Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
Materials or phenomena which can provide energy directly or via conversion.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.
Devices for generating biological products that use light as the energy source. They are used for controlled BIOMASS production such as growing cyanobacteria, mosses, or algae.
New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.
A non-taxonomic term for unicellular microscopic algae which are found in both freshwater and marine environments. Some authors consider DIATOMS; CYANOBACTERIA; HAPTOPHYTA; and DINOFLAGELLATES as part of microalgae, even though they are not algae.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.
The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.
Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.
A family of glycosidases that hydrolyse crystalline CELLULOSE into soluble sugar molecules. Within this family there are a variety of enzyme subtypes with differing substrate specificities that must work together to bring about complete cellulose hydrolysis. They are found in structures called CELLULOSOMES.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the EDIBLE GRAINS used in millet cereals and in feed for birds and livestock (ANIMAL FEED). It contains diosgenin (SAPONINS).
The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.
The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.
A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A plant genus of the family SALICACEAE. Members contain salicin, which yields SALICYLIC ACID.
The contamination of indoor air.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Places for cultivation and harvesting of fish, particularly in sea waters. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.
The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.
Forms of energy that are constantly and rapidly renewed by natural processes such as solar, ocean wave, and wind energy. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
The act of feeding on plants by animals.
The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.
The processes by which organisms use simple inorganic substances such as gaseous or dissolved carbon dioxide and inorganic nitrogen as nutrient sources. Contrasts with heterotrophic processes which make use of organic materials as the nutrient supply source. Autotrophs can be either chemoautotrophs (or chemolithotrophs), largely ARCHAEA and BACTERIA, which also use simple inorganic substances for their metabolic energy reguirements; or photoautotrophs (or photolithotrophs), such as PLANTS and CYANOBACTERIA, which derive their energy from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (autotrophy; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrient and energy requirements.
A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Minute free-floating animal organisms which live in practically all natural waters.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A genus of trees of the Myrtaceae family, native to Australia, that yields gums, oils, and resins which are used as flavoring agents, astringents, and aromatics.
Debris resulting from a process that is of no further use to the system producing it. The concept includes materials discharged from or stored in a system in inert form as a by-product of vital activities. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
The processes by which organisms utilize organic substances as their nutrient sources. Contrasts with AUTOTROPHIC PROCESSES which make use of simple inorganic substances as the nutrient supply source. Heterotrophs can be either chemoheterotrophs (or chemoorganotrophs) which also require organic substances such as glucose for their primary metabolic energy requirements, or photoheterotrophs (or photoorganotrophs) which derive their primary energy requirements from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; heterotrophy; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.
Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.
Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.
The application of heat to raise the temperature of the environment, ambient or local, or the systems for accomplishing this effect. It is distinguished from HEAT, the physical property and principle of physics.
Multicellular marine macroalgae including some members of red (RHODOPHYTA), green (CHLOROPHYTA), and brown (PHAEOPHYTA) algae. They are widely distributed in the ocean, occurring from the tide level to considerable depths, free-floating (planktonic) or anchored to the substratum (benthic). They lack a specialized vascular system but take up fluids, nutrients, and gases directly from the water. They contain CHLOROPHYLL and are photosynthetic, but some also contain other light-absorbing pigments. Many are of economic importance as FOOD, fertilizer, AGAR, potash, or source of IODINE.
Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
A suborder of CRUSTACEA, order Diplostraca, comprising the water fleas. They are benthic filter feeders that consume PHYTOPLANKTON. The body is laterally compressed and enclosed in a bivalved carapace, from which the head extends.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
The enrichment of a terrestrial or aquatic ECOSYSTEM by the addition of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, that results in a superabundant growth of plants, ALGAE, or other primary producers. It can be a natural process or result from human activity such as agriculture runoff or sewage pollution. In aquatic ecosystems, an increase in the algae population is termed an algal bloom.
Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
The above-ground plant without the roots.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Methods and techniques used to genetically modify cells' biosynthetic product output and develop conditions for growing the cells as BIOREACTORS.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.
Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.
A group of different species of microorganisms that act together as a community.
A plant genus of the family BETULACEAE that is distinguished from birch (BETULA) by its usually stalked winter buds and by cones that remain on the branches after the small, winged nutlets are released.
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
A plant family of the order Typhales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons) that contains a single genus, Typha, that grows worldwide.
A plant family of the order Najadales, subclass ALISMATIDAE, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). This is a group of perennial aquatic herbs with basal leaves.
An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE, lichenin, and cereal beta-glucans.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE widely cultivated in the tropics for the sweet cane that is processed into sugar.

Regulation of the start of DNA replication in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. (1/2814)

Cells of Schizosaccharomyces pombe were grown in minimal medium with different nitrogen sources under steady-state conditions, with doubling times ranging from 2.5 to 14 hours. Flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy confirmed earlier findings that at rapid growth rates, the G1 phase was short and cell separation occurred at the end of S phase. For some nitrogen sources, the growth rate was greatly decreased, the G1 phase occupied 30-50% of the cell cycle, and cell separation occurred in early G1. In contrast, other nitrogen sources supported low growth rates without any significant increase in G1 duration. The method described allows manipulation of the length of G1 and the relative cell cycle position of S phase in wild-type cells. Cell mass was measured by flow cytometry as scattered light and as protein-associated fluorescence. The extensions of G1 were not related to cell mass at entry into S phase. Our data do not support the hypothesis that the cells must reach a certain fixed, critical mass before entry into S. We suggest that cell mass at the G1/S transition point is variable and determined by a set of molecular parameters. In the present experiments, these parameters were influenced by the different nitrogen sources in a way that was independent of the actual growth rate.  (+info)

Temperature and pH conditions that prevail during fermentation of sausages are optimal for production of the antilisterial bacteriocin sakacin K. (2/2814)

Sakacin K is an antilisterial bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus sake CTC 494, a strain isolated from Spanish dry fermented sausages. The biokinetics of cell growth and bacteriocin production of L. sake CTC 494 in vitro during laboratory fermentations were investigated by making use of MRS broth. The data obtained from the fermentations was used to set up a predictive model to describe the influence of the physical factors temperature and pH on microbial behavior. The model was validated successfully for all components. However, the specific bacteriocin production rate seemed to have an upper limit. Both cell growth and bacteriocin activity were very much influenced by changes in temperature and pH. The production of biomass was closely related to bacteriocin activity, indicating primary metabolite kinetics, but was not the only factor of importance. Acidity dramatically influenced both the production and the inactivation of sakacin K; the optimal pH for cell growth did not correspond to the pH for maximal sakacin K activity. Furthermore, cells grew well at 35 degrees C but no bacteriocin production could be detected at this temperature. L. sake CTC 494 shows special promise for implementation as a novel bacteriocin-producing sausage starter culture with antilisterial properties, considering the fact that the temperature and acidity conditions that prevail during the fermentation process of dry fermented sausages are optimal for the production of sakacin K.  (+info)

The role of benzoate in anaerobic degradation of terephthalate. (3/2814)

The effects of acetate, benzoate, and periods without substrate on the anaerobic degradation of terephthalate (1, 4-benzene-dicarboxylate) by a syntrophic methanogenic culture were studied. The culture had been enriched on terephthalate and was capable of benzoate degradation without a lag phase. When incubated with a mixture of benzoate and terephthalate, subsequent degradation with preference for benzoate was observed. Both benzoate and acetate inhibited the anaerobic degradation of terephthalate. The observed inhibition is partially irreversible, resulting in a decrease (or even a complete loss) of the terephthalate-degrading activity after complete degradation of benzoate or acetate. Irreversible inhibition was characteristic for terephthalate degradation only because the inhibition of benzoate degradation by acetate could well be described by reversible noncompetitive product inhibition. Terephthalate degradation was furthermore irreversibly inhibited by periods without substrate of only a few hours. The inhibition of terephthalate degradation due to periods without substrate could be overcome through incubation of the culture with a mixture of benzoate and terephthalate. In this case no influence of a period without substrate was observed. Based on these observations it is postulated that decarboxylation of terephthalate, resulting in the formation of benzoate, is strictly dependent on the concomitant fermentation of benzoate. In the presence of higher concentrations of benzoate, however, benzoate is the favored substrate over terephthalate, and the culture loses its ability to degrade terephthalate. In order to overcome the inhibition of terephthalate degradation by benzoate and acetate, a two-stage reactor system is suggested for the treatment of wastewater generated during terephthalic acid production.  (+info)

Citric acid production from xylan and xylan hydrolysate by semi-solid culture of Aspergillus niger. (4/2814)

Citric acid production from xylan and xylan hydrolysate was done by Aspergillus niger Yang no. 2 cultivated in a semi-solid culture using bagasse as a carrier. Yang no. 2 produced 72.4 g/l and 52.6 g/l of citric acid in 5 d from 140 g/l of xylose and arabinose, respectively. Yang no. 2 produced 51.6 g/l of citric acid in 3 d from a concentrated xylan hydrolysate prepared by cellulase treatment, containing 100 g/l of reducing sugars. Moreover, Yang no. 2 directly produced 39.6 g/l of citric acid maximally in 3 d from 140 g/l of xylan.  (+info)

High-rate anaerobic treatment of wastewater at low temperatures. (5/2814)

Anaerobic treatment of a volatile fatty acid (VFA) mixture was investigated under psychrophilic (3 to 8 degrees C) conditions in two laboratory-scale expanded granular sludge bed reactor stages in series. The reactor system was seeded with mesophilic methanogenic granular sludge and fed with a mixture of VFAs. Good removal of fatty acids was achieved in the two-stage system. Relative high levels of propionate were present in the effluent of the first stage, but propionate was efficiently removed in the second stage, where a low hydrogen partial pressure and a low acetate concentration were advantageous for propionate oxidation. The specific VFA-degrading activities of the sludge in each of the modules doubled during system operation for 150 days, indicating a good enrichment of methanogens and proton-reducing acetogenic bacteria at such low temperatures. The specific degradation rates of butyrate, propionate, and the VFA mixture amounted to 0.139, 0.110, and 0.214 g of chemical oxygen demand g of volatile suspended solids-1 day-1, respectively. The biomass which was obtained after 1.5 years still had a temperature optimum of between 30 and 40 degrees C.  (+info)

Tessaracoccus bendigoensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a gram-positive coccus occurring in regular packages or tetrads, isolated from activated sludge biomass. (6/2814)

An isolate of a Gram-positive bacterium, designated strain Ben 106T, was obtained in pure culture by micromanipulation of a biomass sample obtained from a laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor. This isolate grew axenically as cocci or clusters of cocci arranged in regular tetrads and was morphologically similar to the dominant organism observed in the biomass. This morphology resembled that of some Gram-positive and -negative bacteria and the so-called 'G-bacteria' commonly seen in activated sludge samples. Strain Ben 106T is a non-motile, facultative anaerobe. It is oxidase-negative, catalase-positive and is capable of reducing nitrate. This organism can grow between 20 and 37 degrees C, with an optimum temperature of 25 degrees C. The pH range for growth is between 6.0 and 9.0, with an optimum pH of 7.5. The isolate stained positively for intracellular polyphosphate granules. The diagnostic diamino acid of the peptidoglycan is LL-diaminopimelic acid (LL-A2pm) with a glycine moiety at position 1 of the peptide subunit, which characterizes the presence of a rare peptidoglycan (type A3-gamma'). Two menaquinones, MK-9(H4) and MK-7(H4), are present and the main cellular fatty acid is 12-methyltetradecanoic acid. The G + C content is 74 mol%. From phenotypic characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, the isolate differed sufficiently from its closest phylogenetic relatives, namely Propionibacterium propionicum, Propioniferax innocua, Friedmanniella antarctica, Luteococcus japonicus and Microlunatus phosphovorus in the A1 subdivision of the Gram-positive bacteria (i.e. Firmicutes with a high G + C content), suborder Propionibacterineae, to be placed in a new genus, Tessaracoccus, as Tessaracoccus bendigoensis gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain is Ben 106T (= ACM 5119T).  (+info)

Carbon and electron flow in Clostridium cellulolyticum grown in chemostat culture on synthetic medium. (7/2814)

Previous results indicated poor sugar consumption and early inhibition of metabolism and growth when Clostridium cellulolyticum was cultured on medium containing cellobiose and yeast extract. Changing from complex medium to a synthetic medium had a strong effect on (i) the specific cellobiose consumption, which was increased threefold; and (ii) the electron flow, since the NADH/NAD+ ratios ranged from 0.29 to 2.08 on synthetic medium whereas ratios as high as 42 to 57 on complex medium were observed. These data indicate a better control of the carbon flow on mineral salts medium than on complex medium. By continuous culture, it was shown that the electron flow from glycolysis was balanced by the production of hydrogen gas, ethanol, and lactate. At low levels of carbon flow, pyruvate was preferentially cleaved to acetate and ethanol, enabling the bacteria to maximize ATP formation. A high catabolic rate led to pyruvate overflow and to increased ethanol and lactate production. In vitro, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, and ethanol dehydrogenase levels were higher under conditions giving higher in vivo specific production rates. Redox balance is essentially maintained by NADH-ferredoxin reductase-hydrogenase at low levels of carbon flow and by ethanol dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase at high levels of carbon flow. The same maximum growth rate (0.150 h-1) was found in both mineral salts and complex media, proving that the uptake of nutrients or the generation of biosynthetic precursors occurred faster than their utilization. On synthetic medium, cellobiose carbon was converted into cell mass and catabolized to produce ATP, while on complex medium, it served mainly as an energy supply and, if present in excess, led to an accumulation of intracellular metabolites as demonstrated for NADH. Cells grown on synthetic medium and at high levels of carbon flow were able to induce regulatory responses such as the production of ethanol and lactate dehydrogenase.  (+info)

Differentiation of Helicobacter pylori isolates based on lectin binding of cell extracts in an agglutination assay. (8/2814)

Plant and animal lectins with various carbohydrate specificities were used to type 35 Irish clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori and the type strain NCTC 11637 in a microtiter plate assay. Initially, a panel of eight lectins with the indicated primary specificities were used: Anguilla anguilla (AAA), Lotus tetragonolobus (Lotus A), and Ulex europaeus I (UEA I), specific for alpha-L-fucose; Solanum tuberosum (STA) and Triticum vulgaris (WGA), specific for beta-N-acetylglucosamine; Glycine max (SBA), specific for beta-N-acetylgalactosamine; Erythrina cristagali (ECA), specific for beta-galactose and beta-N-acetylgalactosamine; and Lens culinaris (LCA), specific for alpha-mannose and alpha-glucose. Three of the lectins (SBA, STA, and LCA) were not useful in aiding in strain discrimination. An optimized panel of five lectins (AAA, ECA, Lotus A, UEA I, and WGA) grouped all 36 strains tested into eight lectin reaction patterns. For optimal typing, pretreatment by washing bacteria with a low-pH buffer to allow protein release, followed by proteolytic degradation to eliminate autoagglutination, was used. Lectin types of treated samples were stable and reproducible. No strain proved to be untypeable by this system. Electrophoretic and immunoblotting analyses of lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) indicated that the lectins interact primarily, but not solely, with the O side chain of H. pylori LPS.  (+info)

In order to better assess the spatial variability in subtropical forest biomass, the goal of our study was to use small-footprint, discrete-return Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data to accurately estimate and map above- and below-ground biomass components of subtropical forests. Foliage, branch, trunk, root, above-ground and total biomass of 53 plots (30 × 30 m) were modeled using a range of LiDAR-derived metrics, with individual models built for each of the three dominant forest types using stepwise multi-regression analysis. A regular grid covered the entire study site with cell size 30 × 30 m corresponding to the same size of the plots; it was generated for mapping each biomass component. Overall, results indicate that biomass estimation was more accurate in coniferous forests, compared with the mixed and broadleaved plots. The coefficient of determination (R2) for individual models was significantly enhanced compared with an overall generic, or common, model. Using independent stand-level
The potential of a plant species to acquire nutrients depends on its ability to explore the soil by its root system. Co-cultivation of different species is anticipated to lead to vertical root niche differentiation and thus to higher soil nutrient depletion. Using a qPCR-based method we quantified root biomass distribution of four catch crop species in vertical soil profiles in pure vs. mixed stands. Pure stands of mustard and phacelia robustly reached 70 cm soil depth, while oat preferably colonized upper soil layers, and clover developed the shallowest and smallest root system. Analysis of residual nitrate pools in different soil depths and correlation with root biomass showed that, besides rooting depth also root biomass determines soil nitrogen depletion. While occupying the same vertical niches as in pure stands, mustard and phacelia dominated total root biomass of the mix. In contrast, root biomass of clover and oat was severely suppressed in presence of the other species. Below-ground biomass
ORNL DAAC: This data set provides a single raster image containing the spatial distribution of aboveground live forest biomass of the Amazon basin. This product was derived using a methodology based on a combination of land cover map, remote sensing derived metrics, and more than 500 forest plots distributed over the basin (Saatchi, et al., 2007). The distributed map was produced in ENVI, in Tiff format and it contains forest biomass divided among 11 classes at 1 km spatial resolution with reasonable accuracy (better than 70%). Remote sensing and ground data used in this product were collected from 1990-2000. The Biomass map represents average biomass distribution over the Amazon basin over this period and was used to estimate the total carbon stock of the basin, including the dead and belowground biomass.
Woody biomass is one of the most abundant biomass feedstocks, besides agriculture residuals in the United States. The sustainable harvest residuals and thinnings alone are estimated at about 75 million tons/year. These forest residuals and thinnings could produce the equivalent of 5 billion gallons of lignocellulosic ethanol annually. Softwood biomass is the most recalcitrant biomass in pretreatment before an enzymatic hydrolysis. To utilize the most recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials, an efficient, industrially scalable and cost effective pretreatment method is needed. Obtaining a high yield of sugar from recalcitrant biomass generally requires a high severity of pretreatment with aggressive chemistry, followed by extensive conditioning, and large doses of enzymes. Catchlight Energys Sugar process, CLE Sugar, uses a low intensity, high throughput variation of bisulfite pulping to pretreat recalcitrant biomass, such as softwood forest residuals. By leveraging well-proven bisulfite technology and
Long-term heavy grazing had little effect on root and crown biomass of Indian ricegrass (Oryzopsis hymenoides), nor did it significantly affect the total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) reserve levels or the seasonal cycle of reserves in this grass. Orodho and Trlica conclude that 50 years of protection from livestock use had not resulted in ecotypic differentiation in Indian ricegrass for these variables. Clipping reduced crown biomass more than root biomass and removal of 90% of aboveground biomass resulted in more than a 50% reduction in crown biomass and reserve carbohydrate pool. In a garden study that compared the native Chaco Canyon strains to two commercial strains of Indian ricegrass (Nezpar and Paloma), the Nezpar strain was superior to Paloma and the Chaco Canyon strains in production of crown biomass and TNC reserves at the more mesic garden site. The native strains from the more arid Chaco Canyon were superior to both cultivated strains in root production, and the native
In Finland it is estimated that forest biomass will be the main source of bioenergy when meeting the national target: 38% renewable from total energy consumption by 2020. This target must become concrete for regional and local level participators of a forest industry and actions should take place in large combined heat and power generation (CHP) plants, district heating plants and independent heating systems. In energy production replacing fossil fuels with renewa-ble energy is reasonable in many cases. However, there are usually doubts about the availability and security of supply of forest biomass. The aim of this study is to introduce a systematical method for analyzing the availability and demand of forest biomass in regional and local level. This study introduces an objective method for analyzing local possibilities on where and how much the use of forest biomass could be increased. By replacing use of fossil fuels with renewable and domestic energy sources carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and
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Biomass Magazine is a monthly trade publication tailored to serve companies and organizations engaged in producing and/or utilizing biomass power and heat, advanced biofuels, biogas, wood pellets and biobased chemicals. In addition to policy, regulation, project finance, technology and plant management, the publication maintains a core editorial focus on biomass logistics: generating, cultivating, collecting, transporting, processing, marketing, procuring and utilizing sustainable biomass.
Biomass Magazine is a monthly trade publication tailored to serve companies and organizations engaged in producing and/or utilizing biomass power and heat, advanced biofuels, biogas, wood pellets and biobased chemicals. In addition to policy, regulation, project finance, technology and plant management, the publication maintains a core editorial focus on biomass logistics: generating, cultivating, collecting, transporting, processing, marketing, procuring and utilizing sustainable biomass.
The global issue of climate change and an increasing interest in the reduction of fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions by using forest biomass for energy production has increased the importance of forest biomass quantification in recent years. Different national and international reports have presented the amount of carbon sequestered by forest ecosystems. For example, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change reports that forests contain about 80% of aboveground and 40% of belowground carbon stock (IPCC 2007). Additionally, it is reported that the amount of carbon stored in dry wood is approximately 50% by weight (Brown 1986; Paladinic et al. 2009; Sedjo and Sohngen 2012).. Biomass, in general, includes both above and below ground living and dead mass of trees, shrubs, vines, and roots. However, most of the researches on biomass estimation have focused on aboveground biomass because of the difficulty in collecting belowground data (Lu 2006). The amount of biomass in a forest is influenced ...
ORNL DAAC: This dataset provides maps of aboveground tidal marsh biomass (g/m2) at 30 m resolution for six estuarine regions of the conterminous United States: Cape Cod, MA; Chesapeake Bay, MD, Everglades, FL; Mississippi Delta, LA; San Francisco Bay, CA; and Puget Sound, WA. Estuarine and palustrine emergent tidal marsh areas were based on a 2010 NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) map. Aboveground biomass maps were generated from a random forest model driven by Landsat vegetation indices and a national scale dataset of field-measured aboveground biomass. The final model, driven by six Landsat vegetation indices, with the soil adjusted vegetation index as the most important, successfully predicted biomass for a range of marsh plant functional types defined by height, leaf angle, and growth form. Biomass can be converted to carbon stocks using a mean plant carbon content of 44.1%.
Potohar, northern Punjab, Pakistan in September, 2008 and analysed for P fractions and microbial parameters including microbial biomass C, microbial biomass N, microbial biomass P, and activities of dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase enzymes. The average size of different P fractions (% of total P) in the soils varied in the order: dHCl-P (63.7%) , cHCl-Pi (14.8%) , residual-P (9.4%) , cHCl-Po (3.8%) , NaHCO3-Pi (2.4%) , NaOH-Pi (2.0%) , NaHCO3-Po (1.4%) , resin-P (1.3%) , NaOH-Po (1.2%). The organic P fractions collectively formed 6.4% of the total P, while the inorganic P fractions were 93.6%. The bioavailable P fractions that is, resin-P, NaHCO3-Pi and NaHCO3-Po showed significant positive relationship with Olsen-P, microbial biomass P, and total organic C, but also with microbial biomass C, microbial biomass N, dehydrogenase activity and alkaline phosphatase activity in the soils. Among other ...
Downloadable! This study introduces a framework for modeling a renewable forest biomass stock interacting with economic sectors in a competitive economy. The equilibrium is formulated as a mixed complementary problem (which explicitly represents weak inequalities and complementary among decision variables and equilibrium conditions). The complementarity format permits detailed modeling of the growth and harvest of a biomass stock together with a second-best characterization of the overall economy. First the complementarity features of economic equilibrium and its integration with an ecological representation of the biomass are provided. Then a stylized numerical example of a dynamic computable general equilibrium model is presented. Finally, illustrative applications of the model for gauging the likely effects of environmental subsidies and taxes intended to promote increases CO2 storage in forest biomass are given, the results are discussed.
Biomass Steam Boiler - SZL Biomass Boiler, Biomass . 2019-4-27 · Biomass steam boiler (also called biomass hot water boiler) is the hot sale SZL Series biomass boiler which adopts chain grate which is suitable for burning the biomass fuel like wood chip, biomass pellet, etc. SZL series biomass boiler is the kind of double drum natural circulation boiler with the whole O shaped arrangement Learn More ...
Biomass Moulding Fuel Market report focuses on the major drivers and restraints for the key players. It also provides granular analysis of the market share, Sales and Consumption Status, segmentation, Industry Production, revenue forecasts and geographic regions of the market. Biomass Moulding Fuel Market 2011-2021 research report is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the Biomass Moulding Fuel Industry.. The report provides key statistics on the market status of the Biomass Moulding Fuel manufacturers and is a valuable source of guidance and direction for companies and individuals interested in the Biomass Moulding Fuel Market.. Major Key Contents Covered in Biomass Moulding Fuel Market: Introduction of Biomass Moulding Fuel with development and status. Manufacturing Technology of Biomass Moulding Fuel with analysis and trends. Analysis of Global Biomass Moulding Fuel Market Key Manufacturers with Company Profile, Product Information, Production Information and Contact ...
A biomass hydrothermal decomposition apparatus includes, a biomass feeder ( 31 ) that feeds biomass material ( 11 ) under normal pressure to under increased pressure, a hydrothermal decomposition device ( 42 A) that allows the fed biomass material ( 11 ) to be gradually moved inside a device main body ( 42 A) from either end thereof in a consolidated condition, and also allows hot compressed water ( 15 ) to be fed from an other end of a feed section for the biomass material into the main body ( 42 A), so as to cause the biomass material ( 11 ) and the hot compressed water ( 15 ) to countercurrently contact with each other and undergo hydrothermal decomposition, and that elutes a lignin component and a hemicellulose component into the hot compressed water, so as to separate the lignin component and the hemicellulose component from the biomass material ( 11 ); and a biomass discharger ( 51 ) that discharges, from the side where the hot compressed water is fed into the device main body, a biomass
Tracer experiments are of concern to wastewater treatment engineers and researchers because of the importance of determining hydraulic regimes and retention times in wastewater treatment units. In this work, a pilot-scale maturation waste stabilisation pond (WSP) was spiked with Rhodamine WT, in order to determine how suspended organic matter would interfere with its performance as a tracer in a domestic wastewater treatment unit which had a high content of suspended algal biomass. A primary maturation pond was spiked in three separate runs with different levels of algae (high, medium and low), with a known amount of Rhodamine WT (20% v/v); the tracer was measured in the pond effluent in real time every 20 min for 3θ (the theoretical retention time, θ = 17 d). Algal biomass was monitored weekly from influent, column and effluent water samples by chlorophyll-a determination. The results show that algal biomass has a strong influence on the behaviour of Rhodamine WT as a tracer and therefore the ...
As an alternative renewable source for bioenergy, forest biomass has recently drawn more attention from the U.S. government and the general public. Woody biomass policies have been adopted to encourage the new bioenergy industry. A variety of state policy incentives attempt to create a desirable legal climate and lure new firms, imposing two important questions regarding state government policies and the sustainable use of forest resources. This dissertation sheds some light on these questions. The first paper constructs a woody biomass policy index through scoring each statute and weighting different categories of policies from the vantage point of renewable energy investment. It analyzes the disparity in the strength of state government incentives in the woody biomass utilization. The second paper employs a conditional logit model (CLM) to explore the effects of woody biomass policies on the siting decisions of new bioenergy projects. In addition, significant state attributes influencing the
The data and analyses presented support the research article entitled Coupling partial-equilibrium and dynamic biogenic carbon models to assess future transport scenarios in France (Albers et al., 2019). Carbon sequestration and storage in forestry products (e.g. transport fuels) is sought as a climate change mitigation option. The data presented support and inform dynamic modelling approaches to predict biomass growth and carbon fixation dynamics , of a tree or forest stand, over specific rotation lengths. Data consists of species-specific yield tables, parameters for non-linear growth models and allometric equations. Non-linear growth models and allometric equations are listed and described. National statistics and surveys of the wood supply chain serve to identify main tree species, standing wood volumes and distributions within specific geographies; here corresponding to managed forests in France. All necessary data and methods for the computation of the annual fixation flows are presented.
Gene expression is regulated through a complex interplay of different transcription factors (TFs) which can enhance or inhibit gene transcription. ArcA is a global regulator that regulates genes involved in different metabolic pathways, while IclR as a local regulator, controls the transcription of the glyoxylate pathway genes of the aceBAK operon. This study investigates the physiological and metabolic consequences of arcA and iclR deletions on E. coli K12 MG1655 under glucose abundant and limiting conditions and compares the results with the metabolic characteristics of E. coli BL21 (DE3). The deletion of arcA and iclR results in an increase in the biomass yield both under glucose abundant and limiting conditions, approaching the maximum theoretical yield of 0.65 c-mole/c-mole glucose under glucose abundant conditions. This can be explained by the lower flux through several CO2 producing pathways in the E. coli K12 ΔarcAΔiclR double knockout strain. Due to iclR gene deletion, the glyoxylate pathway
We examined the effects of N fertilization on forest soil fungal and bacterial biomass at three long-term experiments in New England (Harvard Forest, MA; Mt. Ascutney, VT; Bear Brook, ME). At Harvard Forest, chronic N fertilization has decreased organic soil microbial biomass C (MBC) by an average of 54% and substrate induced respiration (SIR) was decreased by an average of 45% in hardwood stands. In the pine stand, organic soil MBC was decreased by 40% and SIR decreased by an average of 35%. The fungal:bacterial activity ratio was also decreased in the hardwood stands from an average of 1.5 in the control plot to I .O in the High-N plot, and in the pine stands from 1.9 in control plot to 1.0 in the High-N stand. At Mt. Ascutney, MBC was reduced by an average of 59% and SIR by 52% in the High N plots relative to the unfertilized plots, and the fungal:bacterial activity ratio was only slightly decreased. The Bear Brook watershed is in an earlier stage of N saturation (Stage 0-1) and did not ...
The miombo woodland is the most extensive dry forest in the world, with the potential to store substantial amounts of biomass carbon. Efforts to obtain accurate estimates of carbon stocks in the miombo woodlands are limited by a general lack of biomass estimation models (BEMs). This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of most commonly employed allometric models for estimating aboveground biomass (AGB) in miombo woodlands, and to develop new models that enable more accurate estimation of biomass in the miombo woodlands. A generalizable mixed-species allometric model was developed from 88 trees belonging to 33 species ranging in diameter at breast height (DBH) from 5 to 105 cm using Bayesian estimation. A power law model with DBH alone performed better than both a polynomial model with DBH and the square of DBH, and models including height and crown area as additional variables along with DBH. The accuracy of estimates from published models varied across different sites and trees of different diameter
The Complete Book On Biomass Based Products (biochemicals, Biofuels, Activated Carbon) by Npcs Board Of Consultants & Engineers, ISBN: 9788178331584, Rs. 1575.00 / US$. 150.00
Publishers Note to Modeling the influence of potassium content and heating rate on biomass pyrolysis [Appl. Energy J. 194 (2017) 199-211] ...
Caldicellulosiruptor glycoside hydrolase inventory.As mentioned above, only two (C. bescii and C. saccharolyticus) of the nine described Caldicellulosiruptor species currently have publically available genome sequences (29, 51). Due to renewed interest in biomass-degrading microbes, five additional genome sequencing projects are under way, three of which are finished (for C. hydrothermalis, C. kronotsyensis, and C. owensensis), to help pinpoint what makes some species more cellulolytic than others in the genus. Draft and finished versions of these genome sequences were examined for GH family diversity.. Previous studies looking into Caldicellulosiruptor diversity have identified glycoside hydrolases, mostly cellulases and xylanases, produced by selected species (4, 19). Here, the biomass deconstruction-related GH inventory, inferred from each draft and finished genome sequence, was examined to provide insights into the observed differential responses to microcrystalline cellulose. Based on the ...
Biomass Pellets Market Report covers the present scenario and the growth prospects of the Biomass Pellets Industry for 2017-2022. Biomass Pellets Market report analyses the industry potential for each geographical region based on the growth rate, macroeconomic parameters, consumer buying patterns, market demand and supply scenarios.. Biomass Pellets Market analysis reports provide a valuable source of insightful data for business strategists and competitive analysis of Biomass Pellets market. It provides the Biomass Pellets industry overview with growth analysis and futuristic cost, revenue, demand and supply data. The research analysts provide an elaborate description of the value chain and its distributor analysis. This Biomass Pellets market study provides comprehensive data which enhances the understanding, scope and application of this report.. Biomass Pellets Market Report provides comprehensive analysis of. ...
The chapter discusses the biomass supply chain, which bears the role of supplying an energy conversion plant with biomass, at the correct quantity, time and quality specifications. The chapter first categorizes the biomass and waste streams and presents analytically the biomass supply chain, discussing its structure and characteristics. It then proceeds in reviewing the latest advances in biomass supply chains. The issue of integrating biomass energy conversion into waste management systems is tackled and the advantages and limitations of using biomass, in supply chain terms, are presented. The chapter concludes with future trends in biomass supply chain and logistics, and proposing sources of further information. ...
Grasses such as Miscanthus ×giganteus and Panicum virgatum (switchgrass) can potentially be used to produce bioenergy on a large scale in the Midwestern USA. The biomass productivity of these warm-season perennial grasses, particularly M. × giganteus, can be substantial, even when grown with limited inputs. The literature, however, varies regarding the nitrogen requirements for M. ×giganteus biomass production. In addition, there is a lack of information that identifies the yield-component(s) (including total tiller number, tiller weight, total tiller diameter, total tiller height, phytomer number, reproductive tiller number, vegetative tiller number, reproductive tiller height, vegetative tiller height, reproductive tiller diameter, vegetative tiller diameter, and reproductive tiller phytomer number) that contributes to M. ×giganteus biomass yields. Thus, the objective of this study was to examine the effects of fertilization on biomass yield and individual M. × giganteus plant-yield components.
Abstract: The micro alga, Spirulina is a rich source of protein, which is used as a protein supplement for humans, chicks and also in aquaculture. Among the cultures, CS-1 registered maximum biomass production and S-20 showed highest biomass production among the local isolates. Optimum temperature of 35°C was the best for maximum biomass production of S. platensis cultures. Among the cultures CS-1 culture, put forth maximum biomass production at 35°C. The biomass production of all S. platensis cultures was maximum at pH 10.0. Among the cultures, CS-1 recorded maximum biomass at pH 10.0. S. platensis culture S-20 showed highest biomass production among the local isolates. S. platensis cultures were grown under different light wave lengths ranging from 340-700 nm and observed that it grows best in red light but later on there was no significant difference between the biomass produced under red and normal white lights. S. platensis culture CS-1 has shown the highest chlorophyll, carotenoids and ...
These early forest biomass studies were aimed at major or typical forest types, with developed biomass models largely based on stand or sample plot levels. Some biomass models were even based on individual tree data, most of them suited only for certain sites or local areas, not representative of larger regions. These forest carbon assessments were based on estimates of biomass per hectare for our major forest types from purposeful sampling and areas of forest types from our national forest inventory, which is not really suited for monitoring and assessing forest carbon storage.. The International Guidelines for Forest Monitoring, published by IUFRO ([1994]), clearly defined forest biomass as one of the important items of global, regional and national forest monitoring. In order to add forest biomass into the items of national forest inventory of China, the Ministry of Forestry conducted a key program Research on two-variable biomass models and compatible auto-adoptive one-variable biomass ...
where nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were at its maximum level (+1). On the other hand, with treatments 9 (N0) and 11 (P0), the lowest AFDW, 0.80 and 0.62 g∙L−1, respectively, were obtained. Therewith, the maximum biomass value obtained was 2.3 times higher than the reports of [1] , which reported a biomass concentration of 0.54 g∙L−1 when cultivating Scenedesmus obliquus with ambient CO2, and when cultivated at 35% of CO2 supply, it was reported a maximum biomass value of 1.39 g∙L−1. The maximum biomass of 1.24 g∙L−1 obtained with the Scenedesmus sp. SCIB-01 strain, without CO2 supply, was comparable to reports of [3] who obtained biomass concentration of 1.34 g∙L−1 using S. obliquus cultivated at 2.5% CO2 feeding concentration. [8] reported S. obliquus cultivation at 30% CO2 concentration, and obtained a biomass concentration of 1.03 g∙L−1. [18] obtained a maximum biomass production of 0.41 g∙L−1 using Desmodesmus sp. phototrophically cultivated, also lower ...
Global Biomass Briquette Market Competition, by manufacturer, Biomass Briquette Sales and Biomass Briquette Revenue by Regions (2012-2017). Request Sample Biomass Briquette Research Report at Global Biomass Briquette Market report mainly covers 12 sections. They are as follows:. Section 1 gives us Biomass Briquette Introduction, market overview, product scope, Biomass Briquette market opportunities, market threat, Biomass Briquette market driving force;. Section 2 shows the global Biomass Briquette market by regions, with sales, Biomass Briquette market share and revenue of Biomass Briquette, for each region, from 2017 to 2022;. Section 3 and 4 displays Biomass Briquette market forecast, by regions, application and type, with revenue and sales of Biomass Briquette market, from 2017 to 2022;. Section 5 shows the competitive situation among the top manufacturers, with sales, revenue and market share of Biomass ...
Steam Boiler with different fuels can be divided into biomass biomass boilerindustrial equipment, coal fired boiler, gas fired boiler, oil fired boiler, etc.. Stalk Biomass fired steam biomass boilerindustrial equipment is one kind of biomass fired steam boiler too. This biomass fired steam boiler can use fuel like crop stalks, rice stalks, wheat stalks, oil seed rape stalks, etc. Thus, stalk fired steam boiler also lists as one of agro waste fired steam boiler. ZG manufactured biomass fired steam boiler also can be divided into CFB steam boiler and chain grate steam boiler. Here, we would like to introduce Biomass stalk fired steam boiler, a kind of chain grate steam boiler in structure design. Stalk fired chain grate steam boiler can also be divided into single drum biomass fired steam boiler and double drum biomass fired steam boiler. Stalk fired steam boiler also can be classified into horizontal biomass fired steam boiler and vertical biomass fired steam boiler or corner tube biomass fired ...
Biomass had so much promise. But now its about to go up in smoke. Only a few years ago, energy production from biomass had one of the brightest, most promising futures in both the US and Europe. The EUs 20/20/20 Renewable Energy Directive set a sizable proportion of the 20% renewable energy goal to come from biomass. It looked like biomass was the perfect answer to the renewable energy puzzle. The problem no one anticipated was the smoke.. The trouble for biomass as a public energy source, as opposed to an industrial fuel, started in Massachusetts. In 2010, under then-Governor Deval Patrick, biomass was to become a key component of the states renewable energy policy, and it seemed like a slam-dunk. But then public opinion started asking about the smoke. The prevailing wisdom at the time was that biomass was carbon neutral, which meant that burning wood would add no more carbon dioxide, a known greenhouse gas, to the atmosphere than could be reabsorbed.. What would become known as the ...
Water stress and nutrient deficiency are considered to be the main environmental factors limiting plant growth and species interaction in semiarid regions. However, less is known about the interactive effects of soil water, nitrogen and phosphorus on native species growth and relative competitive ability. A replacement series design method was used with 12 mixed plants of Bothriochloa ischaemum and Lespedeza davurica grown in a pot experiment under three water regimes and four fertility treatments. Intercropping systems were assessed on the basis of indices such as biomass production and allocation, relative competitive ability, aggressivity, relative yield total and water use efficiency (WUE). Water stress decreased significantly the total biomass production for each species, either in monoculture or in mixtures. N, P, or NP application can significantly improve biomass production of the two species in their mixtures. There was no obvious change trend in root/shoot ratio of B. ischaemum or L. davurica
In order to protect the city of New Orleans from the Mississippi River flooding, the Bonnet Carré Spillway (BCS) was constructed from 1929 to 1936 to divert flood water from the river into Lake Pontchartrain and then into the Gulf of Mexico. During the BCS opening for flood release, large amounts of freshwater, nutrients, sediment, etc. were discharged into Lake Pontchartrain, and caused a lot of environmental problems. To evaluate the environmental impacts of the flood water on lake ecosystems, a two-dimensional numerical model was developed based on CCHE2D and applied to simulate the flow circulation, sediment transport and algal biomass distribution in Lake Pontchartrain. The effect of sediment concentration on the growth of algae was considered in the model. The numerical model was calibrated using field measured data provided by USGS, and then it was validated by the BCS Opening Event in 1997. The simulated results were generally in good agreement with filed data and satellite imagery
A batch nitrification process was studied using synthetic wastewater as substrate and Chilean natural zeolite as biomass carrier at ambient temperatures (20 °C). Three groups of experiments were carried out: a first experimental set (I) with and without added zeolite using initial biomass concentrations of 1,000 and 2,000 mg VSS/ L; a second set of experiments (II) with added zeolite and at the same initial biomass concentrations. In these two experimental sets, biomass from an activated sludge process located in an urban wastewater treatment plant at La Farfana, Santiago de Chile, was used as inoculum (1). Finally, a third set of experiments (III) was carried out with zeolite at an initial biomass concentration of 1,000 mg VSS/L using an inoculum derived from an activated sludge process treating wastewater from a paper mill (inoculum 2). Nitrifying biomass concentration values in the range of 13,000-18,800 mg VSS/L were achieved when initial biomass concentrations varied between 1,000 and ...
Keywords: Gross N biotransformation, soil microbial biomass, nitrogen availability, mineralisation, C:N ratios.. Summary:. Understanding the factors that govern microbial activities in soils is important, because the heterotrophic soil microbial biomass is driving the carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling, and the net availability of N for plant uptake or losses. The processes by which C and N interact during decomposition of organic matter in soil, and the mineralisation-immobilisation turnover are well known but still difficult to predict, due to the complex interactions between soil micro-organisms and their substrates. The 15N isotope dilution techniques that allow rates of N transformations to be quantified accurately and simultaneously help the understanding of the effects of soil, crop and management conditions on microbial activities. The quantification of the relative importance of gross mineralisation, immobilisation and nitrification is also a key for understanding the competition ...
Keywords: Gross N biotransformation, soil microbial biomass, nitrogen availability, mineralisation, C:N ratios.. Summary:. Understanding the factors that govern microbial activities in soils is important, because the heterotrophic soil microbial biomass is driving the carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling, and the net availability of N for plant uptake or losses. The processes by which C and N interact during decomposition of organic matter in soil, and the mineralisation-immobilisation turnover are well known but still difficult to predict, due to the complex interactions between soil micro-organisms and their substrates. The 15N isotope dilution techniques that allow rates of N transformations to be quantified accurately and simultaneously help the understanding of the effects of soil, crop and management conditions on microbial activities. The quantification of the relative importance of gross mineralisation, immobilisation and nitrification is also a key for understanding the competition ...
NC Woody Biomass Natures renewable energy! stry/biomass.html Extension Forestry Campus Box 8008 NC State University Raleigh, NC 27695-8008 The North Carolina Biomass Roadmap: Recommendations for Fossil Fuel Displacement through Biomass Utilization1 The North Carolina Biomass Council developed this Roadmap at the request of the State Energy Office to be used as a tool to assist stakeholders in planning North Carolinas future biomass utilization. The Roadmap represents the collective assessment and expertise of the North Carolina Biomass Council and is a result of numerous facilitated discussions. For the purposes of this Roadmap, biomass is defined as any organic matter that is available on a renewable or recurring basis, including agricultural crops and trees, wood and wood wastes and residues, plants (including aquatic plants), grasses, residues, fibers, animal wastes, and segregated municipal waste… Biomass can be converted into biopower, biofuels and ...
The microbial biomass consists mostly of bacteria and fungi, which decompose crop residues and organic matter in soil. This process releases nutrients, such as nitrogen (N), into the soil that are available for plant uptake. About half the microbial biomass is located in the surface 10 cm of a soil profile and most of the nutrient release also occurs here. Generally, up to 5% of the total organic carbon and N in soil is contained in the microbial biomass at any one time. When microorganisms die, these nutrients are released in forms that can be taken up by plants.. ...
p,Zooplankton play an important role in the trophic dynamics of coral reef ecosystems. Detailed vertical and temporal distribution and biomass of zooplankton were evaluated at four heights off the bottom and at six times throughout the diel cycle over a coral reef in the Florida Keys (USA). Zooplankton abundance averaged 4396 +/- 1949 SD individuals m(-3), but temporal and spatial distributions varied for individual zooplankton taxa by time of day and by height off the bottom. Copepods comprised 93-96% of the abundance in the samples. Taxon-based zooplankton CHN values paired with abundance data were used to estimate biomass. Average daily biomass ranged from 3.1 to 21.4 mg C m(-3) and differed by both height off the bottom and by time of day. While copepods were the numerically dominant organisms, their contribution to biomass was only 35% of the total zooplankton biomass. Our findings provide important support for the new emerging paradigm of how zooplankton are distributed over ...
The advantages of newly developed high biomass sorghum and pearl millet developed by ICRISAT and Indian Institute of Millets Research (IIMR) for use as feedstock in second generation or lignocellulosic (2G) biofuel production in India was highlighted at a recent workshop.. The advantageous traits of these dryland crops are wider adaptability, fast growth, high biomass production potential, resilience to drought, and non-compromise on food security as the grain is used for human consumption. The use of these crops in biofuel production has the potential of improving incomes of Indian farmers in the semi-arid regions.. India is a signatory to the UN Climate Change Paris Agreement (COP21) and biofuel production is one of the thrust areas identified to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The countrys ethanol production is mainly from sugarcane molasses. However, considering severe water shortages there is limited scope to increase the production of this water-intensive crop. Hence there is a need to ...
Mugyenzi, A. Uganda Fuel Supplies and Household Energy Provision, Presented at the Fuel Substitution - Poverty Impacts on Biomass Fuel Suppliers, National Stakeholders Workshop, Friday 25th January, 2002, Kampala, Uganda. (2007) 9 pp.. ...
Biomass is used worldwide 1 minute-3 minutes The best locations that allow biomass are farm areas. This is because on a farm you can find various aspects that are used to create biomass. For starters you have all the plants and crops, for example hay, dried corn, tall grass, ect. Also, you would find multiple animals whose manure could be turned into biomass, for example cows, horses, pigs, ect. Then you have wood chips from some of the animal pens, along with all of the trash the people produce. But most of all, you find all of these things, which make biomass, in one location. Science is applied to everything in biomass. To start off, people had to experiment a lot, and discover how to make biomass into a renewable resource. Then comes the machinery used to actually create the biomass. People had to find and build the right machines that are used throughout the entire process. Next, science comes in when it comes to the wood, plants, manure, waste, and garbage that goes into biomass. The ...
Influence of Urea Formaldehyde Resin on the Pyrolysis of Biomass Components: Cellulose, Hemicellulose, and Lignin. Zongyuan Lai, Sijin Li, Yu Zhang, Yushuang Li, and Jun Mu *. Wood-based panels, which are often used and then abandoned, are a potential resource for energy recovery. To better understand the pyrolysis of wood-based panels, the effect of urea formaldehyde (UF) resin on the pyrolysis of the wood components (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin) was investigated. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and an ultimate analysis were used to investigate the pyrolysis process and products of the biomass components mixed with 10% UF resin. The UF resin specifically inhibited the decomposition rate of cellulose and promoted the thermal decomposition of lignin. For xylan, the UF resin had little impact. The UF resin mainly affected the mass loss of C and O. Loss of both elements in lignin was promoted, but only C loss increased in ...
Briquette biomass Regular Buyers, Briquette biomass Importers, Briquette biomass Distributors, Briquette biomass Wholesalers, Briquette biomass Agents, Briquette biomass Businesses - UK B2B Marketplace
Biomass (conventional and non-conventional) fuels co-fired with coal for power and steam generation are being tested and evaluated at several generation stations in the United States. The co-firing technology is expected to reduce landfill requirements for biomass wastes, and to provide a renewable, low pollution and zero net carbon dioxide fuel. The choice of the biomass depends upon local availability and cost of the transportation. The renewable biomass fuels range from agro to animal waste based fuels. For coal fired power plants located around feedlots where cattle are raised, the renewable biomass is the cattle manure, called feedlot biomass (FB). Thus coal could be mixed with feedlot biomass and then fired in existing boiler burners. A 30 KW (100,000 Btu/hr) boiler burner facility was built at Texas A&M University Boiler Burner Laboratory and the burner was fired with coal or coal-FB blends. Most of the previous data concerned with coal performance results from co-firing of low moisture ...
The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of bacterial biomass on the sorption and transport of three solutes (quinoline, naphthalene, and 45Ca) in a subsurface soil. Miscible displacement techniques were employed to measure sorption and transport of the above compounds during steady, saturated water flow in sterile and/or bacterium-inoculated soil columns. The soil was inoculated with either a quinoline-degrading bacterium, Pseudomonas sp. 3N3A isolate, or its mutant isolate, B53, which does not degrade quinoline. In soil columns inoculated with the B53 and 3N3A isolates, quinoline sorption was reduced by about 60 and 20%, respectively. In contrast, 45Ca sorption was minimally reduced, which indicated that biomass did not significantly alter the cation-exchange capacity of the soil. Biomass impacts on sorption were solute specific, even when the sorption mechanism for both quinoline and 45Ca was similar. Thus, the differential response is attributed to biomass-induced changes in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effect of cell density on biomass and fatty acid productivity during cultivation of Rhodomonas salina in a tubular photobioreactor. AU - Thoisen, Christina. AU - Pedersen, Jakob Skov. AU - Jørgensen, Lars. AU - Kyhn, Anker. AU - Hansen, Benni Winding. AU - Nielsen, Søren Laurentius. PY - 2020/5/8. Y1 - 2020/5/8. U2 - 10.1111/ARE.14672. DO - 10.1111/ARE.14672. M3 - Journal article. JO - Aquaculture Research. JF - Aquaculture Research. SN - 1355-557X. ER - ...
Abstract: 1. Nutrient additions typically increase terrestrial ecosystem productivity, reduce plant diversity and alter plant community composition; however, the effects of P additions and interactions between N and P are understudied. 2. We added both N (10 g m-2) and three levels of P (2.5, 5 and 10 g m-2) to a native, ungrazed tallgrass prairie burned biennially in northeastern Kansas, USA, to determine the independent and interactive effects of N and P on plant community composition and above-ground net primary productivity (ANPP). 3. After a decade of nutrient additions, we found few effects of P alone on plant community composition, N alone had stronger effects, and N and P additions combined resulted in much larger effects than either alone. The changes in the plant community were driven by decreased abundance of C4 grasses, perhaps in response to altered interactions with mycorrhizal fungi, concurrent with increased abundance of non-N-fixing perennial and annual forbs. Surprisingly, this ...
Four European exotic earthworm fronts, two in Minnesota and two in Wisconsin, were used to examine the effect of earthworm guild assemblages (treatments) on the composition of the bacterial and fungal communities. Four transects, each containing 5 treatments based on ecological guild dominance (epigeic, endogeic, anecic, anecic 50 m, anecic 100 m) were constructed perpendicular to four advancing exotic earthworm fronts. The activity of each dominating guild was confirmed by a continual decrease in the O horizon depth and subsequent increase in A horizon depth. Soil samples collected in the fall of 2013 were used to examine the effect of guild assemblages on the soil microbial community. No biological differences were observed in microbial biomass carbon (MBC), microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN), MBC: MBN, and carbon substrate utilization using Biolog Eco- and FF plates. TRFLP community profiles indicated the bacterial communities among treatments were highly similar, but a partial shift in the ...
Do you need a new roof? Are you building a house and considering your roofing options? Many people assume that their options are limited; you either install shingles or a metal roof. The truth is there are many choices, including biomass roofing. What is Biomass Roofing? Biomass means that its made from natural materials. A great example, and a traditional one, is the thatch roof. Thatched roofs have been used for thousands of years. Traditionally theyre made from leaves, grasses, reeds, and straw. Of course todays thatch options are a bit more sophisticated. The Benefits of Biomass Roofing Biomass roofing options are incredibly durable. In fact thatch roofs are said to last between 50 and 70 years. Thats significantly longer than traditional shingles. Biomass is often a fantastic insulator. They are also made from materials that are renewable, and when you have to replace your roof you dont have to worry about filling up a landfill. Biomass is biodegradable. Biomass is also abundant and
GO Carbon Neutral with a Hurst Biomass Boiler System. Reduce Carbon, Reduce Emissions, Reduce Operating and Fuel Costs.. Fossil fuel costs are at an all-time high without any relief in sight, making renewable energy the fuel source of the future.. HURST Biomass Boiler Systems will strengthen your bottom line by reducing, or even eliminating your energy and disposal costs altogether, through the combustion of renewable fuel sources, also known as Biomass.. Forty years of experience designing engineering and manufacturing solid fuel fired and biomass boiler systems and over 10,000 installations worldwide has made Hurst the industrys most popular solid fuel fired boiler.. Energy solutions based on biomass and bio-fuels provide clean and renewable energy for large national and international companies. Green-thinking companies are now using biofuels to mitigate the impact their activities have on the environment by reducing emissions of greenhouse gases.. Consider trading fossil fuels for ...
EN] Potato plants were grown in open-top chambers under three ozone concentrations during two complete cropping seasons (93 and 77 d in 2004 and 2005, respectively). The effects of chronic exposure to ozone on leaf anatomy, cell ultrastructure and crop yield were studied. Severe cell damage was found, even at ambient ozone levels, mainly affecting the spongy parenchyma and areas near the stomata. Damage to the cell wall caused loss of cell contact, and loss of turgor pressure due to tonoplast disintegration, contributed to cell collapse. Phloem sieve plates were obstructed by callose accumulation, and damaged mesophyll cells increased their starch stores. Tuber yield fell sharply (24-44%), due to the biggest tubers becoming smaller, which affected commercial yield. These anatomical findings show the mechanisms of ozone effect on assimilate partitioning, and thus crop yield decrease, in potato. Further implications of ozone causing reductions in belowground biomass are also discussed ...
We investigated the presence, density and bacterial composition of contraceptive vaginal ring biomass and its association with the vaginal microbiome. Of 415 rings worn by 120 Rwandese women for three weeks, the biomass density was assessed with crystal violet and the bacterial composition of biomass eluates was assessed with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The biomass was visualised after fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) and with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The vaginal microbiome was assessed with Nugent scoring and vaginal biofilm was visualised after FISH. All vaginal rings were covered with biomass (mean optical density (OD) of 3.36; standard deviation (SD) 0.64). Lactobacilli were present on 93% of the rings, Gardnerella vaginalis on 57%, and Atopobium vaginae on 37%. The ring biomass density was associated with the concentration of A. vaginae (OD +0.03; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.01-0.05 for one log increase; p = 0.002) and of G. vaginalis (OD +0.03; (95% CI 0
Juniper Sk, Sarrazin Jozee, Grehan A (1998). Remote sensing of organism density and biomass at hydrothermal vents. Cahiers De Biologie Marine, 39(3-4), 245-247. Open Access version : ...
Nova Scotia achieves the worst possible scenario for forest biomass energy January 26, 2011 by Jamie Simpson and Raymond Plourde With the recent announcement of new federal government funding of forest biomass projects for Northern Pulp Corporation and Nova Scotia Power Inc., we propose the following question:
your search terms. Search 2 results for biomass-degrading enzymes, enzymes for industrial processes, molecular and cellular biology, recombinant enzymes, transcriptomics ...
HETAS has become the first organisation to successfully map biomass assessments against National Occupational Standards (NOS). This means that biomass installer training will be available through HETASs nationwide network of Approved Training Centres, some of which are approved with the Summit Skills.. Commenting on the announcement, Bruce Allen, chief executive officer from HETAS, said: This is fantastic news. It means that skilled heating engineers who might be working on gas or oil can easily add biomass to their qualifications. As well as becoming a biomass partner with the National Skills Academy, HETAS is the only organisation to have biomass training mapped against NOS. This confirms our position as the specialists for solid fuel and biomass training and registration.. The HETAS H005 biomass installer course covers appliances up to around 70kW and enables installers to carry out feasibility studies, professionally advise customers on fuel types, storage options, system design and ...
Honduras Other biomass and wastes Stats, NationMaster. Retrieved from Honduras Other biomass and wastes Stats, NationMaster. 1998-2005. ,,.. Honduras Other biomass and wastes Stats, NationMaster, ,, [assessed 1998-2005]. Honduras Other biomass and wastes Stats, NationMaster [Internet]. 1998-2005. Avaliable from: ,,.. Honduras Other biomass and wastes Stats, NationMaster. Avaliable at: Assessed 1998-2005.. Honduras Other biomass and wastes Stats, NationMaster, (assessed 1998-2005). Honduras Other biomass and wastes Stats, ...
Altered wind conditions and light climate lead to a general change in the microclimate at the forest edges. Big old trees are particularly vulnerable to these factors. With the help of FORMIND, a forest simulation software developed at the UFZ, the researchers modelled different sizes of forest patches left over after landscape fragmentation. The smaller a patch of forest is, the worse is the ratio between edge and area. Simulation results suggest that a natural tropical forest of our study area contained approximately 250 tonnes of aboveground biomass per hectare, a forest fragment measuring 100 hectares has around 228 tonnes of biomass per hectare, while a patch of rain forest measuring one hectare has only 140 tonnes of biomass per hectare. In other words, the biomass in the forest remnants in this study fell by as much as 40 per cent. This finding is of great significance for the function of rain forests as a biomass store. It is important to be clear about the fact that we are losing more ...
Dielectric spectroscopy (DS) is routinely used in yeast and mammalian fermentations to quantitatively monitor viable biomass through the inherent capacitance of live cells: however, the use of DS to monitor the enzymatic break down of lignocellulosic biomass has not been reported. The aim of the current study was to examine the application of DS in monitoring the enzymatic saccharification of high sugar perennial ryegrass (HS-PRG) fibre and to relate the data to changes in chemical composition. DS was capable of both monitoring the on-line decrease in PRG fibre capacitance (C = 580 kHz) during enzymatic hydrolysis, together with the subsequent increase in conductivity (G = 580 kHz) resulting from the production of organic acids during microbial growth. Analysis of the fibre fractions revealed ,50% of HS-PRG lignocellulose had undergone enzymatic hydrolysis. These data demonstrated the utility of DS biomass probes for on-line monitoring of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). (C) ...
The very nature of lignocellulosic biomass presents resistance and recalcitrance to biological and chemical degradation during enzymatic hydrolysis and the subsequent fermentation process. This leads to a very low conversion rate, which makes the process economically unfeasible. In this study, alkaline (NaOH) pretreatment was applied on barley straw, using radio-frequency-based dielectric heating to enhance accessibility and digestibility during the subsequent stage of enzymatic hydrolysis. Three levels of temperature (70, 80, and 90°C), five levels of biomass:NaOH solution ratio (1:4, 1:5, 1:6, 1:7, and 1:8), 1h equilibration time, screen size of 1.6mm, 1%w/v NaOH concentration, and 20min residence time were used for the pretreatment. The effect of the alkaline pretreatment was evaluated through chemical composition analysis of the pretreated and non-treated biomass samples. The use of NaOH solution and the biomass:NaOH solution ratio played a vital role in the breakdown of the lignified ...
This study aimed to assess the effects of biomass smoke exposure on lung function in a Nepalese population, addressing some of the methodological issues seen in previous studies. We carried out a cross-sectional study of adults in a population exposed to biomass smoke and a non-exposed population in Nepal. Questionnaire and lung function data were acquired along with direct measures of indoor and outdoor air quality. Ventilatory function (forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)), forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory flow at 25-75% of FVC) was significantly reduced in the population using biomass across all age groups compared to the non-biomass-using population, even in the youngest (16-25 yrs) age group (mean FEV(1) (95% CI) 2.65 (2.57-2.73) versus 2.83 (2.74-2.91) L; p=0.004). Airflow obstruction was twice as common among biomass users compared with liquefied petroleum gas users (8.1% versus 3.6%; p|0.001), with similar patterns for males (7.4% versus 3.3%; p=0.022) and females (10.8%
Bioenergy, and in particular solid woody biomass, will play a crucial role in meeting the EUs 2020 renewable energy targets and mitigating climate change. This renewable energy source can provide reliable and base-load supply to meet EU energy needs. In order to realise the potential of biomass, AEBIOM1 and EURELECTRIC2 strongly advocate establishing harmonised, binding sustainability criteria for solid biomass on the EU level. EU utilities have already taken the lead in voluntary measures by collectively developing sustainability requirements for pelletised biomass and sourcing wood from certified forests (such as PEFC or FSC). The voluntary approaches should be substantiated and finalised by a legal framework at the EU level. Biomass imports continue to increase and sustainability criteria are needed.. Because bioenergy is a key technology in the EU renewables portfolio, delays in the introduction of EU criteria put the renewable energy target at risk, said Jean-Marc Jossart, Secretary ...
Pyrolysis is estimated to be one of the most promising methods to convert biomass to diverse products (such as syn-gas, liquid fuel and charcoal), while its application has the potential for alleviating the fossil fuel crisis and environmental deterioration. Cellulose, a linear homopolymer of glucopyranose residues linked by β-1, 4-glycosidic bonds, is the most principal component in biomass (accounting for more than 50% by weight). The research on the pyrolytic behavior of cellulose is particularly beneficial for achieving a better understanding of the pyrolytic behavior of biomass, also promoting its direct applications in terms of fuels, chemicals and bio-materials. The studies on pyrolysis of cellulose are extensively reported in the categories of the following four issues: (1) the physico-chemical properties of cellulose in lignocellulosic biomass; (2) the on-line pyrolysis study of cellulose; (3) the off-line pyrolysis study of cellulose; (4) the interactions with other chemical ...
A fully coupled meteorology‐chemistry‐aerosol mesoscale model (WRF‐Chem) is used to simulate a multiday biomass burning event in the dry season of South America. The effects of biomass burning aerosols on clouds and precipitation are described at both 36 km and 4 km horizontal resolutions. The dominant effect of the aerosols is to reduce the diurnal amplitude of convection by decreasing clouds and precipitation in the afternoon but increasing them at night, with the afternoon decrease greater than the nighttime increase on the daily mean. On average, the decrease of surface precipitation is about 5% (3%) and the amplitude of diurnal cycle is reduced by about 11% (5%) in the 36 km (4 km) simulations. Such a modulation of clouds and precipitation is primarily contributed by the aerosol radiative effect, i.e., their ability to scatter and absorb solar radiation. The aerosol microphysical effect as cloud condensation nuclei tends to act oppositely to the aerosol radiative effect but with a ...
technology for cellulosic biomass conversion, recently put out a press release announcing the grant of U.S. Patent No. 8,540,847 (847 Patent).. Entitled Methods and apparatus for processing cellulosic biomass, the 847 Patent is directed to methods and apparatus for making ethanol or other biofuels using what Aphios calls its Aosic process.. The apparatus (11) described and claimed in the patent comprises a first vessel (13) for receiving cellulosic biomass and conveying means (15) in fluid communication with the first vessel (13). The apparatus (11) also comprises supercritical, critical, or near critical fluid means (17), which includes a source of gas, such as gas tank (41), holding carbon dioxide pressurized to form supercritical, critical, or near critical fluid.. The fluid means (17) is in fluid communication with conveying means (15) via conduit (31). A pump (47) is connected to a heat exchanger (55), which controls the temperature of the supercritical, critical, or near critical ...
In a move that could have wide ramifications for the future of biomass power nationwide, Massachusetts regulators have proposed to strictly regulate the ability of wood-burning incinerators to earn renewable power certificates.Its the latest twist in a long-running debate in the U.S. about whether biomass should qualify as a form of renewable energy and benefit from clean energy incentives. The draft rule by the Department of Energy Resources - unveiled late Friday - would require biomass incinerators to become 60 percent more efficient in order to earn full renewable energy credits and 40 percent to get a fraction of them. It would force a 50 percent cut in planet-warming gases from biomass plants by 2030 compared to fossil fuels, and limit the sorts of residues and waste wood that can be burned to discourage the poor forest management practice.Final regulations are expected be in place by the end of the year. Local environmentalists who have long fought a biomass boom said the announcement was a
This biomass conversion can result in fuel in solid, liquid, or gas form. This new biomass can also be used directly for ... Biofuels made from waste biomass or from biomass grown on abandoned agricultural lands incur little to no carbon debt.[95] ... Second generation biofuels are fuels manufactured from various types of biomass. Biomass is a wide-ranging term meaning any ... Biomass and the Environment - Basics *^ a b "Biofuels Make a Comeback Despite Tough Economy". Worldwatch Institute. 2011-08-31 ...
10% biomass can reduce 0.5 Gt CO2 per year and with 16% biomass can achieve zero emission.[citation needed] Direct-cofiring (20 ... If biomass sources are not close by the combustion unit, transporting biomass emits CO2 offsetting the amount of CO2 captured ... While each type of biomass has a different heating value, biomass in general is a low-quality fuel. Thermal conversion of ... Due to the moisture content of biomass, it will affect the calorific value of the combustor. In addition, high volatile biomass ...
Biomass-related[edit]. Bio-energy with carbon capture and storage[edit]. Main article: Bio-energy with carbon capture and ... Spath, Pamela L.; Mann, Margaret K. (September 22, 2002). The Net Energy and Global Warming Potential of Biomass Power compared ... Burying biomass (such as trees)[78] directly, mimics the natural processes that created fossil fuels.[79] ... Biochar is charcoal created by pyrolysis of biomass waste. The resulting material is added to a landfill or used as a soil ...
Biomass functions applicable to European beech[permanent dead link] E. CIENCIALA, M. ČERNÝ, J. APLTAUER, Z. EXNEROVÁ, JOURNAL ... Assessment of forest biomass and carbon stocks[edit]. In 2013, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations ... 1983 Allometric biomass equations for 98 species of herbs, shrubs, and small trees. Research note NC-299. USDA Forest Service, ... In 2012, FAO and CIRAD published a manual for building tree volume and biomass allometric equations for students, technicians ...
Biomass and biofuels[edit]. Palm oil is used to produce both methyl ester and hydrodeoxygenated biodiesel.[56] Palm oil methyl ... Biomass Society (Report). Center for Southeast Asian Studies, Kyoto University. 11 December 2010. Archived from the original on ... "Waste not the palm oil biomass". The Star Online. Retrieved 25 February 2013 ...
Biomass briquettes[edit]. Main article: Biomass briquettes. The extrusion production technology of fuel briquettes is the ...
Biomass[edit]. Biomass degradation refers to the utilization of microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi to produce enzymes ...
Biomass[edit]. Sources of biomass in the Netherlands include the biogenic fraction of waste that is burned in waste ... Total biomass 21 649 42 886 12 123 76 657 - *The consumption of biofuels for mobile vehicles in the construction and farming ... Biomass gross final consumption (TJ) by energy sector, 2013. (Data extract).[20] Electricity Heat Transport Total ... Decentralised electricity production from solid biomass and bioliquid 3 904 1 436 5 340 ...
The Co-operative invited members through a public share offer, launched in June 2012. Despite the tight timetable caused by the expiry date on the option,[3] the issue was 50% over-subscribed,[4] when it closed at the end of July. This raised £4m from c. 1,650 members.[5] An additional c. £2m was raised by a private placement of B-Shares, mainly from members who had subscribed to the original issue. ...
Biomass Program. 2011-11-21.. *^ "The Plasma Arc Waste Destruction System to Reduce Waste Aboard CVN-78, pg. 13". Seaframe - ... "Alter NRG Announces Commissioning of Biomass Gasifier at Waste To Liquids Facility in China" (Press release). Alter NRG. ... biomass, industrial waste, hazardous waste, and solid hydrocarbons, such as coal, oil sands, petcoke and oil shale.[2] ...
Between 1950 and 2000, there were 21 serious incidents or accidents involving off-site radiological releases that warranted a rating on the International Nuclear Event Scale, one at level 5, five at level 4 and fifteen at level 3. Additionally during the 1950s and 1960s there were protracted periods of known, deliberate discharges to the atmosphere of plutonium and irradiated uranium oxide particulates.[81] These frequent incidents, together with the large 2005 THORP plant leak which was not detected for nine months, have led some to doubt the effectiveness of the managerial processes and safety culture on the site over the years. In the effort to build an independent British nuclear weapon in the 1940s and 1950s, the Sellafield plant was constructed; diluted radioactive waste was discharged by pipeline into the Irish Sea.[82] Greenpeace claims that the Irish Sea remains one of the most heavily contaminated seas in the world because of these discharges.[83] Ocean scientist David Assinger has ...
Biomass Program. 2011-11-21.. *^ "The Plasma Arc Waste Destruction System to Reduce Waste Aboard CVN-78, pg. 13". Seaframe - ... It is used commercially as a form of waste treatment and has been tested for the gasification of refuse-derived fuel, biomass, ... Processing of biomass waste into combustible syngas for electric power and thermal energy[14] ... The feedstock for plasma waste treatment is most often refuse-derived fuel, biomass waste, or both. Feedstocks may also include ...
"Productive usage of biomass". Retrieved 29 May 2015.. *^ "Algae Biomass Organization, Renewable, Sustainable Commodities from ... Assuming that the biomass contains 30% oil by weight, the cost of biomass for providing a liter of oil would be approximately $ ... "Biomass Magazine.. *^ a b c d Andrew Herndon (20 March 2013). "Tesoro is first customer for Sapphire's algae-derived crude oil" ... One of its most current divisions is the biomass program which is involved in biomass characterization, biochemical and ...
Dubbe, D.R.; Garver, E.G.; Pratt, D.C. (1988). "Production of cattail (Typha spp.) biomass in Minnesota, USA". Biomass. 17 (2 ...
"Laboratory Comparison of the Global-Warming Potential of Six Categories of Biomass Cooking Stoves" (PDF). Approvecho Research ...
Biomass and agricultural biomass. In the US, about 1.4 billion dry tons of biomass can be sustainably produced annually. About ... forest biomass has significant advantages over agricultural biomass. Forest biomass also has high density which significantly ... forest biomass will be an important biomass feedstock supply mix in the future biobased economy. However, forest biomass is ... Colusa Biomass Energy Corporation. Sacramento, CA. Waste rice straw Coskata. Warrenville, IL. Biomass, Agricultural and ...
... s (also called renewable polymers) are produced from biomass for use in the packaging industry. Biomass comes from ... Biomass , (fermentation) , Bioethanol , Ethene , Polyethylene. Many types of packaging can be made from biopolymers: food trays ...
It is the case that the biomass of each trophic level decreases from the base of the chain to the top. This is because energy ... Top right: A three layer trophic pyramid linked to the biomass and energy flow concepts. Bottom: Illustration of a range of ... In some instances biomass pyramids can be inverted. This pattern is often identified in aquatic and coral reef ecosystems. The ... Biomass represents stored energy. However, concentration and quality of nutrients and energy is variable. Many plant fibers, ...
The flight now named Artemis 1, was originally named by NASA Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) in 2012, when it was set to launch in 2017 as the first planned flight of the Space Launch System and the second uncrewed test flight of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle where Orion was to perform a circumlunar trajectory during a seven-day mission.[4][10] Before then, this initial flight had been referred to as Space Launch System 1 or SLS-1. On 16 January 2013, NASA announced that the European Space Agency will build the European Service Module based on its Automated Transfer Vehicle, so the flight could also be regarded as a test of ESA hardware as well as American, and of how the ESA components interact with the American Orion components.[11] The Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT-1) flight article was consciously constructed[when?] in a way that if all the missing components (seats, life support systems) were added, it would not meet the mass target.[citation needed] In January 2015, NASA and Lockheed ...
For biomass and organic waste-to-fuel production, see Biomass to liquid. For unmodified vegetable oil used as motor fuel, see ... Xuan, J.; Leung, M. K. H.; Leung, D. Y. C.; Ni, M. A review of biomass-derived fuel processors for fuel cell systems. Renewable ... Monyem, A.; Van Gerpen, J. (2001). "The effect of biodiesel oxidation on engine performance and emissions". Biomass Bioenergy. ... "Microbes Produce Fuels Directly from Biomass". News Center. Retrieved 30 May 2015.. ...
BIOMASS (2021). *EarthCARE (2021). *MetOp-SG-A (2021). *SMILE (2021). *MetOp-SG-B (2022) ...
Algae Biomass. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 1980. pp. 603-610. Ben-Amotz A, Avron M. Accumulation of metabolites by halotolerant algae ...
Kitani, Osumu; Carl W. Hall (1989). Biomass Handbook. Taylor & Francis US. p. 256. ISBN 978-2-88124-269-4. .. ... accounting for at least half the biomass on Earth.[49] ...
Photosynthesis captures approximately 3,000 EJ per year in biomass.[13] The amount of solar energy reaching the surface of the ... energy consumption has steadily transitioned from wood and biomass to fossil fuels. The early development of solar technologies ... wood and the biomass from which fossil fuels are derived.[9] ...
"Integrated Size Reduction and Separation to Pre-Fractionate Biomass" (PDF). Annual Report to Congress on the Biomass Research ... Recovery of fuel and clay from a biomass - US Patent # 7,481,385 Grinding and drying characteristics[edit]. The KDS Micronex ... "Biomass Products & Technology". February 2010. Archived from the original on 2012-03-06. Retrieved 2010-05-04.. ... United States Department of Agriculture to research "Integrated Size Reduction and Separation to Pre-Fractionate Biomass"[8][9] ...
Using this technique, animals propel significant portion of earth's aquatic biomass. As an example, the biomass of a sole ... BIOMASS Sci. Ser. , 3 , 1-121. *^ Swadling, K. M.; Ritz, D. A.; Nicol, S.; Osborn, J. E.; Gurney, L. J. (2005-01-08). " ... BIOMASS Sci Ser 3: 1-122. *^ Stamhuis, E. J.; Videler, J. J. (1998a). "Burrow ventilation in the tube-dwelling shrimp ( ... Atkinson, A.; Siegel, V.; Pakhomov, E.A.; Jessopp, M.J.; Loeb, V. (May 2009). "A re-appraisal of the total biomass and annual ...
Since biomass technically can be used as a fuel directly (e.g. wood logs), some people use the terms biomass and biofuel ... Biofuels made from waste biomass or from biomass grown on abandoned agricultural lands incur little to no carbon debt.[105] ... Second generation biofuels are fuels manufactured from various types of biomass. Biomass is a wide-ranging term meaning any ... "Biomass Magazine. Retrieved 14 August 2012.. *^ Albrecht, KO; Hallen, RT (March 2011). "A Brief Literature Overview of Various ...
Biomass Utilization. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 9781475708332. Archived from the original on 2017-12-12. ...
"Boosting Biomass-to...Butanol?". Green Car Congress. 20 July 2005. Retrieved 2008-01-29.. ...
Biomass and Bioenergy. 42: 164-71. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) Cox, Jeff (April 1979). "The Sunflower Seed Huller ...
A biomass combined-heat-and-power (CHP) project in southwest England is beginning the final phase of commissioning and is on ... A biomass combined-heat-and-power (CHP) project in southwest England is beginning the final phase of commissioning and is on ... UK biomass CHP plant begins commissioning By Erin Voegele , February 19, 2018 ...
biomass (usually uncountable, plural biomasses). *The total mass of a living thing or part thereof, such as a cell. *2005, ... Since protein constitutes the majority of the biomass of a cell, building new protein is a major way that cells increase their ... sharks make up 75 per cent of the fish biomass.. ...
... and degradable aquatic biomass. Process inputs can give small industries… ... Sources biomass * 1. BIOENERGY 1. Biomass: sources, characteristics & preparation:  Sources and classification of biomass ... Reference: Forests as biomass energy resources in India by B. N. Dwivedi and O. N. Kaul in Biomass Energy Systems, Edited by P. ... Biomass & Bio-energy 14, no5-6, pp 479-488, 1998 A techno-economic evaluation of biomass briquetteing in India A.K.Tripathi, ...
An outline of the different types of biomass produced by agriculture, and how their production must meet environmental ... Biomass resources in agriculture. Biomass is derived from organic material such as trees, plants, and agricultural and urban ... Sustainable biomass production. Production of agricultural biomass in the EU, whether used for food, feed, material or energy, ... The majority of biomass produced by EU agriculture comes in the form of biogas, and feedstocks for making biodiesel and ...
Biomass is another earth-friendly source of energy. ... Biomass gasification involves heating biomass under pressure in ... Types of biomass include wood, crops, landfill gas, alcohol fuels and trash. Biomass can either be a waste product or grown ... Co-firing mixes biomass with coal at coal-fired power plants, which may offer a transitional means of somewhat cleaner energy ... In short, biomass is organic material made by living organisms that contains stored energy from the sun. Plants absorb radiant ...
Home Heating with Biomass Humans have heated their dwellings and cooked their food with wood (biomass) for thousands of years. ... Commercial Heating with Biomass Biomass is also considered a viable source of renewable thermal energy for the commercial ... Biomass Biomass is organic matter, including plant material that may be considered fuel and used as an energy source. ... Biomass Incentive and Grant Programs To help achieve sustainability and meet carbon reduction goals the State currently has ...
EVALUATION STUDY ON PROGRAMME FORGRID-CONNECTED BIOMASS POWER, BAGASSE COGENERATION AND NON-BAGASSE COGENERATION IN INDUSTRIES ... EVALUATION OF BIOMASS POWER PLANTS The evaluation of biomass power plants is categorized into the following:  Biomass as a ... Another way through which biomass is procured is through biomass agents who buy biomass from farmers, store it for months ... biomass sector is 17,000 MW 5% of land use for biomass generation increases the biomass power potential to 32,000 MW ...
Infocast is scheduled to present its first Biomass Trade & Transport Summit in Charlotte, North Carolina, ... Infocast Biomass Trade & Transport Summit BrochureInfocasts Biomass Trade & Transport Summit is an unprecedented opportunity ... long-term flow of biomass, and what infrastructures are required for efficient biomass logistics in a supply chain. The ... Due to foreign initiatives to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, the demand for US export of biomass to Europe and Asia has ...
... assists communities and businesses for biomass removal and market development, and develops and deploys the science and ... The Forest Service manages and utilizes biomass on national forests, ... technology to better manage and utilize biomass resources. ... Woody Biomass Utilization *Home. *What is Woody Biomass ... Incentives for Biomass Utilization at the Federal Level (PDF, 0.4 MB) - presentation by Marcia Patton-Mallory, PhD, Biomass and ...
In the righthand image (September 7), a large carbon monoxide plume is seen over Brazil, produced primarily by biomass burning ... result of South American fire emissions and the transport of carbon monoxide across the Atlantic Ocean from widespread biomass ...
Some cities are turning to trees and grass as their best bet for producing renewable energy, leading to a new building boom in biomass power plants.
Biomass Plant matter of recent (nongeologic) origin. Cellulase One or more enzymes that catalyze the reaction of water with ... Cellulosic biomass Also known as lignocellulosic biomass, the structural part of plants that is not edible by humans and ... Cummer KR, Brown RC (2002) Ancillary equipment for biomass gasification. Biomass Bioenergy 23:113-128CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Wyman CE (1995). Biomass-derived oxygenates for transportation fuels. Proceedings - biomass conference of the Americas: energy ...
News for Biomass continually updated from thousands of sources on the web : Sacramento Municipal Utility DISTRICTRagingWires ... Biomass News. News on Biomass continually updated from thousands of sources around the net. ... Connecticut to phase down value of biomass, landfill gas RECs Friday Feb 16 , World News Report , ...
Collect biomass lines to prevent overload and test tube explosion.Collect more biomass lines by a click to get more food. ... Surviving Armageddon and post apocalyptic hunger is now fun and addictive because of Biomass! Featuring unique game play ... Click on a cell to infect same color cells touching red areas and to produce biomass. ...
The biomass gasification and pyrolysis market in North America is expected to experience high growth during the next few years ... Biomass Gasification and Pyrolysis Market: Capital Cost and Generation Cost Ranges by Technology (North America), 2010 Slide 51 ... Biomass Gasification and Pyrolysis Market: Market Drivers Ranked in Order of Impact (North America), 2011-2017 Slide 27 ... Biomass Gasification and Pyrolysis Market: Market Restraints Ranked in Order of Impact (North America), 2011-2017 Slide 32 ...
Biomass: Threatening the Climate and the Forest Center for Biological Diversity. 2.16.10. Forest Biomass: Forest Use or Forest ... Forest Biomass from Public Lands slideshow. Energy Eugene at 5.06.09. Wildfire Hysteria and "Forest Biomass" ... Forest biomass "mythbusters". Massachusetts Forest Watch. 4.11.09. (St)Umpqua Banks "eco-banking" greenwash. 4.2.09. Wood ... Photo of Forest Biomass Facility using Whole Trees. 1.27.10. Effects of Forest Fires on Carbon Emissions Overstated. ...
Biomass Deconstruction and Pretreatment. Our mission is to transform lignocellulose into intermediate streams with low toxicity ... The majority of the pretreatment and biomass deconstruction equipment is located in the NREL Integrated Biorefinery Research ... After chemical and/or mechanical deconstruction, an enzymatic hydrolysis is performed to convert biomass polysaccharides into ... by noble metal and acid zeoloite catalytic upgrading of biomass-derived lignin waste streams from the NREL-developed ...
... 1 - 4 June 2015, Vienna, Austria ... Join us in Vienna for the 23rd European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, the leading international platform for dialogue ...
A) Absolute biomass is represented using a Voronoi diagram, with the area of each cell being proportional to the global biomass ... General framework for estimating global biomass. The procedure begins with local samples of biomass across the globe. The more ... Graphical representation of the global biomass distribution by taxa. (A) Absolute biomasses of different taxa are represented ... we extrapolate the biomass across the entire globe. The resolution of the resulting biomass distribution map is dependent on ...
The sampling of biomass in each location can be based on direct biomass measurements or conversion to biomass from other types ... Choice of Units for Measuring Biomass.. Biomass is reported in gigatons of carbon. Alternative options to represent biomass ... Aboveground biomass (≈320 Gt C) represents ≈60% of global biomass, with belowground biomass composed mainly of plant roots (≈ ... The Biomass Distribution of the Biosphere by Kingdom.. In Fig. 1 and Table 1, we report our best estimates for the biomass of ...
... a biomass boiler can produce enough energy to provide central heating and hot water for your business, in place of ... Why should you use biomass for your business? ... Biomass benefits for Business * Installing biomass gives A ... Potential incentive by using Biomass Biomass Boilers System Performance. Boiler running hours are estimated at 1,500 hours per ... Why should you use biomass for your business? a biomass boiler can produce enough energy to provide central heating and hot ...
But there is another dimension to the oil palm industrys energy potential - the use of biomass to generate electricity. ... Umakanthan, who has over 30 years experience in fossil fuel and biomass power plant design, says biomass as a renewable energy ... He says it is now an appropriate time to tap RE resources such as biomass, before fossil fuels such as oil and coal are ... According to Umakanthan, it will take 20 to 22 months at a cost of about RM70mil to build a 10MW biomass power plant. The ...
Biomass Analysis Technology Newsletter. The Biomass Analysis Technology Newsletter provides updates to NRELs biomass analysis ... The Biomass Analysis Technology (BAT) team has been working closely with government, industry, and academic stakeholders in the ... Our list of FAQs addresses the most common inquiries from the biofuels and biomass community. In this issue, we introduce the ... Meet Justin Sluiter (pictured left) at the E48 Bioenergy and Industrial Chemicals from Biomass D02 December 2018 meeting in ...
Biomass energy.. [Library of Congress. Science, Technology, and Business Division. Science Reference Services,;] ... Biomass energy.. Author:. Library of Congress. Science, Technology, and Business Division. Science Reference Services,. ... Biomass energy./Library of Congress. Science, Technology, and Business Division. Science Reference Services,;; [Washington, D.C ...> # Biomass energy. a schema:Intangible ;. schema:name "Biomass energy"@en ;. ...
... biomass related websites and resources, including local producer groups ... A selection of links, organised by category, to other, generally non-commercial, biomass related websites and resources, ...
Cons of biomass heating. Costs for installing a whole biomass system, a stove and a boiler could be more than £15,000. ... Biomass heating systems. We talk you through the different types of biomass heating systems, including the pros and cons of ... Pros of biomass heating. *As mentioned above, assuming you source your biomass materials sustainably, they are a low carbon ... Stoves can be connected to a regular boiler, such as a gas boiler, or a biomass boiler. Biomass boilers, like stoves, burn wood ...
This includes pyrolysis chemistry of individual biomass-derived polymers (e.g. cellulose), reaction-transport models of biomass ... 446d) Biomass Pyrolysis: Can a Single Severity Factor Describe the Effect of Pyrolysis Conditions on the Final Biochar Product? ... 446b) Global Kinetics of Species Formation during High Temperature Pyrolysis of Coal and Biomass in CO2 Environment ... 446c) Fast Pyrolysis Kinetic Study for Ten Ecuadorian Agricultural Residual Biomass Samples ...
Through bioconversion of biomass to a mixed alcohol fuel, more energy from the biomass will end up as liquid fuels than in ... The bioconversion of biomass to mixed alcohol fuels can be accomplished using the MixAlco process. ... Advanced Biomass Refinery - Third-Generation 2007 (video) Archived 1 July 2010 at the Wayback Machine. ... As the microoganisms anaerobically digest the biomass and convert it into a mixture of carboxylic acids, the pH must be ...
  • with forest biomass and wood wastes and the transportation of those items. (
  • Cellulose in forest biomass is mostly in a crystalline state and is exceedingly stable to chemical degradation. (
  • The pan-tropical biomass map was integrated with the boreal forest biomass component (Santoro et al. (
  • 2015) into the GEOCARBON global aboveground forest biomass map at 0.01° resolution. (
  • The global forest biomass map can be downloaded here. (
  • The boreal forest biomass map can be accessed at . (
  • Forest biomass is the most frequently used source of energy, with slash continuing to show development potential. (
  • In Québec, forest biomass is the most frequently used organic matter due to its ready availability and the maturity of the generating method involved. (
  • Forest biomass is the most frequently used type, with only slash consistently showing significant potential for power generation. (
  • In a cogeneration (electricity and steam) plant fueled by forest biomass, 30% to 35% of the energy in the solid biomass can be converted into electricity, during the steam cycle. (
  • From 1999 to 2009, upfront costs in Québec were much lower and more stable for forest biomass than fuel oil. (
  • Congress has passed legislation to provide regulatory certainty regarding the carbon neutrality of forest-derived biomass, and in April 2018, EPA issued a policy to treat biogenic carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions from the combustion of forest biomass at stationary sources as carbon neutral. (
  • The mission will provide the first comprehensive measurements of global forest biomass. (
  • The main objective of BIOMASS is to measure forest biomass in order to assess terrestrial carbon stocks and fluxes and better understand the planet's carbon cycle. (
  • This will allow it to provide accurate maps of tropical, temperate and boreal forest biomass that are not obtainable by ground measurement techniques. (
  • Researchers have disputed that the use of forest biomass for energy is carbon neutral. (
  • Seaweed has a different biochemical composition than the common types of biomass in the country, which means that conventional fractionation and chemical conversion technologies are not easy to apply. (
  • In Québec, there are three types of biomass with significant energy potential: forest, agrifood and urban biomass. (
  • All types of biomass can be effectively processed, conveyed, stored, and fed to power generation systems using ANDRITZ technologies. (
  • The use of biomass is not 100% carbon neutral and the use of certain types of biomass might even lead to carbon emissions exacerbating climate change. (
  • Bioenergy is often presented to be carbon neutral, relying on the assumption that the carbon released when burning wood or other types of biomass is soon recaptured by trees, vegetation and soils. (
  • The use of biomass has increased significantly in the last two decades making bioenergy the most widely used renewable energy source in Denmark. (
  • Additional research effort is focused on Kazak dandelion as another natural source of rubber, inulin and biomass for bioenergy production. (
  • Visit the North Carolina Biomass Trader US Department of Energy's Bioenergy Technologies Office is working to replace the whole barrel of oil using biomass feedstocks. (
  • We believe this document will be crucial for an informed public debate on the sustainability of bioenergy, in particular as policy makers discuss the reform of the much-contested biofuel and biomass policies," he added. (
  • In the Netherlands, IEA Bioenergy released its latest report, Biomass Pretreatment for Bioenergy which summarizes the efforts of an inter-task project designed to demonstrate how the application of certain biomass pre-treatment technologies could make existing bioenergy supply chains more fuel flexible, more efficient, and more cost-effective. (
  • In India, researchers from the International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, DBT-ICGEB Centre for Advanced Bioenergy Research discovered that a robust yeast strain can produce up to 15.5% more ethanol when glucose or lignocellulose biomass - rice and wheat straw - is fermented and has been isolated. (
  • In Colorado, SynTech Bioenergy, a company that transforms biomass, agricultural waste and municipal solid waste into renewable heat and electricity, congratulates customer Dixon Ridge Farms for its receipt of the Governor's Environmental and Economic Leadership Award (GEELA) for converting its walnut shells to heat and power. (
  • Biomass & Bioenergy is an international journal publishing original research papers and short communications, review articles and case studies on biological resources , chemical and biological processes, and biomass products for new renewable sources of energy and materials . (
  • The scope of the journal extends to the environmental , management and economic aspects of biomass and bioenergy. (
  • Please note that research on these biomass subjects must be linked directly to bioenergy generation. (
  • BirdLife fully supports the need to move away from fossil sources, but there are significant risks associated with this increased use in bioenergy, which are currently neglected in the policies driving the use of biomass. (
  • A collaboration led by researchers with the U.S. Department of Energy's Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI) has developed a microbe that can produce an advanced biofuel directly from biomass. (
  • The increasing global demand for energy requires a versatile approach, prompting many researchers to focus on renewable bioenergy from different biomasses, especially cellulosic biomass. (
  • Green Biomass Pretreatment for Biofuels Production reviews a range of pretreatment methods such as ammonium fiber explosion, steam explosion, dilute acid hydrolysis, alkali hydrolysis, and supercritical carbon dioxide explosion focusing on their final sugar yields from hemicellulose, glucose yields from cellulose, as well as on their feasibilities in bioenergy production processes at various scales. (
  • Graduate students in areas of energy systems, renewable energy, bioenergy, biomass and sustainable design. (
  • Managers, specialists and consultants in biomass, biorefinery and bioenergy sectors. (
  • The broad forest products industry is the largest producer and user of bioenergy (energy from biomass) of any industrial sector and has long-standing operations in the United States. (
  • In addition, short rotation coppice provides solid biomass, while agriculture also provides by-products and residues (such as straw) used for bioheat and biopower. (
  • In the 1980's and 1990's the use of solid biomass was largely made up by straw, biodegradable waste and fuel wood, but after 2000 the use of wood pellets and wood chips have increased significantly. (
  • The figure below illustrates the use of solid biomass in energy production in Denmark in 2015. (
  • There are several types of solid biomass used in Denmark and most of the biomass is produced domestically. (
  • of the total use of solid biomass. (
  • Use of solid biomass in Danish energy system in 2015 with share of imports, pct. (
  • Every year the Danish Energy Agency makes future projections on the use of solid biomass and other types of renewable energy in The Energy and Climate Outlook. (
  • The figure below shows the historical and expected future use of solid biomass in electricity and heat in Denmark from 2005 to 2025. (
  • Use of solid biomass in electricity and heat production 2005-2015, and projection to 2025 pct. (
  • Solid Biomass is largely used in industrial applications for heat and electricity production, as well as in buildings for heat production. (
  • This database focuses largely on liquid biofuels, but also contains some data on wood pellets, a key form of solid biomass. (
  • Direct combustion of solid biomass fuel is well understood, relatively straightforward, commercially available, and can be regarded as a proven technology. (
  • The biomass pyrolysis is attractive because solid biomass and wastes which are very difficult and costly to manage. (
  • Current oil fired burners can not be fully directly with solid biomass without any modification of the unit, which may not be interested in uncertain fuel markets. (
  • Simulation models are being used to predict biomass yields and greenhouse gas fluxes in various biofuel cropping systems in three states. (
  • NB: Issues related to the production of biofuel for the transportation industry from agrifood and urban biomass are not discussed in this document. (
  • We offer single machines for production of biomass pellets, solid biofuel, and waste pellets. (
  • ANDRITZ pellet mills produce more than 50% of all biofuel pellets produced worldwide and have held a market share of over 50% since the pioneering of biomass pelleting in the 1980s. (
  • Biomass can either be used directly, or indirectly-once or converted into another type of energy product such as biofuel. (
  • Biomass is also used for electricity generation and as a biofuel. (
  • Carbon dioxide emissions from the combustion of biomass or biofuel are not included in the cap-and-trade program. (
  • At minimum, however, it demands elaboration as the terms "biomass" and "biofuel" can refer to a vast and diverse array of products, some of which are climate killers and others of which may yet be climate saviors. (
  • They thus meet the requirements for continuing to market biomass or its end products in the EU as biofuel. (
  • Since biomass technically can be used as a fuel directly (e.g. wood logs), some people use the terms biomass and biofuel interchangeably. (
  • Furthermore, dedicated energy crops like perennial grasses and short rotation forestry and coppice provide non-food cellulosic and ligno-cellulosic biomass. (
  • Lynd LR, Cushman JH, Nichols RJ, Wyman CE (1991) Fuel ethanol from cellulosic biomass. (
  • One of the barriers to the production of ethanol from cellulosic biomass is the toughness of the cellulosic structure, and its resistance to chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis and insolubility in most solvents. (
  • After successfully diverting fatty acid metabolism toward the production of fuels and other chemicals from glucose, the JBEI researchers engineered their new strain of E. coli to produce hemicellulases - enzymes that are able to ferment hemicellulose, the complex sugars that are a major constituent of cellulosic biomass and a prime repository for the energy locked within plant cell walls. (
  • SINTEF carries out basic and applied research within conversion of biomass to biocarbon (charcoal), and offers project based research and development for the industry within this subject. (
  • Biomass fuel is liquid, solid, or gaseous fuel produced by conversion of biomass. (
  • A biomass combined-heat-and-power (CHP) project in southwest England is beginning the final phase of commissioning and is on track to begin commercial operations in August. (
  • Biomass is converted to clean, efficient 'biopower' through a variety of processes including direct combustion, co-firing, re-powering, combined heat and power (CHP), gasification and anaerobic digestion. (
  • This trend is likely to continue since several large scale combined heat and power plants have plans to convert from fossil fuels to woody biomass. (
  • Mr. Cleaves said the efficiency standards proposed by the Massachusetts Department of Energy Resources would be extremely difficult to reach, and might be achieved by combined heat and power biomass plants, which use or sell heat generated by the boiler to heat buildings. (
  • Energy sources in rural areas can be supplemented by woody, non-woody agro -residue, and degradable aquatic biomass. (
  • Woody biomass is product of forestry and trees from different agroforestry activities of smaller intensity. (
  • That said, businesses, schools, even hospitals within the Commonwealth and surrounding states are utilizing woody biomass to both sustainably and affordably meet their heating needs. (
  • The use of woody biomass is expected to increase by almost 50 pct. (
  • Cellulosic ethanol can be derived from materials such as crop residues, woody biomass, and municipal waste. (
  • Woody biomass contains cellulose which is a highly stable polymer of gluco-pyranoses. (
  • This session focuses on the recalcitrance of woody biomass, a key component of which is cellulose. (
  • This month's theme, woody biomass, has caused quite a stir as more projects that intend to utilize the resource to produce power and heat emerge. (
  • One of the main concerns people have about using woody biomass as a power source is that it will decimate our nation's forests. (
  • I understand why this is a concern, but I maintain that the use of woody biomass can be sustained by concentrating on the planting of fast-growing tree species on marginal land, replanting tree stands as they are harvested, which is already being done, and focusing on wood residue that isn't used by the wood products industry, such as insect and diseasedamaged trees and forest residue that's removed to prevent fires. (
  • I recently read about a great example of how a group of forest managers, the forest products industry, environmentalists, economic developers and other interested parties in Arizona have worked together to sustainably use woody biomass from national forestlands. (
  • The White Mountain Stewardship Project, which involves the Apache and Sitgreaves National Forests in East-Central Arizona, was created to provide a long-term, reliable supply of woody biomass for the wood products industry, reduce the risk of wildfires and stimulate the local economy, according to the article. (
  • Lisa Gibson's "Pacific West Profile" feature details the myriad of biomass resources in the Pacific West that have yet to be fully tapped, including woody biomass, crop residue, animal waste, municipal solid waste, and food and beverage plant waste. (
  • Our research focuses on improving the spatial assessment of aboveground biomass of woody vegetation by combining field observations, remote sensing and auxiliary data, from local case studies to global scale, with focus on the tropical region. (
  • 2012) with local high-quality biomass data into an improved pan-tropical aboveground biomass map of woody vegetation at 1 km resolution for the 2000's. (
  • The improved pan-tropical map of aboveground woody biomass at 1 km. (
  • U.S. states in the region are seeing a boom in the use of woody biomass to produce electricity. (
  • Woody Biomass in Indiana takes place Sept. 26-27 at Clifty Falls State Park in Madison. (
  • This conference will address the potential of both native- and plantation-grown woody biomass in the central Midwest as a source of renewable energy," said Dan Cassens, a professor of wood products in Purdue's Department of Forestry and Natural Resources and a conference organizer. (
  • An "Impact of Woody Biomass Harvesting on Wildlife Management" track will address ecological sustainability biomass harvesting, coarse woody debris in managed and unmanaged forests, public perceptions of woody biomass harvesting and the Southeast-Purdue biomass harvesting project. (
  • The Sept. 27 program runs from 8:15 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. and covers such topics as "Why Use Woody Biomass and Developments in the Central States," "Economics and Policy Issues Related to Cellulosic Biofuels," "Technology for Harvesting and Processing Woody Biomass," "Urban Trees for Mulch and Energy," "Biodiversity Impacts of Biomass Harvesting" and "Poplar Plantations as Woody Biomass - Indiana Experience. (
  • This primer discusses two approaches for estimating the biomass density of woody formations based on existing forest inventory data. (
  • A non-woody biomass is delignified through extrusion technology, utilizing hydrogen peroxide and an alkali agent, to break down complex biomass materials. (
  • From that, we can estimate the total biomass in the sample of Martian soil. (
  • Recently I came across a factoid which informed us that the total biomass (weight) of ants is greater than the biomass of all human beings. (
  • While total biomass estimates tend to converge (Mitchard et al. (
  • The majority of biomass produced by EU agriculture comes in the form of biogas, and feedstocks for making biodiesel and bioethanol. (
  • ARS Scientists are working with a commercial landfill that utilizes a variety of biomass feedstocks to produce ethanol, compost material and/or biogas. (
  • MILFORD, Ohio , Aug. 14, 2012 /PRNewswire/ -- AdvanceBio Systems, LLC today announced that CTBE, the Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory in Campinas, SP, selected AdvanceBio Systems' SuPR 2 G Laboratory Scale Pretreatment Reactor to conduct basic research and development work related to the production of fermentable sugars, biofuels and chemicals from lignocellulose rich biomass feedstocks. (
  • The equipment will be used for research, development and demonstration of technology related to the production of biomass-based fuels and chemicals from lignocellulosic feedstocks in our Pilot Plant for Process Development (PPDP),' said Carlos Eduardo Vaz Rossell , industrial program director - CTBE. (
  • Fuel characterization is the primary and a critical step in the evaluation of biomass and waste feedstocks' suitability for a thermal conversion process. (
  • Detailed and accurate characterization is especially important for proper utilization of inhomogeneous and low quality biomass and waste feedstocks, to prevent operational related problems, optimize conversion processes and design conversion systems. (
  • [7] Other biomass feedstocks are enzymes or bacteria from various sources, grown in cell cultures or hydroponics . (
  • A more scalable, controllable, and economic alternative route to these fuels and chemicals would be through the microbial conversion of renewable feedstocks, such as biomass-derived carbohydrates. (
  • I am Uma Rama Linga Murthy Marthi, Asst Manager Renewable Energy Division, Zenith Energy Services Pvt Ltd. I welcome you on behalf of Zenith team to the presentation on Evaluation study of programmes on grid connected biomass power, bagasse cogeneration, non-bagasse cogeneration in Industries initiated by Ministry of New and Renewable Energy and awarded to Zenith Energy Services Pvt Ltd. (
  • The broad road map to the presentation consists of introduction and importance of the ongoing study, introduction and present scenario of existing Central Schemes or CFA Programmes, Grid connected biomass power generation, bagasse cogeneration and non-bagasse cogeneration, their sector wise growth, evaluation of the existing power plants, the barriers and constraints the existing plants are facing, recommendations to overcome the identified barriers and constraints. (
  • Honorable Ministry of New and Renewable Energy has been implementing programs for grid connected biomass power, bagasse cogeneration and non-bagasse cogeneration since past two decades. (
  • New targets were set for the implementation of grid-connected biomass power and bagasse cogeneration in the 11 th Five Year Plan and the set targets were over achieved by over 100% in biomass power generation and by over 50% in bagasse cogeneration based power projects. (
  • Biomass from forests should comply with the principles of sustainable forest management (SFM) that are aimed at safeguarding not only economic but also ecological and social functions of forests and apply to all forest management activities. (
  • Wageningen Food & Biobased Research focuses on the sustainable production and valorisation of aquatic biomass in close cooperation with Wageningen Plant Research. (
  • Findings include a better understanding the institutional partnerships and decision support needs of local communities as they pursue wood biomass energy options that are sustainable, efficient, local and equitable. (
  • Pyrolysis is an environmental sustainable to deal with the ever increasing amount of biomass waste. (
  • Offering a unique perspective summarizing research on this timely important topic around the globe, this book provides comprehensive coverage of how molecular biomass can be transformed into sustainable polymers. (
  • It is also crucial to use sustainable biomass efficiently through "cascading use", i.e. when biomass is used for material products first and the energy content is recovered from the end-of-life products. (
  • At each stage of the cascading sustainable biomass should be dedicated in priority to sectors where there is no other sustainable alternative to achieve emissions reduction. (
  • This week's shipment marks the first of many to a global economic powerhouse where demand for a long-term supply of sustainable biomass continues to grow as the economy moves away from fossil fuels. (
  • With the right policies and investment in research , developing nations can turn their dependence on biomass fuels into a renewable and sustainable energy supply, says Duncan Macqueen . (
  • Wood products manufacturers use biomass from manufacturing and sustainable forestry operations to produce energy, providing significant carbon-reducing benefits to the environment. (
  • Various biomass sources could be used, including wood and wood residues, municipal solid waste, and animal waste. (
  • Thus agricultural residue biomass energy available for climate change mitigation by reducing the amount of greenhouse gases emission from using fossil fuels and the pollutions resulting from the high accumulation of these agricultural residues as wastes. (
  • It would force a 50 percent cut in planet-warming gases from biomass plants by 2030 compared to fossil fuels, and limit the sorts of 'residues' and waste wood that can be burned 'to discourage the poor forest management practice. (
  • Research on land-based biomass mainly focus on the use of residues from agriculture and forestry as raw materials for production of bio-based chemicals, materials and energy. (
  • Papers on the use of biomass residues through innovative processes/technological novelty and/or consideration of feedstock/system sustainability (or unsustainability) are welcomed. (
  • Wood and wood residues is the largest biomass energy source today. (
  • Aqueous pretreatment of plant biomass for biological and chemical conversion to fuels and chemicals. (
  • The majority of the pretreatment and biomass deconstruction equipment is located in the NREL Integrated Biorefinery Research Facility (IBRF). (
  • Years of research by groups developing next-generation cellulose hydrolyzing enzymes, xylose fermenting organisms and biomass crops have reinforced that pretreatment is a core process. (
  • The AdvanceBio Systems' business model, based upon decades of experience in the renewable fuels industry, resulted in the development of equipment designs and fabrication techniques focused on supplying scalable yet cost-effective biomass pretreatment reactor equipment. (
  • Because of the varieties of different biomasses, no single pretreatment is expected to be the universal choice. (
  • Biomass is the only renewable carbon source and can therefore be used for production of renewable fuels and chemicals. (
  • From biomass to energy, fuels and chemicals. (
  • The paper is titled, "Microbial Production of Fatty Acid-Derived Fuels and Chemicals from Plant Biomass. (
  • Click on a cell to infect same color cells touching red areas and to produce biomass. (
  • Following field harvesting trials in 2015 and 2016, we developed production and costing tools to determine the cost and productivity for available production systems which might produce biomass chips at a cost that could be supported by biomass value for energy. (
  • If uncontrolled, the expansion and intensification of forest management and logging activities to produce biomass can lead to further degradation of forest ecosystems. (
  • Aboveground biomass plays a key role in the carbon cycle and climate processes and in the last few years there has been a large effort to improve its spatial assessment, particularly in the tropical region where uncertainties are higher (Avitabile et al. (
  • 2018). A detailed portrait of the forest aboveground biomass pool for the year 2010 obtained from multiple remote sensing observations. (
  • The actual diameter distribution of these large trees significantly affects aboveground biomass density. (
  • The biomass gasification and pyrolysis market in North America is expected to experience high growth during the next few years as a consequence of increasing government concerns about energy security and independence. (
  • This segment provides a broad level assessment of the total North American biomass gasification and pyrolysis market. (
  • The fundamental aspects of combustion, gasification and pyrolysis of biomass, waste and other fuels are studied in our well-equipped laboratory. (
  • But there is another dimension to the oil palm industry's energy potential - the use of biomass to generate electricity. (
  • The Danish Energy Association and the Danish District Heating Association have developed biomass sustainability criteria in a voluntary industry agreement which covers wood pellets and wood chips used for heat and electricity. (
  • Direct combustion is the most common way of converting biomass to energy - both heat and electricity- and worldwide it already provides over 90% of the energy generated from biomass. (
  • 4.3 Biomass Energy Conversion Technologies Biomass materials can be converted to various useful forms of energy such as heat, electricity and liquid fuels. (
  • The technologies used to convert biomass into energy ranged widely from the simple combustion of biomass used for cooking and heating in developing countries to a variety of technologies to generate modern energy carriers - electricity, gas, and liquid bio-fuels. (
  • Biomass electricity burns wood chips and forest debris to generate power. (
  • Biomass power is the energy derived from animal or vegetable matter, which can be harnessed to generate electricity. (
  • While most biomass energy is used to produce heat, it also generates 158 TWh /year of electricity. (
  • Canada is the world's seventh-largest producer of primary energy and electricity from biomass. (
  • The reason: since biomass has a lower energy density than fossil fuels, a larger quantity of biomass and consequently greater infrastructure are needed to produce the same amount of electricity. (
  • Sugars present in this biomass are fermented to produce bioethanol , an alcohol fuel which serve as an additive to gasoline, or in a fuel cell to produce electricity. (
  • Fuels derived from biomass - mainly wood, but also plant and animal matter - produce lower greenhouse gas emissions than fossil fuels, and can be converted into heat, electricity, liquid or gas. (
  • 70% of all biomass in the world is used in the residential sector, while 14% is used in industry and 11% is transformed into electricity, heat, or other energy carriers such as liquid fuels or biogases. (
  • Biomass used as a fuel reduces the use of fossil fuels for the production of heat, steam, and electricity for residential, industrial, and agricultural use. (
  • Heat, electricity and fuels can be produced from solid, liquid and gaseous biomass. (
  • Biomass is plant or animal material used as fuel to produce electricity or heat. (
  • a biomass boiler can produce enough energy to provide central heating and hot water for your business, in place of a gas or other boiler, and with the RHI in place the more you burn the more you earn, so no need to cut back on your heating and hot water anymore. (
  • Biomass heating systems, also called wood heating systems, burn organic materials - typically wood logs, pellets or chips - in a wood-burning stove or boiler to provide heat and hot water. (
  • Stoves can be connected to a regular boiler, such as a gas boiler, or a biomass boiler. (
  • You can also get a 'wet' stove, where an integral biomass boiler is built into the firebox. (
  • The main technologies used in the university are gas fired engines, whereas the Hillcrest building which has a biomass boiler. (
  • The company offers a comprehensive scope of process machinery from biomass receiving to boiler silo feeding. (
  • misc{etde_570549, title = {Boiler conversions for biomass} author = {Kinni, J} abstractNote = {Boiler conversions from grate- and oil-fired boilers to bubbling fluidized bed combustion have been most common in pulp and paper industry. (
  • Coupled with low energy costs and excellent financial returns from the commercial RHI, Biomass is a leading renewable source of heat. (
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America: In search of ant ancestors 'According to H lldobler and Wilson (1990), up to 1/3 (33%) of the terrestrial animal biomass (NOTE: not including aquatic animal, or terrestrial and aquatic flowering plants and microorganisms) was made up of ants and termites. (
  • Also known as lignocellulosic biomass, the structural part of plants that is not edible by humans and contains cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, and lignin. (
  • This includes pyrolysis chemistry of individual biomass-derived polymers (e.g. cellulose), reaction-transport models of biomass particles, and reactor design for pyrolysis of biomass. (
  • The more popular methods for production of ethanol and cellulosic ethanol use enzymes that must be isolated first to be added to the biomass and thus convert the starch or cellulose into simple sugars, followed then by yeast fermentation into ethanol. (
  • Up to now, however, methods to make these advanced biofuels have often involved biological processes in which microbes break down sugars derived from biomass, including cellulose. (
  • To convert cellulose, a large component of biomass, into fuel, researchers first need to break it down into simpler components, such as simple sugars. (
  • Baldwin says that although the process produces high yields of the desired fuels, it requires a large number of processing steps, including separating cellulose from other components of biomass, which could make it expensive. (
  • Los Alamos researchers have published two papers separately in Biophysical Journal and recently in an issue of Biomacromolecules, These scientists have recognized the potential weaknesses among sheets of cellulose molecules comprising lignocellulosic biomass. (
  • After chemical and/or mechanical deconstruction, an enzymatic hydrolysis is performed to convert biomass polysaccharides into their monomeric sub-units for biological fermentation and/or catalytic upgrading. (
  • As the microoganisms anaerobically digest the biomass and convert it into a mixture of carboxylic acids, the pH must be controlled. (
  • Above-and-below-ground biomass were then summed together and multiplied by 0.5 to convert to carbon, generating a single above-and-below-ground biomass carbon layer. (
  • A range of chemical processes may be used to convert biomass into other forms, such as to produce a fuel that is more practical to store, transport and use, or to exploit some property of the process itself. (
  • It will also need to compete with other thermochemical processes that can be adapted to work with biomass, such as those that have been used to convert coal into liquid fuels. (
  • Thermal conversion processes use heat as the dominant mechanism to convert biomass into another chemical form. (
  • Four Colorado projects that convert wood waste, or biomass, into energy received a total of $1 million in federal stimulus funds Thursday, but a state with more than two million acres of dead and dying lodgepole pine forests could use a lot more. (
  • These mills convert biomass residuals to energy while manufacturing carbon-sequestering biobased products that are useful to society. (
  • Biomass is another earth-friendly source of energy that could help replace environmentally harmful fossil fuels like oil and coal. (
  • Co-firing mixes biomass with coal at coal-fired power plants, which may offer a transitional means of somewhat cleaner energy until infrastructure for truly renewable energy is in place. (
  • Re-powering' is when coal plants are converted to run entirely on biomass. (
  • The cost of building a biomass power plant is also less than a coal, oil or gas-fired power plant," he notes. (
  • He says it is now an appropriate time to tap RE resources such as biomass, before fossil fuels such as oil and coal are depleted or get too costly. (
  • Waste combustion in grate furnaces, biomass co-firing in coal fired power plants and combustion of bio-oil in gas turbines and engines. (
  • A study by the Mass.-based Manomet Center for Conservation Studies, commissioned by Gov. Deval Patrick and released in June, found that certain biomass technologies produce more climate-changing emissions than coal plants for up to 40 years. (
  • Cofiring with biomass has increased in coal power plants, because it makes it possible to release less CO2 without the cost assosicated with building new infrastructure. (
  • The key to Metso's self-proclaimed environmental credentials is its production of biomass boilers to replace those powered by coal and other fossil fuels. (
  • The replacement of coal by biomass results in a large reduction of carbon dioxide that contributes to the greenhouse affect. (
  • Biomass grasses, short rotation forestry and short rotation coppice have high energy yields - about three times those of traditional energy crops. (
  • Biomass can either be a waste product or grown specifically for energy in the form of crops like hemp, corn, poplar, willow, sorghum, switchgrass and sugarcane. (
  • Energy crops should never compete with food crops for land, and emissions of biomass carbon should be taken up or recycled by subsequent plant growth. (
  • Growing beneficial biomass crops can maintain or even increase the stocks of carbon stored in soil or plants. (
  • Burning plant-derived biomass releases CO2, but it has still been classified as a renewable energy source in the EU and UN legal frameworks because photosynthesis cycles the CO2 back into new crops. (
  • Second-generation biofuels utilize non-food-based biomass sources such as perennial energy crops (low input crops), and agricultural/municipal waste. (
  • Energy Crops Brazil (ECB) is a Brazilian agribusiness & renewables company that develops Biomass for Energy projects focused on Giant Carajas Grass, a high yield biomass variety of Elephant Grass. (
  • 2018. An above-ground biomass map of African savannahs and woodlands at 25 m resolution derived from ALOS PALSAR. (
  • In response to new scientific research showing the adverse consequences of biomass energy, in 2018 the UK government introduced new rules that would effectively stop subsidies for new wood-burning power stations. (
  • Biomass can still play a role in the mix of renewable energies in Europe, but the supply of biomass for energy production needs to be constrained to what can be sustainably supplied from the forests. (
  • Companies are therefore called upon to cultivate and process biomass sustainably for the energy sector. (
  • The greenhouse gas (GHG) benefits of biomass harvested from sustainably managed forests has been recognized repeatedly by an abundance of studies, agencies, institutions, legislation and rules around the world, including guidance from the United Nations (UN) Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the reporting protocols of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. (
  • Biomass is organic matter, including plant material that may be considered fuel and used as an energy source. (
  • Power plant expert M. Umakanthan says the biomass from Malaysia's oil palm plantations alone can power 5% to 10% of the country's total energy requirements. (
  • Umakanthan, who has over 30 years' experience in fossil fuel and biomass power plant design, says biomass as a renewable energy (RE) resource can help big oil palm growers substantially reduce their energy bills. (
  • According to Umakanthan, it will take 20 to 22 months at a cost of about RM70mil to build a 10MW biomass power plant. (
  • He is now a senior general manager of Garisan Etika Sdn Bhd and is involved in the construction of a 50MW diesel generator and gas turbine power plant project in Dhaka, Bangladesh, and a biomass power plant in Johor under IPP arrangements. (
  • He adds that 600 to 650 tonnes of EFB from four to five mills is needed daily to run 10MW biomass power plant. (
  • Guayule, a natural rubber latex producing plant native to the southwestern U.S., is being developed as an alternative to petroleum as a source of latex and rubber and for biomass for energy production. (
  • In Switzerland, Royal DSM, reduced its CO2 emissions at its vitamin production facility in Sisseln, by 50,000 tons/year through a new biomass heat and power plant on the site. (
  • The plant will use mustard stalk and other agro biomass as fuel for power generation, and adequate arrangement for fuel supply on everyday basis has been made by the government. (
  • BPA says a typical biomass plant in Massachusetts could lose a quarter to a third of its cash flow. (
  • After the Smurfit-Stone Container Corp.'s linerboard plant in Missoula announced that it was closing permanently, there have been many people including Montana Governor Switzer, Missoula mayor John Engen and Senator Jon Tester, among others who advocate turning the mill into a biomass energy plant. (
  • Whether you wish to expand or build a biomass pelleting plant, ANDRITZ can design, manufacture, supply, and optimize the machinery for producing high-quality biomass pellets. (
  • Biomass is plant or animal material used for energy production, heat production, or in various industrial processes as raw material for a range of products. (
  • Biomass plant in Scotland. (
  • Wood waste outside biomass power plant. (
  • Biomass also includes plant or animal matter that can be converted into fuel, fibers or industrial chemicals . (
  • In reality it takes time (from years to decades, depending on the kind of biomass) for the carbon released to be recaptured again by plant and tree growth and by the soil. (
  • Converting plant biomass into high-value chemicals with the help of improved microorganisms. (
  • Scientific studies have consistently shown that liquid fuels derived from plant biomass are one of the best alternatives if a cost-effective means of commercial production can be found. (
  • Purdue University researchers have found a genetic mutation that allows a plant to better endure drought without losing biomass, a discovery that could reduce the amount of water required for growing plants and help plants survive and thrive in adverse conditions. (
  • The plant had the same biomass as a wild type of Arabidopsis when its shoot dry weight was measured. (
  • The key to making biomass neutral on the carbon issue is to deplete fuels stocks (trees, switch grass, corn, whatever) at the same rate as you plant more. (
  • Mr. Cleaves said that because renewable energy is generally more expensive than fossil fuels, the added financial incentive of Renewable Energy Credits can help make a biomass plant economically feasible. (
  • The state's only free-standing commercial biomass plant, Pine Tree Power in Westminster, burns chipped tree tops and branches left over from tree cutting, as well as methane piped in from a nearby landfill and paper-derived fuel cubes made from waste paper at a Westfield plant, selling power to Unitil under a 20-year contract signed in 1992. (
  • Another provision of the new regulations would prevent more than 15 percent of the volume from a forest cutting to be used as biomass fuel, to ensure that enough plant material remains to restore nutrients to the soil. (
  • A group of researchers at Iowa State University (ISU) and the U.S Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory hope to develop the pieces of that puzzle to create a clearer picture of what takes place within a plant and how that applies to its downstream uses as biomass . (
  • Then it's brought to factories or a biomass plant and all of the scraps and wood are dumped into a big hopper, which transfers all of it into a furnace where it is burned. (
  • Biomass generates about the same amount of carbon dioxide as fossil fuels, but every time a new plant grows, almost the same amount of carbon dioxide released is removed from the atmosphere. (
  • Even though burning biomass releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, this carbon dioxide was captured when the plant was growing. (
  • Plant biomass is an abundant renewable resource on Earth. (
  • In this Review, we summarize the mechanisms by which they decompose non-starch plant biomass and the six major types of synthetic plastics. (
  • This peek into the toughness of plant material could lead to a cost-effective and energy-efficient strategy for turning biomass into alternative fuels. (
  • Under the Eighth Malaysian Plan, the Government had promoted the generation of RE from biomass, biogas, municipal solid waste, mini-hydro and solar. (
  • Pyrolysis minimizes the weight and volume of biomass waste while producing value-added products such as biogas, bio-oil and biochar. (
  • Since protein constitutes the majority of the biomass of a cell, building new protein is a major way that cells increase their size. (
  • Krishnakumar said a majority of the biomass power plants were operating in huge losses, with some of them becoming non-performing assets on banks' books. (
  • Discussions on the timing of GHG savings as well as other environmental risks from the use of biomass for energy have enhanced the awareness of the range of issues related to sustainability. (
  • This topic is being analyzed in the context of the ongoing Commission analysis on biomass sustainability, to be finalized in the first half of this year," she added. (
  • Environmentalists have been urging the European Union for some time to agree sustainability criteria to ensure only the right kind of biomass is used in energy generation. (
  • We advocate for a mandatory sustainability scheme to be developed to regulate the production and use of biomass for energy. (
  • A sustainability scheme should prevent extraction of energy biomass from valuable ecosystems, such as pristine forests, lands with high carbon stocks and high-biodiversity value, wetlands and peat lands. (
  • They say encouraging biomass production creates incentives to cut down carbon-absorbing forests to make fuel, driving deforestation and worsening warming. (
  • A new campaign that NRDC is helping lead, Cut Carbon Not Forests , is aimed at directing public pressure on Parliamentarians to end financial subsidies to Drax Power and others for dirty biomass energy. (
  • A full 97% of respondents opposed government support for biomass energy that relied on wood shipped in from overseas forests, which is just what the UK is doing. (
  • Despite the above problems, many inventories are very useful for estimating biomass density of forests. (
  • Biomass producers have to use renewable resources, such as plantation forests, as the fuel stock for the boilers. (
  • Told of the concern by some at the DOER hearing that the arrival of 50-megawatt biomass plants would consume the state's forests, Mr. Bourque shook his head. (
  • As forests grow, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is removed from the atmosphere via photosynthesis and converted into organic carbon that is absorbed by trees that store it as wood (biomass). (
  • The BIOMASS mission is planned to continue its observation of Earth for five years after launch, during which it will provide detailed information about at least eight growth cycles in the world's forests. (
  • So far, biomass has been assumed to be carbon-neutral on the grounds that any emissions generated when it is burnt for heat or power are offset instantly by the regrowth of more biomass. (
  • Biomass should be considered carbon neutral. (
  • Because of this, biomass is regarded as a carbon-neutral technique for generating energy. (
  • In fact, on average, over 75 percent of the energy from AWC member facilities is generated from carbon-neutral biomass. (
  • Ethanol made from lignocellulosic biomass by biological, chemical, or chemo-biological processes. (
  • The Union of Concerned Scientists explains that biomass produced for energy can potentially be harvested at unsustainable rates, cause damage to ecosystems, produce harmful air pollution, consume large amounts of water and produce net greenhouse gas emissions. (
  • Most scientists believe that there are a wide range of beneficial biomass resources that will reduce overall carbon emissions. (
  • The generally higher carbon monoxide levels as compared to March are both the result of South American fire emissions and the transport of carbon monoxide across the Atlantic Ocean from widespread biomass burning over Southern Africa. (
  • Biomass is a renewable energy source that can contribute to the mitigation of GHG emissions to the atmosphere. (
  • LONDON (Reuters) - Environmental campaigners ClientEarth and BirdLife International are taking legal action against the European Commission over its failure to publish a review of greenhouse gas emissions from biomass. (
  • The groups have filed an application to the General Court in Luxembourg for the Commission to give access to the study, which could confirm doubts that biomass used for heat and power is free of emissions, ClientEarth told Reuters on Thursday. (
  • CONTRIBUTIONS 46 EMISSIONS GHG Emissions Trigger New Air Quality Permitting Requirements Keeping up with the U.S. EPA's air quality permitting rules is imperative for existing and proposed biomass combustion facilities. (
  • Unfortunately, under the current proposal WCI will only count-and price-the emissions from fossil fuels and not the emissions from biomass, even though the carbon each releases has exactly the same effect on the atmosphere . (
  • B ) Fraction of the biomass of each kingdom concentrated in the terrestrial, marine, or deep subsurface environment. (
  • C ) Distribution of biomass between producers (autotrophs, mostly photosynthetic) and consumers (heterotrophs without deep subsurface) in the terrestrial and marine environments. (
  • We show that terrestrial biomass is about two orders of magnitude higher than marine biomass and estimate a total of ≈6 Gt C of marine biota, doubling the previous estimated quantity. (
  • The process uses a mixed culture of naturally occurring microorganisms found in natural habitats such as the rumen of cattle, termite guts, and marine and terrestrial swamps to anaerobically digest biomass into a mixture of carboxylic acids produced during the acidogenic and acetogenic stages of anaerobic digestion , however with the inhibition of the methanogenic final stage. (
  • On average, ants monopolize 15-20% of the terrestrial animal biomass, and in tropical regions where ants are especially abundant, they monopolize 25% or more. (
  • In the Brazilian rain forest the biomass of ants exceeds that of terrestrial vertebrates by four times! (
  • Thus a figure for ants of 15% of all terrestrial animal biomass is not out of line. (
  • Input carbon datasets were identified through a literature review of existing datasets on biomass carbon in terrestrial ecosystems published in peer-reviewed literature. (
  • Such biomasses can be agricultural wastes, municipal wastes or direct harvests from high-yield energy corps. (
  • The dataset was constructed by combining the most reliable publicly available datasets and overlaying them with the ESA CCI landcover map for the year 2010 (ESA, 2017), assigning to each grid cell the corresponding above-ground biomass value from the biomass map that was most appropriate for the grid cell's landcover type. (
  • 2017) New global biomass map for the year 2010. (
  • 2017. Biomass chipping for eastern redcedar. (
  • In the UK, Teesside business which has developed a new way to generate fuel and chemicals from waste biomass has secured a further GBP2.3 million investment to commercialize its technology. (
  • Many chemicals used by the chemical industry can be derived from biomass, potentially reducing the industry's reliance on petroleum. (
  • [13] Biomass can be converted into multiple commodity chemicals. (
  • Biomass is also used to produce fibers and industrial chemicals. (
  • Biomass is derived from organic material such as trees, plants, and agricultural and urban waste. (
  • In short, biomass is organic material made by living organisms that contains stored energy from the sun. (
  • Biomass is any organic matter that is available on a renewable or recurring basis. (
  • The sources of renewable energy that have reached full commercial maturity are: solar, wind, tides and waves, rivers, geothermal energy, organic waste and energy stored biomass (Okure et al, 2006). (
  • Biomass helps reduce the levels of methane (released during the decomposition of organic matter) in the air. (
  • Biomass is this cheap because it is made from organic and agricultural material and waste. (
  • Biomass fermentation involves breaking down glucose inside organic material to produce ethanol. (
  • Biomass is an energy source that is derived from crop waste and wood, but it is also derived from garbage, manure, sewage sludge and other organic waste th. (
  • [4] Even in 2019, biomass is the only source of fuel for domestic use in many developing countries. (
  • According to Drax , in 2019 its facility emitted 12.8 million tonnes of CO2 solely from the combustion of biomass. (
  • Finally, anaerobic digestion utilizes microorganisms to break down biomass in a controlled environment to produce the greenhouse gases methane and carbon dioxide. (
  • Due to foreign initiatives to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, the demand for US export of biomass to Europe and Asia has continued to rise exponentially. (
  • Below-ground biomass were added using root-to-shoot ratios from the 2006 IPCC guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (IPCC, 2006). (
  • The utilization of renewable raw materials (wood, agro and industrial waste and marine biomass) minimizes the emission of greenhouse gases. (
  • Aquatic biomass is in the spotlight as the cultivation of this type of biomass does not require agricultural land. (
  • The methods used to produce energy with biomass vary depending on the type of biomass and its intended use. (
  • With our professional accredited installation teams we are leading the way in the future of biomass. (
  • In a move that could have wide ramifications for the future of biomass power nationwide, Massachusetts regulators have proposed to strictly regulate the ability of wood-burning incinerators to earn renewable power certificates. (
  • The amount of biomass and forest height will be measured at a resolution of 200 m, and forest disturbances such as clear-cutting at a resolution of 50 m. (
  • Aquatic biomass, such as microalgae, seaweeds and aquatic plants, has considerable potential to meet part of the rising demand for biomass. (
  • In Canada, only about 4.4% of the primary energy consumed comes from biomass. (
  • Currently, some 40 percent of the renewable electrical power sold to Massachusetts comes from biomass plants, said Robert Cleaves, president of the New England Biomass Association, based in Portland, Maine. (
  • The chemical energy from biomass is released as heat when burned. (
  • around the accounting of carbon benefits of biomass. (
  • The size of the bars corresponds to the quantity of biomass of each trophic mode. (
  • For fungi and protists, we did not estimate the biomass present in the deep subsurface due to data scarcity. (
  • In a presentation at the European Planetary Science Congress in Potsdam on Friday 24th August, Dr Houtkooper will describe how he has used data from the Gas Exchange (GEx) experiment, carried by NASA's Viking landers, to estimate the biomass in the Martian soil. (
  • Our list of FAQs addresses the most common inquiries from the biofuels and biomass community. (
  • This database was created to serve as a centralized location for data on biofuels and biomass data. (
  • What components of biomass smoke are detrimental? (
  • ANDRITZ offers complete solutions for biomass handling and processing. (
  • For longer distance collection of biomass, this difference may be a decisive factor. (
  • The certifications are addressed to all economic participants who are considered as interfaces or transporters within the meaning of the regulations mentioned - from the collection of biomass at home or abroad via trade and logistics to final processing. (
  • Chemical composition and properties of biomass  Energy plantations  Preparation of biomass for fuel applications: Size reduction, Briquetting of loose biomass, Drying, and Storage and handling of biomass. (
  • A quantitative description of the distribution of biomass is essential for taking stock of biosequestered carbon ( 1 ) and modeling global biogeochemical cycles ( 2 ), as well as for understanding the historical effects and future impacts of human activities. (
  • 2013), the regional maps present considerable disagreement in terms of absolute values and spatial distribution of biomass. (
  • Agricultural residue biomass is highly recommended as clean and renewable sources of energy that increases the possibility of replacing the consumption of conventional energy fossil fuels. (
  • Biomass is applying for renewable energy credits in order to replace fossil fuels,' he said. (
  • However, the technical infrastructure required for biomass power costs slightly more than comparable technologies using fossil fuels. (
  • It's true that biomass has the potential to be an energy source that is superior to fossil fuels from an environmental standpoint. (
  • Biomass and fossil fuels both have global warming potential because when they are burned, carbon is released into the atmosphere. (
  • A few years ago, biomass was viewed as a plentiful and renewable energy source that could help the state get away from its reliance on fossil fuel. (
  • Ultimately, perhaps, we'll develop measurement protocols that will allow us to address the "upstream" carbon of our energy choices-fossil fuels and biomass alike. (
  • It is expected that the data sent back from the satellite will also contribute new information to other areas of climate science, like measuring the biomass of desert regions to find fossil water and new water sources in arid regions as well as contributing to observations of ice sheet dynamics, subsurface geology and forest topography. (
  • Their rapid growth and richness in protein and oils give biomass from algae the potential for high returns. (
  • There is ongoing research involving algae or algae-derived biomass. (
  • Biomass" can refer to everything from corn for ethanol to algae to Indonesian palm oil to Oregon canola. (
  • Used to process sewage, animal manure and landfill waste, this biomass production method uses the resulting methane for heat and power and prevents it from escaping to the atmosphere. (
  • Harnessing urban and agrifood biomass would be profitable in terms of avoided landfill costs, especially since they have climbed significantly in recent years. (
  • Glycoside hydrolases are the enzymes involved in the degradation of the major fraction of biomass, such as polysaccharides present in starch and lignocellulose. (
  • Production of agricultural biomass in the EU, whether used for food, feed, material or energy, has to meet a series of statutory environmental rules regarding the quality of water, soils and air. (
  • The burning of biomass occurs in a variety of settings, diverse fields in order to identify gaps in knowledge and including domestic heating and cooking, regeneration to develop new research strategies that would allow us to and clearing of agricultural lands, and intentional and address policy needs in this emerging area. (
  • A field tour of biomass harvesting at Southeast-Purdue Agricultural Center in Butlerville on Sept. 28 comes with both registration options. (
  • Biomass power generators have appealed to the Centre to treat them as an extension of agricultural activity and facilitate priority sector lending for the industry. (