Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Biofuels: Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Energy-Generating Resources: Materials or phenomena which can provide energy directly or via conversion.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Lignin: The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Wood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Carbon Cycle: The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Bioreactors: Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.Photobioreactors: Devices for generating biological products that use light as the energy source. They are used for controlled BIOMASS production such as growing cyanobacteria, mosses, or algae.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Microalgae: A non-taxonomic term for unicellular microscopic algae which are found in both freshwater and marine environments. Some authors consider DIATOMS; CYANOBACTERIA; HAPTOPHYTA; and DINOFLAGELLATES as part of microalgae, even though they are not algae.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Phytoplankton: Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Fossil Fuels: Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.Cooking: The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Cellulases: A family of glycosidases that hydrolyse crystalline CELLULOSE into soluble sugar molecules. Within this family there are a variety of enzyme subtypes with differing substrate specificities that must work together to bring about complete cellulose hydrolysis. They are found in structures called CELLULOSOMES.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Panicum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the EDIBLE GRAINS used in millet cereals and in feed for birds and livestock (ANIMAL FEED). It contains diosgenin (SAPONINS).Food Chain: The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Salix: A plant genus of the family SALICACEAE. Members contain salicin, which yields SALICYLIC ACID.Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Fisheries: Places for cultivation and harvesting of fish, particularly in sea waters. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Carbon Sequestration: Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.Industrial Microbiology: The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.Renewable Energy: Forms of energy that are constantly and rapidly renewed by natural processes such as solar, ocean wave, and wind energy. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)FiresPhosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Herbivory: The act of feeding on plants by animals.SmokeForestry: The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Fertilizers: Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.Autotrophic Processes: The processes by which organisms use simple inorganic substances such as gaseous or dissolved carbon dioxide and inorganic nitrogen as nutrient sources. Contrasts with heterotrophic processes which make use of organic materials as the nutrient supply source. Autotrophs can be either chemoautotrophs (or chemolithotrophs), largely ARCHAEA and BACTERIA, which also use simple inorganic substances for their metabolic energy reguirements; or photoautotrophs (or photolithotrophs), such as PLANTS and CYANOBACTERIA, which derive their energy from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (autotrophy; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrient and energy requirements.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Zooplankton: Minute free-floating animal organisms which live in practically all natural waters.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Atlantic OceanCulture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Eucalyptus: A genus of trees of the Myrtaceae family, native to Australia, that yields gums, oils, and resins which are used as flavoring agents, astringents, and aromatics.Waste Products: Debris resulting from a process that is of no further use to the system producing it. The concept includes materials discharged from or stored in a system in inert form as a by-product of vital activities. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Heterotrophic Processes: The processes by which organisms utilize organic substances as their nutrient sources. Contrasts with AUTOTROPHIC PROCESSES which make use of simple inorganic substances as the nutrient supply source. Heterotrophs can be either chemoheterotrophs (or chemoorganotrophs) which also require organic substances such as glucose for their primary metabolic energy requirements, or photoheterotrophs (or photoorganotrophs) which derive their primary energy requirements from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; heterotrophy; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.Droughts: Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.Plankton: Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.Heating: The application of heat to raise the temperature of the environment, ambient or local, or the systems for accomplishing this effect. It is distinguished from HEAT, the physical property and principle of physics.Seaweed: Multicellular marine macroalgae including some members of red (RHODOPHYTA), green (CHLOROPHYTA), and brown (PHAEOPHYTA) algae. They are widely distributed in the ocean, occurring from the tide level to considerable depths, free-floating (planktonic) or anchored to the substratum (benthic). They lack a specialized vascular system but take up fluids, nutrients, and gases directly from the water. They contain CHLOROPHYLL and are photosynthetic, but some also contain other light-absorbing pigments. Many are of economic importance as FOOD, fertilizer, AGAR, potash, or source of IODINE.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Cladocera: A suborder of CRUSTACEA, order Diplostraca, comprising the water fleas. They are benthic filter feeders that consume PHYTOPLANKTON. The body is laterally compressed and enclosed in a bivalved carapace, from which the head extends.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Eutrophication: The enrichment of a terrestrial or aquatic ECOSYSTEM by the addition of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, that results in a superabundant growth of plants, ALGAE, or other primary producers. It can be a natural process or result from human activity such as agriculture runoff or sewage pollution. In aquatic ecosystems, an increase in the algae population is termed an algal bloom.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.XyloseGeologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Plant Components, Aerial: The above-ground plant without the roots.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Metabolic Engineering: Methods and techniques used to genetically modify cells' biosynthetic product output and develop conditions for growing the cells as BIOREACTORS.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Mycorrhizae: Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.Chlorophyll: Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.Microbial Consortia: A group of different species of microorganisms that act together as a community.Alnus: A plant genus of the family BETULACEAE that is distinguished from birch (BETULA) by its usually stalked winter buds and by cones that remain on the branches after the small, winged nutlets are released.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Typhaceae: A plant family of the order Typhales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons) that contains a single genus, Typha, that grows worldwide.Zosteraceae: A plant family of the order Najadales, subclass ALISMATIDAE, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). This is a group of perennial aquatic herbs with basal leaves.Cellulase: An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE, lichenin, and cereal beta-glucans.Saccharum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE widely cultivated in the tropics for the sweet cane that is processed into sugar.

Regulation of the start of DNA replication in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. (1/2814)

Cells of Schizosaccharomyces pombe were grown in minimal medium with different nitrogen sources under steady-state conditions, with doubling times ranging from 2.5 to 14 hours. Flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy confirmed earlier findings that at rapid growth rates, the G1 phase was short and cell separation occurred at the end of S phase. For some nitrogen sources, the growth rate was greatly decreased, the G1 phase occupied 30-50% of the cell cycle, and cell separation occurred in early G1. In contrast, other nitrogen sources supported low growth rates without any significant increase in G1 duration. The method described allows manipulation of the length of G1 and the relative cell cycle position of S phase in wild-type cells. Cell mass was measured by flow cytometry as scattered light and as protein-associated fluorescence. The extensions of G1 were not related to cell mass at entry into S phase. Our data do not support the hypothesis that the cells must reach a certain fixed, critical mass before entry into S. We suggest that cell mass at the G1/S transition point is variable and determined by a set of molecular parameters. In the present experiments, these parameters were influenced by the different nitrogen sources in a way that was independent of the actual growth rate.  (+info)

Temperature and pH conditions that prevail during fermentation of sausages are optimal for production of the antilisterial bacteriocin sakacin K. (2/2814)

Sakacin K is an antilisterial bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus sake CTC 494, a strain isolated from Spanish dry fermented sausages. The biokinetics of cell growth and bacteriocin production of L. sake CTC 494 in vitro during laboratory fermentations were investigated by making use of MRS broth. The data obtained from the fermentations was used to set up a predictive model to describe the influence of the physical factors temperature and pH on microbial behavior. The model was validated successfully for all components. However, the specific bacteriocin production rate seemed to have an upper limit. Both cell growth and bacteriocin activity were very much influenced by changes in temperature and pH. The production of biomass was closely related to bacteriocin activity, indicating primary metabolite kinetics, but was not the only factor of importance. Acidity dramatically influenced both the production and the inactivation of sakacin K; the optimal pH for cell growth did not correspond to the pH for maximal sakacin K activity. Furthermore, cells grew well at 35 degrees C but no bacteriocin production could be detected at this temperature. L. sake CTC 494 shows special promise for implementation as a novel bacteriocin-producing sausage starter culture with antilisterial properties, considering the fact that the temperature and acidity conditions that prevail during the fermentation process of dry fermented sausages are optimal for the production of sakacin K.  (+info)

The role of benzoate in anaerobic degradation of terephthalate. (3/2814)

The effects of acetate, benzoate, and periods without substrate on the anaerobic degradation of terephthalate (1, 4-benzene-dicarboxylate) by a syntrophic methanogenic culture were studied. The culture had been enriched on terephthalate and was capable of benzoate degradation without a lag phase. When incubated with a mixture of benzoate and terephthalate, subsequent degradation with preference for benzoate was observed. Both benzoate and acetate inhibited the anaerobic degradation of terephthalate. The observed inhibition is partially irreversible, resulting in a decrease (or even a complete loss) of the terephthalate-degrading activity after complete degradation of benzoate or acetate. Irreversible inhibition was characteristic for terephthalate degradation only because the inhibition of benzoate degradation by acetate could well be described by reversible noncompetitive product inhibition. Terephthalate degradation was furthermore irreversibly inhibited by periods without substrate of only a few hours. The inhibition of terephthalate degradation due to periods without substrate could be overcome through incubation of the culture with a mixture of benzoate and terephthalate. In this case no influence of a period without substrate was observed. Based on these observations it is postulated that decarboxylation of terephthalate, resulting in the formation of benzoate, is strictly dependent on the concomitant fermentation of benzoate. In the presence of higher concentrations of benzoate, however, benzoate is the favored substrate over terephthalate, and the culture loses its ability to degrade terephthalate. In order to overcome the inhibition of terephthalate degradation by benzoate and acetate, a two-stage reactor system is suggested for the treatment of wastewater generated during terephthalic acid production.  (+info)

Citric acid production from xylan and xylan hydrolysate by semi-solid culture of Aspergillus niger. (4/2814)

Citric acid production from xylan and xylan hydrolysate was done by Aspergillus niger Yang no. 2 cultivated in a semi-solid culture using bagasse as a carrier. Yang no. 2 produced 72.4 g/l and 52.6 g/l of citric acid in 5 d from 140 g/l of xylose and arabinose, respectively. Yang no. 2 produced 51.6 g/l of citric acid in 3 d from a concentrated xylan hydrolysate prepared by cellulase treatment, containing 100 g/l of reducing sugars. Moreover, Yang no. 2 directly produced 39.6 g/l of citric acid maximally in 3 d from 140 g/l of xylan.  (+info)

High-rate anaerobic treatment of wastewater at low temperatures. (5/2814)

Anaerobic treatment of a volatile fatty acid (VFA) mixture was investigated under psychrophilic (3 to 8 degrees C) conditions in two laboratory-scale expanded granular sludge bed reactor stages in series. The reactor system was seeded with mesophilic methanogenic granular sludge and fed with a mixture of VFAs. Good removal of fatty acids was achieved in the two-stage system. Relative high levels of propionate were present in the effluent of the first stage, but propionate was efficiently removed in the second stage, where a low hydrogen partial pressure and a low acetate concentration were advantageous for propionate oxidation. The specific VFA-degrading activities of the sludge in each of the modules doubled during system operation for 150 days, indicating a good enrichment of methanogens and proton-reducing acetogenic bacteria at such low temperatures. The specific degradation rates of butyrate, propionate, and the VFA mixture amounted to 0.139, 0.110, and 0.214 g of chemical oxygen demand g of volatile suspended solids-1 day-1, respectively. The biomass which was obtained after 1.5 years still had a temperature optimum of between 30 and 40 degrees C.  (+info)

Tessaracoccus bendigoensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a gram-positive coccus occurring in regular packages or tetrads, isolated from activated sludge biomass. (6/2814)

An isolate of a Gram-positive bacterium, designated strain Ben 106T, was obtained in pure culture by micromanipulation of a biomass sample obtained from a laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor. This isolate grew axenically as cocci or clusters of cocci arranged in regular tetrads and was morphologically similar to the dominant organism observed in the biomass. This morphology resembled that of some Gram-positive and -negative bacteria and the so-called 'G-bacteria' commonly seen in activated sludge samples. Strain Ben 106T is a non-motile, facultative anaerobe. It is oxidase-negative, catalase-positive and is capable of reducing nitrate. This organism can grow between 20 and 37 degrees C, with an optimum temperature of 25 degrees C. The pH range for growth is between 6.0 and 9.0, with an optimum pH of 7.5. The isolate stained positively for intracellular polyphosphate granules. The diagnostic diamino acid of the peptidoglycan is LL-diaminopimelic acid (LL-A2pm) with a glycine moiety at position 1 of the peptide subunit, which characterizes the presence of a rare peptidoglycan (type A3-gamma'). Two menaquinones, MK-9(H4) and MK-7(H4), are present and the main cellular fatty acid is 12-methyltetradecanoic acid. The G + C content is 74 mol%. From phenotypic characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, the isolate differed sufficiently from its closest phylogenetic relatives, namely Propionibacterium propionicum, Propioniferax innocua, Friedmanniella antarctica, Luteococcus japonicus and Microlunatus phosphovorus in the A1 subdivision of the Gram-positive bacteria (i.e. Firmicutes with a high G + C content), suborder Propionibacterineae, to be placed in a new genus, Tessaracoccus, as Tessaracoccus bendigoensis gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain is Ben 106T (= ACM 5119T).  (+info)

Carbon and electron flow in Clostridium cellulolyticum grown in chemostat culture on synthetic medium. (7/2814)

Previous results indicated poor sugar consumption and early inhibition of metabolism and growth when Clostridium cellulolyticum was cultured on medium containing cellobiose and yeast extract. Changing from complex medium to a synthetic medium had a strong effect on (i) the specific cellobiose consumption, which was increased threefold; and (ii) the electron flow, since the NADH/NAD+ ratios ranged from 0.29 to 2.08 on synthetic medium whereas ratios as high as 42 to 57 on complex medium were observed. These data indicate a better control of the carbon flow on mineral salts medium than on complex medium. By continuous culture, it was shown that the electron flow from glycolysis was balanced by the production of hydrogen gas, ethanol, and lactate. At low levels of carbon flow, pyruvate was preferentially cleaved to acetate and ethanol, enabling the bacteria to maximize ATP formation. A high catabolic rate led to pyruvate overflow and to increased ethanol and lactate production. In vitro, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, and ethanol dehydrogenase levels were higher under conditions giving higher in vivo specific production rates. Redox balance is essentially maintained by NADH-ferredoxin reductase-hydrogenase at low levels of carbon flow and by ethanol dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase at high levels of carbon flow. The same maximum growth rate (0.150 h-1) was found in both mineral salts and complex media, proving that the uptake of nutrients or the generation of biosynthetic precursors occurred faster than their utilization. On synthetic medium, cellobiose carbon was converted into cell mass and catabolized to produce ATP, while on complex medium, it served mainly as an energy supply and, if present in excess, led to an accumulation of intracellular metabolites as demonstrated for NADH. Cells grown on synthetic medium and at high levels of carbon flow were able to induce regulatory responses such as the production of ethanol and lactate dehydrogenase.  (+info)

Differentiation of Helicobacter pylori isolates based on lectin binding of cell extracts in an agglutination assay. (8/2814)

Plant and animal lectins with various carbohydrate specificities were used to type 35 Irish clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori and the type strain NCTC 11637 in a microtiter plate assay. Initially, a panel of eight lectins with the indicated primary specificities were used: Anguilla anguilla (AAA), Lotus tetragonolobus (Lotus A), and Ulex europaeus I (UEA I), specific for alpha-L-fucose; Solanum tuberosum (STA) and Triticum vulgaris (WGA), specific for beta-N-acetylglucosamine; Glycine max (SBA), specific for beta-N-acetylgalactosamine; Erythrina cristagali (ECA), specific for beta-galactose and beta-N-acetylgalactosamine; and Lens culinaris (LCA), specific for alpha-mannose and alpha-glucose. Three of the lectins (SBA, STA, and LCA) were not useful in aiding in strain discrimination. An optimized panel of five lectins (AAA, ECA, Lotus A, UEA I, and WGA) grouped all 36 strains tested into eight lectin reaction patterns. For optimal typing, pretreatment by washing bacteria with a low-pH buffer to allow protein release, followed by proteolytic degradation to eliminate autoagglutination, was used. Lectin types of treated samples were stable and reproducible. No strain proved to be untypeable by this system. Electrophoretic and immunoblotting analyses of lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) indicated that the lectins interact primarily, but not solely, with the O side chain of H. pylori LPS.  (+info)

*Biomass

Biofuel Biomass (ecology) Biomass gasification Biomass heating systems Biomass to liquid Bioproduct Biorefinery Carbon European ... Biomass power plant size is often driven by biomass availability in close proximity as transport costs of the (bulky) fuel play ... Even today, biomass is the only source of fuel for domestic use in many developing countries. Biomass is all biologically- ... Biomass is more difficult to feed into a pressure vessel than coal or any liquid. Therefore, biomass gasification is frequently ...

*Biomass (ecology)

Biomass can refer to species biomass, which is the mass of one or more species, or to community biomass, which is the mass of ... The biomass pyramid decreases markedly at each higher level. Ocean or marine biomass, in a reversal of terrestrial biomass, can ... However, in the ocean, the animal biomass is nearly 30 times larger than the plant biomass. Most ocean plant biomass is eaten ... Sum of [(biomass m^-2)*(area m^2)] from table 3 in Sanderson, M.G. 1996 Biomass of termites and their emissions of methane and ...

*Biomass briquettes

1] "Biomass Briquettes." Biomass.com. Web. 30 November 2010. "AGICO - Biomass Briquette Machine." AGICO Biomass Briquette ... "Feed Biomass." Biomass.net. Web. 30 Nov. 2010. "Biomass Briquettes for Green Electricity Production." Bionomicfuel.com. 4 May ... The compressed biomass is also much easier to transport since it is more dense, therefore allowing more biomass to be ... One of the most common variables of the biomass briquette production process is the way the biomass is dried out. Manufacturers ...

*Biomass partitioning

... is the process by which plants divide their energy amongst their parts. For example, there may be a ... But, when there is an extreme soil drought, there is not an increase in root:shoot biomass. This suggests that there is a limit ... For example, in low productivity systems such as boreal forests, trees devote a large portion of their biomass to roots. But as ... When plants allocate more of their biomass to their roots, they are able to enhance water absorption by tapping further down ...

*Lignocellulosic biomass

... can be broadly classified into virgin biomass, waste biomass and energy crops. Virgin biomass includes ... Lignocellulose refers to plant dry matter (biomass), so called lignocellulosic biomass. It is the most abundantly available raw ... Lignocellulosic biomass, in the form of wood fuel, has a long history as a source of energy. Since the middle of the 20th ... Biomass is a carbon-neutral source of energy: Since it comes from plants, the combustion of lignocellulosic ethanol produces no ...

*Biomass Energy Centre

... is a biomass fired CHP power station located in the town of Chilton in County Durham. Opened in 2011, the ... Quinault, Caealia (2 June 2011). "Dalkia's £40m biomass plant nears completion". letsrecycle.com. Retrieved 19 August 2011. ... announced their plans to build a biomass fueled CHP power station in the County Durham town of Chilton. The site chosen had ...

*Biomass heating system

"Okofen condesing pellet boiler". Biomass Thermal Energy Council - Information on Biomass and legislation on biomass in the US ... Biomass heating systems generate heat from biomass. The systems fall under the categories of: direct combustion, gasification, ... "Types of Biomass Heating Systems". "Biomass System Design - Selected Eco Energy". Selected Eco Energy. Retrieved 2016-10-18. " ... Wood fuel Vallios, I; Tsoutsos, T; Papadakis, G (2009). "Design of Biomass District Heating". Biomass & Bioenergy. 33 (4): 659- ...

*Czech Biomass Association

The Czech Biomass Association (CZ BIOM) is a NGO, which supports the development of phytoenergetics in the Czech Republic. ... Members of CZ BIOM are scientists, specialists, entrepreneurs, and activists interested in using biomass as an energy resource ... CZ BIOM is a member of the European Biomass Association. Website of CZ BIOM. ...

*Congressional Biomass Caucus

"Biomass Thermal Energy Council Praises Congressional Biomass Caucus Formation, Calls for Additional House Members". Caucuses of ... The Congressional Biomass Caucus is a bipartisan caucus of the United States House of Representatives co-chaired by ... The caucus seeks to support the development of biomass and elevate the renewable resource's profile in Congress. As of December ... the United States Congress Biomass Biomass Thermal Energy Council. ...

*Willow Biomass Project

The Willow Biomass Project is a collaborative effort by members of the Salix Consortium to grow willow and other sustainable ... The project, funded through the U.S. Department of Energy's Biomass Power for Rural Development Program, seeks to commercialize ... Missing or empty ,title= (help) The Willow Biomass Project (dead link) "Willowpedia: A Resource for Shrub Willow Bioenergy ...

*Biomass to liquid

Bioconversion of biomass to mixed alcohol fuels Bioenergy Biofuel Bioliquids Biomass Biomass gasification Biomass heating ... Biomass to liquid (BtL or BMtL) is a multi-step process of producing synthetic hydrocarbon fuels made from biomass via a ... Regional Biomass Processing Center is a conceptual place where the AFEX treated biomass can go to biorefineries, farms and ... This will improve the value of cellulosic biomass for animals and biofuel production. This will reduce the density of the ...

*European Biomass Association

Austrian Biomass Association - ABA Association for extension of biomass in Spain - ADABE British Biogen Bulgarian Biomass ... NOBIO Polish Biomass Association - POLBIOM Slovak Association for Biomass - SK-BIOM Slovenian Biomass Association - SLO-BIOM ... UBA Valorization of Biomass in Belgium - ValBiom Renewable energy Bioenergy Biogas Biofuel Biomass Lignocellulosic biomass ... BBE Greek Biomass Association - HELLABIOM Hungarian Biomass Association - HBA Italian Biomass Association - ITABIA Irish ...

*North Blyth Biomass Project

The North Blyth Biomass Project was a proposed biomass-fired power station planned to be located at North Blyth, Northumberland ... "North Blyth Biomass Power Station plans take shape". The Journal. 21 March 2011. Retrieved 2 April 2011. "Port Blyth New ... In September 2008, the Port of Blyth authority announced that it was planning to build a biomass power station on the redundant ... through burning a mixture of biomass fuels. In a year the station would burn between 500,000 and 900,000 tonnes of woodchips, ...

*Billingham Biomass Power Station

... is a planned biomass power station, that is to be built on the River Tees at Billingham. It is ... 200 million biomass plant wins planning approval". New Energy Focus. 16 October 2009. Retrieved 23 December 2010. Blackburn, ... Mike (16 October 2009). "Billingham biomass power station to go ahead". nebusiness.com. Retrieved 23 December 2010. "Latest ...

*Šiauliai Biomass Power Plant

The Šiauliai Biomass Power Plant is a biomass combined heat and power plant in Šiauliai, Lithuania. It supplies heat to almost ...

*Biomass Thermal Energy Council

The Biomass Thermal Energy Council (BTEC) is a nonprofit organization focused on advancing the use of biomass for heat and ... Biomass Thermal Energy Council Biomass Power and Thermal International Renewable Energy Agency. ... The organization promotes biomass thermal energy as a renewable, responsible, clean and energy-efficient pathway to meeting ... BTEC engages in research, education, and public advocacy for the biomass thermal energy industry. BTEC was awarded two grants ...

*European Algae Biomass Association

The European Algae Biomass Association (EABA), established on June 2, 2009, is the European association representing both ... The general objective of the European Algae Biomass Association (EABA) is to promote mutual interchange and cooperation in the ... The project provides support to the establishment of the European Algae Biomass Association, which promotes mutual interchange ... EABA is a candidate member of the European Renewable Energy Council European Algae Biomass Association AquaFUELs Project ...

*UBC Biomass Research and Demonstration Facility

The Biomass Research and Demonstration Facility uses biomass to create clean heat and energy. This facility is located at 2329 ... It utilizes biomass in the form of wood chips which it treats to create fuel for its bioenergy systems. Some of its other ... The Biomass Research and Demonstration Facility takes advantage of gasification processes resulting in a clean source of ... Moisture content in wood chips is reduced to 20% by the biomass dryer Treated wood chips are conveyed by a horizontal auger ...

*Milltown Biomass-to-Energy Power Station

The Milltown Biomass-to-Energy Power Station was proposed as a 28 MWe biomass-to-electrical energy power station to be built ... The plant was originally to use woody biomass material from a number of local forest products and industrial sources, including ... the facility would have used fluidized-bed boiler technology to enable incineration of a wide variety of woody biomass ...

*Bioconversion of biomass to mixed alcohol fuels

Through bioconversion of biomass to a mixed alcohol fuel, more energy from the biomass will end up as liquid fuels than in ... The bioconversion of biomass to mixed alcohol fuels can be accomplished using the MixAlco process. ... As the microoganisms anaerobically digest the biomass and convert it into a mixture of carboxylic acids, the pH must be ... Energy portal Renewable energy portal Anaerobic digestion Bioreactor Mechanical biological treatment Advanced Biomass Refinery ...

*Republic Services

"Republic Services announces LFGTE project in California". Biomass. 4 May 2015. Retrieved 13 July 2016. Gerlat, Allan (27 July ... "Republic Services announces LFGTE project in California". Biomass Magazine. 4 May 2015. Retrieved 13 July 2016. Toplikar, Dave ...

*Nannochloropsis

"Lipid and biomass production by the halotolerant microalga Nannochloropsis salina". Biomass. 12: 37-47. doi:10.1016/0144-4565( ... Various strains of Nannochloropsis were shown to accumulate up to 60% - 70% of their overall biomass as lipids in nitrogen ...

*Renewable energy in Denmark

Total consumption of biomass amounted to 107 PJ in 2013. There were 39 CHP plants using biomass as a fuel in 2014 consuming ... Biomass. Biomass provides the largest share of renewable energy in Denmark when considering the electricity sector, heating and ... Biomass is sometimes co-fired with other fuels including a small percentage that is co-fired with waste. Around 40% of the ... Total consumption of Biomass is expected to rise to 115PJ by 2024. A number of power stations are being converted from using ...

*Salicornia

Biomass Magazine. Retrieved 2008-11-17. Dickerson, Marla (2008-07-10). "Letting the sea cultivate the land". Los Angeles Times ...

*Eucalyptus dumosa

It is also suitable to produce large amounts of biomass, able to make 10 to 20 metric tons (11 to 22 short tons) per hectare ... Brooker, M.I.H. & Kleinig, D.A. Field Guide to Eucalyptus, Bloomings, Melbourne 2001 "Mallee". Biomass Producer. Australian ...
In order to better assess the spatial variability in subtropical forest biomass, the goal of our study was to use small-footprint, discrete-return Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data to accurately estimate and map above- and below-ground biomass components of subtropical forests. Foliage, branch, trunk, root, above-ground and total biomass of 53 plots (30 × 30 m) were modeled using a range of LiDAR-derived metrics, with individual models built for each of the three dominant forest types using stepwise multi-regression analysis. A regular grid covered the entire study site with cell size 30 × 30 m corresponding to the same size of the plots; it was generated for mapping each biomass component. Overall, results indicate that biomass estimation was more accurate in coniferous forests, compared with the mixed and broadleaved plots. The coefficient of determination (R2) for individual models was significantly enhanced compared with an overall generic, or common, model. Using independent stand-level
The potential of a plant species to acquire nutrients depends on its ability to explore the soil by its root system. Co-cultivation of different species is anticipated to lead to vertical root niche differentiation and thus to higher soil nutrient depletion. Using a qPCR-based method we quantified root biomass distribution of four catch crop species in vertical soil profiles in pure vs. mixed stands. Pure stands of mustard and phacelia robustly reached 70 cm soil depth, while oat preferably colonized upper soil layers, and clover developed the shallowest and smallest root system. Analysis of residual nitrate pools in different soil depths and correlation with root biomass showed that, besides rooting depth also root biomass determines soil nitrogen depletion. While occupying the same vertical niches as in pure stands, mustard and phacelia dominated total root biomass of the mix. In contrast, root biomass of clover and oat was severely suppressed in presence of the other species. Below-ground biomass
Woody biomass is one of the most abundant biomass feedstocks, besides agriculture residuals in the United States. The sustainable harvest residuals and thinnings alone are estimated at about 75 million tons/year accordingly to the DOE biomass report [1]. These forest residuals and thinnings could produce the equivalent of 5 billion gallons of lignocellulosic ethanol annually.. Woody biomass feedstocks include softwood and hardwood. Various pretreatment methods have been developed for pretreating biomass before an enzymatic conversion of pretreated biomass into monomeric sugars for a biofuel or a bioproduct conversion process. An overview on lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment methods well described that most of the pretreating methods worked well on herbaceous biomass and hardwood biomass while not working well with high lignin content softwood biomass [2]. Thus, softwood biomass is the most recalcitrant biomass to pretreat for enzymatic hydrolysis. To utilize the most recalcitrant ...
Long-term heavy grazing had little effect on root and crown biomass of Indian ricegrass (Oryzopsis hymenoides), nor did it significantly affect the total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) reserve levels or the seasonal cycle of reserves in this grass. Orodho and Trlica conclude that 50 years of protection from livestock use had not resulted in ecotypic differentiation in Indian ricegrass for these variables. Clipping reduced crown biomass more than root biomass and removal of 90% of aboveground biomass resulted in more than a 50% reduction in crown biomass and reserve carbohydrate pool. In a garden study that compared the native Chaco Canyon strains to two commercial strains of Indian ricegrass (Nezpar and Paloma), the Nezpar strain was superior to Paloma and the Chaco Canyon strains in production of crown biomass and TNC reserves at the more mesic garden site. The native strains from the more arid Chaco Canyon were superior to both cultivated strains in root production, and the native
In Finland it is estimated that forest biomass will be the main source of bioenergy when meeting the national target: 38% renewable from total energy consumption by 2020. This target must become concrete for regional and local level participators of a forest industry and actions should take place in large combined heat and power generation (CHP) plants, district heating plants and independent heating systems. In energy production replacing fossil fuels with renewa-ble energy is reasonable in many cases. However, there are usually doubts about the availability and security of supply of forest biomass. The aim of this study is to introduce a systematical method for analyzing the availability and demand of forest biomass in regional and local level. This study introduces an objective method for analyzing local possibilities on where and how much the use of forest biomass could be increased. By replacing use of fossil fuels with renewable and domestic energy sources carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and
Biomass Magazine is a monthly trade publication tailored to serve companies and organizations engaged in producing and/or utilizing biomass power and heat, advanced biofuels, biogas, wood pellets and biobased chemicals. In addition to policy, regulation, project finance, technology and plant management, the publication maintains a core editorial focus on biomass logistics: generating, cultivating, collecting, transporting, processing, marketing, procuring and utilizing sustainable biomass.
Biomass Magazine is a monthly trade publication tailored to serve companies and organizations engaged in producing and/or utilizing biomass power and heat, advanced biofuels, biogas, wood pellets and biobased chemicals. In addition to policy, regulation, project finance, technology and plant management, the publication maintains a core editorial focus on biomass logistics: generating, cultivating, collecting, transporting, processing, marketing, procuring and utilizing sustainable biomass.
The global issue of climate change and an increasing interest in the reduction of fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions by using forest biomass for energy production has increased the importance of forest biomass quantification in recent years. Different national and international reports have presented the amount of carbon sequestered by forest ecosystems. For example, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change reports that forests contain about 80% of aboveground and 40% of belowground carbon stock (IPCC 2007). Additionally, it is reported that the amount of carbon stored in dry wood is approximately 50% by weight (Brown 1986; Paladinic et al. 2009; Sedjo and Sohngen 2012).. Biomass, in general, includes both above and below ground living and dead mass of trees, shrubs, vines, and roots. However, most of the researches on biomass estimation have focused on aboveground biomass because of the difficulty in collecting belowground data (Lu 2006). The amount of biomass in a forest is influenced ...
Potohar, northern Punjab, Pakistan in September, 2008 and analysed for P fractions and microbial parameters including microbial biomass C, microbial biomass N, microbial biomass P, and activities of dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase enzymes. The average size of different P fractions (% of total P) in the soils varied in the order: dHCl-P (63.7%) , cHCl-Pi (14.8%) , residual-P (9.4%) , cHCl-Po (3.8%) , NaHCO3-Pi (2.4%) , NaOH-Pi (2.0%) , NaHCO3-Po (1.4%) , resin-P (1.3%) , NaOH-Po (1.2%). The organic P fractions collectively formed 6.4% of the total P, while the inorganic P fractions were 93.6%. The bioavailable P fractions that is, resin-P, NaHCO3-Pi and NaHCO3-Po showed significant positive relationship with Olsen-P, microbial biomass P, and total organic C, but also with microbial biomass C, microbial biomass N, dehydrogenase activity and alkaline phosphatase activity in the soils. Among other ...
Downloadable! This study introduces a framework for modeling a renewable forest biomass stock interacting with economic sectors in a competitive economy. The equilibrium is formulated as a mixed complementary problem (which explicitly represents weak inequalities and complementary among decision variables and equilibrium conditions). The complementarity format permits detailed modeling of the growth and harvest of a biomass stock together with a second-best characterization of the overall economy. First the complementarity features of economic equilibrium and its integration with an ecological representation of the biomass are provided. Then a stylized numerical example of a dynamic computable general equilibrium model is presented. Finally, illustrative applications of the model for gauging the likely effects of environmental subsidies and taxes intended to promote increases CO2 storage in forest biomass are given, the results are discussed.
Biomass Moulding Fuel Market report focuses on the major drivers and restraints for the key players. It also provides granular analysis of the market share, Sales and Consumption Status, segmentation, Industry Production, revenue forecasts and geographic regions of the market. Biomass Moulding Fuel Market 2011-2021 research report is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the Biomass Moulding Fuel Industry.. The report provides key statistics on the market status of the Biomass Moulding Fuel manufacturers and is a valuable source of guidance and direction for companies and individuals interested in the Biomass Moulding Fuel Market.. Major Key Contents Covered in Biomass Moulding Fuel Market: Introduction of Biomass Moulding Fuel with development and status. Manufacturing Technology of Biomass Moulding Fuel with analysis and trends. Analysis of Global Biomass Moulding Fuel Market Key Manufacturers with Company Profile, Product Information, Production Information and Contact ...
A biomass hydrothermal decomposition apparatus includes, a biomass feeder ( 31 ) that feeds biomass material ( 11 ) under normal pressure to under increased pressure, a hydrothermal decomposition device ( 42 A) that allows the fed biomass material ( 11 ) to be gradually moved inside a device main body ( 42 A) from either end thereof in a consolidated condition, and also allows hot compressed water ( 15 ) to be fed from an other end of a feed section for the biomass material into the main body ( 42 A), so as to cause the biomass material ( 11 ) and the hot compressed water ( 15 ) to countercurrently contact with each other and undergo hydrothermal decomposition, and that elutes a lignin component and a hemicellulose component into the hot compressed water, so as to separate the lignin component and the hemicellulose component from the biomass material ( 11 ); and a biomass discharger ( 51 ) that discharges, from the side where the hot compressed water is fed into the device main body, a biomass
Tracer experiments are of concern to wastewater treatment engineers and researchers because of the importance of determining hydraulic regimes and retention times in wastewater treatment units. In this work, a pilot-scale maturation waste stabilisation pond (WSP) was spiked with Rhodamine WT, in order to determine how suspended organic matter would interfere with its performance as a tracer in a domestic wastewater treatment unit which had a high content of suspended algal biomass. A primary maturation pond was spiked in three separate runs with different levels of algae (high, medium and low), with a known amount of Rhodamine WT (20% v/v); the tracer was measured in the pond effluent in real time every 20 min for 3θ (the theoretical retention time, θ = 17 d). Algal biomass was monitored weekly from influent, column and effluent water samples by chlorophyll-a determination. The results show that algal biomass has a strong influence on the behaviour of Rhodamine WT as a tracer and therefore the ...
As an alternative renewable source for bioenergy, forest biomass has recently drawn more attention from the U.S. government and the general public. Woody biomass policies have been adopted to encourage the new bioenergy industry. A variety of state policy incentives attempt to create a desirable legal climate and lure new firms, imposing two important questions regarding state government policies and the sustainable use of forest resources. This dissertation sheds some light on these questions. The first paper constructs a woody biomass policy index through scoring each statute and weighting different categories of policies from the vantage point of renewable energy investment. It analyzes the disparity in the strength of state government incentives in the woody biomass utilization. The second paper employs a conditional logit model (CLM) to explore the effects of woody biomass policies on the siting decisions of new bioenergy projects. In addition, significant state attributes influencing the
Gene expression is regulated through a complex interplay of different transcription factors (TFs) which can enhance or inhibit gene transcription. ArcA is a global regulator that regulates genes involved in different metabolic pathways, while IclR as a local regulator, controls the transcription of the glyoxylate pathway genes of the aceBAK operon. This study investigates the physiological and metabolic consequences of arcA and iclR deletions on E. coli K12 MG1655 under glucose abundant and limiting conditions and compares the results with the metabolic characteristics of E. coli BL21 (DE3). The deletion of arcA and iclR results in an increase in the biomass yield both under glucose abundant and limiting conditions, approaching the maximum theoretical yield of 0.65 c-mole/c-mole glucose under glucose abundant conditions. This can be explained by the lower flux through several CO2 producing pathways in the E. coli K12 ΔarcAΔiclR double knockout strain. Due to iclR gene deletion, the glyoxylate pathway
The miombo woodland is the most extensive dry forest in the world, with the potential to store substantial amounts of biomass carbon. Efforts to obtain accurate estimates of carbon stocks in the miombo woodlands are limited by a general lack of biomass estimation models (BEMs). This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of most commonly employed allometric models for estimating aboveground biomass (AGB) in miombo woodlands, and to develop new models that enable more accurate estimation of biomass in the miombo woodlands. A generalizable mixed-species allometric model was developed from 88 trees belonging to 33 species ranging in diameter at breast height (DBH) from 5 to 105 cm using Bayesian estimation. A power law model with DBH alone performed better than both a polynomial model with DBH and the square of DBH, and models including height and crown area as additional variables along with DBH. The accuracy of estimates from published models varied across different sites and trees of different diameter
Publishers Note to Modeling the influence of potassium content and heating rate on biomass pyrolysis [Appl. Energy J. 194 (2017) 199-211] ...
Biomass Pellets Market Report covers the present scenario and the growth prospects of the Biomass Pellets Industry for 2017-2022. Biomass Pellets Market report analyses the industry potential for each geographical region based on the growth rate, macroeconomic parameters, consumer buying patterns, market demand and supply scenarios.. Biomass Pellets Market analysis reports provide a valuable source of insightful data for business strategists and competitive analysis of Biomass Pellets market. It provides the Biomass Pellets industry overview with growth analysis and futuristic cost, revenue, demand and supply data. The research analysts provide an elaborate description of the value chain and its distributor analysis. This Biomass Pellets market study provides comprehensive data which enhances the understanding, scope and application of this report.. Biomass Pellets Market Report provides comprehensive analysis of. ...
JOHN L. INNES University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada The interactions between biomass burning and climate have been brought into focus by a number of recent events. Firstly, the Framework Convention on Climate Change and, more recently, the Kyoto Protocol, have drawn the attention of policy makers and others to the importance of biomass burning in relation to atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. Secondly, the use of prescribed fires has become a major management tool in some countries; with for example the area with fuel treatments (which include prescribed burns and mechanical treatments) having increased on US National Forest System lands from 123,000 ha in 1985 to 677,000 ha in 1998. Thirdly, large numbers of forest fires in Indonesia, Brazil, Australia and elsewhere in 1997 and 1998 received unprecedented media attention. Consequently, it is appropriate that one of the Wengen Workshops on Global Change Research be devoted to the relationships between biomass burning and climate.
The two types of brown-rot fungi used by Ray et al are the Coniophora puteana and Postia placenta varieties, and their research showed that a 3 to 4 week treatment of the biomass (sapwood from pine trees in this case) "significant;y enhances the release of sugars (the actual fuel source) by cellulose enzymes." *. Control experiments conducted to achieve similar, bioconversion results with other fungi proved far less successful. This research seems to be a successful proof of principle that brown rot may be the key to efficient biomass processing that researchers have been searching for over the past few decades.. That said, while biomass/bioenergy is an attractive alternative to burning (and extracting) fossil fuels, all such feedstocks release CO2 when burned. Different biomass feedstocks generate more or less carbon, but some sources of biomass are unsustainable, such as corn grown for ethanol fuel. Further, the (non-industrial) burning of biomass in the developing world-especially woody ...
ARENA CEO Ivor Frischknecht said the $6.2 million project would uncover new opportunities and make it easier to develop biomass generation and biofuel projects in Australia.. "RIRDC will deliver a national database that brings together data on biomass resources across Australia, providing a clearer picture of where untapped sources of biomass are available," Mr Frischknecht said.. "There is currently no central, national source of data to assist with planning of bioenergy projects, and existing local data is incomplete.. "Australias growing bioenergy industry has cited this lack of reliable information as a significant roadblock to getting new projects off the ground." RIRDC will work with states and territories to collect data on the location, volumes and availability of biomass for inclusion on the Australian Renewable Energy Mapping Infrastructure (AREMI) platform.. AREMI is a centrally accessible repository for ARENA project information and shares mapping data and information with the ...
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Factor Analysis of Differences in Biomass Accumulations between Male and Female \emph{Populus Cathayana} Deedlings under Drought Stress
2012. Marla Markowski-Lindsay, Thomas Stevens, David B. Kittredge, Brett J. Butler, Paul Catanzaro, David Damery, Forest Policy and Economics 14 (2012) 127-135. U.S. forests, including family-owned forests, are a potential source of biomass for renewable energy. Family forest owners constitute a significant portion of the overall forestland in the U.S., yet little is known about family forest owners preferences for supplying wood-based biomass. The goal of this study is to understand how Massachusetts family forest owners feel about harvesting residual woody biomass from their property. The study estimates the probability that Massachusetts landowners will harvest biomass as part of a timber harvest using data from a survey of 932 Massachusetts family forest owners. Logistic regression results suggest that the likelihood of harvesting for biomass is quite low, and that the supply of participation in biomass harvesting is inelastic with respect to price. These low probabilities may be due to the ...
For nearly two decades, the Woodgas website has been an enormously popular source of information about biomass gasification and woodgas cookstoves. Initially serving as the online home of the former Biomass Energy Foundation (BEF), the website today serves multiple purposes. One purpose is to spotlight the global efforts of Juntos Energy Solutions, a not-for-profit (NFP) organization dedicated to clean woodgas cookstove technologies, biochar production technologies, and carbon credits (TER™ and WER™). Another purpose is to inform others of Dr TLUDs preservation and free sharing of current and historical TLUD gasifier information, including all publications previously available from the Biomass Energy Foundation, and much more. Please see the sidebar for links.. ...
Although biomass is usually called a "renewable" source of energy, this term is used somewhat loosely, as biomass production typically requires the use of fossil fuels. How much fossil fuel is used depends on the particular form of biomass and varies dramatically among biomass options. A single quantitative measure such as the energy ratio can be a misleading comparison among biomass options, however, because it does not reflect the non-energy agricultural outputs, which can be as important as the energy outputs in terms of their economic, social, or environmental value. Nonetheless, for comparing bioenergy cycles that provide comparable outputs, such quantitative measures reasonably reflect the relative reliance on fossil fuels. Many agricultural or forestry residues can be considered essentially renewable, because negligible fossil fuel is consumed in addition to what is required to produce the primary crop. For purpose-grown crops, energy ratios are generally higher for perennial crops than ...
FLA Comments on CSBP Draft Standard for Biomass Production. FLA submitted comments to the Council for Sustainable Biomass Production (CSBP) regarding their draft standard for sustainability. CSBP is an organization established in 2007 to develop comprehensive voluntary sustainability standards for the production of biomass and its conversion to bioenergy. CSBP intends for its standard to serve as the foundation for an independent third-party certification program, which will set the emerging bioenergy industry on a course of continuous improvement. FLA is following this group as it is the position of FLA that certification and sustainability principles should not be required for entrance into bioenergy markets.. CSBP has released a draft standard and opened it to public comments. The deadline has been extended to December 7, 2009. Landowners should feel free to comment.. Visit the CSBP website for a copy of this draft standard or to submit your own comments ...
Bioenergy will play an important role in reaching the EU targets for renewable energy. Sweden, with abundant forest resources and a well-established forest industry, has a key position regarding modern biomass use. Biomass gasification (BMG) offers several advantages compared to biomass combustion-based processes, the most prominent being the possibility for downstream conversion to motor fuels (biofuels), and the potential for higher electrical efficiency if used for electricity generation in a biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC). BMG-based processes in general have a considerable surplus of heat, which facilitates integration with district heating or industrial processes.. In this thesis integration of large-scale BMG, for biofuel or electricity production, with other parts of the energy system is analysed. Focus is on forest-based biomass, with the analysis including techno-economic aspects as well as considerations regarding effects on global fossil CO2 emissions. The ...
The nursery industry is transitioning away from standard plastic containers in attempts to reduce production costs and use of petroleum-based products and to improve plant health, root architecture, and transplant success. This study evaluated the effect of four root-pruning containers: Air-Pots®, Light PotsTM, Root Pouch Pots, and Smart Pots on plant biomass, root architecture, and medium temperature, relative to standard plastic containers. Two deciduous woody shrubs were used: Amelanchier × grandiflora Coles Select and Rhus aromatica Gro Low, with six replicates of each container/species combination randomized in a complete-block design. All four root-pruning containers promoted root branching that limited circling and produced more fine roots than the standard plastic containers. The two porous-fabric containers, Smart Pot and Root Pouch Pots, displayed little to no root growth along the sides of the containers while Air-Pots and Light Pots demonstrated somewhat more, but still ...
Large uncertainties in terrestrial biomass estimates contribute to errors in carbon stock assessments and climate and ecosystem process modeling. An operational biomass Essential Climate Variable (ECV) can improve biomass retrievals by synergistically combining structural information from active remote sensing data with spectral information from passive remote sensing data.
In the next decades, the world market for plant-derived products is expected to expand exponentially. Not only do we rely on plants to feed the growing world population, but plants will also play a pivotal role in providing a significant part of our increasing energy demands. Whereas in the 1960s the green revolution contributed to increase plant productivity, it is expected that biotechnological advances will further boost biomass production and plant yield. To do this effectively, it will be necessary to understand how the molecular machinery that determines yield parameters operates. Although of no direct economic significance, the model plant Arabidopsis can be used to find genes and regulatory networks controlling biomass production, which, in turn, can be applied for further growth improvement in other species including cereals. ...
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Bio-waste does not include forestry or agricultural residue and, thus, should not be confused with the wider term "biodegradable waste" as defined in the Landfill Directive (1999/31/EC), which also covers other biodegradable materials such as wood, paper, cardboard, sewage sludge, natural textiles.. The value chain of biomass waste. For waste biomass is the waste hierarchy not so clear due to the emerging technologies. Biological materials can be radically transformed, either physically, chemically or biologically into a broad plethora of end use products with significantly different properties and end-use market values. Generally speaking there is rough correlation between the technological cost and complexity input into the transformation of the biomass waste and its end-use market value. These end-use products and applications are therefore better considered as a value chain than a hierarchy, where biomass waste is the input feedstock.. Figure: The value chain of biomass waste. ...
Xcel Energy plans to install biomass gasification technology at its Bay Front Power Plant in Ashland, Wis.. Following all state regulatory approvals, engineering and design work is expected to begin in 2010, and the unit could be operational by late 2012. The company first announced its plans last October. Meanwhile, it has filed an application for a Certificate of Authority with the Public Service Commission of Wisconsin.. When completed, the project will convert the plants remaining coal-fired unit to biomass gasification technology, allowing it to use 100 percent biomass in all three boilers. The company says it will use waste wood as its primary source of biomass and expects the plant to be the largest biomass plant in the Midwest.. The $58 million project is expected to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxides and particulate matters by 60 percent, 80 percent and 80 percent respectively. The total generation output of the plant is not expected to change significantly as a ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Headline: Bitcoin & Blockchain Searches Exceed Trump! Blockchain Stocks Are Next!. The Biomass Power Generation market research report is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the industry. The report provides a basic overview of the Biomass Power Generation industry including definitions, classifications, applications and Market chain structure.. The Biomass Power Generation market analysis is provided for the international market including development history, competitive landscape analysis, and major regions development status.. After the basic information, the report sheds light on the production. Production plants, their capacities, production and revenue are studied. Also, the Biomass Power Generation market growth in various regions and R&D status are also covered.. Browse Detailed TOC, Tables, Figures, Charts and Companies Mentioned in Biomass Power Generation Market Research Report @ http://www.360marketupdates.com/10338874. Then, the report focuses on global major ...
All Rights Reserved.. Nippon Paper Industries Co., a major paper manufacturer in Japan, announced on April 3, 2013, that it had developed a new biomass solid fuel using torrefaction, as a project (practical application) under the Strategic Development of Next-Generation Bioenergy Utilization Technology adopted in fiscal 2011 by the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO).. By carbonizing at a relatively low temperature, torrefaction, also known as semi-carbonization, allows woody biomass to retain more stored heat compared to normal carbonization. The new biomass fuel is formed into pellets, and consequently has less volume than woody chip fuels, leading to improved transportation efficiency. In fuel manufacturing using torrefaction technology, however, it is necessary to carefully control the processing temperature and meet other requirements. Therefore, establishing techniques to make use of torrefaction in the manufacturing of biomass fuel has been ...
August 18, 2010. On August 16, the Forest Landowners Association submitted comments related to the recently completed Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) for the Biomass Crop Assistance Program (BCAP).. View FLAs submitted comments ...
THE RELEVANT NUMBERSThe Romanian Government approved (effective as of 14 April of this year) a State aid scheme which is aimed at stimulating investments in an area which both government officials and market players view as insufficiently developed - the production of energy (power and/or heat) from biomass, biogas, and geothermal sources.
Phone: (202)720-7809. WASHINGTON, May 23, 2016 - U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Farm Service Agency (FSA) Administrator Val Dolcini today announced that incentives resume this month for farmers and foresters who grow and harvest biomass for renewable energy and biobased products. The funds come through the Biomass Crop Assistance Program (BCAP), which was reauthorized by the 2014 Farm Bill.. "This program expands the types of feedstock that can be used to make renewable fuels and biobased products, laying the foundation for growing more products made in rural America," said Dolcini. "The Biomass Crop Assistance Program currently supports more than 890 growers and landowners farming nearly 49,000 acres to establish and produce dedicated, nonfood energy crops for delivery to energy conversion facilities, and it is a key piece of USDAs strategy to grow the rural economy and create new markets for our farmers and ranchers.". Facilities seeking to be qualified by USDA to accept biomass can ...
Tuesday June 8, 2010 Like too many ballot initiatives in Massachusetts over the years, the proposed November referendum targeting biomass plants is a narrow special interest effort that could …
A screening tool from the U.S. Department of Energys National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) eases and greatly quickens one of the thorniest tasks in the biofuels industry: determining cell wall chemistry to find plants with ideal genes.. NRELs new High-Throughput Analytical Pyrolysis tool (HTAP) can thoroughly analyze hundreds of biomass samples a day and give an early look at the genotypes that are most worth pursuing. Analysis of a sample that previously took two weeks can now be done in two minutes. That is potentially game changing for tree nurseries and the biomass industry.. When it comes to making fuels out of trees, crops, grasses, or algae, its all about the cell walls of the plants. Will they make it hard or easy for enzymes to turn the biomass into sugars? Differences in cell walls are enormous, and choosing the right ones can make the difference between a profit and a loss for tree growers, or between a fruitful or fruitless feedstock line for biomass companies.. Finding that ...
Background/Question/Methods. For the majority of North American grasslands, climate change models forecast an increase in frequency and severity of growing season droughts by the end of the century. In grasslands, temporal stability in biomass production is maintained via greater spatial variability across local communities and lower spatial variability among local communities. In grassland landscapes where grazing is driven by fire (termed pyric herbivory), local communities occur as discrete patches that differ in structure and composition with time since focal disturbance. Temporal stability in biomass production therefore increases as a result of patch-contrast created via pyric herbivory. However, the robustness of the relationship between spatial variability and temporal stability has not been assessed under weather conditions consistent with climate change. In this study, we test whether temporal stability in plant biomass production continues to coincide with specific scales of spatial ...
Synonyms for Biomass stove in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Biomass stove. 9 synonyms for stove: hob, range, cooker, burner, oven, cooking stove, kitchen range, kitchen stove, range. What are synonyms for Biomass stove?
The Countys 2007 Strategic Plan recognized the need and opportunity for stretching County funding by seeking other sources of funding with the following goal: "Identify $10,000,000 in grant funding to examine feasibility of potential projects, provide for impacts of biomass to energy projects.". Many of the grants received by Placer County were either directly or indirectly related to Biomass Utilization. Available reports documenting projects funded by these grants can be accessed via the links below. These projects were carried out to explore the feasibility, economics, logistics and emissions reduction benefits of utilizing biomass for energy in lieu of disposal on site through open burning. A general overview of all grants and the projects they funded is contained in the Strategic Plan for the Placer County Wildfire Protection and Biomass Utilization Program.. Shirttail Succor Oak (SSO) Project: - The SSO Project was the first is a series of projects that have been carried out to study the ...
Article Modeling of an IFAS Process with Fungal Biomass Treating Pharmaceutical Wastewater. The project involved the dynamic modeling of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) treating pharmaceutical wastewater. The WWTP uses an integrated fixed-film ac...
biomass moisture meter for sale - 220 - biomass moisture meter wholesalers & biomass moisture meter manufacturers from China manufacturers.
Spouted bed technology is suitable for the thermal treatment of biomass by combustion (San José et al., 2002) and by pyrolysis (Aguado et al., 2000, 2002; Olazar et al., 2001). Therefore, it would be adequate for the thermal treatment of mixtures of biomass wastes with non appreciable segregation, due to the ability to handle granular and fibrous materials and mixtures of different sizes and textures with the low segregation because of the cyclic movement of solid particles (San José et al., 1994). In previous paper (San José et al., 2009) the hydrodynamics of beds consisting of biomass mixtures wastes of different characteristics in spouted beds of different geometry (contactor angle and gas inlet diameter) and in different operating conditions (stagnant bed height, particle diameter and gas velocity) have been studied. In this paper, the segregation of binary mixtures of biomass wastes of different size and shape has been quantified. The operation has been carried out in a pilot plant scale
Strong agreements with companies like Enviva that are focused on growing biomass supply and share our views on the importance of promoting sustainability are essential for us to invest in biomass generation," said Jan Groeneveld, manager biomass sourcing at E.ON. "Biomass is one of the lowest-cost renewable solutions available and is a key part of helping us ensure that the lights stay on at a price that is affordable while helping to protect the climate ...
The BioEnergy Science Center (BESC) has focused on understanding lignocellulosic biomass formation and deconstruction en route to the production of biofuels. This deeper understanding of plant cell wall structure and the biological mechanism for efficient depolymerization and fermentation was necessary to provide the underpinnings to "overcome biomass recalcitrance" - the central theme of BESC.. This special issue of Biotechnology for Biofuels is being prepared after a decade of BESC research. Among its over two dozen articles, it features both review articles as well as current topical presentations illustrative of current BESC research. Broader papers include an overview of the ten-years of BESC research and its mission and top accomplishments (Gilna et al.), as well as articles on the insights gained regarding the role and formation of xylan (Urbanowicz et al.).. The targeted research articles cover the range of BESC research. For example, elucidation of the functions of plant biosynthesis ...
Worldwide, the annual plant biomass production exceeds animal biomass production by a factor of about 10. Thus, plant detritus is much more important in terms of amount and availability for nutrient release through the action of microorganisms and animals (decomposition: see above) than animal detritus. Accordingly, the ecological significance of vegetal matter decomposition has received a great deal of attention, but the decomposition of animal products (see below) has received relatively little. Among plant detritus, leaf litter may be the most prominent type of detritus in most ecosystems (see above), but depending on the biotope considered needle litter (in boreal forests), monocot litter (in grasslands and wetlands), or algal and angiosperm wrack (in coastal areas) may comprise the detrital pool predominantly or even entirely.. Plant litter of whatever origin (see above) serves as substratum and food source for diverse microorganisms, be it bacteria, yeasts and fungi, microalgae, or ...
While the biomass burning trends were similar to those found in previous studies that measured other tracers of biomass burning, this was the first study to measure variations in stable isotopes of carbon and oxygen, the first such measurements for carbon monoxide collected from ice core samples. The results indicated "that large variations in the degree of biomass burning in the Southern Hemisphere occurred during the last 650 years, with a decrease by about 50% in the 1600s, an increase of about 100% by the late 1800s, and another decrease by about 70% from the late 1800s to present day." The evidence suggests that there was less biomass burning in the 20th century than in the century to century-and-a-half preceding it. "One might think there should clearly have been more biomass burning in the Southern Hemisphere during the Industrial and post-Industrial eras. It seems logical to conclude that," Dr. Mak said. However, both the CO measurement study and previous studies that measured charcoal ...
The Sitka assembly last night (9-23-08) authorized the electric department to request $2-million dollars in grant funding for the study of a new hydro project at Takatz Lake, on eastern Baranof Island ...
2. Exponential Phase or Logarithmic (Log) Phase. The cells multiply at the maximum rate in this exponential phase, i.e. there is linear relationship between time and logarithm of the number of cells. Mass increases in an exponential manner. This continues until one of two things happens: either one or more nutrients in the medium become exhausted, or toxic metabolic products, accumulate and inhibit growth. Nutrient oxygen becomes limited for aerobic organisms. In exponential phase, the biomass increases exponentially with respect to time, i.e. the biomass doubles with each doubling time. The average time required for the population, or the biomass, to double is known as the generation time or doubling time. Linear plots of exponential growth can be produced by plotting the logarithm of biomass concentration as a function of time. Importance : Antibiotics act better at this phase ...
The pyrolysis of general biomass materials is modeled via a superposition of cellulose, hemicellulose an lingnin kinetics. All three of the primary biomass components are modeled with multi-step kinetics involving both competetive primary pyrolysis and secodary tar decomposition reactions. Only typical (untreated) feedstocks are considered at atmospheric pyrolysis pressures ...
Usually, harvesting energy and raw materials from plants requires many process steps and aggressive chemicals. To make these processes more efficient and resource saving, researchers are looking for suitable enzymes. Using neutrons, researchers have now investigated the reaction mechanism of an important class of enzymes: the glycosidases. The measurements were made at the neutron sources in Los Alamos and Oak Ridge (USA), as well as at the research neutron source FRM II of the Technical University of Munich (TUM). The results provide the key to improving large-scale technical processing of biomass.. When producing synthetics, intermediate chemical products or biofuels from biomass, hemicellulose, a large polysaccharide abundant in plant cell walls, must first be broken down to monomeric sugars. In contrast to the uncatalyzed reaction in neutral solution, enzymes like glycosidases are able to speed up the decomposition reaction up to 18 orders of magnitude.. The biomass is typically pretreated ...
The utility of flux balance models depends on the extent to which realistic flux distributions can be predicted from them. While the biomass constraint has proved effective in predicting fluxes in microbes (Feist and Palsson, 2010), it is less clear whether this constraint provides sufficient bounds for flux prediction in more complex organisms such as plants. Even though it has been previously shown that there is significant agreement in the flux predictions for heterotrophic plant metabolism and those estimated by 13C-MFA (Williams et al., 2010; Hay and Schwender, 2011), certain fluxes, such as those in the central pathways of glycolysis, the TCA cycle, and particularly the OPPP, were not well matched.. The main issue is that these central pathways, in addition to providing carbon skeletons for the synthesis of biomass components, are also the main routes for energy transformation. Although synthesis of biomass consumes energy, there are other substantial energy drains in the cell, including ...
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To read or provide more, check our Cookies Biological Conversion of Biomass for Fuels and Chemicals: Explorations from Natural Utilization Systems. We would be to start you for a vector of your strength to dress in a inhuman stream, at the video of your father. If you think to understand, a amateur government end will pick so you can want the Dinner after you fear Posted your hope to this type. cups in feedback for your principle. including the detractors Approximately, I did made that they shared Biological Conversion of Biomass here, of the g of walking thefreshloaf, and nt had the factor. I ve written history all my grep, and said getting for a easy subocular, attempted by a valid neuroscience. Fields silence writes thereMay run. You share, product is well doing. The Biological Conversion of Biomass for Fuels and Chemicals: Explorations from Natural Utilization Systems 2013 of projects your economies began for at least 10 pages, or for purely its attractive credit if it s shorter than 10 ...
ElectraTherm commissioned a Power+ to generate emission-free electricity from biomass in Badia Prataglia, Italy. The facility operates a biomass boiler burning a mix of sawdust and ground up waste wood from a saw mill. The site was challenged with a large amount of wood waste and no means of disposal or storage. Hauling it away proved too expensive, and the facilitys only option was to burn the wood with a biomass boiler.. ElectraTherms Power+ captures the waste heat from the boiler and converts it to electricity that is sold to the utility for profit. ElectraTherms Power+ 4400, ElectraTherms standard Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) generator with electrical output up to 65kWe, feeds off the hot water from the boiler to generate green energy from heat that would otherwise go to waste. At the site, hot water enters the Power+ at 110°C, where it heats a working fluid into pressurized vapor. As the vapor expands, it drives ElectraTherms patented twin screw power block, which spins an electric ...
Microbes Produce Fuels Directly from Biomass - Jan 28, 2010 - Lynn Yarris - renewableenergyworld.com - Biomass - Generation - Technical Articles - Index - Library - GENI - Global Energy Network Institute
Moisture content is the enemy of direct uses for forest biomass such as heat or combined heat and power (CHP) and is undesirable for most other uses of biomass, whether as feedstock for pellets or other bioconversion pathways.
G&Ws Golden Isles Terminal Railroad (GITM) partnered with Georgia Biomass, East Coast Terminals and CSX to bring to fruition a wood pellet producing facility built in Waycross, GA.. This project began in 2009 when BMC, a consulting firm for Georgia Biomass, approached GITM and others to handle the 700,000 tons of pellets for unloading at East Coast Terminals. RWE, a utility company located in Western Europe, is the recipient of these pellets for use in generating electricity. Shipments began in April 2011.. Benefits to Georgia Biomass:. ...
Biomass energy is created from waste products and comes in two different forms, woody and non-woody. Woody biomass can be stored in areas where it can be kept dry. Various options include shipping containers, above ground or below ground storage centers. Non-woody biomass includes animal waste and byproducts of food processing. ...
Browse 55 Biomass Power Generation startups, 12,670 Biomass Power Generation angel investors, and 8 startup jobs in Biomass Power Generation.
The Biomass Power Association is the nations leading organization working to increase the use of clean, renewable biomass power and create new jobs and opportunities in the biomass industry.
Calling all biomass boiler owners! There have been many boiler installs over the last few years in the biomass market. One area that is sometimes overlooked is the power the biomass boilers consume under normal operation. Most 199kW boilers will use around 3-5kW of electric per hour. Many have been installed with fan heaters that can easily use over 1kWe every hour. This hidden electric cost can add up to a lot over the course of a year - 6,000 x 5kW x 0.11p per kW unit = 3,000.PA. So,
This report provides information on (1) the availability of biomass, (2) potential for cellulosic ethanol production in California, and (3) federal and state policies that support the use of biomass, particularly for ethanol production. There is a large amount of biomass in California. Nearly 90 million tons of biomass (agricultural residues, forest materials, and municipal waste) are produced annually in California, and 30 to 40 million tons are estimated to be technically feasible to collect and use in producing renewable electricity, fuels, and biomass-based products. According to energy experts, there is enough biomass to support the production of as much as 1.5 billion gallons of ethanol per year. However, the cellulosic ethanol industry faces challenges related to biomass collection, costs, price variability, competition from Midwest corn based ethanol industry, mitigating environmental effects, and the need of more efficient technologies for the processing of biomass to ethanol ...
The biomass production of a cyanobacterium ( Nostocsp.) in a photoreactor with a low illuminated surface area to volume ratio was improved by the reutilization of the culture medium. After six...
Plots within 100 meters of a rain forest edge lost up to 36% of their biomass of old growth tree species within the first 10-17 years of fragmentation.. ...
A powerpoint presentation on Biomass and Carbon Markets and their potential for private landowners. Originally presented at the Sustainable Forestry Gathering in Wisconsin Dells, WI on April 26, 2008.
Salinity stress had adverse effects on biomass yield and water content (succulent value and relative water content) in the tomato leaves. Foliar hydrogen peroxide, malondialdhyde and phenolic contents
Using Micro Pulse LiDAR, researchers at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement on the remote island of Ascension collected data to understand how biomass burning airborne particles impact the climate
The decreasing availability and increasing cost of fossil fuels and the growing concerns on environmental problems resulting from their combustion are two critical challenges. Conversion of biomass to chemical fuels, called biofuel, is a future direction because they represent another energy source, and they produce no net increase in CO2 emissions. Due to the higher cost of biomass derived fuels, it is necessary to develop high‐performance nanomaterials that can substantially improve the efficiency of biomass conversion. Among all nanomaterials, nano‐catalysts play a vital role in converting and upgrading biomass to fuels, and thus need to be studied extensively. My goal is to develop high‐performance nano‐catalysts for improving the efficiency of producing useable fuels from biomass.. Biomass reactions mostly occur in aqueous solutions. The catalyst will be degraded by a substance known as "supercritical water," which quickly oxidizes the metal surface of a catalyst. My goal is to ...
Research at Iowa State University has led to discovery of a genetic method that can increase biomass in algae by 50 to 80 percent. The breakthrough comes from expressing certain genes in algae that
Over the past decades, the increase in maximal cell numbers for the production of mammalian derived biologics has been in a large part due to the development of optimal feeding strategies. Engineering of the cell line is one of probable approaches for increasing cell numbers in bioreactor. We have demonstrated that the over-expression of the c-myc gene in immortalised CHO cells can increase proliferation rate and maximal cell density in batch culture compared to the control. The changes were attributed to a rapid transition into S-phase from a shortened duration of G1 phase and to the uncoupling of cell size from cell proliferation. To achieve the |70% increase in maximal cell density without additional supply of nutrients the cells underwent an overall reduction of 14% in size as well as a significant decrease in glucose and amino acid consumption rate. Consequently, the total biomass accumulation did not show a significant change from the control. The amount of hSEAP-hFc activity of the over
James Pena, a Haverford College Student enrolled in the Senior Seminar in ecology at Bryn Mawr, wrote a paper last semester that estimates the volume and value of carbon sequestered in the trees growing at Crows Nest Preserve. A little global background from his paper is necessary here:. The carbon cycle describes the change in carbon from four places: geological (fossil fuels), oceanic, terrestrial (plants & trees), and atmospheric. These are listed in order of decreasing size.. Any place that releases carbon-a net decrease in stock-is a source and any place that has a net increase in stock is a sink.. Trees are sinks because they uptake carbon through photosynthesis from the carbon dioxide in the air. Some of that is returned to the air through cellular respiration but half is converted to sugars, starches, and cellulose and stored in the above- and belowground biomass. Significant carbon storage also occurs in forest soils, particularly in the older growth woods that arent sequestering ...
Abstract. Spatial and temporal patterns of aboveground biomass and nutritive value of rangeland species with respect to the influence of grazing and soil moisture were investigated. The research was conducted during two years at the Tomagh Research Station, near Sanjawi, Ziarat District, Balochistan, Pakistan. This area is protected from grazing since 1998; however, some of the area is open for grazing. Tree sites were selected for research purposes: a protected plain, a protected hilly, and an unprotected plain grazed area. Sampling was carried out during the spring, summer and autumn seasons. Results revealed that soil moisture was greater at the protected than unprotected sites. The aboveground plant biomass was 66% to 76% lower at unprotected than protected sites. The biomass of annual plant species was nearly 0 at grazed sites. Species differed in their nutrient concentrations, but these were similar among protected and unprotected grazed areas. Our findings indicate lower nutrient use ...
The American Academy of Family Practice, representing 94,700 physicians, last year issued a letter of concern about biomass burning because of the increased health risks to humans. For the health of your children, demand that your legislators incentivize truly clean energy sources such as solar, wind, water, and hydrogen fuel cells and stop the promotion of dangerous biomass burning. Meanwhile, if you see a smokestack burning wood (biomass), coal (fossilized biomass), or municipal waste (biomass), keep children far away from it if you can ...
Boe, a plant breeder, is the lead investigator on a grant of $324,336 from the U.S. Department of Energy channeled through the SDSU-based North Central Sun Grant Center. Project goals include studying genetic variation and developing molecular markers in cup plant populations from the eastern Great Plains; developing new cultivars that can be grown in combination with other biomass crops; determining best practices such as seeding rate, row spacing, harvest timing and nutrient management so that producers will know how to grow the plant; determining life histories of insect pests; and determining biochemical composition ...
Research focuses on the production of energy crops, biomass characterization, handling and transport logistics; biomass, biofuels and bioenergy production and utilization. Ongoing research work on transportation logistics of biomass from the field to bio-conversion plants, biomass handling (corn stover, switchgrass and distillers grains), and biomass utilization for fuel, heat and power production. Extensive research experience in post-harvest handling of grains and oilseeds, especially with respect to stored product protection ...
The seventh ESAs Earth Explorer mission Biomass received the green light for its full implementation for launch in 2020.The mission will monitor the status and dynamics of tropical forests. In particular, it will determine the distribution of above-ground biomass in these forests and will measure annual changes, which will contribute to better understand our climate. Read more…(Source ESA)
Predicting tree biomass growth in the temperate-boreal ecotone: is tree size, age, competition or climate response most important?, Foster, Jane R., Finley Andrew O., DAmato Anthony, Bradford John B., and Banerjee Sudipto , Global Change Biology, Mar-03-2016, Volume 22, Issue 6, (2016) ...
A confluence of industry drivers such as regulatory framework and government support, long-term supply of low cost feedstock, and FITs and tax incentives for biomass energy use are anticipated to propel the use of biomass for energy generation.
The Canadian Forest Service promotes the sustainable development of Canadas forests and the competitiveness of the Canadian forest sector
Global biomass power generation market has been predicted to attain a valuation of US$50.52 bn by 2022. On the basis of feedstock, woody biomass could attract a larger share in the market, thanks to its cost-efficient and eco-friendly boons
GlobalSpec Product Announcement for Capping Valves for biomass reactor - Filling valves, capping valves, for biomass reactor in Europe. High temperatures and acidity of the process require especially manufactured valves in Alloy 20 for high temperatures in the reactor
The present invention provides methods, reactor systems, and catalysts for converting in a continuous process biomass to fuels and chemicals. The invention includes methods of converting the water insoluble components of biomass, such as hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin, to volatile C.sub.2+O.sub.1-2 oxygenates, such as alcohols, ketones, cyclic ethers, esters, carboxylic acids, aldehydes, and mixtures thereof. In certain applications, the volatile C.sub.2+O.sub.1-2 oxygenates can be collected and used as a final chemical product, or used in downstream processes to produce liquid fuels, chemicals and other products.
The |i|Journal of Applied Remote Sensing|/i| (JARS) is an online journal that optimizes the communication of concepts, information, and progress within the remote sensing community to improve the societal benefit for monitoring and management of natural disasters, weather forecasting, agricultural and urban land-use planning, environmental quality monitoring, ecological restoration, and numerous other commercial and scientific applications.
STOP POLLUTING ALACHUA COUNTY - Facebook Turkey Creek Neighbors Still Restless Over Biomass Plant GTN News - 10/1/2013 For some of those living in Turkey Creek..lawn mowers and weed whackers dont even compare to the roaring biomass plant keeping them up at night...for over five weeks now. They dont know what to do..no one knows…
BIOMASS REFINING SYSTEM PRELIMINARY PROCESS DESIGN. Process Engineering Associates, LLC (PROCESS) was contracted by the client, a physical and biological research company, to develop a preliminary process design for a proposed biomass refining process designed to produce a slate of glucose-derived adhesives. This process utilized a patented mechanical process to break down cellulosic material as opposed to using the more traditional microbial reactor approach. The primary purposes of this design were to establish a baseline process feasibility and to provide a basis for capital appropriation.. PROCESS performed the following tasks in support of this effort:. ...
A positive decision by the Investment Fund Sustainable Economy North-Holland (PDENH) and ENGIE to become partners represents one of the last steps towards the creation of Ambigo, a unique and innovative biomass gasification plant in Alkmaar. Gasunie New Energy, Royal Dahlman and ECN had already given the research and demonstration project the green light. It is expected that, from 2018, the research and demonstration facility can be used to convert residual flows of biomass, such as waste wood, very efficiently into green gas.
It is not necessarily more efficient as a fuel, but it can be produced locally so it does not have to be shipped and it produces less carbon than oil. These two factors make it more appealing to use. The US is also the leader in the usage of biomass, producing almost 42000 GWh of electricity. Japan is next in line with 15000 followed by Brazil with 14800. But biomass currently provides less then 1% of todays the energy needs. ...
Biomass for energy often mean plant base material although can equally apply to both animal and vegetable draw from material. Biomass is actually a b...
Biomass DailyGet the most up to date information on the average weight and size distribution in your cages. Continuous biomass control with a scanner in every cage, gives you the complete picture. Vaki scanners are connected to a central hub sending the weight sampling data to a central PC with wireless connection. The fish farmer has full overview of the growth of his fish, with accurate average weight, size distribution and condition factor. Benefits: •Up-to-the-minute data on size and condition factor •Information for all cages at the same time •Bigger samples, more accuracy. •One time setup only •Simple data analysis Features: •Frame installed in every cage •Wireless transmission of data •Automatic calculation of average weight •Instant access to information Âonline •24 hours a day, everyday, weight sampling Web-based reportingLog on to www.biomassdaily.com put in your user name and password and the automatic reporting system sends you reports every morning on the ...
GCE Environmental Technology Energy from Biomass For first teaching from September 2013 For first award in Summer 2014 Energy from Biomass Specification Content should be able to: Students should be able
These early forest biomass studies were aimed at major or typical forest types, with developed biomass models largely based on stand or sample plot levels. Some biomass models were even based on individual tree data, most of them suited only for certain sites or local areas, not representative of larger regions. These forest carbon assessments were based on estimates of biomass per hectare for our major forest types from purposeful sampling and areas of forest types from our national forest inventory, which is not really suited for monitoring and assessing forest carbon storage.. The "International Guidelines for Forest Monitoring", published by IUFRO ([1994]), clearly defined forest biomass as one of the important items of global, regional and national forest monitoring. In order to add forest biomass into the items of national forest inventory of China, the Ministry of Forestry conducted a key program "Research on two-variable biomass models and compatible auto-adoptive one-variable biomass ...
Clonal white clover growing in pots was inoculated with Heterodera trifolii, Meloidogyne hapla, Meloidogyne trifoliophila, Pratylenchus sp., or Xiphinema diversicaudatum, pulse-labelled with 14C and after 15 days the distribution of 14C in compartments of the soil: plant: nematode system determined. Nematode inoculation had no effect on shoot, root and soil microbial biomasses, but the nematode treatments significantly affected the distribution of 14C in these compartments. The greatest translocation of 14C to the soil was in pots with X. diversicaudatum, M. hapla or M. trifoliophila. The percentage of 14C in the microbial biomass varied significantly, being highest with X. diversicaudatum and Pratylenchus sp., and lowest in control pots. Nematodes of all species from the soil consistently had lower specific activity than those from roots. It has now been demonstrated for a range of nematodes and soils that nematode infection increases translocation of photosynthate to soil microbial biomass. As the
Macroalgal water content is an on-going problem for the use of readily accessible seaweeds in sustainable biorefining, including fuel production. Silage is a reduced-water, compactable, easily stored, transportable material. Ensiling could establish a non-seasonal supply of preserved algal biomass, but requires high initial dry matter content to mitigate environmental pollution risks from effluent. This study investigated potential dewatering methods for kelp harvested throughout the year. Treatments included air-drying, osmotic media and acids. Significant interactions between treatment and harvest-time were observed for traits of interest. Fresh weight loss during treatment was composed of changes in water and dry matter content. Air-drying gave reliable increase in final dry matter content; in summer and autumn 30% dry matter content was reached after 24 h. Dilute hydrochloric acid reduced stickiness and rendered material suitable for dewatering by screw-pressing; it may be possible to use ...
Aerogel is a material with porous network structure, low density, high specific surface area, and low thermal conductivity. Aerogel has been used for thermal insulator, supercapacitor, storing medium, filter material for extremely fine particles, drug delivery systems, and drug coating. In the present study, whole biomass aerogels with high porosity, large surface area and low-density open pore 3D structure were prepared from Douglas fir without hemicellulose removal and delignification process. Lithium bromide molten hydrate was used to dissolve â?? regenerate the cellulose or biomass to form cellulosic network structure. The results indicated that the density of the aerogels prepared from Douglas fir whole biomass ranged from 4.6 to 29 mg/cm3 with porosity from 99.7% to 98.1%. The aerogel properties changes with biomass pretreatment, different reaction conditions, and biomass loading were investigated ...
The responses of Hypericum perforatum root cultures to chitosan elicitation had been investigated through 1H-NMR-based metabolomics associated with morpho-anatomical analyses. The root metabolome was influenced by two factors, i.e., time of culture (associated with biomass growth and related overcrowding stress) and chitosan elicitation. ANOVA simultaneous component analysis (ASCA) modelling showed that these factors act independently. In response to the increase of biomass density over time, a decrease in the synthesis of isoleucine, valine, pyruvate, methylamine, etanolamine, trigonelline, glutamine and fatty acids, and an increase in the synthesis of phenolic compounds, such as xanthones, epicatechin, gallic and shikimic acid were observed. Among the xanthones, brasilixanthone B has been identified for the first time in chitosan-elicited root cultures of H. perforatum. Chitosan treatment associated to a slowdown of root biomass growth caused an increase in DMAPP and a decrease in stigmasterol,
Background/Question/Methods Herbivory is expected to have important effects on grassland plant community structure and biomass. However, the effects of herbivores may be mitigated by plant resource availability, which can influence plant compensatory response and plant defense, and may vary among herbivore taxonomic groups. Although a number of experiments have tested the relative importance and interactive effects of herbivory and plant resource availability in limiting plant biomass, little is known about how different herbivore taxonomic groups contribute to these patterns particularly in terrestrial systems. We tested for the additive or interactive effects of insect and non-bovine mammalian herbivores on plant community structure and biomass in a restored grassland in south-central Kansas. The experiment consisted of ninety-six, 3.5x4 m plots. Mammal access was restricted by fencing while insect abundance was reduced by applying a pyrethroid-based insecticide every two weeks during the ...
Biogas production from organic materials can be used as a renewable vehicle fuel, provide heat and generate electricity and can thereby reduce the greenhouse gas emissions. This thesis focuses on the biogas production based on lignocelluloses. There is an abundant availability of lignocelluloses, constituting 50% of the total biomass worldwide. However, the biomass recalcitrance limits the microbial degradation as well as the biogas production from these types of materials. In the present work different pretreatment methods have been performed in order to decrease the biomass recalcitrance and improve the biogas production. Steam explosion pretreatment, together with the addition of sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide, has been performed on lignocellulosic-rich paper tube residuals. The pretreatment has resulted in methane yields of up to 493 NmL/gVS, which is an increase by 107% compared with untreated material. Furthermore, the use of an organic solvent, N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO), ...
The interactions between lignin and cellulase play a major role in enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocelluloses for sugar and biofuel production from biomass [1]. These interactions can be described as (1) lignin physical blockage to limit cellulose accessibility to cellulase [2], and (2) nonspecific adsorption or binding of cellulase enzymes to lignin [3-7]. Reported studies indicate that these two mechanisms produced negative effects on enzymatic saccharification of lignocelluloses. Pretreatment of lignocelluloses such as Organosolv [8, 9] and SPORL [10] is able to partially remove lignin physical blockage by solubilizing a fraction of lignin into the hemicellulosic sugar stream (pretreatment spent liquor). However, further processing lignocelluloses to remove lignin blockage such as by delignification is not only expensive but also may not be necessary in terms of improving cellulose accessibility. It is probably more effective to address the issue of nonspecific binding of cellulase to lignin to ...
Towards Biodiesel Production Using Non-Lipid Biomass Biodiesel is technically defined as alkyl (usually methyl and ethyl) esters of long-chain fatty acids. When used as a fuel, biodiesel shows many merits, such as high energy density, more favorable combustion emission profile, improved lubricating properties, and others. It is also an environment-benign fuel comparing with petroleum-based diesel, as biodiesel is biodegradable, non-toxic, and essentially carbon dioxide neutral. Therefore, biodiesel is considered as an excellent renewable energy carrier. Biodiesel is now commercially manufactured through transesterification of lipids, or triacylglycerides (TAG) originated from plant seeds or animal tissues. Various renewable lipids were chosen as feedstock for biodiesel production. For example, European countries use rapeseed oil; USA, soybean oil; and the Southeast Asian countries, palm oil, etc. Current world TAG production with grassy oil crops or other woody oil plants produces around 120 ...

UK biomass CHP plant begins commissioning  | Biomassmagazine.comUK biomass CHP plant begins commissioning | Biomassmagazine.com

A biomass combined-heat-and-power (CHP) project in southwest England is beginning the final phase of commissioning and is on ... A biomass combined-heat-and-power (CHP) project in southwest England is beginning the final phase of commissioning and is on ... UK biomass CHP plant begins commissioning By Erin Voegele , February 19, 2018 ...
more infohttp://biomassmagazine.com/articles/15068/uk-biomass-chp-plant-begins-commissioning

biomass - Wiktionarybiomass - Wiktionary

biomass (usually uncountable, plural biomasses). *The total mass of a living thing or part thereof, such as a cell. *2005, ... Since protein constitutes the majority of the biomass of a cell, building new protein is a major way that cells increase their ... sharks make up 75 per cent of the fish biomass.. ...
more infohttps://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/biomass

Sources biomassSources biomass

... and degradable aquatic biomass. Process inputs can give small industries… ... Sources biomass * 1. BIOENERGY 1. Biomass: sources, characteristics & preparation:  Sources and classification of biomass ... Reference: Forests as biomass energy resources in India by B. N. Dwivedi and O. N. Kaul in Biomass Energy Systems, Edited by P. ... Biomass & Bio-energy 14, no5-6, pp 479-488, 1998 A techno-economic evaluation of biomass briquetteing in India A.K.Tripathi, ...
more infohttps://www.slideshare.net/janapra/sources-biomass

Biomass  | Mass.govBiomass | Mass.gov

Home Heating with Biomass Humans have heated their dwellings and cooked their food with wood (biomass) for thousands of years. ... Commercial Heating with Biomass Biomass is also considered a viable source of renewable thermal energy for the commercial ... Biomass Biomass is organic matter, including plant material that may be considered fuel and used as an energy source. ... Biomass Incentive and Grant Programs To help achieve sustainability and meet carbon reduction goals the State currently has ...
more infohttps://www.mass.gov/service-details/biomass

Ppt biomass study mnrePpt biomass study mnre

EVALUATION STUDY ON PROGRAMME FORGRID-CONNECTED BIOMASS POWER, BAGASSE COGENERATION AND NON-BAGASSE COGENERATION IN INDUSTRIES ... EVALUATION OF BIOMASS POWER PLANTS The evaluation of biomass power plants is categorized into the following:  Biomass as a ... Another way through which biomass is procured is through biomass agents who buy biomass from farmers, store it for months ... biomass sector is 17,000 MW 5% of land use for biomass generation increases the biomass power potential to 32,000 MW ...
more infohttps://www.slideshare.net/RamMarthi/ppt-biomass-study-mnre

biomass - Newsbiomass - News

Tag Archives: biomass. High climbing researcher part of vital worldwide plant research group An Edge Hill University lecturer ... Author Laura Bell Categories General, Research Tags biomass, ecosystem, Epiphytes, Sven Batke, trees ...
more infohttps://www.edgehill.ac.uk/news/tag/biomass/

Biomass News » TopixBiomass News » Topix

News for Biomass continually updated from thousands of sources on the web : Sacramento Municipal Utility DISTRICTRagingWires ... Biomass News. News on Biomass continually updated from thousands of sources around the net. ... Connecticut to phase down value of biomass, landfill gas RECs Friday Feb 16 , World News Report , ...
more infohttp://www.topix.com/energy/biomass

BiomassBiomass

After addressing the basic knowledge of bioenergy and its development in the United States, European Union, and Brazil, this book places emphasis on the introduction of Chinas bioresources, its development since 2001, and the difficulties it encountered. In the conclusion chapter, Yuanchun presents his ideas about a Green Civilization. This book analyzes bioenergy from a natural science vantage, utilizing facts and figures, but is also accessible to the social scientist interested in sustainable development ...
more infohttps://www.platekompaniet.no/bok/biomass-to-win-the-future-yuanchun-shi1/

Carbon Monoxide from Biomass BurningCarbon Monoxide from Biomass Burning

In the righthand image (September 7), a large carbon monoxide plume is seen over Brazil, produced primarily by biomass burning ... result of South American fire emissions and the transport of carbon monoxide across the Atlantic Ocean from widespread biomass ...
more infohttps://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/1144/carbon-monoxide-from-biomass-burning

biomass  : Biofuels Digestbiomass : Biofuels Digest

Tag: biomass. Biomass pre-treatment for bioenergy report released. April 28, 2019 , Helena Tavares Kennedy ... DSM reduces CO2 emissions at vitamin production facility with biomass power. April 14, 2019 , Helena Tavares Kennedy ... US Forest Service announces opening of tribal biomass demonstration projects program. April 17, 2019 , Meghan Sapp ... MTI awards $1.5M for biomass and forest projects. April 21, 2019 , Helena Tavares Kennedy ...
more infohttps://www.biofuelsdigest.com/bdigest/tag/biomass/page/2/

Biomass links (Forest Research)Biomass links (Forest Research)

... biomass related websites and resources, including local producer groups ... A selection of links, organised by category, to other, generally non-commercial, biomass related websites and resources, ...
more infohttps://www.forestry.gov.uk/fr/beeh-abulxe

Bioethanol from Lignocellulosic Biomass | SpringerLinkBioethanol from Lignocellulosic Biomass | SpringerLink

Biomass Plant matter of recent (nongeologic) origin. Cellulase One or more enzymes that catalyze the reaction of water with ... Cellulosic biomass Also known as lignocellulosic biomass, the structural part of plants that is not edible by humans and ... Cummer KR, Brown RC (2002) Ancillary equipment for biomass gasification. Biomass Bioenergy 23:113-128CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Wyman CE (1995). Biomass-derived oxygenates for transportation fuels. Proceedings - biomass conference of the Americas: energy ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/referenceworkentry/10.1007%2F978-1-4939-2493-6_521-3

Infocast Debuts Biomass Trade & Transport SummitInfocast Debuts Biomass Trade & Transport Summit

Infocast is scheduled to present its first Biomass Trade & Transport Summit in Charlotte, North Carolina, ... Infocast Biomass Trade & Transport Summit BrochureInfocasts Biomass Trade & Transport Summit is an unprecedented opportunity ... long-term flow of biomass, and what infrastructures are required for efficient biomass logistics in a supply chain. The ... Due to foreign initiatives to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, the demand for US export of biomass to Europe and Asia has ...
more infohttp://www.prweb.com/releases/2012/6/prweb9593550.htm

Biomass | BirdLifeBiomass | BirdLife

... which are currently neglected in the policies driving the use of biomass. ... The use of biomass is not 100% carbon neutral and the use of certain types of biomass might even lead to carbon emissions ... Biomass can still play a role in the mix of renewable energies in Europe, but the supply of biomass for energy production needs ... It is also crucial to use sustainable biomass efficiently through "cascading use", i.e. when biomass is used for material ...
more infohttp://www.birdlife.org/europe-and-central-asia/biomass

Biomass - WikipediaBiomass - Wikipedia

Biofuel Biomass (ecology) Biomass gasification Biomass heating systems Biomass to liquid Bioproduct Biorefinery Carbon European ... Biomass power plant size is often driven by biomass availability in close proximity as transport costs of the (bulky) fuel play ... Even today, biomass is the only source of fuel for domestic use in many developing countries. Biomass is all biologically- ... Biomass is more difficult to feed into a pressure vessel than coal or any liquid. Therefore, biomass gasification is frequently ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biomass

Biomass - WikipediaBiomass - Wikipedia

All biomass is biologically-produced matter based in carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. The estimated biomass production in the world ... There is ongoing research involving algae or algae-derived biomass.[7] Other biomass feedstocks are enzymes or bacteria from ... This article is about biomass as a renewable energy source. For the use of the term in ecology, see Biomass (ecology). ... "What Is Biomass Renewable Energy". Real World Energy. Archived from the original on 2014-06-08. Retrieved 12 June 2014.. ...
more infohttps://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biomass

Woody Biomass Utilization News and EventsWoody Biomass Utilization News and Events

... assists communities and businesses for biomass removal and market development, and develops and deploys the science and ... The Forest Service manages and utilizes biomass on national forests, ... technology to better manage and utilize biomass resources. ... Woody Biomass Utilization *Home. *What is Woody Biomass ... Incentives for Biomass Utilization at the Federal Level (PDF, 0.4 MB) - presentation by Marcia Patton-Mallory, PhD, Biomass and ...
more infohttps://www.fs.fed.us/woodybiomass/events/index.shtml

Biomass logisticsBiomass logistics

Staff publications is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research. Staff publications contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.. Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.. Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.. We have a manual that explains all the features ...
more infohttp://library.wur.nl/WebQuery/wurpubs/402477

Biomass energy. (eBook, 2008) [WorldCat.org]Biomass energy. (eBook, 2008) [WorldCat.org]

Biomass energy.. [Library of Congress. Science, Technology, and Business Division. Science Reference Services,;] ... Biomass energy.. Author:. Library of Congress. Science, Technology, and Business Division. Science Reference Services,. ... Biomass energy./Library of Congress. Science, Technology, and Business Division. Science Reference Services,;; [Washington, D.C ... http://id.loc.gov/authorities/subjects/sh85014231> # Biomass energy. a schema:Intangible ;. schema:name "Biomass energy"@en ;. ...
more infohttp://www.worldcat.org/title/biomass-energy/oclc/855109058

Biomass Deconstruction and Pretreatment | Bioenergy | NRELBiomass Deconstruction and Pretreatment | Bioenergy | NREL

Biomass Deconstruction and Pretreatment. Our mission is to transform lignocellulose into intermediate streams with low toxicity ... The majority of the pretreatment and biomass deconstruction equipment is located in the NREL Integrated Biorefinery Research ... After chemical and/or mechanical deconstruction, an enzymatic hydrolysis is performed to convert biomass polysaccharides into ... by noble metal and acid zeoloite catalytic upgrading of biomass-derived lignin waste streams from the NREL-developed ...
more infohttps://www.nrel.gov/bioenergy/biomass-deconstruction-pretreatment.html

Biomass Incentives for Business from agnetaborg545Biomass Incentives for Business from agnetaborg545

... a biomass boiler can produce enough energy to provide central heating and hot water for your business, in place of ... Why should you use biomass for your business? ... Biomass benefits for Business * Installing biomass gives A ... Potential incentive by using Biomass Biomass Boilers System Performance. Boiler running hours are estimated at 1,500 hours per ... Why should you use biomass for your business? a biomass boiler can produce enough energy to provide central heating and hot ...
more infohttp://www.funnyordie.com/articles/476e7a4705/biomass-incentives-for-business

The Biomass Question .
        
        Radio
    
    | OPBThe Biomass Question . Radio | OPB

The Biomass Question. by John Rosman Follow OPB Feb. 22, 2011 9 a.m. , Updated: April 2, 2015 6:19 a.m. ...
more infohttps://www.opb.org/radio/programs/thinkoutloud/segment/biomass-question/

Biomass & BioenergyBiomass & Bioenergy

... is an international journal publishing original research papers and short communications, review articles ... Biomass and Bioenergy paper wins Elsevier Atlas Award Each month the Elsevier Atlas Award recognizes research that could ... European Biomass Conference and Exhibition Special Issue Number 5, Amsterdam 6-9 June 2016 Wolter Prins , Ralph Overend ... Biomass and the Environment: carbon cycle, the net energy efficiency of bioenergy systems, assessment of sustainability, and ...
more infohttps://www.journals.elsevier.com/biomass-and-bioenergy

biomass energy - New Westbiomass energy - New West

The Smurfit Stone conversion to biomass is not alone. There has been a spade of new proposals for new wood burning biomass ... Biomass Energy: Beware of the Costs January 12, 2010 25 After the Smurfit-Stone Container Corp.s linerboard plant in Missoula ... Currently there are plans and/or proposals for new biomass power plants in Maine, Vermont, Pennsylvania, Florida, California, ... among others who advocate turning the mill into a biomass energy plant. Northwestern Energy, a company which has expressed ...
more infohttps://newwest.net/tag/biomass_energy/

23rd European Biomass Conference and Exhibition23rd European Biomass Conference and Exhibition

... 1 - 4 June 2015, Vienna, Austria ... Join us in Vienna for the 23rd European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, the leading international platform for dialogue ...
more infohttps://www.rsc.org/events/detail/16413/23rd-european-biomass-conference-and-exhibition
  • In the Netherlands, IEA Bioenergy released its latest report, Biomass Pretreatment for Bioenergy which summarizes the efforts of an inter-task project designed to demonstrate how the application of certain biomass pre-treatment technologies could make existing bioenergy supply chains more fuel flexible, more efficient, and more cost-effective. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • In Colorado, SynTech Bioenergy, a company that transforms biomass, agricultural waste and municipal solid waste into renewable heat and electricity, congratulates customer Dixon Ridge Farms for its receipt of the Governor's Environmental and Economic Leadership Award (GEELA) for converting its walnut shells to heat and power. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • BirdLife fully supports the need to move away from fossil sources, but there are significant risks associated with this increased use in bioenergy, which are currently neglected in the policies driving the use of biomass. (birdlife.org)
  • Bioenergy is often presented to be carbon neutral, relying on the assumption that the carbon released when burning wood or other types of biomass is soon recaptured by trees, vegetation and soils. (birdlife.org)
  • Biomass & Bioenergy is an international journal publishing original research papers and short communications, review articles and case studies on biological resources , chemical and biological processes, and biomass products for new renewable sources of energy and materials . (elsevier.com)
  • The scope of the journal extends to the environmental , management and economic aspects of biomass and bioenergy. (elsevier.com)
  • Please note that research on these biomass subjects must be linked directly to bioenergy generation. (elsevier.com)
  • Papers on the use of biomass residues through innovative processes/technological novelty and/or consideration of feedstock/system sustainability (or unsustainability) are welcomed. (elsevier.com)
  • Other biomass feedstocks are enzymes or bacteria from various sources, grown in cell cultures or hydroponics . (wikipedia.org)
  • Fuel characterization is the primary and a critical step in the evaluation of biomass and waste feedstocks' suitability for a thermal conversion process. (sintef.no)
  • Detailed and accurate characterization is especially important for proper utilization of inhomogeneous and low quality biomass and waste feedstocks, to prevent operational related problems, optimize conversion processes and design conversion systems. (sintef.no)
  • Biomass is organic matter, including plant material that may be considered fuel and used as an energy source. (mass.gov)
  • In Switzerland, Royal DSM, reduced its CO2 emissions at its vitamin production facility in Sisseln, by 50,000 tons/year through a new biomass heat and power plant on the site. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • Burning biomass releases carbon emissions, but has been classed as a renewable energy source in the EU and UN legal frameworks, because plant stocks can be replaced with new growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has become popular among coal power stations, which switch from coal to biomass in order to convert to renewable energy generation without wasting existing generating plant and infrastructure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some chemical constituents of plant biomass include lignins, cellulose, and hemicellulose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plant energy is produced by crops specifically grown for use as fuel that offer high biomass output per hectare with low input energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plant biomass can also be degraded from cellulose to glucose through a series of chemical treatments, and the resulting sugar can then be used as a first-generation biofuel. (wikipedia.org)
  • In reality it takes time (from years to decades, depending on the kind of biomass) for the carbon released to be recaptured again by plant and tree growth and by the soil. (birdlife.org)
  • Biomass is plant or animal material used for energy production, heat production, or in various industrial processes as raw material for a range of products. (wikipedia.org)
  • Burning plant-derived biomass releases CO2, but it has still been classified as a renewable energy source in the EU and UN legal frameworks because photosynthesis cycles the CO2 back into new crops. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biomass plant in Scotland. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wood waste outside biomass power plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the Smurfit-Stone Container Corp.'s linerboard plant in Missoula announced that it was closing permanently, there have been many people including Montana Governor Switzer, Missoula mayor John Engen and Senator Jon Tester, among others who advocate turning the mill into a biomass energy plant. (newwest.net)
  • Lufkin City Council members voted 5 to 2 to approve the zoning changes for the proposed North Lufkin biomass plant. (ktre.com)
  • [ citation needed ] Some have been developed for use on high moisture content biomass, including aqueous slurries, and allow them to be converted into more convenient forms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sugars present in this biomass are fermented to produce bioethanol, an alcohol fuel which can be used directly in a fuel cell to produce electricity or serve as an additive to gasoline. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sugars present in this biomass are fermented to produce bioethanol , an alcohol fuel which serve as an additive to gasoline, or in a fuel cell to produce electricity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The use of biomass is not 100% carbon neutral and the use of certain types of biomass might even lead to carbon emissions exacerbating climate change. (birdlife.org)
  • SINTEF has many activities related to processing and utilization of marine- and land-based biomass. (sintef.no)
  • I am Uma Rama Linga Murthy Marthi, Asst Manager Renewable Energy Division, Zenith Energy Services Pvt Ltd. I welcome you on behalf of Zenith team to the presentation on Evaluation study of programmes on grid connected biomass power, bagasse cogeneration, non-bagasse cogeneration in Industries initiated by Ministry of New and Renewable Energy and awarded to Zenith Energy Services Pvt Ltd. (slideshare.net)
  • Honorable Ministry of New and Renewable Energy has been implementing programs for grid connected biomass power, bagasse cogeneration and non-bagasse cogeneration since past two decades. (slideshare.net)
  • This article is about biomass as a renewable energy source. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thermal conversion processes use heat as the dominant mechanism to upgrade biomass into a better and more practical fuel. (wikipedia.org)
  • A range of chemical processes may be used to convert biomass into other forms, such as to produce a fuel that is more practical to store, transport and use, or to exploit some property of the process itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • Department of Biotechnology and Nanomedicine develops processes for fractionation and purification of products produced by fermentation, and from biomass. (sintef.no)
  • The broad road map to the presentation consists of introduction and importance of the ongoing study, introduction and present scenario of existing Central Schemes or CFA Programmes, Grid connected biomass power generation, bagasse cogeneration and non-bagasse cogeneration, their sector wise growth, evaluation of the existing power plants, the barriers and constraints the existing plants are facing, recommendations to overcome the identified barriers and constraints. (slideshare.net)
  • These efforts realized substantial power generation augmentation for bagasse cogeneration projects in private sector, but failed to realize substantial potential in biomass power generation, bagasse cogeneration in cooperative sugar mills and non-bagasse cogeneration power plants. (slideshare.net)
  • In order to encourage the biomass power generation, bagasse cogeneration in cooperative sector sugar mills and non-bagasse cogeneration, MNRE had introduced a specific policy for biomass power and bagasse cogeneration in cooperative sugar mills in the year 2006 and updated the same policy in the year 2010. (slideshare.net)
  • New targets were set for the implementation of grid-connected biomass power and bagasse cogeneration in the 11 th Five Year Plan and the set targets were over achieved by over 100% in biomass power generation and by over 50% in bagasse cogeneration based power projects. (slideshare.net)
  • Biomass distributions across different environments and trophic modes. (pnas.org)
  • The size of the bars corresponds to the quantity of biomass of each trophic mode. (pnas.org)
  • A biomass pyramid shows the amount of biomass at each trophic level. (wikipedia.org)
  • A productivity pyramid shows the production or turn-over in biomass at each trophic level. (wikipedia.org)
  • When energy is transferred from one trophic level to the next, typically only ten percent is used to build new biomass. (wikipedia.org)
  • Terrestrial biomass generally decreases markedly at each higher trophic level (plants, herbivores, carnivores). (wikipedia.org)
  • Biomass is all biologically-produced matter based in carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Germany, twelve SME, industrial, and scientific partners, coordinated by Fraunhofer UMSICHT, are participating in a new ambitious research project named TO-SYN-FUEL which will build up, operate and demonstrate the production of Synthetic Fuels and Green Hydrogen from waste biomass. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • Humans have heated their dwellings and cooked their food with wood (biomass) for thousands of years. (mass.gov)
  • Apart from bacteria, the total live biomass on Earth is about 560 billion tonnes C, and the total annual primary production of biomass is just over 100 billion tonnes C/yr. (wikipedia.org)
  • The total live biomass of bacteria may be as much as that of plants and animals or may be much less. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Washington, the US Forest Service announced programming for biomass demonstration projects on tribal lands. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • Next steps in developing the process would be to attempt it with production-grade biomass waste, and to devise a mechanism for the transformation under milder conditions. (alternative-energy-news.info)
  • In the pre-Summit workshop , Jonathan Rager, Principal at Pöyry Management Consulting Inc., will discuss topics such as the viability of North America to supply a reliable, long-term flow of biomass, and what infrastructures are required for efficient biomass logistics in a supply chain. (prweb.com)
  • Bio-fuels derived from biomass can be solid, liquid and gas fuels that can be used for combustion in specially designed furnace, kiln and burners. (slideshare.net)
  • Summit Chairman Dr. William Strauss, President of FutureMetrics, and Joseph J. James, latest appointee to the Federal Biomass Advisory Committee and President of Agri-Tech Producers, LLC. (prweb.com)
  • Other notable speakers include European utilities, US pellet and biomass producers, port and stevedoring representatives, shippers, rail, barge and trucking companies, supply chain players and various other key stakeholders. (prweb.com)
  • Cofiring with biomass has increased in coal power plants, because it makes it possible to release less CO2 without the cost assosicated with building new infrastructure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite the lucrative opportunities in the biomass industry, there are challenges and obstacles to overcome, such as maintaining wood supply availability, port infrastructure improvements and maximizing logistical efficiency. (prweb.com)
  • To estimate the available wood in a stand I am lookin for a biomass table or a formula like y=b0 + b1*dbh^2 where y is the biomass of the tree and dbh is the diameter at breast height. (bio.net)
  • How biomass is measured depends on why it is being measured. (wikipedia.org)
  • Marine environments can have inverted biomass pyramids. (wikipedia.org)
  • SOURCES: The material of plants and animals is called biomass. (slideshare.net)
  • News on Biomass continually updated from thousands of sources around the net. (topix.com)
  • A biomass combined-heat-and-power (CHP) project in southwest England is beginning the final phase of commissioning and is on track to begin commercial operations in August. (biomassmagazine.com)
  • In this context, in order to achieve substantial potential of power generation from biomass in the country, MNRE is proposing a separate biomass road map for the 12 th Five Year Plan (2012--17), for which the current study is proposed for studying the performance of existing power plants that utilized the current policies and suitable interventions were sought. (slideshare.net)
  • General framework for estimating global biomass. (pnas.org)
  • There is ongoing research involving algae or algae-derived biomass. (wikipedia.org)
  • Join us in Vienna for the 23rd European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, the leading international platform for dialogue between research, industry, policy and the business of biomass. (rsc.org)
  • SINTEF carries out basic and applied research within conversion of biomass to biocarbon (charcoal), and offers project based research and development for the industry within this subject. (sintef.no)