A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.
Processes that incorporate some element of randomness, used particularly to refer to a time series of random variables.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Destruction by passage of a galvanic electric current, as in disintegration of a chemical compound in solution.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Chemical and physical transformation of the biogenic elements from their nucleosynthesis in stars to their incorporation and subsequent modification in planetary bodies and terrestrial biochemistry. It includes the mechanism of incorporation of biogenic elements into complex molecules and molecular systems, leading up to the origin of life.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Computers whose input, output and state transitions are carried out by biochemical interactions and reactions.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
The study of the composition, chemical structures, and chemical reactions of living things.
The theory that the radiation and absorption of energy take place in definite quantities called quanta (E) which vary in size and are defined by the equation E=hv in which h is Planck's constant and v is the frequency of the radiation.
The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).
Complex compounds in which a dumbbell shaped molecule is encircled by a macrocycle. They are named after rota (wheel) and axis (axle). Notation with a prefix is used to indicate the number of interlocked components. They have potential use in NANOTECHNOLOGY. Rotaxanes have been made with CYCLODEXTRINS and CYCLIC ETHERS.
The chemical processes, enzymatic activities, and pathways of living things and related temporal, dimensional, qualitative, and quantitative concepts.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
The origin of life. It includes studies of the potential basis for life in organic compounds but excludes studies of the development of altered forms of life through mutation and natural selection, which is BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
The reactions and interactions of atoms and molecules, the changes in their structure and composition, and associated energy changes.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Chemical compounds derived from acids by the elimination of a molecule of water.
Alcohols derived from the aryl radical (C6H5CH2-) and defined by C6H5CHOH. The concept includes derivatives with any substituents on the benzene ring.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.
Antibodies that can catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions. They are characterized by high substrate specificity and share many mechanistic features with enzymes.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).
The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.
Derivatives of formic acids. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are formed with a single carbon carboxy group.
Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Comprehensive, methodical analysis of complex biological systems by monitoring responses to perturbations of biological processes. Large scale, computerized collection and analysis of the data are used to develop and test models of biological systems.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
The analysis of a chemical substance by inserting a sample into a carrier stream of reagent using a sample injection valve that propels the sample downstream where mixing occurs in a coiled tube, then passes into a flow-through detector and a recorder or other data handling device.
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Yeast-like ascomycetous fungi of the family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES isolated from exuded tree sap.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Materials or phenomena which can provide energy directly or via conversion.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A species of METHYLOBACTERIUM which can utilize acetate, ethanol, or methylamine as a sole carbon source. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
RNA that has catalytic activity. The catalytic RNA sequence folds to form a complex surface that can function as an enzyme in reactions with itself and other molecules. It may function even in the absence of protein. There are numerous examples of RNA species that are acted upon by catalytic RNA, however the scope of this enzyme class is not limited to a particular type of substrate.
A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.
Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Polymers synthesized by living organisms. They play a role in the formation of macromolecular structures and are synthesized via the covalent linkage of biological molecules, especially AMINO ACIDS; NUCLEOTIDES; and CARBOHYDRATES.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The covalent bonding of an alkyl group to an organic compound. It can occur by a simple addition reaction or by substitution of another functional group.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
A family of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria utilizing only one-carbon organic compounds and isolated from in soil and water.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A phylum of ARCHAEA comprising at least seven classes: Methanobacteria, Methanococci, Halobacteria (extreme halophiles), Archaeoglobi (sulfate-reducing species), Methanopyri, and the thermophiles: Thermoplasmata, and Thermococci.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.
A computer simulation developed to study the motion of molecules over a period of time.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.
Relating to the size of solids.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.
The above-ground plant without the roots.
Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.
A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
The transfer of energy of a given form among different scales of motion. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed). It includes the transfer of kinetic energy and the transfer of chemical energy. The transfer of chemical energy from one molecule to another depends on proximity of molecules so it is often used as in techniques to measure distance such as the use of FORSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
Devices for generating biological products that use light as the energy source. They are used for controlled BIOMASS production such as growing cyanobacteria, mosses, or algae.
Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)
A non-taxonomic term for unicellular microscopic algae which are found in both freshwater and marine environments. Some authors consider DIATOMS; CYANOBACTERIA; HAPTOPHYTA; and DINOFLAGELLATES as part of microalgae, even though they are not algae.
New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
A commonly used laboratory solvent. It was previously used as an anesthetic, but was banned from use in the U.S. due to its suspected carcinogenicity.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.
The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
An acquired disorder characterized by recurrent symptoms, referable to multiple organ systems, occurring in response to demonstrable exposure to many chemically unrelated compounds at doses below those established in the general population to cause harmful effects. (Cullen MR. The worker with multiple chemical sensitivities: an overview. Occup Med 1987;2(4):655-61)
The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A pyrrolo-quinoline having two adjacent keto-groups at the 4 and 5 positions and three acidic carboxyl groups. It is a coenzyme of some DEHYDROGENASES.
The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)
The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.
A colorless liquid made by oxidation of aliphatic hydrocarbons that is used as a solvent and chemical intermediate.
A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.
The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
A family of glycosidases that hydrolyse crystalline CELLULOSE into soluble sugar molecules. Within this family there are a variety of enzyme subtypes with differing substrate specificities that must work together to bring about complete cellulose hydrolysis. They are found in structures called CELLULOSOMES.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the EDIBLE GRAINS used in millet cereals and in feed for birds and livestock (ANIMAL FEED). It contains diosgenin (SAPONINS).
The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.
The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Tactical warfare using incendiary mixtures, smokes, or irritant, burning, or asphyxiating gases.
The contamination of indoor air.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
The processes by which organisms use simple inorganic substances such as gaseous or dissolved carbon dioxide and inorganic nitrogen as nutrient sources. Contrasts with heterotrophic processes which make use of organic materials as the nutrient supply source. Autotrophs can be either chemoautotrophs (or chemolithotrophs), largely ARCHAEA and BACTERIA, which also use simple inorganic substances for their metabolic energy reguirements; or photoautotrophs (or photolithotrophs), such as PLANTS and CYANOBACTERIA, which derive their energy from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (autotrophy; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrient and energy requirements.
Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.
Multicellular marine macroalgae including some members of red (RHODOPHYTA), green (CHLOROPHYTA), and brown (PHAEOPHYTA) algae. They are widely distributed in the ocean, occurring from the tide level to considerable depths, free-floating (planktonic) or anchored to the substratum (benthic). They lack a specialized vascular system but take up fluids, nutrients, and gases directly from the water. They contain CHLOROPHYLL and are photosynthetic, but some also contain other light-absorbing pigments. Many are of economic importance as FOOD, fertilizer, AGAR, potash, or source of IODINE.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
A plant genus of the family SALICACEAE. Members contain salicin, which yields SALICYLIC ACID.
A broad class of substances encompassing all those that do not include carbon and its derivatives as their principal elements. However, carbides, carbonates, cyanides, cyanates, and carbon disulfide are included in this class.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Debris resulting from a process that is of no further use to the system producing it. The concept includes materials discharged from or stored in a system in inert form as a by-product of vital activities. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of aldehyde or ketone residues. EC 2.2.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Places for cultivation and harvesting of fish, particularly in sea waters. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
CO + Cl2 → COCl2 Methanol is produced by the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide. In a related reaction, the hydrogenation of ... This technology allows coal or biomass to be converted to diesel. In the Cativa process, carbon monoxide and methanol react in ... Carbon monoxide is, along with aldehydes, part of the series of cycles of chemical reactions that form photochemical smog. It ... Since hydroxyl radical is formed during the formation of NO2, the balance of the sequence of chemical reactions starting with ...
A chemical exchange takes place between the alkoxy groups of an ester compound by an alcohol. Usually, methanol and ethanol are ... Transesterification is a simple chemical reaction that neutralizes the free fatty acids present in any fatty substances in ... a literature review) Biomass and Bioenergy 32(12), 1063-1084.[2] doi:10.1016/j.biombioe.2008.03.003The Jatropha Archives ... The reaction occurs by the presence of a catalyst, usually sodium hydroxide (NaOH) or caustic soda and potassium hydroxide (KOH ...
... chemical engineering, chemical laser and molecular reaction dynamics, organic synthesis and chromatography for modern analytic ... involving scientists from the Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics and the company Feye UAV Technology developed a methanol- ... clean energy conversion technologies and the economically viable use of solar and biomass energy. DICP's other main ... the Laboratory of Chemical Lasers, the State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, the Laboratory of Aerospace ...
... from this chemical reaction. These raw materials can either be mixed with pure diesel to make various proportions or used alone ... and are specifically called nitrocellulose biomass.[2] As an energy source, biomass can either be used directly via combustion ... Methanol and ethanol fuel are primary sources of energy; they are convenient fuels for storing and transporting energy. These ... Biomass in the energy production industry is living and recently dead biological material which can be used as fuel or for ...
... chemical reactions with caustic substances, or alloys. The byproduct of the reaction to create hydrogen is aluminum oxide, ... Various chemical processes can convert the carbon and hydrogen in coal, natural gas, plant and animal biomass and organic ... Power to liquid is similar to power to gas except that the hydrogen is converted into liquids such as methanol or ammonia. ... Food (which is made by the same process as fossil fuels) is a form of energy stored in chemical form. In the 20th century grid ...
Primary chemicals that are produced directly from the syngas include methanol, hydrogen and carbon monoxide, which are the ... Mixing in biomass and using CCS would emit slightly less than the oil process but at a high cost. State owned China Energy ... Dehydration removes water molecules from the maturing coal via reactions such as 2 R-OH → R-O-R + H2O 2 R-CH2-O-CH2-R → R-CH=CH ... Coal to chemical processes require substantial quantities of water. Much coal to chemical production is in China where coal ...
There are many chemical reactions that occur in the catalytic reforming process, all of which occur in the presence of a ... Nor is this process to be confused with various other catalytic reforming processes that use methanol or biomass-derived ... Reactions in catalytic naphtha reforming are elementary and Hougen-Watson Langmuir-Hinshelwood type reaction rate expressions ... To maintain the required reaction temperature and the rate of reaction, the vaporized stream is reheated in the second fired ...
The University of Minnesota developed a metal catalyst that reduces the biomass reaction time by up to a factor of 100. The ... biomass, and in some types of waste-to-energy gasification facilities. The chemical composition of syngas varies based on the ... Syngas is used to produce methanol as in the following reaction. CO 2 + 3 H 2 ⟶ CH 3 OH + H 2 O {\displaystyle {\ce {CO_2 + 3 ... The main reaction that produces syngas, steam reforming, is an endothermic reaction with 206 kJ/mol methane needed for ...
... according to the chemical equation: CH3OH + CO → HCO2CH3 In industry, this reaction is performed in the liquid phase at ... water-insoluble biomass to formic acid using additives as reaction accelerators". Energy & Environmental Science. 5 (7): 7956. ... coli on formate and methanol via the reductive glycine pathway". Nature Chemical Biology. 16 (5): 538-545. doi:10.1038/s41589- ... If the reaction mixture is heated to higher temperatures, allyl alcohol results. The net reaction is thus: C2O4H2 → CO2H2 + CO2 ...
Other reactions were, in the past, performed industrially in supercritical conditions, including the synthesis of methanol and ... Supercritical water can be used to decompose biomass via supercritical water gasification of biomass. This type of biomass ... and metal particles deposited in this way are also powerful catalysts for chemical synthesis and electrochemical reactions. ... To take advantage of the very short reaction times needed for cleavage a continuous reaction system must be devised. The amount ...
Methanol is produced by the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide. In a related reaction, the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide is ... This technology allows coal or biomass to be converted to diesel. In the Monsanto process, carbon monoxide and methanol react ... Carbon monoxide is, along with aldehydes, part of the series of cycles of chemical reactions that form photochemical smog. It ... The reaction of CO2 with carbon to give CO is described as the Boudouard reaction.[81] Above 800 °C, CO is the predominant ...
News Release NR-2108, "Dow and NREL Partner to Convert Biomass to Ethanol and Other Chemical Building Blocks", July 16, 2008, ... Some have employed catalysts similar to those used for methanol. Molybdenum sulfide catalysts were discovered at Dow Chemical ... via the Sabatier reaction The Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process is a gas-to-liquid (GtL) process. When biomass is the source of the ... When biomass is the source of the gas production the process is also referred to as biomass-to-liquids (BTL). Biomethanol can ...
These chemicals and excess biomass have found numerous use in other industries. For example, the dyes and oils have found a ... This fuel has an energy density 10% less than gasoline, and greater than that of either ethanol or methanol. In most gasoline ... demonstrated a new reaction and proposed a process for harvesting and extracting raw materials for biofuel and chemical ... Assuming that the biomass contains 30% oil by weight, the cost of biomass for providing a liter of oil would be approximately $ ...
Methanol can be made from a chemical reaction of a carbon-dioxide molecule with three hydrogen molecules to produce methanol ... The plants also add some chemical energy to the fuel from biological molecules. This may be a more efficient use of biomass ... They can be produced in chemical reactions between carbon dioxide, which can be captured from power plants or the air, and ... "George Olah CO2 to Renewable Methanol Plant, Reykjanes, Iceland" (Chemicals-Technology.com) "First Commercial Plant" Archived ...
... as chemical building blocks for synthetic diesel or ethanol, synthetic natural gas, methanol, or as a chemical feedstock into a ... Material entering into the liquid metal gasifier undergoes a series of thermo-chemical reactions, which are auto-thermal under ... "Ze-gen Reports Consistent High-Quality Syngas Production". Biomass Magazine. 2008-06-27. Retrieved 2009-08-17. "New Bedford ... In the subsequent gasification reaction, hydrogen (H 2) and carbon monoxide (CO) are favored as final products, along with ...
The catalyst forms chemical reactions that remove oxygen bonds and form carbon rings. After the reaction takes place gasoline ... can be converted in to carbon neutral ethanol or methanol by subjecting to pyrolysis and gasification. Biochar can also be ... energy portal Bioconversion of biomass to mixed alcohol fuels Bioenergy Biofuel Bioliquids Biomass Biomass gasification Biomass ... Biomass to liquid (BtL or BMtL) is a multi-step process of producing synthetic hydrocarbon fuels made from biomass via a ...
... these are separated principally by the extent to which the chemical reactions involved are allowed to proceed (mainly ... a direct methanol fuel cell, a direct formic acid fuel cell, a L-ascorbic Acid Fuel Cell (vitamin C fuel cell), and a microbial ... "The raw material for non-woody pellets can be herbaceous biomass, fruit biomass, aquatic biomass or biomass blends and mixtures ... Biomass is also used to produce fibers and industrial chemicals. Based on the source of biomass, biofuels are classified ...
... allows fine-tuning modern chemical reactions. Commercial THF contains substantial water that must be removed for sensitive ... Aqueous THF augments the hydrolysis of glycans from biomass and dissolves the majority of biomass lignin making it a suitable ... It has a greater elution strength than methanol or acetonitrile, but is less commonly used than these solvents. THF is used as ... International Chemical Safety Card 0578 NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards U.S. OSHA info on THF "2-Methyltetrahydrofuran, ...
The reaction in figure 2 shows the reductive debromination of 2,4,6-tribromophenol (2,4,6-TBP) by Ochrabactrum. Based on the ... Often, these chemical treatments, while effective, pose economical challenges to the treatment plants. A more economically ... and methanol can also be used) to PCE generates energy required for the bacterial growth. The hydrogen involved in this ... and is often established through slow-release fermentation compounds such as fatty acids and decaying bacterial biomass. While ...
Reaction line 1: 2CO + O2 → 2CO2 Reaction line 2: 2H2 + O2 → 2H2O Reaction line 3: 2C + O2 → 2CO Reaction line 4: 2CH4 + O2 → ... Chemical looping gasification (CLG) differs from the CLR in that it uses solid fuels such as coal and biomass instead of ... In a benchmark study for production of 10,000 ton/day of methanol from coal, the upstream gasification capital cost can be ... Depending on which chemical looping reactor is used to provide the SMR reaction heat, two CLC-SMR schemes can be configured. In ...
... wood and varied biomass. It can also be made from chemical recycling of carbon dioxide. Methanol is a fuel for heat engines and ... The energy needed for these reactions in order to be carbon neutral would come from renewable energy sources such as wind, ... Using the methanol-to-olefin (MTO) process, methanol can also be converted to ethylene and propylene, the two chemicals ... "The Methanol Industry - METHANOL INSTITUTE". methanol.org. Intratec Solutions (31 May 2012). "Technology Economics: Propylene ...
Reaction with nucleophiles and the synthesis of 1,3,7-octatriene In: Journal of the American Chemical Society. 89, 1967, p. ... Subsequent cracking of 1-methoxyoctane gives 1-octene and methanol for recycle. While the reaction is catalyzed by Pd(0) ... Versatile Routes for the Valorization of Biomass-Derived Platform Molecules". Top. Organomet. Chem. 39: 45-102.CS1 maint: ... The reaction was independently discovered by E. J. Smutny at Shell and Takahashi at the Osaka University in the late sixties. ...
Fuels and Chemicals from Biomass. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society, 321-335 Abubackar, H.N.; Veiga, M. C.; Kennes, C ... has higher reaction specificity, tolerates higher amounts of sulfur compounds, and does not require a specific ratio of CO to H ... and methanol, discharge enormous amounts of waste gases containing mainly CO and H 2 into the atmosphere either directly or ... Biocatalysts can be exploited to convert these waste gases to chemicals and fuels as, for example, ethanol. There are several ...
Based on this methanol synthesis, China has also developed a strong coal-to-chemicals industry, with outputs such as olefins, ... The reaction occurs at between 400 °C (752 °F) to 500 °C (932 °F) and 20 to 70 MPa hydrogen pressure. The reaction can be ... Coal/biomass/natural gas feedstock blends for coal liquefaction: Utilizing carbon-neutral biomass and hydrogen-rich natural gas ... In methanol synthesis processes syngas is converted to methanol, which is subsequently polymerized into alkanes over a zeolite ...
Solar chemical processes use solar energy to drive chemical reactions. These processes offset energy that would otherwise come ... Photosynthesis captures approximately 3,000 EJ per year in biomass. The amount of solar energy reaching the surface of the ... The multielectron catalytic chemistry involved in making carbon-based fuels (such as methanol) from reduction of carbon dioxide ... Solar induced chemical reactions can be divided into thermochemical or photochemical. A variety of fuels can be produced by ...
Water oxidation is a more complex chemical reaction than proton reduction. In nature, the oxygen-evolving complex performs this ... During 2008, Andrew B. Bocarsly reported the direct conversion of carbon dioxide and water to methanol using solar energy in a ... own low efficiency in converting sunlight to biomass), the cost of harvesting and transporting the fuel, and conflicts due to ... The photosynthetic reaction can be divided into two half-reactions of oxidation and reduction, both of which are essential to ...
... of this glycolaldehyde in this reaction demonstrates how it might play an important role in the formation of the chemical ... Moha, Dinesh; Charles U. Pittman, Jr.; Philip H. Steele (10 March 2006). "Pyrolysis of Wood/Biomass for Bio-oil: A Critical ... It was found that UV-irradiation of methanol ices containing CO yielded organic compounds such as glycolaldehyde and methyl ... Glycolaldehyde is an intermediate in the formose reaction. In the formose reaction, two formaldehyde molecules condense to make ...
... where it is often used to make more complex molecules through reactions of halogenation and chemical addition reaction.[ ... However, it is usually much cheaper to produce methanol from methane or from syngas. Methanol is the most important base ... The burning of wood is currently the largest use of energy derived from a solid fuel biomass. Wood fuel may be available as ... Chemical pulping produces an excess of energy, since the organic matter in black liquor, mostly lignin and hemicellulose ...
This route can offer methanol production from biomass at efficiencies up to 75%.[citation needed] Widespread production by this ... Like many volatile chemicals, methanol does not have to be swallowed to be dangerous since the liquid can be absorbed through ... requiring the use of methanol fuel to react in a catalytic reaction with the coiled platinum filament in a glow plug for the ... Methanol is also used in Monster Truck racing. Safety in automotive fuels[edit]. Pure methanol has been used in open wheel auto ...
"Biomass Valorization for Fuel and Chemicals Production -- A Review". International Journal of Chemical Reactor Engineering. 6: ... Methanol is currently produced from natural gas, a non-renewable fossil fuel. In the future it is hoped to be produced from ... "Bioethers are produced by the reaction of reactive iso-olefins, such as iso-butylene, with bioethanol."[55] Bioethers are ... This biomass conversion can result in fuel in solid, liquid, or gas form. This new biomass can also be used directly for ...
Diesel engines are lean burn engines,[30] burning the fuel in more air than is needed for the chemical reaction. They thus use ... The process is typically referred to as biomass-to-liquid (BTL), gas-to-liquid (GTL) or coal-to-liquid (CTL), depending on the ... Methanol can also be replaced with ethanol for the transesterification process, which results in the production of ethyl esters ... Chemical Abstracts. 110. Washington D.C.: American Chemical Society. 13 March 1989. Retrieved 28 July 2014.. ...
and Chemicals", page 341. Academic Press, 1998. *^ Kitani, Osamu, "Volume V: Energy and Biomass Engineering,. CIGR Handbook of ... Fuel cells operate similar to a battery in that electricity is harnessed from chemical reactions. The difference in fuel cells ... However, there are sources of renewable methanol made using carbon dioxide or biomass as feedstock, making their production ... For biomass and organic waste-to-fuel production, see Biomass to liquid. For unmodified vegetable oil used as motor fuel, see ...
Chemical reactionsEdit. In a gasifier, the carbonaceous material undergoes several different processes: Pyrolysis of ... This type of plant is often referred to as a wood biomass CHP unit but is a plant with seven different processes: biomass ... by methanol dehydration, methane via the Sabatier reaction, or diesel-like synthetic fuel via the Fischer-Tropsch process. In ... Letting C represent a carbon-containing organic compound, the basic reaction here is C. +. O. 2. →. C. O. 2. {\displaystyle {\ ...
The work was never published.[14]:1 Stauffer Chemical patented the agent as a chemical chelator in 1964 as it binds and removes ... Iminodiacetic acid is usually prepared on-site, such as by reaction of chloroacetic acid with ammonia and calcium hydroxide to ... Nguyen DB, Rose MT, Rose TJ, Morris SG, van Zwieten L (2016). "Impact of glyphosate on soil microbial biomass and respiration: ... Glycine and paraformaldehyde are reacted in a suitable organic solvent (typically triethylamine and methanol) to produce ...
Further chemical refining of the dewatered fermentation broth may then take place depending on the final chemical or biofuel ... Overall reaction). A more comprehensive description of the economics of each of the fuels is given on the pages alcohol fuel ... Production of gasoline from methanol.. *^ Eggeman, T., Verser, D., and Weber, E. (2005), An Indirect Route for Ethanol ... Through bioconversion of biomass to a mixed alcohol fuel, more energy from the biomass will end up as liquid fuels than in ...
Smith, D.; Adams, N. G. (1977). "Reactions of CH+n IONS with ammonia at 300 K". Chemical Physics Letters. 47 (1): 145. Bibcode: ... biomass, or waste. As of 2012, the global production of ammonia produced from natural gas using the steam reforming process was ... soluble in chloroform, ether, ethanol, methanol Vapor pressure 857.3 kPa Acidity (pKa) 32.5 (−33 °C),[6] 10.5 (DMSO) ... This reaction is both exothermic and results in decreased entropy, meaning that the reaction is favoured at lower temperatures[ ...
... may be used as a source of carbon in chemical reactions. One example of this is the production of carbon disulphide ... Production and utilisation of charcoal, like any use of woody biomass as fuel, typically results in emissions and can ... The syngas is typically used as fuel, including automotive propulsion, or as a chemical feedstock. ... which help the activated charcoal to trap chemicals. Impurities on the surface of the charcoal are also removed during this ...
formed in the troposphere or stratosphere, giving the overall chemical reaction CH. 4 + 2O. 2 → CO. 2 + 2H. 2O.[80][81] While ... When methane-rich gases are produced by the anaerobic decay of non-fossil organic matter (biomass), these are referred to as ... A variety of GTL technologies have been developed, including Fischer-Tropsch (F-T), methanol to gasoline (MTG) and syngas to ... Chemical enzymology system[60]. Power generation[edit]. Natural gas is a major source of electricity generation through the use ...
"Chemical Heritage Magazine. 26 (3). Retrieved 20 March 2018.. *^ "American Chemical Society: THE FIRST NYLON PLANT. 1995" (PDF) ... methanol) can be made by fermenting the whole plant. ... Biomass heating systems. *Biorefinery. *Fischer-Tropsch process ... Hemp paper does not require the use of toxic bleaching or as many chemicals as wood pulp because it can be whitened with ... Iterations of the 1930s decorticator have been met with limited success, along with steam explosion and chemical processing ...
This alliance between the U.S. and Brazil generated some negative reactions. While Bush was in São Paulo as part of the 2007 ... All these methods involve heat or chemicals, are expensive, have lower conversion rates and produce waste materials. In recent ... Goettemoeller, Jeffrey; Adrian Goettemoeller (2007), Sustainable Ethanol: Biofuels, Biorefineries, Cellulosic Biomass, Flex- ... Goettemoeller, Jeffrey; Adrian Goettemoeller (2007), Sustainable Ethanol: Biofuels, Biorefineries, Cellulosic Biomass, Flex- ...
"American Chemical Society National Historic Chemical Landmarks. Archived from the original on 2013-02-23. Retrieved 2013-05-13. ... Acrylonitrile and derivatives, such as 2-chloroacrylonitrile, are dienophiles in Diels-Alder reactions. Acrylonitrile is also a ... Guerrero-Pérez, M. Olga; Bañares, Miguel A. (2015). "Metrics of acrylonitrile: From biomass vs. petrochemical route". Catalysis ... "CDC - Acrylonitrile - International Chemical Safety Cards". www.cdc.gov. NIOSH. Retrieved 2015-07-31.. ...
Conversion of biomass to biofuel can be achieved by different methods which are broadly classified into: thermal, chemical, and ... While that will require a 100 to one reduction, SpaceX is targeting a ten to one reduction, Reaction Engines may make a 100 to ... electromagnetic energy in chemical bonds by splitting water to produce hydrogen and then using carbon dioxide to make methanol. ... Plant biomass can also be degraded from cellulose to glucose through a series of chemical treatments, and the resulting sugar ...
Chemical pulp is produced by combining wood chips and chemicals in large vessels called digesters. There, heat and chemicals ... Most common used solvents are methanol, ethanol, formic acid and acetic acid often in combination with water. ... The kraft pulping reaction in particular releases foul-smelling compounds. The hydrogen sulfide reagent that degrades lignin ... Pulp can be manufactured using mechanical, semi-chemical or fully chemical methods (kraft and sulfite processes). The finished ...
These chemicals and excess biomass have found numerous use in other industries. For example, the dyes and oils have found a ... demonstrated a new reaction and proposed a process for harvesting and extracting raw materials for biofuel and chemical ... This fuel has an energy density 10% less than gasoline, and greater than that of either ethanol or methanol. In most gasoline ... "Productive usage of biomass". Retrieved 29 May 2015.. *^ "Algae Biomass Organization, Renewable, Sustainable Commodities from ...
Two chemical reactions occur at the interfaces of the three different segments. The net result of the two reactions is that ... direct-methanol fuel cells and indirect methanol fuel cells) and chemical hydrides. The waste products with these types of fuel ... biomass), package the light gas by compression or liquefaction, transfer the energy carrier to the user, plus the energy lost ... Anode Reaction: CO32− + H2 → H2O + CO2 + 2e−. Cathode Reaction: CO2 + ½O2 + 2e− → CO32−. Overall Cell Reaction: H2 + ½O2 → H2O ...
... these are separated principally by the extent to which the chemical reactions involved are allowed to proceed (mainly ... a direct methanol fuel cell, a direct formic acid fuel cell, a L-ascorbic Acid Fuel Cell (vitamin C fuel cell),[18] and a ... Chemical conversionEdit. A range of chemical processes may be used to convert biomass into other forms, such as to produce a ... Biomass can be converted into multiple commodity chemicals.[14]. Biochemical conversionEdit. As biomass is a natural material, ...
CDC - NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards - Ethyl Alcohol. *National Institute of Standards and Technology chemical data on ... 9.0 9.1 Adams, K. E.; Rans, T. S. (Dec 2013). "Adverse reactions to alcohol and alcoholic beverages". Ann Allergy Asthma ... "Outlook for Biomass Ethanol Production and Demand" (PDF). United States Department of Energy. பார்த்த நாள் 22 September 2007. ... "Methanol poisoning". National Institute of Health (30 January 2013). பார்த்த நாள் 6 April 2015. ...
The most important reaction based on methanol is the decomposition of methanol to yield carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Methanol ... Some of the large chemical processes that use catalysis today are the production of methanol and ammonia. Both methanol and ... or by using biomass.. Both the reactions shown above are highly endothermic and can be coupled to an exothermic partial ... Methanol decomposition[edit]. The second way to produce hydrogen from methanol is by methanol decomposition: CH3OH(l) → CO + 2H ...
In most states, RPS goals can be achieved by any combination of solar, wind, biomass, landfill gas, ocean, geothermal, ... It involves the use of nanotechnology to store solar electromagnetic energy in chemical bonds, by splitting water to produce ... must go up and down in reaction to the rise and fall of solar electricity (see load following power plant). While hydroelectric ... hydrogen fuel or then combining with carbon dioxide to make biopolymers such as methanol. Many large national and regional ...
This reaction reverses above 1200 K (930 °C; 1700 °F). A laboratory synthesis entails the reaction potassium thiocyanate and ... Carbonyl sulfide is the chemical compound with the linear formula OCS. Normally written as COS as a chemical formula that does ... biomass combustion, fish processing, combustion of refuse and plastics, petroleum manufacture, and manufacture of synthetic ... "Chemical Summary for Carbonyl Sulfide". U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.. *^ Protoschill-Krebs, G.; Wilhelm, C.; ...
Kinsley Chemical Company of Cleveland, and Chemical Paper Company of Holyoke, Massachusetts, demonstrated the first successful ... Biomass. Hidden categories: *CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list. *Articles with a promotional tone from October 2020 ... A typical chemical analysis of washed and dried bagasse might show:[2] ... "Energy and chemical conversion of five Australian lignocellulosic feedstocks into bio-crude through liquefaction". RSC ...
The chemical reaction is typically a hydrocarbon or other organic molecule reacting with oxygen to form carbon dioxide and ... Biomass Energy Data Book. U.S. Department of Energy. 2011.. Authority control. *GND: 4135554-4 ... Methanol. 19.930. 15.78. 8,570. 638.55. Ethanol. 26.70. 22.77. 12,412. 1,329.8. 1-Propanol. 30.680. 24.65. 13,192. 1,843.9. ... The LHV assumes that the latent heat of vaporization of water in the fuel and the reaction products is not recovered. It is ...
Chemical reactionsEdit. Succinic acid can be dehydrogenated to fumaric acid or be converted to diesters, such as ... "Top Value Added Chemicals from Biomass, Volume 1: Results of Screening for Potential Candidates from Sugars and Synthesis Gas" ... Solubility in Methanol 158 mg/mL[3]. Solubility in Ethanol 54 mg/mL[3]. ... In 2004, succinate was placed on the US Department of Energy's list of top 12 platform chemicals from biomass.[15] ...
Commercially, chloromethane is manufactured by the chemical reaction between hydrogen chloride and methanol. Traditionally, ... Chloromethane is naturally produced by the effect of sunlight on biomass and chlorine present in sea foam. ... However, owing to its high toxicity levels, the use of this chemical has been banned in consumer products. Presently, it is ... used as a chemical intermediate to manufacture derivative products such as chloroform, methylene chloride and carbon ...
... chemical energy) to electricity (electrical energy). One potential application is the generation of electricity from industrial ... biochemical fuel cell A system that exploits biological reactions for the conversion of biomass ( ... biochemical fuel cell A system that exploits biological reactions for the conversion of biomass (chemical energy) to ... Methyltrophic organisms (i.e. organisms that use methane or methanol as their sole carbon sources) are being investigated for ...
methanol strategy for fuel cells. Nissan Motor Co. Ltd. and Renault SA are giving gasoline priority in their fuel-cell research ... A fuel cell generates electricity from the chemical reaction between hydrogen and oxygen. But pure hydrogen is hard to store on ... it is easier and cleaner to convert to hydrogen and can be generated from biomass, reducing the use of fossil fuels. ... methanol strategy for fuel cells.. Nissan Motor Co. Ltd. and Renault SA are giving gasoline priority in their fuel-cell ...
Biomass ignition in mills and storages - is it explained by conventional thermal ignition theory?. Publication: Research - peer ... Acid-resistant organic coatings for the chemical industry: a review. Publication: Research - peer-review › Review - Annual ... Methanol oxidation in a flow reactor: Implications for the branching ratio of the CH3OH+OH reaction. Publication: Research - ... The oxidation of methanol in a flow reactor has been studied experimentally under diluted, fuel-lean conditions at 650-1350 K, ...
The overall reaction pathways for directional liquefaction of biomass into methyl levulinate with matching-solvent was put ... Dimethoxymethane/methanol was creatively used as matching-solvents for one-pot synergistic converting bamboo into value-added ... Directional synergistic conversion of lignocellulosic biomass with matching-solvents for added-value chemicals. Green Chemistry ... Directional synergistic conversion of lignocellulosic biomass with matching-solvents for added-value chemicals ...
The influences of biomass concentration, catalyst volume, organic solvent/methanol ratios, reaction time, and temperature on ... Master of Science in Chemical Engineering, University of Toledo, 2011, Chemical Engineering. ... Our results showed that high biomass and lipid productivities (~20 g-biomass·m-2·d-1 and 2.3 g-FAMEs·m-2·d-1) were obtained and ... Each tri-nuclear cluster displayed a reversible redox reaction and one or more irreversible reduction reactions. The redox peak ...
Process Integration: Ammonia Synthesis, Methanol Synthesis from Coal and Biomass, Biomass Conversion: Gassification, ... Hydrogenation reaction, Oxidation reaction: CO2 hydrogenation and value-added chemicals. Also interested on reforming reaction ... Conversion of biomass derived oxygenates to valuable chemicals and fuels, Kinetic modeling, for heterogeneous reaction, Green ... Biomass conversion processes, Liquefaction of lignocellulosic biomass, Upgrading of bio-oil into advanced bio-fuels, Value ...
... methane to higher-value chemicals), Fischer-Tropsch synthesis of diesel fuel from biomass-derived synthesis gas (CO + H2), and ... Samuel D. Jones, Helena E. Hagelin-Weaver, "Steam reforming of methanol over CeO2- and ZrO2-promoted Cu-ZnO catalysts supported ... Our main research focus is on environmentally friendly, energy-related reactions. Our projects include catalyst development for ... We are also working on catalyst characterization for direct methanol fuel cells. ...
One potentially game-changing technique is electrohydrogenation - the use of an electrocatalyst to drive the chemical reaction ... such as methanol, or (2) transform biomass into long-chain molecules that can also be used as fuel. ... To upgrade biomass to fuels, researchers will target the electro-hydrogenation of the C=O bonds in CO2, carbonates, formates ... CO2 is kinetically and thermodynamically inert, making reduction by chemical hydrogenation or electro-reduction very difficult ...
Competing side reactions have been characterized, and minimized, to achieve high yields of p-xylene. Additionally, a possible ... The last step in the production of p-xylene from biomass derived glucose involves the conversion of 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF) and ... However this emerging domestic resource lacks a conversion pathway to the fifth major chemical building block; the larger C6 ... Potential transport limitations between the liquid reaction solution and ethylene gas as well as through the pores of the ...
The relatively weak acidity of HP-ZSM-5 suppresses the ring-opening reaction and subsequent side reactions, and introduction of ... Additionally, HP-ZSM-5 exhibited quicker reaction rate, higher BMMF yield and selectivity, and slower deactivation process. ... The revealing mechanism of side reactions is crucial for obtaining theoretical yield in industrialization when 2,5-bis( ... and methanol (MeOH) were purchased from Sinopharm Chemical Reagent Co., Ltd. (Shanghai, China) Trifluoroacetic acid (CF3COOH) ...
CO + Cl2 → COCl2 Methanol is produced by the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide. In a related reaction, the hydrogenation of ... This technology allows coal or biomass to be converted to diesel. In the Cativa process, carbon monoxide and methanol react in ... Carbon monoxide is, along with aldehydes, part of the series of cycles of chemical reactions that form photochemical smog. It ... Since hydroxyl radical is formed during the formation of NO2, the balance of the sequence of chemical reactions starting with ...
Biomass pyrolysis oil is converted into precursors for hydrocarbon transportation fuels by contacting the oil with liquid ... containing oxygen functionalities such as are commonly found in biomass oil undergo a wide range of chemical reactions in ... It is miscible with polar solvents such as methanol, acetone, etc. and although referred to as an oil, will not mix ... Currently, there are two major routes for conversion of biomass to liquid fuels: biological and thermo-chemical. In the ...
Tags: Air pollution, atmosphere, biomass, carbon dioxide, carbon footprint, chemical looping, Chemistry, energy, environment, ... Meanwhile, their second paper goes over a new way of extending the lifetime of the particles that "enable the chemical reaction ... "transforms shale gas into products such as methanol and gasoline" while consuming carbon dioxide at the exact same time. They ... They refer to this technology as chemical looping, which is a process that "burns" fossil fuels and biomass by using iron oxide ...
Here, we report the first visible-light-driven dehydrogenative coupling of methanol into ethylene glycol, an important chemical ... Direct transformation of methanol into two- or multi-carbon compounds is extremely attractive but remains a challenge. Here, ... Mechanistic studies reveal a preferential activation of C−H bond instead of O−H bond in methanol by photoexcited holes on CdS ... the authors report an efficient photocatalytic route to the transformation of methanol into ethylene glycol and hydrogen over a ...
Methanol to liquid fuels reactions over novel hierarchical zeolites. *Heat and mass transfer effects in micro reactors for fine ... Design of a radio frequency heated isothermal micro trickle bed reactor, Chemical Engineering Journal, 243 (2014) 225-233. ,, ... Development of new catalytic systems for the valorization of lignocellulosic biomass. *Integration of heterogeneous and ... Mesoporous SSZ-13 zeolite prepared by a dual template method with improved performance in the methanol to olefins reaction, ...
His research aims to develop cutting-edge reactions that minimizes waste in chemical processes while delivers the clean product ... He also developed a one-step photo-driven conversion of methanol to ethanol using semiconductor nanowire.. [email protected] ... Mingxin Liu has also contributed in the development of converting biomass into value-added products and achieving 1,2-diol ... Applied World Needs Brazil chemical safety chemical terminology chemistry and human health chemistry and the environment crop ...
Methanol production from biomass The Problem Catalytic production of methanol is an industrially important process and this ... Recycling carbon dioxide and powering the chemical reactions with renewable energy. The Problem Over recent years we have seen ... Chemical tomography: world first in catalysis research The Problem In the chemical industry and industrial research, catalysis ... Currently, methanol is synthesized on a large scale using natural gas from an energy-inefficient process, which requires an ...
A modeling based study on the integration of 10 MWth indirect torrefied biomass gasification, methanol and power production. ... del Grosso, M., Sridharan, B., Tsekos, C., Klein, S. & de Jong, W., May-2020, In: Biomass & Bioenergy. 136, 10 p., 105529.. ... Demmink, J. F., Mehra, A. & Beenackers, A. A. C. M., 2002, In: Chemical Engineering Science. 57, 10, p. 1723 - 1734 12 p., PII ... Catalytic biomass conversion in continuous flow microreactors. Yue, J., 4-Mar-2019.. Research output: Contribution to ...
... the application of a calcium-based bifunctional catalyst/sorbent is investigated in modified chemical looping steam methane ... Hydrogen could be used as an important feedstock in different chemical and petrochemical processes such as methanol, ammonia ... the overall procedure leads to the following reaction:. 2. CH. 4. (. g. ). +. 4. H. 2. O. (. g. ). +. CaO. (. s. ). ↔. CaCO. 3 ... biomass gasification and reforming [5,16,17,18,19,20]. However, reforming of natural gas is a common industrial technology for ...
The first one depends on the nature of the fuels used for power generation [3] such as hydrogen [4], methanol [5], fossil fuels ... Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is used to be the most frequently electrolyte material for SOFC [9] to convert the chemical ... Indeed, Triple Phase Boundary (TPB) is the point where Ni, YSZ, and the pore meet and participate in electrochemical reaction [ ... Analytical modeling of polarizations in a solid oxide fuel cell using biomass syngas product as fuel. ...
The Ohio State University are developing technologies that have the potential to economically convert fossil fuels and biomass ... The metal oxide provides the oxygen for the reaction.. Chemical looping is capable of acting as a stopgap technology that can ... This process can also be applied to coal and biomass to produce useful products. ... the engineers report that theyve devised a process that transforms shale gas into products such as methanol and gasoline--all ...
... selectivity and conversion rate by the homologation reaction of methanol and carbon monoxide and hydrogen using a catalyst ... System and method for converting biomass to ethanol via syngas. US8912240. 22 Feb 2013. 16 Dec 2014. Eastman Chemical Company. ... Exxonmobil Chemical Patents Inc.. Methanol and fuel alcohol production for an oxygenate to olefin reaction system. ... Exxonmobil Chemical Patents Inc.. Methanol and ethanol production for an oxygenate to olefin reaction system. ...
The biodiesel production plant is technology based on the chemical reaction of triglycerides. It works together with methanol ... They convert biomass into liquid fuel.. The process clears away the physical and chemical barriers to produce this liquid. It ... The chemical reaction allows solar cells to charge in the chastest way. The entire process will make the converter based AC ... Bio-Oil Produced from Biomass Pyrolysis Technology. Bio-Oil Produced from Biomass Pyrolysis Technology. Bio-oil is one of the ...
Balancing of chemical reactions.. Energetics : Bond energy, Energy involved in a reaction. Photo-chemical reactions and ... Bio-mass as fuel : Fossil fuel, Coal, Petroleum, Natural gas; Classification of Fuels. Calorific value of fuels, Ignition ... Petroleum; Preparation and properties of Methanol, Ethanol, Methanal, Propanone, General properties of organic acids and esters ... Chemical Kinetics : Rate of reaction, Instantaneous rate of a reaction, Molecularity and order of a reaction, Factors affecting ...
The first reaction in methanol ultimately shows similar LA yields, but it requires a longer reaction time in the first step. ... Introduction to Chemicals from Biomass, ed. J. Clark and F. Deswarte, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2015 Search ... Reactions with glucose are substantially slower. The reaction time required for completion in methanol and ethanol is 12 h and ... Though reactions in ethanol and methanol show different kinetics of intermediate formation, the overall reaction selectivity ...
Electrochemical reactions involved in various processes for producing fuels and value-added chemicals from waste. ... the microbes can harvest the solar energy at 100 times the efficiency of a biomass-based fuel/chemical production (Wang and Ren ... the popular electrolyte used has been methanol, due to its high CO2 solubility. The chemicals produced, and the Faradaic ... so that the overall reaction equation is:. Pb. +. PbO. 2. +. 2. H. 2. SO. 4. ⇄. charge. discharge. 2. PbSO. 4. +. 2. H. 2. O. . ...
Spectroelectrochemical studies on the effect of cations in the alkaline glycerol oxidation reaction over carbon nanotube- ... Spectroelectrochemical studies on the effect of cations in the alkaline glycerol oxidation reaction over carbon nanotube- ... and methanol were diluted in 0.1 M KOH at a concentration of 0.05 M and several spectra were recorded to check for chemical ... The conversion of biomass to biofuels is a promising process for carbon-neutral energy conversion [1]. First-generation ...
Scientists develop a chemocatalytic approach for one-pot reaction of cellulosic ethanol. Scientists at the Dalian Institute of ... Anaerobic disinfection of soil is an effective method to kill unwanted bacteria, parasites and weeds without using chemical ... ETH Zurich researchers have developed an inexpensive, handheld measuring device that can distinguish between methanol and ... Brazilian researchers developed a molecule capable of increasing glucose release from biomass for fermentation.. ...
... methanol(aq) plus ferulic acid(aq). Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics; 43(3): pp. 235-239 ... Goldberg RN, Lang BE, Selig MJ, and SR Decker (2011) A calorimetric and equilibrium investigation of the reaction {methyl ... Decker SR, Brunecky R, Tucker MP, Himmel ME, and MJ Selig (2009) High-Throughput Screening Techniques for Biomass Conversion. ... Chemical Engineering Journal; Accepted in Chemical Engineering Journal October 2017. Tan C, Selig MJ, Abbaspourrad A (2018) ...
  • He also developed a one-step photo-driven conversion of methanol to ethanol using semiconductor nanowire. (iupac.org)
  • Process for production of ethanol at high efficiency, selectivity and conversion rate by the homologation reaction of methanol and carbon monoxide and hydrogen using a catalyst system containing alkali metal atom, cobalt atom, iodine atom and, optionally, ruthenium atom and an organic tertiary amino. (google.com.au)
  • Process for production of ethanol at high efficiency, selectivity and conversion rate by the homologation reaction of methanol and carbon monoxide and hydrogen using a catalyst system containing alkali metal atom, cobalt atom, iodine atom and, optionally, ruthenium atom and an organic tertiary amino compound. (google.com.au)
  • It is well known that one can produce methanol directly from synthesis gas and that methanol can be further reacted by hydroformylation, homologation and carbonylation reactions to produce acetaldehyde, ethanol and acetic acid or its methyl ester, respectively. (google.com.au)
  • No. 4,133,966, filed by Wayne R. Pretzer et al and issued Jan. 9, 1979, discloses the process for the homologation of methanol to ethanol using a catalyst system containing cobalt acetylacetonate, a trivalent phosphorus or trivalent arsenic or trivalent antimony organic ligand, an iodine compound and a ruthenium compound. (google.com.au)
  • No. 4,253,987, filed by Rocco A. Fiato and issued on Nov. 11, 1980 and Mar. 3, 1981, respectively, there are disclosed processes and catalysts for the production of ethanol by the homologation reaction of methanol and synthesis gas using a system containing cobalt atom, ruthenium atom, iodine atom and a phosphine ligand. (google.com.au)
  • No. 4,239,925, filed by Wayne R. Pretzer et al and issued on Dec. 16, 1980, disclose a process for selectively producing ethanol using a system containing a specifically defined cobalt tricarbonyl complex, an iodine compound, and a ruthenium compound in the methanol homologation reaction. (google.com.au)
  • Interestingly high reaction rates were noticed in the alcoholic solvent, ethanol being the solvent of choice. (rsc.org)
  • Here we show using proton transfer reaction-time of flight-mass spectrometry that substantial amounts of ethanol and methanol and in total 316 organic ions were released from Greenlandic permafrost soils upon thaw in laboratory incubations. (nature.com)
  • In an experiment using 14 C-labeled ethanol and methanol, we demonstrate that these compounds are consumed by microorganisms. (nature.com)
  • We therefore go on to investigate whether microbial consumption of the two dominating BVOCs, ethanol and methanol, occurred in the studied active layer soils as well as the permafrost soil at low temperatures and realistic mixing ratios. (nature.com)
  • Once synthesis gas is produced, it can be used to make a wide variety of chemicals, including diesel (via the Fischer-Tropsch reaction), methanol, ethanol, propanol, or butanol. (rrapier.com)
  • The effects of palmitic acid/ethanol molar ratio (0.16 to 1.84), reaction temperature (65 to 75 o C) and enzyme concentration (0.48 to 5.52% w/w) on the initial reaction rate of ethyl hexadecanoate were determined using central composite design 2 3 with six central points. (scielo.org.ar)
  • Statistical analysis indicated that the enzyme concentration and palmitic acid/ethanol molar ratio had been found to be the most significant variables affecting the initial reaction rate. (scielo.org.ar)
  • The industrial process of biodiesel production is usually carried out by heating an excess of alcohol usually methanol or ethanol with vegetable oils under different conditions in the presence of an inorganic catalyst (Mittelbach, 1990). (scielo.org.ar)
  • So, the production of biodiesel by direct esterification of fatty acids and alcohols (methanol or ethanol) catalyzed by lipase is an interesting alternative to decrease the operating costs associated to the conventional process as well as to overcome the above mentioned problems. (scielo.org.ar)
  • Unlike ethanol, methanol can be absorbed through the skin and is just plain dangerous. (rationalwiki.org)
  • Ethanol is made either by the hydrolysis of ethane in large chemical plants, slowly fermented by adding yeast (this is the stuff you drink), other biomass processes (fuel ethanol is produced from corn, for example), or it can be homologated from methanol in an interesting reaction that means you can produce it entirely from syngas (carbon monoxide and hydrogen). (rationalwiki.org)
  • i) The application of iron-based cyclone catalysts to the synthesis of methanol, ethanol and isopropanol from large alcohols commonly found in biomass. (slideserve.com)
  • they can be burned directly or converted into liquid and gaseous fuels such as methanol, ethanol, biogas and synfuel. (thermalfluidscentral.com)
  • It has a higher energy content and cetane number than its alcohol competitors, methanol and ethanol. (sae.org)
  • What we call 'alcohol' actually has the proper chemical name ethanol and belongs to a group of organic molecules called alcohols? (docbrown.info)
  • Some chemical reactions of ethanol e.g. combustion, dehydration, esterification. (docbrown.info)
  • These revision notes on physical properties of alcohols, the industrial production of ethanol, the chemical reactions of ethanol, the uses of alcohols like ethanol, should prove useful for the NEW AQA GCSE chemistry, Edexcel GCSE chemistry & OCR GCSE chemistry (Gateway & 21st Century) GCSE (9 1), (9-5) & (5-1) science courses. (docbrown.info)
  • Revision notes on alcohols in chemistry, physical properties of alcohols like ethanol, uses of alcohols like ethanol, chemical reactions of alcohols, help when revising for AQA GCSE chemistry, Edexcel GCSE chemistry, OCR GCSE gateway science chemistry, OCR 21st century science chemistry GCSE 9-1 chemistry examinations. (docbrown.info)
  • What we call alcohol in everyday life is a substance whose chemical name is ethanol . (docbrown.info)
  • Ethanol is used as a solvent , as a biofuel (can be mixed with petrol or used directly), and used to make ' ethyl esters ' ( see Esters page ) as well as the 'potent' chemical present in alcoholic drinks! (docbrown.info)
  • The carbon dioxide is allowed to escape and air is prevented from entering the reaction vessel to stop oxygen oxidising ethanol to ethanoic acid ('acetic acid' or vinegar! (docbrown.info)
  • This article discusses the investigation of clones of plants representing independent transgenic events and their respective nontransgenic control lines for biomass yield, carbohydrate composition and recalcitrance to bioconversion via separate hydrolysis and fermentation to yield ethanol. (unt.edu)
  • Cellulosic biomass feedstocks and logistics for ethanol production. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Those systems have already been reported to give extraordinary results in processes dedicated to fuel cells, i.e., methanol and ethanol electrooxidation (I.S.Pieta et al. (eurekalert.org)
  • Ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass: techno-economic performance in short-, middle-and long-term. (aimspress.com)
  • 10,11 As the world's largest resource of inedible biomass, cellulose acts as the most promising alternative for the sustainable production of chemicals and fuels, while it will be available through future lignocellulosic biorefineries. (rsc.org)
  • There, Dr. Selig's studies focused on developing a stronger understanding on the fundamental mechanisms that contribute to the recalcitrant nature of lignocellulosic biomass with respect to processes aimed at their degradation and conversion to useful forms. (keystone.edu)
  • Pyrolysis is a promising thermochemical process to convert lignocellulosic biomass to renewable biofuel. (springer.com)
  • By balancing cellulose solubility and reactivity with water, we produce sugars from lignocellulosic biomass in yields that are severalfold greater than those achieved previously in ionic liquids and approach those of enzymatic hydrolysis. (greencarcongress.com)
  • 1-4 Lignocellulosic materials and lipids have been widely investigated, 5-10 and considerable attention has been drawn to other types of biomass in recent years. (rsc.org)
  • It can be easily prepared in industrial scale and low price by acid catalysis from renewable resources, such as sugars, lignocellulosic biomass and waste materials [18] . (beilstein-journals.org)
  • We treated the lignocellulosic biomass using two-step (steam explosion-chemical) reaction followed by acetylation to get the cellulose acetate in this study. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • 9. Jiang J, Junming XU, Zhanqian, S (2015) Review of the direct thermochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass for liquid fuels. (aimspress.com)
  • Our projects include catalyst development for hydrogen production via catalytic steam reforming of methanol (for proton exchange membrane, or PEM, fuel cell applications), C-H activation and C-C coupling of aromatic compounds, oxidative coupling of methane (methane to higher-value chemicals), Fischer-Tropsch synthesis of diesel fuel from biomass-derived synthesis gas (CO + H2), and thermochemical water-splitting using solar energy. (ufl.edu)
  • We are also working on catalyst characterization for direct methanol fuel cells. (ufl.edu)
  • Potential transport limitations between the liquid reaction solution and ethylene gas as well as through the pores of the zeolite catalyst have been investigated and altered such that the system is kinetically limited. (umass.edu)
  • Results have demonstrated a 90% yield of p -xylene through optimization of the catalyst and reaction conditions. (umass.edu)
  • This analysis indicates that the zeolite catalyst remains structurally sound after reaction and that there is minimal degradation of the catalytically active Brønsted acid sites. (umass.edu)
  • On the other hand, considerable research efforts are made in order to optimize the process conditions, develop catalyst with improved selectivity and to understand the reaction pathways leading to the target product and side products. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mechanistic studies reveal a preferential activation of C−H bond instead of O−H bond in methanol by photoexcited holes on CdS via a concerted proton-electron transfer mechanism, forming a hydroxymethyl radical ( ⋅ CH 2 OH) that can readily desorb from catalyst surfaces for subsequent coupling. (nature.com)
  • We report that CdS is a unique catalyst for the conversion of methanol to EG under visible-light irradiation. (nature.com)
  • In this study, the application of a calcium-based bifunctional catalyst/sorbent is investigated in modified chemical looping steam methane reforming (CLSMR) process for in situ CO 2 sorption and H 2 production. (mdpi.com)
  • In almost all instances the reaction is generally catalyzed using a Group VIII transition metal compound as catalyst and a halogen as the promoter. (google.com.au)
  • After alcoholic evaporation of the alkyl levulinate product solution, aliquots of water are added to hydrolyse the product into LA. As this reaction in the presence of the remaining soluble catalyst is complete, a 60% LA yield from microcrystalline cellulose is demonstrated. (rsc.org)
  • A direct alkaline methanol FC was already tested in 1965 oxidizing methanol over a Pt catalyst in highly alkaline medium [8] . (beilstein-journals.org)
  • Although low temperature fuel cells powered by methanol or hydrogen have been well studied, existing low temperature fuel cell technologies cannot directly use biomass as a fuel because of the lack of an effective catalyst system for polymeric materials. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Now, researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology have developed a new type of low-temperature fuel cell that directly converts biomass to electricity with assistance from a catalyst activated by solar or thermal energy. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In the new system, the biomass is ground up and mixed with a polyoxometalate (POM) catalyst in solution and then exposed to light from the sun or heat. (bio-medicine.org)
  • If you mix the biomass and catalyst at room temperature, they will not react," said Deng. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Much of this 'chemical imaging' has focused on the study of pre-shaped catalyst bodies often as a function of time. (esrf.eu)
  • Catalyst deactivation by sulfur poisoning is a common problem for a wide range of catalytic processes and which is likely to become more problematic as the chemical industry moves from relatively clean feeds, such as natural gas and crude oil, to alternative feedstocks, such as bitumen tars and some forms of biomass. (esrf.eu)
  • For this purpose, a chemical map derived from the fitting of the Cu-NN (nearest neighbour) contribution from XAFS spectroscopy on a section of the microtomed catalyst is given in Figure 145 . (esrf.eu)
  • The physical and chemical interactions between the plasma and catalyst can generate a synergistic effect, which provides a unique way to separate the activation steps from the selective reactions at low temperatures. (slideserve.com)
  • However, several technical challenges for the commercialization of DMFCs remain unresolved, including methanol crossover, low chemical reaction rates, and catalyst poisoning. (springeropen.com)
  • High-energy X-ray diffraction was used for time and space resolved in operando studies on the zeolite catalyst inside a working catalytic reactor for the methanol-to-olefin process. (esrf.eu)
  • We have used high-energy X-ray diffraction (HEXRD) to investigate the development and location of intermediates in the catalyst bed used for an industrially important reaction. (esrf.eu)
  • The catalyst expands as the content of the cavities changes from relatively small reaction intermediates to large, inactive coke molecules. (esrf.eu)
  • We collected time- and space-resolved data at the high-energy beamline ID15B and used the expansion of the catalyst as an indication of the progress of the reaction in a 4 mm diameter tube reactor. (esrf.eu)
  • Early in the reaction we see that the initial expansion of the catalyst corresponds to an increase in the production of olefins, while the later deactivation of the reactor bed is correlated to the appearance of highly expanded regions of catalyst in the top section of the bed, caused by inactive coke. (esrf.eu)
  • The use of alcohol and base or acid catalyst is extensively used in chemical conversion process to generate methyl esters from the base oil. (sciencepublishinggroup.com)
  • Writing this week in the journal Science (June 27) University of Wisconsin-Madison chemical and biological engineers report the discovery of a nickel-tin catalyst that can replace the precious metal platinum in a new, environmentally sustainable, greenhouse-gas-neutral, low-temperature process for making hydrogen fuel from plants. (futurepundit.com)
  • The precious metal platinum (Pt) is well known to be an excellent catalyst in a number of chemical reactions. (futurepundit.com)
  • This catalyst may be useful on smaller scales in places where there is already a great amount of biomass waste being produced. (futurepundit.com)
  • In this study, we use a combination of techniques to probe the reactions of guaiacol and hydroxyacetaldehyde (HAA) on HZSM-5, their diffusion inside the zeolite catalyst pores, and the extractable products. (springer.com)
  • After coke forms on the catalyst the diffusion coefficients of larger molecules such as guaiacol are affected more significantly than diffusion of small molecules such as water and methanol. (springer.com)
  • Evans RJ, Milne T (1988) In: Soltes EJ, Milne TA (eds) Molecular-beam, mass-spectrometric studies of wood vapor and model compounds over an HZSM-5 catalyst, pyrolysis oils from biomass-producing, analyzing, and upgrading, Denver, CO, 1988. (springer.com)
  • The present approach aims for the development of catalytic low temperature conversion technologies for the efficient utilization of biomass based on lignocellulose rich residues and waste streams with focus on catalyst and process development for application in developing and emerging countries. (rwth-aachen.de)
  • Interestingly, the requirements concerning catalyst development for biomass conversions appear to be different from those for catalysts for conventional petrochemical processes. (rwth-aachen.de)
  • This sequence of the pathway is presented using isobutane dehydrogenation as an example which also includes steps of the light compounds formation from C 3 hydrocarbons.Reaction pathways of the light hydrocarbons formation during propane and isobutane dehydrogenation on Al-Cr catalyst have been studied. (chemweb.com)
  • The FeAl 2 O 4 catalyst provided the best catalytic performance among the solids studied due to the continuous oxidation of Fe 3+ sites by the CO 2 from the reaction. (chemweb.com)
  • The catalyst performance is the result of a synergic role played by both the acid/base surface character and textural porosity.This paper reports the results obtained using a novel MnCeO x system in the transesterification reaction of refined sunflower oil with methanol. (chemweb.com)
  • however, studies have yet to address (i) the mechanism and reaction barriers unique to DMM, and (ii) the influence of solvent, potential for catalyst recycle, and recovery of high-purity tt DMM. (osti.gov)
  • Transesterification of triglycerides with alcohol or other acyl acceptors in the presence of a chemical catalyst or biocatalyst leads to the formation of alkyl ester commercially known as biodiesel. (omicsonline.org)
  • Cracking experiments are performed with a fully automated reaction unit at a fixed weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) of 8 hr -1 , 490-530 °C, and catalyst/oil ratios of 4-12 g/g. (jove.com)
  • We can surely improve much catalyst activity and even durability by chemical modifications of active surfaces for the given process, while let's start from the beginning - catalyst size. (eurekalert.org)
  • One of the feasible approaches is heating sand (Olivine, also the catalyst of gasification reaction) by hot molten salt from a solar concentrator tower, using a gasifier designed as a fluidized-bed of olivine particles. (greencarcongress.com)
  • Compared to parent HZSM-5 catalyst, bifunctional Ni/HZSM-5 catalysts exhibited higher catalyst activity to improve quality of upgraded bio-crude due to its integration of cracking and hydrodeoxygenation reactions. (aimspress.com)
  • This catalyst can be a candidate for bio-crude production from biomass HTL. (aimspress.com)
  • Samuel D. Jones, Luke M. Neal, Michael L. Everett, Gar B. Hoflund, Helena E. Hagelin-Weaver, "Characterization of ZrO2-promoted Cu/ZnO/nano-Al2O3 methanol steam reforming catalysts," Appl. (ufl.edu)
  • Samuel D. Jones, Helena E. Hagelin-Weaver, "Steam reforming of methanol over CeO2- and ZrO2-promoted Cu-ZnO catalysts supported on nanoparticle Al2O3," Appl. (ufl.edu)
  • Although solid acid catalysts are different, the above results demonstrate that side reactions are the main reason for low selectivity and yield. (mdpi.com)
  • His research aims to develop cutting-edge reactions that minimizes waste in chemical processes while delivers the clean product efficiently, as on the development of unprecedented aldehyde oxidation and reduction reactions to eliminate the high energy cost and excessive waste: he designed powerful yet robust silver and copper catalysts that enable clean and facile aldehyde oxidation and reduction reactions in water and air. (iupac.org)
  • The challenge for biomass fuel cells is that the carbon-carbon bonds of the biomass a natural polymer cannot be easily broken down by conventional catalysts, including expensive precious metals, Deng noted. (bio-medicine.org)
  • It also does not use expensive noble metals as anode catalysts because the fuel oxidation reactions are catalyzed by the POM in solution. (bio-medicine.org)
  • A disadvantage of alkali-catalyzed procedures is that the homogenous catalysts are removed with the glycerol layer after the reaction and cannot be reused. (scielo.org.ar)
  • Cu/ZnO catalysts represent the industrial standard for the production of methanol and the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction. (esrf.eu)
  • In order to improve the performance of combined reaction system, novel catalysts were prepared for NH 3 decomposition and CO 2 methanation at relatively low reaction temperature of 623 K. Among the catalysts developed, Ru/BaO/Al 2 O 3 and Ru/ZrO 2 gave high catalytic activity for NH 3 decomposition and CO 2 methanation, respectively. (scej.org)
  • It was experimentally demonstrated that membrane reactor effect was improved by development of catalysts tin the combined reaction system. (scej.org)
  • Platinum (Pt)-based nanoparticle metals have received a substantial amount of attention and are the most popular catalysts for direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). (springeropen.com)
  • However, the high cost of Pt catalysts, slow kinetic oxidation, and the formation of CO intermediate molecules during the methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) are major challenges associate with single-metal Pt catalysts. (springeropen.com)
  • Fundamental science at the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Energy Conversion creates a comprehensive understanding of the active sites of catalysts that are essential for the interconversion of energy and chemical bonds. (mpg.de)
  • I've read brief claims about catalysts which are fairly specific for ethylene as a product, rather than methanol. (blogspot.com)
  • BIOFORMING UTILIZES proprietary heterogeneous catalysts at moderate temperatures (80−400 °C) and pressures (up to 50 atm) in a collection of parallel and tandem reactions, explains Cortright, who is now Virent's chief technology officer. (acs.org)
  • Diebold J, Scahill J (1988) In: Soltes EJ, Milne TA (eds) Biomass to gasoline-upgrading pyrolysis vapors to aromatic gasoline with zeolite catalysts at atmospheric-pressure, Pyrolysis Oils from Biomass-Producing, Analyzing, and Upgrading, Denver, 1988. (springer.com)
  • Like concentrated acid processes, it uses inexpensive chemical catalysts rather than enzymes and avoids an independent pretreatment step. (greencarcongress.com)
  • Our research focuses on the development of novel solid catalysts for the efficient utilization of fossil and renewable resources and process design for the transformation of biomass into value-added chemicals and biofuels. (rwth-aachen.de)
  • Main challenges include process design and identification of suitable inexpensive and potentially noble metal free catalysts, which are resistant against naturally occurring sulfur compounds, allow energy efficient processing at moderate reaction conditions in aqueous phase. (rwth-aachen.de)
  • Our studies concentrate on the development of polymer based solid catalysts for the oxidation of methane to methanol via methylbisulfate as intermediate species. (rwth-aachen.de)
  • Consequently, the development of suitable solid acid and oxidation catalysts is necessary and depends on solvent system, reaction conditions and process design. (rwth-aachen.de)
  • This solid has the additional advantage of being stable over the timescale of the reaction, as compared to the traditional Fe-based catalysts, due to its nanostructured features. (chemweb.com)
  • Novel MnCeO x catalysts characterized by both high surface area and Mn dispersion have shown a superior activity in the transesterification reaction of refined sunflower oil with methanol. (chemweb.com)
  • Enzymes have several advantages over chemical catalysts such as mild reaction conditions high specificity and renewability. (omicsonline.org)
  • Various microorganisms like bacteria and fungi produce different kinds of enzymes which could be used as catalysts in a series of degradation reactions. (omicsonline.org)
  • Transesterification reaction can be catalyzed by both homogeneous (basic or acidic) and heterogeneous (basic acidic or enzymatic) catalysts [ 8 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Catalysts are everywhere and have a tremendous impact on chemical processes. (eurekalert.org)
  • In recent decades, catalysts application tremendously grew, reaching a critical point for high costs of precious metals needed for fuel, pharmaceutics, and chemical compounds production. (eurekalert.org)
  • Catalytic hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of biomass for bio-crude production using Ni/HZSM-5 catalysts. (aimspress.com)
  • The goal of this project is to develop efficient strategies for using renewable sources of electricity to produce energy-dense liquid fuels from carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and biomass. (stanford.edu)
  • The goal of this project is to develop technologies that use electricity from renewable sources to (1) convert CO 2 into carbon-neutral fuels, such as methanol, or (2) transform biomass into long-chain molecules that can also be used as fuel. (stanford.edu)
  • Increasing demand for renewable and domestic energy and materials has led to an accelerated research effort in developing biomass-derived fuels and chemicals. (umass.edu)
  • One sustainable feedstock for renewable C6 aromatic chemicals is sugars produced by the saccharification of biopolymers (e.g., cellulose, hemicellulose). (umass.edu)
  • This increased understanding of the transformation of DMF and ethylene to p -xylene will aid in the development of a variety of renewable aromatics from biomass derived furans. (umass.edu)
  • According to Liang-Shih Fan, a professor in Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering and lead on the study, renewable energy sources are the future. (naturalnews.com)
  • Methanol can be derived from a variety of carbon resources, such as natural gas or shale gas, coal, biomass, and carbon dioxide, and is an abundant and renewable one-carbon (C 1 ) building block 1 . (nature.com)
  • Recycling carbon dioxide and powering the chemical reactions with renewable energy. (diamond.ac.uk)
  • Chemical looping is capable of acting as a stopgap technology that can provide clean electricity until renewable energies such as solar and wind become both widely available and affordable, the engineers said. (eurekalert.org)
  • With the worldwide rising demand for a decreased dependence on fossil resources, the conversion of abundant and renewable biomass resources into chemicals and fuels has attracted much attention in recent years. (rsc.org)
  • Sustainable, renewable and reliable resources of domestically produced biomass together with wind and solar energy are sensible options to support a small-scale power generation to meet local electricity demand plus provide heat for rural development. (scribd.com)
  • Biomass can serve as a renewable alternative to the inevitably depleting fossil fuel resources and provide feedstocks for the production of fuels and chemicals. (mit.edu)
  • As we move away from oil as a source of petrochemicals, the methanol-to-olefin (MTO) process is becoming a key step in the route from inexpensive, plentiful and even renewable feeds like gas, coal and biomass, to the chemical building blocks we depend on every day. (esrf.eu)
  • We focus on the chemical storage and utilization of renewable electricity in applications including sustainable fuels for mobility and indispensable products of the chemical industry. (mpg.de)
  • Storage and transportation of renewable electricity (hydrogen and its transport forms), fuels for mobility and materials from chemical industry transformations are target areas. (mpg.de)
  • At Falling Walls Prof Schlögl will explain how his efforts to bridge the gap between surface science and chemical engineering in the field of oxidation catalysis will help realize the dream of renewable energy. (falling-walls.com)
  • and then we have renewable energies (these are the green ones): hydroelectric, wind, photovoltaics and biomass. (falling-walls.com)
  • A new biomass-based industry supported by venture capitalists, government funding, and big oil is rising to convert plant sugars (carbohydrates) into conventional liquid transportation fuels (hydrocarbons) that can be used to boost fuel supplies until a permanent renewable transportation solution can take hold-namely solar- or hydrogen-powered electric cars. (acs.org)
  • Although biomass energy is renewable, it is not clean, and when burned, like other conventional fuels, it produces pollution. (thermalfluidscentral.com)
  • N-butanol, as a biomass-based renewable fuel, has many superior fuel properties. (sae.org)
  • Biomass is organic matter (which comes from living things), just like fossil fuels ( coal , oil, or natural gas , which are formed in the earth from plant and/or animal remains), but it is much more recently created and is renewable on a time scale that is useful to humans. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Various biomass resources represent an important renewable feedstock for chemicals and materials. (rsc.org)
  • Such an approach does not rely on low-carbon electricity from traditional or renewable energy sources, as the photons arriving at the earth are directly used for (photo-)chemical processes, and no intermediate storage or transfer of electricity is needed. (dfg.de)
  • One such renewable energy resource in Biomass. (college-papers-1.com)
  • Biomass, although its combustion emits like fossil fuels, its considered a renewable form energy. (college-papers-1.com)
  • Presently, it is used as a chemical intermediate to manufacture derivative products such as chloroform, methylene chloride and carbon tetrachloride. (sbwire.com)
  • Methyltrophic organisms (i.e. organisms that use methane or methanol as their sole carbon sources) are being investigated for their potential use in biochemical fuel cells. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Carbon monoxide (chemical formula CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless flammable gas that is slightly less dense than air. (wikipedia.org)
  • Approximately half of the carbon monoxide in Earth's atmosphere is from the burning of fossil fuels and biomass (such as forest and bushfires). (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans also use carbon monoxide for various industrial processes as a source for other industrial chemical manufacturing and for metallurgy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Worldwide, the largest source of carbon monoxide is natural in origin, due to photochemical reactions in the troposphere that generate about 5×1012 kilograms per year. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to a news release from the Ohio State University , a group of engineers have successfully developed new technologies that "have the potential to economically convert fossil fuels and biomass into useful products" including electricity while skipping all the harmful carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere. (naturalnews.com)
  • The first of their two research papers details a new process that reportedly "transforms shale gas into products such as methanol and gasoline" while consuming carbon dioxide at the exact same time. (naturalnews.com)
  • The development of new methods for the direct transformation of methanol into two or multi-carbon compounds via controlled carbon-carbon coupling is a highly attractive but challenging goal. (nature.com)
  • Many types of chemicals can be produced from methanol, and the carbon-carbon (C-C) bond formation is the most attractive and challenging reaction in methanol chemistry. (nature.com)
  • The importance of methanol chemistry is increasing under the background of growing interest in the utilization of nonpetroleum carbon resources (in particular, shale gas) and carbon dioxide for sustainable production of chemicals. (nature.com)
  • Using CO 2 as feedstock for large-scale fabrication of chemicals and fuels via chemical conversion, offers a promising strategy for controlling the global carbon balance and meets the challenges of a sustainable society. (iupac.org)
  • COLUMBUS, Ohio--Engineers at The Ohio State University are developing technologies that have the potential to economically convert fossil fuels and biomass into useful products including electricity without emitting carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. (eurekalert.org)
  • In the first of two papers published in the journal Energy & Environmental Science , the engineers report that they've devised a process that transforms shale gas into products such as methanol and gasoline--all while consuming carbon dioxide. (eurekalert.org)
  • Five years ago, Fan and his research team demonstrated a technology called coal-direct chemical looping (CDCL) combustion, in which they were able to release energy from coal while capturing more than 99 percent of the resulting carbon dioxide, preventing its emission to the environment. (eurekalert.org)
  • Another advancement involves the engineers' development of chemical looping for production of syngas, which in turn provides the building blocks for a host of other useful products including ammonia, plastics or even carbon fibers. (eurekalert.org)
  • 1-9 The biomass-based chemical production is considered as an environmentally benign process, due to its 'carbon neutrality', since released CO 2 through the use of biomass carbohydrates is consumed in the growth of biomass through photosynthesis. (rsc.org)
  • The conversion of biomass to biofuels is a promising process for carbon-neutral energy conversion [1] . (beilstein-journals.org)
  • The role of biomass in energy and fuel production as an alternative to fossil fuel is vitally important considering carbon dioxide production vs. secure energy. (scribd.com)
  • It is composed of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, and is produced by burning a feed at a high temperature while limiting the oxygen available for the reaction. (rrapier.com)
  • Here, we constrain two distinct reaction pathways for abiotic organic synthesis in the natural environment at the Von Damm hydrothermal field and delineate spatially where inorganic carbon is converted into bioavailable reduced carbon. (pnas.org)
  • We reveal that carbon transformation reactions in a single system can progress over hours, days, and up to thousands of years. (pnas.org)
  • Similarly, water gas selective membranes for CO 2 hydrogenation to produce methanol using zeolite-MR (CARENA), or carbon-MR DME (C2FUEL). (scej.org)
  • Researchers in Manchester have developed a novel and promising technology - plasma-catalysis, for highly-efficient conversion of methane (in the form of biogas or landfill gas) into hydrogen and other value-added chemicals (carbon nanomaterials, oxygenates, etc). (slideserve.com)
  • The goal of this work was to develop a detailed understanding of carbon-nitrogen (C-N) bond-forming reactions of amines carried out in supercritical and expanded-liquid carbon dioxide (CO2) media. (mit.edu)
  • Transformations of carbon dioxide and biomass are studied as well as novel concepts of streamlining multistep transformation with the concept of saving energy and resources. (mpg.de)
  • If this yield can be produced from lignocellulose in general, a not-unreasonable 500 million tpy of biomass would produce over 240 million tpy of methanol and 87.5 million tpy of stable fixed carbon char. (blogspot.com)
  • Converting soluble plant-derived sugars or raw cellulosic biomass from dedicated crops, agricultural residues, or municipal waste into liquid fuels requires removing most or all of the oxygen atoms in the feedstock-cutting the "hydrate" out of carbohydrate as carbon dioxide and water to form products that are more amenable to combustion. (acs.org)
  • James Dumesic, a professor of chemical and biological engineering, and graduate students George Huber and John Shabaker describe testing more than 300 materials to find a nickel-tin-aluminum combination that reacts with biomass-derived oxygenated hydrocarbons to produce hydrogen and carbon dioxide without producing large amounts of unwanted methane. (futurepundit.com)
  • More refined molecules such as ethylene glycol and methanol are almost completely converted to hydrogen and carbon dioxide. (futurepundit.com)
  • Just like fossil fuels, biomass is formed by the Sun which, through photosynthesis, converts carbon dioxide and water into organic matter. (thermalfluidscentral.com)
  • Furthermore, the carbon dioxide produced from the combustion of biomass offsets that used up during its formation, maintaining zero net production of this dangerous greenhouse gas. (thermalfluidscentral.com)
  • The overall reaction can be written as: 6 CO2 + 6 H2O 12 CO2 + 11 H2O or more generally: carbon dioxide + water + sunlight carbohydrate + oxygen Sunlight Sunlight C6H12O6 + 6 O2 C12H22O11 + 12 O2 (6-1) (6-2) In this reaction, two important tasks are accomplished. (thermalfluidscentral.com)
  • 3) one carbon shorter chain olefin can be converted by two parallel reactions further. (chemweb.com)
  • The first reaction is hydrogenation of the one carbon shorter chain olefin to the formation of the one carbon shorter chain paraffin. (chemweb.com)
  • Another parallel reaction is hydrocracking of the one carbon shorter olefin to the two carbon shorter olefin and methane. (chemweb.com)
  • Large quantities of aldehydes are produced by the hydroformylation reaction of alkenes, carbon monoxide, and H 2 . (assignmentpoint.com)
  • Methanol is produced by the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide. (assignmentpoint.com)
  • In a related reaction, the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide is coupled to C-C bond formation, as in the Fischer-Tropsch process where carbon monoxide is hydrogenated to liquid hydrocarbon fuels. (assignmentpoint.com)
  • Steam Reformation is a thermo-chemical process and is based on carbonaceous materials reaction with steam without the participation of oxygen or air at elevated temperatures above 700°C. The main product of the reactions is a synthesis gas (syngas) containing mostly hydrogen and carbon monoxide, and a smaller amount of methane, carbon dioxide, water vapour, and other hydrocarbons. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • In natural photosynthesis, carbon dioxide is converted into complex chemical compounds by using sunlight (photons) as the energy source. (dfg.de)
  • Developing technical processes for the direct conversion of solar energy into chemical compounds by means of artificial compounds, using universally available raw materials such as carbon dioxide and/or water, is a scientific and technical "grand challenge" with tremendous societal impact. (dfg.de)
  • Subject of this call for proposals is fundamental research in all sub-areas relevant to the photochemical transformation of small, abundant molecules, such as carbon dioxide, water or nitrogen, into more valuable, storable chemicals by means of solar radiation. (dfg.de)
  • Thus, the biomass combustion system is considered to be Carbon Neutral. (college-papers-1.com)
  • Replacing fossil fuel with a solid biomass fuel will typically reduce net emissions by over 90% (nearly carbon neutral) (Liu, 2010). (college-papers-1.com)
  • The concept's key feature is the use of high-temperature heat from a solar concentrating tower to drive the chemical process of converting biomass to a biofuel, obtaining a near-complete utilization of carbon atoms in the biomass. (greencarcongress.com)
  • For comparison, they also modeled the production of methanol using only biomass as a fuel and also using coal as source of both carbon and energy. (greencarcongress.com)
  • Ninety percent of total carbon from biomass is converted to biofuel and emitted to the atmosphere after utilization as transportation fuel. (greencarcongress.com)
  • Only 30% of total carbon from the biomass feedstock is converted to fuel. (greencarcongress.com)
  • a large percentage of the output from the Dow plant in Freeport, Texas, and the two Vulcan facilities are also used on-site as feedstocks in the manufacture of other chemicals and products (CMR 1995). (cdc.gov)
  • Dr. Wang is best known for his leadership in the development of novel catalytic materials and reaction engineering for the conversion of fossil and biomass feedstocks to fuels and chemicals. (pnnl.gov)
  • One possible solution for clean energy production is to produce energy products from waste and biomass feedstocks by effective Biomass/Waste-to-Energy technology applications. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • Both biomass and waste feedstocks contain carbonaceous materials. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • Feedstocks can be converted to higher value products by the physico-chemical (including biochemical) interactions, such as thermo-chemical and/or biological processes, without or with additional reactants (e.g. water, oxygen, air, etc.) [2, 3]. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • The produced product type depends on the types of feedstocks and reactants, and the applied physico-chemical interaction conditions in the system. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • The steam reformation technology could successfully be used to convert biomass and waste feedstocks into clean energy products. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • Biomass/waste steam reformation is based on reactions of carbonaceous materials content of feedstocks (e.g. biomass, MSW, sewage sludge, plastics) with steam. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • There is strong global interest in both the private and public sectors to find efficient and economic means to produce transportation fuels from biomass-derived feedstocks. (jove.com)
  • 3. Liu Z, Zhang FS (2008) Effects of various solvents on the liquefaction of biomass to produce fuels and chemical feedstocks. (aimspress.com)
  • A large quantity of CO byproduct is formed during the oxidative processes for the production of chemicals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrogen could be used as an important feedstock in different chemical and petrochemical processes such as methanol, ammonia and hydrochloric acid production. (mdpi.com)
  • In recent years, production of hydrogen could be performed by various processes such as electrolysis, biomass gasification and reforming [ 5 , 16 , 17 , 18 , 19 , 20 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • grasses, wood) as a resource and conversion processes that can efficiently enable their use in the production of fuels, chemicals and materials. (keystone.edu)
  • To optimize the system, we need to have a better understanding of the chemical processes involved and how to improve them. (bio-medicine.org)
  • She has 30 years of experience in the design, startup, and operation of batch chemical, specialty metal, and pharmaceuticals production processes as well as in the design and permitting of environmental systems. (progressiveengineer.com)
  • Through these simple chemical processes, they created a crosslinked rubber-like material that can also be processed like plastics. (innovations-report.com)
  • Book: "Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics: Transport and Rate Processes in Physical, Chemical and Biological Systems," 2nd ed. (unl.edu)
  • Detailed knowledge of the processes inside an industrial reactor could help chemical manufacturers improve energy efficiency and reduce costs. (esrf.eu)
  • The study of the phase equilibria involving formaldehyde is still relevant because of its presence in new processes where biomass is the raw material. (univ-toulouse.fr)
  • The key unifying chemical reactions have been chosen in order to delineate a system of sustainable processes required for the energy transformation. (mpg.de)
  • It also allows the separation of the heat-generation and pyrolysis steps (not unlike processes such as chemical looping combustion). (blogspot.com)
  • Crude oil has been used for more than 100 years, and oil companies have optimized processes for converting petroleum to fuels," says George W. Huber , an assistant chemical engineering professor at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. (acs.org)
  • To release the sugars locked into the cellulose polymers in biomass, producers use both physical and chemical methods, with physical chemical pretreatment processes followed by enzymatic hydrolysis being the most common, note Raines and Binder. (greencarcongress.com)
  • In comparison to extant enzymatic and chemical processes to biomass hydrolysis, ours has several attractive features. (greencarcongress.com)
  • Starting from a multi-zone model that can describe auto-ignition dominated processes, such as HCCI and PCCI, this model is adapted by including reaction mechanisms for natural gas and NOx and by improving the in-cylinder pressure prediction. (sae.org)
  • The system has utility both for direct conversion of high-moisture biomass to fuel gas or as a wastewater cleanup system for wet organic wastes including unconverted biomass from bioconversion processes. (unt.edu)
  • Over the geological periods of time, the chemical and physical changes have been brought about by chemical, biological (biochemical) and physical (temperature and pressure) means as well as by the catalytic effects of the sedimentary matrices, migration, flooding, and other physical processes. (unt.edu)
  • Therefore, different types of oils are the end products of a given set of such interactions which were brought about by multiple and simultaneous physicochemical processes involving electron transfer, free radical, and chemical reactions. (unt.edu)
  • The primary challenge of clean energy production is the heterogeneous nature of waste and biomass, which creates a widely varying chemical constituency of the energy products generated from these processes. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • Enzymatic reactions catalyzed by lipases are potentially excellent processes to produce biodiesel through the transesterification reaction. (omicsonline.org)
  • Focus of the proposals should be on the photochemical processes (reactions) and on solving fundamental problems. (dfg.de)
  • It is difficult to estimate the total production levels for chloromethane at specific plants because many of the producers consume their output internally as a feedstock for other chemicals, including silicones and higher chlorinated methanes. (cdc.gov)
  • Three different woody biomass feedstock including pellets, picks and flakes were examined in this work. (scribd.com)
  • Today, about 3% of the US energy demand is supplied by biomass, mostly for residential heating and cooking in the form of firewood, but also indirectly as feedstock for the production of liquid and gaseous biofuels.2 Some developing countries, mainly China and India, satisfy as much as one third of their total energy needs from biomass. (thermalfluidscentral.com)
  • MSW, industrial waste, sewage sludge, biomass, plastic, used tires and medical waste) with high moisture content and significantly reduces the requirements for pre-processing feedstock [4]. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • In the 1980's, researchers concluded that the pyrolysis liquid yield could be increased by using fast pyrolysis, where a biomass feedstock is heated at a rapid rate and the vapors produced also condensed rapidly (Demirbas, 2009). (college-papers-1.com)
  • The overall reaction pathways for directional liquefaction of biomass into methyl levulinate with matching-solvent was put forward. (usda.gov)
  • When the two molecules are present together at 280 °C, their reaction pathways are independent of each other. (springer.com)
  • 1. Model-compound studies and reaction pathways. (springer.com)
  • The rates and the chemical pathways by which the biocatalytic reactions will proceed will depend on the oil type and the biocatalyst(s). (unt.edu)
  • Some of the possible reaction pathways that may occur in such complex mixtures are discussed. (unt.edu)
  • Adjaye JD, Bakhshi NN (1995) Catalytic coversion of a biomass-derived oil to fuels and chemicals. (springer.com)
  • A University of Wisconsin-Madison research team has developed a chemical process for the hydrolysis of biomass into sugars for subsequent processing into fuels and chemicals that delivers sugar yields approaching those of enzymatic hydrolysis. (greencarcongress.com)
  • Currently, methanol is synthesized on a large scale using natural gas from an energy-inefficient process, which requires an endothermic, and therefore thermally intensive, step to completely break down the methane to CO/H 2 before methanol can be formed. (diamond.ac.uk)
  • Chloromethane is produced industrially by reaction of methanol and hydrogen chloride (HCl) or by chlorination of methane (Edwards et al. (cdc.gov)
  • 1980). While the reaction of methanol with HCl is the most common method, the choice of process depends, in part, on the HCl balance at the site (the methane route produces HCl, the methanol route uses it) (Edwards et al. (cdc.gov)
  • The exit gases can then be scrubbed with chilled chloromethanes (mono- to tetrachloromethane) to remove most of the reaction chloromethanes from unreacted methane and HCl. (cdc.gov)
  • We knew nickel was very active, but it allowed reaction to continue beyond hydrogen producing methane. (futurepundit.com)
  • While Raney-nickel proved somewhat effective at separating hydrogen from biomass-derived molecules, the researchers improved the material's effectiveness by adding more tin (Sn), which stops the production of methane and instead generates more hydrogen. (futurepundit.com)
  • Direct oxidation of methane to methanol is a long standing challenge in catalysis hampered by the high binding energy of the CH3-H bond and the ease of overoxidation to CO2. (rwth-aachen.de)
  • otherwise it can be further transformed into "two carbons shorter chain olefin" and methane by additional consecutive reaction of hydrocracking. (chemweb.com)
  • If short olefin is ethylene the final product of the hydrocracking reaction is methane. (chemweb.com)
  • Additionally, HP-ZSM-5 exhibited quicker reaction rate, higher BMMF yield and selectivity, and slower deactivation process. (mdpi.com)
  • This trend has become a strong incentive to develop new methods or new routes for the transformation of methanol via C−C coupling with high selectivity. (nature.com)
  • Xiaofu has developed several novel routes for CO2 electroreduction to chemicals and fuels with selectivity and stability, including selective production of C1 products, C2 products and electrochemical formation of C-N bond. (iupac.org)
  • The difficulties, however, have resided in the ability to carry out any one of these chosen reactions to produce the desired compound at acceptable efficiency, conversion rate and selectivity. (google.com.au)
  • This process combines the advantages of fast and low temperature reaction from nonthermal plasma and high selectivity from catalysis. (slideserve.com)
  • Establishing the optimum operating methodology and parameters to maximize syngas production in biomass gasification through process testing. (scribd.com)
  • The one ton per day biomass gasification process unit designed in this work included a downdraft biomass thermochemical conversion gasifier, gas transportation line with tar removal and an enclosed combustion chamber. (scribd.com)
  • 7. The process of claim 1 wherein a portion of said synthesis gas from said gasification unit is converted in a chemical reactor into useful hydrocarbon products. (google.co.uk)
  • The steam reformation technology represents a potential alternative for the traditional waste and biomass treatments to produce higher energy content syngas, which contains no noxious oxides and higher hydrogen concentration than products produced by gasification [3]. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • Schema of synfuel synthesis through solar-driven biomass gasification. (greencarcongress.com)
  • High temperature heat for biomass gasification is obtained from a molten-salt system in a solar concentrating tower. (greencarcongress.com)
  • Under the biomass-fired gasification scenario, 30% of the biomass is used to provide heat for biomass gasification and 20% is used to produced electricity and heat for the process and CO 2 capture and compression. (greencarcongress.com)
  • They said that the process can be used on coal and biomass in order to produce useful products. (naturalnews.com)
  • Meanwhile, their second paper goes over a new way of extending the lifetime of the particles that "enable the chemical reaction to transform coal or other fuels to electricity" as well as other useful products over a certain period of time. (naturalnews.com)
  • The new energy breakthrough discovered by the team being led by Fan is actually based on an older technology that was first discovered half a decade ago, which they dubbed coal-direct chemical looping (CDCL) combustion. (naturalnews.com)
  • This process can also be applied to coal and biomass to produce useful products. (eurekalert.org)
  • In the second paper, they report that they've found a way to greatly extend the lifetime of the particles that enable the chemical reaction to transform coal or other fuels to electricity and useful products over a length of time that is useful for commercial operation. (eurekalert.org)
  • The next step is to test the carrier in an integrated coal-fired chemical looping process. (eurekalert.org)
  • The feed material for producing synthesis gas can be natural gas, fuel oil, coal, or even biomass. (rrapier.com)
  • However, if energy contained in food is included, biomass provides about 15% of all the energy consumed in the world and, after oil, coal, and natural gas, is our fourth largest energy resource.1 Until the mid nineteenth century, wood provided 90% of energy used in the United States, before better coal technology and the discovery of petroleum reduced the demand for biomass. (thermalfluidscentral.com)
  • This technology allows coal or biomass to be converted to diesel. (assignmentpoint.com)
  • Biomass can be burned in suitably adapted traditional coal-fired power stations (also known as "co-firing") or in specially designed biomass facilities for the production of electricity, heat, or combined heat and power (HELM, 2006). (college-papers-1.com)
  • 7. A process according to claim 1 in which the pyrolysis oil is produced by the pyrolysis of biomass at a temperature of 350 to 425° C. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 10. A process for the conversion of biomass into precursors for hydrocarbon transportation fuels which comprises: pyrolyzing biomass at a temperature from 300 to 500° C. in a reducing atmosphere to form a biomass pyrolysis oil and contacting the biomass pyrolysis oil with liquid superheated water or supercritical water to depolymerize and deoxygenate the biomass into transportation fuel precursors. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Unlike most previous reports, low reaction temperature, high cellulose concentrations and no external pressure were employed. (rsc.org)
  • The cellulose reaction runs in a chemical regime in the temperature range of 150 to 190 °C, 160 °C being the most optimal with regard to the reaction speed and product yields. (rsc.org)
  • Although low temperature fuel cells powered by methanol or hydrogen ha. (bio-medicine.org)
  • We have developed a new method that can handle the biomass at room temperature, and the type of biomass that can be used is not restricted the process can handle nearly any type of biomass," said Yulin Deng, a professor in Georgia Tech's School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering and the Institute of Paper Science and Technology (IPST). (bio-medicine.org)
  • L-arabinose is an odorless white needle-like crystalline at room temperature, and it is soluble in water, slightly soluble in alcohol, insoluble in ether, methanol and acetone. (scirp.org)
  • Methanol is a room-temperature liquid which makes a good motor fuel, and is also a basis for further synthesis (e.g. (blogspot.com)
  • Palm oil ( Elaeis guineensis ) was used as source to produce biodiesel and Box Behnken experimental design was applied to see the effect of various process parameters, i.e. methanol quantity, alkali concentration and temperature for the optimization of calorific value of biodiesel. (sciencepublishinggroup.com)
  • Though, all the three variables significantly affected the calorific value of the palm biodiesel, but it was found that methanol was more effective variable than alkali concentration and temperature. (sciencepublishinggroup.com)
  • It was observed that 12.5 ml methanol/50 ml oil and 0.4 gm NaOH/50 ml oil and 55°C temperature were optimum condition, where the calorific value of palm biodiesel is 9297.206 kcal/kg. (sciencepublishinggroup.com)
  • The enzymes from the three bacterial strains with the most significant transesterification reactions were tested for yield of biodiesel by changing the molar ratio of alcohol to crude palm oil and by changing reaction temperature. (omicsonline.org)
  • The reaction temperature was varied from 35°C to 60°C. It was found that the optimum ratio of methanol to crude palm oil is 3:1 and the optimum reaction temperature is 40°C. (omicsonline.org)
  • Temperature changes in the range from 15˚C to 40˚C affected the biosorption capacity, and the nature of the reaction was found to be endothermic for both metal ions. (scirp.org)
  • ludwigii) to remove Ni 2+ and Cd 2+ ions in a batch mode and the function of many environmental factors such as pH, time contact, initial metal ions concentration, temperature, biomass dose, and shaking rate. (scirp.org)
  • Researchers accomplished this by reconstructing larger lignin molecules either through a chemical reaction with formaldehyde or by washing with methanol. (innovations-report.com)
  • Crosslinking involves building large lignin molecules by combining smaller molecules where formaldehyde helps to bridge the smaller units by chemical bonding. (innovations-report.com)
  • DNA molecules that follow specific instructions could offer more precise molecular control of synthetic chemical systems, a discovery that opens the door for engineers to create molecular machines with new and complex behaviors. (innovations-report.com)
  • In particular, we study catalytic systems for the activation and chemical transformations of small molecules such as CO 2 , CO, H 2 O, H 2 , and N 2 , that are essential components of future "de-fossilized" energy systems. (mpg.de)
  • If there are six methanol molecules, then we get sugar. (falling-walls.com)
  • Catalytic platinum (Pt) and nickel (Ni) stand out from other metals (such as copper or iron) because they process reaction molecules much faster. (futurepundit.com)
  • Raines' chemical approach relies on a chloride ionic liquid-containing catalytic acid to dissolve the long chains of sugars in biomass and break them up into individual molecules of glucose and xylose. (greencarcongress.com)
  • These disadvantages encouraged chemists to synthesize complex molecules using multicomponent reactions (MCRs). (beilstein-journals.org)
  • In situ Spectroscopy (FTIR): In situ adsorption and reaction studies (Operando spectroscopy), Hydrogenation reaction, Oxidation reaction: CO2 hydrogenation and value-added chemicals. (iitr.ac.in)
  • CO 2 is kinetically and thermodynamically inert, making reduction by chemical hydrogenation or electro-reduction very difficult. (stanford.edu)
  • Research will focus on three areas- chemical hydrogenation of CO 2 , transfer hydrogenation chemistry and electrochemical reduction of CO 2 - to develop new approaches to CO 2 activation and electrochemical hydrogenation at low overpotential. (stanford.edu)
  • To upgrade biomass to fuels, researchers will target the electro-hydrogenation of the C=O bonds in CO 2 , carbonates, formates and C=O-containing compounds derived from carbohydrates. (stanford.edu)
  • Efficient hydrogenation of organic carbonates, carbamates and formates indicates alternative routes to methanol based on CO 2 and CO' Nat Chem 2011, 3, 609-614. (stanford.edu)
  • Reactions of common interest are the generation of hydrogen (electrocatalysis, dehydrogenations), the conversion into transport forms of ammonia and methanol and a range of hydrogenation reactions as applications for green hydrogen. (mpg.de)
  • Finally, possible reaction mechanisms have been developed through careful manipulation of the reaction system and an in depth understanding of the catalysis. (umass.edu)
  • Mesoporous SSZ-13 zeolite prepared by a dual template method with improved performance in the methanol to olefins reaction , Journal of Catalysis, 298 (2013) 27-40. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • In the chemical industry and industrial research, catalysis plays a vital role. (diamond.ac.uk)
  • All papers in catalysis and reaction engineering are invited. (aiche.org)
  • An award is given annually to the best paper in each of the catalysis and reaction engineering areas (see the CRE web site for details). (aiche.org)
  • He led the Catalysis and Reaction Engineering Team from 2000 to 2007, and has served as the Associate Director of the Institute for Integrated Catalysis since 2008. (pnnl.gov)
  • He is the past chair of the Energy & Fuel Division of the American Chemical Society, director to the Catalysis and Reaction Engineering Division of AIChE, and currently serves on the ACS National Award Committee and editorial board of 7 catalysis and energy related journals including ACS Catalysis and Catalysis Today. (pnnl.gov)
  • Director to the Catalysis and Reaction Engineering Division of AIChE (since 2015). (pnnl.gov)
  • 12. Perego C, Bianchi D (2010) Biomass upgrading through acid-base catalysis. (aimspress.com)
  • The oxidation of methanol in a flow reactor has been studied experimentally under diluted, fuel-lean conditions at 650-1350 K, over a wide range of O-2 concentrations (1%-16%), and with and without the presence of nitric oxide. (dtu.dk)
  • Design of a radio frequency heated isothermal micro trickle bed reactor , Chemical Engineering Journal, 243 (2014) 225-233. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • The key advance of CDCL came in the form of iron oxide particles which supply the oxygen for chemical combustion in a moving bed reactor. (eurekalert.org)
  • The exit gases from the reactor are quenched with water to remove unreacted HCl and methanol. (cdc.gov)
  • 8. The process of claim 7 wherein said chemical reactor is a Fischer-Tropsch reactor. (google.co.uk)
  • One of these technologies is the membrane reactor (MR), where reaction and separation through membranes are integrated to achieve higher yields at lower CAPEX and OPEX. (scej.org)
  • however, combined reaction system of NH 3 decomposition and CO 2 methanation, heat from exothermic methanation will be used effectively for endothermic ammonia reaction, In this study, combined reactions of NH 3 decomposition and CO 2 methanation were conducted at 623 K in a hydrogen-permeable palladium membrane reactor, where heat transfer as well mass transfer of hydrogen were possible. (scej.org)
  • Understanding the progress of this reaction and coke formation in a large, industrial-like reactor is very important in the quest to optimise the process. (esrf.eu)
  • After pretreatment, the streams pass through a reactor for the aqueous-phase reforming step, which is a mix of chemical reactions rolled into one, Cortright says. (acs.org)
  • The North American shale gas revolution can provide a domestic source for the manufacture of four of the five major products of the world chemical industry: methanol, ethylene, ammonia, and propylene. (umass.edu)
  • The last step in the production of p -xylene from biomass derived glucose involves the conversion of 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF) and ethylene to p -xylene, which proceeds via a Diels-Alder cycloaddition followed by dehydration. (umass.edu)
  • Reaction kinetics for the Diels-Alder cycloaddition and dehydration steps have also been quantified, revealing first order kinetics in DMF and ethylene. (umass.edu)
  • Here, we report the first visible-light-driven dehydrogenative coupling of methanol into ethylene glycol, an important chemical currently produced from petroleum. (nature.com)
  • Here, we present a visible-light-driven dehydrogenative coupling of methanol into ethylene glycol (EG) (Eq. 1 ), in which the hydroxyl group keeps intact. (nature.com)
  • Scientists from the University of Oxford were keen to explore an alternative non-syn-gas route for methanol production utilising ethylene glycol (EG) which can be sourced from biomass. (diamond.ac.uk)
  • To overcome that challenge, scientists have developed microbial fuel cells in which microbes or enzymes break down the biomass. (bio-medicine.org)
  • But that process has many drawbacks: power output from such cells is limited, microbes or enzymes can only selectively break down certain types of biomass, and the microbial system can be deactivated by many factors. (bio-medicine.org)
  • DETROIT -- The world's automakers are choosing sides in the gasoline vs. methanol strategy for fuel cells. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • So automakers are trying to use gasoline or methanol, which would be reformed into hydrogen on board. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • Mobil's Methanol-To-Gasoline process). (blogspot.com)
  • Several technology breakthroughs announced during the past year are signaling that the chemical industry is in for a period of rapid growth in biogasoline and organic compounds that can substitute for gasoline. (acs.org)
  • This deoxygenation must be accompanied by standard refinery-type reactions to "upgrade" the intermediate products into branched hydrocarbons and aromatic compounds for gasoline and into longer chain hydrocarbons for jet and diesel fuels. (acs.org)
  • In this study, a Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) model for a 2-stroke gasoline engine was developed coupled to a semi-detailed chemical mechanism of iso-octane to investigate the simulation capability of the considered chemical mechanism and the effects of different simulation parameters such as the turbulence model, grid density and time step size. (sae.org)
  • A fuel cell is a device that converts hydrogen fuel (obtained from natural gas, gasoline, methanol, propane, etc. (stabiterm.ru)
  • Over the past two decades, research has focused on the evaluation of biomass-derived oil processing using conventional fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) 5 - 12 , a technology responsible for producing most of the gasoline in a petroleum refinery. (jove.com)
  • The challenge for chemists and chemical engineers is to efficiently produce liquid fuels from biomass while fitting the technology into the existing refinery and transportation fuels infrastructure. (acs.org)
  • Once these fats or oils are filtered from their hydrocarbons and then combined with alcohol like methanol, biodiesel is brought to life [ clarification needed ] from this chemical reaction. (omicsgroup.org)
  • 5. A process according to claim 1 in which the biomass pyrolysis oil is produced by the pyrolysis of biomass comprising plant matter, biodegradable wastes, byproducts of farming including animal manures, food processing wastes, sewage sludge, black liquor from wood pulp or algae. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Biological sources include triglyceride-based biomass such as vegetable oils and animal fats, as well as waste cooking oil and cellulosic biomass such as wood chips, forest wastes, and agriculture residues. (jove.com)
  • biochemical fuel cell A system that exploits biological reactions for the conversion of biomass (chemical energy) to electricity (electrical energy). (encyclopedia.com)
  • L-arabinose is also widely used in medical field, chemistry, and biological fields as a kind of important chemical products. (scirp.org)
  • 2. Defining Biomass According to Biomass Energy Centre (BEC), biomass can be defined as "the biological material derived from living, or recently living organisms. (college-papers-1.com)
  • Biomass in the energy production industry is living and recently dead biological material which can be used as fuel or for industrial production. (omicsgroup.org)
  • Highly viscous biomass-ionic-liquid mixtures might require special handling, and larger scale fermentation of hydrolysate sugars might reveal the presence of inhibitors not detected in our demonstration experiments. (greencarcongress.com)
  • 2004) Disassembly of lignin and chemical recovery-rapid depolymerizatin of lignin without char formation in water-phenol mixtures. (aimspress.com)
  • Most of the rest comes from chemical reactions with organic compounds emitted by human activities and plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Organic Chemicals from Biomass, CRC Press, 310 pgs. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • First, we incubate frozen permafrost soils in a dynamic flow-through system and use a proton transfer reaction-time of flight-mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS) instrument to detect 316 organic ions being released. (nature.com)
  • This is a very generic approach to utilizing many kinds of biomass and organic waste to produce electrical power without the need for purification of the starting materials. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The system can use soluble biomass, or organic materials suspended in a liquid. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Basically, biodiesels are the long-chain alkyl esters derived from organic sources, resulted from the chemical reaction of lipids (e.g., vegetable oil, animal fat) and alcohol termed as transesterification process. (sciencepublishinggroup.com)
  • The catalytic conversion of these sugars to high value commodity chemicals, like p -xylene (used in the production of PET plastics), is currently a research area of great interest. (umass.edu)
  • Ford Motor Co. and DaimlerChrysler AG believe methanol is the proper interim step -- it is easier and cleaner to convert to hydrogen and can be generated from biomass, reducing the use of fossil fuels. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • They refer to this technology as chemical looping , which is a process that "burns" fossil fuels and biomass by using iron oxide particles in high-pressure reactors in order to avoid the need for oxygen in the air. (naturalnews.com)
  • The technology, known as chemical looping, uses metal oxide particles in high-pressure reactors to "burn" fossil fuels and biomass without the presence of oxygen in the air. (eurekalert.org)
  • However, unlike fossil fuels that take millions of years to form, biomass can be produced in a short period of time. (thermalfluidscentral.com)
  • Furthermore, there is a major difference between biomass and fossil fuels. (college-papers-1.com)
  • A fuel cell generates electricity from the chemical reaction between hydrogen and oxygen. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • Biomass pyrolysis oil is converted into precursors for hydrocarbon transportation fuels by contacting the oil with liquid superheated water or supercritical water to depolymerize and deoxygenate the components of the oil and form the transportation fuel precursors. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Catalytic production of methanol is an industrially important process and this high-energy density liquid is widely used in the manufacture of plastics and synthetic fibres, and in fuel cells. (diamond.ac.uk)
  • The comparably high energy density of glycerol of 5965 Wh L −1 assuming its total oxidation to CO 2 suggests its utilization in fuel cells (FCs) converting chemical into electrical energy [5] . (beilstein-journals.org)
  • The hybrid fuel cell can use a wide variety of biomass sources, including starch, cellulose, lignin and even switchgrass, powdered wood, algae and waste from poultry processing. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The new solar-induced direct biomass-to-electricity hybrid fuel cell was described February 7, 2014, in the journal Nature Communications . (bio-medicine.org)
  • Deng and his research team got around those challenges by altering the chemistry to allow an outside energy source to activate the fuel cell's oxidation-reduction reaction. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The POM oxidizes the biomass under photo or thermal irradiation, and delivers the charges from the biomass to the fuel cell's anode. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Finally, because the POM is chemically stable, the hybrid fuel cell can use unpurified polymeric biomass without concern for poisoning noble metal anodes. (bio-medicine.org)
  • I believe this type of fuel cell could have an energy output similar to that of methanol fuel cells in the future," he said. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Beyond the ability to directly use biomass as a fuel, the new cell also offers advantages in sustainability and potentially lower cost compared to other fuel cell types. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Further, a system and method according to the invention may be used with any type of fuel where energy is produced by a chemical reaction with oxygen. (techbriefs.com)
  • A new solar-induced direct biomass-to-electricity hybrid fuel cell can operate on fuels as varied as powdered wood. (scitechdaily.com)
  • This schematic illustration shows the working principle of the solar-induced direct biomass-to-electricity hybrid fuel cell. (scitechdaily.com)
  • Despite its promise as a fuel cell, direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) have challenges and limitations, leading researchers to study methods to improve the DMFC efficiency and performance. (springeropen.com)
  • Interest in hydrogen as a fuel has temporarily waned because of lingering technology challenges, but Virent has been working to modify aqueous-phase reforming and combine it with refinery reactions. (acs.org)
  • All told, says Raines, using this integrated process, they were able to convert half of the sugars available in plant biomass into liquid fuel. (greencarcongress.com)
  • Wood is the most commonly used biomass fuel. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • The main biomass fuel sources include come from (i) forests and processing of timber (ii) biodegradable waste (including municipal and agricultural waste) (iii) crop residues (such as straw) and (iv) energy crops, usually grown exclusively for generating energy. (college-papers-1.com)
  • Pyrolysis is the main process for converting biomass to useful fuel. (college-papers-1.com)
  • The researchers modeled the production of methanol, which can be used directly as transport fuel or as input for DME and FT-diesel synthesis. (greencarcongress.com)
  • The solar-driven third generation biofuel requires only 33% of the biomass input and 38% of total land as the second generation biofuel, while still exhibiting a CO 2 -neutral fuel cycle. (greencarcongress.com)
  • 7. Toor SS, Rosendahl L, Rudolf A (2011) Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass: a review of subcritical water technologies. (aimspress.com)
  • 8. A process according to claim 1 in which the biomass pyrolysis oil comprises an emulsion of 15-50 wt % non-separable water content. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The system provides major advantages, including combining the photochemical and solar-thermal biomass degradation in a single chemical process, leading to high solar conversion and effective biomass degradation. (bio-medicine.org)
  • During my graduate school studies, we produced butyric acid as a very smelly byproduct of our biomass process, and this can be converted into butanol. (rrapier.com)
  • This chemical process is called by transesterification or alcoholysis. (scielo.org.ar)
  • Back in the 1990s, three young process engineers working in Tennessee banded together and launched a new firm that provides chemical engineering services. (progressiveengineer.com)
  • We wanted to provide chemical process engineering exclusively," recalls Chief Process Engineer and one of the founding partners Jacqui Stewart, P.E. "That's how PROCESS got its start. (progressiveengineer.com)
  • To the best of our knowledge, we are the largest independent chemical engineering company in the world," says Roger Efferson, chief process engineer and director of business development. (progressiveengineer.com)
  • Jacqui Stewart has 30 years of chemical process engineering experience and was one of the original founders of the firm. (progressiveengineer.com)
  • A chemical engineer with a B.S. in chemical engineering from Penn State, Stewart epitomizes the engineering team at PROCESS. (progressiveengineer.com)
  • The adoption of process intensification methodologies that use the integration of reaction and separation in single, multifunctional units, will improve energy efficiency and competitiveness. (scej.org)
  • D.S. Wragg (a), M.G. O'Brien (b), F.L. Bleken (a), M. Di Michiel (c), U. Olsbye (a), H. Fjellvåg (a), Watching the methanol-to-olefin process with time- and space-resolved high-energy operando X-ray diffraction, Angewandte Chemie International Edition 51 , 7956-7959 (2012) . (esrf.eu)
  • The company was founded in 2002 by University of Wisconsin chemical engineering professor James A. Dumesic and research scientist Randy D. Cortright to commercialize an "aqueous-phase reforming" process to produce hydrogen from glucose and other water-soluble, plant-derived sugars ( C&EN, Sept. 2, 2002, page 29 ). (acs.org)
  • Together, these steps comprise an integrated process for chemical hydrolysis of biomass for biofuel production. (greencarcongress.com)
  • The introduction of two fuels with different physical and chemical properties makes the combustion process complicated and challenging to model. (sae.org)
  • The process for the preparation of Baccatin III includes contacting a mixture containing at least one taxane compound having an ester linkage at the C-13 position with at least one borohydride reducing salt in a reaction solvent in the present of a Lewis acid. (patents.com)
  • 6. The process of claim 1 wherein the reaction solvent is tetrahydrofuran. (patents.com)
  • 8. The process of claim 1 wherein the mixture contains at least 15%-50% taxanes which are taxol and the reaction solvent is tetrahydrofuran. (patents.com)
  • 9. The process of claim wherein the mixture contains greater than 50% by weight of taxanes which are taxol and the reaction solvent is dichloromethane. (patents.com)
  • 16-26 In this concept, key components in crustacean shells such as chitin are fractionated via environmentally friendly protocols, following which, each fraction is further upgraded and utilized enabling an integrated process to produce value-added chemicals from shellfish waste. (rsc.org)
  • This reaction proceeds through an intramolecular mechanism which leads to the formation of heterocyclic products as a result of a ring-closure process. (beilstein-journals.org)
  • Researchers at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) are proposing a new process for producing synfuel from biomass using concentrating solar energy as its main energy source. (greencarcongress.com)
  • Hydrogen for reverse water gas shift reaction to avoid producing CO 2 during the process is produced by electrolyzing water, driven by solar power. (greencarcongress.com)
  • ETH Zurich researchers have developed an inexpensive, handheld measuring device that can distinguish between methanol and potable alcohol. (brightsurf.com)
  • Normally, methanol is used as it is the cheapest alcohol in most countries. (scielo.org.ar)
  • Methanol (also known as wood alcohol or CH 3 OH) can cause death in small-ish quantities [5] but will make you blind first and can be found in cheap, and very, very illegal booze, [6] and in legal booze that's not supposed to be drunk (damn you! (rationalwiki.org)
  • Converting biomass (lignocellulose) to high-quality liquid fuels has been a huge, costly headache since the first log was retorted to make wood alcohol. (blogspot.com)
  • It is produced by transesterification of a fat or oil with a short chain primary alcohol like methanol and alkali like sodium hydroxide (NaOH). (sciencepublishinggroup.com)
  • Besides being very fast, reaction rates in an alcoholic solvent appear less affected by the properties of the cellulose. (rsc.org)
  • 2,7,9,12,13 The selective transformation of cellulose into chemicals under mild conditions is still a major challenge because of its robust crystalline structure formed by inter- and intramolecular hydrogen bonds. (rsc.org)
  • Hydrogenolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose resulting in C-C and C-O cleavage is a promising technology for the direct transformation of biomass into value-added chemicals and could be an entry point for future biorefinery concepts. (rwth-aachen.de)
  • Cellulose acetate from biomass waste of olive industry. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • French R, Czernik S (2010) Catalytic pyrolysis of biomass for biofuels production. (springer.com)
  • Evans RJ, Milne TA (1987) Molecular characterization of the pyrolysis of biomass. (springer.com)
  • Traditionally, the conversion of methanol usually involves the activation of its O−H or C−O bond. (nature.com)
  • 2012) Thermochemical conversion of raw and defatted algal biomass via hydrothermal liquefaction and slow pyrolysis. (aimspress.com)
  • The dehydrogenative coupling of methanol would offer a fascinating nonpetroleum route for sustainable production of EG. (nature.com)
  • These production trends are documented in Table 4-2 (C&EN 1992, 1995). (cdc.gov)
  • The project takes the well known topic of sustainable power supply, extrapolates the scientific problems that lie at its core, and spans across a multitude of research fields to find a concerted solution to challenges like the chemical foundations of a hydrogen-cycle economy, the development of nanochemically optimized materials for mobile energy storage, and models for effective decentralized production of energy. (falling-walls.com)
  • For optimization of chemical method of palm biodiesel production Box-Behnken designs [ 10 ] were used. (sciencepublishinggroup.com)
  • Production of Biomass by Pyrolysis Pyrolysis, like biomass, dates back to ancient Egyptian times. (college-papers-1.com)
  • For production of the biomass, the fungus was cultivated on a rotary shaker (Jeio Tech SI-900 R, Korea) at 125 rpm and 28˚C for 3 days in 500 ml Erlenmeyer flask containing 250 ml of PD medium. (scirp.org)
  • ESCA study of the solid residues of supercritical extraction of Populus tremuloïdes in methanol. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • 2007) Structural analysis of bio-oils from sub-and supercritical water liquefaction of woody biomass. (aimspress.com)
  • Dual template synthesis of highly mesoporous SSZ-13 zeolite with improved stability in the methanol-to-olefins reaction , Chemical Communications, 48 (2012) 9492-9494. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Olefins are a particularly useful group of chemicals which can be transformed into polymers used in anything from plastic bottles to thermal underwear. (esrf.eu)
  • Furthermore, the reaction fields of ammonia decomposition and CO 2 methanation were interchanged on the inside and the outside of the hydrogen permeable membrane in consideration of their catalytic activity. (scej.org)
  • 5 Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Biomass Comprehensive Utilization, Guangzhou, China . (scirp.org)
  • However, in the Arctic where plant biomass is low, the contribution of soils to ecosystem BVOC emissions is considered more important 2 . (nature.com)
  • The reason for this is that the amount of that is released to the environment during the combustion was previously absorbed from the air, while the biomass plant was growing, over a short period of time. (college-papers-1.com)
  • From there, the researchers used ion-exclusion chromatography to separate the sugars from the reaction mixture, as well as the ionic liquid, for reuse. (greencarcongress.com)
  • Methods allowing a higher starting biomass loading and strategies to concentrate rather than dilute the sugars during separation from the ionic liquid would overcome this problem. (greencarcongress.com)
  • Chloromethane (also commonly known as methyl chloride) is both an anthropogenic and naturally occurring chemical. (cdc.gov)
  • Anhydrous methanolic HCl was found to be an excellent reagent for releasing insoluble ellagic acid and gallic acid (as methyl gallate) from biomass substrates. (vt.edu)
  • The problem with growing crops for biomass is that it takes energy to make and transport the fertilizer, run tractors, run irrigation equipment, harvest, transport, and so on. (futurepundit.com)
  • In the United Kingdom, the use of biomass and energy crops is immature. (college-papers-1.com)
  • First, the efficiencies of the two commonly used extraction solvents, aqueous acetone and aqueous methanol were evaluated. (vt.edu)
  • The results showed that aqueous acetone is superior to aqueous methanol in obtaining higher vescalagin and castalagin yields. (vt.edu)
  • Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is an effective method that can convert biomass into bio-crude, but direct use of bio-crude derived from biomass HTL remains a challenge due to the lower quality. (aimspress.com)
  • The chemical stability of the two predominant ellagitannins in oaks (vescalagin and castalagin) were evaluated in aqueous methanol and water. (vt.edu)
  • reported the Ugi reaction of levulinic acid, isocyanides and primary amines in aqueous media with high yields [25] . (beilstein-journals.org)
  • Using a protein produced by a fungus that lives in the Amazon, Brazilian researchers developed a molecule capable of increasing glucose release from biomass for fermentation. (brightsurf.com)
  • Commercially, chloromethane is manufactured by the chemical reaction between hydrogen chloride and methanol. (sbwire.com)
  • Terephthalic acid presents such an important oil-based building block for chemical synthesis and important monomer for a multitude of polymers such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) or polyamide. (rwth-aachen.de)