Bone Malalignment: Displacement of bones out of line in relation to joints. It may be congenital or traumatic in origin.Complex Regional Pain Syndromes: Conditions characterized by pain involving an extremity or other body region, HYPERESTHESIA, and localized autonomic dysfunction following injury to soft tissue or nerve. The pain is usually associated with ERYTHEMA; SKIN TEMPERATURE changes, abnormal sudomotor activity (i.e., changes in sweating due to altered sympathetic innervation) or edema. The degree of pain and other manifestations is out of proportion to that expected from the inciting event. Two subtypes of this condition have been described: type I; (REFLEX SYMPATHETIC DYSTROPHY) and type II; (CAUSALGIA). (From Pain 1995 Oct;63(1):127-33)Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome: A syndrome characterized by retropatellar or peripatellar PAIN resulting from physical and biochemical changes in the patellofemoral joint. The pain is most prominent when ascending or descending stairs, squatting, or sitting with flexed knees. There is a lack of consensus on the etiology and treatment. The syndrome is often confused with (or accompanied by) CHONDROMALACIA PATELLAE, the latter describing a pathological condition of the CARTILAGE and not a syndrome.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Myofascial Pain Syndromes: Muscular pain in numerous body regions that can be reproduced by pressure on TRIGGER POINTS, localized hardenings in skeletal muscle tissue. Pain is referred to a location distant from the trigger points. A prime example is the TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT DYSFUNCTION SYNDROME.Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy: A syndrome characterized by severe burning pain in an extremity accompanied by sudomotor, vasomotor, and trophic changes in bone without an associated specific nerve injury. This condition is most often precipitated by trauma to soft tissue or nerve complexes. The skin over the affected region is usually erythematous and demonstrates hypersensitivity to tactile stimuli and erythema. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1360; Pain 1995 Oct;63(1):127-33)Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Pelvic Pain: Pain in the pelvic region of genital and non-genital origin and of organic or psychogenic etiology. Frequent causes of pain are distension or contraction of hollow viscera, rapid stretching of the capsule of a solid organ, chemical irritation, tissue ischemia, and neuritis secondary to inflammatory, neoplastic, or fibrotic processes in adjacent organs. (Kase, Weingold & Gershenson: Principles and Practice of Clinical Gynecology, 2d ed, pp479-508)Prostatitis: Infiltration of inflammatory cells into the parenchyma of PROSTATE. The subtypes are classified by their varied laboratory analysis, clinical presentation and response to treatment.Knee Joint: A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Coxa Vara: Hip deformity in which the femoral neck leans forward resulting in a decrease in the angle between femoral neck and its shaft. It may be congenital often syndromic, acquired, or developmental.Bone Remodeling: The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Chronic Pain: Aching sensation that persists for more than a few months. It may or may not be associated with trauma or disease, and may persist after the initial injury has healed. Its localization, character, and timing are more vague than with acute pain.Osteoarthritis, Knee: Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the knee joint consisting of three large categories: conditions that block normal synchronous movement, conditions that produce abnormal pathways of motion, and conditions that cause stress concentration resulting in changes to articular cartilage. (Crenshaw, Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 8th ed, p2019)Pain Management: A form of therapy that employs a coordinated and interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those experiencing pain.Femur: The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.Patella: The flat, triangular bone situated at the anterior part of the KNEE.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Cystitis, Interstitial: A condition with recurring discomfort or pain in the URINARY BLADDER and the surrounding pelvic region without an identifiable disease. Severity of pain in interstitial cystitis varies greatly and often is accompanied by increased urination frequency and urgency.Tibia: The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.Pain Threshold: Amount of stimulation required before the sensation of pain is experienced.Weight-Bearing: The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.Pain, Intractable: Persistent pain that is refractory to some or all forms of treatment.Range of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.Causalgia: A complex regional pain syndrome characterized by burning pain and marked sensitivity to touch (HYPERESTHESIA) in the distribution of an injured peripheral nerve. Autonomic dysfunction in the form of sudomotor (i.e., sympathetic innervation to sweat glands), vasomotor, and trophic skin changes may also occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1359)Tibial FracturesBone Resorption: Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.Bone Plates: Implantable fracture fixation devices attached to bone fragments with screws to bridge the fracture gap and shield the fracture site from stress as bone heals. (UMDNS, 1999)Back Pain: Acute or chronic pain located in the posterior regions of the THORAX; LUMBOSACRAL REGION; or the adjacent regions.Pain, Postoperative: Pain during the period after surgery.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Braces: Orthopedic appliances used to support, align, or hold parts of the body in correct position. (Dorland, 28th ed)Hallux Varus: Displacement of the great toe (HALLUX) towards the midline or away from the other TOES. It can be congenital or acquired.Autonomic Nerve Block: Interruption of sympathetic pathways, by local injection of an anesthetic agent, at any of four levels: peripheral nerve block, sympathetic ganglion block, extradural block, and subarachnoid block.Low Back Pain: Acute or chronic pain in the lumbar or sacral regions, which may be associated with musculo-ligamentous SPRAINS AND STRAINS; INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; and other conditions.Foot Deformities: Alterations or deviations from normal shape or size which result in a disfigurement of the foot.Abdominal Pain: Sensation of discomfort, distress, or agony in the abdominal region.Osteotomy: The surgical cutting of a bone. (Dorland, 28th ed)Bone Transplantation: The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Acute Pain: Intensely discomforting, distressful, or agonizing sensation associated with trauma or disease, with well-defined location, character, and timing.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Bone Development: The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.Patellar Dislocation: Displacement of the PATELLA from the femoral groove.Neck Pain: Discomfort or more intense forms of pain that are localized to the cervical region. This term generally refers to pain in the posterior or lateral regions of the neck.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Bone Nails: Rods of bone, metal, or other material used for fixation of the fragments or ends of fractured bones.Foot: The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Bone Diseases: Diseases of BONES.Joint Instability: Lack of stability of a joint or joint prosthesis. Factors involved are intra-articular disease and integrity of extra-articular structures such as joint capsule, ligaments, and muscles.Neuralgia: Intense or aching pain that occurs along the course or distribution of a peripheral or cranial nerve.Spinal Curvatures: Deformities of the SPINE characterized by abnormal bending or flexure in the vertebral column. They may be bending forward (KYPHOSIS), backward (LORDOSIS), or sideway (SCOLIOSIS).Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Fracture Fixation, Intramedullary: The use of nails that are inserted into bone cavities in order to keep fractured bones together.Quadriceps Muscle: The quadriceps femoris. A collective name of the four-headed skeletal muscle of the thigh, comprised of the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis.External Fixators: External devices which hold wires or pins that are placed through one or both cortices of bone in order to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment. These devices allow easy access to wounds, adjustment during the course of healing, and more functional use of the limbs involved.Down Syndrome: A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)Metabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)Finite Element Analysis: A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.Fibromyalgia: A common nonarticular rheumatic syndrome characterized by myalgia and multiple points of focal muscle tenderness to palpation (trigger points). Muscle pain is typically aggravated by inactivity or exposure to cold. This condition is often associated with general symptoms, such as sleep disturbances, fatigue, stiffness, HEADACHES, and occasionally DEPRESSION. There is significant overlap between fibromyalgia and the chronic fatigue syndrome (FATIGUE SYNDROME, CHRONIC). Fibromyalgia may arise as a primary or secondary disease process. It is most frequent in females aged 20 to 50 years. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1494-95)Fracture Healing: The physiological restoration of bone tissue and function after a fracture. It includes BONY CALLUS formation and normal replacement of bone tissue.Bone Regeneration: Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.Fractures, Closed: Fractures in which the break in bone is not accompanied by an external wound.Facial Pain: Pain in the facial region including orofacial pain and craniofacial pain. Associated conditions include local inflammatory and neoplastic disorders and neuralgic syndromes involving the trigeminal, facial, and glossopharyngeal nerves. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent facial pain as the primary manifestation of disease are referred to as FACIAL PAIN SYNDROMES.Fracture Fixation, Internal: The use of internal devices (metal plates, nails, rods, etc.) to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment.Femoral Fractures: Fractures of the femur.Cadaver: A dead body, usually a human body.ShoesAnalgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.Arthralgia: Pain in the joint.Gait: Manner or style of walking.Spinal Fusion: Operative immobilization or ankylosis of two or more vertebrae by fusion of the vertebral bodies with a short bone graft or often with diskectomy or laminectomy. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p236; Dorland, 28th ed)Ankle Joint: The joint that is formed by the inferior articular and malleolar articular surfaces of the TIBIA; the malleolar articular surface of the FIBULA; and the medial malleolar, lateral malleolar, and superior surfaces of the TALUS.Hyperalgesia: An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.Tensile Strength: The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)Facial Neuralgia: Neuralgic syndromes which feature chronic or recurrent FACIAL PAIN as the primary manifestation of disease. Disorders of the trigeminal and facial nerves are frequently associated with these conditions.Shoulder Pain: Unilateral or bilateral pain of the shoulder. It is often caused by physical activities such as work or sports participation, but may also be pathologic in origin.Bone Matrix: Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.Lordosis: The anterior concavity in the curvature of the lumbar and cervical spine as viewed from the side. The term usually refers to abnormally increased curvature (hollow back, saddle back, swayback). It does not include lordosis as normal mating posture in certain animals ( = POSTURE + SEX BEHAVIOR, ANIMAL).Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee: Replacement of the knee joint.Somatosensory Disorders: Disorders of sensory information received from superficial and deep regions of the body. The somatosensory system conveys neural impulses which pertain to proprioception, tactile sensation, thermal sensation, pressure sensation, and pain. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; and BRAIN DISEASES may be associated with impaired or abnormal somatic sensation.Menisci, Tibial: The interarticular fibrocartilages of the superior surface of the tibia.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Bone Lengthening: Increase in the longest dimension of a bone to correct anatomical deficiencies, congenital, traumatic, or as a result of disease. The lengthening is not restricted to long bones. The usual surgical methods are internal fixation and distraction.Fibula: The bone of the lower leg lateral to and smaller than the tibia. In proportion to its length, it is the most slender of the long bones.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Cartilage, Articular: A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.Pain Perception: The process by which PAIN is recognized and interpreted by the brain.Failed Back Surgery Syndrome: A condition of persistent pain and discomfort in the BACK and the LEG following lumbar surgery, often seen in patients enrolled in pain centers.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Muscle Strength: The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Nociceptive Pain: Dull or sharp aching pain caused by stimulated NOCICEPTORS due to tissue injury, inflammation or diseases. It can be divided into somatic or tissue pain and VISCERAL PAIN.Fractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.DislocationsFollow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Bone Anteversion: Malalignment of a bone in which its head and neck is rotated excessively forward or inward.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Bone Substitutes: Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.Bone Screws: Specialized devices used in ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY to repair bone fractures.Bursitis: Inflammation or irritation of a bursa, the fibrous sac that acts as a cushion between moving structures of bones, muscles, tendons or skin.Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Compressive Strength: The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)Surgical Tape: A flat, flexible strip of material used to cover or fasten together damaged tissue.Equipment Failure Analysis: The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.Pain, Referred: A type of pain that is perceived in an area away from the site where the pain arises, such as facial pain caused by lesion of the VAGUS NERVE, or throat problem generating referred pain in the ear.Elasticity: Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.Nephrotic Syndrome: A condition characterized by severe PROTEINURIA, greater than 3.5 g/day in an average adult. The substantial loss of protein in the urine results in complications such as HYPOPROTEINEMIA; generalized EDEMA; HYPERTENSION; and HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. Diseases associated with nephrotic syndrome generally cause chronic kidney dysfunction.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Electric Stimulation Therapy: Application of electric current in treatment without the generation of perceptible heat. It includes electric stimulation of nerves or muscles, passage of current into the body, or use of interrupted current of low intensity to raise the threshold of the skin to pain.Bone Diseases, MetabolicTrigger Points: Discrete spots in taut bands of muscle that produce local and referred pain when muscle bands are compressed.Lumbar Vertebrae: VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Sjogren's Syndrome: Chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease in which the salivary and lacrimal glands undergo progressive destruction by lymphocytes and plasma cells resulting in decreased production of saliva and tears. The primary form, often called sicca syndrome, involves both KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS SICCA and XEROSTOMIA. The secondary form includes, in addition, the presence of a connective tissue disease, usually rheumatoid arthritis.Knee Prosthesis: Replacement for a knee joint.Orthotic Devices: Apparatus used to support, align, prevent, or correct deformities or to improve the function of movable parts of the body.Spine: The spinal or vertebral column.X-Ray Microtomography: X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular: Developmental abnormalities in any portion of the VENTRICULAR SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communications between the two lower chambers of the heart. Classification of ventricular septal defects is based on location of the communication, such as perimembranous, inlet, outlet (infundibular), central muscular, marginal muscular, or apical muscular defect.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Models, Anatomic: Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.Anesthetics, Local: Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.Elastic Modulus: Numerical expression indicating the measure of stiffness in a material. It is defined by the ratio of stress in a unit area of substance to the resulting deformation (strain). This allows the behavior of a material under load (such as bone) to be calculated.Internal Fixators: Internal devices used in osteosynthesis to hold the position of the fracture in proper alignment. By applying the principles of biomedical engineering, the surgeon uses metal plates, nails, rods, etc., for the correction of skeletal defects.Thalamic Diseases: Disorders of the centrally located thalamus, which integrates a wide range of cortical and subcortical information. Manifestations include sensory loss, MOVEMENT DISORDERS; ATAXIA, pain syndromes, visual disorders, a variety of neuropsychological conditions, and COMA. Relatively common etiologies include CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; BRAIN NEOPLASMS; BRAIN HYPOXIA; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; and infectious processes.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Torque: The rotational force about an axis that is equal to the product of a force times the distance from the axis where the force is applied.Physical Therapy Modalities: Therapeutic modalities frequently used in PHYSICAL THERAPY SPECIALTY by PHYSICAL THERAPISTS or physiotherapists to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Nociceptors: Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Bone Cements: Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2: A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Musculoskeletal Pain: Discomfort stemming from muscles, LIGAMENTS, tendons, and bones.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Hip Joint: The joint that is formed by the articulation of the head of FEMUR and the ACETABULUM of the PELVIS.Hip: The projecting part on each side of the body, formed by the side of the pelvis and the top portion of the femur.Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Trigeminal Neuralgia: A syndrome characterized by recurrent episodes of excruciating pain lasting several seconds or longer in the sensory distribution of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE. Pain may be initiated by stimulation of trigger points on the face, lips, or gums or by movement of facial muscles or chewing. Associated conditions include MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, vascular anomalies, ANEURYSMS, and neoplasms. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p187)NAV1.7 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel: A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype found widely expressed in nociceptive primary sensory neurons. Defects in the SCN9A gene, which codes for the alpha subunit of this sodium channel, are associated with several pain sensation-related disorders.Osteoporosis: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.Turner Syndrome: A syndrome of defective gonadal development in phenotypic females associated with the karyotype 45,X (or 45,XO). Patients generally are of short stature with undifferentiated GONADS (streak gonads), SEXUAL INFANTILISM, HYPOGONADISM, webbing of the neck, cubitus valgus, elevated GONADOTROPINS, decreased ESTRADIOL level in blood, and CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS. NOONAN SYNDROME (also called Pseudo-Turner Syndrome and Male Turner Syndrome) resembles this disorder; however, it occurs in males and females with a normal karyotype and is inherited as an autosomal dominant.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Hand: The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Stellate Ganglion: A paravertebral sympathetic ganglion formed by the fusion of the inferior cervical and first thoracic ganglia.Cyclohexanecarboxylic AcidsParietal Bone: One of a pair of irregularly shaped quadrilateral bones situated between the FRONTAL BONE and OCCIPITAL BONE, which together form the sides of the CRANIUM.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Bony Callus: The bony deposit formed between and around the broken ends of BONE FRACTURES during normal healing.Myelodysplastic Syndromes: Clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by dysplasia in one or more hematopoietic cell lineages. They predominantly affect patients over 60, are considered preleukemic conditions, and have high probability of transformation into ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA.Lidocaine: A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation: The use of specifically placed small electrodes to deliver electrical impulses across the SKIN to relieve PAIN. It is used less frequently to produce ANESTHESIA.Abnormalities, MultipleMuscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Tendons: Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.Temporal Bone: Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).Peripheral Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the peripheral nerves external to the brain and spinal cord, which includes diseases of the nerve roots, ganglia, plexi, autonomic nerves, sensory nerves, and motor nerves.Neuralgia, Postherpetic: Pain in nerves, frequently involving facial SKIN, resulting from the activation the latent varicella-zoster virus (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN). The two forms of the condition preceding the pain are HERPES ZOSTER OTICUS; and HERPES ZOSTER OPHTHALMICUS. Following the healing of the rashes and blisters, the pain sometimes persists.Pudendal Neuralgia: Pain associated with a damaged PUDENDAL NERVE. Clinical features may include positional pain with sitting in the perineal and genital areas, sexual dysfunction and FECAL INCONTINENCE and URINARY INCONTINENCE.Spinal Diseases
Clinical features of CRPS have been found to be inflammation resulting from the release of certain pro-inflammatory chemical signals from the nerves, sensitized nerve receptors that send pain signals to the brain, dysfunction of the local blood vessels' ability to constrict and dilate appropriately, and maladaptive neuroplasticity.[11] The signs and symptoms of CRPS will usually manifest near the injury site. The most common symptoms are extreme pain including burning, stabbing, grinding, and throbbing. The pain is out of proportion to the severity of the initial injury.[6] Moving or touching the limb is often intolerable. With diagnosis of either CRPS I or II, patients may develop burning pain and allodynia (pain to non-noxious stimuli). Both syndromes are also characterized by autonomic dysfunction, which presents with localized temperature changes, cyanosis, and/or edema. The patient may also experience ...
A Spinal Cord Stimulator (SCS) or Dorsal Column Stimulator (DCS) is a type of implantable neuromodulation device (sometimes called a "pain pacemaker") that is used to send electrical signals to select areas of the spinal cord (dorsal columns) for the treatment of certain pain conditions. SCS is a consideration for people who have a pain condition that has not responded to more conservative therapy. In the United States Failed Back Surgery Syndrome is the most common use while in Europe the most common use is peripheral ischemia. As of 2014 the FDA had approved SCS as a treatment for failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS), chronic pain, Complex Regional Pain Syndrome, Intractable angina, as well as visceral abdominal and perineal pain and pain in the extremities from nerve damage. The most common use of SCS is failed back surgery ...
... (marketed under the trade name Dibenzyline) is a non-selective, irreversible alpha blocker. It is used in the treatment of hypertension, and specifically that caused by pheochromocytoma. It has a slower onset and a longer-lasting effect compared with other alpha blockers. It was also the first alpha blocker to be used for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia, although it is currently seldom used for that indication due to unfavourable side effects. It has been used in the treatment of hypoplastic left heart syndrome. It is also used in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) type 1 due to its anti-adrenergic affects. It has shown to be beneficial if used in the first 3 months of the CRPS diagnosis. Phenoxybenzamine has long been known to block ejaculation without affecting semen quality or ability to achieve orgasm, which could make it an effective male contraceptive. This effect is completely reversible, and is believed to be the result of alpha-1 ...
... (TOS) is a condition in which there is compression of the nerves, arteries, or veins in the passageway from the lower neck to the armpit. There are three main types: neurogenic, venous, and arterial. The neurogenic type is the most common and presents with pain, weakness, and occasionally loss of muscle at the base of the thumb. The venous type results in swelling, pain, and possibly a bluish coloration of the arm. The arterial type results in pain, coldness, and paleness of the arm. TOS may result from trauma, repetitive arm movements, tumors, pregnancy, or anatomical variations such as a cervical rib. The diagnosis may be supported by nerve conduction studies and medical imaging. Other conditions that can produce similar symptoms include rotator cuff tear, cervical disc disorders, fibromyalgia, multiple sclerosis, and complex regional pain syndrome. Initial treatment for the neurogenic type is with exercises to ...
The New York Palace Budapest is a luxury hotel on the Grand Boulevard of Budapest's Erzsébet körút part, under Erzsébet körút 9-11, in the 7th district of Budapest, Hungary. Part of The Dedica Anthology and previously known as Boscolo Budapest from 2006 to 2017, the building was constructed in 1894 by the New York Life Insurance Company as a local head office. It was designed by architect Alajos Hauszmann, along with Flóris Korb and Kálmán Giergl. The building opened on October 23, 1894. The famous New York Café (Hungarian: New York Kávéház) the ground floor has been a longtime center for Hungarian literature and poetry. The statues and other ornaments on the facade of the building, as well as the café's 16 imposing devilish fauns, are the works of Károly Senyei.[1][2] The building was nationalized during the communist era. After the collapse of communism, the structure was bought by the Italian Boscolo Hotels chain in February 2001. The building was totally renovated and reopened ...
The Budapest Treaty on the International Recognition of the Deposit of Microorganisms for the Purposes of Patent Procedure, or Budapest Treaty, is an international treaty signed in Budapest, Hungary, on April 28, 1977. It entered into force on August 9, 1980, and was later amended on September 26, 1980. The treaty is administered by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO). As of July 2016, 80 countries are party to the Budapest Treaty. The accession to the Treaty is open to States party to the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property of 1883. The African Regional Industrial Property Organization (ARIPO), the Eurasian Patent Organization (EAPO) and the European Patent Organisation (EPO) have filed a declaration of acceptance under Article 9(1)(a) of the Treaty. The treaty allows "deposits of microorganisms at an international depositary authority to be recognized for the purposes of patent procedure". Usually, in order to meet the legal requirement of sufficiency of ...
... is a chronic and sometimes debilitating genital pain condition that may develop immediately or several years after vasectomy. Because this condition is a syndrome, there is no single treatment method, therefore efforts focus on mitigating/relieving the individual patient's specific pain. When pain in the epididymides is the primary symptom, post-vasectomy pain syndrome is often described as congestive epididymitis. Persistent pain in the genitalia and/or genital area(s). Groin pain upon physical exertion. Pain when achieving an erection and/or engaging in sexual intercourse. Pain upon ejaculation. Loss of erectile function Any of the aforementioned pain conditions/syndromes can persist for years after vasectomy and affect as many as one in three vasectomized men. The range of PVPS pain ...
Pal was born in Cegléd, Hungary, the son of György Pál Marczincsak, Sr.[citation needed] and his wife Maria. He graduated from the Budapest Academy of Arts in 1928 (aged 20). From 1928 to 1931, he made films for Hunnia Films of Budapest, Hungary.. At the age of 23 in 1931, he married Elisabeth "Zsoka" Grandjean, and after moving to Berlin, founded Trickfilm-Studio GmbH Pal und Wittke, with UFA Studios as its main customer from 1931 to 1933. During this time, he patented the Pal-Doll technique (known as Puppetoons in the US).. In 1933, he worked in Prague; in 1934, he made a film advertisement in his hotel room in Paris, and was invited by Philips to make two more ad shorts. He started to use Pal-Doll techniques in Eindhoven, in a former butchery, then at villa-studio Suny Home. He left Germany as the Nazis came to power.. He made five films before 1939 for the British company Horlicks Malted Milk. In December of that year, aged 32, he emigrated from Europe to the United States,[2] and began ...
... is an annual event held in Budapest, Hungary. It has been referred to as "a sort of South By Southwest on the Danube" owing to its fusion of tech conference and music festival. The event attracted more than 7,000 attendees in 2017 from 30 different countries and a livestream audience of more than 20,000. Brain Bar focuses on the free exchange of ideas instead of one-way communication. Its audience is encouraged to communicate directly with the speakers. The festival hosts roundtable talks and debates that set up opposing viewpoints, and myth-busting talks challenging commonly held beliefs. The aim is to create a challenging, intellectual, and inclusive environment. Brain Bar was founded by Gergely Böszörményi-Nagy with the goal of creating a platform where attendees could discuss and debate big questions of the future, while drawing inspiration from well-known thinkers on a broad spectrum of disciplines. The event addresses many topics related to how communities and humanity, as a ...
Overdose had an unbeaten series of 14 races. In these races he won with a total of 116,5 lengths, which means 8,3 lengths per race in average. He ran a new track record at his home track (Kincsem Park, Budapest, Hungary), for his first ever race (in which he was victorious with 18 lengths).[3] In 2008 he was named Wunderpferd (wonderhorse) in Germany, for winning German sprint races - including the Group 2 Goldene Peitsche - in such a dominant style.[4] He won a Group I race at Longchamp, but unfortunately the race was declared void due to a non-opening gate. His time was only 0,1 second behind the track record of Habibti. He did not participated in the re-run at the end of the day, since his unbeaten record was at risk.[5] Only a month later Overdose won a Group III race in Rome, with a dominating 10 lengths. In the 2008 world thoroughbred rankings Overdose was among a the top sprinters (4th at Timeform with a rating of 126, and 6th at IFHA with 120), despite he did not win a Group I race (at ...
Tabori was born in Budapest as György Tábori, a son of Kornél and Elsa Tábori. His father Cornelius died in Auschwitz in 1944, but his mother and his brother Paul Tabori (writer and psychical researcher), managed to escape the Nazis.[1] He adopted the three children of Viveca Lindfors, John, Lena and Kristoffer. As a young man, Tabori went to Berlin but was forced to leave Nazi Germany in 1935 due to his Jewish background. He first went to London, where he worked for the BBC and received British citizenship. In 1947 he immigrated to the United States, where he became a translator (mainly of works by Bertolt Brecht and Max Frisch) and a screenwriter[2] including Alfred Hitchcock's movie I Confess (1953).. His first novel, Beneath The Stone, was published in America in 1945. In the late 1960s, Tabori brought his own and the work of Brecht to many colleges and universities. At the University of Pennsylvania he taught classes in dramatic writing which resulted in Werner Liepolt's The Young ...
French-Hungarian relations are foreign relations between France and Hungary. The first diplomatic contacts date back from the Middle Ages. France has an embassy in Budapest.[1] Hungary has an embassy in Paris and 8 honorary consulates (in Bordeaux, Tours, Lille, Marseille, Mulhouse, Nancy, Rennes and Rouen).[2][3] Both countries are full members of NATO and the European Union. Since 2004, Hungary is an observer in LaLa Francophonie. ...
Sideris, Athanasios (2006). "The Encyclopedic Concept in the Web Era", in Ioannides M., Arnold D., Niccolucci F. and K. Mania (eds.), The e-volution of Information Communication Technology in Cultural Heritage. Where Hi-Tech Touches teh Past: Risks and Challenges for the 21st Century. VAST 2006, Epoch, Budapest, pp. 192-197. ISBN 963-8046-74-0 ...
The most common causes of patellar malalignment are an abnormal muscle imbalance and poor biomechanical control. ... Patellofemoral pain syndrome is more common during adolescence because the long bones are growing faster than the muscles, ... What is Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome?. Patellofemoral pain syndrome is one of the most common knee complaints of both the young ... What Biomechanical Issues Cause Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome?. Poor foot posture (eg flat feet) and weak hip control muscles ...
Various biomechanical derangements may be present on exam. - excessive foot pronation;. - ie. Malalignment, patellar ... phase I: pain only after activity;. - phase II: pain/discomfort during activity, but does not interfere w/ participation;. - ... MRI or Ultrasound: may confirm the diagnosis; Bone scan ~ 29% false-negative rate - Non-Operative Treatment:. - Ice, NSAIDs, ... Associated syndromes:. Sinding-Larsen-Johansson Disease:. - osteochondrosis of the inferior pole of the patella. - presents as ...
Patellofemoral pain syndrome is related to a combination of factors involving malalignment of the knee extensor mechanism.14,15 ... Biomechanic (intrinsic) factors and equipment or training (extrinsic) issues are the main contributors to overuse injuries. ... Repetitive activity fatigues a specific structure, such as tendon or bone. Without adequate recovery, microtrauma stimulates an ... Patellofemoral pain syndrome, also called retropatellar pain syndrome, refers to anterior knee pain emanating from the ...
... pain and biomechanical disorders of sternoclavicular mobility and malalignment are typically referred to the shoulder. The ... Temporary TENS is often helpful in situations of intractable pain. Thoracic Outlet Syndrome. Thoracic outlet syndrome is ... The tenderness from a sternal bone bruise even without major damage lingers for an abnormally long time, frequently mimicking ... Chest Pain and Tenderness. Referred Pain. Breast Pain. Diaphragmatic Pain. Initial Respiratory Considerations. Postural Effects ...
Anterior Patello-femoral Pain Syndrome, Chondromalacia, Lateral Pressure Syndrome, Malalignment Syndrome, Maltracking Syndrome ... The knee joint is composed of three bones - the femur (or thigh bone), the tibia (or shin bone), and the patella (or kneecap). ... Basically, all of the above diagnoses refer to a biomechanical abnormality of the joint space between the patella and the ... Fortunately, most of the pain syndromes that result in pain around the front of the patella and the front of the knee usually ...
Managing Back Pain in Women ... Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome: Miserable Malalignment Syndrome. Patellofemoral pain syndromes, more common to women than men [6 ... Peak bone density in women is thought to have been reached by age 35 years which is less than the bone density seen in men of ... Maintaining proper alignment restores aberrant biomechanical function and helps control pain. [4, 13] Restoration of ...
Chronic Pain (CP), Inflammatory (I), Metabolic Syndrome (MS) and Bone and Cartilage Metabolism (BCM). The purpose of this study ... A significant effect of phenotypes on WOMAC pain (F = 16.736 p ,0.001) and WOMAC physical function (F = 14.676, p , 0.001) was ... subjects with malalignment only, in absence of other risk factors, may be considered belonging to a malaligned biomechanical ... Malaligned Biomechanical (MB), Chronic Pain (CP), Inflammatory (I), Metabolic Syndrome (MS) and Bone and Cartilage Metabolism ( ...
... iliotibial band friction syndrome, medial tibial stress syndrome, Achilles tendinopathy, plantar fasciitis, and lower extremity ... and overtraining syndrome. These conditions are treatable or preventable with appropriate medical intervention. Dilutional ... Common overuse injuries in runners and other endurance athletes include patellofemoral pain syndrome, ... Physical examination may reveal patellofemoral malalignment, tenderness at the patellofemoral facets, pain on patellofemoral ...
... is an effective intervention for relieving pain and disability in people with advanced osteoarthritis of the knee. This ... Hofmann S, Romero J, Roth-Schiffl E, Albrecht T. Rotational malalignment of the components may cause chronic pain or early ... Fat embolism syndrome following the intramedullary alignment guide in total knee arthroplasty. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1990;251: ... Biomechanical effects of total knee arthroplasty component malrotation: a computational simulation. J Orthop Res. 2011;29(7): ...
... patellofemoral malalignment (PFM), an abnormality of patellar tracking that involves lateral displacement or lateral tilt of ... "Chondromalacia Patellae": patellar malalignment syndrome. Orthop Clin North Am. 1979;10:117-127.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Lateral force--displacement behaviour of the human patella and its variation with knee flexion - a biomechanical study in vitro ... J Bone Joint Surg. 1992;74-B:140-142.Google Scholar. *. 5. ... Pathogenesis of anterior knee pain syndrome and functional ...
... posterior tibial stress syndrome; patellofemoral pain syndrome; hallux valgus; altered gait patterns; pelvic obliquity toward ... J Bone Joint Surg. 1969; 51(3):517-526.. 36. Krause WR, Pope MH, Johnson RJ, et al. Mechanical changes in the knee after ... Functional biomechanical deficits in running athletes with plantar fasciitis. Am K Sports Med. 1991; 19(1):66-71.. 35. Tapper ... Schuit D, McPoil TG, Mulesa P. Incidence of sacroiliac malalignment in limb length discrepancies. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 1989 ...
Patellofemoral pain syndrome, previously called chondromalacia patellae, is caused by overuse and/or biomechanical imbalances ... inflammatory shin pain) is the pain and tender thickening felt along the inside of the stressed shin bone where the calf ... and malalignment leading to irritation of the cartilage underneath the knee cap (patella). Other predisposing factors are over ... to overcome pain and injury. Pain, osteoarthritis, heel, back and neck pain, frozen shoulder, carpal tunnel syndrome, sports. ...
The symptoms of compartment syndrome include pain out of proportion to the surgery and pain with passive range of motion of the ... Nevertheless, arthroscopy does not address the biomechanical malalignment in these cases, and with time, the fibrocartilage ... In this technique, the subchondral bone is abraded or microfractured to bleeding bone. This allows for the formation of ... Compartment syndrome has been reported. The syndrome occurs in the anterior compartment and can be especially difficult to ...
COMPARISON OF ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY OF PATELLA STABILIZER MUSCLES BETWEEN ATHLETES WITH AND WITHOUT PATELLOFEMORAL PAIN SYNDROME ... Bones. Bones. Bones. Bones. Knee joint. Manual of Structural Kinesiology R.T. Floyd, EdD, ATC, CSCS The Knee Joint Chapter 10 ... BIOMECHANICAL INFLUENCES ON THE SOCCER PLAYER. Planes of Lumbar Pelvic Femoral (Back, Pelvic, Hip) Muscle Function ... Therefore, an insufficiency of these muscles can have an effect on the patella and develop patellar malalignment and ...
Often heel pain in children returns after it has been treated because the heel bone is still growing. Recurrence of heel pain ... Reliability or validity of methods used to obtain the ankle joint dorsiflexion or biomechanical malalignment data are not ... Short leg syndrome (one leg is shorter than the other), which causes the foot on the short leg to bend downward to reach the ... over the medial and lateral surface of the bone). Pain is usually absent when the child gets up in the morning. Increased pain ...
Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using bone-patellar tendon-bone allografts. A biological and biomechanical evaluation ... Saxton D, Lindenfeld TN, Noyes FR: Chapter 43: Diagnosis and treatment of complex regional pain syndrome, pp. 1116-1133.. ... Patellofemoral Malalignment. 8th Annual AAOS/AOSSM Sports Medicine Course: From the Slopes to the Sidelines, Steamboat Springs ... Bone-patellar ligament-bone and fascia lata allografts for reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament. J Bone Joint Surg ...
... tibial rotation movements have been proposed to increase the chance of overuse syndromes such as patellofemoral pain syndromes ... Impact stimuli have been shown to improve bone integrity. The increase in bone mass could be explained to 68 to 81% by the ... The summary of biomechanical and epidemiological results indicates that the concept of "impact forces" as a major source for ... Running-related injuries have often been associated with the static or dynamic malalignment of the skeleton. Excessive foot ...
... and 70 chronic neck pain subjects. Spine 2004; 29:2485-2492; Katsuura A, Hukuda S, Saruhashi Y, et al. Kyphotic malalignment ... Autologous bone harvested from the iliac crest or cadaveric bone is most commonly used to fill the space created by the removal ... Early clinical and biomechanical studies with single and multi-level disc replacement have reported favorable clinical outcomes ... ASD can be defined as a clinical syndrome of symptomatic degenerative changes occurring adjacent to a previously fused motion ...
In an 84-year-old female patient with poor osteoporotic bone stock, insertion of the radial cemented Maestro WRS was combined ... All clinical parameters (DASH score, pain through VAS, and grip strength) were satisfactory. Both patients reported that they ... In a 56-year-old male patient with adequate bone stock, insertion of the noncemented Maestro WRS was combined with ulnar ... the biomechanical advantage using angle-stable locking plates at the distal radius especially in osteoporotic bone stock is ...
Metatarsal Stress Syndrome. The metatarsals are the bones in your foot that correspond to the bones in the palm of your hand. ... long bones of the foot), femur (thigh bone), and occasionally the pelvis. The symptoms of a stress fracture include pain that ... see a biomechanical specialist for comprehensive assessment, gait analysis, and treatment. Tibial Stress Syndrome. This is ... 4. Gross MT: Lower Extremity Screening for Skeletal Malalignment - Suggestions for Orthotics and Shoewear. J Orthop Sports Phys ...
Increased femoral antetorsion is one important risk factor for patellofemoral instability and anterior knee pain syndrome in ... Electromagnetic bone segment tracking to control femoral derotation osteotomy-a saw bone study. J Orthop Res. 2017;35:1106-12. ... However, attention must be given to different techniques and thresholds [18]. Due to the biomechanical nature of this proof of ... Treatment of severe torsional malalignment syndrome. J Pediatr Orthop. 1996;16:484-8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ...
The contribution of static and/or dynamic malalignment of the pelvis, hip, knee, ankle, and foot to anterior knee pain is less ... Congenital causes such as Wolfe-Parkinson-White Syndrome, Long Q-T syndrome, Brugadas Syndrome, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, ... J. Bone Joint Surg. 87:824-831, 2005.. *View Full Text , PubMed , CrossRef ... Alterations of biomechanical motions: abnormal humeral head translation on the glenoid, alteration of arm position, and ...
J Bone Joint Surg-Am 2002;84(10):1856-60.. 23. Lehman RA Jr., Kuklo TR, Belmont PJ Jr., Andersen RC, Polly DW Jr. Advantage of ... Lateral Leg Pain in a 26-year-old Woman. Clin Orthop Relat Res 1997;(340):276-80, 287-8. ... Biomechanical Considerations of Spinal Instrumentation in the Aging Spine. Sem in Spine Surg 2005;17(3): 215-22. ... Correction of Thoracic Rotation and Chest Wall Malalignment: A Comparison of Hybrid versus Pedicle Screw Constructs. Spine ( ...
... subcalcaneal pain, medial arch sprain, stone bruise, calcaneal periostitis, neuritis, subcalcaneal spurs, andcalcaneodynia.2,3 ... described plantar fasciitis and attributed it to tuberculosis.1 Plantar fasciitis has been called the painful heel syndrome, ... J Bone Joint Surg. 1 975: 57A:672-673.. 7. Kibler WB. Goldberg C. Chandler TJ. Functional biomechanical deficits in running ... A. Pain at the Medial Aspect of the Calcaneus: Plantar fasciitis is a clinically defined syndrome characterized by pain at the ...
A proximal strengthening program improves pain, function, and biomechanics in women with patellofemoral pain syndrome. Am J ... J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2016;98(5):417-27.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ... The effects of articular, retinacular, or muscular deficiencies on patellofemoral joint stability: a biomechanical study in ... and malalignment of lower limbs. The medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) stabilizes the patella in the early flexion or ...
  • The problem facing the orthopedist in unicompartmental arthritis is addressing single-compartment articular cartilage wear and biomechanical overload while preserving the integrity of the remaining knee joint. (
  • It is our hypothesis that TWA using the Maestro WRS can provide satisfactory results in terms of range of motion, pain, and function for immediate salvage of a highly comminuted intra-articular fracture that is not amenable to open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). (
  • A 56-year-old right-handed male patient with adequate bone stock presented with a highly comminuted intra-articular DRF right after a high-energy fall from a height of three meters (Figure 2(a) ). (
  • This chapter discusses the basic concepts and terms of biodynamics, biomechanical stress, and the biomechanical aspects of articular cartilage pertinent to the clinical setting. (
  • From rockwood ca jr acute and the anal canal urethra penis s a p t e r at a constant linear velocity of a person is run over by a wide range of four different types of gure - of - motion program is started almost immediately, regardless of whether the intra - articular pain pumps because of a. (
  • Torque is a more than years % were housewives, and % specic and generic health status should be placed under tension to the longitudinal axis of rotation for this procedure should not be sufcient bone and articular cartilage type ii. (
  • The articular cartilage of the posterior surface of the patella is going though degenerative changes which manifests as a softening, swelling, fraying, and erosion of the hyaline cartilage underlying the patella and sclerosis of underlying bone. (
  • El objetivo del tratamiento quirúrgico se basa en la descompresión articular del cubito con el carpo proximal. (
  • I learned, too, that pain signals can arrive a full TWO DAYS AFTER the offending activity (hyaline articular cartilage has no nerves -- that's a BIG issue when you're trying to heal). (
  • In a previous systematic review of the literature, six main phenotypes were identified: Minimal Joint Disease (MJD), Malaligned Biomechanical (MB), Chronic Pain (CP), Inflammatory (I), Metabolic Syndrome (MS) and Bone and Cartilage Metabolism (BCM). (
  • Role of Epigenomics in Bone and Cartilage Disease. (
  • While these changes are occurring, the bones, which at first consist principally of cartilage, are gradually becoming ossified, and in a normal child by the time it begins to walk the lower limbs are prepared, both by their general direction and by the rigidity of the bones which form them, to support the weight of the body. (
  • A soft rim of cartilage, the labrum lines the socket and deepens it so that it accommodates the head of the upper arm bone better. (
  • A chronic joint disease involving progressive loss of joint cartilage, bone remodeling, hypertrophy and osteophyte formation. (
  • Acute patellar dislocation is a common cause of traumatic hemarthrosis and is associated with multiple anatomical abnormalities including patella alta, trochlea dysplasia, and malalignment of lower limbs. (
  • It could be concluded that cervical sagittal imbalance arising from regional and/or global spinal sagittal malalignment plays an independent role in exacerbating adjacent segment pathomechanics after multilevel fusion and should be considered during cervical fusion surgical planning. (
  • The most common causes of patellar malalignment are an abnormal muscle imbalance and poor biomechanical control . (
  • 1 Persons with persistent PFP exhibit abnormal nociceptive processing (ie, widespread mechanical hyperalgesia, impaired pain modulation), 2-5 altered somatosensory processing (implying neuropathic pain), 6 impaired sensorimotor function (ie, proprioception and balance) 7-10 and certain psychological factors (ie, catastrophising and kinesiophobia). (
  • Painful rigid flatfoot, on the other hand, is abnormal and causes pain, stiffness, and the inability to flex the foot. (
  • 15 Costa et al 6 used Z-plasty of the Achilles tendon to correct the abnormal loading of the tendon and consequent trauma and to prevent recurrence of pain. (
  • The doctor may also look at the shape of your leg, ankle, and foot while you are standing, and check the range of motion of your toe and joints by asking you to move your toes in different directions A closer examination with weight-bearing X-rays helps your doctor examine the actual bone structure at the joint and see how severe the problem is. (
  • I could not feel pain against the side of my ankle up against the frame of the walking boot due to the Marcaine Injections into the ankle joint prior to waking up from the surgery. (
  • Because of pressure of the ace wrap and my ankle rubbing against the boot, I experienced a burning of my skin up the line of my distal fibula bone. (
  • My nerve pain was eliminated but I continued to have some ankle issues. (
  • The red circle of this photo shows the exact area of my predominate point of pain Even though I had studied many ailments of the ankle prior to my first surgery, I had never looked up this diagnosis before as I simply never heard the words until this time. (
  • This type of foot pain occurs as the nerve that courses behind the inner ankle bone becomes compressed. (
  • Pain or swelling on the inside of the ankle. (
  • it then runs down along the inside of the lower leg and ankle (behind the medial malleolus) and inserts into various bones in the foot via the tibialis posterior tendon. (
  • the physiotherapist may normally apply supportive taping or ankle binder to help relieve pain and commence realignment phase. (
  • But others with flat feet experience pain in the heel or arch area, difficulty standing on tiptoe, or have swelling along the inside of the ankle. (
  • Fallen arches may induce pain in the heel, the inside of the arch, the ankle, and may even extend up the body into the leg (shin splints), knee , lower back and hip. (
  • You may also experience inflammation (swelling, redness, heat and pain) along the inside of the ankle (along the posterior tibial tendon). (
  • 1 Loads up to 10× body weight are applied during activities such as jumping and are increased by malalignment of the foot and ankle. (
  • 1 The Achilles tendon is the most common location of posterior ankle pain. (
  • Repetitive activity fatigues a specific structure, such as tendon or bone. (
  • other tendinopathies result in pain localized to the insertion site of the affected tendon. (
  • Muscle and tendon injuries where the muscle attaches to bone are also common, with groin and hamstring injuries being the most common. (
  • The diagnosis is clinical on the basis of history and presentation, characterised by pain and swelling on the posterior aspect of the tendon insertion. (
  • They can be divided into palpation tests (tendon thickening, crepitus, pain on palpation, the Royal London Hospital (RLH) test, the painful arc sign) and tendon loading tests (pain on passive dorsiflexion, pain on single heel raise and pain on hopping). (
  • Komi PV, Fukashiro S, Järvinen M. Biomechanical loading of Achilles tendon during normal locomotion. (
  • Cook and Purdum proposed a new strategy when approaching tendon pain, and this is called the tendon continuum . (
  • The insertional form is situated at the level of transition between the Achilles tendon and the bone, the midportion form is located at the level of the tendon body. (
  • A light degeneration of the achilles tendon can be latently present, but pain only appears when the tendon is overburdened. (
  • Treatments include joint fusion, reshaping the bones in the foot, and occasionally moving around tendons in the foot to help balance out the stresses (called tendon transfer). (
  • 3-6 Gastrocnemius-soleus tightness is common in patients with Achilles tendon pain. (
  • 7-9 Some authors have felt that this tightness is a major contributing cause of Achilles tendon pain and have recommended gastrocnemius recession as treatment. (
  • 5,10-12 Biomechanical stress is increased at the Achilles tendon insertion, the most common location of Achilles tendon pain in this study (Figure). (
  • Swelling and tenderness usually accompany Achilles tendon pain. (
  • Blood supply and healing potential is decreased 2 to 6 cm from the insertion, another location of Achilles tendon pain. (
  • Gentchos et al 5 presented 1 case of Achilles tendon pain relieved by gastrocnemius recession. (
  • This article, to the author's knowledge, is the first that evaluates a series of patients with Achilles tendon pain treated with gastrocnemius-soleus recession alone. (
  • Gastrocnemius-soleus recession was performed not only to relieve Achilles tendon pain with a lower risk of wound problems, but also to potentially prevent foot ulcers and Charcot arthropathy in diabetics and other neuropathic patients. (
  • Between August 2005 and March 2010, 24 patients with Achilles tendon pain (4 bilateral), who failed nonoperative treatment, agreed to undergo gastrocnemius-soleus recession (28 procedures). (
  • The improvement in Achilles tendon pain and lack of wound complications with gastrocnemius-soleus recession compares favorably with other surgical treatments. (
  • The major complaint of patients with PFPS is retropatellar pain during activities such as running, squatting, going up and down stairs, prolonged sitting, cycling, and jumping (Witvrouw et l., 2001). (
  • Management Asian Journal of Sports Medicine, Volume 4 (Number 2), June 2013, Pages: 85-100 INTRODUCTION P atellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is one of the most common ailments of the knee and accounts for 25% of all knee injuries encountered in sports medicine clinics [1- (
  • theoretically, this type has an advantage in avoiding the inherent risk of carpal component failure by reducing the shear-forces at the implant-to-bone interface using green-colored variable or blue-colored fixed locking screws (Figure 1(a) ). (
  • Wood in 1812 first described plantar fasciitis and attributed it to tuberculosis.1 Plantar fasciitis has been called the painful heel syndrome, subcalcaneal bursitis, subcalcaneal pain, medial arch sprain, stone bruise, calcaneal periostitis, neuritis, subcalcaneal spurs, andcalcaneodynia.2,3 In this article we offer a means for serial specific evaluations and treatment (Fig 1). (
  • The most common diagnosis is plantar fasciitis, which leads to medial plantar heel pain, especially with the first weight-bearing steps after rest. (
  • Other causes of plantar heel pain include calcaneal stress fractures (progressively worsening pain after an increase in activity or change to a harder walking surface), nerve entrapment or neuroma (pain accompanied by burning, tingling, or numbness), heel pad syndrome (deep, bruise-like pain in the middle of the heel), and plantar warts. (
  • Corticosteroid and platelet-rich plasma injections can reduce pain from plantar fasciitis, especially when performed with ultrasound guidance. (
  • Plantar fasciitis is common for runners and presents with pain on the bottom of the foot occurring anywhere from the heel to the forefoot. (
  • Depending upon the severity of the bunion this foot deformity can cause swelling pain and can even cause other toe and foot problems to develop such as blisters, hammer toes, metatarsalgia and even plantar fasciitis due to the increased pressure that bunions place on your feet and toes. (
  • Most cases of heel pain are caused when a band of tissue in the foot, known as the plantar fascia, becomes damaged and thickens. (
  • This can cause the plantar fascia to thicken, resulting in heel pain. (
  • The symptoms of plantar fasciitis include pain along the inside edge of the heel near the arch of the foot. (
  • This symptom called first-step pain is typical of plantar fasciitis. (
  • Dec. 2014 - By this month I started getting severe pain distal to my ulna bone at base of 4th-5th metatarsals of my hand over my carpal bones on the dorsal side of my wrist. (
  • Introducción: La osteotomía de la tuberosidad anterior de la tibia (O-TAT) es una técnica quirúrgica que permite restablecer la alineación distal de la rótula en pacientes esqueléticamente maduros. (
  • 4. The bone plate of claim 1 wherein the overlapping threaded hole in at least one of the proximal plate portion or the distal plate portion is formed normal to the respective top proximal plate surface or the top distal plate surface, as the case may be. (
  • 6. The bone plate of claim 1 wherein a first of the overlapping threaded holes is formed normal to either the top proximal plate surface or the top distal plate surface and a second of the overlapping threaded holes is formed at an angle offset from normal to the other of the top proximal plate surface or the top distal plate surface. (
  • 7. The bone plate of claim 1 wherein the overlapping threaded hole in at least one of the proximal plate portion and the distal plate portion is one of a set of overlapping holes. (
  • 1) DISSERTATION ON The Use of Fibular plating as supplementary technique in static intramedullary interlocking nailing for distal both bone fractures of leg - A Prospective Study Submitted to THE TAMILNADU DR. M.G.R. MEDICAL UNIVERSITY CHENNAI, TAMILNADU As fulfillment of the regulations for the award of the degree M.S. (ORTHOPAEDIC SURGERY) BRANCH II GOVT. (
  • 7) INTRODUCTION Treatment of distal both bone fractures of leg remains a challenge. (
  • Clinical Implications of Normal Biomechanical Stresses on Spinal Function by Herbert Junghanns (6). (
  • spinal stenosis pattern pain with back/leg pain with standing, walking relieved by sitting. (
  • Biomechanical Quantification of Pathologic Manipulable Spinal Lesions: An In Vivo Ovine Model of Spondylolysis and Intervertebral Disc Degeneration. (
  • Chiropractic Manipulation in the Treatment of Acute Back Pain and Sciatica with Disc Protrusion: A Randomized Double-Blind Clinical Trial of Active and Simulated Spinal Manipulation. (
  • Several laboratory, imaging and biomechanical studies have shown that MIS approaches reduce paraspinal muscle atrophy and allow greater preservation of normal spinal motion. (
  • Patients with advanced degenerative spinal degeneration have severe disc degeneration, canal or nerve root tunnel stenosis resulting in low back pain, leg pain, numbness, weakness or difficulty ambulating. (
  • The symptoms of bunions include irritated skin around the bunion, pain when walking, joint redness and pain, and possible shift of the big toe toward the other toes. (
  • Left untreated, these symptoms may accelerate to the point where acute pain is present with nearly all activity. (
  • If ignored, the symptoms usually worsen to the point where pain is present on the initiation of running and increases with sprinting. (
  • Untreated, the symptoms eventually become present at all times and the individual is unable to run due to acute pain, and may be unable to walk without pain. (
  • So in March 2013 when Dr. PZ Pearce palpated my foot and said I had symptoms of "Sinus Tarsi Syndrome", I certainly did not know what he was talking about. (
  • In this sample, massage therapists experienced osteoarthritic symptoms that cause pain and stiffness in their hands. (
  • Symptoms typically begin to manifest themselves in patients between the ages of 15 and 45, and patients often experience lower back pain that becomes more intense at night. (
  • Sudden back pain followed by extreme symptoms, such as paralysis, are common results of acute transverse myelitis. (
  • Podiatrists treat symptoms such as corns and callous, carry out biomechanical assessments, and prescribe orthotics to achieve realignment of the foot. (
  • Once pain and inflammation have been addressed, clinicians can implement interventions-including orthotic devices, stretch-ing, and strengthening-to address the biomechanical factors that are believed to contribute to heel pain and other symptoms in this population. (
  • In some cases, the symptoms of an anxiety disorder may be similar to those of chronic pain and go undiagnosed. (
  • Sciatica describes the symptoms of pain (mostly) and sometimes tingling and numbness that runs from the Lumbar Spine into the buttock and down the back of the leg and sometimes foot. (
  • However, in patients who do have symptoms, treatments are available that can help reduce pain and promote efficient movement. (
  • Flat feet can cause a myriad of symptoms, from experiencing pain in the foot, heels, arch, calves, the shin, the knee, the hip and into the lower back due to overworking of the hip flexors or they may find it hard to stand on tip toes. (
  • Pain, limited range of motion, and stiffness are the cardinal symptoms. (
  • Evidence is growing for the role of systemic factors (such as genetics, dietary intake, estrogen use, and bone density) and of local biomechanical factors (such as muscle weakness, obesity, and joint laxity). (
  • They may use Trigger Point and Clinical Acupuncture therapy and can recommend muscle strengthening and stretching programmes to relieve pain, improve function, and prevent further or future injury or deformity. (
  • See your doctor if you have persistent foot pain that affects your ability to walk properly. (
  • The deformity may cause the foot to rub on shoes, which may cause inflammation and pain. (
  • Foot pain. (
  • However, it is a good idea to see a doctor if the feet tire easily or are painful after standing, it is difficult to move the foot around or stand on the toes, the foot aches, especially in the heel or arch, and there is swelling on the inner side of the foot, the pain interferes with activity or the person has been diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis. (
  • If there is pain or the arch does not appear when the foot is flexed, x-rays are taken to determine the cause. (
  • Many factors can contribute to foot pain. (
  • Eventually, entire body posture is affected, with knee, back or hip pain traceable to foot function for its cause. (
  • Broken or dislocated bones in the foot. (
  • Heel pain is by far the most common foot complaint. (
  • This often indicates that there is a problem with the bones in the foot, a disease is present, or an injury has occurred. (
  • Trauma involving broken bones in the foot. (
  • Treatment of flat feet by a fully educated, trained, and licensed podiatrist should be sought if the previously mentioned pain in the foot or knee areas start to surface and becomes a painful problem. (
  • Suffering from foot and heel pain? (
  • Habbu et al 12 presented a paper at the 2010 American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons Annual Meeting on using gastrocnemius recession for pain relief for various foot problems, including Achilles tendinitis, with good results. (
  • Mechanism of Injury and Site of Pain When the patient presents with a history of an acute injury to the knee there are several factors which will indicate the structures injured and the severity of the injury: The mechanism of injury contact, non-contact, foot fixed or free, flexed or extended, valgus or varus force. (
  • It connects the heel bone with the bones of the foot, and acts as a kind of shock absorber to the foot. (
  • The pain is worse when weight is placed on the foot especially after a long period of rest or inactivity. (
  • A podiatrist ( doctor who specializes in the evaluation and treatment of foot diseases) will carry out a physical examination, and ask pertinent questions about the pain. (
  • They correct and realign the foot to put them into neutral or normal position to really prevent heel pain, and many other foot issues. (
  • It is important for people with foot pain to know if they have flat feet. (
  • If you have pain in one foot, you should make sure you don't have a fallen arch on that side. (
  • Most commonly it is a chronic, long-term pain that results of some type of faulty biomechanics (abnormalities in the way you walk) that place too much stress on the heel bone and the soft tissues that attach to it. (
  • A number of factors can contribute to carpal tunnel syndrome, including the anatomy of your wrist, certain underlying health problems and possibly patterns of hand use. (
  • Animations of the carpal bones during wrist motion help to understand the complex 3-D carpal movements and contribute to the recognition of pathological wrist motion and the development of implants and operative techniques. (
  • One of the basic procedures in this 3-D analysis is the matching of the individual carpal bones in the different postures. (
  • For this purpose several authors have used cortical margins to define the carpal bones . (
  • Because we used the complete interior 3-D information of the carpal bones, i.e. the very specific trabecular structure, translations and rotations can be measured much more accurately than with algorithms based on the surface information of the bones only. (
  • were limited to the analyses of in-plane motions of the carpal bones during flexion-extension motion of the hand. (
  • With our method it is possible to measure both in-plane and out-of-plane motions of the carpal bones during flexion-extension motion (FEM) and ulnar-radial deviation (RUD) of the hand because of the use of 3-D CT scans. (
  • In the five chapters of this thesis that have been published as articles, measurements have been reported of the translations and rotations of the carpal bones during different movements (radial-ulnar deviation and flexion-extension) of the hand. (
  • The major symptom in non-insertional Achilles tendinopathy is pain, commonly on first moving after a period of rest. (
  • Alfredson H, Ohberg L, Forsgren S. Is vasculo-neural ingrowth the cause of pain in chronic Achilles tendinosis? (
  • Posterior heel pain can also be attributed to Haglund deformity (a prominence of the calcaneus that may lead to retrocalcaneal bursa inflammation) or Sever disease (calcaneal apophysitis common in children and adolescents). (
  • Rib subluxations, the costoclavicular syndrome, sternoclavicular injury, trigger point formation, and pectoralis contractures are the common musculoskeletal disorders associated with the anterior thorax. (
  • Although the lungs themselves are painless, adjacent tissues such as the pleura, the musculoskeletal structures of the rib cage, and articulating dorsal spine are richly innervated and often ignite referred pain. (
  • Forty-four study volunteers (67% of the participants) were cluster randomized into two groups for MRI measurements (22 subjects each) according to the project protocol with its different research modules: musculoskeletal system, brain and pain perception, cardiovascular system, body composition, and oxidative stress and inflammation. (
  • 4. Babatunde OO, Jordan JL, Van der Windt DA, Hill JC, Foster NE, Protheroe J. Effective treatment options for musculoskeletal pain in primary care: A systematic overview of current evidence. (
  • Missouri State University, Springfield, Missouri Reviewed by Rich Maas PT, DPT, OCS, COMT Dry needling is a technique used by physical therapists to decrease pain and improve function caused by musculoskeletal pain and. (
  • To describe the evaluation, diagnosis, and comprehensive sports medicine treatment of a collegiate cross-country athlete with a medical diagnosis of iron deficiency with anemia and sports-related musculoskeletal pain. (
  • In chronic cases, continued activity produces degenerative changes that lead to weakness, loss of flexibility, and chronic pain. (
  • Pain (Psora), stiffness (Psora/ Sycosis), gelling (Psora/ Sycosis), crepitus Psora/ Syphilis), bony enlargement (Sycosis), limited range of motion (Psora/ Sycosis) and malalignment (Psora). (
  • Bony enlargement and malalignment are common. (
  • This is very important, since the finite helical axes parameters, which are used in this thesis to describe the motion of the bones, are very sensitive to errors in rotation angles, especially when small increments in motion are applied . (
  • In a 56-year-old male patient with adequate bone stock, insertion of the noncemented Maestro WRS was combined with ulnar shortening osteotomy. (
  • In an 84-year-old female patient with poor osteoporotic bone stock, insertion of the radial cemented Maestro WRS was combined with ulnar head resection. (
  • Upon reviewing the images, he walked into the room and said for me to look up Ulnar Impaction Syndrome and said my ulnar bone has positive variance causing my wrist problem. (
  • Material and Methods: We evaluated 13 patients with ulnar impaction syndrome from 01/01/2018 to 03/01/19 using the Palmer classification to evaluate the lesions. (
  • Results: We have had improvements in pain and strength tests, the average ROM was 80° extension, 80° flexion, 30° for radial deviation and 25° ulnar deviation. (
  • Conclusion: The osteotomy of ulnar type wafer or arthroscopic wafer gives satisfactory results improving the ROM, recovering the strength totally or partially and decreasing the pain as long as surgery is well indicated. (
  • For such cases, there are several alternative approaches, fixation materials, and bone substitutes that can be used. (