Lignin: The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Crop, Avian: A thin-walled distention of the alimentary tract protruding just outside the body cavity in the distal end of the neck (esophagus), used for the temporary storage of food and water.Wood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.Biofuels: Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).Benzyl Alcohols: Alcohols derived from the aryl radical (C6H5CH2-) and defined by C6H5CHOH. The concept includes derivatives with any substituents on the benzene ring.Basidiomycota: A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.PeroxidasesPlant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Laccase: A copper-containing oxidoreductase enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of 4-benzenediol to 4-benzosemiquinone. It also has activity towards a variety of O-quinols and P-quinols. It primarily found in FUNGI and is involved in LIGNIN degradation, pigment biosynthesis and detoxification of lignin-derived products.Polyporaceae: A family of bracket fungi, order POLYPORALES, living in decaying plant matter and timber.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Populus: A plant genus of the family SALICACEAE. Balm of Gilead is a common name used for P. candicans, or P. gileadensis, or P. jackii, and sometimes also used for ABIES BALSAMEA or for COMMIPHORA.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Phanerochaete: A genus of fungi in the family Corticiaceae, order Stereales, that degrades lignin. The white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium is a frequently used species in research.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Eucalyptus: A genus of trees of the Myrtaceae family, native to Australia, that yields gums, oils, and resins which are used as flavoring agents, astringents, and aromatics.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Xylem: Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.Panicum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the EDIBLE GRAINS used in millet cereals and in feed for birds and livestock (ANIMAL FEED). It contains diosgenin (SAPONINS).Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Energy-Generating Resources: Materials or phenomena which can provide energy directly or via conversion.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Pinus: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen trees mainly in temperate climates.Saccharum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE widely cultivated in the tropics for the sweet cane that is processed into sugar.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.Trans-Cinnamate 4-Monooxygenase: A member of the P450 superfamily, this enzyme catalyzes the first oxidative step of the phenylpropanoid pathway in higher PLANTS by transforming trans-cinnamate into p-coumarate.Vanillic Acid: A flavoring agent. It is the intermediate product in the two-step bioconversion of ferulic acid to vanillin. (J Biotechnol 1996;50(2-3):107-13).Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Pinus taeda: A plant species of the genus PINUS which is the subject of genetic study.Sorghum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The grain is used for FOOD and for ANIMAL FEED. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KEFIR milk product.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Cellulases: A family of glycosidases that hydrolyse crystalline CELLULOSE into soluble sugar molecules. Within this family there are a variety of enzyme subtypes with differing substrate specificities that must work together to bring about complete cellulose hydrolysis. They are found in structures called CELLULOSOMES.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase: An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of PHENYLALANINE to form trans-cinnamate and ammonia.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Sasa: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. Folin is the water-soluble extract from Sasa albomarginata. Sasa kurinensis is an ingredient of Sho-ju-sen, a Japanese herbal medicine.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Polyporales: An order of fungi in the phylum BASIDIOMYCOTA having macroscopic basidiocarps. The members are characterized by their saprophytic activities as decomposers, particularly in the degradation of CELLULOSE and LIGNIN. A large number of species in the order have been used medicinally. (From Alexopoulos, Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, pp504-68)Brassica napus: A plant species of the family BRASSICACEAE best known for the edible roots.Guaifenesin: An expectorant that also has some muscle relaxing action. It is used in many cough preparations.Trametes: A genus of fungi in the family Coriolaceae.Plant Weeds: A plant growing in a location where it is not wanted, often competing with cultivated plants.Coumaric Acids: Hydroxycinnamic acid and its derivatives. Act as activators of the indoleacetic acid oxidizing system, thereby producing a decrease in the endogenous level of bound indoleacetic acid in plants.Plant Structures: The parts of plants, including SEEDS.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Food, Genetically Modified: Food derived from genetically modified organisms (ORGANISMS, GENETICALLY MODIFIED).Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Selaginellaceae: A plant family of the order Selaginellales, class Lycopodiopsida, division Lycopodiophyta, subkingdom Tracheobionta. Members contain bilobetin. The rarely used common name of resurrection plant is mainly used with CRATEROSTIGMA.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Carbon Cycle: The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.Droughts: Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.Bioreactors: Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.Inflorescence: A cluster of FLOWERS (as opposed to a solitary flower) arranged on a main stem of a plant.Photobioreactors: Devices for generating biological products that use light as the energy source. They are used for controlled BIOMASS production such as growing cyanobacteria, mosses, or algae.Fossil Fuels: Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.Cleome: A plant genus of the family CAPPARACEAE that contains cleogynol and 15alpha-acetoxycleomblynol (dammaranes) and 1-epibrachyacarpone (a triterpene), and ISOTHIOCYANATES.Acacia: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. The gums and tanning agents obtained from Acacia are called GUM ARABIC. The common name of catechu is more often used for Areca catechu (ARECA).Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Microalgae: A non-taxonomic term for unicellular microscopic algae which are found in both freshwater and marine environments. Some authors consider DIATOMS; CYANOBACTERIA; HAPTOPHYTA; and DINOFLAGELLATES as part of microalgae, even though they are not algae.Elements: Substances that comprise all matter. Each element is made up of atoms that are identical in number of electrons and protons and in nuclear charge, but may differ in mass or number of neutrons.Phytoplankton: Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.Cooking: The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Pleurotus: A genus of basidiomycetous fungi, family POLYPORACEAE, order POLYPORALES, that grows on logs or tree stumps in shelflike layers. The species P. ostreatus, the oyster mushroom, is a choice edible species and is the most frequently encountered member of the genus in eastern North America. (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, p531)Herbicides: Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.Brassica rapa: A plant species cultivated for the seed used as animal feed and as a source of canola cooking oil.Food Chain: The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.Gossypium: A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. It is the source of COTTON FIBER; COTTONSEED OIL, which is used for cooking, and GOSSYPOL. The economically important cotton crop is a major user of agricultural PESTICIDES.Methyltransferases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from one compound to another. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.1.1.Medicago sativa: A plant species of the family FABACEAE widely cultivated for ANIMAL FEED.Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Feedstocks are energy crops, agricultural and forest residues, food industry and municipal biowaste and other biomass ... The by-product of this process is lignin. Lignin can be burned as a carbon neutral fuel to produce heat and power for the ... as well as other crops that are not used for food purposes (non-food crops), such as switchgrass, grass, jatropha, whole crop ... When biomass is the source of the gas production the process is also referred to as biomass-to-liquids (BTL). A disadvantage of ...
Biogeochemical parameters such as lignin content did not vary, while biomass decomposition was higher.[2] ... Crops[edit]. See also: List of genetically modified crops. Herbicide tolerance[edit]. Crop Use Countries approved in First ... Genetically modified crops (GM crops or biotech crops) are plants used in agriculture, the DNA of which has been modified using ... a b c d e f g h i ISAAA 2013 Annual Report Executive Summary, Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops: 2013 ISAAA ...
... can be broadly classified into virgin biomass, waste biomass and energy crops. Virgin biomass includes ... This energy-intensive industry focuses on the separation of the lignin and cellulosic fractions of the biomass. Lignocellulosic ... Energy crops are crops with high yield of lignocellulosic biomass produced to serve as a raw material for production of second ... Many crops are of interest for their ability to provide high yields of biomass and can be harvested multiple times each year. ...
Anaerobic microorganisms are generally unable to break down lignin, the recalcitrant aromatic component of biomass. Anaerobic ... Biomass and Bioenergy. 1: 47-53. doi:10.1016/0961-9534(91)90051-D. National Non-Food Crops Centre. Farm-Scale Anaerobic ... can be used to break down the lignin. Anaerobic digesters can also be fed with specially grown energy crops, such as silage, ... "In situ methane enrichment in methanogenic energy crop digesters". Biomass and Bioenergy. 6 (4): 275-282. doi:10.1016/0961-9534 ...
Pyrolysis oil is another type of fuel derived from the lignocellulosic fraction of biomass. By rapidly heating biomass in the ... Dedicated energy crops, such as switchgrass, are also promising cellulose sources that can be produced in many regions of the ... Current plant design does not provide for converting the lignin portion of plant raw materials to fuel components by ... Biofuels include fuels derived from biomass conversion, as well as solid biomass, liquid fuels and various biogases. Although ...
... second generation biofuels are made from lignocellulosic biomass or woody crops, agricultural residues or waste plant material ... Current plant design does not provide for converting the lignin portion of plant raw materials to fuel components by ... This biomass conversion can result in fuel in solid, liquid, or gas form. This new biomass can also be used directly for ... fuel Biomass to liquid bio-oil Renewable energy by country Ecological sanitation Economics European Biomass Association IRENA ...
Fungi are essential for converting biomass into compost, as they decompose feedstock components such as lignin, which many ... Knowledge of the relationship between mycorrhizal fungi and plants suggests new ways to improve crop yields. When spread on ...
... second generation biofuels are made from lignocellulosic biomass or woody crops, agricultural residues or waste plant material ... Current plant design does not provide for converting the lignin portion of plant raw materials to fuel components by ... This biomass conversion can result in fuel in solid, liquid, or gas form. This new biomass can also be used directly for ... Biofuels made from waste biomass or from biomass grown on abandoned agricultural lands incur little to no carbon debt.[95] ...
Field Crops Research. 96: 63. doi:10.1016/j.fcr.2005.05.005. Porter, Monty A.; Bidlack, James E. (2011). "Morphology, Biomass, ... Content and deposition rates of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin during regrowth of forage grasses and legumes. Can. J. ... Weed control in a pigeon pea - wheat cropping system. Field Crops Res. 96:63-70. Bidlack, J.E., and A.J. Ohlrogge. 1988. ... Biomass and nitrogen traits of summer pigeon peas and winter wheat grown for three rotations in containers. Comm. Soil Sci. ...
Root crops such as potatoes and sugar-beet, and crops which are harvested not just once a year but over a long period such as ... In general, the more biomass that the plants can create each year, the more carbon will be added to the soil.p. 54-55 However, ... which have a high content of resistant chemicals such as lignin, and plant residues with a carbon to nitrogen ratio lower than ... and may choose food crops which therefore help to keep carbon in farmland soils if they grow such high-risk crops in small ...
... biomass ethanol production would use the corn stover from the corn crop produced in areas around ethanol plants. Corn stover, ... to be hoarded by the soil microbes diligently digesting the cellulose and lignin. They can outcompete the plants for the ... when the corn crop is used as a grain crop (as opposed to a silage crop), harvesting the (grainless) stover simply does not pay ... Such stover makes up about half of the yield of a corn crop and is similar to straw from other cereal grasses; in Britain it is ...
Given that switchgrass contains approximately 18.8 GJ/ODT of biomass, the energy output-to-input ratio for the crop can be up ... During the bioconversion process, the lignin fraction of switchgrass can be burned to provide sufficient steam and electricity ... Trends in New Crops and New Uses. Fifth National Symposium, New Crops and New Uses, Strength in Diversity. Alexandria, Virginia ... Total Digestible Nutrients (TDN) and Relative Feed Value (RFV) Ranges for Various Forage Crops". Forage Crop Pocket Guide. ...
Joint Genome Institute Announces 2008 Genome Sequencing Targets Eucalyptus to be sequenced as a candidate biomass energy crop ... Rather, the cellulose in wood must be separated from the encapsulating hemicellulose and lignin. There are three types of ... However, it also takes longer to grow trees than to grow corn, and so any accurate research on sustainability and crop rotation ... Cellulosic ethanol is produced using the lignocellulose biomass that comprises much of the mass of plants. Essentially at the ...
The Biomass Crop Assistance Program (BCAP) was created for two purposes: (1) To support the establishment and production of ... Cellulosic biofuels are renewable fuels derived from cellulose, hemicellulose, or lignin. This includes cellulosic biomass ... This would remove existing biomass where it might not currently be profitable to do so, such as from crop residue or forest ... "Biomass Crop Assistance Program (BCAP): Status and Issues". Congressional Research Service. Retrieved April 19, 2011. "Alabama ...
"The Effect of Lignin on Biodegradability - Cornell Composting". *^ Bahramisharif, Amirhossein; Rose, Laura E. ( ... "Waste and Biomass Valorization. 2 (4): 357-363. doi:10.1007/s12649-011-9079-1. ISSN 1877-2641.. ... "Stockholm Environment Institute - EcoSanRes - Guidelines on the Use of Urine and Feces in Crop Production" (PDF). Archived from ... Fungi- molds and yeast help break down materials that bacteria cannot, especially lignin in woody material. ...
"Energy crops". crops are grown specifically for use as fuel. BIOMASS Energy Centre. Retrieved 6 April 2013. "Biomass for ... Some chemical constituents of plant biomass include lignins, cellulose, and hemicellulose. In terms of how biomass is used as ... Typically, perennial crops sequester much more carbon than annual crops due to much greater non-harvested living biomass, both ... Biofuel Biomass (ecology) Biomass gasification Biomass heating systems Biomass to liquid Bioproduct Biorefinery Carbon European ...
Buried wood becomes like a sponge as it decomposes, able to capture water and store it for later use by crops planted on top of ... "The Effect of Lignin on Biodegradability - Cornell Composting". "Chapter 1, The Decomposition Process". aggie- ... of the dry matter in the waste to biomass. The resulting compost still contains nutrients and can be used for biogas production ... Field studies have shown the benefits of adding compost teas to crops due to the adding of organic matter, increased nutrient ...
Crawford, R. L. (1981). 》Lignin biodegradation and transformation》. New York: John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 0-471-05743-6.. ... Piotrowski, Stephan and Carus, Michael (May 2011) Multi-criteria evaluation of lignocellulosic niche crops for use in ... Mettler, Matthew S.; Vlachos, Dionisios G.; Dauenhauer, Paul J. (2012). "Top Ten Fundamental Challenges of Biomass Pyrolysis ... Czernik, S.; Bridgwater, A. V. (2004). "Overview of Applications of Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Oil". 》Energy & Fuels》 (Energy & ...
The growing of crops for horses (typically oat) for carrying out physical work is of course comparable to the growing of crops ... Composed of lignin and monomer sugars such as glucose, fructose, arabinose, galactose, and xylose, these constituents are very ... Synthetic fuel can be made from coal or biomass and may be commercialized soon. Biofuels can also be produced from the waste ... Farmers can switch to growing vegetable oil crops if those are more profitable than food crops. So all food prices are linked ...
Plant materials, with cell walls high in cellulose and lignin, are decomposed and the not-respired carbon is retained as humus ... On one hand, practices that hasten oxidation of carbon (such as burning crop stubbles or over-cultivation) are discouraged; on ... Soil organic carbon is divided between living soil biota and dead biotic material derived from biomass. Together these comprise ... More persistent forms of organic C include lignin, humus, organic matter encapsulated in soil aggregates, and charcoal. These ...
Most crop plants store ~0.25% to 0.5% of the sunlight in the product (corn kernels, potato starch, etc.), sugar cane is ... Quoted values sunlight-to-biomass efficiency The following is a breakdown of the energetics of the photosynthesis process from ... lignin, and so forth). The value of the photosynthetic efficiency is dependent on how light energy is defined - it depends on ... Most crop plants store ~0.25% to 0.5% of the sunlight in the product (corn kernels, potato starch, etc.). Photosynthesis ...
The plant also produces 13,000 metric tons of lignin pellets per year, used as fuel at combined-heat-and-power plants, and ... The whole process of the production of biofuel from the choice of cellulosic biomass feedstock to the conversion into sugars ... The shift from food crop feedstocks to waste residues and native grasses offers significant opportunities for a range of ... To install equipment for drying and burning Lignin, both fresh and accumulated in the landfill, for steam and electricity, a ...
By developing low-lignin GM trees it is hoped that pulping and bleaching processes will require fewer inputs, therefore, mills ... The development, testing and use of GM trees remains at an early stage in comparison to GM crops. Research into genetically ... Sedjo, R.A. (2010). "Transgenic Trees for Biomass: The Effects of Regulatory Restrictions and Court Decisions on the Pace of ... It is estimated that reducing lignin in plantation trees by genetic modification could reduce pulping costs by up to $15 per ...
Pellets can be made from grass and other non-woody forms of biomass that do not contain lignin: distiller's dried grains (a ... In the regions of the world where wheat is the predominant food-crop, wheat husk can also be compacted to produce energy- ... "Biomass Energy". Alternate Energy. Retrieved 16 February 2015. "Sources of biomass". BIOMASS Energy Centre. Retrieved 16 ... Biomass and Bioenergy (33:3, p.434-441). [7] Principles of Sustainable Biomass; policy of 12 large U.S. environmental ...
Forest biomass has higher cellulose and lignin content and lower hemicellulose and ash content than agricultural biomass. ... A study done over five years showed that growing and managing switchgrass exclusively as a biomass energy crop can produce 500 ... Biomass and agricultural biomass. In the US, about 1.4 billion dry tons of biomass can be sustainably produced annually. About ... forest biomass has significant advantages over agricultural biomass. Forest biomass also has high density which significantly ...
... and biomass per unit area is high compared to other vegetation communities. Much of this biomass occurs below ground in the ... The woody component of a forest contains lignin, which is relatively slow to decompose compared with other organic materials ... as well as afforestation and natural reversion of abandoned crop and pasture land to forest. However, in many areas of the ... converting carbon dioxide into oxygen and biomass.. *acting as a carbon sink. Therefore, they are necessary to stop Climate ...
This review highlights research development in lignin biosynthesis, lignin genetic engineering and different biological and ... Nevertheless, lignin is a potential source of valuable aromatic chemical compounds and upgradable building blocks. Though the ... Compared to the other cell wall polymers, i.e., cellulose and hemicelluloses, lignin has been considered a hindrance in ... The absence of specific methodologies for lignin degradation represents an important opportunity for research and development. ...
17.4 Optimal Biomass Crops as Biorefinery Feedstock 696. 17.4.1 Biomass versus Petrochemical Route for the Production of Bulk ... 17.3.8 Lignin Processing 695. 17.3.9 Ash and Residuals Processing 695 ... 15.4.3 Comparison of Biomass Combustion and Gasification CHP Plants 602. 15.5 Biomass-Fueled Internal Combustion Engines and ... Efficiency of Biomass Energy: An Exergy Approach to Biofuels, Power, and Biorefineries. ...
2005) Impact of reduced lignin on plant fitness. Crop Sci 45: 812-819. ... Lignin and Biomass: A Negative Correlation for Wood Formation and Lignin Content in Trees. Evandro Novaes, Matias Kirst, ... NEGATIVE CORRELATION OF LIGNIN WITH BIOMASS. Analyses of lignin and growth in interspecific mapping populations of Eucalyptus ... Trees with increased biomass and reduced lignin would provide a yield advantage for pulp and paper production, as well as for ...
Cellulosic biomass is more difficult than starch to break down into sugars because of the presence of lignin and the complex ... The energy in cellulosic biomass largely resides in plant cell walls. ... Reduction of lignin in biofuel crops by genetic engineering is likely one of the most effective ways of reducing costs ... Cellulosic biomass is more difficult than starch to break down into sugars because of the presence of lignin and the complex ...
Applicable to all biomass, independent of crops. · Hemicellulose is not lost by pretreatment. · Lignin structure is not damaged ... By separating cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin constituting woody based and grass plant based biomasses and by developing ... In the present project, we aim at developing game-changing biomass conversion technologies such as highly added-value biomass- ... Highly Efficient Production Process for Biomass-Based Chemicals and Polymers. *Production of Effective Biomass Materials with ...
In terms of energy yield from biomass, the role of lignin depends on the conversion process. It contains more gross energy than ... Lignin from crop residues plays an important role in the soil organic carbon cycling, as it constitutes a recalcitrant carbon ... Both mapping of quantitative trait loci and transgenic approaches have been adopted to modify lignin in crops. However, ... Due to the significance of lignin in several agricultural disciplines, the modification of lignin content and composition by ...
Biogeochemical parameters such as lignin content did not vary, while biomass decomposition was higher.[2] ... Crops[edit]. See also: List of genetically modified crops. Herbicide tolerance[edit]. Crop Use Countries approved in First ... Genetically modified crops (GM crops or biotech crops) are plants used in agriculture, the DNA of which has been modified using ... a b c d e f g h i ISAAA 2013 Annual Report Executive Summary, Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops: 2013 ISAAA ...
Sugarcane is a subtropical crop that produces large amounts of biomass annually. It is a key agricultural crop in many ... 09 BIOMASS FUELS; lignin biosynthesis; ferulate 5-hydroxylase; caffeic acid O-methyltransferase; caffeoyl-CoA O- ... As with all lignocellulosic crops, lignin acts as a barrier to accessing the polysaccharides, and as such, is the focus of ... In this study, we used RNAi to individually reduce the expression of three key genes in the lignin biosynthetic pathway in ...
hybrids) is a prime crop for commercial biofuel production. Advanced conversion technology utilizes both, sucrose accumulating ... Presence of lignin in plant cell wall significantly limits bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass into biofuels (Jørgensen et ... hybrids) is currently the most efficient crop for bioethanol production due to its exceptional biomass yield, perennial growth ... Reduction of lignin content significantly improves the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into ethanol. Conventional ...
D. Stewart, "Lignin as a base material for materials applications: chemistry, application and economics," Industrial Crops and ... H. L. Chum, S. K. Parker, D. A. Feinberg et al., The Economic Contribution of Lignin to Ethanol Production from Biomass, Solar ... R. Hatfield and R. S. Fukushima, "Can lignin be accurately measured?" Crop Science, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 832-839, 2005. View at ... P. F. Vidal and J. Molinier, "Ozonolysis of lignin-improvement of in vitro digestibility of poplar sawdust," Biomass, vol. 16, ...
... upstream regulatory sequences of the Brachypodium distachyon lignin biosynthetic gene BdPMT and the cellulose synthase genes ... upstream regulatory sequences of the Brachypodium distachyon lignin biosynthetic gene BdPMT and the cellulose synthase genes ... 2012). Metabolic engineering of novel lignin in biomass crops. New Phytol. 196, 978-1000. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2012.04337.x ... Due to the facility of breaking this ester bond, lignin modified in this way has been termed "zip-lignin". This technology ...
Cellulose, hemicellulose or lignin. *Sugar and starch. *Waste material, including crop residue, other vegetative waste, animal ... Renewable biomass, including vegetable oil and animal fat. *Landfill gas and sewage waste treatment gas ...
2012) Metabolic engineering of novel lignin in biomass crops. New Phytologist 196: 978-1000. ... Chen F and Dixon RA (2007) Lignin modification improves fermentable sugar yields for biofuel production. Nature Biotechnology ... 2012) The paleozoic origin of enzymatic lignin decomposition reconstructed from 31 fungal genomes. Science 336: 1715-1719. ...
Metabolic engineering of novel lignin in biomass crops. Ruben Vanholme, Kris Morreel, Chiarina Darrah, Paula Oyarce, John H. ... Linking phenylpropanoid metabolism, lignin deposition, and plant growth inhibition. Fabiola Muro-Villanueva, Xiangying Mao, ... Down-regulation of Cinnamoyl-CoA Reductase induces significant changes of lignin profiles in transgenic tobacco plants ... Changes in secondary metabolism and deposition of an unusual lignin in the ref8 mutant of Arabidopsis ...
4 Dermibás, A. (2003). Relationships between lignin contents and fixed carbon contents of biomass samples. Energy Conversion ... Industrial Crops and Products, 33(1), 63-66. [ Links ] ... SCB is comprised of 42 to 46% cellulose, 21 to 28% lignin and 27 to 29% of hemicellulose[1-3]. On the other hand, CCS contains ... Figure 2 TG curves and DTG curves for (a, c) SCB and (b, d) CCS related to pure cellulose, lignin and the samples after the ...
Lignocellulosic biomass can be broadly classified into virgin biomass, waste biomass and energy crops. Virgin biomass includes ... This energy-intensive industry focuses on the separation of the lignin and cellulosic fractions of the biomass. Lignocellulosic ... Energy crops are crops with high yield of lignocellulosic biomass produced to serve as a raw material for production of second ... Many crops are of interest for their ability to provide high yields of biomass and can be harvested multiple times each year. ...
Some argue that biomass for fuel or material applications should be derived from non-food crops, therefore avoiding direct ... cellulose or lignin. Often, this efficient use is related to the manufacturing of a broad spectrum of products, in which the ... These concerns mainly relate to new crops used for biomass production that can become invasive and, consequently, threaten ... Sultana, A.; Kumar, A. Ranking of biomass pellets by integration of economic, environmental and technical factors. Biomass ...
... material are examined to compare biomass performance metrics. ... and maize and the perennial switchgrass bioenergy crops as a ... viridis are compared with the annual s00orghum and maize and the perennial switchgrass bioenergy crops as a baseline study into ... Lignin Quantification. Acid Hydrolysis. Acid-soluble lignin, acid-insoluble lignin, and ash were measured using the laboratory ... The majority of lignin was measured as insoluble lignin. Lignin content increased significantly between the first and second ...
... focussing on the depolymerization of naturally occurring biopolymers such as lignin [1]. Biomass such as energy crops, ... Lignocellulosic biomass (LB) is nowadays an important raw material due to its cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin content. ... However, lignin heat capacity is lower than the conventional fuels.. Some applications of lignin combine the use of different ... The main lignin producer is the paper industry. For 2010 this industry produced 50 millions of tonnes of lignin represented as ...
A biomass factory about an hours drive north of Denver is processing hemp into pulp, sugars and lignin. PureVision Technology ... Two hemp facilities in northern Colorado underscore the crops uncertainty.. ... Pointing to a room-sized machine that processes the biomass into pulp, Lehrburger explained that hemp stalks become pulp faster ... a biomass factory in Fort Lupton, Colo. The Associated Press ...
"Disrupting Flavone Synthase II Alters Lignin and Improves Biomass Digestibility". About the research team:. Dr Clive Lo is an ... His laboratory has been elucidating biosynthesis pathways of flavonoids in cereal crops for applications in metabolic ... HKU plant biochemists Dr Clive Lo Sze-chung and his student Dr Lydia Lam Pui-ying, together with Kyoto U lignin specialist Dr ... In other words, it is more efficient to produce ethanol from this kind of rice straw: the cost of lignin treatment can be ...
Low Lignin GM Trees and Forage Crops, SiS 23). Aspen (Populus tremuloides) modified for reduced stem lignin had normal ... Plant growth, biomass partitioning and soil carbon formation in response to altered lignin biosynthesis in Populus tremuloides ... Cummins J. Low lignin GM trees and forage crops Science in Society 23, 38-9, 2004. ... Genetic modification of lignin is a key alteration in producing trees destined for bioenergy production. Low lignin trees are ...
... such as lignin and hemicellulose, from this type of biomass. These components can be used for a variety of interesting biobased ... biorefinery of lignocellulosic biomass into its major components has focussed on the extraction of cellulose. During the four- ... In BIOCORE, multiple feedstocks including cereal straws, hardwood and rotation woody crops have been fractionated into its ... So far, biorefinery technologies have been rather biomass-specific, which is a disadvantage to biomass constrained regions such ...
Metabolic engineering of novel lignin in biomass crops. New Phytol. 196, 978-1000 (2012). doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.2012.04337.x ... Biomass feedstocks with less lignin or with more-degradable lignin would reduce the high processing costs and carbon footprint ... Lignin limits the processing of plant biomass to fermentable sugars (25, 26). Processing of cse mutant plants, which have ... C) Lignin levels determined by the acetyl bromide method. See table S2 for lignin data of cse-1. ***0.001 , P; unpaired two- ...
Feedstocks are energy crops, agricultural and forest residues, food industry and municipal biowaste and other biomass ... The by-product of this process is lignin. Lignin can be burned as a carbon neutral fuel to produce heat and power for the ... as well as other crops that are not used for food purposes (non-food crops), such as switchgrass, grass, jatropha, whole crop ... When biomass is the source of the gas production the process is also referred to as biomass-to-liquids (BTL). A disadvantage of ...
  • Examples in food crops include resistance to certain pests, diseases, environmental conditions, reduction of spoilage, resistance to chemical treatments (e.g. resistance to a herbicide ), or improving the nutrient profile of the crop. (
  • Moreover, they produce the majority of the world food crops and a growing need for biomass for biofuel production is being driven toward perennial grasses. (
  • Poplars are dense, easy to store, and they flourish on marginal lands not suitable for food crops, making them a non-competing and sustainable source of biofuel. (
  • they also can be grown in areas where food crops cannot grow. (
  • Genomic program investigates development of poplar varieties that can thrive under abiotic stress on marginal land that is suitable for food crops. (
  • Biomass (organic matter that can be converted into energy) may include food crops, crops for energy, crop residues, wood waste and byproducts, and animal manure. (
  • Perhaps there just needs to be a change in focus, especially if you can ferment the non edible parts of food crops for fuel (such as the stalks on grain crops) and waste vegetable matter it could be a win win. (
  • Lignin is a complex phenolic polymer that provides an embedding material for the cellulosic polymers of the secondary cell walls. (
  • Lignin is a complex aromatic polymer, which is deposited in the secondary cell walls of all vascular plants [ 1 , 2 ]. (
  • To develop a new catalyst and a reacting process for effectively producing biomass-based chemicals and polymer materials from a carbon-neutral resource is an important science and technology issue for establishing a low carbon society. (
  • In the present project, we aim at developing game-changing biomass conversion technologies such as highly added-value biomass-based chemicals, high-performance biomass-based polymer, high-efficiency and rapid synthesis catalysts and enzymes, and an environment-conscious process for target products. (
  • Lignin is an organic polymer which alike the cellulose has an important production in the vegetable world. (
  • It is composed of carbohydrate polymers (cellulose, hemicellulose), and an aromatic polymer (lignin). (
  • Lignin is a complex polymer which functions to provide mechanical strength and structural integrity in plants. (
  • The group then determined that the plants not only created the monomers but also incorporated them into the lignin polymer, thereby introducing the weak links into the lignin backbone and transforming the poplars' natural lignin into a more easily degradable version. (
  • We can now move beyond tinkering with the known genes in the lignin pathway to using exotic genes to alter the lignin polymer in predesigned but plant-compatible ways, essentially designing lignin for (chemical) deconstruction. (
  • Instead of a hydrophilic alcohol group (an oxygen-hydrogen molecule bound to a hydrogen-saturated carbon atom), the final lignin polymer contained a hydrophobic aldehyde group (a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom). (
  • Lignin is composed of three major phenolic components, namely p ‐coumaryl alcohol (H), coniferyl alcohol (G), and sinapyl alcohol (S). Lignin is synthesised by random polymerisation of these monomers and their ratio within the polymer varies among different plants, wood tissues, and cell wall layers. (
  • BESC researchers discovered an unusual lignin polymer in the seed coats of vanilla beans (pictured) that is naturally biosynthesized from caffeyl (C) alcohol. (
  • In contrast to lignin polymers that are highly cross-linked, C-lignin is a linear polymer, which makes it easier to process into high-quality carbon fibers. (
  • Despite these challenges, lignin contains structural units that could serve as a source of fuels and high-value chemicals if means can be found to free these structural units from the polymer. (
  • In this study, we analyzed nine typical pairs of wheat and rice samples that exhibited distinct cell wall compositions, and identified three major factors of wall polymer features that affected biomass digestibility. (
  • In terms of group I that displayed single wall polymer alternations in wheat, we found that three wall polymer levels (cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin) each had a negative effect on biomass digestibility at similar rates under pretreatments of NaOH and H 2 SO 4 with three concentrations. (
  • However, analysis of six pairs of wheat and rice samples in groups II and III that each exhibited a similar cell wall composition, indicated that three wall polymer levels were not the major factors on biomass saccharification. (
  • Biooil is produced by pyrolysis of whole plant biomass, particularly high-lignin biomass, to produce energy dense fuels [ 4 ], while biodiesel is produced by the transesterification of vegetable oil or other lipids [ 5 ]. (
  • However, lignin heat capacity is lower than the conventional fuels. (
  • On the other hand, the biochemical technologies having lignin holds great potential as a renewable source of fuels and aromatic chemicals. (
  • Since the middle of the 20th century, the interest of biomass as a precursor to liquid fuels has increased. (
  • To be specific, the fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol is an attractive route to fuels that supplements the fossil fuels. (
  • Joffres B, Laurenti D, Charon N, et al (2013) Thermochemical conversion of lignin for fuels and chemicals: a review. (
  • Purdue University chemical engineers have proposed a new environmentally friendly process for producing liquid fuels from plant matter - or biomass - potentially available from agricultural and forest waste, providing all of the fuel needed for "the entire U.S. transportation sector. (
  • The new approach modifies conventional methods for producing liquid fuels from biomass by adding hydrogen from a "carbon-free" energy source, such as solar or nuclear power, during a step called gasification. (
  • A conventional method for turning biomass or coal into liquid fuels involves first breaking down the raw material with a chemical process that "gasifies" it into carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and hydrogen. (
  • When conventional methods are used to convert biomass or coal to liquid fuels, 60 percent to 70 percent of the carbon atoms in the starting materials are lost in the process as carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, whereas no carbon atoms would be lost using H2CAR, Agrawal said. (
  • Other researchers have estimated that the United States has a sustainable supply of about 1.4 billion tons of biomass each year that could be used specifically for the production of liquid fuels. (
  • The resistance of lignocellulose to degradation (called recalcitrance) and lack of efficient methods to convert it to useful products are major impediments to the cost-effective production of fuels and chemicals from plant biomass. (
  • The centers-each led by a DOE National Laboratory or a top university-are designed to lay the scientific groundwork for a new bio-based economy that promises to yield a range of important new products and fuels derived directly from nonfood biomass. (
  • JBEI's goal is to broaden and maximize production of economically viable fuels and chemicals from plant biomass to enable biorefinery development. (
  • We can mitigate these effects by using the many available no- or low-carbon methods to harvest energy, including wind, geothermal, hydroelectric, and solar approaches, such as the harvesting of plant biomass that can be burned as solid or liquid fuels. (
  • Conversion of biomass is currently the most cost-effective route to produce renewable liquid fuels, and contributes 78 percent of the total renewable energy worldwide. (
  • However, efforts to grow biofuel crops on land unsuitable for food and feed crops, to increase biomass yield, and to facilitate the conversion of biomass to liquid fuels may change that mind-set. (
  • This review study provides an alternative approach and better understanding to utilize huge amount of energy stored in biomass as the substitute of fossil fuels and also it should play an important role in sustainable energy systems as a component of a renewable energy mix. (
  • Biomass gasification is the conversion of solid fuels like wood and agricultural residues into a combustible gas mixture. (
  • It aims at creating an understanding of the nature of biomass resources for energy and fuels, the variety of processes that are available for conversion of the wastes into energy or fuels. (
  • The two most abundantly renewed carbon constituents of the biosphere, cellulose and lignin, represent attractive options for renewable fuels and products. (
  • Considering that the production of biomass is seasonal, co-feeding biorefineries with coal emerges as an interesting process choice for the production of clean fuels. (
  • Our activities on coal chemistry cover the direct coliquefaction of low ranking coals and biomass to produce liquid fuels. (
  • 2-10 Whilst energy, for example in the form of heat or electricity, can be obtained by simply burning lignocellulosic biomass the economically viable production of liquid fuels ( e.g. for transport) and chemicals will require the implementation of high efficiency bio-refineries producing a range of renewable products. (
  • EA preserves extracted lignin functionalities, offering the potential to co-produce lignin-derived fuels and chemicals in the biorefinery. (
  • It is now well recognized that burning fossil fuels and deforestation are major contributors to climate change, and that plant biomass can serve as an alternative renewable and carbon-neutral raw material for the production of bio-energy and other products made from fermentable sugars. (
  • Several factors will influence the viability of a biochemical platform for manufacturing lignocellulosic based fuels and chemicals, for example, genetically engineering energy crops, reducing pre-treatment severity, and minimizing enzyme loading. (
  • It focuses on annual crops grown in agro-ecosystems, rather than woody and perennial species and natural ecosystems. (
  • A team of researchers from the Universities of Warwick and British Columbia have discovered an enzyme in a soil-living bacterium called Rhodococcus jostii which can break down lignin, a component of the woody parts of plants. (
  • This month's theme, woody biomass, has caused quite a stir as more projects that intend to utilize the resource to produce power and heat emerge. (
  • One of the main concerns people have about using woody biomass as a power source is that it will decimate our nation's forests. (
  • I understand why this is a concern, but I maintain that the use of woody biomass can be sustained by concentrating on the planting of fast-growing tree species on marginal land, replanting tree stands as they are harvested, which is already being done, and focusing on wood residue that isn't used by the wood products industry, such as insect and diseasedamaged trees and forest residue that's removed to prevent fires. (
  • I recently read about a great example of how a group of forest managers, the forest products industry, environmentalists, economic developers and other interested parties in Arizona have worked together to sustainably use woody biomass from national forestlands. (
  • The White Mountain Stewardship Project, which involves the Apache and Sitgreaves National Forests in East-Central Arizona, was created to provide a long-term, reliable supply of woody biomass for the wood products industry, reduce the risk of wildfires and stimulate the local economy, according to the article. (
  • Lisa Gibson's "Pacific West Profile" feature details the myriad of biomass resources in the Pacific West that have yet to be fully tapped, including woody biomass, crop residue, animal waste, municipal solid waste, and food and beverage plant waste. (
  • Due to the complex network of physically and chemically recalcitrant polymers which comprise woody biomass, a pretreatment to deconstruct the material is a necessary preliminary step required for its use. (
  • The use of Short Rotation Woody Crops for energy poses some challenges. (
  • In Belgium, the BIOFOREVER consortium of 14 European companies emerged from stealth with the news that they have started their demonstration project for the conversion of woody biomass to value adding chemical building blocks. (
  • A non-woody biomass is delignified through extrusion technology, utilizing hydrogen peroxide and an alkali agent, to break down complex biomass materials. (
  • Woody biomass is a good energy resource due to presence of large number of forests in Southeast Asia. (
  • The content includes biomass renewable energy, prospective renewable resources for bio-based processes, biochemical from biomass, biomass based chemicals, biofuel production from biomass crops, biomass gasification, reuse of bio-genic iron oxides and woody biomass fly ash in cement based materials and agricultural areas, biofuel briquettes from biomass, biomass based activated carbon, environmental aspects. (
  • A research team from the University of Washington received $40 million to focus on using sustainably grown woody energy crops to produce biogasoline and renewable aviation fuel. (
  • A consortium of eight organizations will work throughout the entire woody biomass supply chain to promote the financing, construction and operation of multiple biorefineries, while reaching out to landowners and land managers, as well as regional K-12 and college students and faculty, to foster workforce development opportunities across the supply chain. (
  • Researchers are developing technologies that enable all of the plant biomass to be used in production, including the woody lignin and cellulose, instead of just the edible sugary, starchy or oily parts. (
  • NC Woody Biomass "Nature's renewable energy! (
  • The absence of specific methodologies for lignin degradation represents an important opportunity for research and development. (
  • This chapter focuses on details about natural lignin degradation by fungi and bacteria, which harbor potential tools for lignin degradation and modification, which might help to develop eco-efficient processes for lignin utilization. (
  • The idea to engineer biomass for easier degradation first took shape in the lab of University of Wisconsin-Madison professor and Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center (GLBRC) Plants Leader John Ralph, who was then working at the US Dairy Forage Research Center. (
  • A greater number of studies have addressed the degradation of soil organic matter that is associated with arable crop production than the restoration. (
  • Copolymerization of sinapyl p-coumarate into lignin had little impact on the in vitro degradation of non-pretreated cell walls by anaerobic rumen microflora, suggesting that p-coumarate esters do not markedly influence the inherent fermentability of grass cell walls. (
  • Catabolic Pathways and Role of Ligninases for the Degradation of Lignin Substructure Models by White-Rot Fungi. (
  • Degradation of a non-phenolic ${\beta}$ -O-4 substructure and of polymeric lignin model compounds by laccase of Coriolus versicolor in the presence of 1-hydroxybenzotriazole. (
  • 120 °C) and high alcohol content of the pre-treatment solvent suppressed lignin degradation reactions and allowed for the isolation of high quality lignins in good yields. (
  • Dixon R. A. Lignin modification improves fermentable sugar yields for biofuel production. (
  • Many crops are of interest for their ability to provide high yields of biomass and can be harvested multiple times each year. (
  • If giant miscanthus can achieve the same yields at field scale that have been realized in research plots, enough biomass could be produced to meet U.S. renewable commitments on only the land area currently devoted to corn grain ethanol. (
  • By contrast, greater yields of lignin-based pyrolytic products such as phenol, 2-methoxyphenol, 2-methylphenol, 2-methoxy-4-methylphenol and 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol arising from drupe endocarp tissue are documented. (
  • Brazil is the world's No. 2 soy producer and has the potential to expand further with strains of crops requiring less fertilizer, producing more yields, drought resistance and other characteristics. (
  • The yields for n -butanol lignins were at least four fold higher than those obtained from a current generation technical organosolv lignin under comparable conditions. (
  • To compete with traditional refineries, biorefineries must achieve high carbohydrate-to-fuel yields with low enzymatic input and facilitate lignin valorization to co-products extending beyond simply using lignin to generate heat and power. (
  • To extract the fermentable sugars, one must first disconnect the celluloses from the lignin, and then use acid or enzymatic methods to hydrolyze the newly freed celluloses to break them down into simple monosaccharides. (
  • Lignin in biomass crops interferes with the access of hydrolytic enzymes to polysaccharide components in the cell wall, inhibiting their conversion to fermentable monosaccharides, even after pretreatment. (
  • Furthermore, the resulting hydrolysate from this process are readily fermentable due to the removal of lignin-derived inhibitors. (
  • Some applications of lignin combine the use of different technologies that involve some degree of maturity such as thermochemical and biochemical processes. (
  • Pointing to a room-sized machine that processes the biomass into pulp, Lehrburger explained that hemp stalks become pulp faster than other raw materials and require less water. (
  • There are also lower temperature processes in the region of 150-374 °C, that produce sugars by decomposing the biomass in water with or without additives. (
  • The group surmised that if they could introduce weak bonds into lignin, they could simply "unzip" the material, making it much easier for chemical processes to break it down. (
  • A better understanding of growth cues and various anatomical and cell wall construction features of B. distachyon will further our understanding of plant biomass accumulation processes. (
  • There are significant technical hurdles still to clear to make production of lignocellulosic ethanol commercially competitive, but once these processes become economically viable, they could use waste products from agriculture and forestry, municipal waste, as well as new crops such as fast growing trees or grasses. (
  • 20,21 A common feature of most organosolv processes is that the lignocellulosic biomass is typically heated in the presence of a mixture of water and organic solvent, usually containing an acid catalyst. (
  • Though the biosynthetic pathway of lignin has been elucidated in great detail, the random nature of the polymerization (free radical coupling) process poses challenges for its depolymerization into valuable bioproducts. (
  • To target the expression of DNA sequences of interest to cells forming plant secondary cell walls, which generate most of the vegetative biomass, upstream regulatory sequences of the Brachypodium distachyon lignin biosynthetic gene BdPMT and the cellulose synthase genes BdCESA7 and BdCESA8 were isolated and cloned into binary vectors designed for Agrobacterium -mediated transformation of monocots. (
  • 15/08/2013 - An international collaboration of plant scientists identified a new gene in the biosynthetic pathway of lignin, a major component of plant secondary cell walls that limits the conversion of biomass to energy. (
  • Because of its roles in water transport, mechanical support, and biodefense, lignin is intimately associated with the evolution of vascular plants ( Robinson, 1990 ). (
  • Bioplastics are derived from regenerable organic resources (biomasses) such as plants, but they inherently have problems in mechanical strength, like being easy to break. (
  • Genetically modified crops ( GM crops or biotech crops ) are plants used in agriculture , the DNA of which has been modified using genetic engineering methods. (
  • Since secondary cell walls make up most of the vegetative biomass in mature plants, they are the major target for efforts to improve the efficiency of biofuel production. (
  • Virgin biomass includes all naturally occurring terrestrial plants such as trees, bushes and grass. (
  • Espiñeira JM, Novo Uzal E, Gómez Ros LV, et al (2011) Distribution of lignin monomers and the evolution of lignification among lower plants. (
  • Hatfield R, Vermerris W (2001) Lignin formation in plants. (
  • All plants contain lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose. (
  • The researchers identified an enzyme (coniferyl ferulate feruloyl-CoA monolignol transferase) in other plants that contain more digestible lignin monomers, then expressed it in poplar. (
  • The team's conclusion-that hydrophobic, or water repelling, lignin binds less with hydrophilic, or water attracting, hemicellulose-points researchers toward a promising way to engineer better plants for biofuel. (
  • 1,2,3 LMID had been an insurmountable barrier to the optimal exploitation of cellulosic plants, but the GCEP research team recently discovered that LMID can be prevented in some Arabidopsis mutants, broadening the scope of lignin manipulation strategies that can be implemented. (
  • The experimental materials, access to metabolites, proteins and transcriptional mechanisms will enable the dissection and control of the biochemical mechanisms that underpin LMID in reduced- lignin, CCR -, C4H - or C3H -deficient plants. (
  • Figure 3: (Bottom) NMR analysis reveals that the ref4 rfr1 ref8 mutant deposits a different type of lignin (with hydroxyphenyl) than wild type plants (syringyl and guaiacyl). (
  • By elucidating biomass quantity and quality traits in a model grass, we aim to contribute to the knowledge base necessary to improve plants for sustainable bioenergy production. (
  • If so, these plants have potential as improved energy crops and would lower costs of bioprocessing associated with enzymatic breakdown of cellulosic biomass. (
  • Lignin embeds the sugar molecules and thereby gives firmness to plants. (
  • Therefore, growing plants with a lower amount of lignin or with lignin that is easier to break down could potentiall revolutionise biofuel production. (
  • As a result, the direct conversion of cellulose to glucose from un-pretreated plant biomass increased four-fold, from 18% in the control plants to 78% in the CSE mutant plants. (
  • It can be used as a bio fuel and is widely used in domestic cooking stoves, heating stoves, biomass gasifiers, boilers and biomass power plants, etc. (
  • It most often refers to plants or plant-based materials which are specifically called lignocellulosic biomass. (
  • Lignin is a highly abundant biopolymer synthesized by plants as a complex component of plant secondary cell walls. (
  • The BESC team's new, simpler technology is projected to be economical at a much smaller scale than current technology, which means processing plants could be built faster and sited more easily than current technology, with benefits potentially flowing to rural communities where the crops are grown and processed. (
  • 23/02/2018 - To ease the industrial processing of plant biomass into energy, plants are engineered to contain less lignin. (
  • Alternatively, or in addition, crops might be developed to accumulate higher amounts of energy-dense lipids, including vacuole-imported secondary metabolites, cuticular waxes on aerial surfaces, or oils (triacylglycerols) in leaves (see inform 22:631-634, 2011) and other vegetative parts of plants. (
  • This latter scenario is particularly attractive because the biomass of (nonseed) aerial parts of plants (e.g., leaves and stems) is generally far greater than the amount accounted for by seeds. (
  • In the next section, we highlight new and emerging research that suggests we are in fact moving closer to realizing the potential of increasing the amounts of recoverable, renewable energy from bioengineered crop plants. (
  • Lignin is an aromatic biopolymer involved in providing structural support to plant cell walls. (
  • However, since cellulose is crosslinked with lignin in plant cell walls, it is very difficult to release glucose from cellulose. (
  • To characterize cell wall structure at the subnanometer scale and assess its response to chemical pretreatment, BESC developed techniques to image enzyme digestion in real time, revealing that biomass reactivity is determined by the nanoscale architecture of plant cell walls. (
  • The control of growth and lignin appears to be highly regulated, implying that selection for improved growth rate could effect a reduction in lignin content. (
  • Multiple avenues are being explored including the design of an optimised cocktail of cellulases and hemicellulases isolated from T. reesei, as well as genetic-engineering-based strain improvement to allow the fungus to simply be placed in the presence of lignocellulosic biomass and break down the matter into D-glucose monomers. (
  • Li and Brutnell, 2011 ), based on it's close phylogenetic relationship and genetic synteny, it also exists as an excellent model for the lignocellulosic biomass crops. (
  • Using high-performance computing, a group of researchers at the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory provided insight into how this might be accomplished, simulating a well-established genetic modification to the lignin of an aspen tree in atomic-level detail. (
  • His team's simulation of a genetically modified lignin molecule linked to a hemicellulose molecule adds context to work conducted by researchers at DOE's BioEnergy Science Center , who demonstrated that genetic modification of lignin can boost the amount of biofuel derived from plant material without compromising the structural integrity of the plant. (
  • BESC scientists created lots of different lignins randomly through genetic modification," Smith said. (
  • Also, organosolv lignin was tested as a solid co-polyol for the solvent-free production of Polyurethanes (PU). (
  • Organosolv lignin was successfully used towards castor oil-based PU elastomers, as a liquid co-polyol for rigid PU foams and to substitute phenol in the preparation of PF resins for the manufacture of plywood panels. (
  • The main goal of this study was to investigate biomodification mechanism of lignin by white rot fungus, Abortiporus biennis, and to depolymerize ethanol organosolv lignin for industrial application. (
  • Screening of outstanding white rot fungi for biodegradation of organosolv lignin by decolorization of Remazol Brilliant Blue R and ligninolytic enzymes systems. (
  • Bringing technology to maturity through research and innovation, by upgrading and building demonstration and flagship biorefineries that will process biomass into a range of innovative products. (
  • Wang Z. Y. Lignin deposition and associated changes in anatomy, enzyme activity, gene expression and ruminal degradability in stems of tall fescue at different developmental stages. (
  • Also, while it is known that bulk lignin concentrations are largely unchanged, it is hypothesized that they undergo a process of plasticization and re-deposition. (
  • In this study, cell walls from maize cell suspensions were artificially lignified with coniferyl alcohol and increasing proportions of sinapyl alcohol to mimic the shift from guaiacyl to syringyl lignin deposition observed during maturation of most grass tissues. (
  • In other words, it is more efficient to produce ethanol from this kind of rice straw: the cost of lignin treatment can be reduced and the production of ethanol can be enhanced. (
  • One derived from coniferyl alcohol monomers forms guaiacyl (G) units, resulting in a lignin typical of softwoods. (
  • Based on cellulose-containing biomass, we are aiming at producing furan-based monomers such as 2,5-furan dicarboxylic acid (FDCA) and 2,5-bis (aminomethyl) furan (AMF) and the like through 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde (HMF). (
  • Lignin is obtained before or after polysaccharide extraction, depolymerised into aromatic monomers and further converted into value‐added by‐products such as biomaterials and biochemicals. (
  • During lignification, 0, 15, or 30% of the sinapyl alcohol was substituted with sinapyl p-coumarate (the main precursor of p-coumaroylated grass lignins) to assess its impact on the formation and characteristics of syringyl-rich lignins and the fermentability of cell walls. (
  • Although sinapyl p-coumarate enhanced oxidative coupling of sinapyl alcohol, the accumulation of nonreactive quinone methide intermediate products likely hindered more extensive formation of syringyl lignin. (
  • Drivers for achieving this vision include moving to more sustainable agricultural practices, improved biomass conversion technology, worldwide commitment to reduce GHG emissions, and increases in petroleum cost as supply dwindles. (
  • According to their discovery, when flavone synthase II (FNSII), a key enzyme involved in tricin synthesis, is knocked out, not only is tricin not produced, but the lignin content in rice straw was also reduced by approximately one-third. (
  • By suppressing a key enzyme, Cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase, BESC scientists created an "incomplete" lignin molecule. (
  • This would allow researchers to modify the bacteria to produce large amounts of the enzyme and break down lignin on an industrial scale. (
  • The HTP Recalcitrance Screening Pipeline is designed to rapidly screen hundreds or thousands of biomass variants for differences in susceptibility to pretreatment and/or enzyme hydrolysis. (
  • Using this method, enzyme loadings can be significantly reduced by removing inhibitors caused by lignin presence in the stream, while increasing the enzyme accessibility to structural carbohydrates and enhancing cellulose activity. (