Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
Materials or phenomena which can provide energy directly or via conversion.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.
Devices for generating biological products that use light as the energy source. They are used for controlled BIOMASS production such as growing cyanobacteria, mosses, or algae.
New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.
A non-taxonomic term for unicellular microscopic algae which are found in both freshwater and marine environments. Some authors consider DIATOMS; CYANOBACTERIA; HAPTOPHYTA; and DINOFLAGELLATES as part of microalgae, even though they are not algae.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.
The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.
Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.
A family of glycosidases that hydrolyse crystalline CELLULOSE into soluble sugar molecules. Within this family there are a variety of enzyme subtypes with differing substrate specificities that must work together to bring about complete cellulose hydrolysis. They are found in structures called CELLULOSOMES.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the EDIBLE GRAINS used in millet cereals and in feed for birds and livestock (ANIMAL FEED). It contains diosgenin (SAPONINS).
The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.
The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.
A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A plant genus of the family SALICACEAE. Members contain salicin, which yields SALICYLIC ACID.
The contamination of indoor air.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Places for cultivation and harvesting of fish, particularly in sea waters. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.
The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.
Forms of energy that are constantly and rapidly renewed by natural processes such as solar, ocean wave, and wind energy. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
'Fires' is not a recognized medical term for a symptom, diagnosis, or condition in patients.
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
The act of feeding on plants by animals.
'Smoke' is a complex mixture of gases, fine particles, and volatile compounds, generally produced by combustion of organic substances, which can contain harmful chemicals known to have adverse health effects.
The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.
The processes by which organisms use simple inorganic substances such as gaseous or dissolved carbon dioxide and inorganic nitrogen as nutrient sources. Contrasts with heterotrophic processes which make use of organic materials as the nutrient supply source. Autotrophs can be either chemoautotrophs (or chemolithotrophs), largely ARCHAEA and BACTERIA, which also use simple inorganic substances for their metabolic energy reguirements; or photoautotrophs (or photolithotrophs), such as PLANTS and CYANOBACTERIA, which derive their energy from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (autotrophy; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrient and energy requirements.
A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Minute free-floating animal organisms which live in practically all natural waters.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Atlantic Ocean" is a geographical term referring to one of the world's five oceans, covering approximately 20% of the Earth's surface and separating the continents of Europe and Africa to the east from those of North and South America to the west. It doesn't have a direct medical definition, as it is not a medical term.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A genus of trees of the Myrtaceae family, native to Australia, that yields gums, oils, and resins which are used as flavoring agents, astringents, and aromatics.
Debris resulting from a process that is of no further use to the system producing it. The concept includes materials discharged from or stored in a system in inert form as a by-product of vital activities. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
The processes by which organisms utilize organic substances as their nutrient sources. Contrasts with AUTOTROPHIC PROCESSES which make use of simple inorganic substances as the nutrient supply source. Heterotrophs can be either chemoheterotrophs (or chemoorganotrophs) which also require organic substances such as glucose for their primary metabolic energy requirements, or photoheterotrophs (or photoorganotrophs) which derive their primary energy requirements from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; heterotrophy; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.
Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.
Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.
The application of heat to raise the temperature of the environment, ambient or local, or the systems for accomplishing this effect. It is distinguished from HEAT, the physical property and principle of physics.
Multicellular marine macroalgae including some members of red (RHODOPHYTA), green (CHLOROPHYTA), and brown (PHAEOPHYTA) algae. They are widely distributed in the ocean, occurring from the tide level to considerable depths, free-floating (planktonic) or anchored to the substratum (benthic). They lack a specialized vascular system but take up fluids, nutrients, and gases directly from the water. They contain CHLOROPHYLL and are photosynthetic, but some also contain other light-absorbing pigments. Many are of economic importance as FOOD, fertilizer, AGAR, potash, or source of IODINE.
Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
A suborder of CRUSTACEA, order Diplostraca, comprising the water fleas. They are benthic filter feeders that consume PHYTOPLANKTON. The body is laterally compressed and enclosed in a bivalved carapace, from which the head extends.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
The enrichment of a terrestrial or aquatic ECOSYSTEM by the addition of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, that results in a superabundant growth of plants, ALGAE, or other primary producers. It can be a natural process or result from human activity such as agriculture runoff or sewage pollution. In aquatic ecosystems, an increase in the algae population is termed an algal bloom.
Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
Xylose is a monosaccharide, a type of sugar, that is commonly found in woody plants and fruits, and it is used in medical testing to assess the absorptive capacity of the small intestine.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
The above-ground plant without the roots.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Methods and techniques used to genetically modify cells' biosynthetic product output and develop conditions for growing the cells as BIOREACTORS.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.
Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.
A group of different species of microorganisms that act together as a community.
A plant genus of the family BETULACEAE that is distinguished from birch (BETULA) by its usually stalked winter buds and by cones that remain on the branches after the small, winged nutlets are released.
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
A plant family of the order Typhales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons) that contains a single genus, Typha, that grows worldwide.
A plant family of the order Najadales, subclass ALISMATIDAE, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). This is a group of perennial aquatic herbs with basal leaves.
An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE, lichenin, and cereal beta-glucans.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE widely cultivated in the tropics for the sweet cane that is processed into sugar.

Regulation of the start of DNA replication in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. (1/2814)

Cells of Schizosaccharomyces pombe were grown in minimal medium with different nitrogen sources under steady-state conditions, with doubling times ranging from 2.5 to 14 hours. Flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy confirmed earlier findings that at rapid growth rates, the G1 phase was short and cell separation occurred at the end of S phase. For some nitrogen sources, the growth rate was greatly decreased, the G1 phase occupied 30-50% of the cell cycle, and cell separation occurred in early G1. In contrast, other nitrogen sources supported low growth rates without any significant increase in G1 duration. The method described allows manipulation of the length of G1 and the relative cell cycle position of S phase in wild-type cells. Cell mass was measured by flow cytometry as scattered light and as protein-associated fluorescence. The extensions of G1 were not related to cell mass at entry into S phase. Our data do not support the hypothesis that the cells must reach a certain fixed, critical mass before entry into S. We suggest that cell mass at the G1/S transition point is variable and determined by a set of molecular parameters. In the present experiments, these parameters were influenced by the different nitrogen sources in a way that was independent of the actual growth rate.  (+info)

Temperature and pH conditions that prevail during fermentation of sausages are optimal for production of the antilisterial bacteriocin sakacin K. (2/2814)

Sakacin K is an antilisterial bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus sake CTC 494, a strain isolated from Spanish dry fermented sausages. The biokinetics of cell growth and bacteriocin production of L. sake CTC 494 in vitro during laboratory fermentations were investigated by making use of MRS broth. The data obtained from the fermentations was used to set up a predictive model to describe the influence of the physical factors temperature and pH on microbial behavior. The model was validated successfully for all components. However, the specific bacteriocin production rate seemed to have an upper limit. Both cell growth and bacteriocin activity were very much influenced by changes in temperature and pH. The production of biomass was closely related to bacteriocin activity, indicating primary metabolite kinetics, but was not the only factor of importance. Acidity dramatically influenced both the production and the inactivation of sakacin K; the optimal pH for cell growth did not correspond to the pH for maximal sakacin K activity. Furthermore, cells grew well at 35 degrees C but no bacteriocin production could be detected at this temperature. L. sake CTC 494 shows special promise for implementation as a novel bacteriocin-producing sausage starter culture with antilisterial properties, considering the fact that the temperature and acidity conditions that prevail during the fermentation process of dry fermented sausages are optimal for the production of sakacin K.  (+info)

The role of benzoate in anaerobic degradation of terephthalate. (3/2814)

The effects of acetate, benzoate, and periods without substrate on the anaerobic degradation of terephthalate (1, 4-benzene-dicarboxylate) by a syntrophic methanogenic culture were studied. The culture had been enriched on terephthalate and was capable of benzoate degradation without a lag phase. When incubated with a mixture of benzoate and terephthalate, subsequent degradation with preference for benzoate was observed. Both benzoate and acetate inhibited the anaerobic degradation of terephthalate. The observed inhibition is partially irreversible, resulting in a decrease (or even a complete loss) of the terephthalate-degrading activity after complete degradation of benzoate or acetate. Irreversible inhibition was characteristic for terephthalate degradation only because the inhibition of benzoate degradation by acetate could well be described by reversible noncompetitive product inhibition. Terephthalate degradation was furthermore irreversibly inhibited by periods without substrate of only a few hours. The inhibition of terephthalate degradation due to periods without substrate could be overcome through incubation of the culture with a mixture of benzoate and terephthalate. In this case no influence of a period without substrate was observed. Based on these observations it is postulated that decarboxylation of terephthalate, resulting in the formation of benzoate, is strictly dependent on the concomitant fermentation of benzoate. In the presence of higher concentrations of benzoate, however, benzoate is the favored substrate over terephthalate, and the culture loses its ability to degrade terephthalate. In order to overcome the inhibition of terephthalate degradation by benzoate and acetate, a two-stage reactor system is suggested for the treatment of wastewater generated during terephthalic acid production.  (+info)

Citric acid production from xylan and xylan hydrolysate by semi-solid culture of Aspergillus niger. (4/2814)

Citric acid production from xylan and xylan hydrolysate was done by Aspergillus niger Yang no. 2 cultivated in a semi-solid culture using bagasse as a carrier. Yang no. 2 produced 72.4 g/l and 52.6 g/l of citric acid in 5 d from 140 g/l of xylose and arabinose, respectively. Yang no. 2 produced 51.6 g/l of citric acid in 3 d from a concentrated xylan hydrolysate prepared by cellulase treatment, containing 100 g/l of reducing sugars. Moreover, Yang no. 2 directly produced 39.6 g/l of citric acid maximally in 3 d from 140 g/l of xylan.  (+info)

High-rate anaerobic treatment of wastewater at low temperatures. (5/2814)

Anaerobic treatment of a volatile fatty acid (VFA) mixture was investigated under psychrophilic (3 to 8 degrees C) conditions in two laboratory-scale expanded granular sludge bed reactor stages in series. The reactor system was seeded with mesophilic methanogenic granular sludge and fed with a mixture of VFAs. Good removal of fatty acids was achieved in the two-stage system. Relative high levels of propionate were present in the effluent of the first stage, but propionate was efficiently removed in the second stage, where a low hydrogen partial pressure and a low acetate concentration were advantageous for propionate oxidation. The specific VFA-degrading activities of the sludge in each of the modules doubled during system operation for 150 days, indicating a good enrichment of methanogens and proton-reducing acetogenic bacteria at such low temperatures. The specific degradation rates of butyrate, propionate, and the VFA mixture amounted to 0.139, 0.110, and 0.214 g of chemical oxygen demand g of volatile suspended solids-1 day-1, respectively. The biomass which was obtained after 1.5 years still had a temperature optimum of between 30 and 40 degrees C.  (+info)

Tessaracoccus bendigoensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a gram-positive coccus occurring in regular packages or tetrads, isolated from activated sludge biomass. (6/2814)

An isolate of a Gram-positive bacterium, designated strain Ben 106T, was obtained in pure culture by micromanipulation of a biomass sample obtained from a laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor. This isolate grew axenically as cocci or clusters of cocci arranged in regular tetrads and was morphologically similar to the dominant organism observed in the biomass. This morphology resembled that of some Gram-positive and -negative bacteria and the so-called 'G-bacteria' commonly seen in activated sludge samples. Strain Ben 106T is a non-motile, facultative anaerobe. It is oxidase-negative, catalase-positive and is capable of reducing nitrate. This organism can grow between 20 and 37 degrees C, with an optimum temperature of 25 degrees C. The pH range for growth is between 6.0 and 9.0, with an optimum pH of 7.5. The isolate stained positively for intracellular polyphosphate granules. The diagnostic diamino acid of the peptidoglycan is LL-diaminopimelic acid (LL-A2pm) with a glycine moiety at position 1 of the peptide subunit, which characterizes the presence of a rare peptidoglycan (type A3-gamma'). Two menaquinones, MK-9(H4) and MK-7(H4), are present and the main cellular fatty acid is 12-methyltetradecanoic acid. The G + C content is 74 mol%. From phenotypic characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, the isolate differed sufficiently from its closest phylogenetic relatives, namely Propionibacterium propionicum, Propioniferax innocua, Friedmanniella antarctica, Luteococcus japonicus and Microlunatus phosphovorus in the A1 subdivision of the Gram-positive bacteria (i.e. Firmicutes with a high G + C content), suborder Propionibacterineae, to be placed in a new genus, Tessaracoccus, as Tessaracoccus bendigoensis gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain is Ben 106T (= ACM 5119T).  (+info)

Carbon and electron flow in Clostridium cellulolyticum grown in chemostat culture on synthetic medium. (7/2814)

Previous results indicated poor sugar consumption and early inhibition of metabolism and growth when Clostridium cellulolyticum was cultured on medium containing cellobiose and yeast extract. Changing from complex medium to a synthetic medium had a strong effect on (i) the specific cellobiose consumption, which was increased threefold; and (ii) the electron flow, since the NADH/NAD+ ratios ranged from 0.29 to 2.08 on synthetic medium whereas ratios as high as 42 to 57 on complex medium were observed. These data indicate a better control of the carbon flow on mineral salts medium than on complex medium. By continuous culture, it was shown that the electron flow from glycolysis was balanced by the production of hydrogen gas, ethanol, and lactate. At low levels of carbon flow, pyruvate was preferentially cleaved to acetate and ethanol, enabling the bacteria to maximize ATP formation. A high catabolic rate led to pyruvate overflow and to increased ethanol and lactate production. In vitro, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, and ethanol dehydrogenase levels were higher under conditions giving higher in vivo specific production rates. Redox balance is essentially maintained by NADH-ferredoxin reductase-hydrogenase at low levels of carbon flow and by ethanol dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase at high levels of carbon flow. The same maximum growth rate (0.150 h-1) was found in both mineral salts and complex media, proving that the uptake of nutrients or the generation of biosynthetic precursors occurred faster than their utilization. On synthetic medium, cellobiose carbon was converted into cell mass and catabolized to produce ATP, while on complex medium, it served mainly as an energy supply and, if present in excess, led to an accumulation of intracellular metabolites as demonstrated for NADH. Cells grown on synthetic medium and at high levels of carbon flow were able to induce regulatory responses such as the production of ethanol and lactate dehydrogenase.  (+info)

Differentiation of Helicobacter pylori isolates based on lectin binding of cell extracts in an agglutination assay. (8/2814)

Plant and animal lectins with various carbohydrate specificities were used to type 35 Irish clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori and the type strain NCTC 11637 in a microtiter plate assay. Initially, a panel of eight lectins with the indicated primary specificities were used: Anguilla anguilla (AAA), Lotus tetragonolobus (Lotus A), and Ulex europaeus I (UEA I), specific for alpha-L-fucose; Solanum tuberosum (STA) and Triticum vulgaris (WGA), specific for beta-N-acetylglucosamine; Glycine max (SBA), specific for beta-N-acetylgalactosamine; Erythrina cristagali (ECA), specific for beta-galactose and beta-N-acetylgalactosamine; and Lens culinaris (LCA), specific for alpha-mannose and alpha-glucose. Three of the lectins (SBA, STA, and LCA) were not useful in aiding in strain discrimination. An optimized panel of five lectins (AAA, ECA, Lotus A, UEA I, and WGA) grouped all 36 strains tested into eight lectin reaction patterns. For optimal typing, pretreatment by washing bacteria with a low-pH buffer to allow protein release, followed by proteolytic degradation to eliminate autoagglutination, was used. Lectin types of treated samples were stable and reproducible. No strain proved to be untypeable by this system. Electrophoretic and immunoblotting analyses of lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) indicated that the lectins interact primarily, but not solely, with the O side chain of H. pylori LPS.  (+info)

Biomass is defined in the medical field as a renewable energy source derived from organic materials, primarily plant matter, that can be burned or converted into fuel. This includes materials such as wood, agricultural waste, and even methane gas produced by landfills. Biomass is often used as a source of heat, electricity, or transportation fuels, and its use can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions and dependence on fossil fuels.

In the context of human health, biomass burning can have both positive and negative impacts. On one hand, biomass can provide a source of heat and energy for cooking and heating, which can improve living standards and reduce exposure to harmful pollutants from traditional cooking methods such as open fires. On the other hand, biomass burning can also produce air pollution, including particulate matter and toxic chemicals, that can have negative effects on respiratory health and contribute to climate change.

Therefore, while biomass has the potential to be a sustainable and low-carbon source of energy, it is important to consider the potential health and environmental impacts of its use and implement appropriate measures to minimize any negative effects.

Biofuels are defined as fuels derived from organic materials such as plants, algae, and animal waste. These fuels can be produced through various processes, including fermentation, esterification, and transesterification. The most common types of biofuels include biodiesel, ethanol, and biogas.

Biodiesel is a type of fuel that is produced from vegetable oils or animal fats through a process called transesterification. It can be used in diesel engines with little or no modification and can significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions compared to traditional fossil fuels.

Ethanol is a type of alcohol that is produced through the fermentation of sugars found in crops such as corn, sugarcane, and switchgrass. It is typically blended with gasoline to create a fuel known as E85, which contains 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline.

Biogas is a type of fuel that is produced through the anaerobic digestion of organic materials such as food waste, sewage sludge, and agricultural waste. It is composed primarily of methane and carbon dioxide and can be used to generate electricity or heat.

Overall, biofuels offer a renewable and more sustainable alternative to traditional fossil fuels, helping to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and decrease dependence on non-renewable resources.

An "ecosystem" is not a term that has a specific medical definition, as it is a concept that is more commonly used in the fields of ecology and environmental science. However, I can provide you with the general ecological definition of an ecosystem:

An ecosystem is a community of living organisms interacting with each other and their non-living environment, including both biotic factors (plants, animals, microorganisms) and abiotic factors (climate, soil, water, and air). These interactions create a complex network of relationships that form the foundation of ecological processes, such as energy flow, nutrient cycling, and population dynamics.

While there is no direct medical definition for an ecosystem, understanding the principles of ecosystems can have important implications for human health. For example, healthy ecosystems can provide clean air and water, regulate climate, support food production, and offer opportunities for recreation and relaxation, all of which contribute to overall well-being. Conversely, degraded ecosystems can lead to increased exposure to environmental hazards, reduced access to natural resources, and heightened risks of infectious diseases. Therefore, maintaining the health and integrity of ecosystems is crucial for promoting human health and preventing disease.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "soil" is not a term that has a medical definition. Soil is defined as the top layer of earth in which plants grow, a mixture of organic material, clay, sand, and silt. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you.

In the context of medical definitions, 'carbon' is not typically used as a standalone term. Carbon is an element with the symbol C and atomic number 6, which is naturally abundant in the human body and the environment. It is a crucial component of all living organisms, forming the basis of organic compounds, such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids (DNA and RNA).

Carbon forms strong covalent bonds with various elements, allowing for the creation of complex molecules that are essential to life. In this sense, carbon is a fundamental building block of life on Earth. However, it does not have a specific medical definition as an isolated term.

"Energy-generating resources" is a broad term that refers to various methods and technologies used to convert different forms of energy into electricity or other useful forms. While there isn't a specific medical definition for this term, it is often discussed in the context of public health and environmental medicine due to its impact on air quality, climate change, and human health. Here are some examples of energy-generating resources:

1. Fossil fuels: These include coal, oil, and natural gas, which are non-renewable resources. They are burned to produce heat, which is then converted into electricity. The combustion process releases greenhouse gases and pollutants, contributing to climate change and air pollution-related health issues.
2. Nuclear power: This energy source involves the fission of atomic nuclei to generate heat, which is used to produce steam and drive turbines for electricity generation. While nuclear power itself does not emit greenhouse gases, it poses potential risks associated with radioactive waste disposal, accidents, and proliferation.
3. Renewable resources: These are sustainable energy sources that can be replenished naturally over time. Examples include solar power (photovoltaic or concentrated), wind power, hydroelectric power, geothermal energy, and biomass. These resources have lower environmental impacts and contribute less to air pollution and climate change compared to fossil fuels.
4. Hydrogen fuel cells: These devices convert chemical energy from hydrogen into electricity through an electrochemical reaction with oxygen or another oxidizing agent. They are clean energy sources, as the only byproducts are water and heat. However, the production of hydrogen can have environmental impacts depending on the method used (e.g., steam methane reforming vs. electrolysis powered by renewable energy).
5. Energy storage systems: While not a primary source of energy generation, energy storage technologies like batteries and capacitors play an essential role in optimizing the use of energy-generating resources. They can store excess energy produced during periods of low demand or high resource availability (e.g., solar power during the day) and release it during peak demand or resource scarcity, improving overall system efficiency and reducing the need for backup generation from fossil fuels.

In summary, "energy-generating resources" refer to various methods used to convert different forms of energy into electricity or other useful forms. The environmental and health impacts of these resources vary significantly, with renewable sources generally having lower impacts compared to fossil fuel-based options.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "trees" is not a medical term. It is a common term used in various fields, including biology, ecology, and dendrology, to refer to a woody perennial plant with a single stem or trunk that supports branches and leaves in most species.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, please provide more context so I can offer an accurate and helpful response.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Lignin" is not a medical term. It is a term used in the field of biology and chemistry, particularly in botany and wood science. Lignin is a complex organic polymer that binds cellulose fibers together, providing strength and rigidity to the cell walls of plants. It is a major component of wood and bark.

If you have any medical terms you would like defined or any other questions, please let me know!

Nitrogen is not typically referred to as a medical term, but it is an element that is crucial to medicine and human life.

In a medical context, nitrogen is often mentioned in relation to gas analysis, respiratory therapy, or medical gases. Nitrogen (N) is a colorless, odorless, and nonreactive gas that makes up about 78% of the Earth's atmosphere. It is an essential element for various biological processes, such as the growth and maintenance of organisms, because it is a key component of amino acids, nucleic acids, and other organic compounds.

In some medical applications, nitrogen is used to displace oxygen in a mixture to create a controlled environment with reduced oxygen levels (hypoxic conditions) for therapeutic purposes, such as in certain types of hyperbaric chambers. Additionally, nitrogen gas is sometimes used in cryotherapy, where extremely low temperatures are applied to tissues to reduce pain, swelling, and inflammation.

However, it's important to note that breathing pure nitrogen can be dangerous, as it can lead to unconsciousness and even death due to lack of oxygen (asphyxiation) within minutes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Wood" is not a medical term. It is a common name for various hard, fibrous tissues that make up the trunks and branches of trees and shrubs, as well as a term used for a wide range of items made from these materials. If you have any medical concerns or questions, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

Poaceae is not a medical term but a taxonomic category, specifically the family name for grasses. In a broader sense, you might be asking for a medical context where knowledge of this plant family could be relevant. For instance, certain members of the Poaceae family can cause allergies or negative reactions in some people.

In a medical definition, Poaceae would be defined as:

The family of monocotyledonous plants that includes grasses, bamboo, and sedges. These plants are characterized by narrow leaves with parallel veins, jointed stems (called "nodes" and "internodes"), and flowers arranged in spikelets. Some members of this family are important food sources for humans and animals, such as rice, wheat, corn, barley, oats, and sorghum. Other members can cause negative reactions, like skin irritation or allergies, due to their silica-based defense structures called phytoliths.

The carbon cycle is a biogeochemical cycle that describes the movement of carbon atoms between the Earth's land, atmosphere, and oceans. It involves the exchange of carbon between various reservoirs, including the biosphere (living organisms), pedosphere (soil), lithosphere (rocks and minerals), hydrosphere (water), and atmosphere.

The carbon cycle is essential for the regulation of Earth's climate and the functioning of ecosystems. Carbon moves between these reservoirs through various processes, including photosynthesis, respiration, decomposition, combustion, and weathering. Plants absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere during photosynthesis and convert it into organic matter, releasing oxygen as a byproduct. When plants and animals die, they decompose, releasing the stored carbon back into the atmosphere or soil.

Human activities, such as burning fossil fuels and deforestation, have significantly altered the natural carbon cycle, leading to an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and contributing to global climate change. Therefore, understanding the carbon cycle and its processes is crucial for developing strategies to mitigate the impacts of climate change and promote sustainable development.

A plant root is not a medical term per se, but it is a term from botany, which is the study of plants. However, I can certainly provide a definition for you.

Plant roots are the underground organs of a plant that typically grow downward into the soil. They serve several important functions, including:

1. Anchorage: Roots help to stabilize the plant and keep it upright in the ground.
2. Absorption: Roots absorb water and nutrients from the soil, which are essential for the plant's growth and development.
3. Conduction: Roots conduct water and nutrients up to the above-ground parts of the plant, such as the stem and leaves.
4. Vegetative reproduction: Some plants can reproduce vegetatively through their roots, producing new plants from root fragments or specialized structures called rhizomes or tubers.

Roots are composed of several different tissues, including the epidermis, cortex, endodermis, and vascular tissue. The epidermis is the outermost layer of the root, which secretes a waxy substance called suberin that helps to prevent water loss. The cortex is the middle layer of the root, which contains cells that store carbohydrates and other nutrients. The endodermis is a thin layer of cells that surrounds the vascular tissue and regulates the movement of water and solutes into and out of the root. The vascular tissue consists of xylem and phloem, which transport water and nutrients throughout the plant.

A bioreactor is a device or system that supports and controls the conditions necessary for biological organisms, cells, or tissues to grow and perform their specific functions. It provides a controlled environment with appropriate temperature, pH, nutrients, and other factors required for the desired biological process to occur. Bioreactors are widely used in various fields such as biotechnology, pharmaceuticals, agriculture, and environmental science for applications like production of therapeutic proteins, vaccines, biofuels, enzymes, and wastewater treatment.

A photobioreactor is not a medical term, but rather a term used in the fields of biology, engineering, and environmental science. It refers to a device or system designed for the cultivation of photosynthetic organisms such as algae, cyanobacteria, and other microorganisms using light as an energy source.

In simple terms, a photobioreactor is a bioreactor that uses light to drive the growth of photosynthetic organisms. These systems are often used in research, biotechnology, and wastewater treatment applications to produce valuable products such as biofuels, nutraceuticals, pharmaceuticals, and other high-value compounds.

While photobioreactors may not have a direct medical application, they can contribute to medical research and healthcare through the production of biomass or specific compounds that can be used in medical treatments, diagnostics, or therapeutic interventions.

A medical definition for "plant shoots" may not be readily available, as the term is primarily used in botany and horticulture. However, I can provide you with a general definition:

Plant shoots refer to the above-ground portion of a plant, which typically includes structures like stems, leaves, flowers, and buds. Shoots originate from the seed or the growing tip of the plant and are responsible for photosynthesis, nutrient absorption, and reproduction. In some contexts, "plant shoots" might also refer to new growth that emerges from an existing plant, such as when a leaf or stem sprouts a new branch or flower.

Microalgae are microscopic, simple, thalloid, often unicellular organisms that belong to the kingdom Protista. They can be found in freshwater and marine environments, and they are capable of photosynthesis, which allows them to convert light energy, carbon dioxide, and water into organic compounds such as carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.

Microalgae are a diverse group of organisms that include various taxonomic groups such as cyanobacteria (also known as blue-green algae), diatoms, dinoflagellates, and euglenoids. They have important ecological roles in the global carbon cycle, oxygen production, and nutrient recycling.

In addition to their ecological significance, microalgae have gained attention for their potential applications in various industries, including food and feed, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, biofuels, and environmental bioremediation. Some species of microalgae contain high levels of valuable compounds such as omega-3 fatty acids, antioxidants, pigments, and bioactive molecules that have potential health benefits for humans and animals.

Fermentation is a metabolic process in which an organism converts carbohydrates into alcohol or organic acids using enzymes. In the absence of oxygen, certain bacteria, yeasts, and fungi convert sugars into carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and various end products, such as alcohol, lactic acid, or acetic acid. This process is commonly used in food production, such as in making bread, wine, and beer, as well as in industrial applications for the production of biofuels and chemicals.

Phytoplankton are microscopic photosynthetic organisms that live in watery environments such as oceans, seas, lakes, and rivers. They are a diverse group of organisms, including bacteria, algae, and protozoa. Phytoplankton are a critical component of the marine food chain, serving as primary producers that convert sunlight, carbon dioxide, and nutrients into organic matter through photosynthesis. This organic matter forms the base of the food chain and supports the growth and survival of many larger organisms, including zooplankton, fish, and other marine animals. Phytoplankton also play an important role in global carbon cycling and help to regulate Earth's climate by absorbing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and releasing oxygen.

Biodiversity is the variety of different species of plants, animals, and microorganisms that live in an ecosystem. It also includes the variety of genes within a species and the variety of ecosystems (such as forests, grasslands, deserts, and oceans) that exist in a region or on Earth as a whole. Biodiversity is important for maintaining the health and balance of ecosystems, providing resources and services such as food, clean water, and pollination, and contributing to the discovery of new medicines and other useful products. The loss of biodiversity can have negative impacts on the functioning of ecosystems and the services they provide, and can threaten the survival of species and the livelihoods of people who depend on them.

Fossil fuels are not a medical term, but rather a term used in the field of earth science and energy production. They refer to fuels formed by natural processes such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms. The age of the organisms and their resulting fossil fuels is typically millions of years, and sometimes even hundreds of millions of years.

There are three main types of fossil fuels: coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Coal is primarily composed of carbon and hydrogen, and it is formed from the remains of plants that lived hundreds of millions of years ago in swamps and peat bogs. Petroleum, also known as crude oil, is a liquid mixture of hydrocarbons and other organic compounds, formed from the remains of marine organisms such as algae and zooplankton. Natural gas is primarily composed of methane and other light hydrocarbons, and it is found in underground reservoirs, often in association with petroleum deposits.

Fossil fuels are a major source of energy for transportation, heating, and electricity generation, but their combustion also releases large amounts of carbon dioxide and other pollutants into the atmosphere, contributing to climate change and air pollution.

"Cooking" is not a medical term, but it generally refers to the process of preparing and cooking food. In a medical or nutritional context, "cooking" may refer to the application of heat to food in order to make it safe and more palatable to eat, as well as to improve its nutritional value and digestibility.

Cooking can also have an impact on the nutrient content of food. For example, cooking certain vegetables can increase their bioavailability, or the amount of a nutrient that is available for absorption by the body. On the other hand, cooking some foods at high temperatures or for long periods of time can lead to the loss of certain nutrients, such as vitamins C and B.

It's important to note that the way food is cooked can also affect its safety. For example, undercooked meat, poultry, and seafood can harbor harmful bacteria, such as Salmonella and E. coli, which can cause foodborne illness. It's essential to cook these foods thoroughly to reduce the risk of infection.

In summary, while "cooking" is not a medical term, it has important implications for food safety, nutrition, and digestion.

'Plant development' is not a term typically used in medical definitions, as it is more commonly used in the field of botany to describe the growth and differentiation of plant cells, tissues, and organs over time. However, in a broader context, plant development can be defined as the series of changes and processes that occur from the fertilization of a plant seed to the formation of a mature plant, including germination, emergence, organ formation, growth, and reproduction.

In medicine, terms related to plant development may include "phytotherapy" or "herbal medicine," which refer to the use of plants or plant extracts as medicinal treatments for various health conditions. The study of how these plants develop and produce their active compounds is an important area of research in pharmacology and natural products chemistry.

Cellulases are a group of enzymes that break down cellulose, which is a complex carbohydrate and the main structural component of plant cell walls. These enzymes are produced by various organisms, including bacteria, fungi, and protozoa. They play an important role in the natural decomposition process and have various industrial applications, such as in the production of biofuels, paper, and textiles.

Cellulases work by hydrolyzing the beta-1,4 glycosidic bonds between the glucose molecules that make up cellulose, breaking it down into simpler sugars like glucose. This process is known as saccharification. The specific type of cellulase enzyme determines where on the cellulose molecule it will cleave the bond.

There are three main types of cellulases: endoglucanases, exoglucanases, and beta-glucosidases. Endoglucanases randomly attack internal bonds in the amorphous regions of cellulose, creating new chain ends for exoglucanases to act on. Exoglucanases (also known as cellobiohydrolases) cleave cellobiose units from the ends of the cellulose chains, releasing cellobiose or glucose. Beta-glucosidases convert cellobiose into two molecules of glucose, which can then be further metabolized by the organism.

In summary, cellulases are a group of enzymes that break down cellulose into simpler sugars through hydrolysis. They have various industrial applications and play an essential role in natural decomposition processes.

I believe there may be a slight misunderstanding in your question. "Plant leaves" are not a medical term, but rather a general biological term referring to a specific organ found in plants.

Leaves are organs that are typically flat and broad, and they are the primary site of photosynthesis in most plants. They are usually green due to the presence of chlorophyll, which is essential for capturing sunlight and converting it into chemical energy through photosynthesis.

While leaves do not have a direct medical definition, understanding their structure and function can be important in various medical fields, such as pharmacognosy (the study of medicinal plants) or environmental health. For example, certain plant leaves may contain bioactive compounds that have therapeutic potential, while others may produce allergens or toxins that can impact human health.

Biotechnology is defined in the medical field as a branch of technology that utilizes biological processes, organisms, or systems to create products that are technologically useful. This can include various methods and techniques such as genetic engineering, cell culture, fermentation, and others. The goal of biotechnology is to harness the power of biology to produce drugs, vaccines, diagnostic tests, biofuels, and other industrial products, as well as to advance our understanding of living systems for medical and scientific research.

The use of biotechnology has led to significant advances in medicine, including the development of new treatments for genetic diseases, improved methods for diagnosing illnesses, and the creation of vaccines to prevent infectious diseases. However, it also raises ethical and societal concerns related to issues such as genetic modification of organisms, cloning, and biosecurity.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Panicum" is not a medical term. It is the name of a genus of plants, including many types of grasses, commonly known as panicgrass or switchgrass. If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "food chain" is not typically used in a medical context. It is a concept from ecology that describes the sequence of organisms through which food and energy pass as one organism eats another.

However, if you're referring to "food web" or "dietary intake," these terms might be more applicable in a medical context. For instance, dietary intake refers to what and how much a person consumes, which can have significant implications for their health. A food web, on the other hand, is a more complex network of relationships between different species that consume and are consumed by others, which can help researchers understand the impacts of changes in one species' population or behavior on others within an ecosystem.

If you meant to ask about something else, please provide more context or clarify your question, and I will do my best to provide a helpful answer!

The conservation of natural resources refers to the responsible use and management of natural resources, such as water, soil, minerals, forests, and wildlife, in a way that preserves their availability for future generations. This may involve measures such as reducing waste and pollution, promoting sustainable practices, protecting habitats and ecosystems, and engaging in careful planning and decision-making to ensure the long-term sustainability of these resources. The goal of conservation is to balance the needs of the present with the needs of the future, so that current and future generations can continue to benefit from the many goods and services that natural resources provide.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "tropical climate" is not a medical term. It is a geographical term that refers to the climate of tropical regions, which are located around the equator. These regions are characterized by high temperatures and consistent rainfall throughout the year.

However, it's worth noting that certain environmental factors, such as climate, can have an impact on human health. For instance, tropical climates can contribute to the spread of certain diseases, like malaria and dengue fever, due to the presence of mosquitoes that thrive in warm, wet environments. But a "tropical climate" itself is not a medical condition or diagnosis.

Environmental biodegradation is the breakdown of materials, especially man-made substances such as plastics and industrial chemicals, by microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi in order to use them as a source of energy or nutrients. This process occurs naturally in the environment and helps to break down organic matter into simpler compounds that can be more easily absorbed and assimilated by living organisms.

Biodegradation in the environment is influenced by various factors, including the chemical composition of the substance being degraded, the environmental conditions (such as temperature, moisture, and pH), and the type and abundance of microorganisms present. Some substances are more easily biodegraded than others, and some may even be resistant to biodegradation altogether.

Biodegradation is an important process for maintaining the health and balance of ecosystems, as it helps to prevent the accumulation of harmful substances in the environment. However, some man-made substances, such as certain types of plastics and industrial chemicals, may persist in the environment for long periods of time due to their resistance to biodegradation, leading to negative impacts on wildlife and ecosystems.

In recent years, there has been increasing interest in developing biodegradable materials that can break down more easily in the environment as a way to reduce waste and minimize environmental harm. These efforts have led to the development of various biodegradable plastics, coatings, and other materials that are designed to degrade under specific environmental conditions.

Cellulose is a complex carbohydrate that is the main structural component of the cell walls of green plants, many algae, and some fungi. It is a polysaccharide consisting of long chains of beta-glucose molecules linked together by beta-1,4 glycosidic bonds. Cellulose is insoluble in water and most organic solvents, and it is resistant to digestion by humans and non-ruminant animals due to the lack of cellulase enzymes in their digestive systems. However, ruminants such as cows and sheep can digest cellulose with the help of microbes in their rumen that produce cellulase.

Cellulose has many industrial applications, including the production of paper, textiles, and building materials. It is also used as a source of dietary fiber in human food and animal feed. Cellulose-based materials are being explored for use in biomedical applications such as tissue engineering and drug delivery due to their biocompatibility and mechanical properties.

A plant stem is not typically defined in a medical context, but rather in the field of botany. However, I can certainly provide a general biological definition for you.

In plants, stems are organs that serve primarily as support structures, holding leaves, flowers, and fruits aloft where they can receive sunlight and exchange gases. They also act as conduits, transporting water, nutrients, and sugars made during photosynthesis between the roots and shoots of a plant.

The stem is usually composed of three main tissue systems: dermal, vascular, and ground. The dermal tissue system forms the outermost layer(s) of the stem, providing protection and sometimes participating in gas exchange. The vascular tissue system contains the xylem (which transports water and nutrients upward) and phloem (which transports sugars and other organic compounds downward). The ground tissue system, located between the dermal and vascular tissues, is responsible for food storage and support.

While not a direct medical definition, understanding the structure and function of plant stems can be relevant in fields such as nutrition, agriculture, and environmental science, which have implications for human health.

"Salix" is the genus name for a group of plants commonly known as willows. These are deciduous trees and shrubs that belong to the family Salicaceae. While "Salix" is not a medical term itself, certain species of willow have been used in medicine for their medicinal properties.

For instance, the bark of white willow (Salix alba) contains salicin, which has anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects similar to aspirin. The use of willow bark extract as a natural pain reliever and fever reducer dates back thousands of years in various traditional medicine systems.

However, it's important to note that the modern medical definition of "salicylate" refers to a group of compounds that includes both naturally occurring substances like salicin found in willow bark and synthetic derivatives such as aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid). These compounds share similar therapeutic properties and are used to treat pain, inflammation, and fever.

Indoor air pollution refers to the contamination of air within buildings and structures due to presence of particles, gases, or biological materials that can harmfully affect the health of occupants. These pollutants can originate from various sources including cooking stoves, heating systems, building materials, furniture, tobacco products, outdoor air, and microbial growth. Some common indoor air pollutants include particulate matter, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and mold. Prolonged exposure to these pollutants can cause a range of health issues, from respiratory problems to cancer, depending on the type and level of exposure. Effective ventilation, air filtration, and source control are some of the strategies used to reduce indoor air pollution.

Photosynthesis is not strictly a medical term, but it is a fundamental biological process with significant implications for medicine, particularly in understanding energy production in cells and the role of oxygen in sustaining life. Here's a general biological definition:

Photosynthesis is a process by which plants, algae, and some bacteria convert light energy, usually from the sun, into chemical energy in the form of organic compounds, such as glucose (or sugar), using water and carbon dioxide. This process primarily takes place in the chloroplasts of plant cells, specifically in structures called thylakoids. The overall reaction can be summarized as:

6 CO2 + 6 H2O + light energy → C6H12O6 + 6 O2

In this equation, carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) are the reactants, while glucose (C6H12O6) and oxygen (O2) are the products. Photosynthesis has two main stages: the light-dependent reactions and the light-independent reactions (Calvin cycle). The light-dependent reactions occur in the thylakoid membrane and involve the conversion of light energy into ATP and NADPH, which are used to power the Calvin cycle. The Calvin cycle takes place in the stroma of chloroplasts and involves the synthesis of glucose from CO2 and water using the ATP and NADPH generated during the light-dependent reactions.

Understanding photosynthesis is crucial for understanding various biological processes, including cellular respiration, plant metabolism, and the global carbon cycle. Additionally, research into artificial photosynthesis has potential applications in renewable energy production and environmental remediation.

I apologize, but there seems to be a misunderstanding. "Soil microbiology" is not a medical term; rather, it is a branch of microbiology that deals with the study of microorganisms in soil. It involves understanding the diversity, ecology, and biochemistry of bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa, and other microscopic life forms found in soil. This field has applications in agriculture, environmental science, and waste management but is not directly related to medical definitions or human health.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Fisheries" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Fisheries are places or practices concerned with the catching, processing, or selling of fish, shellfish, and other forms of aquatic life. They can refer to commercial operations, recreational activities, or scientific research related to aquatic species. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I'd be happy to help answer those for you!

Carbon sequestration is the process of capturing and storing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), a greenhouse gas, to mitigate climate change. It can occur naturally through processes such as photosynthesis in plants and absorption by oceans. Artificial or engineered carbon sequestration methods include:

1. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS): This process captures CO2 emissions from large point sources, like power plants, before they are released into the atmosphere. The captured CO2 is then compressed and transported to suitable geological formations for long-term storage.

2. Ocean Sequestration: This method involves directly injecting CO2 into the deep ocean or enhancing natural processes that absorb CO2 from the atmosphere, such as growing more phytoplankton (microscopic marine plants) through nutrient enrichment.

3. Soil Carbon Sequestration: Practices like regenerative agriculture, agroforestry, and cover cropping can enhance soil organic carbon content by increasing the amount of carbon stored in soils. This not only helps mitigate climate change but also improves soil health and productivity.

4. Biochar Sequestration: Biochar is a type of charcoal produced through pyrolysis (heating biomass in the absence of oxygen). When added to soils, biochar can increase soil fertility and carbon sequestration capacity, as it has a high resistance to decomposition and can store carbon for hundreds to thousands of years.

5. Mineral Carbonation: This method involves reacting CO2 with naturally occurring minerals (like silicate or oxide minerals) to form stable mineral carbonates, effectively locking away the CO2 in solid form.

It is important to note that while carbon sequestration can help mitigate climate change, it should be considered as one of many strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and transition towards a low-carbon or carbon-neutral economy.

Industrial microbiology is not strictly a medical definition, but it is a branch of microbiology that deals with the use of microorganisms for the production of various industrial and commercial products. In a broader sense, it can include the study of microorganisms that are involved in diseases of animals, humans, and plants, as well as those that are beneficial in industrial processes.

In the context of medical microbiology, industrial microbiology may involve the use of microorganisms to produce drugs, vaccines, or other therapeutic agents. For example, certain bacteria and yeasts are used to ferment sugars and produce antibiotics, while other microorganisms are used to create vaccines through a process called attenuation.

Industrial microbiology may also involve the study of microorganisms that can cause contamination in medical settings, such as hospitals or pharmaceutical manufacturing facilities. These microorganisms can cause infections and pose a risk to patients or workers, so it is important to understand their behavior and develop strategies for controlling their growth and spread.

Overall, industrial microbiology plays an important role in the development of new medical technologies and therapies, as well as in ensuring the safety and quality of medical products and environments.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Renewable Energy" is not a term that has a medical definition. It is a concept in the field of energy policy and environmental science. Renewable energy refers to energy sources that are naturally replenished and can be harnessed without causing long-term damage to the environment. Examples include solar power, wind power, hydroelectric power, geothermal energy, and biomass. These energy sources are considered important for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and promoting sustainable development.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Fires" is not a medical term that I am aware of. In a general context, a fire refers to the rapid oxidation of a material in the chemical process of combustion, releasing heat, light, and various reaction products. If you are asking about a specific medical term or condition, could you please provide more context or clarify your question? I'm here to help!

Phosphorus is an essential mineral that is required by every cell in the body for normal functioning. It is a key component of several important biomolecules, including adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is the primary source of energy for cells, and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), which are the genetic materials in cells.

Phosphorus is also a major constituent of bones and teeth, where it combines with calcium to provide strength and structure. In addition, phosphorus plays a critical role in various metabolic processes, including energy production, nerve impulse transmission, and pH regulation.

The medical definition of phosphorus refers to the chemical element with the atomic number 15 and the symbol P. It is a highly reactive non-metal that exists in several forms, including white phosphorus, red phosphorus, and black phosphorus. In the body, phosphorus is primarily found in the form of organic compounds, such as phospholipids, phosphoproteins, and nucleic acids.

Abnormal levels of phosphorus in the body can lead to various health problems. For example, high levels of phosphorus (hyperphosphatemia) can occur in patients with kidney disease or those who consume large amounts of phosphorus-rich foods, and can contribute to the development of calcification of soft tissues and cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, low levels of phosphorus (hypophosphatemia) can occur in patients with malnutrition, vitamin D deficiency, or alcoholism, and can lead to muscle weakness, bone pain, and an increased risk of infection.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "seasons" is not a term that has a medical definition. Seasons refer to the four divisions of the year (spring, summer, autumn or fall, and winter) based on the position of the earth in its orbit around the sun. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to try to help answer those!

Population dynamics, in the context of public health and epidemiology, refers to the study of the changes in size and structure of a population over time, as well as the factors that contribute to those changes. This can include birth rates, death rates, migration patterns, aging, and other demographic characteristics. Understanding population dynamics is crucial for planning and implementing public health interventions, such as vaccination programs or disease prevention strategies, as they allow researchers and policymakers to identify vulnerable populations, predict future health trends, and evaluate the impact of public health initiatives.

Herbivory is not a medical term, but rather a term used in biology and ecology. It refers to the practice of consuming plants or plant matter for food. Herbivores are animals that eat only plants, and their diet can include leaves, stems, roots, flowers, fruits, seeds, and other parts of plants.

While herbivory is not a medical term, it is still relevant to the field of medicine in certain contexts. For example, understanding the diets and behaviors of herbivores can help inform public health initiatives related to food safety and disease transmission. Additionally, research on herbivory has contributed to our understanding of the evolution of plant-animal interactions and the development of ecosystems.

'Smoke' is not typically defined in a medical context, but it can be described as a mixture of small particles and gases that are released when something burns. Smoke can be composed of various components including carbon monoxide, particulate matter, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), benzene, toluene, styrene, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Exposure to smoke can cause a range of health problems, including respiratory symptoms, cardiovascular disease, and cancer.

In the medical field, exposure to smoke is often referred to as "secondhand smoke" or "passive smoking" when someone breathes in smoke from another person's cigarette, cigar, or pipe. This type of exposure can be just as harmful as smoking itself and has been linked to a range of health problems, including respiratory infections, asthma, lung cancer, and heart disease.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Forestry" is not a medical term. Forestry is the science and practice of managing forests, plantations, and associated resources for timber, wildlife, recreation, conservation, and other benefits. It involves the application of ecological principles, silvicultural techniques, and management strategies to ensure the sustainability and health of forest ecosystems.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Fresh Water" is not a medical term. It is a term used to describe water that contains low concentrations of dissolved salts and other dissolved minerals. It is distinguished from saline water, which includes saltwater found in the ocean and brackish water found in estuaries. Fresh water is essential for many biological processes and is the primary source of water for human consumption, agriculture, and industrial use.

Seawater is not a medical term, but it is a type of water that covers more than 70% of the Earth's surface. Medically, seawater can be relevant in certain contexts, such as in discussions of marine biology, environmental health, or water safety. Seawater has a high salt content, with an average salinity of around 3.5%, which is much higher than that of freshwater. This makes it unsuitable for drinking or irrigation without desalination.

Exposure to seawater can also have medical implications, such as in cases of immersion injuries, marine envenomations, or waterborne illnesses. However, there is no single medical definition of seawater.

Fertilizers are substances that are added to soil to provide nutrients necessary for plant growth and development. They typically contain macronutrients such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) in forms that can be readily taken up by plants. These three nutrients are essential for photosynthesis, energy transfer, and the production of proteins, nucleic acids, and other vital plant compounds.

Fertilizers may also contain secondary nutrients like calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and sulfur (S) as well as micronutrients such as iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), boron (B), and molybdenum (Mo). These elements play crucial roles in various plant metabolic processes, including enzyme activation, chlorophyll synthesis, and hormone production.

Fertilizers can be organic or synthetic. Organic fertilizers include materials like compost, manure, bone meal, and blood meal, which release nutrients slowly over time as they decompose. Synthetic fertilizers, also known as inorganic or chemical fertilizers, are manufactured chemicals that contain precise amounts of specific nutrients. They can be quickly absorbed by plants but may pose environmental risks if not used properly.

Proper fertilization is essential for optimal plant growth and crop yield. However, overuse or improper application of fertilizers can lead to nutrient runoff, soil degradation, water pollution, and other negative environmental impacts. Therefore, it's crucial to follow recommended fertilizer application rates and practices based on the specific needs of the plants and local regulations.

Autotrophic processes refer to the ability of certain organisms, known as autotrophs, to synthesize their own organic nutrients from inorganic substances using light or chemical energy. This process is essential for the production of organic matter and the formation of the basis of food chains in ecosystems.

In autotrophic processes, organisms use energy to convert carbon dioxide into organic compounds, such as glucose, through a series of metabolic reactions known as carbon fixation. There are two main types of autotrophic processes: photosynthesis and chemosynthesis.

Photosynthesis is the process used by plants, algae, and some bacteria to convert light energy from the sun into chemical energy in the form of organic compounds. This process involves the use of chlorophyll and other pigments to capture light energy, which is then converted into ATP and NADPH through a series of reactions known as the light-dependent reactions. These energy carriers are then used to power the Calvin cycle, where carbon dioxide is fixed into organic compounds.

Chemosynthesis, on the other hand, is the process used by some bacteria to convert chemical energy from inorganic substances, such as hydrogen sulfide or methane, into organic compounds. This process does not require light energy and typically occurs in environments with limited access to sunlight, such as deep-sea vents or soil.

Overall, autotrophic processes are critical for the functioning of ecosystems and the production of food for both plants and animals.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Oceans and Seas" are not medical terms. Generally speaking, an ocean is a large body of saltwater that covers a majority of the Earth's surface, and a sea is a smaller body of saltwater that may be partially enclosed by land. However, if you have any questions related to marine biology or environmental science, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you!

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a colorless, odorless gas that is naturally present in the Earth's atmosphere. It is a normal byproduct of cellular respiration in humans, animals, and plants, and is also produced through the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas.

In medical terms, carbon dioxide is often used as a respiratory stimulant and to maintain the pH balance of blood. It is also used during certain medical procedures, such as laparoscopic surgery, to insufflate (inflate) the abdominal cavity and create a working space for the surgeon.

Elevated levels of carbon dioxide in the body can lead to respiratory acidosis, a condition characterized by an increased concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood and a decrease in pH. This can occur in conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, or other lung diseases that impair breathing and gas exchange. Symptoms of respiratory acidosis may include shortness of breath, confusion, headache, and in severe cases, coma or death.

Zooplankton are not a medical term, but they are an important concept in biology and ecology. Zooplankton refer to small, drifting or floating animals that live in watery environments such as oceans, seas, and freshwater bodies. They include various organisms like tiny crustaceans (such as copepods and krill), jellyfish, arrow worms, and larvae of larger aquatic animals. Zooplankton play a crucial role in food chains and nutrient cycling within aquatic ecosystems.

Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that are among the earliest known life forms on Earth. They are typically characterized as having a cell wall and no membrane-bound organelles. The majority of bacteria have a prokaryotic organization, meaning they lack a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles.

Bacteria exist in diverse environments and can be found in every habitat on Earth, including soil, water, and the bodies of plants and animals. Some bacteria are beneficial to their hosts, while others can cause disease. Beneficial bacteria play important roles in processes such as digestion, nitrogen fixation, and biogeochemical cycling.

Bacteria reproduce asexually through binary fission or budding, and some species can also exchange genetic material through conjugation. They have a wide range of metabolic capabilities, with many using organic compounds as their source of energy, while others are capable of photosynthesis or chemosynthesis.

Bacteria are highly adaptable and can evolve rapidly in response to environmental changes. This has led to the development of antibiotic resistance in some species, which poses a significant public health challenge. Understanding the biology and behavior of bacteria is essential for developing strategies to prevent and treat bacterial infections and diseases.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Atlantic Ocean" is a geographical term referring to one of the five oceans on Earth. It doesn't have a medical definition. The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest ocean, covering approximately 20% of the Earth's surface. It stretches from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean (or, alternatively, to the Antarctica region) in the south, and is bounded by the Americas to the west and Europe and Africa to the east.

Culture media is a substance that is used to support the growth of microorganisms or cells in an artificial environment, such as a petri dish or test tube. It typically contains nutrients and other factors that are necessary for the growth and survival of the organisms being cultured. There are many different types of culture media, each with its own specific formulation and intended use. Some common examples include blood agar, which is used to culture bacteria; Sabouraud dextrose agar, which is used to culture fungi; and Eagle's minimum essential medium, which is used to culture animal cells.

Eucalyptus is defined in medical terms as a genus of mostly Australian trees and shrubs that have aromatic leaves and bark, and oil-containing foliage. The oil from eucalyptus leaves contains a chemical called eucalyptol, which has been found to have several medicinal properties.

Eucalyptus oil has been used in traditional medicine for centuries to treat various health conditions such as respiratory problems, fever, and pain. It has anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, decongestant, and expectorant properties, making it a popular remedy for colds, coughs, and congestion.

Eucalyptus oil is also used in modern medicine as an ingredient in over-the-counter products such as throat lozenges, cough syrups, and topical pain relievers. It is important to note that eucalyptus oil should not be ingested undiluted, as it can be toxic in large amounts.

In addition to its medicinal uses, eucalyptus trees are also known for their rapid growth and ability to drain swampland, making them useful in land reclamation projects.

Waste products, in the context of physiology and medicine, refer to substances that are produced as a result of various metabolic processes within the body's cells but have no further use for the body's normal functioning. These waste materials must be eliminated from the body to maintain homeostasis and prevent toxic accumulation.

Common examples of waste products include:

1. Carbon dioxide (CO2): A byproduct of cellular respiration, which is exhaled through the lungs.
2. Urea: formed in the liver from the breakdown of excess amino acids and proteins, then excreted by the kidneys in urine.
3. Creatinine: a waste product generated from muscle metabolism, eliminated through the kidneys in urine.
4. Water (H2O): A byproduct of various metabolic reactions, excreted as urine or sweat, and lost through respiration and evaporation.
5. Bilirubin: a waste product formed from the breakdown of hemoglobin in red blood cells, eliminated through the bile and feces.
6. Lactic acid: produced during anaerobic metabolism, especially with intense exercise or hypoxia; it can be converted back to pyruvate for energy production or removed by the liver and excreted in urine.
7. Hippuric acid: formed from the conjugation of glycine and benzoic acid, primarily eliminated through urine.
8. Indican: a waste product resulting from the metabolism of tryptophan, excreted in urine after being converted to indigo by intestinal bacteria.
9. Estrogens and androgens: hormonal waste products produced by the gonads and adrenal glands, metabolized and eliminated through urine and feces.

Maintaining the efficient elimination of these waste products is essential for overall health and well-being. Failure to do so can result in various medical conditions, such as kidney or liver failure, that can be life-threatening if left untreated.

I apologize for any confusion, but "agriculture" is not a term that has a medical definition. Agriculture refers to the cultivation and breeding of animals, plants, and fungi for food, fiber, biofuel, medicinal plants, and other products used to sustain and enhance human life. It is an important industry and practice that has been developed over thousands of years and continues to play a critical role in global food production and security.

Fungi, in the context of medical definitions, are a group of eukaryotic organisms that include microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. The study of fungi is known as mycology.

Fungi can exist as unicellular organisms or as multicellular filamentous structures called hyphae. They are heterotrophs, which means they obtain their nutrients by decomposing organic matter or by living as parasites on other organisms. Some fungi can cause various diseases in humans, animals, and plants, known as mycoses. These infections range from superficial, localized skin infections to systemic, life-threatening invasive diseases.

Examples of fungal infections include athlete's foot (tinea pedis), ringworm (dermatophytosis), candidiasis (yeast infection), histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, and aspergillosis. Fungal infections can be challenging to treat due to the limited number of antifungal drugs available and the potential for drug resistance.

Heterotrophic processes refer to the metabolic activities carried out by organisms that cannot produce their own food and have to obtain energy by consuming other organisms or organic substances. These organisms include animals, fungi, and most bacteria. They obtain energy by breaking down complex organic molecules from their environment using enzymes, a process known as respiration or fermentation. The end products of this process are often carbon dioxide, water, and waste materials. This is in contrast to autotrophic processes, where organisms (like plants) synthesize their own food through photosynthesis.

"Drought" is not a medical term. It is a term used in meteorology and environmental science to refer to a prolonged period of abnormally low rainfall, leading to water shortage and scarcity in the affected areas. Droughts can have various impacts on human health, including dehydration, heat-related illnesses, reduced air quality, increased transmission of waterborne diseases, and mental health issues related to stress and displacement. However, drought itself is not a medical condition.

Plankton is not a medical term, but it is a term used in the field of marine biology. Plankton are tiny organisms that live in water and are unable to move independently against the current or tide. They include both plants (phytoplankton) and animals (zooplankton). Phytoplankton are photosynthetic and serve as the base of the ocean food chain, while zooplankton consume phytoplankton and in turn serve as a food source for larger animals. Plankton are important for understanding the health and productivity of aquatic ecosystems.

In the context of medical terminology, "heating" generally refers to the application of heat to an area of the body for therapeutic purposes. This can be done using various methods such as hot packs, heating pads, warm compresses, or even heated wax. The goal of applying heat is to increase blood flow, reduce pain and muscle spasms, and promote healing in the affected area. It's important to note that excessive heating or application of heat to sensitive areas should be avoided, as it can lead to burns or other injuries.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but seaweed is not typically referred to in medical definitions. Seaweed is a common name for various marine macroalgae, which are multicellular aquatic plants found in the ocean. They are often consumed as food and have been used in traditional medicine in some cultures. However, there is no widely accepted medical definition for seaweed. If you're looking for information about a specific compound or substance derived from seaweed that might be relevant to medical definitions, I would be happy to help if you could provide more details.

Agricultural crops refer to plants that are grown and harvested for the purpose of human or animal consumption, fiber production, or other uses such as biofuels. These crops can include grains, fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, and legumes, among others. They are typically cultivated using various farming practices, including traditional row cropping, companion planting, permaculture, and organic farming methods. The choice of crop and farming method depends on factors such as the local climate, soil conditions, and market demand. Proper management of agricultural crops is essential for ensuring food security, promoting sustainable agriculture, and protecting the environment.

Cladocera is a order of small, freshwater crustaceans that are characterized by their compound eyes and leaf-like appendages. They are also known as water fleas due to their jumping motion in the water. Cladocerans are an important part of the aquatic food chain, serving as a food source for larger animals such as fish. They are often used as bioindicators of water quality due to their sensitivity to environmental changes.

I apologize for any confusion, but "plants" is not a term that has a medical definition. The term "plants" refers to a large and diverse group of organisms that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, which is the process of converting sunlight into chemical energy. Plants are typically characterized by having cells with cell walls containing cellulose, chloroplasts containing the pigment chlorophyll, and the ability to synthesize their own food through photosynthesis.

In a medical or biological context, you might be thinking of "plant-based" or "phytomedicine," which refer to the use of plants or plant extracts as a form of medicine or treatment. Phytomedicines have been used for thousands of years in many traditional systems of medicine, and some plant-derived compounds have been found to have therapeutic benefits in modern medicine as well. However, "plants" itself does not have a medical definition.

Eutrophication is the process of excessive nutrient enrichment in bodies of water, which can lead to a rapid growth of aquatic plants and algae. This overgrowth can result in decreased levels of oxygen in the water, harming or even killing fish and other aquatic life. The primary cause of eutrophication is the addition of nutrients, particularly nitrogen and phosphorus, from human activities such as agricultural runoff, sewage and wastewater discharge, and air pollution.

In advanced stages, eutrophication can lead to a shift in the dominant species in the aquatic ecosystem, favoring those that are better adapted to the high-nutrient conditions. This can result in a loss of biodiversity and changes in water quality, making it difficult for many organisms to survive.

Eutrophication is a significant global environmental problem, affecting both freshwater and marine ecosystems. It can lead to harmful algal blooms (HABs), which can produce toxins that are dangerous to humans and animals. In addition, eutrophication can impact water use for drinking, irrigation, recreation, and industry, making it a critical issue for public health and economic development.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Rivers" is not a medical term or concept. It is a geographical term referring to large, flowing bodies of water that usually empty into a sea or an ocean. If you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, I'd be happy to help!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "population density" is actually a term used in population geography and epidemiology, rather than medical terminology. It refers to the number of people living in a specific area or region, usually measured as the number of people per square mile or square kilometer.

However, understanding population density can be important in public health and medicine because it can influence various factors related to health outcomes and healthcare delivery, such as:

1. Disease transmission rates: Higher population densities can facilitate the spread of infectious diseases, particularly those that are transmitted through close contact between individuals.
2. Access to healthcare services: Areas with lower population density might have fewer healthcare resources and providers available, making it more challenging for residents to access necessary medical care.
3. Health disparities: Population density can contribute to health inequities, as urban areas often have better access to healthcare, education, and economic opportunities than rural areas, leading to differences in health outcomes between these populations.
4. Environmental factors: Higher population densities might lead to increased pollution, noise, and other environmental hazards that can negatively impact health.

Therefore, while "population density" is not a medical definition per se, it remains an essential concept for understanding various public health and healthcare issues.

Xylose is a type of sugar that is commonly found in plants and wood. In the context of medical definitions, xylose is often used in tests to assess the function of the small intestine. The most common test is called the "xylose absorption test," which measures the ability of the small intestine to absorb this sugar.

In this test, a patient is given a small amount of xylose to drink, and then several blood and/or urine samples are collected over the next few hours. The amount of xylose that appears in these samples is measured and used to determine how well the small intestine is absorbing nutrients.

Abnormal results on a xylose absorption test can indicate various gastrointestinal disorders, such as malabsorption syndromes, celiac disease, or bacterial overgrowth in the small intestine.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "geologic sediments" is not a term used in medical definitions. Geological sediments are deposits of material that accumulate over time, usually in layers, as a result of natural geological processes such as weathering, erosion, and deposition. These sediments can eventually become rock formations and provide important clues about the Earth's history, including information about past climates, environments, and life on Earth.

Aerial parts of plants refer to the above-ground portions of a plant, including leaves, stems, flowers, and fruits. These parts are often used in medicine, either in their entirety or as isolated extracts, to take advantage of their medicinal properties. The specific components of aerial parts that are used in medicine can vary depending on the plant species and the desired therapeutic effects. For example, the leaves of some plants may contain active compounds that have anti-inflammatory or analgesic properties, while the flowers of others may be rich in antioxidants or compounds with sedative effects. In general, aerial parts of plants are used in herbal medicine to treat a wide range of conditions, including respiratory, digestive, and nervous system disorders, as well as skin conditions and infections.

Temperature, in a medical context, is a measure of the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment. It is usually measured using a thermometer and reported in degrees Celsius (°C), degrees Fahrenheit (°F), or kelvin (K). In the human body, normal core temperature ranges from about 36.5-37.5°C (97.7-99.5°F) when measured rectally, and can vary slightly depending on factors such as time of day, physical activity, and menstrual cycle. Elevated body temperature is a common sign of infection or inflammation, while abnormally low body temperature can indicate hypothermia or other medical conditions.

Metabolic engineering is a branch of biotechnology that involves the modification and manipulation of metabolic pathways in organisms to enhance their production of specific metabolites or to alter their flow of energy and carbon. This field combines principles from genetics, molecular biology, biochemistry, and chemical engineering to design and construct novel metabolic pathways or modify existing ones with the goal of optimizing the production of valuable compounds or improving the properties of organisms for various applications.

Examples of metabolic engineering include the modification of microorganisms to produce biofuels, pharmaceuticals, or industrial chemicals; the enhancement of crop yields and nutritional value in agriculture; and the development of novel bioremediation strategies for environmental pollution control. The ultimate goal of metabolic engineering is to create organisms that can efficiently and sustainably produce valuable products while minimizing waste and reducing the impact on the environment.

Biological models, also known as physiological models or organismal models, are simplified representations of biological systems, processes, or mechanisms that are used to understand and explain the underlying principles and relationships. These models can be theoretical (conceptual or mathematical) or physical (such as anatomical models, cell cultures, or animal models). They are widely used in biomedical research to study various phenomena, including disease pathophysiology, drug action, and therapeutic interventions.

Examples of biological models include:

1. Mathematical models: These use mathematical equations and formulas to describe complex biological systems or processes, such as population dynamics, metabolic pathways, or gene regulation networks. They can help predict the behavior of these systems under different conditions and test hypotheses about their underlying mechanisms.
2. Cell cultures: These are collections of cells grown in a controlled environment, typically in a laboratory dish or flask. They can be used to study cellular processes, such as signal transduction, gene expression, or metabolism, and to test the effects of drugs or other treatments on these processes.
3. Animal models: These are living organisms, usually vertebrates like mice, rats, or non-human primates, that are used to study various aspects of human biology and disease. They can provide valuable insights into the pathophysiology of diseases, the mechanisms of drug action, and the safety and efficacy of new therapies.
4. Anatomical models: These are physical representations of biological structures or systems, such as plastic models of organs or tissues, that can be used for educational purposes or to plan surgical procedures. They can also serve as a basis for developing more sophisticated models, such as computer simulations or 3D-printed replicas.

Overall, biological models play a crucial role in advancing our understanding of biology and medicine, helping to identify new targets for therapeutic intervention, develop novel drugs and treatments, and improve human health.

Mycorrhizae are symbiotic associations between fungi and the roots of most plant species. In a mycorrhizal association, fungi colonize the root tissues of plants and extend their mycelial networks into the surrounding soil. This association enhances the nutrient uptake capacity of the host plant, particularly with regards to phosphorus and nitrogen, while the fungi receive carbohydrates from the plant for their own growth and metabolism.

Mycorrhizal fungi can be broadly classified into two types: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae (or arbuscular mycorrhizae). Ectomycorrhizae form a sheath around the root surface, while endomycorrhizae penetrate the root cells and form structures called arbuscules, where nutrient exchange occurs. Mycorrhizal associations play crucial roles in maintaining ecosystem stability, promoting plant growth, and improving soil structure and fertility.

Chlorophyll is a green pigment found in the chloroplasts of photosynthetic plants, algae, and some bacteria. It plays an essential role in light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis by absorbing light energy, primarily from the blue and red parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, and converting it into chemical energy to fuel the synthesis of carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water. The structure of chlorophyll includes a porphyrin ring, which binds a central magnesium ion, and a long phytol tail. There are several types of chlorophyll, including chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b, which have distinct absorption spectra and slightly different structures. Chlorophyll is crucial for the process of photosynthesis, enabling the conversion of sunlight into chemical energy and the release of oxygen as a byproduct.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "seedling" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is an agricultural and horticultural term that refers to a young plant grown from a seed, typically during the early stages of its growth. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to try to help with those!

Microbial consortia refer to a group or community of microorganisms, including bacteria, archaea, fungi, and viruses, that naturally exist together in a specific environment and interact with each other. These interactions can be synergistic, where the organisms benefit from each other's presence, or competitive, where they compete for resources.

Microbial consortia play important roles in various biological processes, such as biogeochemical cycling, plant growth promotion, and wastewater treatment. The study of microbial consortia is essential to understanding the complex interactions between microorganisms and their environment, and has implications for fields such as medicine, agriculture, and environmental science.

"Alnus" is a genus of flowering plants in the family Betulaceae, commonly known as alders. They are deciduous or evergreen trees or shrubs with simple, alternate leaves and catkins. The term "Alnus" itself is the genus name and does not have a medical definition. However, various species of alders have been used in traditional medicine for their anti-inflammatory, astringent, and diuretic properties. For example, the bark of Alnus glutinosa (common alder) has been used to treat skin diseases, wounds, and diarrhea. It is important to note that the use of alders in modern medicine is limited and further research is needed to establish their safety and efficacy.

I believe there may be a misunderstanding in your question. The term "fishes" is not typically used in a medical context. "Fish" or "fishes" refers to any aquatic organism belonging to the taxonomic class Actinopterygii (bony fish), Chondrichthyes (sharks and rays), or Agnatha (jawless fish).

However, if you are referring to a condition related to fish or consuming fish, there is a medical issue called scombroid fish poisoning. It's a foodborne illness caused by eating spoiled or improperly stored fish from the Scombridae family, which includes tuna, mackerel, and bonito, among others. The bacteria present in these fish can produce histamine, which can cause symptoms like skin flushing, headache, diarrhea, and itchy rash. But again, this is not related to the term "fishes" itself but rather a condition associated with consuming certain types of fish.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Typhaceae" is not a medical term. It is a taxonomic category in botany, specifically the name of a family of flowering plants that includes cattails and bulrushes. In modern classification systems, Typhaceae is often included within the broader family Typhaeaceae or combined with Sparganiaceae into the order Typhales.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or healthcare, please don't hesitate to ask!

I apologize for any confusion, but "Zosteraceae" is not a medical term. It is actually the name of a family of flowering plants, also known as seagrasses, which includes several genera such as *Zostera* and *Heterozostera*. These plants are typically found in marine or brackish water environments and have adapted to living underwater with specialized structures for gas exchange and nutrient uptake.

If you have any medical terms that you would like me to define, please let me know!

Cellulase is a type of enzyme that breaks down cellulose, which is a complex carbohydrate and the main structural component of plant cell walls. Cellulases are produced by certain bacteria, fungi, and protozoans, and are used in various industrial applications such as biofuel production, food processing, and textile manufacturing. In the human body, there are no known physiological roles for cellulases, as humans do not produce these enzymes and cannot digest cellulose.

"Saccharum" is not a medical term, but a genus name in botany. It refers to the sugarcane plant (*Saccharum officinarum*), which is a tall perennial grass native to tropical regions of Southeast Asia. The sap of this plant contains high amounts of sucrose and has been used as a sweetener for thousands of years.

In a medical context, "saccharum" might be encountered in the form of sugar-based ingredients, such as dextrose (glucose) or sucrose, which are derived from sugarcane or other sugar-rich plants. These substances can be used in various medical applications, including intravenous fluids and nutritional supplements.

This can be the biomass of particular species or the biomass of a particular community or habitat. Biomass (energy), biomass ... Look up biomass in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Biomass is a term used in several contexts: in the context of ecology it ... Biomass (satellite) - an Earth observation satellite Houghton, R. A. (2008-01-01), "Biomass", in Jørgensen, Sven Erik; Fath, ... In the latter context, there are variations in how biomass is defined, e.g. only from plants, or from plants and algae, or from ...
Biomass is categorized either as biomass harvested directly for energy (primary biomass), or as residues and waste: (secondary ... Look up biomass in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Biomass explained (U.S. Energy Information Administration) Biomass Energy ( ... WBA 2019, p. 3. In the EU, 60% of all renewable energy comes from biomass. 75% of all biomass is used in the heating and ... EIA (2022). "Biomass and the environment". U.S. Energy Information Administration. EIA (2021). "Biomass explained". U.S. Energy ...
... is a concept in plant biology which indicates the relative proportion of plant biomass present in the ... Biomass allocation is the end result of a number of processes which take place in the plant. It starts with the way sugars are ... The fractions of biomass present in leaves and roots are also relevant variables in Plant growth analysis. A common way to ... A next level of analysis is to measure the growth allocation: what is the increase in total biomass of a plant, and to what ...
"Biomass". ESA. 3 May 2019. Retrieved 27 May 2019. "The Earth Explorer Biomass". ESA. Retrieved 22 February 2019. Arcioni, M.; ... Kramer, Herbert J. (8 December 2018). "Biomass (Biomass monitoring mission for Carbon Assessment)". eoPortal - Earth ... "The BIOMASS mission - an ESA Earth Explorer candidate to measure the BIOMASS of the earth's forests" (PDF). 2010 IEEE ... The amount of biomass and forest height will be measured at a resolution of 200 m, and forest disturbances such as clear- ...
Allocation of biomass is put towards the limit to growth; a limit below ground will focus biomass to the roots and a limit ... Plants grown in dry conditions often have a decreased total biomass production but they also contribute more of their biomass ... trees devote a large portion of their biomass to roots. But as soil productivity increases, biomass is primarily allocated to ... Biomass partitioning causes this sugar to be divided in a way that maximizes growth, provides the most fitness, and allows for ...
"Biomass Briquettes." Web. 30 November 2010. "AGICO - Biomass Briquette Machine." AGICO Biomass Briquette Machine. ... "Feed Biomass." Web. 30 Nov. 2010. "Biomass Briquettes for Green Electricity Production." 4 May ... The compressed biomass is also much easier to transport since it is more dense, therefore allowing more biomass to be ... One of the most common variables of the biomass briquette production process is the way the biomass is dried out. Manufacturers ...
Biomass can refer to species biomass, which is the mass of one or more species, or to community biomass, which is the mass of ... Sum of [(biomass m−22)*(area m2)] from table 3 in Sanderson, M.G. 1996 Biomass of termites and their emissions of methane and ... The total global biomass has been estimated at about 550 billion tonnes C. A breakdown of the global biomass is given by ... How biomass is measured depends on why it is being measured. Sometimes, the biomass is regarded as the natural mass of ...
... can be broadly classified as virgin biomass, waste biomass, and energy crops. Virgin biomass includes ... Biomass can be a carbon neutral source of energy in the long run. However depending on the source of biomass, it will not be ... Any biomass rich in cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin are commonly referred to as lignocellulosic biomass. Each component ... Lignocellulose refers to plant dry matter (biomass), so called lignocellulosic biomass. It is the most abundantly available raw ...
... is a biomass fired CHP power station located in the town of Chilton in County Durham. Opened in 2011, the ... Quinault, Caealia (2 June 2011). "Dalkia's £40m biomass plant nears completion". Retrieved 19 August 2011. ... announced their plans to build a biomass fueled CHP power station in the County Durham town of Chilton. The site chosen had ...
The Czech Biomass Association (CZ Biom - Czech: České sdružení pro biomasu) is a NGO, which supports the development of ... Members of CZ BIOM are scientists, specialists, entrepreneurs, and activists interested in using biomass as an energy resource ... CZ BIOM is a member of the European Biomass Association. "Mezinárodní týden kompostování otevře veřejnosti provoz kompostáren. ... Only biomass would be enough for the Czech Republic's consumption by the end of the year.]. Blesk (in Czech). Retrieved 2021-10 ...
... energy portal Bioconversion of biomass to mixed alcohol fuels Bioenergy Biofuel Bioliquids Biomass Biomass gasification Biomass ... Biomass to liquid (BtL or BMtL) is a multi-step process of producing synthetic hydrocarbon fuels made from biomass via a ... Sugarcane grows in irrigated lands of tropics and subtropics which can produce 15 kg biomass per square meter area. It is also ... Initially biomass undergoes pyrolysis process to produce pyrolysis gases and biochar. The volatile organic compounds in ...
Biomass and waste biomass fibres are derived from renewable sources, where the former is grown as the main crop for fibre ... Shuvo, Ikra (2020). "Producing light-weight bast fibres from canola biomass for technical textiles". Textile Research Journal. ... shadhin, Md (13 October 2021). "Novel cattail fiber composites: converting waste biomass into reinforcement for composites". ...
The Willow Biomass Project is a collaborative effort by members of the Salix Consortium to grow willow and other sustainable ... The Willow Biomass Project "Willowpedia: A Resource for Shrub Willow Bioenergy Crops," Cornell University (Sustainable ... The project, funded through the U.S. Department of Energy's Biomass Power for Rural Development Program, seeks to commercialize ...
Biomass Thermal Energy Council - Information on Biomass and legislation on biomass in the US Innovative biomass power plant ... Because forest based biomass is typically derived from wood that has lower commercial value, forest biomass is typically ... Biomass heating systems generate heat from biomass. The systems may use direct combustion, gasification, combined heat and ... "Types of Biomass Heating Systems". Hurst Boiler. "Biomass System Design - Selected Eco Energy". Selected Eco Energy. Retrieved ...
Caucuses of the United States Congress Biomass Biomass Thermal Energy Council (Wikipedia articles in need of updating from ... "Biomass Thermal Energy Council Praises Congressional Biomass Caucus Formation, Calls for Additional House Members". Archived ... The Congressional Biomass Caucus is a bipartisan caucus of the United States House of Representatives co-chaired by ... The caucus seeks to support the development of biomass and elevate the renewable resource's profile in Congress. As of December ...
... , also Soden Biomass Power Station, is a c. 75 MW (101,000 hp) biomass-fired thermal power plant ... derived from incinerating biomass, primarily cocoa waste. With abundant raw material, other biomass-fired power stations are in ... Energy portal List of power stations in Ivory Coast Ayebo Biomass Power Station Kakamega Waste To Energy Plant Boris Ngounou (5 ... Voice of America (2 July 2018). "Ivory Coast Eyes Biomass Power Generation From Cocoa Waste". Voice of America. Washington DC, ...
The European Algae Biomass Association (EABA), established on 2 June 2009, is the European association representing both ... ART Fuels Forum European Society of Biochemical Engineering Sciences Algae Biomass Organization "Members". EABA. 16 June 2011. ... Algae biomass producers, College and university associations and consortia in Europe). ...
The Šiauliai Biomass Power Plant is a biomass combined heat and power plant in Šiauliai, Lithuania. It supplies heat to almost ...
... , also Biovéa Biomass Power Station, is a 46 MW (62,000 hp) biomass-fired thermal power plant under ... The Ayebo biomass power plant is under development by the consortium that owns it. The owners formed a special purpose vehicle ... Yunus Kemp (21 July 2023). "Cote D'Ivoire Biomass Power Station To Be Fuelled By Palm Tree Leaves". ESI-Africa. Cape Town, ... Energy portal List of power stations in Ivory Coast Divo Biomass Power Station Jean Marie Takouleu (13 December 2019). "Ivory ...
... , also Sappi Ngodwana Biomass Power Station, is a 25 MW (34,000 hp) biomass-fired thermal power ... Update On 25MWE Biomass Power Plant For Sappi Ngodwana Pulp And Paper Mill As of 12 March 2020. [1] (Articles with short ... A biomass storage unit will be constructed as part of this project. The table below illustrates the shareholding in Ngodwana ... South Africa Forestry Online (April 2018). "Sappi Southern Africa is set to build a 25MW biomass power plant at its Ngodwana ...
The North Blyth Biomass Project was a proposed biomass-fired power station planned to be located at North Blyth, Northumberland ... "North Blyth biomass power station plans go on show". The Journal. 9 September 2010. Archived from the original on 4 April 2012 ... "North Blyth Biomass Power Station plans take shape". The Journal. 21 March 2011. Archived from the original on 4 October 2011. ... In September 2008, the Port of Blyth authority announced that it was planning to build a biomass power station on the redundant ...
... is a planned biomass power station, that is to be built on the River Tees at Billingham. It is ... 200 million biomass plant wins planning approval". New Energy Focus. 16 October 2009. Retrieved 23 December 2010.[permanent ... dead link] Blackburn, Mike (16 October 2009). "Billingham biomass power station to go ahead". Retrieved 23 ...
... Biomass Power and Thermal International Renewable Energy Agency (All articles with bare URLs for ... "Mission , Biomass Thermal Energy Council (BTEC ... The Biomass Thermal Energy Council (BTEC) is a nonprofit organization in the United States focused on advancing the use of ... The organization promotes biomass thermal energy as a renewable, responsible, clean and energy-efficient pathway to meeting ...
The Milltown Biomass-to-Energy Power Station was proposed as a 28 MWe biomass-to-electrical energy power station to be built ... The plant was originally to use woody biomass material from a number of local forest products and industrial sources, including ... the facility would have used fluidized-bed boiler technology to enable incineration of a wide variety of woody biomass ...
The Biomass Research and Demonstration Facility uses biomass to create clean heat and energy. This facility is located at 2329 ... It utilizes biomass in the form of wood chips which it treats to create fuel for its bioenergy systems. Some of its other ... The Biomass Research and Demonstration Facility takes advantage of gasification processes resulting in a clean source of ... Moisture content in wood chips is reduced to 20% by the biomass dryer Treated wood chips are conveyed by a horizontal auger ...
Through bioconversion of biomass to a mixed alcohol fuel, more energy from the biomass will end up as liquid fuels than in ... The bioconversion of biomass to mixed alcohol fuels can be accomplished using the MixAlco process. ... As the microorganisms anaerobically digest the biomass and convert it into a mixture of carboxylic acids, the pH must be ... it is ensured that more energy from the biomass will end up as liquid fuels rather than excess heat/electricity. 3 CH3COOH + 6 ...
"Republic Services announces LFGTE project in California". Biomass. 4 May 2015. Retrieved 13 July 2016. Gerlat, Allan (27 July ... "Republic Services announces LFGTE project in California". Biomass Magazine. 4 May 2015. Retrieved 13 July 2016. Toplikar, Dave ... Voegele, Erin (30 August 2018). "Republic Services highlights RNG efforts in sustainability report". Biomass Magazine. ...
Dubbe, D.R.; Garver, E.G.; Pratt, D.C. (1988). "Production of cattail (Typha spp.) biomass in Minnesota, USA". Biomass. 17 (2 ... "Nutrient removal and bio-energy production from Netley-Libau Marsh at Lake Winnipeg through annual biomass harvesting". Biomass ...
"Loci Controls announces 3 new RNG projects". Biomass. 19 August 2020. Retrieved 21 August 2020. "Loci Controls gets $765,000 to ...
Chiesa, Simone; Gnansounou, Edgard (2011). "Protein extraction from biomass in a bioethanol refinery - Possible dietary ... Biomass and Bioenergy. 67: 466-472. doi:10.1016/j.biombioe.2014.05.020. Ostrowski, Henry T. (1979). "The Isolation of Protein ... Biomass. 3 (2): 138-162. doi:10.3390/biomass3020010. ISSN 2673-8783. Agbede, J.; Adegbenro, M.; Aletor, O.; Mohammed, A. (2007- ... Biomass. 3 (2): 163-187. doi:10.3390/biomass3020011. ISSN 2673-8783. Pirie, N. W (1971). "Leaf protein:its agronomy, ...
4 Million Funding Boost for UK Biomass. Wednesday, 25 August 2021. REM The Department for Business, Energy and Industrial ... Yokogawa Establishes Company to Advance Biomass Materials Business. Wednesday, 24 March 2021. REM Yokogawa Electric Corporation ... Scott Peters, D-Calif., have each received the Champion of algae Award from the algae Biomass Organization. The award is ... to develop businesses related to the production and sales of innovative plant-derived biomass materials, as well as associated ...
... until recently the characteristics of the biomass market m ... Biomass * Fuel quality * Market monitoring study of Spanish ... Although biomass has always been used, until recently the characteristics of the biomass market meant that there were no clear ... For this reason, prices in the biomass market in Spain have been monitored since mid-2014. This has been done by implementing a ... Within the scope of this work, quarterly reports have been made on biomass prices and quarterly comparisons of the results ...
This can be the biomass of particular species or the biomass of a particular community or habitat. Biomass (energy), biomass ... Look up biomass in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Biomass is a term used in several contexts: in the context of ecology it ... Biomass (satellite) - an Earth observation satellite Houghton, R. A. (2008-01-01), "Biomass", in Jørgensen, Sven Erik; Fath, ... In the latter context, there are variations in how biomass is defined, e.g. only from plants, or from plants and algae, or from ...
Request your copy of the sample delegate list to see a snapshot of who is already registered to attend the Argus Biomass ...
Ionic Liquids as Promising Solvents for Biomass Derived Mannitol and Xylitol. *Ana Rita C. Morais ... "Ionic Liquids as Promising Solvents for Biomass Derived Mannitol and Xylitol" on the basis of the results of an investigation ...
Biomass Magazines international readership includes owners and managers of biomass power, CHP, and district heating facilities ... As part of the BBI International family of trade publications, Biomass Magazine is committed to editorial excellence and high- ... the publication maintains a core editorial focus on biomass logistics: generating, cultivating, collecting, transporting, ... and technology providers engaged in biomass utilization in 40 countries. ...
Renewables trade body disappointed with new biomass development cap. Government plans to introduce a cap on new biomass ...
... Journal. Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society ... Structural polysaccharides and lignin represent the major part of the lignocellulosic biomass. The characterization of these ... Review on analytical methods for lignocellulosic biomass structural polysaccharides. ... Review on analytical methods for lignocellulosic biomass structural polysaccharides. Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and ...
the eu needs biomass sustainability criteria it is wrong and dangerous to assume that all biomass is carbon-neutral. ... promoting the notion that any biomass is good biomass. That is nonsense. In terms of its impact on global warming, biomass can ... The EU needs biomass sustainability criteria It is wrong and dangerous to assume that all biomass is carbon-neutral. ... Many would reach the wrong conclusion - that any biomass is bad biomass. ...
When autocomplete results are available use up and down arrows to review and enter to select. ...
From DNA to biomass: opportunities and challenges in species quantification of bulk fisheries products. Vitenskapelig artikkel ...
Estimating stand biomass in the Tamaulipan thornscrub of northeastern Mexico José Návara, Eduardo Méndeza and Virginia Daleb a ... The results indicated that total standing weighted biomass averages 60.31 12.24 Mg ha -1, composed of leaf (2.51 0.47 Mg ha -1 ... Biomass components (i.e., leaves, branches, stem, and roots) were measured in 55 (5 m 5 m) quadrats across northeastern Mexico ... Total aboveground standing biomass was estimated on a per ha basis using six equations from two additive procedures, and ...
With Steepers Hydrofaction technology it is possible to convert up to 85 per cent of incoming biomass on an energy basis, ... Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) applies supercritical water as a reaction medium for the conversion of biomass directly into a ... Steepers unique process mimics and accelerates nature by subjecting wet biomass to heat and high pressure. The process ... Steepers Hydrofaction process, when combined with Topsoes technology, completes the pathway from biomass waste to drop-in ...
Diploid genomic architecture of Nitzschia inconspicua, an elite biomass production diatom. Published in:. Scientific Reports 11 ... illuminate the physiology of benthic pennate diatoms and harness their unique adaptations to support commercial algae biomass ...
Ngaphezulu kwe-10 kg ye-biomass etholakale nge-microalgae elinyiwe ezokwenza inqubekela phambili ku-biomass kanye nokusimama. ... Indlela ephelele ye-athikili: Renovables Verdes » Amandla avuselelekayo » I-Biomass » I-cyclalg ithola i-12 kg yokuqala ye- ... I-cyclalg ithola i-12 kg yokuqala ye-biomass evela ku-microalgae. Daniel Palomino. ... Kule phrojekthi i-12kg yokuqala ye-microalgae biomass entsha itholakele ngemiphumela ephakeme kunokulindelekile ngokuya ...
Plasma MicroRNA Profiling of Plasmodium falciparum Biomass and Association with Severity of Malaria Disease Himanshu Gupta12. ... Plasma MicroRNA Profiling of Plasmodium falciparum Biomass and Association with Severity of Malaria Disease. ...
Improved Biomass Cooking Stoves This site exists to help people develop better stoves for cooking with biomass fuels in ... Thanks to Alex English for the original (Crest/ REPP) biomass stoves site design. ...
Biomass-derived graphene-like materials as active electrodes for supercapacitor applications: A critical review. Athanasiou M ... Biomass-derived graphene-like materials as active electrodes for supercapacitor applications: A critical review ...
Tags agricultural biomass, biofuels, Congress, ethanol, subsidies Biomass power isnt truly "renewable" if it depends on BCAP ... Biomass power generators and biofuels producers are all looking to the same feedstocks. The economics of corn stover collection ... The BCAP subsidy has been giving biomass producers $45 per dry ton, which works out to be around $35 per ton at typical ... Nationwide, the overwhelming majority of biomass power plants proposed around the country plan on using forest wood as fuel. In ...
... Cool Planet Energy Systems, a producer of petrol from non-food biomass, is ... And second, it is emerging as a national leader in high-tech biomass and renewable energy applications. ... Canadian Government invests in Indigenous biomass district heating system. Bioenergy solutions can offset greenhouse gas ... Rural businesses encouraged to apply for AD, biomass project funding in US ...
black carbon, marine sediment, soot, biomass. in ACS Omega. volume. 7. pages. 35102 - 35108. publisher. The American Chemical ... This coincides with a change towards the increased use of biomass for both municipal and regional energy production in ... This coincides with a change towards the increased use of biomass for both municipal and regional energy production in ... Recent Increased Loading of Carbonaceous Pollution from Biomass Burning in the Baltic Sea. *Mark ...
Hanks, D. *, McAvoy, D. *, & Brain, R. (2013, April). Energy educational programming in biomass: Research, outreach, and ...
Mongabay: Australia rejects forest biomass in first blow to wood pellet industry. As 2022 came to a close, Australia did ... Forest advocates used the image of "dead koalas" in lobbying energy companies to not turn to biomass. This story demonstrates ... Mongabay: The Netherlands to stop paying subsidies to untruthful biomass firms Sea Change Radio: Wood Pellets - The New Coal ... With that definition change, Australia virtually halted the ever-growing biomass industry - which is thriving in the United ...
Captive power generation is plagued with some issues. The main idea behind setting up solar based captive power plants was to get uninterrupted power supply and reduce the diesel cost. Industrial users who have the required resources to set up their own power plants for internal consumption can put up SPV captive power plant. But, there are certain issues in setting up solar based captive power plants.. Uncertainty in weather: The design of a solar power generation system involves either the use of historical weather data or weather forecast methods to predict the future temporal evolution of the solar energy system. Despite the use of such methods, the behavior of weather conditions always involves high uncertainty. Unless such uncertainty is accounted for during the system design, the performance of the solar-based system will only be optimum within the range of the considered weather conditions. Potentially unpredictable weather fluctuations will inevitably result to suboptimal system ...
Every year, our biomass stations convert over 1,000,000 tonnes of sustainable biomass fuels into electricity.​. Since the ... commissioning of our first biomass station in 1992, we have built strong relationships with fuel suppliers and have developed ...
Tag Archives: Biomass Boilers. Biomass Boilers and Combined Heat and Power Systems and the Planning System. Posted on December ... Posted in Latest Planning News , Tagged Biomass Boilers, Combined Heat and Power, General Permitted Development Order, Planning ... But if you are thinking of installing a Biomass Boiler or Combined Heat and Power System do you need planning permission or not ... Wood-fuelled heating systems, also called biomass systems, burn wood pellets, chips or logs to provide warmth in a single room ...
... shortlist and contact local biomass installers in Oxfordshire. Check MCS accreditation & RECC. Compare quotes. ... Find biomass installers in Oxfordshire. View detailed profiles, contact companies, compare quotes and save on Biomass today. ...
Biomass conversion. Converting biomass into a storable and universally usable resource is a challenge that researchers and ... RECENSO runs the development and conversion business of biomass under the CONVERBIO brand. The company of same name is part of ... It has its own test facility, with which different biomass types can be tested for their suitability for oiling. ... The carbonization/gasification/combustion of biomass coupled with immediate energy use is nowadays implemented in numerous ...
Reducing dependency on non-renewable resources, and substituting fossil-based resources with biomass by way of a transition to ... insights on the upcoming needs of biomass for the EU bio-based industry are required, together with information about its ...
Drax partners with Port of Tyne for biomass imports. Energy Live News - August 23, 2023. 0 ...
  • ABEA stresses that any accurate assessment must account for the alternative fate of biomass fuels. (
  • It does, though, have the support of a group of biomass trade associations, who argue that any sustainability criteria for wood- or waste-based fuels should be non-binding. (
  • Compulsory, hard-nosed sustainability criteria for biomass fuels would not only serve the environment, but would also be in the interests of the biomass industry and of the Commission. (
  • Steeper's Hydrofaction process, when combined with Topsoe's technology, completes the pathway from biomass waste to drop-in liquid fuels and is compatible with existing refining infrastructure. (
  • This site exists to help people develop better stoves for cooking with biomass fuels in developing regions. (
  • Every year, our biomass stations convert over 1,000,000 tonnes of sustainable biomass fuels into electricity. (
  • The vast majority of biomass used for bioenergy does come from plants. (
  • Nationwide, the overwhelming majority of biomass power plants proposed around the country plan on using forest wood as fuel . (
  • Fortum is launching a significant development project that aims to manufacture high-value products from agricultural residue and woody biomass, with the aim to replace the use of fossil and other environmentally taxing raw materials. (
  • In addition to utilising woody biomass, the downstream processing opportunities for agrocultural biomass, such as straw, are also being explored. (
  • citation needed] Examples of emerging bioproducts or biobased products include biofuels, bioenergy, biochar, starch-based and cellulose-based ethanol, bio-based adhesives, biochemicals, bioplastics, etc.[citation needed] In biological wastewater treatment processes, such as the activated sludge process, the term "biomass" is used to denote the mass of bacteria and other microorganisms that break down pollutants in wastewater. (
  • Biomass power generators and biofuels producers are all looking to the same feedstocks. (
  • Biomass and Biofuels Association. (
  • The aim of my researchproject is to understand the environmental trade-offs of economic policy interventions targeting the increase of biomass production for biofuels in Swedish agricultural land. (
  • Valorization of Spirodela polyrrhiza biomass for the production of biofuels for distributed energy. (
  • Biomass is a term used in several contexts: in the context of ecology it means living organisms, and in the context of bioenergy it means matter from recently living (but now dead) organisms. (
  • Biomass (energy), biomass used for energy production or in other words: biological mass used as a renewable energy source (usually produced through agriculture, forestry or aquaculture methods) Bioenergy, energy sources derived from biological material Solid fuel, forms of bioenergy that are solid Biofuel Energy crops Biomass is also used as a term for the mass of microorganisms that are used to produce industrial products like enzymes and medicines. (
  • A recent article from the Des Moines Register reveals a great deal about the fragile economics underlying biomass harvesting for POET bioenergy (maybe you've seen their earnest commercials of a rugged guy in a hardhat reciting "The American Dollar: A Poem" in front of waving American flags? (
  • Projects fueled by biomass, biogas, RNG or renewable hydrogen are among those eligible for the funding. (
  • The leading magazine for the biomass, biogas and biopower sector. (
  • As with fuel harvesting for biomass power, cellulosic ethanol feedstock collection is heavily dependent on subsidies like the Biomass Crop Assistance Program, which is likely to be at least partially defunded in the Senate following a vote for its defunding in the House Appropriations Committee . (
  • Fortum and the partners will validate and optimize novel biomass fractionation and refining technologies to produce high-quality cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, and further develop high-value end products from these fractions: e.g. sustainable textiles, industrial dispersants and ingredients for consumer goods. (
  • The end-products include sustainable aviation fuel (SAF), marine biofuel, and renewable diesel from waste biomass. (
  • In the latter context, there are variations in how biomass is defined, e.g. only from plants, or from plants and algae, or from plants and animals. (
  • U.S. Sen. Sheldon Whitehouse, D-R.I., and U.S. Rep. Scott Peters, D-Calif., have each received the 'Champion of algae ' Award from the algae Biomass Organization. (
  • Chronic toxicity: There are data for 3 trophic levels, most sensitive algae 'NOEC 72 h (biomass, growth) = 0.76 microg/L (OECD 201). (
  • Request your copy of the sample delegate list to see a snapshot of who is already registered to attend the Argus Biomass Conference in London, 23-25 April 2024. (
  • Structural polysaccharides and lignin represent the major part of the lignocellulosic biomass. (
  • Thanks to Alex English for the original (Crest/ REPP) biomass stoves site design. (
  • What makes people cook with improved biomass stoves? (
  • The Canadian National Research Council (NRC) has collaborated on the development of the country's first algal biorefinery demonstration project to recycle CO2 into algal biomass. (
  • Government plans to introduce a cap on new biomass developments to limit public spending are "not without risk", according to trade body the Renewable Energy Association. (
  • And second, it is emerging as a national leader in high-tech biomass and renewable energy applications. (
  • In September, the European Union punted on an opportunity to correct what forest advocates and climate scientists stress is an erroneous definition, that burning forest biomass is a renewable energy source, as this story explains. (
  • But as I report here, the liberal Australian government, persuaded by a relentless pro-forest campaign, reversed its existing policy to note that burning forest biomass is not a renewable energy source. (
  • A bill introduced by Sen. Cory Booker, D-N.J., would require the U.S. EPA to alter the way it assesses lifecycle GHG emissions from forest biomass. (
  • Moreover, after criteria-setting there will be another tough job: propagating the criteria into related rules and regulations (such as the EU's emissions trading scheme and into various building certification schemes, which erroneously count all biomass/biofuel emissions as inherently carbon-neutral). (
  • Faced with a tough but desperately needed decision, the European Commission is ducking the issue: in December, its directorate-general for energy and transport recommended that environmental safeguards for the use of biomass should not be established. (
  • Specializing in the Development of Biomass Energy and Environmental processes. (
  • Biomass can originate from several different sources such as crops, or waste from agriculture and the forestry industry. (
  • This can be the biomass of particular species or the biomass of a particular community or habitat. (
  • It is wrong and dangerous to assume that all biomass is carbon-neutral. (
  • In terms of its impact on global warming, biomass can range from carbon-negative to carbon-positive. (
  • Topsoe, a global leader in carbon emission reduction technologies, and Steeper, a pioneer within biomass conversion technologies, have signed a global licensing agreement for a complete waste-to-fuel solution. (
  • Forest advocates used the image of "dead koalas" in lobbying energy companies to not turn to biomass. (
  • With Steeper's Hydrofaction technology it is possible to convert up to 85 per cent of incoming biomass on an energy basis, making it one of the most effective conversion technologies available. (
  • The Editor-in-Chief of Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data retracts the article, "Ionic Liquids as Promising Solvents for Biomass Derived Mannitol and Xylitol" on the basis of the results of an investigation issued by the authors' institutions that concluded the data could not be scientifically validated. (
  • Plants were cultured under phytotron conditions at 24 °C. After 10 days of culture , plant growth , fresh and dry biomass , as well as physio-chemical parameters such as chlorophyll content index, gas exchange parameters (net photosynthesis , transpiration, stomatal conductance and intercellular CO2 concentration), chlorophyll fluorescence measurements were analyzed. (
  • Therefore, understanding the chemistry of 'biomass' is an ongoing, complex task. (
  • With the agreement, Topsoe will be able to provide a complete waste-to-fuel technology solution and at the same time a one-stop solution for refineries, project developers, and industries having access to excess waste biomass. (
  • The last two quarters have seen quite a bit of activity in biomass technology, pyrolysis and waste-to-energy projects, both in the U.S. and abroad," says Lee. (
  • Fortum already has significant competence in utilising biomass in district heating business and the company is strongly committed to development of the circular economy. (
  • Considering the main objectives of a circular economy, Lemnaceae plants have great potential for different types of techniques to valorize their biomass for use in biofuel production . (
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of salt stress on the growth and development of S. polyrrhiza and the valorization of biomass for biofuel and energy production in a circular economy. (
  • Moisture in wood and biomass operations impacts product as well as equipment, energy usage, production efficiency, downtime and more. (
  • Cool Planet Energy Systems, a producer of petrol from non-food biomass, is to build three biomass-to-biofuel production plants in the US state of Louisiana for an investment of $168 million (€125.9 million). (
  • This coincides with a change towards the increased use of biomass for both municipal and regional energy production in Scandinavia. (
  • A comprehensive and essential overview of materials derived from biomass, including extraction techniques, important building blocks and a wide range of applications ranging from energy to food. (
  • Producing chemicals and materials from biomass instead of fossil resources is a much more complicated process. (
  • Many proposed biomass projects fail to do this. (
  • Results of search for 'su:{Biomass energy. (
  • Within the scope of this work, quarterly reports have been made on biomass prices and quarterly comparisons of the results obtained with other similar indicators at national and international level. (
  • A summary of the results obtained for biomass prices can be consulted in Studies, reports and statistics ("Energy prices" section) on the IDAE website. (
  • This led to uncertainty among potential users, and also created an additional difficulty in updating prices in contracts between users and energy services companies working with biomass. (
  • For biomass, some of the particulars are different (which is why separate criteria are needed), but the potential for public outrage and government/industry embarrassment is similar. (
  • Steeper's unique process mimics and accelerates nature by subjecting wet biomass to heat and high pressure. (
  • The additive equations developed in seemingly unrelated linear regression that use quadrat attributes provided unbiased biomass estimates within the range of precision reported by conventional procedures. (
  • The BCAP subsidy has been giving biomass producers $45 per dry ton , which works out to be around $35 per ton at typical moisture content for stover. (
  • Ngokunjalo, ngaphezu kukaCener noNeiker-Tencalia (obengumxhumanisi wephrojekthi), iTecnalia Foundation, AIN (Navarra Industry Association), iCatar-CRITT (Centre d'Application et de Transfromation des AgroRessource) ne-Apesa (Association pour l I-Environnement et la Sécurite en Aquitaine) ziyingxenye ye-Cyclalg consortium. (
  • With that definition change, Australia virtually halted the ever-growing biomass industry - which is thriving in the United Kingdom , EU and Asia - from getting started Down Under. (
  • The International Biomass Conference & Expo was held in Richmond, Virginia, in early March. (
  • This has been done by implementing a methodology based on surveys of various agents in the sector, as well as establishing editorial and statistical filters, that will allow periodic determination of the price of the different types of biomass used in Spain. (
  • Total aboveground standing biomass was estimated on a per ha basis using six equations from two additive procedures, and contrasted against two conventional sets of equations. (
  • Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) applies supercritical water as a reaction medium for the conversion of biomass directly into a high-energy density renewable biocrude oil. (
  • Biomass (ecology), the mass of living biological organisms in a given area or ecosystem at a given time. (
  • The Van Soest method is the one presenting the best compromise between the data obtained on the nature of structural polysaccharides constituting the lignocellulosic biomass and the time of analysis required to obtain this piece of information. (
  • Cet article présente des informations provenant de mesures et d'estimations de biomasses aériennes et souterraines sur pied des buissons épineux de la région du Tamaulipan, au nord-est du Mexique. (
  • The project will target to significantly increase the value of biomass. (
  • Sustainalink is a matchmaker between students and companies, check out their web page sv /en and take the chance to contact them with your cv. (
  • Energy educational programming in biomass: Research, outreach, and col" by D. Hanks, D. McAvoy et al. (
  • For this reason, prices in the biomass market in Spain have been monitored since mid-2014. (
  • For the world's future, biomass is a valuable raw material that can be used to produce many more products of value than today. (