The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.
A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.
A dead body, usually a human body.
The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)
Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.
The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)
The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.
Specialized devices used in ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY to repair bone fractures.
Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.
Implantable fracture fixation devices attached to bone fragments with screws to bridge the fracture gap and shield the fracture site from stress as bone heals. (UMDNS, 1999)
Numerical expression indicating the measure of stiffness in a material. It is defined by the ratio of stress in a unit area of substance to the resulting deformation (strain). This allows the behavior of a material under load (such as bone) to be calculated.
Internal devices used in osteosynthesis to hold the position of the fracture in proper alignment. By applying the principles of biomedical engineering, the surgeon uses metal plates, nails, rods, etc., for the correction of skeletal defects.
VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.
Manner or style of walking.
Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.
The spinal or vertebral column.
The bony deposit formed between and around the broken ends of BONE FRACTURES during normal healing.
The behaviors of materials under force.
X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.
A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
Operative immobilization or ankylosis of two or more vertebrae by fusion of the vertebral bodies with a short bone graft or often with diskectomy or laminectomy. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p236; Dorland, 28th ed)
The position or attitude of the body.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.
The use of internal devices (metal plates, nails, rods, etc.) to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment.
Any of the 23 plates of fibrocartilage found between the bodies of adjacent VERTEBRAE.
The rotational force about an axis that is equal to the product of a force times the distance from the axis where the force is applied.
The force applied by the masticatory muscles in dental occlusion.
A pair of cone-shaped elastic mucous membrane projecting from the laryngeal wall and forming a narrow slit between them. Each contains a thickened free edge (vocal ligament) extending from the THYROID CARTILAGE to the ARYTENOID CARTILAGE, and a VOCAL MUSCLE that shortens or relaxes the vocal cord to control sound production.
The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.
A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A band of fibrous tissue that attaches the apex of the PATELLA to the lower part of the tubercle of the TIBIA. The ligament is actually the caudal continuation of the common tendon of the QUADRICEPS FEMORIS. The patella is embedded in that tendon. As such, the patellar ligament can be thought of as connecting the quadriceps femoris tendon to the tibia, and therefore it is sometimes called the patellar tendon.
The physiological restoration of bone tissue and function after a fracture. It includes BONY CALLUS formation and normal replacement of bone tissue.
A strong ligament of the knee that originates from the posteromedial portion of the lateral condyle of the femur, passes anteriorly and inferiorly between the condyles, and attaches to the depression in front of the intercondylar eminence of the tibia.
Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A group of twelve VERTEBRAE connected to the ribs that support the upper trunk region.
Injuries to the fibrous cords of connective tissue which attach muscles to bones or other structures.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
The process by which cells convert mechanical stimuli into a chemical response. It can occur in both cells specialized for sensing mechanical cues such as MECHANORECEPTORS, and in parenchymal cells whose primary function is not mechanosensory.
Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
A twisting deformation of a solid body about an axis. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.
A fibrous cord that connects the muscles in the back of the calf to the HEEL BONE.
The quality or state of being able to be bent or creased repeatedly. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
The joint that is formed by the inferior articular and malleolar articular surfaces of the TIBIA; the malleolar articular surface of the FIBULA; and the medial malleolar, lateral malleolar, and superior surfaces of the TALUS.
An idiopathic vascular disorder characterized by bilateral Raynaud phenomenon, the abrupt onset of digital paleness or CYANOSIS in response to cold exposure or stress.
The process of producing vocal sounds by means of VOCAL CORDS vibrating in an expiratory blast of air.
Processes and properties of the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM.
Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.
Shiny, flexible bands of fibrous tissue connecting together articular extremities of bones. They are pliant, tough, and inextensile.
Lack of stability of a joint or joint prosthesis. Factors involved are intra-articular disease and integrity of extra-articular structures such as joint capsule, ligaments, and muscles.
Devices which are used in the treatment of orthopedic injuries and diseases.
The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
Fractures of the femur.
Fibrous cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE that attach bones to each other and hold together the many types of joints in the body. Articular ligaments are strong, elastic, and allow movement in only specific directions, depending on the individual joint.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
The internal resistance of a material to moving some parts of it parallel to a fixed plane, in contrast to stretching (TENSILE STRENGTH) or compression (COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH). Ionic crystals are brittle because, when subjected to shear, ions of the same charge are brought next to each other, which causes repulsion.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.
Apparatus used to support, align, prevent, or correct deformities or to improve the function of movable parts of the body.
Techniques for securing together the edges of a wound, with loops of thread or similar materials (SUTURES).
The white, opaque, fibrous, outer tunic of the eyeball, covering it entirely excepting the segment covered anteriorly by the cornea. It is essentially avascular but contains apertures for vessels, lymphatics, and nerves. It receives the tendons of insertion of the extraocular muscles and at the corneoscleral junction contains the canal of Schlemm. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
General or unspecified injuries to the posterior part of the trunk. It includes injuries to the muscles of the back.
Application of principles and practices of engineering science to biomedical research and health care.
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.
An increase in the rate of speed.
The joint that occurs between facets of the interior and superior articular processes of adjacent VERTEBRAE.
Steel wires, often threaded through the skin, soft tissues, and bone, used to fix broken bones. Kirschner wires or apparatus also includes the application of traction to the healing bones through the wires.
Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
Moving or bringing something from a lower level to a higher one. The concept encompasses biomechanic stresses resulting from work done in transferring objects from one plane to another as well as the effects of varying techniques of patient handling and transfer.
The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.
An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.
Implants used in arthroscopic surgery and other orthopedic procedures to attach soft tissue to bone. One end of a suture is tied to soft tissue and the other end to the implant. The anchors are made of a variety of materials including titanium, stainless steel, or absorbable polymers.
Forcible or traumatic tear or break of an organ or other soft part of the body.
Distensibility measure of a chamber such as the lungs (LUNG COMPLIANCE) or bladder. Compliance is expressed as a change in volume per unit change in pressure.
Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.
Polymerized methyl methacrylate monomers which are used as sheets, moulding, extrusion powders, surface coating resins, emulsion polymers, fibers, inks, and films (From International Labor Organization, 1983). This material is also used in tooth implants, bone cements, and hard corneal contact lenses.
The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The replacement of intervertebral discs in the spinal column with artificial devices. The procedure is done in the lumbar or cervical spine to relieve severe pain resulting from INTERVERTEBRAL DISC DEGENERATION.
A POSTURE in which an ideal body mass distribution is achieved. Postural balance provides the body carriage stability and conditions for normal functions in stationary position or in movement, such as sitting, standing, or walking.
Harmful and painful condition caused by overuse or overexertion of some part of the musculoskeletal system, often resulting from work-related physical activities. It is characterized by inflammation, pain, or dysfunction of the involved joints, bones, ligaments, and nerves.
A region of the lower extremity immediately surrounding and including the KNEE JOINT.
Applies to movements of the forearm in turning the palm backward or downward. When referring to the foot, a combination of eversion and abduction movements in the tarsal and metatarsal joints (turning the foot up and in toward the midline of the body).
Injuries to the knee or the knee joint.
A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Tissue that supports and binds other tissues. It consists of CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS embedded in a large amount of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.
Bone in humans and primates extending from the SHOULDER JOINT to the ELBOW JOINT.
An articulation between the condyle of the mandible and the articular tubercle of the temporal bone.
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
Broken bones in the vertebral column.
The growth action of bone tissue as it assimilates surgically implanted devices or prostheses to be used as either replacement parts (e.g., hip) or as anchors (e.g., endosseous dental implants).
Procedures used to reconstruct, restore, or improve defective, damaged, or missing structures.
The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).
The interarticular fibrocartilages of the superior surface of the tibia.
The flat, triangular bone situated at the anterior part of the KNEE.
The projecting part on each side of the body, formed by the side of the pelvis and the top portion of the femur.
Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.
Breaks in bones.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A plate of fibrous tissue that divides the temporomandibular joint into an upper and lower cavity. The disc is attached to the articular capsule and moves forward with the condyle in free opening and protrusion. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p92)
The surgical cutting of a bone. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The use of nails that are inserted into bone cavities in order to keep fractured bones together.
A type of CARTILAGE whose matrix contains large bundles of COLLAGEN TYPE I. Fibrocartilage is typically found in the INTERVERTEBRAL DISK; PUBIC SYMPHYSIS; TIBIAL MENISCI; and articular disks in synovial JOINTS. (From Ross et. al., Histology, 3rd ed., p132,136)
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
A family of structurally related collagens that form the characteristic collagen fibril bundles seen in CONNECTIVE TISSUE.
The rear surface of an upright primate from the shoulders to the hip, or the dorsal surface of tetrapods.
The joint that is formed by the articulation of the head of FEMUR and the ACETABULUM of the PELVIS.
Region of the back including the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, SACRUM, and nearby structures.
Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.
General name for two extinct orders of reptiles from the Mesozoic era: Saurischia and Ornithischia.
Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.
Surgical insertion of a prosthesis.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The measurement of curvature and shape of the anterior surface of the cornea using techniques such as keratometry, keratoscopy, photokeratoscopy, profile photography, computer-assisted image processing and videokeratography. This measurement is often applied in the fitting of contact lenses and in diagnosing corneal diseases or corneal changes including keratoconus, which occur after keratotomy and keratoplasty.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.
The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.
Connective tissue comprised chiefly of elastic fibers. Elastic fibers have two components: ELASTIN and MICROFIBRILS.
Materials used in closing a surgical or traumatic wound. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A noninflammatory, usually bilateral protrusion of the cornea, the apex being displaced downward and nasally. It occurs most commonly in females at about puberty. The cause is unknown but hereditary factors may play a role. The -conus refers to the cone shape of the corneal protrusion. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Degenerative changes in the INTERVERTEBRAL DISC due to aging or structural damage, especially to the vertebral end-plates.
The application of LUBRICANTS to diminish FRICTION between two surfaces.
The pressure of the fluids in the eye.
The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.
Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.
The region of the lower limb between the FOOT and the LEG.
Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.
Also known as articulations, these are points of connection between the ends of certain separate bones, or where the borders of other bones are juxtaposed.
Rods of bone, metal, or other material used for fixation of the fragments or ends of fractured bones.
The musculotendinous sheath formed by the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis, and teres minor muscles. These help stabilize the head of the HUMERUS in the glenoid fossa and allow for rotation of the SHOULDER JOINT about its longitudinal axis.
The first digit on the radial side of the hand which in humans lies opposite the other four.
Biocompatible materials placed into (endosseous) or onto (subperiosteal) the jawbone to support a crown, bridge, or artificial tooth, or to stabilize a diseased tooth.
The central part of the body to which the neck and limbs are attached.
Alterations or deviations from normal shape or size which result in a disfigurement of the foot.
Markedly reduced or absent REPERFUSION in an infarct zone following the removal of an obstruction or constriction of an artery.
A continuing periodic change in displacement with respect to a fixed reference. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The act and process of chewing and grinding food in the mouth.
The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.
The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.
The description and measurement of the various factors that produce physical stress upon dental restorations, prostheses, or appliances, materials associated with them, or the natural oral structures.
The fibrous CONNECTIVE TISSUE surrounding the TOOTH ROOT, separating it from and attaching it to the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS).
Five fused VERTEBRAE forming a triangle-shaped structure at the back of the PELVIS. It articulates superiorly with the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, inferiorly with the COCCYX, and anteriorly with the ILIUM of the PELVIS. The sacrum strengthens and stabilizes the PELVIS.
The bone of the lower leg lateral to and smaller than the tibia. In proportion to its length, it is the most slender of the long bones.
The mechanical property of material that determines its resistance to force. HARDNESS TESTS measure this property.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A fracture in which the bone is splintered or crushed. (Dorland, 27th ed)
An activity in which the body is propelled by moving the legs rapidly. Running is performed at a moderate to rapid pace and should be differentiated from JOGGING, which is performed at a much slower pace.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
External devices which hold wires or pins that are placed through one or both cortices of bone in order to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment. These devices allow easy access to wounds, adjustment during the course of healing, and more functional use of the limbs involved.
The five long bones of the METATARSUS, articulating with the TARSAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF TOES distally.
Computer-assisted study of methods for obtaining useful quantitative solutions to problems that have been expressed mathematically.
Orthodontic techniques used to correct the malposition of a single tooth.
Thick triangular muscle in the SHOULDER whose function is to abduct, flex, and extend the arm. It is a common site of INTRAMUSCULAR INJECTIONS.
Prosthetic replacements for arms, legs, and parts thereof.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
A scientific tool based on ULTRASONOGRAPHY and used not only for the observation of microstructure in metalwork but also in living tissue. In biomedical application, the acoustic propagation speed in normal and abnormal tissues can be quantified to distinguish their tissue elasticity and other properties.
The study of systems which respond disproportionately (nonlinearly) to initial conditions or perturbing stimuli. Nonlinear systems may exhibit "chaos" which is classically characterized as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Chaotic systems, while distinguished from more ordered periodic systems, are not random. When their behavior over time is appropriately displayed (in "phase space"), constraints are evident which are described by "strange attractors". Phase space representations of chaotic systems, or strange attractors, usually reveal fractal (FRACTALS) self-similarity across time scales. Natural, including biological, systems often display nonlinear dynamics and chaos.
Measurement of ocular tension (INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE) with a tonometer. (Cline, et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.
Microscopy using polarized light in which phenomena due to the preferential orientation of optical properties with respect to the vibration plane of the polarized light are made visible and correlated parameters are made measurable.
The use of metallic devices inserted into or through bone to hold a fracture in a set position and alignment while it heals.
Part of the body in humans and primates where the arms connect to the trunk. The shoulder has five joints; ACROMIOCLAVICULAR joint, CORACOCLAVICULAR joint, GLENOHUMERAL joint, scapulathoracic joint, and STERNOCLAVICULAR joint.
The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
The outer shorter of the two bones of the FOREARM, lying parallel to the ULNA and partially revolving around it.
Thin outer membrane that surrounds a bone. It contains CONNECTIVE TISSUE, CAPILLARIES, nerves, and a number of cell types.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The hemispheric articular surface at the upper extremity of the thigh bone. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Equipment required for engaging in a sport (such as balls, bats, rackets, skis, skates, ropes, weights) and devices for the protection of athletes during their performance (such as masks, gloves, mouth pieces).
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
A prominent projection of the ulna that that articulates with the humerus and forms the outer protuberance of the ELBOW JOINT.
A species of SWINE, in the family Suidae, comprising a number of subspecies including the domestic pig Sus scrofa domestica.
A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.
A game in which a round inflated ball is advanced by kicking or propelling with any part of the body except the hands or arms. The object of the game is to place the ball in opposite goals.
A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.
Excision, in part or whole, of an INTERVERTEBRAL DISC. The most common indication is disk displacement or herniation. In addition to standard surgical removal, it can be performed by percutaneous diskectomy (DISKECTOMY, PERCUTANEOUS) or by laparoscopic diskectomy, the former being the more common.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.

Cerebellar Purkinje cell simple spike discharge encodes movement velocity in primates during visuomotor arm tracking. (1/12618)

Pathophysiological, lesion, and electrophysiological studies suggest that the cerebellar cortex is important for controlling the direction and speed of movement. The relationship of cerebellar Purkinje cell discharge to the control of arm movement parameters, however, remains unclear. The goal of this study was to examine how movement direction and speed and their interaction-velocity-modulate Purkinje cell simple spike discharge in an arm movement task in which direction and speed were independently controlled. The simple spike discharge of 154 Purkinje cells was recorded in two monkeys during the performance of two visuomotor tasks that required the animals to track targets that moved in one of eight directions and at one of four speeds. Single-parameter regression analyses revealed that a large proportion of cells had discharge modulation related to movement direction and speed. Most cells with significant directional tuning, however, were modulated at one speed, and most cells with speed-related discharge were modulated along one direction; this suggested that the patterns of simple spike discharge were not adequately described by single-parameter models. Therefore, a regression surface was fitted to the data, which showed that the discharge could be tuned to specific direction-speed combinations (preferred velocities). The overall variability in simple spike discharge was well described by the surface model, and the velocities corresponding to maximal and minimal discharge rates were distributed uniformly throughout the workspace. Simple spike discharge therefore appears to integrate information about both the direction and speed of arm movements, thereby encoding movement velocity.  (+info)

Flow-mediated vasodilation and distensibility of the brachial artery in renal allograft recipients. (2/12618)

BACKGROUND: Alterations of large artery function and structure are frequently observed in renal allograft recipients. However, endothelial function has not yet been assessed in this population. METHODS: Flow-mediated vasodilation is a useful index of endothelial function. We measured the diameter and distensibility of the brachial artery at rest using high-resolution ultrasound and Doppler frequency analysis of vessel wall movements in the M mode. Thereafter, changes in brachial artery diameter were measured during reactive hyperemia (after 4 min of forearm occlusion) in 16 cyclosporine-treated renal allograft recipients and 16 normal controls of similar age and sex ratio. Nitroglycerin-mediated vasodilation was measured to assess endothelium-independent vasodilation. Brachial artery blood pressure was measured using an automatic sphygmomanometer, and brachial artery flow was estimated using pulsed Doppler. RESULTS: Distensibility was reduced in renal allograft recipients (5.31 +/- 0. 74 vs. 9.10 +/- 0.94 x 10-3/kPa, P = 0.003, mean +/- sem), while the brachial artery diameter at rest was higher (4.13 +/- 0.14 vs. 3.25 +/- 0.14 mm, P < 0.001). Flow-mediated vasodilation was significantly reduced in renal allograft recipients (0.13 +/- 0.08 vs. 0.60 +/- 0.08 mm or 3 +/- 2 vs. 19 +/- 3%, both P < 0.001). However, nitroglycerin-mediated vasodilation was similar in renal allograft recipients and controls (0.76 +/- 0.10 vs. 0.77 +/- 0.09 mm, NS, or 19 +/- 3 vs. 22 +/- 2%, NS). There were no significant differences in brachial artery flow at rest and during reactive hyperemia between both groups. The impairments of flow-mediated vasodilation and distensibility in renal allograft recipients remained significant after correction for serum cholesterol, creatinine, parathyroid hormone concentrations, end-diastolic diameter, as well as blood pressure levels, and were also present in eight renal allograft recipients not treated with cyclosporine. Flow-mediated vasodilation was not related to distensibility in either group. CONCLUSIONS: The results show impaired endothelial function and reduced brachial artery distensibility in renal allograft recipients. The impairments of flow-mediated vasodilation and distensibility are not attributable to a diminished brachial artery vasodilator capacity, because endothelium-independent vasodilation was preserved in renal allograft recipients.  (+info)

Phase reversal of biomechanical functions and muscle activity in backward pedaling. (3/12618)

Computer simulations of pedaling have shown that a wide range of pedaling tasks can be performed if each limb has the capability of executing six biomechanical functions, which are arranged into three pairs of alternating antagonistic functions. An Ext/Flex pair accelerates the limb into extension or flexion, a Plant/Dorsi pair accelerates the foot into plantarflexion or dorsiflexion, and an Ant/Post pair accelerates the foot anteriorly or posteriorly relative to the pelvis. Because each biomechanical function (i.e., Ext, Flex, Plant, Dorsi, Ant, or Post) contributes to crank propulsion during a specific region in the cycle, phasing of a muscle is hypothesized to be a consequence of its ability to contribute to one or more of the biomechanical functions. Analysis of electromyogram (EMG) patterns has shown that this biomechanical framework assists in the interpretation of muscle activity in healthy and hemiparetic subjects during forward pedaling. Simulations show that backward pedaling can be produced with a phase shift of 180 degrees in the Ant/Post pair. No phase shifts in the Ext/Flex and Plant/Dorsi pairs are then necessary. To further test whether this simple yet biomechanically viable strategy may be used by the nervous system, EMGs from 7 muscles in 16 subjects were measured during backward as well as forward pedaling. As predicted, phasing in vastus medialis (VM), tibialis anterior (TA), medial gastrocnemius (MG), and soleus (SL) were unaffected by pedaling direction, with VM and SL contributing to Ext, MG to Plant, and TA to Dorsi. In contrast, phasing in biceps femoris (BF) and semimembranosus (SM) were affected by pedaling direction, as predicted, compatible with their contribution to the directionally sensitive Post function. Phasing of rectus femoris (RF) was also affected by pedaling direction; however, its ability to contribute to the directionally sensitive Ant function may only be expressed in forward pedaling. RF also contributed significantly to the directionally insensitive Ext function in both forward and backward pedaling. Other muscles also appear to have contributed to more than one function, which was especially evident in backward pedaling (i.e. , BF, SM, MG, and TA to Flex). We conclude that the phasing of only the Ant and Post biomechanical functions are directionally sensitive. Further, we suggest that task-dependent modulation of the expression of the functions in the motor output provides this biomechanics-based neural control scheme with the capability to execute a variety of lower limb tasks, including walking.  (+info)

Kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of lipid translocation in biological membranes. (4/12618)

A theoretical analysis of the lipid translocation in cellular bilayer membranes is presented. We focus on an integrative model of active and passive transport processes determining the asymmetrical distribution of the major lipid components between the monolayers. The active translocation of the aminophospholipids phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine is mathematically described by kinetic equations resulting from a realistic ATP-dependent transport mechanism. Concerning the passive transport of the aminophospholipids as well as of phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin, and cholesterol, two different approaches are used. The first treatment makes use of thermodynamic flux-force relationships. Relevant forces are transversal concentration differences of the lipids as well as differences in the mechanical states of the monolayers due to lateral compressions. Both forces, originating primarily from the operation of an aminophospholipid translocase, are expressed as functions of the lipid compositions of the two monolayers. In the case of mechanical forces, lipid-specific parameters such as different molecular surface areas and compression force constants are taken into account. Using invariance principles, it is shown how the phenomenological coefficients depend on the total lipid amounts. In a second approach, passive transport is analyzed in terms of kinetic mechanisms of carrier-mediated translocation, where mechanical effects are incorporated into the translocation rate constants. The thermodynamic as well as the kinetic approach are applied to simulate the time-dependent redistribution of the lipid components in human red blood cells. In the thermodynamic model the steady-state asymmetrical lipid distribution of erythrocyte membranes is simulated well under certain parameter restrictions: 1) the time scales of uncoupled passive transbilayer movement must be different among the lipid species; 2) positive cross-couplings of the passive lipid fluxes are needed, which, however, may be chosen lipid-unspecifically. A comparison of the thermodynamic and the kinetic approaches reveals that antiport mechanisms for passive lipid movements may be excluded. Simulations with kinetic symport mechanisms are in qualitative agreement with experimental data but show discrepancies in the asymmetrical distribution for sphingomyelin.  (+info)

A pilot study on the human body vibration induced by low frequency noise. (5/12618)

To understand the basic characteristics of the human body vibration induced by low frequency noise and to use it to evaluate the effects on health, we designed a measuring method with a miniature accelerometer and carried out preliminary measurements. Vibration was measured on the chest and abdomen of 6 male subjects who were exposed to pure tones in the frequency range of 20 to 50 Hz, where the method we designed was proved to be sensitive enough to detect vibration on the body surface. The level and rate of increase with frequency of the vibration turned out to be higher on the chest than on the abdomen. This difference was considered to be due to the mechanical structure of the human body. It also turned out that the measured noise-induced vibration negatively correlated with the subject's BMI (Body Mass Index), which suggested that the health effects of low frequency noise depended not only on the mechanical structure but also on the physical constitution of the human body.  (+info)

Morphology and mechanics of tongue movement in the African pig-nosed frog Hemisus marmoratum: a muscular hydrostatic model. (6/12618)

The goal of this study was to investigate morphological adaptations associated with hydrostatic elongation of the tongue during feeding in the African pig-nosed frog Hemisus marmoratum. Whereas previous studies had suggested that the tongue of H. marmoratum elongates hydraulically, the anatomical observations reported here favour a muscular hydrostatic mechanism of tongue elongation. H. marmoratum possesses a previously undescribed compartment of the m. genioglossus (m. genioglossus dorsoventralis), which is intrinsic to the tongue and whose muscle fibres are oriented perpendicular to the long axis of the tongue. On the basis of the arrangement and orientation of muscle fibres in the m. genioglossus and m. hyoglossus, we propose a muscular hydrostatic model of tongue movement in which contraction of the m. genioglossus dorsoventralis, together with unfolding of the intrinsic musculature of the tongue, results in a doubling in tongue length. Electron micrographs of sarcomeres from resting and elongated tongues show that no special adaptations of the sarcomeres are necessary to accommodate the observed doubling in tongue length during feeding. Rather, the sarcomeres of the m. genioglossus longitudinalis are strikingly similar to those of anuran limb muscles. The ability to elongate the tongue hydrostatically, conferred by the presence of the m. genioglossus dorsoventralis, is associated with the appearance of several novel aspects of feeding behaviour in H. marmoratum. These include the ability to protract the tongue slowly, thereby increasing capture success, and the ability to aim the tongue in azimuth and elevation relative to the head. Compared with other frogs, the muscular hydrostatic system of H. marmoratum allows more precise, localized and diverse tongue movements. This may explain why the m. genioglossus of H. marmoratum is composed of a larger number of motor units than that of other frogs.  (+info)

The role of ventral medial wall motor areas in bimanual co-ordination. A combined lesion and activation study. (7/12618)

Two patients with midline tumours and disturbances of bimanual co-ordination as the presenting symptoms were examined. Both reported difficulties whenever the two hands had to act together simultaneously, whereas they had no problems with unimanual dexterity or the use of both hands sequentially. In the first patient the lesion was confined to the cingulate gyrus; in the second it also invaded the corpus callosum and the supplementary motor area. Kinematic analysis of bimanual in-phase and anti-phase movements revealed an impairment of both the temporal adjustment between the hands and the independence of movements between the two hands. A functional imaging study in six volunteers, who performed the same bimanual in-phase and anti-phase tasks, showed strong activations of midline areas including the cingulate and ventral supplementary motor area. The prominent activation of the ventral medial wall motor areas in the volunteers in conjunction with the bimanual co-ordination disorder in the two patients with lesions compromising their function is evidence for their pivotal role in bimanual co-ordination.  (+info)

Experimental assessment of proximal stent-graft (InterVascular) fixation in human cadaveric infrarenal aortas. (8/12618)

OBJECTIVES: This paper investigates the radial deformation load of an aortic endoluminal prosthesis and determines the longitudinal load required to cause migration in a human cadaveric aorta of the endoprosthesis. DESIGN AND METHODS: The endovascular prosthesis under investigation was a 24 mm diameter, nitinol, self-expanding aortoaortic device (InterVascular, Clearwater, Florida, U.S.A.). Initially, a motorised digital force gauge developed an incremental load which was applied to the ends of five stent-grafts, to a maximum of 10 mm (42%) compression. Secondly, using a simple bench model, each ends of four stent-grafts were deployed into 10 cadaveric experimental aneurysm necks and a longitudinal load applied to effect distraction. RESULTS: Increasing load produced increasing percentage deformation of the stent-grafts. The mean longitudinal distraction load for an aneurysm neck of 20 mm was 409 g (200-480 g), for 15 mm was 277 g (130-410 g) and for 10 mm was 218 g (130-340 g). The aneurysm diameter and aortic calcification had p values of 0.002 and 0.047, respectively, while the p value for aneurysm neck length was less than 0.00001. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that there is a theoretical advantage of oversizing an aortic prosthesis and that sufficient anchorage is achieved in an aortic neck of 10 mm to prevent migration when fully deployed.  (+info)

This book is on page /925b2124b7e8cd7259fc8aad444a5e62/book/1603725640-9783659554421. It was written by the following authors: Van Gheluwe Bart, Ilbeigi Saeed. Book Biomechanical Parameters of Young Elite Sprinters, which can be read online, published by the company: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing. Other books on similar topics can be found in sections: Sports Books. The book was published on 2014-06-10 00:00:00. File for download Biomechanical Parameters of Young Elite Sprinters has PDF format and is called biomechanical-parameters-of-young-elite-sprinters.pdf. Other books you can download below. Our site is not responsible for the content of PDF files.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Influence of biomechanical factors on substructure of pointing movements. AU - Dounskaia, Natalia. AU - Wisleder, Deric. AU - Johnson, Travis. N1 - Funding Information: Acknowledgements The study was supported by NSF grant BCS 0213653 awarded to Dr. Natalia Dounskaia.. PY - 2005/7. Y1 - 2005/7. N2 - Irregularities in the velocity profile near the end of pointing movements have been interpreted as corrective submovements whose purpose is to provide accuracy of pointing to the target. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether two additional factors related to biomechanical properties of the arm also cause submovements. First, motion termination and stabilization of the limb in the final position required by a discrete pointing task may contribute to submovements. Second, inaccurate regulation of interactive torque at the joints may also cause submovements. To investigate the contributions of these two biomechanical factors and the traditionally considered factor ...
Several investigators have suggested the presence of a link between Chronic Low Back Pain (CLBP) and lower limbs kinematics that can contribute to functional limitations and disability. Moreover, CLBP has been connected to postural and structural asymmetry. Understanding the movement pattern of lower extremities and its asymmetry during walking can provide a basis for examination and rehabilitation in people with CLBP. The present study focuses on lower limbs kinematics in individuals with CLBP during walking. Three-dimensional movements of the pelvic, hip, knee and ankle joints were tracked using a seven-camera Qualysis motion capture system. Functional dada analysis (FDA) was applied for the statistical analysis of pelvic and lower limbs motion patterns in 40 participants (20 CLBP and 20 controls). The CLBP group showed significantly different hip motion pattern in the transvers plane, altered knee and ankle motion pattern in the sagittal plane on the dominant side and different hip motion ...
We evaluated the corneal biomechanical properties in a population of healthy children in China. As far as we know, this is the first report of quantitative assessment of the corneal biomechanics in children population using CST. We used the newly updated CST software, which provided two more parameters (A1DA and A2DA) than previous versions. This helped to measure corneal deformation more comprehensively. We also assessed the symmetry of corneal biomechanics between the both eyes and found obviously interocular symmetry in SE, CCT, IOP, and corneal biomechanics in healthy children eyes. We also found that several CST biomechanical parameters in children are modified by CCT and IOP, while age, SE, and sex exert little influence on the CST measurements in this population.. Our observations of interocular symmetric biometry were consistent with previous studies [19-21]. Using ORA, Zheng et al. [22] demonstrated an obvious symmetry of CH and CRF in bilateral rabbit corneas. We also identified two ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - 3D biomechanical analysis of foot in diabetes with and without peripheral neuropathy-a pilot study. AU - Hazari, Animesh. AU - Maiya, Arun G.. AU - Shivashankara, K. N.. AU - Ashma Monteiro, M. S.. AU - Shashi Kumar, C. G.. AU - Rao, Kartik. AU - Kumar, Sampath. AU - Maiya, Shreemathi S.. AU - Jadhav, Radhika. PY - 2016. Y1 - 2016. N2 - There has been a profound increase in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus especially among the Asian The biomechanical alteration in the foot structure and function are an important predictive risk factor for development of foot complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus. The routine biomechanical analysis using advanced motion analysis software in a clinical population like diabetes mellitus is still lacking in Indian settings. Therefore the aim of the study was to analyse and compare the biomechanical parameters of foot in diabetes mellitus with and without neuropathy and normal individuals of similar age group. The study was conducted in the ...
Video Gait Analysis Norfolk & Biomechanical Assessments For Runners - Sportlink for Personal Training - Sports injury clinic - Running Shoes - Fitting & Advice - Nutrition in Norwich, Norfolk
Context: The presence or absence of biomechanical differences between the sexes before puberty may provide clues about the onset of adult landing pattern differences, which may help to explain the greater number of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in females than in males and provide the basis for interventions to reduce those injuries. Objective: To identify developmental sex-related and biomechanical differences during vertical jump landings. Design: A 2 3 2 developmental stage (prepubescent or postpubescent) 3 sex (male or female) between-subjects design. Setting: Controlled laboratory setting. Patients or Other Participants: Thirty prepubescent subjects (15 boys, age 5 9.63 6 0.95 years; 15 girls, age 5 9.19 6 1.00 years) and 28 postpubescent subjects (14 men, age 5 23.57 6 3.23 years; 14 women, age 5 24.22 6 2.27 years). Intervention: Subjects performed a vertical jump to a target set at 50% of their maximum vertical jump height ability. Main Outcome Measure(s): Hip and knee kinematics of the
TY - JOUR. T1 - Kinematic differences between faster and slower sprinters during the acceleration phase of sprint running. AU - Kobayashi, K.. AU - Tsuchie, H.. AU - Kanehisa, H.. AU - Yanai, Toshimasa. AU - Kawakami, Yasuo. PY - 2015/4/1. Y1 - 2015/4/1. N2 - Aim: The purpose of this study was to examine kinematic differences between faster and slower sprinters during the acceleration phase of sprint running. Methods: Nineteen collegiate sprinters were divided into FAST (N.=9) and SLOW (N.=10) groups, based on their best 100 m race times. A two-dimensional videographic technique was used to record the side views of 40 m sprint performances using four high-speed digital camcorders. Using the recorded images, kinematic variables such as contact time, flight time, horizontal velocity, and horizontal acceleration were determined from the 1st step to the 19th step. A two-way repeated measures ANOVA (two groups of 10 steps each) with a Tukey post-hoc test was used to analyze the obtained data. ...
During walking older adults gait is slower, they take shorter steps, and rely less on ankle and more on knee and hip joint moments and powers compared to young adults. Previous studies have suggested that walking speed and step length are confounds that affect joint moments and powers. Our purpose was to examine the effects of walking speed and step length manipulation on net joint moments and powers in young and older adults. Sixteen young and 18 older adults completed walking trials at three speeds under three step length conditions as marker position and force platform data were captured synchronously. Net joint moments were quantified using inverse dynamics and were subsequently used to compute net joint powers. Average extensor moments at each joint during the stance phase were then computed. Older adults displayed greater knee extensor moment compared to young adults. Older adults showed trends (p | .10) of having lower ankle and higher hip moments, but these differences were not statistically
Mechanical design of machine elements and machines collins pdf - MECHANICAL DESIGN OF. MACHINE ELEMENTS. AND MACHINES. A Failure Prevention Perspective. Second Edition. Jack A. Collins, Henry R. Busby. - Applied Mechanical Design by Ammar Grous | Free Engineering Books Pdf
Ground reaction forces (GRF), knee flexion angles, angular velocities and joint powers are unknown at large landing heights, which are infeasible for laboratory testing. However, this information is important for understanding lower extremity injury mechanisms. We sought to determine regression relationships of landing height with these parameters during landing so as to facilitate estimation of these parameters at large landing heights. Five healthy male subjects performed landing tasks from heights of 0.15-1.05 m onto a force-plate. Motion capture system was used to obtain knee flexion angles during landing via passive markers placed on the lower body. An iterative regression model, involving simple linear/exponential/natural logarithmic functions, was used to fit regression equations to experimental data. Peak GRF followed an exponential regression relationship (R2 = 0.90-0.99, p , 0.001; power = 0.987-0.998). Peak GRF slope and impulse also had an exponential relationship (R2 = 0.90-0.96, p ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - An examination of kinematic variability of motion analysis in sprint hurdles. AU - Salo, Aki. AU - Grimshaw, Paul N.. PY - 1998/5. Y1 - 1998/5. N2 - Eight trials each of 7 athletes (4 women and 3 men) were videotaped and digitized in order to investigate the variation sources and kinematic variability of video motion analysis in sprint hurdles. Mean coefficients of variation (CVs) of individuals ranged from 1.0 to 92.2% for women and from 1.2 to 209.7% for men. There were 15 and 14 variables, respectively, in which mean CVs revealed less than 5% variation. In redigitizing, CVs revealed ,1.0% for 12 variables for the womens trials and 10 variables for the mens trials. These results, together with variance components (between-subjects, within-subject, and redigitizing), showed that one operator and the analysis system together produced repeatable values for most of the variables. The most repeatable variables by this combination were displacement variables. However, further data ...
This paper introduces an easiest method for finding out the transfer function of complex mechanical systems with multiinput and multi-output. But at a time, one input and one output is significant. The method is an extension of inspection method of network solution by makes use of KVL. In the beginning step the available mechanical system has to be transformed into Laplace domain with associated differential co-efficient if any. Determine the Order of the system by considering the No. of masses/moment of inertia available in the system in turn determines the order of the transfer function matrix of the system. If once the transfer function matrix is formed, any combination of input and output can be selected to find out the transfer function by using Crammers Rule. The method is a perfect fit one, easiest than statespace approach and fastest one for such systems states having trivial states.. Keywords: Transfer Function, Multi-input Multi-output systems, KVL-Kirchhoffs Voltage Law, Laplace ...
Linear, Cubic and Quintic Coordinate-Dependent Forces and Kinematic Characteristics of a Spring-Mass System. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
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The E-32 study was designed to capture the subjects physiological and biomechanical data such as ECG data and rate, respiratory data and rate, and body orientation, motion and movement (accelerometry) during typical events such as walking, sitting, running and sleeping in order to help build a database of stereotypical human activity ...
Introduction: Kinetic, kinematic and electromyographic activity of the lower limb have been shown to be influenced by various footwear-generated biomechanical manipulations (e.g. soles. Insoles, orthoses). A novel biomechanical device comprising four modular elements attached onto foot-worn platforms was recently developed. Each element can be individually calibrated (Position, convexity, height and resilience) to induce a specific biomechanical challenge.. Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of specific biomechanical challenges on Kinetics, kinematics and electromyographic activity of the lower limb.. Design: Prospective, case control Setting: Motion analyses will be conducted during level walking with (1) a three-dimensional motion analysis system and (2) ground reaction force analysis using force platforms (3) Electro-Myography system. Each subject will be examined in 16 different settings of the biomechanical system ...
Despite the continuing research effort, data regarding the material properties and biomechanical parameters of spinal elements, particularly the ligaments, remains sparse.. The ligaments, discs, and vertebrae of the human spinal column were tested for their biomechanical strength. 65 samples of human vertebrae were tested in direct axial compression to failure in an M.T.S. testing machine. Average values of force at failure ranged from 2587N in the cervical spine to 4590N in the lumbar spine. Average values of stress at failure decreased from 7.9N/mm² in the cervical spine to 2.8N/mm² in the lumbar spine. Mean values of engineering strain at failure ranged from 24.4% to 33.9%.. Overall, 33 samples of the human intervertebral disc were tested in direct axial tension to failure. Average values of force at failure ranged from 592N in the cervical spine to 1254N in the lumbar spine. Deformations to failure ranged from 8.9mm to 11.1mm. Mean values of stiffness of the disc increased from 64.2N/mm in ...
The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive analysis of key biomechanical variables in race walking through the analysis of elite athletes in both competitive and laboratory settings. Video data from two 3CCD camcorders of athletes competing over 10 km (juniors only), 20 km, and 50 km were collected at three international competitions. For the 20 km and 50 km events, multiple recordings were made to identify if kinematic changes occurred. In addition, synchronised high-speed video, electromyography and ground reaction force data were collected of 20 elite race walkers in a laboratory setting and combined to calculate joint moments, power and work. The key discriminants with regard to better performances were long step lengths and high cadences, and the contribution made by flight distance to step length (approximately 13%) was particularly important, regardless of race distance or age category. Step length ratio was a better predictor of optimum step length than absolute values and a ...
Pre-injury control data were collected on two separate days before the nerve injury surgery was performed. Post-injury data were collected 1-month post-surgery during the muscle paralytic stage and at 14 months post-surgery during the muscle self-reinnervated stage. The self-reinnervated stage data reported here reflect the 14-month post-injury stage for all but one cat,which did not complete the 14-month collection. Instead, 9-month self-reinnervated stage data were successfully collected and are reported for this individual. During all data collection trials, the cats walked on our treadmill at 0.8 m s-1 until a steady gait was observed. Three-dimensional (3-D) marker positions on the left hindlimb were recorded at 125 Hz for 16 s with a two-camera motion capture system (Peak Performance Technologies, Denver, CO, USA) and saved to a computer for later analysis. Animals were allowed to rest for at least 2-5 min between the two to four trials collected for each day of collection. A typical 16-s ...
Mechanical Design Technology program at LWTech offers students an Associate of Applied Science-Transfer degree, and certificates of completion and proficiency in the mechanical design fields.
Dec. 3l, 1968 D. c. RIDEOUT 3,418,896 REFLECTIVE MARKERS AND REFLECTIVE ELEMENTS THEREFOR Filed Feb. 3, 1967 INVENTOR Donald C. Rideau? ATTORNEY United States Patent O 3,418,896 REFLECTIVE MARKERS AND REFLECTIVE ELEMENTS THEREFOR Donald C. Rideout, Huntingdon, Pa., assignor to Prismo Safety Corporation, Huntingdon, Pa., a corporation of Pennsylvania Filed Feb. 3, 1967, Ser. No. 613,878 10 Claims. (Cl. 94-1.5) ABSTRACT F THE DISCLOSURE The invention relates to reflective elements which are flat on their upper and lower surfaces and which have vertical side walls covered by a plurality of Small glass spheres partially embedded in the vertical side walls, the width of the flat surfaces being at least twice the thickness of the elements and the thickness being in the order of ls-l/z and the width not exceeding 1. The reflective elements can be incorporated into reflective markers for improved night-time retroreflectivity especially in rainy weather. The elements can be incorporated into a hot ...
The main biomechanical function of the knee meniscus is to enlarge the contact area of the tibiofemoral joint leading to a reduction in articular cartilage contact stress. The meniscal attachments are essential for converting the axial load into circumferential tension in the meniscal periphery. Consequently, meniscal substitutes need sufficient anchorage to the tibial plateau to adequately restore the biomechanical function of a replaced meniscus. Therefore the aim of the present study was to investigate the loads acting on the meniscotibial attachments under various joint loads ...
Leg stiffness is often computed from ground reaction force (GRF) registrations of vertical hops to estimate the force-resisting capacity of the lower-extremity during ground contact, with leg stiffness values incorporated in a spring-mass model to describe human motion. Individual biomechanical characteristics, including leg stiffness, were investigated in 40 healthy males. Our aim is to report and discuss the use of 13 different computational methods for evaluating leg stiffness from a double-legged repetitive hopping task, using only GRF registrations. Four approximations for the velocity integration constant were combined with three mathematical expressions, giving 12 methods for computing stiffness using double integrations. One frequency-based method that considered ground contact times was also trialled. The 13 methods thus defined were used to compute stiffness in four extreme cases, which were the stiffest, and most compliant, consistent and variable subjects. All methods provided ...
This module introduces vibrations using the simple model of a single degree of freedom system represented by a spring-mass. Equations of motion for a spring-mass system are developed and concepts such as natural frequency and phase differences are discussed. Examples of analogous systems that can be represented using a spring-mass model are also discussed. Numerical examples, interactive plots, and steps to create MapleSim simulations are included to enhance the learning experience.
Context: Patellofemoral pain (PFP) is often categorized by researchers and clinicians using subjective self-reported PFP characteristics; however, this practice might mask important differences in movement biomechanics between PFP patients. Objective: To determine whether biomechanical differences exist during a high-demand multiplanar movement task for PFP patients with similar self-reported PFP characteristics but different quadriceps activation levels. Design: Cross-sectional design. Setting: Biomechanics laboratory. Participants: A total of 15 quadriceps deficient and 15 quadriceps functional (QF) PFP patients with similar self-reported PFP characteristics. Intervention: In total, 5 trials of a high-demand multiplanar land, cut, and jump movement task were performed. Main Outcome Measures: Biomechanics were compared at each percentile of the ground contact phase of the movement task (α = .05) between the quadriceps deficient and QF groups. Biomechanical variables included (1) whole-body ...
Abstract: Since 1996, when the first report of sex differences in neuromuscular function appeared in the literature with the aim of understanding why physically active females are at greater risk of injuring the ACL than their male counterparts, many authors have reported on sex differences in neuromuscular and biomechanical function. Based on this collective literature, clear sex differences in muscle activation and movement patterns have been identified, leading to the focus on neuromuscular and biomechanical factors as the key reasons for the sex differences in ACL injury rates. In turn, prevention programs have been developed to reduce dynamic knee loading through neuromuscular training.. Editorial. ACL Injury in the Female Athlete: A Multifactorial Problem That Remains Poorly Understood ...
This work outlines the theoretical advantages of multivariate methods in biomechanical data, validates the proposed methods and outlines new clinical findings relating to knee osteoarthritis that were made possible by this approach. New techniques were based on existing multivariate approaches, Partial Least Squares (PLS) and Non-negative Matrix Factorization (NMF) and validated using existing data sets. The new techniques developed, PCA-PLS-LDA (Principal Component Analysis - Partial Least Squares - Linear Discriminant Analysis), PCA-PLS-MLR (Principal Component Analysis - Partial Least Squares -Multiple Linear Regression) and Waveform Similarity (based on NMF) were developed to address the challenging characteristics of biomechanical data, variability and correlation. As a result, these new structure-seeking technique revealed new clinical findings. The first new clinical finding relates to the relationship between pain, radiographic severity and mechanics. Simultaneous analysis of pain and ...
The classic book on human movement in biomechanics, newly updated Widely used and referenced, David Winters Biomechanics and Motor Control of Human Movement is a classic examination of techniques used to measure and analyze all body movements as mechanical systems, including such everyday movements as walking. It fills the gap in human movement science area where modern science and technology are integrated with anatomy, muscle physiology, and electromyography to assess and understand human movement. In light of the explosive growth of the field, this new edition updates and enhances the text with: Expanded coverage of 3D kinematics and kinetics New materials on biomechanical movement synergies and signal processing, including auto and cross correlation, frequency analysis, analog and digital filtering, and ensemble averaging techniques Presentation of a wide spectrum of measurement and analysis techniques Updates to all existing chapters Basic physical and physiological principles in capsule form for
A device for sensing a state change of a mechanical system, comprises at least one sound emitter (E), a receiver (R) as well as an electronic circuit (4) which allows to compare the received sound signal with reference values. The state of the mechanical system, such as the existence or the absence of contact among parts, is monitored by the processing of the signals corresponding to the emitted and received sound signals with the aim to allow to recognize the monitored state by the difference between the received signals and reference values. The sensing device may be used to monitor a number of variables such as contact, location, orientation, etc. of the mechanical parts by the same sensors there where traditionally different kinds of sensors were traditionally needed.
This project is aimed to investigate the biomechanical changes in the lower extremity via musculoskeletal modelling during prolonged running activities.
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TY - CONF. T1 - Mechanical control of stem cell differentiation using microengineered matrix. AU - Fu, Jianping. AU - Wang, Yang-Gao. AU - Yang, Michael T.. AU - Lee, Ted T.. AU - Chen, Christopher S.. PY - 2008/1/1. Y1 - 2008/1/1. N2 - In this work, we explore the molecular mechanisms by which local mechanical properties (e.g., rigidity) of the extracellular matrix (ECM) cooperates with soluble cues to regulate lineage commitment of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). We have established different micropost array substrates that can definitively decouple matrix rigidity from other properties including adhesiveness. We applied these substrates to investigate the influences of matrix rigidity on cell adhesion, cytoskeleton assembly/contractility, cell spreading, and proliferation. We further show that matrix rigidity regulates commitment of hMSCs to either adipogenic or osteogenic fate: soft matrix facilitates adipogenic differentiation while stiff matrix proves osteogenic.. AB - In this work, ...
Currently, rigid fixation systems are the gold standard for degenerative disk disease treatment. Dynamic fixation systems have been proposed as alternatives for the treatment of a variety of spinal disorders. These systems address the main drawbacks of traditional rigid fixation systems, such as adjacent segment degeneration and instrumentation failure. Pedicle-screw-based dynamic stabilization (PDS) is one type of these alternative systems. The aim of this study was to simulate the biomechanical effect of a novel posterior dynamic stabilization system, which is comprised of dynamic (hinged) screws interconnected with a coiled, spring-based dynamic rod (DSDR), and compare it to semirigid (DSRR and RSRR) and rigid stabilization (RSRR) systems. A validated finite element (FE) model of L1-S1 was used to quantify the biomechanical parameters of the spine, such as range of motion, intradiskal pressure, stresses and facet loads after single-level instrumentation with different posterior stabilization ...
The Orthopaedic Biomechanics Laboratories at Michigan State University utilize research capacities and methods to foster student development.
The Vicon MX Motion Capture System provides the ability to track the movement of subjects in a variety of experiments. This system allows for a passive motion capture of reflective markers on the subject. The elimination of wires and battery packs from an individual leads to a more natural motion to be captured and analyzed.. The eight-camera array in an 8-ft x 12-ft space gives the ability for 3D video rendering and analysis; in addition the system has a real-time feedback option for the experimenter and subject.. The Vicon Motion Capture System is utilized in experiments ranging from balance studies to limb movement and gait studies. ...
Altered gait biomechanics associated with pediatric obesity may increase the risk of musculoskeletal injury/pathology during physical activity and/or diminish a childs ability to engage in sufficient physical activity. The biomechanical mechanisms responsible for the altered gait in obese children are not well understood, particularly as they relate to increases in adipose tissue. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of adiposity (i.e. body fat percentage, BF%) on lower extremity kinematics, muscle force requirements and their individual contributions to the acceleration of the center of mass (COM) during walking. We scaled a musculoskeletal model to the anthropometrics of each participant (n=14, 8-12 years old, BF%: 16-41%) and generated dynamic simulations of walking to predict muscle forces and their contributions to the acceleration of the COM. Muscle force output was normalized to muscle mass. BF% was correlated with average knee flexion angle during stance (r=−0.54) and ...
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the leading cause of disability, worldwide. OA leads to breakdown of the articular cartilage (AC), the highly structured tissue that lines the end of bones of the synovial joints. The cartilage cells synthesize and maintain the homeostasis of articular cartilage, a function that is largely influenced by mechanical forces. Mechanobiological studies of
Although Kendalls structural approach to postural assessment provides a biomechanical assessment of the musculoskeletal system, the late Vladimir Janda, MD, saw postural assessment as a functional impression of the status of the sensorimotor system. According to Janda, the sensorimotor system is 1 functional unit comprised of the afferent sensory system and the efferent motor system; 2 systems that cannot be considered to function independent of each other.34 He noted that changes in muscle tension are the first response of the system to nociception. By combining static biomechanical assessment popularized by Kendall with his observation of muscle function, Janda was able to form an early observational description of the possible cause of the patients musculoskeletal pain from a neurological perspective.34 ...
TY - GEN. T1 - Сингулярные граничные интегральные уравнения динамических задач механики межслоевых трещин. AU - Menshykov, Vasyl. AU - Menshykov, Oleksandr. N1 - Conference code: 17. PY - 2015/6. Y1 - 2015/6. N2 - The paper concerns the boundary integral equations for the interface crack between two elastic half-spaces with different mechanical properties under dynamic loading. The derived system of equations allows one to evaluate the displacements at the crack edges and the forces and the displacements at the joint surface.. AB - The paper concerns the boundary integral equations for the interface crack between two elastic half-spaces with different mechanical properties under dynamic loading. The derived system of equations allows one to evaluate the displacements at the crack edges and the forces and the displacements at the joint surface.. M3 - Conference contribution. SP - 165. EP - 168. BT - Transactions of ...
Ergonomic models of musculoskeletal strain in computer work have focused primarily on biomechanical indices (e.g. key force, keystroke repetition, work posture); relatively little attention has been given to psychophysiological indices (e.g. hyperventilatory responses to mood disturbances). This report explores the relationship between psychophysiological and biomechanical factors with right-hand
CERVICAL SNAGS A BIOMECHANICAL ANALYSIS PDF - Involved-side cervical rotation range of motion less than 60 degrees,. 3. . Hearn , A., Rivett, DA. (). Cervical Snags: a biomechanical analysis. Manual.
TrendTerms displays relevant terms of the abstract of this publication and related documents on a map. The terms and their relations were extracted from ZORA using word statistics. Their timelines are taken from ZORA as well. The bubble size of a term is proportional to the number of documents where the term occurs. Red, orange, yellow and green colors are used for terms that occur in the current document; red indicates high interlinkedness of a term with other terms, orange, yellow and green decreasing interlinkedness. Blue is used for terms that have a relation with the terms in this document, but occur in other documents ...
Blood vessels are exposed to multiple mechanical forces that are exerted on the vessel wall (radial, circumferential and longitudinal forces) or on the endothelial surface (shear stress). The stresses and strains experienced by arteries influence the initiation of atherosclerotic lesions, which develop at regions of arteries that are exposed to complex blood flow. In addition, plaque progression and eventually plaque rupture is influenced by a complex interaction between biological and mechanical factors-mechanical forces regulate the cellular and molecular composition of plaques and, conversely, the composition of plaques determines their ability to withstand mechanical load. A deeper understanding of these interactions is essential for designing new therapeutic strategies to prevent lesion development and promote plaque stabilization. Moreover, integrating clinical imaging techniques with finite element modelling techniques allows for detailed examination of local morphological and biomechanical
maximum vertical distance between the line white was X plus two and the parameter of y equals X squared for X between negative one and positive too. Well, to do this first, lets find what the vertical distances between these two graphs recall. This distance D legal. Theres a function of X. Well, this is going to be the square root of the difference of why coordinates. This is X squared minus X plus two squared. Now we know the vertical distance MM is maximized when he squared is maximized as well. So do you swear, Becks? I call this function f a bex. Well, this is X squared minus expose to squared. Now, to find the maximum vertical distance forward. To find the maximum of this function f of X, were going to find its derivative. So at the prime of X is by the chain ruled two times X squared minus X minus two times two X minus one and we set this equal to zero. Well, this is only equal to zero when X squared minus X minus two equals zero or two x minus one equals zero. In the first case, the
(2013) Niknafs et al. Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology. OBJECTIVE: This study addresses the effects of cartilage thickness distribution and compressive properties in the context of optimal alignment planning for periacetabular osteotomy (PAO).\n\nBACKGROUND: The Biomechanical Guidanc...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effects of angiotensin II on the coupled microstructural and biomechanical response of C57BL/6 mouse aorta. AU - Haskett, Darren. AU - Speicher, Erin. AU - Fouts, Marie. AU - Larson, Doug. AU - Azhar, Mohamad. AU - Utzinger, Urs. AU - Vande Geest, Jonathan. N1 - Funding Information: The authors would like to acknowledge the support of the American Heart Association ( GIA 10GRNT4580045 to JPVG), the National Science Foundation ( CAREER 0644570 to JPVG), the help of Dr. Tom Doetschman and Connie Gard, the National Institutes of Health (HL92508), The Stephen Michael Schneider & The William J. Billy Gieszl Investigator Award (University of Arizona) and Arizona Biomedical Research Commission (#0901). Imaging was done on an NIH sponsored shared device (NIH/NCRR S10RR023737).. PY - 2012/3/15. Y1 - 2012/3/15. N2 - Rationale: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a complex disease that leads to a localized dilation of the infrarenal aorta, the rupture of which is associated with ...
Organic Motion used this weeks Game Developers Conference to introduce a new motion capture system that the company says is significantly less pricey, more powerful and easier to use than systems that have been used in the past.
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Biomechanical loading relies on an external device that either passively or actively acts mechanically in parallel to the upper ... This phenomenon gives rise to the possibility of an orthotic management of tremor.[citation needed] Starting from this ... In this regard, current trends in this field are focused on the evaluation of the concept of biomechanical loading of tremor ... These results indicate the feasibility of tremor suppression through biomechanical loading. The main drawbacks of this ...
These phenomena describe the observation that individuals will give high accuracy ratings to descriptions of their personality ... and biomechanical systems of the body. The Vanguard Code of Ethical Practice, amongst others, prohibits medical diagnosis by ... The study of these phenomena is a by-product of researchers investigating motor control processes and the interaction of ...
Platelet storage lesion is a very different phenomenon from RBC storage lesion, due largely to the different functions of the ... Although some of the biochemical changes are reversible after the blood is transfused, the biomechanical changes are less so, ... blood product units damaged by so-called storage lesion-a set of biochemical and biomechanical changes which occur during ... and rejuvenation products are not yet able to adequately reverse this phenomenon. Current regulatory measures are in place to ...
... phenomena of gene gradients during development is dismissed as an epiphenomena resulting from the passage of the biomechanical ... and Gordon in 1993 This would result in a biochemical transduction of the biomechanical signal from the cytoskeleton that is ...
Although some of the biochemical changes are reversible after the blood is transfused, the biomechanical changes are less so, ... and rejuvenation products are not yet able to adequately reverse this phenomenon. There has been controversy about whether a ... a range of biochemical and biomechanical changes that occur during storage. With red cells, this can decrease viability and ...
Transport phenomena with drops and bubbles. Springer Science & Business Media, 1997; 2012. Articles, a selection Ayyaswamy, P. ... "Heat transport mechanisms in vascular tissues: a model comparison." Journal of biomechanical engineering 108.4 (1986): 324-331 ...
This phenomenon was discovered in 1912, and the terminology was introduced in 1945, but it is with the development of tissue ... Journal of Biomechanical Engineering. 119 (2): 137-45. doi:10.1115/1.2796072. PMID 9168388. Vigliotti, A.; McMeeking, R. M.; ... It has also been observed that the phenomenon of contact guidance on microgrooved surfaces is influenced by the groove width. ... Contact guidance refers to a phenomenon for which the orientation of cells and stress fibers is influenced by geometrical ...
1978) A Biomechanical Invariant for Gait Perception. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance. ( ... 2002) Perceptual Artifacts and Phenomena: Gibson's Role in the 20th Century. Foundations of Perceptual Theory. (1993) Human ... 1978) Generation of Synthetic Male and Female Walkers Through Manipulation of a Biomechanical Invariant Perception. (1978) ... Infant Sensitivity to Figural Coherence in Biomechanical Motions Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. (1984) Three ...
Two biomechanical features can trigger these traveling wave patterns, which are a low fundamental frequency and in the vocal ... During in vivo situations, these phenomena could be triggered when the vocal folds and vocal tract interact to raise or lower ... One of the vibratory phenomena that occurred inside the larynx is alternating A-P (anterior-posterior) and P-A traveling waves ... From various experiments, the elephant larynx is shown to produce various and complex vibratory phenomena. ...
Simulations of biomechanical models agree with the rule. Fractals are infinitely self-similar, iterated mathematical constructs ... Fractal-like patterns occur widely in nature, in phenomena as diverse as clouds, river networks, geologic fault lines, ... Minamino, Ryoko; Tateno, Masaki (2014). "Tree Branching: Leonardo da Vinci's Rule versus Biomechanical Models". PLoS One. Vol. ...
... engineering Nuclear engineering Food engineering Process engineering Reaction engineering Thermodynamics Transport phenomena ... engineering Aeronautics Astronautics Acoustical engineering Automotive engineering Biomedical engineering Biomechanical ...
Experimental evidence of the phenomena studied. Development of predictive techniques and control systems based on the ... bio-mechanical prostheses, maintenance procedures, manufacturing processes, thermal and fluids, vibrations and noise. Some ...
... an idea that did much to promote and sustain biomechanical study. The next major bio-mechanic, Giovanni Alfonso Borelli, ... In other words, the mechanical characteristics of these materials rely on physical phenomena occurring in multiple levels, from ... The next major biomechanic would not be around until 1452, with the birth of Leonardo da Vinci. Da Vinci was an artist and ... Over his years of science, Galileo made a lot of biomechanical aspects known. For example, he discovered that "animals' masses ...
Intussusception, the phenomenon of a single tube splitting to form two branching tubes, also contributes to angiogenesis. ... Once fluid flow begins, biomechanical and hemodynamic inputs are applied to the system set up by vasculogenesis, and the active ... The first event of biomechanical-driven hierarchal remodelling occurs just after the onset of heart beat, when the vitelline ... Additionally, biomechanic forces inside embryonic vessels have important remodelling effects. Pressure fluctuations lead to ...
Balance disorder Broken escalator phenomenon Chronic subjective dizziness Ideomotor phenomenon Proprioception Seasickness Sense ... Adding auditory stimuli can significantly enhance visual, vestibular, and biomechanical vections. After being on a small boat ...
Weinbaum is widely recognized for novel biomechanical models that have changed existing views in such areas as bone fluid flow ... His dissertation is entitled "Natural convection phenomena in horizontal circular cylinders" and completed under the direction ...
Too short a decay time leads to the phenomenon of "breathing" where the background noise level gets boosted at each gap in the ... Similarly, in the auditory system, the olivocochlear efferent neurons are part of a biomechanical gain control loop. As in all ...
The researchers wanted to know if Kanzi possessed the cognitive and biomechanical abilities required to make and use stone ... consolation in the bonobo may be an empathy-based phenomenon. Instances in which bonobos have expressed joy have been reported ...
Players become biomechanical engineers. Using Sodaconstructor, a sophisticated physics simulation, they design wire-frame ... or more generally to quantify and visualize the development of any phenomenon, such as fMRI data on brain activity, that can be ...
termed this phenomenon as fiber strain homogeneity in segmented musculature. In addition to a rostral to caudal kinematic wave ... The biomechanical arguments used to support this rationale include that (1) there is no cost associatied with the vertical ... This phenomenon results in an architectural gear ratio, determined as longitudinal strain divided by fiber strain (εx / εf), ... studied this phenomenon using a simplified salamander model. Siren lacertian, an aquatic salamander, utilizes swimming motions ...
... grew into a cultural phenomenon in the Philippines since its airing in the country in 1978, and had achieved ... and deploy the massive bio-mechanical "Attack Beast Knight Dokugaga" to destroy humanity's last bastion of resistance. ...
Images of its biomechanical Eva robots are on everything from coffee mugs to smartphones and even airplane wraps. - Tim Hornyak ... With the interest in the series, otaku culture became a mass social phenomenon. The show's regular reruns increased the number ... Evangelion has developed into a social phenomenon beyond its primary fan base, generating national discussion in Japan. The ... Watanabe, Kei; Nakagawa, Daichi; Uno, Tsunehiro (May 18, 2006). "Evangelion Special: From phenomenon to legacy". Mainichi Times ...
Cities around the Pacific Rim are soon damaged by a variety of seemingly natural phenomena. It becomes apparent to observing ... more lifelike and preserved the recognizable biomechanical attributes of human anatomy without sacrificing texture and detail. ...
MRV is based on the phenomenon of nuclear magnetic resonance and adapts a medical magnetic resonance imaging system for the ... Journal of Biomechanical Engineering. 112 (4): 464-472. doi:10.1115/1.2891212. PMID 2273875. Elkins, C.J.; Markl, M.; Pelc, N ... Journal of Biomechanical Engineering. 112 (4): 464-472. doi:10.1115/1.2891212. PMID 2273875. Professor John Eaton's profile ( ...
HKB has been able to model task context, biomechanical factors, perception, cognitive demands, learning and memory. The latest ... Kelso initially observed this phenomenon while conducting an experiment looking at subjects' finger movements. Subjects ...
Controlled by a full-field kinematic measurement algorithm, such machines can also be used to study complex phenomena on stiff ... Environment developed by Motek Medical uses a Stewart platform coupled with virtual reality to do advanced biomechanical and ...
They assert that much of the basic physiological and biomechanical knowledge that dry needling utilizes is taught as part of ... Acupuncture and dry needling are similar in the underlying phenomenon and neural processes between trigger points and ... patterns to acupuncture meridians provides evidence that trigger points most likely represent the same physiological phenomenon ...
Chronobiology - field of biology that examines periodic (cyclic) phenomena in living organisms and their adaptation to solar- ... or evidence of occupationally derived biomechanic stress. Genetics - study of genes and heredity. Quantitative genetics - study ... Theoretical Biology - the mathematical modeling of biological phenomena. Zoology - study of animals, including classification, ...
Arbour primarily studies dinosaurs in the group Ankylosauria, including biomechanical analyses of tail clubs. Arbour has ... Switek, Brian (2014-09-25). "Ziapelta - New Mexico's Newest Dinosaur". Phenomena. National Geographic. Retrieved 2018-01-02. ...
Changes and improvements in interlimb coordination by age are recognized to be a major phenomenon in the development of gross ... Rhythmic movement of the arms during bipedal walking is generated by passive biomechanical linkages and neural commands ...
Although more research has been conducted on work-family conflict, there is also the phenomenon of work-family enhancement, ... The development of musculoskelelatal problems cannot be solely explained in the basis of biomechanical factors (e.g., ... Warren, N., Dillon, C., Morse, T., Hall, C., & Warren, A. (2000). Biomechanical, psychosocial, and organizational risk factors ...
The CMR phenomenon indicates that how long a bond can sustain force at a given level can depend on the history of force ... "An integrin αIIbβ3 intermediate affinity state mediates biomechanical platelet aggregation". Nature Materials. 18 (7): 760-9. ... This "shear-threshold phenomenon" was initially characterized in 1996 by Finger et al. who showed that leukocyte binding and ... Sivasankar and his research team have found that the mechanism behind the puzzling phenomenon is due to long-lived, force- ...
In June 2003, they recruited singer John K, from Biomechanical and released the album Heathen Machine who left after one album ... In June 2011, King conceptually arranged for a concept album based on his life and the 11:11 time prompt phenomena, emailing ...
The study described a phenomenon of social contagion, or "cluster outbreaks" in gender dysphoria among young people, which ... Liu, Ming-Jin; Xiong, Cai-Hua; Xiong, Le; Huang, Xiao-Lin (January 5, 2016). "Biomechanical Characteristics of Hand ... The PLOS ONE Staff (March 4, 2016). "Retraction: Biomechanical Characteristics of Hand Coordination in Grasping Activities of ... or clinicians and therefore does not validate the phenomenon. Additional research that includes AYAs, along with consensus ...
Micropatterning has clearly shown these phenomena on the scale of a cell fixed on a support. Increased stiffness of the ECM: ... Journal of Biomechanical Engineering. 139 (2): 021004. doi:10.1115/1.4034991. ISSN 0148-0731. PMC 5248974. PMID 27760260. " ... The other approach, "top down", takes into account the emergence of unpredictable phenomena through the reductionist approach. ... In fact, cell phenotypes are emergent phenomena that result from intercellular nonlinear interactions and interaction with the ...
Hood writes that the shoe standing up can be viewed as a "bad miracle" due to "the unexplainable nature of the phenomenon and ... "biomechanical design flair" of Sahaquiel, the 10th Angel. He explained his decision to include a major focus on clouds in the ... Over the course of the film, the UAP ["unidentified aerial phenomenon"] assumes several terrifying forms, which make it roughly ...
The bird was also characterised by its large hind legs, which after the completion of biomechanical studies are confirmed to ... The concentration of dromornithid species, and more generally, other fossils within this area is indicative of the phenomenon ...
Several generations of biomechanical models have also been developed for white blood cells, the basis of immune surveillance ... It is also not fully understood whether mechanical phenomena are side products of biological processes or they are controlled ... Quantitative passive biomechanical models have been developed to predict cell motion and deformation in the mammalian red blood ... Biomechanical analyses of different cell types in the circulation has brought greater understanding of cell interactions in the ...
... biomechanical experts, etc. These developments have led to new ethical concerns about the erosion of the spirit of amateurism ... fearing that they would reduce the complexity of the concept and the phenomena it refers to, while others prefer a clear theory ... and macro-level processes and phenomena, and thus contributing to a broader understanding of the role of the media in the ...
In 2012, a study of the jaws of Tyrannosaurus by biomechanical expert Karl Bates of the University of Liverpool and ... The scientists call this phenomenon as resource partitioning which would have given Tyrannosaurus a large evolutionary ...
Indian wolves have a history of preying on children, a phenomenon called "child-lifting". They may be taken primarily in the ... Sorkin, Boris (2008). "A biomechanical constraint on body mass in terrestrial mammalian predators". Lethaia. 41 (4): 333-347. ...
... a prearranged set of instructions that prescribe how a set of biomechanical components should behave. In contrast, Kelso showed ... complementary aspects and their dynamics are needed for an exhaustive description and understanding of the complex phenomena ...
This explanation is ultimately untenable as the sole solution to the winged cat phenomenon, for several reasons. Many notable ... Freeman, LJ; Hegreberg, GA; Robinette, JD; Kimbrell, JT (March 1989). "Biomechanical properties of skin and wounds in Ehlers- ...
To better understand this phenomenon, we can first look at healthy arterial vessels which exhibit a J-shaped stress-strain ... Vorp, David A.; Geest, Jonathan P. Vande (August 2005). "Biomechanical Determinants of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Rupture". ...
This phenomenon, also known as hyperextension, can give the illusion of throwing. In the report it was seen that R. P. Singh ... Subsequent bio-mechanical tests exonerated Muralitharan's action, showing that he did not extend his arm any more than many ... After biomechanical testing showed that all bowlers flex their extended arms to some degree, rules were changed. Current ... Regardless of the biomechanical measurement protocol used, a strikingly similar pattern emerged: the normal biomechanics of ...
Bruneau, Amelia (2010). "Preparation of Rat Tail Tendons for Biomechanical and Mechanobiological Studies". Journal of ... a linguistic phenomenon when a wh-expression drags with it an entire encompassing phrase to the front of the clause has been ...
With limited knowledge on the related biomechanical processes, the Cardinals training and medical staff researched methods to ... became a phenomenon in 2013 following the favorite catchphrase of Fozzie Bear of The Muppets, and for its similarity to the ...
An illustrative example of this phenomenon is scaphocephaly; the name providing a direct hint regarding the deformity of the ... Most likely, a role is played by biomechanical factors, as well as environmental, hormonal and genetical factors. New insights ... Biomechanical factors include fetal head constraint during pregnancy. It has been found by Jacob et al. that constraint inside ...
Reverse swing is a phenomenon that makes the ball swing in the opposite direction to that usually produced by the orientation ... "Comparison of biomechanical characteristics between male and female elite fast bowlers". Journal of Sports Sciences. 37 (6): ...
Brown and Wilson viewed character displacement as a phenomenon involved in speciation, stating, "we believe that it is a common ... Biomechanical differences found from a geometric morphometric study", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 97 (8): ... Many found the early examples unconvincing and suggested it to be a rare phenomenon. Criticisms with earlier studies included ... Character displacement is the phenomenon where differences among similar species whose distributions overlap geographically are ...
The risks can be related to biomechanical factors, where the geometry of the implants does not support the teeth in the same ... Brånemark carried out further studies into this phenomenon, using both animal and human subjects, which all confirmed this ... Planning the position and number of implants is key to the long-term health of the prosthetic since biomechanical forces ... a well-integrated implant with appropriate biomechanical loads can have 5-year plus survival rates from 93 to 98 percent and 10 ...
ISBN 978-0-323-03071-7. Pasipoularides, Ares (November 2009). Heart's Vortex: Intracardiac Blood Flow Phenomena. PMPH-USA. p. ... Keaveny, Tony M. (March 2010). "Biomechanical computed tomography-noninvasive bone strength analysis using clinical computed ...
Considering this phenomenon, Seaman suggests that the chiropractic concept of joint complex (somatic) dysfunction should be ... It is essentially a functional entity, which may influence biomechanical and neural integrity." The purported displacement is ... Nansel D, Szlazak M (1995). "Somatic dysfunction and the phenomenon of visceral disease simulation: a probable explanation for ... that are used to explain phenomenon that are far larger than our understanding. We use them as long as they work for us and ...
Fewer biomechanical constraints on increases in body size may be associated with suspension in water as opposed to standing ... A strikingly faster rate of change was found for large decreases in body mass, such as may be associated with the phenomenon of ... Sorkin, B. (2008-04-10). "A biomechanical constraint on body mass in terrestrial mammalian predators". Lethaia. 41 (4): 333-347 ...
Biomechanical Phenomena * Embryo, Nonmammalian * Embryonic Development * Morphogenesis* * Retina * Retinal Pigment Epithelium ...
... this study aimed to provide new insights into normal brain development through a biomechanical framework. Thirty-three normal ... inhomogeneous brain growth patterns of the human brain during the first year of life using longitudinal MRI and a biomechanical ... This phenomenon can potentially be explained from both physical and biological points of view. Specifically, rapid growth of ... Biomechanical Analysis of Normal Brain Development during the First Year of Life Using Finite Strain Theory. *Jeong Chul Kim1,2 ...
Biomechanical Phenomena, Mitochondria/genetics, Female, Bone Remodeling",. author = "Langdahl, {Jakob H{\o}gild} and ...
Biomechanical Phenomena 32% * Foot 28% * Comparing Alternate Modes of Teleoperation for Constrained Tasks. Mower, C. E., Merkt ...
Biomechanical Phenomena Medicine & Life Sciences 28% * Cricket (Sports) Engineering & Materials Science 26% ...
Biomechanical Phenomena 11% * Walking 10% * Child 10% * Odds Ratio 7% * Confidence Intervals 7% ...
A biomechanical approach to evaluate overload and specificity characteristics within physical preparation exercises. Brazil, A. ... A biomechanical comparison of initial sprint acceleration performance and technique in an elite athlete with cerebral palsy and ...
A. Biomechanical Studies. B. Physiological Studies. C. Psychophysical studies. D. Epidemiologic Studies. IV. REFERENCES. POINT ... A leather weight-lifting belt may avert symptoms of such physical phenomenon. However, the perception of discomfort may be ... Early physiological and biomechanical studies suggested that discontinuing the use of back belts after a period of prolonged ... A. Biomechanical Studies. The Working Group concludes that there are insufficient data to indicate that typical industrial-type ...
Biomechanical Phenomena Medicine & Life Sciences 91% * Kinematics Engineering & Materials Science 74% * Hand Medicine & Life ...
Biomechanical Phenomena Medicine & Life Sciences 64% * Upper Extremity Medicine & Life Sciences 62% ...
Biomechanical Phenomena Medicine & Life Sciences 23% * Kinetics Medicine & Life Sciences 18% * Hypokinesia Medicine & Life ...
Biomechanical Phenomena Medicine & Life Sciences 100% * Hip Medicine & Life Sciences 43% * Nonparametric Statistics Medicine & ...
Biomechanical Phenomena Medicine & Life Sciences 68% * Knee Medicine & Life Sciences 57% * Magnetic Resonance Imaging Medicine ...
Spitzen, J., Spoor, C. W., Grieco, F., ter Braak, C. J. F., Beeuwkes, J., van Brugge, S. P., Kranenbarg, S., Noldus, L., van Leeuwen, J. L. & Takken, W., 2013, In: PLoS ONE. 8, 5, e62995.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › Academic › peer-review ...
This phenomenon, known as pedicle screw "plowing," has been described in previous biomechanical studies, which demonstrated ...
Biomechanical Phenomena Medicine & Life Sciences 77% * Heel Medicine & Life Sciences 56% * Muscles Medicine & Life Sciences 39% ... Biomechanical variables associated with Achilles tendinopathy in runners. L. B. Azevedo, M. I. Lambert, C. L. Vaughan, C. M. ... Biomechanical variables associated with Achilles tendinopathy in runners. / Azevedo, L. B.; Lambert, M. I.; Vaughan, C. L. et ... Biomechanical variables associated with Achilles tendinopathy in runners. In: British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2009 ; Vol. ...
... activities in lumbar muscles and biomechanical analyses were carried out to determine if a flexion/relaxation phenomenon arose ... No relaxation phenomenon was noted for left or right oblique abdominal muscles, either with no load or with a 5 kilogram load ... A 22 muscle biomechanical model was used to compute contraction forces in lumbar trunk muscles and compression and shear load ...
At the cellular level, these biomechanical events act on the cells through a phenomenon known as streaming potentials. This is ... Through biomechanical events in bone, osseous tissue can be stimulated within physiologic limitations by implant design to ...
Bailey, S. C. C., Pentelow, S., Ghimire, H. C., Estejab, B., Green, M. A. & Tavoularis, S., May 25 2018, In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics. 843, p. 722-747 26 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › peer-review ...
Biomechanical Phenomena Medicine & Life Sciences 100% * Decompression Medicine & Life Sciences 52% * Spine Medicine & Life ...
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Biomechanical Phenomena Medicine & Life Sciences 23% View full fingerprint Cite this. * APA ...
This is colloquially referred to as the "deer in the headlights" phenomenon. The movie of fruit flies that you see above may ... Then, using the labs unique software program called FlyWalker , the researchers can extract various biomechanical parameters ... help explain the ancient origins of the "startle response" and other biomechanical aspects of motion. ...
Biomechanical Phenomena; Electric Stimulation; Electromyography; Female; Foot; Humans; Male; Muscle, Skeletal; Walking; 1106 ... Identifying consistent biomechanical parameters across rising-to-walk subtasks to inform rehabilitation in practice: A ... The biomechanical characteristics of wearing FitFlop™ sandals highlight significant alterations in gait pattern: a comparative ... James, DC, Farmer, LJ, Sayers, JB, Cook, DP and Mileva, K. (2015). The biomechanical characteristics of wearing FitFlop™ ...
Incomplete insertion of pedicle screws in a standard construct reduces the fatigue life: A biomechanical analysis. Chu, Y. L., ... Biomechanical comparison of four tibial fixation techniques for meniscal root sutures in posterior medial meniscus root repair ... Biomechanical analysis of single-level interbody fusion with different internal fixation rod materials: a finite element ... Biomechanical assessment of vertebroplasty combined with cement-augmented screw fixation for lumbar burst fractures: A finite ...
Biomechanical Phenomena 50% * Proprioception 33% * Acceleration 25% 9 Citations (Scopus) 57 Downloads (Pure) ...
Biomechanical Phenomena 100% * Cluster Analysis 93% * Manipulators 91% * Inverse kinematics 80% * Decomposition 75% ...
  • It consists of a part of short questions and a part of calculations, which together test the understanding of particular phenomena in biomechanics and the ability to formulate suitable biomechanical models. (
  • Biomechanical implications of intraspecific shape variation in chimpanzee crania: moving toward an integration of geometric morphometrics and finite element analysis. (
  • This study uses geometric morphometric methods (GM) and finite element analysis (FEA) to examine the biomechanical implications of shape variation in chimpanzee crania, thereby providing a comparative context in which to interpret shape-related mechanical variation between hominin species. (
  • The heat transfer phenomena due to the interaction between phase change and heat generation was analyzed. (
  • [email protected] fluid dynamics and heat transfer phenomena in compressor and turbine components of gas turbine engines Measurement techniques turbine blade and measurement advancements Journal of Turbomachinery. (
  • The risk experienced by any given individual depends on the intensity of the biomechanical and psychosocial exposures and the duration of the exposure. (
  • You can imagine how the following examples might affect levels of biomechanical and psychosocial stressors on the job: 1. (
  • RSI/WMSD is a multifactorial phenomenon (the factors are: biomechanical, organizational and psychosocial) and multidimensional (the dimensions are: individual, group and social). (
  • The focus of this module is on the mechanics of biological tissues (including passive and active behavior, growth, remodeling) as well as on the modeling of flow and transport phenomena in blood vessels and airways (including the comparison of 3D, 1D, and 0D models). (
  • In order to estimate the loading on the spine due to whole body vibration (WBV) to low back pain (LBP), it jarring and jolting, we developed a specialized multi-body was noted that operators of heavy equipment in occupations biomechanical model of the human skeletal system. (
  • For students interested in studying biomechanical engineering, especially in the field of surgery, this lesson serves as an anatomy and physiology primer of the abdominopelvic cavity. (
  • Understanding the abdominopelvic environment and laparoscopic surgery is critical for biomechanical engineers who design laparoscopic surgical tools. (
  • This paper describes the development of a multi-body biomechanical model that can be used to assess the risk of low back disorders due to occupational exposure to jarring and jolting from operation of heavy mobile equipment (e.g., trucks, haulers, graders, tractors, etc. (
  • It has laid down minimum requirements applicable in the Member States to reinforce their existing monitoring systems, through which they collect, analyse and disseminate data on these phenomena with a view to identifying and characterising hazards, assessing exposure and defining the associated risks. (
  • While the mechanisms by which biomechanical exposures can cause MSDs are well described, we are still learning how job stress, a general body reaction mediated through the central nervous system, can contribute to MSD development. (
  • Meat texture is a complex phenomenon that encompasses characteristics such as hardness, springiness, chewiness, cohesiveness, and even juiciness. (
  • Although much has been learned over the years, instrumentally measuring and understanding characteristics of meat that correlate highly with the complex, sensory phenomenon of meat texture has proven difficult. (
  • Progress in measuring biomechanical characteristics of raw meat and establishing correlation to overall sensory scores continues to improve, and there are some promising technologies that may allow non-invasive or non-destructive testing to achieve this goal. (
  • Caution in interpreting the results of studies that evaluated the effects of belt use on predictions of biomechanical loading of the spine. (
  • Relaxation phenomenon in lumbar trunk muscles during lateral bending. (
  • Myoelectric activities in lumbar muscles and biomechanical analyses were carried out to determine if a flexion/relaxation phenomenon arose in lateral trunk bending. (
  • A 22 muscle biomechanical model was used to compute contraction forces in lumbar trunk muscles and compression and shear load acting on the spine for each task and each subject. (
  • No relaxation phenomenon was noted for left or right oblique abdominal muscles, either with no load or with a 5 kilogram load held in the hand on the side to which bending occurred. (
  • Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), cumulative trauma disorders (CTDs), repetitive strain injuries (RSIs) and other similar names all refer to the same phenomena--disorders of the musculoskeletal system, affecting joints, muscles, tendons, ligaments, cartilage, nerves and so on. (
  • Overall, similar biomechanical changes with increased exercise time were observed on the uphill and downhill inclines. (
  • Continuous monitoring of human movement is necessary to adapt personalized interventions, evaluate intervention efficacy, and facilitate research in cumulative-load dependent phenomena (e.g., muscle hypertrophy, osteoarthritis). (
  • There are insufficient dam indicating that typical industrial back belts significantly reduce the biomechanical loading of the trunk during manual lifting. (
  • Due to limitations in existing biomechanical simulate the response of soft tissues connecting the arms, models of spinal loading, however, it has been difficult to head, neck, trunk and legs. (
  • Research indicates that the biomechanical factor by itself is not sufficient for understanding the phenomenon. (
  • In addition, it is imperative to converse on the application of core training and current research involved with this phenomenon. (
  • A 4-body spinal model is more efficient than a 17 model can employ as many bodies as needed to study a segment model for obtaining gross-motion simulation, given phenomena. (
  • The droplet motion model, which is solved by typical four steps Runge-Kutta method and validated against the experimental results, is developed according to the physical phenomenon description and the mechanism comprehension of the vapor entrained droplets moving in the wave-type vanes separator. (
  • Through biomechanical events in bone, osseous tissue can be stimulated within physiologic limitations by implant design to develop along the lines of compressive forces dependent on the implant load-bearing area to sustain equilibrium. (
  • At the cellular level, these biomechanical events act on the cells through a phenomenon known as streaming potentials. (
  • A well-studied set of biomechanical (physical) stressors contributes to the development of MSDs. (
  • The movie of fruit flies that you see above may help explain the ancient origins of the "startle response" and other biomechanical aspects of motion. (
  • In this article, biomechanical aspects of hen-s eggshell as a natural ceramic structure are studied. (
  • Then, using the lab's unique software program called FlyWalker , the researchers can extract various biomechanical parameters of walking in time and space. (
  • This phenomenon, known as pedicle screw "plowing," has been described in previous biomechanical studies, which demonstrated that repeated craniocaudal stress forces in cadaveric bone can result in pedicle screw movement in bone, loss of screw purchase, and decreased axial pullout resistance. (
  • Our aims were to describe these biomechanical changes during a 50-minute run and compare them to those observed in standard shoes. (
  • Combining longitudinal MR imaging and finite strain theory, this study aimed to provide new insights into normal brain development through a biomechanical framework. (