
The Vicon MX Motion Capture System provides the ability to track the movement of subjects in a variety of experiments. This system allows for a passive motion capture of reflective markers on the subject. The elimination of wires and battery packs from an individual leads to a more natural motion to be captured and analyzed.. The eight-camera array in an 8-ft x 12-ft space gives the ability for 3D video rendering and analysis; in addition the system has a real-time feedback option for the experimenter and subject.. The Vicon Motion Capture System is utilized in experiments ranging from balance studies to limb movement and gait studies. ...
Altered gait biomechanics associated with pediatric obesity may increase the risk of musculoskeletal injury/pathology during physical activity and/or diminish a childs ability to engage in sufficient physical activity. The biomechanical mechanisms responsible for the altered gait in obese children are not well understood, particularly as they relate to increases in adipose tissue. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of adiposity (i.e. body fat percentage, BF%) on lower extremity kinematics, muscle force requirements and their individual contributions to the acceleration of the center of mass (COM) during walking. We scaled a musculoskeletal model to the anthropometrics of each participant (n=14, 8-12 years old, BF%: 16-41%) and generated dynamic simulations of walking to predict muscle forces and their contributions to the acceleration of the COM. Muscle force output was normalized to muscle mass. BF% was correlated with average knee flexion angle during stance (r=−0.54) and ...
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the leading cause of disability, worldwide. OA leads to breakdown of the articular cartilage (AC), the highly structured tissue that lines the end of bones of the synovial joints. The cartilage cells synthesize and maintain the homeostasis of articular cartilage, a function that is largely influenced by mechanical forces. Mechanobiological studies of
Although Kendalls structural approach to postural assessment provides a biomechanical assessment of the musculoskeletal system, the late Vladimir Janda, MD, saw postural assessment as a functional impression of the status of the sensorimotor system. According to Janda, the sensorimotor system is 1 functional unit comprised of the afferent sensory system and the efferent motor system; 2 systems that cannot be considered to function independent of each other.34 He noted that changes in muscle tension are the first response of the system to nociception. By combining static biomechanical assessment popularized by Kendall with his observation of muscle function, Janda was able to form an early observational description of the possible cause of the patients musculoskeletal pain from a neurological perspective.34 ...
Ergonomic models of musculoskeletal strain in computer work have focused primarily on biomechanical indices (e.g. key force, keystroke repetition, work posture); relatively little attention has been given to psychophysiological indices (e.g. hyperventilatory responses to mood disturbances). This report explores the relationship between psychophysiological and biomechanical factors with right-hand
... - Involved-side cervical rotation range of motion less than 60 degrees,. 3. . Hearn , A., Rivett, DA. (). Cervical Snags: a biomechanical analysis. Manual.
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Blood vessels are exposed to multiple mechanical forces that are exerted on the vessel wall (radial, circumferential and longitudinal forces) or on the endothelial surface (shear stress). The stresses and strains experienced by arteries influence the initiation of atherosclerotic lesions, which develop at regions of arteries that are exposed to complex blood flow. In addition, plaque progression and eventually plaque rupture is influenced by a complex interaction between biological and mechanical factors-mechanical forces regulate the cellular and molecular composition of plaques and, conversely, the composition of plaques determines their ability to withstand mechanical load. A deeper understanding of these interactions is essential for designing new therapeutic strategies to prevent lesion development and promote plaque stabilization. Moreover, integrating clinical imaging techniques with finite element modelling techniques allows for detailed examination of local morphological and biomechanical
(2013) Niknafs et al. Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology. OBJECTIVE: This study addresses the effects of cartilage thickness distribution and compressive properties in the context of optimal alignment planning for periacetabular osteotomy (PAO).\n\nBACKGROUND: The Biomechanical Guidanc...
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I am Sharma Rajendran having 6+ years Experience in Mechanical Design of Pressure Vessels, Silos, Reactors, Storage tanks, Receivers and Columns as per ASM...
Biomechanical disability is often related to the inability to perform a specific task due to a restriction in joint ROM, strength or endurance interferes with biomechanical function. Common conditions include orthopedic injury, edema, pain, skin tightness (burns/scars), spasticity, or low muscle tone. Also, extended immobilization (disuse). OT goals are developed in regard to the task, situation, and context ...
Swinton, PA, Stewart, AD, Lloyd, R, Agouris, I, and Keogh, JWL. Effect of load positioning on the kinematics and kinetics of weighted vertical jumps. J Strength Cond Res 26(4): 906-913, 2012-One of the most popular exercises for developing lower-body muscular power is the weighted vertical jump. The present study sought to examine the effect of altering the position of the external load on the kinematics and kinetics of the movement. Twenty-nine resistance-trained rugby union athletes performed maximal effort jumps with 0, 20, 40, and 60% of their squat 1 repetition maximum (1RM) with the load positioned (a) on the posterior aspect of the shoulder using a straight barbell and (b) at arms length using a hexagonal barbell. Kinematic and kinetic variables were calculated through integration of the vertical ground reaction force data using a forward dynamics approach. Performance of the hexagonal barbell jump resulted in significantly (p | 0.05) greater values for jump height, peak force, peak power, and
書名:Conformations: Connecting the Chemical Structures and Material Behaviors of Polymers,語言:英文,ISBN:9781138570320,頁數:204,作者:Tonelli, Alan E.,Shen, Jialong,出版日期:2020/03/19,類別:自然科普
The application of aquatic therapy for health and rehabilitation purposes has been promoted for centuries, below we show the biomechanical fundamentals.
A powered device augments a joint function of a human during a gait cycle using a powered actuator that supplies an augmentation torque, an impedance, or both to a joint. A controller estimates terrain slope and modulates the augmentation torque and the impedance according to a phase of the gait cycle and the estimated terrain slope to provide at least a biomimetic response. The controller may also modulate a joint equilibrium. Accordingly, the device is capable of normalizing or augmenting human biomechanical function, responsive to a wearers activity, regardless of speed and terrain, and can be used, for example, as a knee orthosis, prosthesis, or exoskeleton.
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... Human spine model for anatomical study. Flexibly mounted with movable femur heads for effective demonstration. Special item 2-4 weeks
Stepping activities when wearing a weighted vest may enhance physical function in older persons. Using 3 weighted-vest resistance dosages, this study characterized the lower-extremity joint biomechanics associated with stepping activities in elders. Twenty healthy community-dwelling older adults, ages 74.5 ± 4.5 yrs, performed 3 trials of forward step-up and lateral step-up exercises while wearing a weighted vest which added 0% body weight (BW), 5% BW, or 10% BW. They performed these activities on a force platform while instrumented for biomechanical analysis. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used to evaluate the differences in ankle, knee, and hip maximum joint angles, peak net joint moments, joint powers, and impulses among both steping activities and the 3 loading conditions. Findings indicated that the 5% BW vest increased the kinetic output associated with the exercise activities at all three lower-extremity joints. These increases ranged from 5.9% for peak hip power to 12.5% for knee extensor ...
Preface to the Fourth Edition. 1 Biomechanics as an Interdiscipline.. 1.0 Introduction.. 1.1 Measurement, Description, Analysis, and Assessment.. 1.2 Biomechanics and its Relationship with Physiology and Anatomy.. 1.3 Scope of the Textbook.. 1.4 References.. 2 Signal Processing.. 2.0 Introduction.. 2.1 Auto- and Cross-Correlation Analyses.. 2.2 Frequency Analysis.. 2.3 Ensemble Averaging of Repetitive Waveforms.. 2.4 References.. 3 Kinematics.. 3.0 Historical Development and Complexity of Problem.. 3.1 Kinematic Conventions.. 3.2 Direct Measurement Techniques.. 3.3 Imaging Measurement Techniques.. 3.4 Processing of Raw Kinematic Data.. 3.5 Calculation of Other Kinematic Variables.. 3.6 Problems Based on Kinematic Data.. 3.7 References.. 4 Anthropometry.. 4.0 Scope of Anthropometry in Movement Biomechanics.. 4.1 Density, Mass, and Inertial Properties.. 4.2 Direct Experimental Measures.. 4.3 Muscle Anthropometry.. 4.4 Problems Based on Anthropometric Data.. 4.5 References.. 5 Kinetics: Forces and ...
The vision of the research group in COntinuum Biomechanics and Mechanobiology is on developing a systemic, comprehensive system models in health and disease. Our approach is to integrate experimental methods, mathematical modeling and numerical simulations. We utilize our expertise for various biomechanical applications and basic research projects.
The Biomechanical Environments Laboratory is the face of Texas A&M! Students from the lab are featured here in promotional materials for the University.. ...
Most biomechanical assessments of spinal loading during industrial work have focused on estimating peak spinal compressive forces under static and sagittally symmetric conditions. The main objective of this study was to explore the potential of feasibly predicting three-dimensional (3D) spinal loading in industry from various combinations of trunk kinematics, kinetics, and subject-load characteris
Abstract Locomotion - moving the body from place to place - is one of infants greatest achievements. In addition to conquering gravity, infants must cope with variable and novel constraints on balance and propulsion. At the same time that they are learning to move, changes in infants bodies, skills, and environments change the biomechanical constraints on movement. Recent work highlights both flexibility and specificity in infants responses to novel and variable situations, demonstrating that infants are learning to learn as they master locomotion. Within sitting, crawling, crusing, and walking postures, experienced infants adapt their locomotor responses to the current biomechanical constraints on movement. However, what infants have learned about coping with variability and novelty in earlier-developing postures does not transfer to later-developing postures. Full Paper: Learning to Move ...
Activities that involve a change in direction apply a high rotational load to the knee joint. Biomechanical analysis of such activities may be useful for determining mechanisms that underlie knee injury and the success of ligament reconstruction surg
Researchers have developed new spring-like fibres that will enable engineered cardiac tissue in damaged hearts to help the organ function normally.
The Atlas of Science have recently contacted me to write up a laymans summary of my 2018 paper in JBMM. Together with Patrick Mahoney from the University of Kent, we explain in basic terms the relationships between bone microstructural adaptation and femur biomechanical function in humans. Give it a read here: ​https://atlasofscience.org/bone-microstructure-and-the-size-of-your-femur/ ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Berivan Cecen, Leyla Didem Kozaci, Mithat Yuksel, Ozcan Ustun, Bekir Ugur Ergur, Hasan Havitcioglu].
Several works have reported on the reconstruction of 2D/3D limb kinematics from low-frequency EEG signals using linear regression models based on positive correlation values between the recorded and the reconstructed trajectories. This paper describes the mathematical properties of the linear model and the correlation evaluation metric that may lead to a misinterpretation of the results of this type of decoders. Firstly, the use of a linear regression model to adjust the two temporal signals (EEG and velocity profiles) implies that the relevant component of the signal used for decoding (EEG) has to be in the same frequency range as the signal to be decoded (velocity profiles). Secondly, the use of a correlation to evaluate the fitting of two trajectories could lead to overly-optimistic results as this metric is invariant to scale. Also, the correlation has a non-linear nature that leads to higher values for sinus/cosinus-like signals at low frequencies. Analysis of these properties on the reconstruction
Article Effect of Backfill Thrust on Vertical Pressure Distribution in Reinforced Soil Model Walls. The magnitude and distribution of vertical stress are required for the design of reinforced soil wall. A laboratory investigation utilizing a physical...
Confocal - The microscope system has two colour confocal capabilities to image samples stained with Green or Red fluorescent markers allowing for higher resolution fluorescence imaging to be achieved. In confocal imaging, a laser is focused onto a diffraction limited volume at a specific focal plane on the sample of interest and scanned across the sample. The fluorescent emission from the sample is passed through a pinhole which blocks out of focus light which arises from emission outside of the focal plane of interest thus improving on resolution from other fluorescence imaging techniques. Confocal imaging can be used to construct a 3D image of the sample by altering the focal plane that is imaged at specific intervals throughout the sample and reconstructing this in the imaging software.. ...
To handle motion data by periodic sampling, the app calls a "start" method taking no arguments and periodically accesses the motion data held by a property for a given type of motion data. This approach is the recommended approach for apps such as games. Handling accelerometer data in a block introduces additional overhead, and most game apps are interested only the latest sample of motion data when they render a frame.. ...
In this paper, we introduce a novel approach based on higher order energy functions which have the ability to encode global structural dependencies to infer articulated 3D spine models to CT volume data. A personalized geometrical model is reconstructed from biplanar X-rays before spinal surgery in order to create a spinal column representation which is modeled by a series of intervertebral transformations based on rotation and translation parameters. The shape transformation between the standing and lying poses is then achieved through a Markov Random Field optimization graph, where the unknown variables are the deformations applied to the intervertebral transformations. Singleton and pairwise potentials measure the support from the data and geometrical dependencies between neighboring vertebrae respectively, while higher order cliques are introduced to integrate consistency in regional curves. Optimization of model parameters in a multi-modal context is achieved using efficient linear programming and
Sheaves and pulleys of various shapes and sizes are frequently employed in the mechanical transmission of power. The conventional design of sheaves is based on either empirical formulae or very elementary stress analysis. This paper presents a three-dimensional finite element stress analysis of a sheave and describes a preprocessor developed here, capable of generating data for sheaves of various configurations. Due to pecularities of their geometry and loading, the models are built using eight-node and twelve-node isoparametric brick elements. The preprocessor requires as few as twenty cards for generating data for any of the seven sheave models incorporated in the model library. Excellent correlation of results is obtained, when strains thus generated are compared with those experimentally available for a specific sheave type under loading.. ...
Answer: Hi KE,. Its great youve had all the tests done and looked at your biomechanics as this helps rule out a lot of pathologies. Can I ask who did your biomechanical assessment on your bike and whos made your orthotics?. There are number of possible causes to your symptoms and I would need to assess you fully to give you an accurate diagnosis, however this sounds neurodynamic in nature with maybe a vasculogenic component, however as it is bilateral, it would definitely indicate a central cause. Have you had your back assessed by a Spinal specialist or Physiotherapist with a particular interest in cycling & have they been able to reproduce your symptoms? Let me know and Im sure we can get to the bottom of this and resolve it.. Best wishes. Matt ...
No interaction between time and gender was evident for any variable; therefore, all results represent data collapsed across gender. Preactivation magnitude decreased across time periods for anterior tibialis (AT, P , .001), gastrocnemius (GAS, P , .001) and biceps femoris (BF, P = .03), but not for vastus lateralis (VL, P = .16). Muscle activation during ground contact did not change across time for BF; however, VL, G, and AT showed significant reductions (all P , .001). Peak force was reduced at 40 s compared with the initial jumps, and continued to be reduced at 50 and 60 s (all P , .05). The time from peak force to takeoff was greater at 50 and 60 s compared with the initial jumps (P , .05). Both knee fexion and ankle dorsifexion were reduced across time (both P , .001), whereas no change in relative hip angle was evident (P = .10). Absolute angle of the trunk increased with time (P , .001), whereas the absolute angle of the shank decreased (P , .001). ...
This work focuses on the multi-objective optimization of a compliant-mechanism accelerometer. The design objective is to maximize the sensitivity of the accelerometer in its sensing direction, while minimizing its sensitivity in all other directions. In addition, this work proposes a novel compliant hinge intended to reduce the stress concentration in compliant mechanisms. The paper starts with a brief description of the new compliant hinge, the Lamé-shaped hinge, followed by the formulation of the aposteriori multi-objective optimization of the compliant accelerometer. By using the normalized constrained method, an even distribution of the Pareto frontier is found. The paper also provides several optimum solutions on a Pareto plot, as well as the CAD model of the selected solution.. ...
Most people experiences the way objects plastically deform on a macroscopic scale. From a car crash to the bending of a paper clip plastic deformation occurs in the form of a smooth flow as a response of an applied stress. But due to the constant shrinking on the dimensions of mechanical devices -such as micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) and micro electronic interconnects- the notion that plasticity is governed not by a steady flow but by the occurrence of intermittent avalanches of ...
The aim of this workshop is to train clinicians and engineers, who are especially interested in joint research. It will allow the participants to gain knowledge in planning and conducting biomechanical experiments by a balanced mixture of 6 lectures and 8 laboratories. The number of participants is limited to 20 in order to guarantee a maximum efficiency for the single attendee. ...
was converted into an equivalent kσ using (A 9) and (A 7).. Figure 2c shows results of finite-element simulations for an initially normotensive aorta subjected to an increase in blood pressure δp = 20 mm Hg over 1 year. An initially predominantly elastic distension resulted in a residual G&R-induced dilatation according to adaptivity. During the simulation, elastin mass was assumed constant to eliminate confounding factors and make the results comparable with the study of Matsumoto & Hayashi [22]. In addition, we compared the (modest) pressure jump over 1 year with one over 36 days and another one over 4 years and found a difference in residual dilatation (and wall thickening) of less than 1%, which suggests a negligible influence of the rate by which a certain level of hypertension is built up (provided the vessel is mechanobiologically stable). This result agrees well with previous numerical studies (cf. fig. 10 in [23]). Owing to the nonlinear response to the imposed (finite) change in ...
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Study Biomechanical Properties and Behaviors of Bone flashcards from Connor Davis's Regis University class online, or in Brainscape's iPhone or Android app. ✓ Learn faster with spaced repetition.
where k stands for [itex]\frac{1}{EI}[/itex] or [itex]\frac{1}{EA}[/itex], and it is assumed that the module of elasticy E, the moment of inertia of the cross section I, and the area of the cross section A are all constant. Further on, since at least one of the functions f or g presents the internal force (bending moment or normal force) caused by a generalized unit force acting at a point where a support has been removed (see previous section), at least one of the functions shall be a linear function (i.e. the internal force diagram shall be linear). This is the fact from which Vereshchagin derived the method of integration of the expressions (3) - one merely has to find the area of the diagram (between 0 and Lj, of course) which is the diagram of the internal force caused by the original loads acting on the primary system (not the diagram of the generalized unit loads), and multiply it (that area) with the ordinate of the unit load diagram at the point of the centroid of area of the non unit ...
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As a Mechanical Design Draughtsperson at Huxley Bertram, you will support the multi-disciplinary engineering teams in assisting with the design, and providing detailed drawings, BOMs and other documentation. For an experienced role, you must have good knowledge of 3D CAD (preferably Solidworks), be accurate and have experience of mechanical design. Experience of electrical drawing is advantageous. This role requires a flexible hands-on approach.. For a junior role, we are seeking individuals with a good attitude, attention to detail and willingness to learn, who would like to learn the role of mechanical detail drafting in the manufacture of a special purpose machines. The Role. Key activities of the role are:. ...
Youll need to learn how to program, ideally at an assembler or near-assembler level though a lot can be done in higher-level languages. Youll need to know how to access I/O ports to send commands to the robots muscles and read back the results, and (if appropriate) to have it communicate with other machines. Youll need to learn enough simple electronics to build, debug, and alter (and eventually design) the robots brain and nervous system. Youll need to learn enough simple mechanical design to build, debug, and alter (and eventually design) the robots body ...
Carlos Castro, Ph.D., will discuss his labs fundamental work to design and characterize nanostructures with controllable dynamic behavior and two…
Current therapeutics such as bisphosphonates or anabolic agents do not always effectively prevent or treat osteoporosis and inflammatory bone loss in rheumatoid...
The Cornell biped is specifically designed for minimal energy use. The primary energy losses for humans and robots walking at a constant speed are due to dissipation when a foot hits the ground and to active braking by the actuators (negative work). The Cornell design demonstrates that it is possible to completely avoid this negative actuator work. The only work done by the actuators is positive: The left ankle actively extends when triggered by the right foot hitting the ground, and vice versa. The hip joint is not powered, and the knee joints only have latches. The average mechanical power (10) of the two ankle joints is about 3 W, almost identical to the scaled gravitational power consumed by the passive-dynamic machine on which it is based (8). Including electronics, microcontroller, and actuators, the Cornell biped consumes 11 W (11).. To compare efficiency between humans and robots of different sizes, it is convenient to use the dimensionless specific cost of transport, ct = (energy ...
A control system controls the motion of a physical subject such as a mechanical system to damp or enhance the motion via a single transducer which alternates in a time-discrete manner between the task of reading a signal indicative of the state of the subject and the task of influencing said state by the application of a force. Control of motion or vibration is achieved through a series of actuating pulses interleaved with sensing operations. The same single transducer alternately acts as input to the control system from the subject and output from the control system to the subject. The control system provides full and individual control of all important harmonic modes of vibration of a subject mechanical system.
Over 1,000 scientists from all parts of the country and abroad belong to the Indian Society of Biomechanics. The society will contribute in areas such as mass healthcare, rehabilitations, cardiovascular mechanics, ergonomics, modeling and simulation of biomechanics and also in games and sports including respiratory mechanics. Now nano-biomechanics, cell and tissue mechanics are also coming up rapidly and we will have to orient ourselves in this direction as well. We aspired to have linkages with other biomechanics societies in other parts of the world.. ...
Description. In this course the fundamentals of fluid mechanics are developed in the context of naval architecture and ocean science and engineering. The various topics covered are: Transport theorem and conservation principles, Navier-Stokes equation, dimensional analysis, ideal and potential flows, vorticity and Kelvins theorem, hydrodynamic forces in potential flow, DAlemberts paradox, added-mass, slender-body theory, viscous-fluid flow, laminar and turbulent boundary layers, model testing, scaling laws, application of potential theory to surface waves, energy transport, wave/body forces, linearized theory of lifting surfaces, and experimental project in the towing tank or propeller tunnel.This subject was originally offered in Course 13 (Department of Ocean Engineering) as 13.021. In 2005, In this course the fundamentals of fluid mechanics are developed in the context of naval architecture and ocean science and engineering. The various topics covered are: Transport theorem and ...
... and Simulation The technology for the simulation and prediction of corneal biomechanical response is based on the PhD thesis of Dr. Haral...
Ocular Biomechanics and Simulation The technology for the simulation and prediction of corneal biomechanical response is based on the PhD thesis of Dr. Haral...
Kinethmoid rotation during premaxillary protrusion in cypriniforms has been suggested by several studies (Alexander, 1966; Ballintijn et al., 1972; Motta, 1984; Hernandez et al., 2007; Danos and Staab, 2010), but never before observed directly in living fish. Here, we used XROMM to visualize and measure kinethmoid motion and to demonstrate the importance of specific maxillary movements in eliciting rotation of the kinethmoid. We have also shown how careful examination of specific types of kinematic variation during premaxillary protrusion offers insights into both the fundamental protrusion mechanism and the specific mechanisms of closed and open mouthed protrusion. These findings underscore the importance of posture (relative position, orientation and mechanical connections between bones) in functional studies.. Our results support the hypothesis that kinethmoid rotation directly causes premaxillary protrusion in common carp. Rotation of the kinethmoid moves its dorsal end rostrally, and it ...
The Clinical Orthopedic Rehabilitation and Research Laboratory is committed to providing an opportunity for faculty and students to study the biomechanical factors contributing to musculoskeletal injury, and to advance clinical research in orthopedic rehabilitation.
Net#work BBDO was tasked with creating a campaign for UDoTest, a revolutionary no-fuss, no-mess way of testing for colon cancer - essential, as it is one of the top five killers in South Africa...
This second part of the book about creep modelling guides the reader to practical computational simulation and analysis. Drawing on constitutive equations for creep in structural materials under multi-axial stress states, it applies these equation to a diverse range of examples.
The effect of deformation on microstructural changes in metals and alloys is the subject of considerable practical interest. The ultimate goal is to control, improve and optimize the microstructure and texture of the finished products produced by metal forming operations. The development in the subject field is remarkable but a more in-depth study could lead us to the better understanding of the phenomena.. In the present work microstructural evolution during the plastic deformation of as-cast pure metals and alloys is studied. An experimental method was developed to study the material behavior under the hot compression testing. This method was applied on the as-cast structure of copper, bearing steel, Incoloy 825 and β brass at different temperatures and strain rates. The temperature of the samples was measured during and after the deformation process. The microstructure of the samples was examined by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The microstructural evolution ...
Building Automation and Control Systems (BACS) control and supervise mechanical systems in buildings. Mechanical systems may include heating, cooling, air-conditioning, ventilation, lighting, blinds & shutters, security, fire alarms, and more. The purpose is to provide a comfortable and safe indoor environment in an energy efficient way.
Some advocate for higher rates (e.g. 80-100 LPM) to allow more expiration time, however this will increase the peak pressures and has not shown to produce any clinically meaningful change in the expiration time[7][8] ...
Dr Konstantinos Papadopoulos is a Senior Lecturer in Sport Physiotherapy of the School of Science and Technology, London Sports Institute and is currently the programme leader of the MSc Sport Rehabilitation programme. His background is Physiotherapy whilst he holds an MSc degree in Exercise Rehabilitation and a PhD degree in Healthcare Sciences with expertise in Patellofermoal Pain and biomechanical factors. He recently obtained a PgCert in Higher Education and became a Higher Education Fellow.. ...
This is a specialized 3 hour multidisciplinary assessment that we have been providing for over 5 years involving a pain medicine specialist, psychologist and physiotherapist. Your client will be assessed by the Doctor for any serious medical condition/s (red flags) that have been missed, confirm that the appropriate medical investigations and interventions have been made and also review past and current drug treatments your client has had. He will also if necessary order further tests where relevant and change any drug treatments and set up a further appointment as needed.. The psychologist assess for those psychosocial issues that act as roadblocks to the client increasing their activity and engaging in the world around them. The physiotherapist will assess the clients` current functional abilities, ability to work and any biomechanical factors that will make the client unable to achieve their necessary goals. After the assessment our team meets to set up your clients` rehabilitation pathway ...
Guidance No. 39: Pressure Testing Injection Wells for Part I (Internal) Mechanical Integrity. You may need Adobe Reader to view files on this page. See EPAs About PDF page to learn more. ...
Most information about kettlebell technique that exists today is focused on the biomechanical aspects of the many movements. However, what is not commonly known is how the management of internal energy, or what is called
The Spinal Biomechanics Laboratory studies the mechanical behavior of the spine in its normal condition and after injury, disease, or surgical intervention.
The Kelly Spinal Biomechanics Laboratory focuses on the mechanical behavior of the spine before and after injury, disease, or surgery. Learn more.
in ACS Nano (2017), 11(10), 10253-10263. At the interface between foldamers and mechanically interlocked molecules, oligorotaxanes exhibit a spring-like folded secondary structure with remarkable mechanical and physicochemical properties. Among ... [more ▼]. At the interface between foldamers and mechanically interlocked molecules, oligorotaxanes exhibit a spring-like folded secondary structure with remarkable mechanical and physicochemical properties. Among these properties, the ability of oligorotaxanes to act as molecular switches through controlled modulations of their spatial extension over (un)folding dynamics is of particular interest. The present study aims to assess and further characterize this remarkable feature in the gas phase using mass spectrometry tools. In this context, we focused on the [4]5NPR+12 oligorotaxane molecule complexed with PF6 - counterion and probed its co-conformational states as a function of the in-source-generated charge states. Data were interpreted in light ...
An epithelial tissue is a sheet of cells that acts as a barrier, separating, for instance, the outside and the inside of a multicellular organism. Its biological function relies in part on the formation of a network of adherens junction belts, connected to the acto-myosin cytoskeleton, where cells adhere to each other [1], and which transmits mechanical information over several cell diameters [1-3]. A key issue is to understand and model the role of tissue mechanics (forces, displacements and their time evolution) in the coordinated changes of cell shape and position that determine morphogenetic flows at the tissue level [1,4,5].. Several models describe tissues using continuum mechanics [3,6-12]. One precondition is the existence of a mesoscopic scale defining a domain over which averages of cell properties are well defined [6,13]. This description further relies on the assumption that the tissue mechanical state can be quantified, at the same mesoscopic scale, by two variables [6]: the stress ...
The purpose of using a poly-D, L-lactic acid (poly-D, L-lactic acid, PDLLA) and the beta-phosphate tribasic calcium (the beta-TricalciumPhosphate, beta-TCP) in different proportions composite made 6%
A paper with reference to The Creator in PLOS One, titled Biomechanical characteristics of Hand Coordination in Grasping Activities of Daily Living, has been retracted after numerous readers complaints. A sentence in the abstract went: The explicit functional link indicates that the biomechanical characteristic of tendinous connective architecture between muscles and articulations is the proper design by the…
A system and method for capturing objects and balancing systems resources in a capture system are described. An object is captured, metadata associated with the objected generated, and the object and metadata stored.
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in a studies, Conor Walshs team at the Wyss Institute presented their latest generation of a mobile multi-joint exosuit, which has been improved on all fronts and tested in the field through long marches over uneven terrain. The researchers developed an automatic tuning method to customize its assistance based on how an individuals body is responding to it, and demonstrated significant energy savings.
Mechanical Engineering Assignment Help, Bending stress, What is bending stress? The bending moment at section tends to bend or deflect beam and internal stresses resist its bending. The process of bending stops when the cross section sets up full resistance to bending moment. The resistance which is o
Tissue mechanics class, BME 615, tissue biomechanics, bone biomechanics, bone anisotropy, bone viscoelasticity, bone adaptation, ligament viscoelasticity
With half a million babies born preterm each year in the United States and about 15 million worldwide, preterm birth remains a global health issue. Preterm birth (PTB) is a primary cause of infant morbidity and mortality and can impact lives long past infancy. The fact that there are numerous, and many currently unidentified, etiologies of PTB has hindered development of tools for risk evaluation and preventative therapies. Infection is estimated to be involved in nearly 40% of PTBs of known etiology; therefore, understanding how infection-mediated inflammation alters the cervical milieu and leads to preterm tissue biomechanical changes are questions of interest ...
Biomechanical loading[edit]. As well as medication, rehabilitation programmes and surgical interventions, the application of ... This phenomenon gives rise to the possibility of an orthotic management of tremor. ... Biomechanical loading relies on an external device that either passively or actively acts mechanically in parallel to the upper ... In this regard, current trends in this field are focused on the evaluation of the concept of biomechanical loading of tremor ...
These phenomena describe the observation that individuals will give high accuracy ratings to descriptions of their personality ... and biomechanical systems of the body. The Vanguard Code of Ethical Practice, amongst others, prohibits medical diagnosis by ... The study of these phenomena is a by-product of researchers investigating motor control processes and the interaction of ...
... the biomechanical changes are less so,[38] and rejuvenation products are not yet able to adequately reverse this phenomenon.[39 ... a range of biochemical and biomechanical changes that occur during storage. With red cells, this can decrease viability and ...
Platelet storage lesion is a very different phenomenon from RBC storage lesion, due largely to the different functions of the ... Although some of the biochemical changes are reversible after the blood is transfused, the biomechanical changes are less so, ... blood product units damaged by so-called storage lesion-a set of biochemical and biomechanical changes which occur during ... and rejuvenation products are not yet able to adequately reverse this phenomenon. Current regulatory measures are in place to ...
... phenomena of gene gradients during development is dismissed as an epiphenomena resulting from the passage of the biomechanical ... and Gordon in 1993 This would result in a biochemical transduction of the biomechanical signal from the cytoskeleton that is ...
Transport phenomena with drops and bubbles. Springer Science & Business Media, 1997; 2012. Articles, a selection Ayyaswamy, P. ... "Heat transport mechanisms in vascular tissues: a model comparison." Journal of biomechanical engineering 108.4 (1986): 324-331 ...
... the biomechanical changes are less so,[25] and rejuvenation products are not yet able to adequately reverse this phenomenon.[26 ... Platelet storage lesion is a very different phenomenon from RBC storage lesion, due largely to the different functions of the ... blood product units damaged by so-called storage lesion-a set of biochemical and biomechanical changes which occur during ...
This phenomenon was discovered in 1912, and the terminology was introduced in 1945, but it is with the development of tissue ... Journal of Biomechanical Engineering. 119 (2): 137. doi:10.1115/1.2796072. Vigliotti, A.; McMeeking, R. M.; Deshpande, V. S. ( ... It has been observed that the phenomenon of contact guidance on microgrooved surfaces is influenced by the groove width. For ... Contact guidance refers to a phenomenon for which the orientation of cells and stress fibers is influenced by geometrical ...
Experimental evidence of the phenomena studied. Development of predictive techniques and control systems based on the ... bio-mechanical prostheses, maintenance procedures, manufacturing processes, thermal and fluids, vibrations and noise. Some ...
Intussusception, the phenomenon of a single tube splitting to form two branching tubes, also contributes to angiogenesis. ... Once fluid flow begins, biomechanical and hemodynamic inputs are applied to the system set up by vasculogenesis, and the active ... The first event of biomechanical-driven hierarchal remodelling occurs just after the onset of heart beat, when the vitelline ... Additionally, biomechanic forces inside embryonic vessels have important remodelling effects. Pressure fluctuations lead to ...
This phenomenon is known as viscoelastic creep. At a time t 0 {\displaystyle t_{0}} , a viscoelastic material is loaded with a ... Biswas, Abhijit; Manivannan, M.; Srinivasan, Mandyam A. (2015). "Multiscale Layered Biomechanical Model of the Pacinian ...
Weinbaum is widely recognized for novel biomechanical models that have changed existing views in such areas as bone fluid flow ... His dissertation is entitled "Natural convection phenomena in horizontal circular cylinders" and completed under the direction ...
Too short a decay time leads to the phenomenon of "breathing" where the background noise level gets boosted at each gap in the ... Similarly, in the auditory system, the olivocochlear efferent neurons are part of a biomechanical gain control loop. Similar to ...
termed this phenomenon as fiber strain homogeneity in segmented musculature. In addition to a rostral to caudal kinematic wave ... The biomechanical arguments used to support this rationale include that (1) there is no cost associatied with the vertical ... This phenomenon results in an architectural gear ratio, determined as longitudinal strain divided by fiber strain (εx / εf), ... studied this phenomenon using a simplified salamander model. Siren lacertian, an aquatic salamander, utilizes swimming motions ...
The next major biomechanic would not be around until 1452, with the birth of Leonardo da Vinci. Da Vinci was an artist and ... In other words, the mechanical characteristics of these materials rely on physical phenomena occurring in multiple levels, from ... The next major bio-mechanic, Giovanni Alfonso Borelli, was the first to understand that "the levers of the musculature system ... With the rise of the Roman Empire, technology became more popular than philosophy and the next bio-mechanic arose. Galen (129 ...
Cities around the Pacific Rim are soon damaged by a variety of seemingly natural phenomena. It becomes apparent to observing ... more lifelike and preserved the recognizable biomechanical attributes of human anatomy without sacrificing texture and detail. ...
MRV is based on the phenomenon of nuclear magnetic resonance and adapts a medical magnetic resonance imaging system for the ... Journal of Biomechanical Engineering. Elkins, C.J.; Markl, M.; Pelc, N.; Eaton, J.K. (2003). "4D Magnetic resonance velocimetry ... Journal of Biomechanical Engineering. 112 (4): 464-472. doi:10.1115/1.2891212. Professor John Eaton's profile (Stanford ...
HKB has been able to model task context, biomechanical factors, perception, cognitive demands, learning and memory. The latest ... Kelso initially observed this phenomenon while conducting an experiment looking at subjects' finger movements. Subjects ...
OpenSim - an open-source software system for biomechanical modeling. Physics Abstraction Layer - an open-source physics ... especially coupled phenomena, or multi-physics. CONSELF - browser based CFD and FEA simulation platform. DX Studio - a suite of ...
Arbour primarily studies dinosaurs in the group Ankylosauria, including biomechanical analyses of tail clubs. Arbour has ... Switek, Brian (2014-09-25). "Ziapelta - New Mexico's Newest Dinosaur". Phenomena. National Geographic. Retrieved 2018-01-02. ...
They assert that much of the basic physiological and biomechanical knowledge that dry needling utilizes is taught as part of ... patterns to acupuncture meridians provides evidence that trigger points most likely represent the same physiological phenomenon ...
Together with ex-Shadowkeep bassist Steve Kightley and guitarist Chris Van Hayden (ex-Biomechanical), he then went on to form a ... and positing the subsequent effects that this phenomenon might have on the Earth's population. The Hourglass Effect was ...
"Biomechanical and clinical evaluations of a porous tantaluym implant for the treatment of early-stage osteonecrosis". J Bone ... Per-Ingvar Brånemark defined this ongrowth phenomenon, osseointegration, as "the direct structural and functional connection ...
In the 1920s, Otto Loewi determined the biomechanical mechanism for the effects of physostigmine on the body. Loewi was ... Combination of acetylcholine and physostigmine is an example of supra-additive phenomenon. Physostigmine functions as an ...
Transport phenomena - Turbine - Tribology - Unsprung weight - Validation - Valve - Vector - Vertical strength - Vibration - ... Biomechanical stability - Biomechanics - Biomechatronics - Biomedical engineering - Biomimetic - Brittle - Buckling - CAD - ...
... which may influence biomechanical and neural integrity."[45] This differs from the medical definition of subluxation as a ... While the biomechanical evidence is not sufficient to support the statement that CMT causes cervical artery dissection (CD), ... Electronic voice phenomenon. *Feng shui. *Flat Earth theory. *Germ theory denialism. *Graphology ... most chiropractors generally believed that the majority of their clinical approach for addressing musculoskeletal/biomechanical ...
... biomechanical theories in orthopedics and sports medicine, and quantitative analyses of electrical phenomena in the brain, ...
Contribution of mechanical forces to tumor invasion and metastasis, with a particular emphasis on how biomechanical signals may ... Transport Phenomena in Living Systems I. BMES 660. Biomaterials I. BMES 661 ... drive the invasive switch, and how the biomechanical microenvironment interacts with cytokine signaling and the extracellular ...
Biomechanical study of the edge outgrowth phenomenon of encapsulated chondrocytic isogenous groups in the surface layer of ... Biomechanical study of the edge outgrowth phenomenon of encapsulated chondrocytic isogenous groups in the surface layer of ... Our results indicate that the mechanism of the "edge flourish" phenomenon is induced by the oriented outgrowth of chondrocytic ... In these studies, we quantitatively characterize the mechanobiology underlying a newly discovered "edge flourish" phenomenon of ...
... and local biomechanical factors, such as muscle weakness, obesity, and joint laxity. These risk factors are particularly ...
"Biomechanical Phenomena" by people in this website by year, and whether "Biomechanical Phenomena" was a major or minor topic of ... "Biomechanical Phenomena" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Biomechanical Phenomena" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Biomechanical Phenomena". ...
Biomechanical forces are central in tumor progression and response to treatment. This becomes more important in brain cancers ... Here we introduce a model of solid tumour growth coupled with a multiscale biomechanical description of the tumour ...
Biomechanical Phenomena Resource Information The concept Biomechanical Phenomena represents the subject, aboutness, idea or ... Data Citation of the Concept Biomechanical Phenomena. Copy and paste the following RDF/HTML data fragment to cite this resource ... Biomechanical Phenomena,/a,,/span, - ,span property=potentialAction typeOf=OrganizeAction,,span property=agent typeof= ... Biomechanical Phenomena,/a,,/span, - ,span property=potentialAction typeOf=OrganizeAction,,span property=agent typeof= ...
Biomechanical phenomena; Generalizability-theory; Movement disorders; Reproducibility of results. PMID:. 26126796. DOI:. ...
Biomechanical Phenomena * Humans * Rotator Cuff / anatomy & histology * Rotator Cuff / physiology * Rotator Cuff / surgery* ... This review will discuss the anatomy and biomechanics of a normal rotator cuff, the biomechanical factors that play a role in ... Arthroscopic rotator cuff repairs: an anatomic and biomechanical rationale for different suture-anchor repair configurations ...
Biomechanical Phenomena * Carnivora / anatomy & histology * Carnivora / classification * Carnivora / physiology * Finite ... Biomechanical consequences of rapid evolution in the polar bear lineage PLoS One. 2010 Nov 5;5(11):e13870. doi: 10.1371/journal ...
Biomechanical Phenomena * Bone Density / physiology * Humans * Injections, Intra-Articular * Male * Methylprednisolone / ... Purpose: To evaluate the effects of corticosteroid injections on intact and injured rotator cuffs (RCs) through biomechanical ... A Biomechanical and Imaging Study in Rats Am J Sports Med. 2016 Jan;44(1):177-82. doi: 10.1177/0363546515591266. Epub 2015 Jul ...
Biomechanical Phenomena. Blood Pressure. Computer Simulation. Humans. Myocardial Infarction / etiology. Plaque, Atherosclerotic ... Biomechanical stress analysis is a technique that allows such comprehensive assessment. This article focuses on the mechanical ... Parameter studies investigating the effect of morphologic factors on the critical biomechanical stresses and limitations of ... the material properties of atherosclerotic tissues and the studies investigating the association between high biomechanical ...
Biomechanical Phenomena * Diaphragm / chemistry * Diaphragm / physiopathology* * Male * Muscle Contraction / physiology * ...
Biomechanical Phenomena* * Cadaver * Confidence Intervals * External Fixators* * Female * Humans * Knee Joint / anatomy & ...
Biomechanical Phenomena * Female * Firearms* * Humans * Male * Motor Skills* / physiology * Movement * Postural Balance / ...
Biomechanical Phenomena * Female * Gait / physiology* * Humans * Image Processing, Computer-Assisted * Leg / physiology* ...
Biomechanical Phenomena * Blood Vessels / metabolism * Blood Vessels / pathology * Blood Vessels / physiopathology* * Disease ...
Biomechanical Phenomena. Female. Hip Dislocation, Congenital / complications, physiopathology, radiography, surgery*. Hip Joint ...
At the time of RTS and 2 years later, between-limb symmetry values for biomechanical variables of interest (VOIs) were ...
Biomechanical Phenomena * Cartilage / pathology* * Cartilage, Articular / pathology * HLA-B27 Antigen / immunology * Humans ...
Biomechanical Phenomena. Blood Glucose / metabolism. Body Composition. Bone Density / physiology. Bone and Bones / pathology, ... Brahmabhatt V,Rho J,Bernardis L,Gillespie R,Ziv I. The effects of dietary-induced obesity on the biomechanical properties of ... Bone biomechanical properties in prostaglandin EP1 and EP2 knockout miceBoneYear: 20012912112510.1016/S8756-3282(01)00486- ... Basic biomechanical measurements of bone: a tutorialBoneYear: 19931459560810.1016/8756-3282(93)90081-K8274302. ...
Biomechanical Phenomena * Bone Resorption / complications * Bone Resorption / surgery* * Cadaver * Humans * Joint Instability ...
Biomechanical Phenomena * Birds / physiology* * Chiroptera / physiology* * Flight, Animal / physiology* * Insecta / physiology ...
Biomechanical Phenomena * Exercise* * Female * Foot / anatomy & histology* * Humans * Leg Injuries / epidemiology* * Leg ...
Biomechanical Phenomena * Female * Humans * Male * Middle Aged * Observer Variation * Stress, Mechanical* * Tomography, X-Ray ...
  • Biomechanical Phenomena" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (rush.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Biomechanical Phenomena" by people in this website by year, and whether "Biomechanical Phenomena" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (rush.edu)
  • The advantages of unilateral approach for bilateral decompression involve minimising damage to the bone structure and maintaining original spinal biomechanical stability, which facilitates the prevention of postoperative spinal deformation and displacement. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In other words, the mechanical characteristics of these materials rely on physical phenomena occurring in multiple levels, from the molecular all the way up to the tissue and organ levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Numerical simulation of real-world phenomena provides fertile ground for building interdisciplinary relationships. (utah.edu)
  • Introdution to continuum theory and numerical solutions or biomechanical problems. (stanford.edu)
  • Another example would be in numerical weather prediction, where it is more important to have accurate predictions over developing highly nonlinear phenomena (such as tropical cyclones in the atmosphere, or eddies in the ocean) rather than relatively calm areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • CircuitLogix - an electronics simulation software developed by Logic Design Inc. COMSOL Multiphysics - a predominantly finite element analysis, solver and simulation software package for various physics and engineering applications, especially coupled phenomena, or multi-physics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Application of PET technology to other paroxysmal disorders may provide a basis for new diagnostic classifications that have therapeutic and prognostic value and may allow clearer differentiation among epileptic phenomena, myoclonus, and movement disorders. (nih.gov)
  • They mathematically model natural phenomena such as heat conduction, diffusion, and shock wave propagation. (utah.edu)
  • Cities around the Pacific Rim are soon damaged by a variety of seemingly natural phenomena. (wikipedia.org)
  • The result was to produce computer generated characters which were considered (at the time) more lifelike and preserved the recognizable biomechanical attributes of human anatomy without sacrificing texture and detail. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to limitations in existing biomechanical simulate the response of soft tissues connecting the arms, models of spinal loading, however, it has been difficult to head, neck, trunk and legs. (cdc.gov)
  • Contact guidance refers to a phenomenon for which the orientation of cells and stress fibers is influenced by geometrical patterns such as nano/microgrooves on substrates, or collagen fibers in gels and soft tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study aims to evaluate the biomechanical mechanism of fixation systems in the most frequent T-shaped acetabular fracture using finite element method. (hindawi.com)
  • A 4-body spinal model is more efficient than a 17 model can employ as many bodies as needed to study a segment model for obtaining gross-motion simulation, given phenomena. (cdc.gov)
  • In 2012, a study of the jaws of Tyrannosaurus by biomechanical expert Karl Bates of the University of Liverpool and paleontologist Peter Falkingham of the Royal Veterinary College, London, and Brown University was published in Biology Letters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here we introduce a model of solid tumour growth coupled with a multiscale biomechanical description of the tumour microenvironment, which facilitates the explicit simulation of fibre-fibre and tumour-fibre interactions. (ucy.ac.cy)
  • The biomechanical interactions arising from the growth and division of individual cells in confined environments are ubiquitous, yet little work has focused on this fundamental aspect of colony formation. (pnas.org)
  • We discuss the basic mechanics that govern plaque behavior, the material properties of atherosclerotic tissues and the studies investigating the association between high biomechanical stresses and plaque rupture. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Advanced AAA biomechanical modelling paired with a probabilistic rupture index definition as known from engineering risk assessment seems to be superior to a purely deterministic approach. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Generally, the collective dynamics of such cell populations involve a complex interplay of various physical, chemical, and biological phenomena such as chemotaxis ( 5 ), motility ( 6 ), cell-cell signaling ( 7 ), adhesion ( 8 ), and gene regulation ( 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • The biological phenomenon known as ligamentization and the maturation process that the ACL graft undergoes is complex, intricate, and still a matter of debate. (springer.com)
  • Within the chiropractic tradition, a vertebral subluxation complex is believed to be a dysfunctional biomechanical spinal segment which actively alters neurological function, which in turn, is believed to lead to neuromusculoskeletal and visceral disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • In these studies, we quantitatively characterize the mechanobiology underlying a newly discovered "edge flourish" phenomenon of cultured chondrocytes within a three-dimensional agarose hydrogel, which may ultimately nurture scaffold-free cartilaginous tissue regeneration. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Specifically, the uncertainties in AAA wall thickness and wall strength were considered, and wall stress was predicted with a state-of-the-art deterministic biomechanical model. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • This paper describes the development of a multi-body biomechanical model that can be used to assess the risk of low back disorders due to occupational exposure to jarring and jolting from operation of heavy mobile equipment (e.g., trucks, haulers, graders, tractors, etc. (cdc.gov)
  • In order to estimate the loading on the spine due to whole body vibration (WBV) to low back pain (LBP), it jarring and jolting, we developed a specialized multi-body was noted that operators of heavy equipment in occupations biomechanical model of the human skeletal system. (cdc.gov)
  • 13 Support for a connection between vertebroplasty and subsequent fractures, however, comes from biomechanical data which uniformly show significant changes in both vertebral loading and vertebral shape following vertebroplasty and thus point toward the likelihood of increased fracture risk in adjacent vertebrae. (ajnr.org)
  • A biochemical basis for the signal transduction from the cytoskeleton to the nucleus resulting in changes in gene expression was first proposed by Björklund (now Gordon) and Gordon in 1993 This would result in a biochemical transduction of the biomechanical signal from the cytoskeleton that is thereby passed on to the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the presence of healthy tissues, a well-integrated implant with appropriate biomechanical loads can have 5-year plus survival rates from 93 to 98 percent and 10 to 15 year lifespans for the prosthetic teeth. (wikipedia.org)