Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
Materials or phenomena which can provide energy directly or via conversion.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.
Devices for generating biological products that use light as the energy source. They are used for controlled BIOMASS production such as growing cyanobacteria, mosses, or algae.
New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.
A non-taxonomic term for unicellular microscopic algae which are found in both freshwater and marine environments. Some authors consider DIATOMS; CYANOBACTERIA; HAPTOPHYTA; and DINOFLAGELLATES as part of microalgae, even though they are not algae.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.
The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.
Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.
A family of glycosidases that hydrolyse crystalline CELLULOSE into soluble sugar molecules. Within this family there are a variety of enzyme subtypes with differing substrate specificities that must work together to bring about complete cellulose hydrolysis. They are found in structures called CELLULOSOMES.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the EDIBLE GRAINS used in millet cereals and in feed for birds and livestock (ANIMAL FEED). It contains diosgenin (SAPONINS).
The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.
The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.
A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A plant genus of the family SALICACEAE. Members contain salicin, which yields SALICYLIC ACID.
The contamination of indoor air.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Places for cultivation and harvesting of fish, particularly in sea waters. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.
The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.
Forms of energy that are constantly and rapidly renewed by natural processes such as solar, ocean wave, and wind energy. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
The act of feeding on plants by animals.
The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.
The processes by which organisms use simple inorganic substances such as gaseous or dissolved carbon dioxide and inorganic nitrogen as nutrient sources. Contrasts with heterotrophic processes which make use of organic materials as the nutrient supply source. Autotrophs can be either chemoautotrophs (or chemolithotrophs), largely ARCHAEA and BACTERIA, which also use simple inorganic substances for their metabolic energy reguirements; or photoautotrophs (or photolithotrophs), such as PLANTS and CYANOBACTERIA, which derive their energy from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (autotrophy; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrient and energy requirements.
A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Minute free-floating animal organisms which live in practically all natural waters.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A genus of trees of the Myrtaceae family, native to Australia, that yields gums, oils, and resins which are used as flavoring agents, astringents, and aromatics.
Debris resulting from a process that is of no further use to the system producing it. The concept includes materials discharged from or stored in a system in inert form as a by-product of vital activities. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
The processes by which organisms utilize organic substances as their nutrient sources. Contrasts with AUTOTROPHIC PROCESSES which make use of simple inorganic substances as the nutrient supply source. Heterotrophs can be either chemoheterotrophs (or chemoorganotrophs) which also require organic substances such as glucose for their primary metabolic energy requirements, or photoheterotrophs (or photoorganotrophs) which derive their primary energy requirements from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; heterotrophy; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.
Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.
Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.
The application of heat to raise the temperature of the environment, ambient or local, or the systems for accomplishing this effect. It is distinguished from HEAT, the physical property and principle of physics.
Multicellular marine macroalgae including some members of red (RHODOPHYTA), green (CHLOROPHYTA), and brown (PHAEOPHYTA) algae. They are widely distributed in the ocean, occurring from the tide level to considerable depths, free-floating (planktonic) or anchored to the substratum (benthic). They lack a specialized vascular system but take up fluids, nutrients, and gases directly from the water. They contain CHLOROPHYLL and are photosynthetic, but some also contain other light-absorbing pigments. Many are of economic importance as FOOD, fertilizer, AGAR, potash, or source of IODINE.
Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
A suborder of CRUSTACEA, order Diplostraca, comprising the water fleas. They are benthic filter feeders that consume PHYTOPLANKTON. The body is laterally compressed and enclosed in a bivalved carapace, from which the head extends.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
The enrichment of a terrestrial or aquatic ECOSYSTEM by the addition of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, that results in a superabundant growth of plants, ALGAE, or other primary producers. It can be a natural process or result from human activity such as agriculture runoff or sewage pollution. In aquatic ecosystems, an increase in the algae population is termed an algal bloom.
Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
The above-ground plant without the roots.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Methods and techniques used to genetically modify cells' biosynthetic product output and develop conditions for growing the cells as BIOREACTORS.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.
Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.
A group of different species of microorganisms that act together as a community.
A plant genus of the family BETULACEAE that is distinguished from birch (BETULA) by its usually stalked winter buds and by cones that remain on the branches after the small, winged nutlets are released.
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
A plant family of the order Typhales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons) that contains a single genus, Typha, that grows worldwide.
A plant family of the order Najadales, subclass ALISMATIDAE, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). This is a group of perennial aquatic herbs with basal leaves.
An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE, lichenin, and cereal beta-glucans.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE widely cultivated in the tropics for the sweet cane that is processed into sugar.

Regulation of the start of DNA replication in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. (1/2814)

Cells of Schizosaccharomyces pombe were grown in minimal medium with different nitrogen sources under steady-state conditions, with doubling times ranging from 2.5 to 14 hours. Flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy confirmed earlier findings that at rapid growth rates, the G1 phase was short and cell separation occurred at the end of S phase. For some nitrogen sources, the growth rate was greatly decreased, the G1 phase occupied 30-50% of the cell cycle, and cell separation occurred in early G1. In contrast, other nitrogen sources supported low growth rates without any significant increase in G1 duration. The method described allows manipulation of the length of G1 and the relative cell cycle position of S phase in wild-type cells. Cell mass was measured by flow cytometry as scattered light and as protein-associated fluorescence. The extensions of G1 were not related to cell mass at entry into S phase. Our data do not support the hypothesis that the cells must reach a certain fixed, critical mass before entry into S. We suggest that cell mass at the G1/S transition point is variable and determined by a set of molecular parameters. In the present experiments, these parameters were influenced by the different nitrogen sources in a way that was independent of the actual growth rate.  (+info)

Temperature and pH conditions that prevail during fermentation of sausages are optimal for production of the antilisterial bacteriocin sakacin K. (2/2814)

Sakacin K is an antilisterial bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus sake CTC 494, a strain isolated from Spanish dry fermented sausages. The biokinetics of cell growth and bacteriocin production of L. sake CTC 494 in vitro during laboratory fermentations were investigated by making use of MRS broth. The data obtained from the fermentations was used to set up a predictive model to describe the influence of the physical factors temperature and pH on microbial behavior. The model was validated successfully for all components. However, the specific bacteriocin production rate seemed to have an upper limit. Both cell growth and bacteriocin activity were very much influenced by changes in temperature and pH. The production of biomass was closely related to bacteriocin activity, indicating primary metabolite kinetics, but was not the only factor of importance. Acidity dramatically influenced both the production and the inactivation of sakacin K; the optimal pH for cell growth did not correspond to the pH for maximal sakacin K activity. Furthermore, cells grew well at 35 degrees C but no bacteriocin production could be detected at this temperature. L. sake CTC 494 shows special promise for implementation as a novel bacteriocin-producing sausage starter culture with antilisterial properties, considering the fact that the temperature and acidity conditions that prevail during the fermentation process of dry fermented sausages are optimal for the production of sakacin K.  (+info)

The role of benzoate in anaerobic degradation of terephthalate. (3/2814)

The effects of acetate, benzoate, and periods without substrate on the anaerobic degradation of terephthalate (1, 4-benzene-dicarboxylate) by a syntrophic methanogenic culture were studied. The culture had been enriched on terephthalate and was capable of benzoate degradation without a lag phase. When incubated with a mixture of benzoate and terephthalate, subsequent degradation with preference for benzoate was observed. Both benzoate and acetate inhibited the anaerobic degradation of terephthalate. The observed inhibition is partially irreversible, resulting in a decrease (or even a complete loss) of the terephthalate-degrading activity after complete degradation of benzoate or acetate. Irreversible inhibition was characteristic for terephthalate degradation only because the inhibition of benzoate degradation by acetate could well be described by reversible noncompetitive product inhibition. Terephthalate degradation was furthermore irreversibly inhibited by periods without substrate of only a few hours. The inhibition of terephthalate degradation due to periods without substrate could be overcome through incubation of the culture with a mixture of benzoate and terephthalate. In this case no influence of a period without substrate was observed. Based on these observations it is postulated that decarboxylation of terephthalate, resulting in the formation of benzoate, is strictly dependent on the concomitant fermentation of benzoate. In the presence of higher concentrations of benzoate, however, benzoate is the favored substrate over terephthalate, and the culture loses its ability to degrade terephthalate. In order to overcome the inhibition of terephthalate degradation by benzoate and acetate, a two-stage reactor system is suggested for the treatment of wastewater generated during terephthalic acid production.  (+info)

Citric acid production from xylan and xylan hydrolysate by semi-solid culture of Aspergillus niger. (4/2814)

Citric acid production from xylan and xylan hydrolysate was done by Aspergillus niger Yang no. 2 cultivated in a semi-solid culture using bagasse as a carrier. Yang no. 2 produced 72.4 g/l and 52.6 g/l of citric acid in 5 d from 140 g/l of xylose and arabinose, respectively. Yang no. 2 produced 51.6 g/l of citric acid in 3 d from a concentrated xylan hydrolysate prepared by cellulase treatment, containing 100 g/l of reducing sugars. Moreover, Yang no. 2 directly produced 39.6 g/l of citric acid maximally in 3 d from 140 g/l of xylan.  (+info)

High-rate anaerobic treatment of wastewater at low temperatures. (5/2814)

Anaerobic treatment of a volatile fatty acid (VFA) mixture was investigated under psychrophilic (3 to 8 degrees C) conditions in two laboratory-scale expanded granular sludge bed reactor stages in series. The reactor system was seeded with mesophilic methanogenic granular sludge and fed with a mixture of VFAs. Good removal of fatty acids was achieved in the two-stage system. Relative high levels of propionate were present in the effluent of the first stage, but propionate was efficiently removed in the second stage, where a low hydrogen partial pressure and a low acetate concentration were advantageous for propionate oxidation. The specific VFA-degrading activities of the sludge in each of the modules doubled during system operation for 150 days, indicating a good enrichment of methanogens and proton-reducing acetogenic bacteria at such low temperatures. The specific degradation rates of butyrate, propionate, and the VFA mixture amounted to 0.139, 0.110, and 0.214 g of chemical oxygen demand g of volatile suspended solids-1 day-1, respectively. The biomass which was obtained after 1.5 years still had a temperature optimum of between 30 and 40 degrees C.  (+info)

Tessaracoccus bendigoensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a gram-positive coccus occurring in regular packages or tetrads, isolated from activated sludge biomass. (6/2814)

An isolate of a Gram-positive bacterium, designated strain Ben 106T, was obtained in pure culture by micromanipulation of a biomass sample obtained from a laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor. This isolate grew axenically as cocci or clusters of cocci arranged in regular tetrads and was morphologically similar to the dominant organism observed in the biomass. This morphology resembled that of some Gram-positive and -negative bacteria and the so-called 'G-bacteria' commonly seen in activated sludge samples. Strain Ben 106T is a non-motile, facultative anaerobe. It is oxidase-negative, catalase-positive and is capable of reducing nitrate. This organism can grow between 20 and 37 degrees C, with an optimum temperature of 25 degrees C. The pH range for growth is between 6.0 and 9.0, with an optimum pH of 7.5. The isolate stained positively for intracellular polyphosphate granules. The diagnostic diamino acid of the peptidoglycan is LL-diaminopimelic acid (LL-A2pm) with a glycine moiety at position 1 of the peptide subunit, which characterizes the presence of a rare peptidoglycan (type A3-gamma'). Two menaquinones, MK-9(H4) and MK-7(H4), are present and the main cellular fatty acid is 12-methyltetradecanoic acid. The G + C content is 74 mol%. From phenotypic characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, the isolate differed sufficiently from its closest phylogenetic relatives, namely Propionibacterium propionicum, Propioniferax innocua, Friedmanniella antarctica, Luteococcus japonicus and Microlunatus phosphovorus in the A1 subdivision of the Gram-positive bacteria (i.e. Firmicutes with a high G + C content), suborder Propionibacterineae, to be placed in a new genus, Tessaracoccus, as Tessaracoccus bendigoensis gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain is Ben 106T (= ACM 5119T).  (+info)

Carbon and electron flow in Clostridium cellulolyticum grown in chemostat culture on synthetic medium. (7/2814)

Previous results indicated poor sugar consumption and early inhibition of metabolism and growth when Clostridium cellulolyticum was cultured on medium containing cellobiose and yeast extract. Changing from complex medium to a synthetic medium had a strong effect on (i) the specific cellobiose consumption, which was increased threefold; and (ii) the electron flow, since the NADH/NAD+ ratios ranged from 0.29 to 2.08 on synthetic medium whereas ratios as high as 42 to 57 on complex medium were observed. These data indicate a better control of the carbon flow on mineral salts medium than on complex medium. By continuous culture, it was shown that the electron flow from glycolysis was balanced by the production of hydrogen gas, ethanol, and lactate. At low levels of carbon flow, pyruvate was preferentially cleaved to acetate and ethanol, enabling the bacteria to maximize ATP formation. A high catabolic rate led to pyruvate overflow and to increased ethanol and lactate production. In vitro, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, and ethanol dehydrogenase levels were higher under conditions giving higher in vivo specific production rates. Redox balance is essentially maintained by NADH-ferredoxin reductase-hydrogenase at low levels of carbon flow and by ethanol dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase at high levels of carbon flow. The same maximum growth rate (0.150 h-1) was found in both mineral salts and complex media, proving that the uptake of nutrients or the generation of biosynthetic precursors occurred faster than their utilization. On synthetic medium, cellobiose carbon was converted into cell mass and catabolized to produce ATP, while on complex medium, it served mainly as an energy supply and, if present in excess, led to an accumulation of intracellular metabolites as demonstrated for NADH. Cells grown on synthetic medium and at high levels of carbon flow were able to induce regulatory responses such as the production of ethanol and lactate dehydrogenase.  (+info)

Differentiation of Helicobacter pylori isolates based on lectin binding of cell extracts in an agglutination assay. (8/2814)

Plant and animal lectins with various carbohydrate specificities were used to type 35 Irish clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori and the type strain NCTC 11637 in a microtiter plate assay. Initially, a panel of eight lectins with the indicated primary specificities were used: Anguilla anguilla (AAA), Lotus tetragonolobus (Lotus A), and Ulex europaeus I (UEA I), specific for alpha-L-fucose; Solanum tuberosum (STA) and Triticum vulgaris (WGA), specific for beta-N-acetylglucosamine; Glycine max (SBA), specific for beta-N-acetylgalactosamine; Erythrina cristagali (ECA), specific for beta-galactose and beta-N-acetylgalactosamine; and Lens culinaris (LCA), specific for alpha-mannose and alpha-glucose. Three of the lectins (SBA, STA, and LCA) were not useful in aiding in strain discrimination. An optimized panel of five lectins (AAA, ECA, Lotus A, UEA I, and WGA) grouped all 36 strains tested into eight lectin reaction patterns. For optimal typing, pretreatment by washing bacteria with a low-pH buffer to allow protein release, followed by proteolytic degradation to eliminate autoagglutination, was used. Lectin types of treated samples were stable and reproducible. No strain proved to be untypeable by this system. Electrophoretic and immunoblotting analyses of lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) indicated that the lectins interact primarily, but not solely, with the O side chain of H. pylori LPS.  (+info)

In order to better assess the spatial variability in subtropical forest biomass, the goal of our study was to use small-footprint, discrete-return Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data to accurately estimate and map above- and below-ground biomass components of subtropical forests. Foliage, branch, trunk, root, above-ground and total biomass of 53 plots (30 × 30 m) were modeled using a range of LiDAR-derived metrics, with individual models built for each of the three dominant forest types using stepwise multi-regression analysis. A regular grid covered the entire study site with cell size 30 × 30 m corresponding to the same size of the plots; it was generated for mapping each biomass component. Overall, results indicate that biomass estimation was more accurate in coniferous forests, compared with the mixed and broadleaved plots. The coefficient of determination (R2) for individual models was significantly enhanced compared with an overall generic, or common, model. Using independent stand-level
The potential of a plant species to acquire nutrients depends on its ability to explore the soil by its root system. Co-cultivation of different species is anticipated to lead to vertical root niche differentiation and thus to higher soil nutrient depletion. Using a qPCR-based method we quantified root biomass distribution of four catch crop species in vertical soil profiles in pure vs. mixed stands. Pure stands of mustard and phacelia robustly reached 70 cm soil depth, while oat preferably colonized upper soil layers, and clover developed the shallowest and smallest root system. Analysis of residual nitrate pools in different soil depths and correlation with root biomass showed that, besides rooting depth also root biomass determines soil nitrogen depletion. While occupying the same vertical niches as in pure stands, mustard and phacelia dominated total root biomass of the mix. In contrast, root biomass of clover and oat was severely suppressed in presence of the other species. Below-ground biomass
ORNL DAAC: This data set provides a single raster image containing the spatial distribution of aboveground live forest biomass of the Amazon basin. This product was derived using a methodology based on a combination of land cover map, remote sensing derived metrics, and more than 500 forest plots distributed over the basin (Saatchi, et al., 2007). The distributed map was produced in ENVI, in Tiff format and it contains forest biomass divided among 11 classes at 1 km spatial resolution with reasonable accuracy (better than 70%). Remote sensing and ground data used in this product were collected from 1990-2000. The Biomass map represents average biomass distribution over the Amazon basin over this period and was used to estimate the total carbon stock of the basin, including the dead and belowground biomass.
Woody biomass is one of the most abundant biomass feedstocks, besides agriculture residuals in the United States. The sustainable harvest residuals and thinnings alone are estimated at about 75 million tons/year accordingly to the DOE biomass report [1]. These forest residuals and thinnings could produce the equivalent of 5 billion gallons of lignocellulosic ethanol annually.. Woody biomass feedstocks include softwood and hardwood. Various pretreatment methods have been developed for pretreating biomass before an enzymatic conversion of pretreated biomass into monomeric sugars for a biofuel or a bioproduct conversion process. An overview on lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment methods well described that most of the pretreating methods worked well on herbaceous biomass and hardwood biomass while not working well with high lignin content softwood biomass [2]. Thus, softwood biomass is the most recalcitrant biomass to pretreat for enzymatic hydrolysis. To utilize the most recalcitrant ...
Long-term heavy grazing had little effect on root and crown biomass of Indian ricegrass (Oryzopsis hymenoides), nor did it significantly affect the total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) reserve levels or the seasonal cycle of reserves in this grass. Orodho and Trlica conclude that 50 years of protection from livestock use had not resulted in ecotypic differentiation in Indian ricegrass for these variables. Clipping reduced crown biomass more than root biomass and removal of 90% of aboveground biomass resulted in more than a 50% reduction in crown biomass and reserve carbohydrate pool. In a garden study that compared the native Chaco Canyon strains to two commercial strains of Indian ricegrass (Nezpar and Paloma), the Nezpar strain was superior to Paloma and the Chaco Canyon strains in production of crown biomass and TNC reserves at the more mesic garden site. The native strains from the more arid Chaco Canyon were superior to both cultivated strains in root production, and the native
In Finland it is estimated that forest biomass will be the main source of bioenergy when meeting the national target: 38% renewable from total energy consumption by 2020. This target must become concrete for regional and local level participators of a forest industry and actions should take place in large combined heat and power generation (CHP) plants, district heating plants and independent heating systems. In energy production replacing fossil fuels with renewa-ble energy is reasonable in many cases. However, there are usually doubts about the availability and security of supply of forest biomass. The aim of this study is to introduce a systematical method for analyzing the availability and demand of forest biomass in regional and local level. This study introduces an objective method for analyzing local possibilities on where and how much the use of forest biomass could be increased. By replacing use of fossil fuels with renewable and domestic energy sources carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and
Get latest news on biomass gasification. Read Breaking News, opinion, analysis on biomass gasification updated and published at Down To Earth.
Biomass Magazine is a monthly trade publication tailored to serve companies and organizations engaged in producing and/or utilizing biomass power and heat, advanced biofuels, biogas, wood pellets and biobased chemicals. In addition to policy, regulation, project finance, technology and plant management, the publication maintains a core editorial focus on biomass logistics: generating, cultivating, collecting, transporting, processing, marketing, procuring and utilizing sustainable biomass.
Biomass Magazine is a monthly trade publication tailored to serve companies and organizations engaged in producing and/or utilizing biomass power and heat, advanced biofuels, biogas, wood pellets and biobased chemicals. In addition to policy, regulation, project finance, technology and plant management, the publication maintains a core editorial focus on biomass logistics: generating, cultivating, collecting, transporting, processing, marketing, procuring and utilizing sustainable biomass.
The global issue of climate change and an increasing interest in the reduction of fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions by using forest biomass for energy production has increased the importance of forest biomass quantification in recent years. Different national and international reports have presented the amount of carbon sequestered by forest ecosystems. For example, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change reports that forests contain about 80% of aboveground and 40% of belowground carbon stock (IPCC 2007). Additionally, it is reported that the amount of carbon stored in dry wood is approximately 50% by weight (Brown 1986; Paladinic et al. 2009; Sedjo and Sohngen 2012).. Biomass, in general, includes both above and below ground living and dead mass of trees, shrubs, vines, and roots. However, most of the researches on biomass estimation have focused on aboveground biomass because of the difficulty in collecting belowground data (Lu 2006). The amount of biomass in a forest is influenced ...
Potohar, northern Punjab, Pakistan in September, 2008 and analysed for P fractions and microbial parameters including microbial biomass C, microbial biomass N, microbial biomass P, and activities of dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase enzymes. The average size of different P fractions (% of total P) in the soils varied in the order: dHCl-P (63.7%) , cHCl-Pi (14.8%) , residual-P (9.4%) , cHCl-Po (3.8%) , NaHCO3-Pi (2.4%) , NaOH-Pi (2.0%) , NaHCO3-Po (1.4%) , resin-P (1.3%) , NaOH-Po (1.2%). The organic P fractions collectively formed 6.4% of the total P, while the inorganic P fractions were 93.6%. The bioavailable P fractions that is, resin-P, NaHCO3-Pi and NaHCO3-Po showed significant positive relationship with Olsen-P, microbial biomass P, and total organic C, but also with microbial biomass C, microbial biomass N, dehydrogenase activity and alkaline phosphatase activity in the soils. Among other ...
Downloadable! This study introduces a framework for modeling a renewable forest biomass stock interacting with economic sectors in a competitive economy. The equilibrium is formulated as a mixed complementary problem (which explicitly represents weak inequalities and complementary among decision variables and equilibrium conditions). The complementarity format permits detailed modeling of the growth and harvest of a biomass stock together with a second-best characterization of the overall economy. First the complementarity features of economic equilibrium and its integration with an ecological representation of the biomass are provided. Then a stylized numerical example of a dynamic computable general equilibrium model is presented. Finally, illustrative applications of the model for gauging the likely effects of environmental subsidies and taxes intended to promote increases CO2 storage in forest biomass are given, the results are discussed.
Biomass Steam Boiler - SZL Biomass Boiler, Biomass . 2019-4-27 · Biomass steam boiler (also called biomass hot water boiler) is the hot sale SZL Series biomass boiler which adopts chain grate which is suitable for burning the biomass fuel like wood chip, biomass pellet, etc. SZL series biomass boiler is the kind of double drum natural circulation boiler with the whole O shaped arrangement Learn More ...
Biomass Moulding Fuel Market report focuses on the major drivers and restraints for the key players. It also provides granular analysis of the market share, Sales and Consumption Status, segmentation, Industry Production, revenue forecasts and geographic regions of the market. Biomass Moulding Fuel Market 2011-2021 research report is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the Biomass Moulding Fuel Industry.. The report provides key statistics on the market status of the Biomass Moulding Fuel manufacturers and is a valuable source of guidance and direction for companies and individuals interested in the Biomass Moulding Fuel Market.. Major Key Contents Covered in Biomass Moulding Fuel Market: Introduction of Biomass Moulding Fuel with development and status. Manufacturing Technology of Biomass Moulding Fuel with analysis and trends. Analysis of Global Biomass Moulding Fuel Market Key Manufacturers with Company Profile, Product Information, Production Information and Contact ...
A biomass hydrothermal decomposition apparatus includes, a biomass feeder ( 31 ) that feeds biomass material ( 11 ) under normal pressure to under increased pressure, a hydrothermal decomposition device ( 42 A) that allows the fed biomass material ( 11 ) to be gradually moved inside a device main body ( 42 A) from either end thereof in a consolidated condition, and also allows hot compressed water ( 15 ) to be fed from an other end of a feed section for the biomass material into the main body ( 42 A), so as to cause the biomass material ( 11 ) and the hot compressed water ( 15 ) to countercurrently contact with each other and undergo hydrothermal decomposition, and that elutes a lignin component and a hemicellulose component into the hot compressed water, so as to separate the lignin component and the hemicellulose component from the biomass material ( 11 ); and a biomass discharger ( 51 ) that discharges, from the side where the hot compressed water is fed into the device main body, a biomass
Tracer experiments are of concern to wastewater treatment engineers and researchers because of the importance of determining hydraulic regimes and retention times in wastewater treatment units. In this work, a pilot-scale maturation waste stabilisation pond (WSP) was spiked with Rhodamine WT, in order to determine how suspended organic matter would interfere with its performance as a tracer in a domestic wastewater treatment unit which had a high content of suspended algal biomass. A primary maturation pond was spiked in three separate runs with different levels of algae (high, medium and low), with a known amount of Rhodamine WT (20% v/v); the tracer was measured in the pond effluent in real time every 20 min for 3θ (the theoretical retention time, θ = 17 d). Algal biomass was monitored weekly from influent, column and effluent water samples by chlorophyll-a determination. The results show that algal biomass has a strong influence on the behaviour of Rhodamine WT as a tracer and therefore the ...
As an alternative renewable source for bioenergy, forest biomass has recently drawn more attention from the U.S. government and the general public. Woody biomass policies have been adopted to encourage the new bioenergy industry. A variety of state policy incentives attempt to create a desirable legal climate and lure new firms, imposing two important questions regarding state government policies and the sustainable use of forest resources. This dissertation sheds some light on these questions. The first paper constructs a woody biomass policy index through scoring each statute and weighting different categories of policies from the vantage point of renewable energy investment. It analyzes the disparity in the strength of state government incentives in the woody biomass utilization. The second paper employs a conditional logit model (CLM) to explore the effects of woody biomass policies on the siting decisions of new bioenergy projects. In addition, significant state attributes influencing the
The data and analyses presented support the research article entitled Coupling partial-equilibrium and dynamic biogenic carbon models to assess future transport scenarios in France (Albers et al., 2019). Carbon sequestration and storage in forestry products (e.g. transport fuels) is sought as a climate change mitigation option. The data presented support and inform dynamic modelling approaches to predict biomass growth and carbon fixation dynamics , of a tree or forest stand, over specific rotation lengths. Data consists of species-specific yield tables, parameters for non-linear growth models and allometric equations. Non-linear growth models and allometric equations are listed and described. National statistics and surveys of the wood supply chain serve to identify main tree species, standing wood volumes and distributions within specific geographies; here corresponding to managed forests in France. All necessary data and methods for the computation of the annual fixation flows are presented.
Gene expression is regulated through a complex interplay of different transcription factors (TFs) which can enhance or inhibit gene transcription. ArcA is a global regulator that regulates genes involved in different metabolic pathways, while IclR as a local regulator, controls the transcription of the glyoxylate pathway genes of the aceBAK operon. This study investigates the physiological and metabolic consequences of arcA and iclR deletions on E. coli K12 MG1655 under glucose abundant and limiting conditions and compares the results with the metabolic characteristics of E. coli BL21 (DE3). The deletion of arcA and iclR results in an increase in the biomass yield both under glucose abundant and limiting conditions, approaching the maximum theoretical yield of 0.65 c-mole/c-mole glucose under glucose abundant conditions. This can be explained by the lower flux through several CO2 producing pathways in the E. coli K12 ΔarcAΔiclR double knockout strain. Due to iclR gene deletion, the glyoxylate pathway
The miombo woodland is the most extensive dry forest in the world, with the potential to store substantial amounts of biomass carbon. Efforts to obtain accurate estimates of carbon stocks in the miombo woodlands are limited by a general lack of biomass estimation models (BEMs). This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of most commonly employed allometric models for estimating aboveground biomass (AGB) in miombo woodlands, and to develop new models that enable more accurate estimation of biomass in the miombo woodlands. A generalizable mixed-species allometric model was developed from 88 trees belonging to 33 species ranging in diameter at breast height (DBH) from 5 to 105 cm using Bayesian estimation. A power law model with DBH alone performed better than both a polynomial model with DBH and the square of DBH, and models including height and crown area as additional variables along with DBH. The accuracy of estimates from published models varied across different sites and trees of different diameter
The Complete Book On Biomass Based Products (biochemicals, Biofuels, Activated Carbon) by Npcs Board Of Consultants & Engineers, ISBN: 9788178331584, Rs. 1575.00 / US$. 150.00
Publishers Note to Modeling the influence of potassium content and heating rate on biomass pyrolysis [Appl. Energy J. 194 (2017) 199-211] ...
Caldicellulosiruptor glycoside hydrolase inventory.As mentioned above, only two (C. bescii and C. saccharolyticus) of the nine described Caldicellulosiruptor species currently have publically available genome sequences (29, 51). Due to renewed interest in biomass-degrading microbes, five additional genome sequencing projects are under way, three of which are finished (for C. hydrothermalis, C. kronotsyensis, and C. owensensis), to help pinpoint what makes some species more cellulolytic than others in the genus. Draft and finished versions of these genome sequences were examined for GH family diversity.. Previous studies looking into Caldicellulosiruptor diversity have identified glycoside hydrolases, mostly cellulases and xylanases, produced by selected species (4, 19). Here, the biomass deconstruction-related GH inventory, inferred from each draft and finished genome sequence, was examined to provide insights into the observed differential responses to microcrystalline cellulose. Based on the ...
Biomass Pellets Market Report covers the present scenario and the growth prospects of the Biomass Pellets Industry for 2017-2022. Biomass Pellets Market report analyses the industry potential for each geographical region based on the growth rate, macroeconomic parameters, consumer buying patterns, market demand and supply scenarios.. Biomass Pellets Market analysis reports provide a valuable source of insightful data for business strategists and competitive analysis of Biomass Pellets market. It provides the Biomass Pellets industry overview with growth analysis and futuristic cost, revenue, demand and supply data. The research analysts provide an elaborate description of the value chain and its distributor analysis. This Biomass Pellets market study provides comprehensive data which enhances the understanding, scope and application of this report.. Biomass Pellets Market Report provides comprehensive analysis of. ...
Currents OnLine: Q: What is the difference between an ecosystem, biomass, and habitat? A: Ah, thank you for this classic ecology textbook question. Are these words like a good vintage wine, getting better with age? Let us see. For the sake of ease to our readers, I will go from the bottom in terms of size - biomass, then habitat, and finally, ecosystem. Biomass is a measure of how much biological material is in a given area. We can limit it to species biomass, which is the mass of one or more species, or to community biomass, which is the mass of all species in a community, including microorganisms, plants and animals. When we measure carbon, which is important for quantifying the global carbon cycle, the definition is refined to include all organically-bound carbon, whether it is alive or dead. This includes decayed or partially-decayed plant, animal, and microorganism material in the soil, which in the northern latitudes, accounts for a large amount of stored carbon biomass. A habitat ...
In this paper, the global CO2 effect of integrating different biomass gasification concepts to meet an increasing demand of hydrogen in an oil refinery is examined and presented in comparison with a conventional steam reformer. The studied refinery is a hydro skimming refinery with a future hydrogen deficit of 16,000 Nm3/h. Three gasification concepts are considered: Entrained Flow (EF), Circulated Fluidised Bed (CFB) and Double Bed (DB). The system analysis is made with respect to global CO2 emissions and primary energy use. The results show that if biomass is considered as an unlimited resource (i.e. sufficient biomass is considered to be available to substitute for all fossil fuels in society), biomass gasification concepts have a potential to reduce CO2 emissions. The EF case shows the largest reduction potential. However, if biomass is considered as a limited resource (i.e. increased use of biomass at the refinery will lead to increased use of fossil fuel elsewhere in society), all concepts show an
The total mass of living organisms in an area or ecosystem. A biomass pyramid shows the biomass at each level of a food chain, which typically decreases at each level. The species with the biggest biomass on Earth is thought to be the Antarctic krill, at about 500 million tons - five times the total biomass of humans.. ...
your search terms. Search 2 results for biofuels and biochemicals, biomass-degrading enzymes, bioproduct development, biotechnology, enzymes for industrial processes, enzymology, genetics, renewable energy, transcriptomics ...
Olson, Robert; Sosik, Heidi (2003): Picoplankton abundance and biomass at station KIWI-9/29-1. PANGAEA, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.131753
The Biomass Ready tool helps builders, architects, engineers, planners and others in the building trade to design new buildings that can incorporate biomass as a heating source.. Biomass is woody plant material, derived from the trunks and branches of trees. Firewood, for example, is a commonly known form of biomass that provides fuel for heating. Like firewood, wood chips can be used as fuel for wood-burning systems that heat buildings.. Woody biomass is a clean and renewable alternative for heating todays new buildings, said Tim Reader, wood products program specialist with the CSFS. Unfortunately, many builders are not aware of the simple design considerations that make it easy and inexpensive to incorporate a biomass heating system as part of their new building construction.. To address this dilemma, the CSFS worked with the USDA Forest Services Wood Innovations Program and the Wood Education and Resource Center to develop the Biomass Ready app. This online tool walks builders through ...
A slist of peer-reviewed studies, NGO reports, briefings and letters on biomass. See also: Map of UK biomass power stations. Frequently Asked Questions. Biomass Sustainability Standards - a Credible Tool for Avoiding Negative Impacts from Large-scale Bioenergy?, joint briefing by Biofuelwatch, Global Forest Coalition and Econexus. Report by Global Forest Coalition and Biofuelwatch: Wood Bioenergy: Green Land Grabs For Dirty Renewable Energy. Biofuelwatch Report: Biomass: The Chain of Destruction (including the case report Plantations for Energy: A Case Study of Suzanos plantations for wood pellet exports in the Baixo Parnaíba region, Maranhão, Brazil by Ivonete Gonçalves de Souza from CEPEDES and Winfridus Overbeek from World Rainforest Movement). Biofuelwatch Report: Sustainable Biomass - A modern myth. ...
your search terms. Search 2 results for biomass-degrading enzymes, enzymes for industrial processes, gene expression, gene regulation, genomics, transcriptomics ...
Understory prescribed burning is being suggested as a viable management tool for restoring degraded oak-pine forest communities in the southern Appalachians yet information is lacking on how this will affect ecosystem processes. Our objectives in this study were to evaluate the watershed scale effects of understory burning on total aboveground biomass, and the carbon and nitrogen pools in coarse woody debris (CWD), forest floor and soils. We also evaluated the effects of burning on three key biogeochemical fluxes; litterfall, soil CO2 flux and soil net nitrogen mineralization. We found burning significantly reduced understory biomass as well as the carbon and nitrogen pools in CWD, small wood and litter. There was no significant loss of carbon and nitrogen from the fermentation, humus and soil layer probably as the result of low fire intensity. Burning resulted in a total net loss of 55 kg ha-1 nitrogen from the wood and litter layers, which should be easily replaced by future atmospheric ...
Abstract: The micro alga, Spirulina is a rich source of protein, which is used as a protein supplement for humans, chicks and also in aquaculture. Among the cultures, CS-1 registered maximum biomass production and S-20 showed highest biomass production among the local isolates. Optimum temperature of 35°C was the best for maximum biomass production of S. platensis cultures. Among the cultures CS-1 culture, put forth maximum biomass production at 35°C. The biomass production of all S. platensis cultures was maximum at pH 10.0. Among the cultures, CS-1 recorded maximum biomass at pH 10.0. S. platensis culture S-20 showed highest biomass production among the local isolates. S. platensis cultures were grown under different light wave lengths ranging from 340-700 nm and observed that it grows best in red light but later on there was no significant difference between the biomass produced under red and normal white lights. S. platensis culture CS-1 has shown the highest chlorophyll, carotenoids and ...
These early forest biomass studies were aimed at major or typical forest types, with developed biomass models largely based on stand or sample plot levels. Some biomass models were even based on individual tree data, most of them suited only for certain sites or local areas, not representative of larger regions. These forest carbon assessments were based on estimates of biomass per hectare for our major forest types from purposeful sampling and areas of forest types from our national forest inventory, which is not really suited for monitoring and assessing forest carbon storage.. The International Guidelines for Forest Monitoring, published by IUFRO ([1994]), clearly defined forest biomass as one of the important items of global, regional and national forest monitoring. In order to add forest biomass into the items of national forest inventory of China, the Ministry of Forestry conducted a key program Research on two-variable biomass models and compatible auto-adoptive one-variable biomass ...
where nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were at its maximum level (+1). On the other hand, with treatments 9 (N0) and 11 (P0), the lowest AFDW, 0.80 and 0.62 g∙L−1, respectively, were obtained. Therewith, the maximum biomass value obtained was 2.3 times higher than the reports of [1] , which reported a biomass concentration of 0.54 g∙L−1 when cultivating Scenedesmus obliquus with ambient CO2, and when cultivated at 35% of CO2 supply, it was reported a maximum biomass value of 1.39 g∙L−1. The maximum biomass of 1.24 g∙L−1 obtained with the Scenedesmus sp. SCIB-01 strain, without CO2 supply, was comparable to reports of [3] who obtained biomass concentration of 1.34 g∙L−1 using S. obliquus cultivated at 2.5% CO2 feeding concentration. [8] reported S. obliquus cultivation at 30% CO2 concentration, and obtained a biomass concentration of 1.03 g∙L−1. [18] obtained a maximum biomass production of 0.41 g∙L−1 using Desmodesmus sp. phototrophically cultivated, also lower ...
Global Biomass Briquette Market Competition, by manufacturer, Biomass Briquette Sales and Biomass Briquette Revenue by Regions (2012-2017). Request Sample Biomass Briquette Research Report at https://market.biz/report/global-biomass-briquette-market-gir/15353/#requestforsample. Global Biomass Briquette Market report mainly covers 12 sections. They are as follows:. Section 1 gives us Biomass Briquette Introduction, market overview, product scope, Biomass Briquette market opportunities, market threat, Biomass Briquette market driving force;. Section 2 shows the global Biomass Briquette market by regions, with sales, Biomass Briquette market share and revenue of Biomass Briquette, for each region, from 2017 to 2022;. Section 3 and 4 displays Biomass Briquette market forecast, by regions, application and type, with revenue and sales of Biomass Briquette market, from 2017 to 2022;. Section 5 shows the competitive situation among the top manufacturers, with sales, revenue and market share of Biomass ...
Steam Boiler with different fuels can be divided into biomass biomass boilerindustrial equipment, coal fired boiler, gas fired boiler, oil fired boiler, etc.. Stalk Biomass fired steam biomass boilerindustrial equipment is one kind of biomass fired steam boiler too. This biomass fired steam boiler can use fuel like crop stalks, rice stalks, wheat stalks, oil seed rape stalks, etc. Thus, stalk fired steam boiler also lists as one of agro waste fired steam boiler. ZG manufactured biomass fired steam boiler also can be divided into CFB steam boiler and chain grate steam boiler. Here, we would like to introduce Biomass stalk fired steam boiler, a kind of chain grate steam boiler in structure design. Stalk fired chain grate steam boiler can also be divided into single drum biomass fired steam boiler and double drum biomass fired steam boiler. Stalk fired steam boiler also can be classified into horizontal biomass fired steam boiler and vertical biomass fired steam boiler or corner tube biomass fired ...
Biomass had so much promise. But now its about to go up in smoke. Only a few years ago, energy production from biomass had one of the brightest, most promising futures in both the US and Europe. The EUs 20/20/20 Renewable Energy Directive set a sizable proportion of the 20% renewable energy goal to come from biomass. It looked like biomass was the perfect answer to the renewable energy puzzle. The problem no one anticipated was the smoke.. The trouble for biomass as a public energy source, as opposed to an industrial fuel, started in Massachusetts. In 2010, under then-Governor Deval Patrick, biomass was to become a key component of the states renewable energy policy, and it seemed like a slam-dunk. But then public opinion started asking about the smoke. The prevailing wisdom at the time was that biomass was carbon neutral, which meant that burning wood would add no more carbon dioxide, a known greenhouse gas, to the atmosphere than could be reabsorbed.. What would become known as the ...
Water stress and nutrient deficiency are considered to be the main environmental factors limiting plant growth and species interaction in semiarid regions. However, less is known about the interactive effects of soil water, nitrogen and phosphorus on native species growth and relative competitive ability. A replacement series design method was used with 12 mixed plants of Bothriochloa ischaemum and Lespedeza davurica grown in a pot experiment under three water regimes and four fertility treatments. Intercropping systems were assessed on the basis of indices such as biomass production and allocation, relative competitive ability, aggressivity, relative yield total and water use efficiency (WUE). Water stress decreased significantly the total biomass production for each species, either in monoculture or in mixtures. N, P, or NP application can significantly improve biomass production of the two species in their mixtures. There was no obvious change trend in root/shoot ratio of B. ischaemum or L. davurica
In order to protect the city of New Orleans from the Mississippi River flooding, the Bonnet Carré Spillway (BCS) was constructed from 1929 to 1936 to divert flood water from the river into Lake Pontchartrain and then into the Gulf of Mexico. During the BCS opening for flood release, large amounts of freshwater, nutrients, sediment, etc. were discharged into Lake Pontchartrain, and caused a lot of environmental problems. To evaluate the environmental impacts of the flood water on lake ecosystems, a two-dimensional numerical model was developed based on CCHE2D and applied to simulate the flow circulation, sediment transport and algal biomass distribution in Lake Pontchartrain. The effect of sediment concentration on the growth of algae was considered in the model. The numerical model was calibrated using field measured data provided by USGS, and then it was validated by the BCS Opening Event in 1997. The simulated results were generally in good agreement with filed data and satellite imagery
A batch nitrification process was studied using synthetic wastewater as substrate and Chilean natural zeolite as biomass carrier at ambient temperatures (20 °C). Three groups of experiments were carried out: a first experimental set (I) with and without added zeolite using initial biomass concentrations of 1,000 and 2,000 mg VSS/ L; a second set of experiments (II) with added zeolite and at the same initial biomass concentrations. In these two experimental sets, biomass from an activated sludge process located in an urban wastewater treatment plant at La Farfana, Santiago de Chile, was used as inoculum (1). Finally, a third set of experiments (III) was carried out with zeolite at an initial biomass concentration of 1,000 mg VSS/L using an inoculum derived from an activated sludge process treating wastewater from a paper mill (inoculum 2). Nitrifying biomass concentration values in the range of 13,000-18,800 mg VSS/L were achieved when initial biomass concentrations varied between 1,000 and ...
Keywords: Gross N biotransformation, soil microbial biomass, nitrogen availability, mineralisation, C:N ratios.. Summary:. Understanding the factors that govern microbial activities in soils is important, because the heterotrophic soil microbial biomass is driving the carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling, and the net availability of N for plant uptake or losses. The processes by which C and N interact during decomposition of organic matter in soil, and the mineralisation-immobilisation turnover are well known but still difficult to predict, due to the complex interactions between soil micro-organisms and their substrates. The 15N isotope dilution techniques that allow rates of N transformations to be quantified accurately and simultaneously help the understanding of the effects of soil, crop and management conditions on microbial activities. The quantification of the relative importance of gross mineralisation, immobilisation and nitrification is also a key for understanding the competition ...
Keywords: Gross N biotransformation, soil microbial biomass, nitrogen availability, mineralisation, C:N ratios.. Summary:. Understanding the factors that govern microbial activities in soils is important, because the heterotrophic soil microbial biomass is driving the carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling, and the net availability of N for plant uptake or losses. The processes by which C and N interact during decomposition of organic matter in soil, and the mineralisation-immobilisation turnover are well known but still difficult to predict, due to the complex interactions between soil micro-organisms and their substrates. The 15N isotope dilution techniques that allow rates of N transformations to be quantified accurately and simultaneously help the understanding of the effects of soil, crop and management conditions on microbial activities. The quantification of the relative importance of gross mineralisation, immobilisation and nitrification is also a key for understanding the competition ...
NC Woody Biomass Natures renewable energy! http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/fore stry/biomass.html Extension Forestry Campus Box 8008 NC State University Raleigh, NC 27695-8008 The North Carolina Biomass Roadmap: Recommendations for Fossil Fuel Displacement through Biomass Utilization1 The North Carolina Biomass Council developed this Roadmap at the request of the State Energy Office to be used as a tool to assist stakeholders in planning North Carolinas future biomass utilization. The Roadmap represents the collective assessment and expertise of the North Carolina Biomass Council and is a result of numerous facilitated discussions. For the purposes of this Roadmap, biomass is defined as any organic matter that is available on a renewable or recurring basis, including agricultural crops and trees, wood and wood wastes and residues, plants (including aquatic plants), grasses, residues, fibers, animal wastes, and segregated municipal waste… Biomass can be converted into biopower, biofuels and ...
The advantages of newly developed high biomass sorghum and pearl millet developed by ICRISAT and Indian Institute of Millets Research (IIMR) for use as feedstock in second generation or lignocellulosic (2G) biofuel production in India was highlighted at a recent workshop.. The advantageous traits of these dryland crops are wider adaptability, fast growth, high biomass production potential, resilience to drought, and non-compromise on food security as the grain is used for human consumption. The use of these crops in biofuel production has the potential of improving incomes of Indian farmers in the semi-arid regions.. India is a signatory to the UN Climate Change Paris Agreement (COP21) and biofuel production is one of the thrust areas identified to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The countrys ethanol production is mainly from sugarcane molasses. However, considering severe water shortages there is limited scope to increase the production of this water-intensive crop. Hence there is a need to ...
Mugyenzi, A. Uganda Fuel Supplies and Household Energy Provision, Presented at the Fuel Substitution - Poverty Impacts on Biomass Fuel Suppliers, National Stakeholders Workshop, Friday 25th January, 2002, Kampala, Uganda. (2007) 9 pp.. ...
Biomass is used worldwide 1 minute-3 minutes The best locations that allow biomass are farm areas. This is because on a farm you can find various aspects that are used to create biomass. For starters you have all the plants and crops, for example hay, dried corn, tall grass, ect. Also, you would find multiple animals whose manure could be turned into biomass, for example cows, horses, pigs, ect. Then you have wood chips from some of the animal pens, along with all of the trash the people produce. But most of all, you find all of these things, which make biomass, in one location. Science is applied to everything in biomass. To start off, people had to experiment a lot, and discover how to make biomass into a renewable resource. Then comes the machinery used to actually create the biomass. People had to find and build the right machines that are used throughout the entire process. Next, science comes in when it comes to the wood, plants, manure, waste, and garbage that goes into biomass. The ...
Briquette biomass Regular Buyers, Briquette biomass Importers, Briquette biomass Distributors, Briquette biomass Wholesalers, Briquette biomass Agents, Briquette biomass Businesses - UK B2B Marketplace
Biomass (conventional and non-conventional) fuels co-fired with coal for power and steam generation are being tested and evaluated at several generation stations in the United States. The co-firing technology is expected to reduce landfill requirements for biomass wastes, and to provide a renewable, low pollution and zero net carbon dioxide fuel. The choice of the biomass depends upon local availability and cost of the transportation. The renewable biomass fuels range from agro to animal waste based fuels. For coal fired power plants located around feedlots where cattle are raised, the renewable biomass is the cattle manure, called feedlot biomass (FB). Thus coal could be mixed with feedlot biomass and then fired in existing boiler burners. A 30 KW (100,000 Btu/hr) boiler burner facility was built at Texas A&M University Boiler Burner Laboratory and the burner was fired with coal or coal-FB blends. Most of the previous data concerned with coal performance results from co-firing of low moisture ...
The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of bacterial biomass on the sorption and transport of three solutes (quinoline, naphthalene, and 45Ca) in a subsurface soil. Miscible displacement techniques were employed to measure sorption and transport of the above compounds during steady, saturated water flow in sterile and/or bacterium-inoculated soil columns. The soil was inoculated with either a quinoline-degrading bacterium, Pseudomonas sp. 3N3A isolate, or its mutant isolate, B53, which does not degrade quinoline. In soil columns inoculated with the B53 and 3N3A isolates, quinoline sorption was reduced by about 60 and 20%, respectively. In contrast, 45Ca sorption was minimally reduced, which indicated that biomass did not significantly alter the cation-exchange capacity of the soil. Biomass impacts on sorption were solute specific, even when the sorption mechanism for both quinoline and 45Ca was similar. Thus, the differential response is attributed to biomass-induced changes in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effect of cell density on biomass and fatty acid productivity during cultivation of Rhodomonas salina in a tubular photobioreactor. AU - Thoisen, Christina. AU - Pedersen, Jakob Skov. AU - Jørgensen, Lars. AU - Kyhn, Anker. AU - Hansen, Benni Winding. AU - Nielsen, Søren Laurentius. PY - 2020/5/8. Y1 - 2020/5/8. U2 - 10.1111/ARE.14672. DO - 10.1111/ARE.14672. M3 - Journal article. JO - Aquaculture Research. JF - Aquaculture Research. SN - 1355-557X. ER - ...
Do you need a new roof? Are you building a house and considering your roofing options? Many people assume that their options are limited; you either install shingles or a metal roof. The truth is there are many choices, including biomass roofing. What is Biomass Roofing? Biomass means that its made from natural materials. A great example, and a traditional one, is the thatch roof. Thatched roofs have been used for thousands of years. Traditionally theyre made from leaves, grasses, reeds, and straw. Of course todays thatch options are a bit more sophisticated. The Benefits of Biomass Roofing Biomass roofing options are incredibly durable. In fact thatch roofs are said to last between 50 and 70 years. Thats significantly longer than traditional shingles. Biomass is often a fantastic insulator. They are also made from materials that are renewable, and when you have to replace your roof you dont have to worry about filling up a landfill. Biomass is biodegradable. Biomass is also abundant and
GO Carbon Neutral with a Hurst Biomass Boiler System. Reduce Carbon, Reduce Emissions, Reduce Operating and Fuel Costs.. Fossil fuel costs are at an all-time high without any relief in sight, making renewable energy the fuel source of the future.. HURST Biomass Boiler Systems will strengthen your bottom line by reducing, or even eliminating your energy and disposal costs altogether, through the combustion of renewable fuel sources, also known as Biomass.. Forty years of experience designing engineering and manufacturing solid fuel fired and biomass boiler systems and over 10,000 installations worldwide has made Hurst the industrys most popular solid fuel fired boiler.. Energy solutions based on biomass and bio-fuels provide clean and renewable energy for large national and international companies. Green-thinking companies are now using biofuels to mitigate the impact their activities have on the environment by reducing emissions of greenhouse gases.. Consider trading fossil fuels for ...
EN] Potato plants were grown in open-top chambers under three ozone concentrations during two complete cropping seasons (93 and 77 d in 2004 and 2005, respectively). The effects of chronic exposure to ozone on leaf anatomy, cell ultrastructure and crop yield were studied. Severe cell damage was found, even at ambient ozone levels, mainly affecting the spongy parenchyma and areas near the stomata. Damage to the cell wall caused loss of cell contact, and loss of turgor pressure due to tonoplast disintegration, contributed to cell collapse. Phloem sieve plates were obstructed by callose accumulation, and damaged mesophyll cells increased their starch stores. Tuber yield fell sharply (24-44%), due to the biggest tubers becoming smaller, which affected commercial yield. These anatomical findings show the mechanisms of ozone effect on assimilate partitioning, and thus crop yield decrease, in potato. Further implications of ozone causing reductions in belowground biomass are also discussed ...
We investigated the presence, density and bacterial composition of contraceptive vaginal ring biomass and its association with the vaginal microbiome. Of 415 rings worn by 120 Rwandese women for three weeks, the biomass density was assessed with crystal violet and the bacterial composition of biomass eluates was assessed with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The biomass was visualised after fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) and with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The vaginal microbiome was assessed with Nugent scoring and vaginal biofilm was visualised after FISH. All vaginal rings were covered with biomass (mean optical density (OD) of 3.36; standard deviation (SD) 0.64). Lactobacilli were present on 93% of the rings, Gardnerella vaginalis on 57%, and Atopobium vaginae on 37%. The ring biomass density was associated with the concentration of A. vaginae (OD +0.03; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.01-0.05 for one log increase; p = 0.002) and of G. vaginalis (OD +0.03; (95% CI 0
Juniper Sk, Sarrazin Jozee, Grehan A (1998). Remote sensing of organism density and biomass at hydrothermal vents. Cahiers De Biologie Marine, 39(3-4), 245-247. Open Access version : https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00280/39115/. ...
Nova Scotia achieves the worst possible scenario for forest biomass energy January 26, 2011 by Jamie Simpson and Raymond Plourde With the recent announcement of new federal government funding of forest biomass projects for Northern Pulp Corporation and Nova Scotia Power Inc., we propose the following question:
HETAS has become the first organisation to successfully map biomass assessments against National Occupational Standards (NOS). This means that biomass installer training will be available through HETASs nationwide network of Approved Training Centres, some of which are approved with the Summit Skills.. Commenting on the announcement, Bruce Allen, chief executive officer from HETAS, said: This is fantastic news. It means that skilled heating engineers who might be working on gas or oil can easily add biomass to their qualifications. As well as becoming a biomass partner with the National Skills Academy, HETAS is the only organisation to have biomass training mapped against NOS. This confirms our position as the specialists for solid fuel and biomass training and registration.. The HETAS H005 biomass installer course covers appliances up to around 70kW and enables installers to carry out feasibility studies, professionally advise customers on fuel types, storage options, system design and ...
Honduras Other biomass and wastes Stats, NationMaster. Retrieved from http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Honduras/Energy/Other-biomass-and-wastes. Honduras Other biomass and wastes Stats, NationMaster. 1998-2005. ,http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Honduras/Energy/Other-biomass-and-wastes,.. Honduras Other biomass and wastes Stats, NationMaster, ,http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Honduras/Energy/Other-biomass-and-wastes, [assessed 1998-2005]. Honduras Other biomass and wastes Stats, NationMaster [Internet]. 1998-2005. Avaliable from: ,http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Honduras/Energy/Other-biomass-and-wastes,.. Honduras Other biomass and wastes Stats, NationMaster. Avaliable at: nationmaster.com. Assessed 1998-2005.. Honduras Other biomass and wastes Stats, NationMaster, http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Honduras/Energy/Other-biomass-and-wastes (assessed 1998-2005). Honduras Other biomass and wastes Stats, ...
Altered wind conditions and light climate lead to a general change in the microclimate at the forest edges. Big old trees are particularly vulnerable to these factors. With the help of FORMIND, a forest simulation software developed at the UFZ, the researchers modelled different sizes of forest patches left over after landscape fragmentation. The smaller a patch of forest is, the worse is the ratio between edge and area. Simulation results suggest that a natural tropical forest of our study area contained approximately 250 tonnes of aboveground biomass per hectare, a forest fragment measuring 100 hectares has around 228 tonnes of biomass per hectare, while a patch of rain forest measuring one hectare has only 140 tonnes of biomass per hectare. In other words, the biomass in the forest remnants in this study fell by as much as 40 per cent. This finding is of great significance for the function of rain forests as a biomass store. It is important to be clear about the fact that we are losing more ...
Dielectric spectroscopy (DS) is routinely used in yeast and mammalian fermentations to quantitatively monitor viable biomass through the inherent capacitance of live cells: however, the use of DS to monitor the enzymatic break down of lignocellulosic biomass has not been reported. The aim of the current study was to examine the application of DS in monitoring the enzymatic saccharification of high sugar perennial ryegrass (HS-PRG) fibre and to relate the data to changes in chemical composition. DS was capable of both monitoring the on-line decrease in PRG fibre capacitance (C = 580 kHz) during enzymatic hydrolysis, together with the subsequent increase in conductivity (G = 580 kHz) resulting from the production of organic acids during microbial growth. Analysis of the fibre fractions revealed ,50% of HS-PRG lignocellulose had undergone enzymatic hydrolysis. These data demonstrated the utility of DS biomass probes for on-line monitoring of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). (C) ...
The very nature of lignocellulosic biomass presents resistance and recalcitrance to biological and chemical degradation during enzymatic hydrolysis and the subsequent fermentation process. This leads to a very low conversion rate, which makes the process economically unfeasible. In this study, alkaline (NaOH) pretreatment was applied on barley straw, using radio-frequency-based dielectric heating to enhance accessibility and digestibility during the subsequent stage of enzymatic hydrolysis. Three levels of temperature (70, 80, and 90°C), five levels of biomass:NaOH solution ratio (1:4, 1:5, 1:6, 1:7, and 1:8), 1h equilibration time, screen size of 1.6mm, 1%w/v NaOH concentration, and 20min residence time were used for the pretreatment. The effect of the alkaline pretreatment was evaluated through chemical composition analysis of the pretreated and non-treated biomass samples. The use of NaOH solution and the biomass:NaOH solution ratio played a vital role in the breakdown of the lignified ...
This study aimed to assess the effects of biomass smoke exposure on lung function in a Nepalese population, addressing some of the methodological issues seen in previous studies. We carried out a cross-sectional study of adults in a population exposed to biomass smoke and a non-exposed population in Nepal. Questionnaire and lung function data were acquired along with direct measures of indoor and outdoor air quality. Ventilatory function (forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)), forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory flow at 25-75% of FVC) was significantly reduced in the population using biomass across all age groups compared to the non-biomass-using population, even in the youngest (16-25 yrs) age group (mean FEV(1) (95% CI) 2.65 (2.57-2.73) versus 2.83 (2.74-2.91) L; p=0.004). Airflow obstruction was twice as common among biomass users compared with liquefied petroleum gas users (8.1% versus 3.6%; p|0.001), with similar patterns for males (7.4% versus 3.3%; p=0.022) and females (10.8%
Bioenergy, and in particular solid woody biomass, will play a crucial role in meeting the EUs 2020 renewable energy targets and mitigating climate change. This renewable energy source can provide reliable and base-load supply to meet EU energy needs. In order to realise the potential of biomass, AEBIOM1 and EURELECTRIC2 strongly advocate establishing harmonised, binding sustainability criteria for solid biomass on the EU level. EU utilities have already taken the lead in voluntary measures by collectively developing sustainability requirements for pelletised biomass and sourcing wood from certified forests (such as PEFC or FSC). The voluntary approaches should be substantiated and finalised by a legal framework at the EU level. Biomass imports continue to increase and sustainability criteria are needed.. Because bioenergy is a key technology in the EU renewables portfolio, delays in the introduction of EU criteria put the renewable energy target at risk, said Jean-Marc Jossart, Secretary ...
Pyrolysis is estimated to be one of the most promising methods to convert biomass to diverse products (such as syn-gas, liquid fuel and charcoal), while its application has the potential for alleviating the fossil fuel crisis and environmental deterioration. Cellulose, a linear homopolymer of glucopyranose residues linked by β-1, 4-glycosidic bonds, is the most principal component in biomass (accounting for more than 50% by weight). The research on the pyrolytic behavior of cellulose is particularly beneficial for achieving a better understanding of the pyrolytic behavior of biomass, also promoting its direct applications in terms of fuels, chemicals and bio-materials. The studies on pyrolysis of cellulose are extensively reported in the categories of the following four issues: (1) the physico-chemical properties of cellulose in lignocellulosic biomass; (2) the on-line pyrolysis study of cellulose; (3) the off-line pyrolysis study of cellulose; (4) the interactions with other chemical ...
A fully coupled meteorology‐chemistry‐aerosol mesoscale model (WRF‐Chem) is used to simulate a multiday biomass burning event in the dry season of South America. The effects of biomass burning aerosols on clouds and precipitation are described at both 36 km and 4 km horizontal resolutions. The dominant effect of the aerosols is to reduce the diurnal amplitude of convection by decreasing clouds and precipitation in the afternoon but increasing them at night, with the afternoon decrease greater than the nighttime increase on the daily mean. On average, the decrease of surface precipitation is about 5% (3%) and the amplitude of diurnal cycle is reduced by about 11% (5%) in the 36 km (4 km) simulations. Such a modulation of clouds and precipitation is primarily contributed by the aerosol radiative effect, i.e., their ability to scatter and absorb solar radiation. The aerosol microphysical effect as cloud condensation nuclei tends to act oppositely to the aerosol radiative effect but with a ...
technology for cellulosic biomass conversion, recently put out a press release announcing the grant of U.S. Patent No. 8,540,847 (847 Patent).. Entitled Methods and apparatus for processing cellulosic biomass, the 847 Patent is directed to methods and apparatus for making ethanol or other biofuels using what Aphios calls its Aosic process.. The apparatus (11) described and claimed in the patent comprises a first vessel (13) for receiving cellulosic biomass and conveying means (15) in fluid communication with the first vessel (13). The apparatus (11) also comprises supercritical, critical, or near critical fluid means (17), which includes a source of gas, such as gas tank (41), holding carbon dioxide pressurized to form supercritical, critical, or near critical fluid.. The fluid means (17) is in fluid communication with conveying means (15) via conduit (31). A pump (47) is connected to a heat exchanger (55), which controls the temperature of the supercritical, critical, or near critical ...
In a move that could have wide ramifications for the future of biomass power nationwide, Massachusetts regulators have proposed to strictly regulate the ability of wood-burning incinerators to earn renewable power certificates.Its the latest twist in a long-running debate in the U.S. about whether biomass should qualify as a form of renewable energy and benefit from clean energy incentives. The draft rule by the Department of Energy Resources - unveiled late Friday - would require biomass incinerators to become 60 percent more efficient in order to earn full renewable energy credits and 40 percent to get a fraction of them. It would force a 50 percent cut in planet-warming gases from biomass plants by 2030 compared to fossil fuels, and limit the sorts of residues and waste wood that can be burned to discourage the poor forest management practice.Final regulations are expected be in place by the end of the year. Local environmentalists who have long fought a biomass boom said the announcement was a
14 June 2013 - NamPower says that results of a pre-feasibility study on the use of biomass for power generation in the country are promising and it has given the go-ahead to continue with a full-scale feasibility study while also investigating the feasibility of a hybrid biomass concentrated solar power (CSP) plant.. The Namibia Economist reports that the study by NamPower has been two years in the undertaking. It reports that when NamPower went to tender for the study in 2011, Robert Schultz from the Desert Research Foundation, an organisation that runs a 250 kW biomass power plant near Outjo, said there is capacity to run as many as 240 decentralised distribution-embedded biomass power plants across Namibia.. Standing biomass resources are estimated at over 260 million tonnes, he said. Van Eck probably needs about 100,000 tonnes of biomass fuel a year if running for three months per year and if you divide the available resources it gives you about 2,600 years of available fuel. This is of ...
As part of the Woody Biomass Innovative Project, which proposes to assess future bioenergy potential for British Columbia, a study was conducted to assess wood biomass leachate effect on water quality. The study aims to provide guidance for policy development related to biomass operations and their leachates. To that end, we examined the impacts of roadside chipping with respect to the amount of leachate generated, aquatic toxicity, and connectivity between post-biomass processing wood residue piles and streams in central interior British Columbia. Best practice considerations specific to on-site processing, road networks, soils, and riparian zones are provided based on field assessments of biomass sites, consultation with biomass processors, and a review of management practices in other jurisdictions.
Salinity stress in both NaCl concentrations tested severely altered plant growth, gas exchange attributes, leaf water status and membrane injury responses of both pepper genotypes [particularly the salt-sensitive Demre, and especially under the higher (150 mm) salinity]. The exogenous application of 2 mm Si significantly ameliorated NaCl toxicity in both genotypes. However, this influence was more pronounced for the salt-sensitive pepper at both salinity concentrations, especially in counteracting effects on biomass production and photosynthesis. Si additions either increased resistance to salt stress at 75 mm salinity or prevented a complete collapse at 150 mm salinity. Leaf area was reduced under salinity stress because in an attempt by the plant to minimize water loss via evapotranspiration. However, plants subjected to salinity stress but provided amendments of Si, acquired higher leaf area and shoot and root biomass (dry). Enhancement of plant growth under salinity stress have also been ...
Over the past 10 years there has been a massive expansion in biomass use for power generation. Research has been crucial in addressing the challenges of moving from coal to biomass.. What is the problem? In the UK, electricity generation through biomass co-firing began in 2002 and grew to approximately 28 MWe by 2005. More recently there have been several strategic investments by the UKs power generation industry to replace coal with biomass, driven by legal domestic targets in CO2 reduction and government incentives. Employing biomass will result in at least 70% reduction in green-house gas emissions compared to coal. Increasing incentives could employ up to 18,000 jobs in the UK by 2020 in the biomass electricity sector alone (Bioeconomy Consultants NNFCC, 2012). Why do chemical engineers make a difference? Researchers from the University of Leeds, led by Professor Jenny Jones, have worked with Drax to become the biggest renewable power generator in the UK. Drax now operates three fully ...
Biomass boilers job leads. Find new customers in biomass boiler installation: get new customers for biomass boilers and people looking for biomass boilers quotes. Best marketplace for biomass boilers leads
Captured solar energy from biological systems currently plays a large role in human society through agriculture and small-scale domestic use. Expanding the use of biomass for large-scale energy services could help reduce the greenhouse gas intensity of the energy system. Because biomass energy photosynthesis captures CO2 from todays atmosphere, the resulting carbon-based feedstock can be processed and utilized in a similar manner to fossil fuels with lower net emissions of CO2.. Biomass energy conversion could take advantage of many existing waste streams, but would also likely involve the cultivation and conversion of dedicated energy crops. The naturally low efficiency conversion of solar energy to biomass leads to large requirements of land, water and nutrients. Lifecycle cost, energy, and greenhouse gas emission considerations such as fertilizer production, harvesting, and feedstock transportation are barriers to the widespread use of energy crops. Increases in the yield of energy crops for ...
This biomass conversion can result in fuel in solid, liquid, or gas form. This new biomass can also be used directly for ... Biofuels made from waste biomass or from biomass grown on abandoned agricultural lands incur little to no carbon debt.[95] ... Second generation biofuels are fuels manufactured from various types of biomass. Biomass is a wide-ranging term meaning any ... Biomass and the Environment - Basics *^ a b "Biofuels Make a Comeback Despite Tough Economy". Worldwatch Institute. 2011-08-31 ...
10% biomass can reduce 0.5 Gt CO2 per year and with 16% biomass can achieve zero emission.[citation needed] Direct-cofiring (20 ... If biomass sources are not close by the combustion unit, transporting biomass emits CO2 offsetting the amount of CO2 captured ... While each type of biomass has a different heating value, biomass in general is a low-quality fuel. Thermal conversion of ... Due to the moisture content of biomass, it will affect the calorific value of the combustor. In addition, high volatile biomass ...
Biomass and biofuels[edit]. Palm oil is used to produce both methyl ester and hydrodeoxygenated biodiesel.[56] Palm oil methyl ... Biomass Society (Report). Center for Southeast Asian Studies, Kyoto University. 11 December 2010. Archived from the original on ... "Waste not the palm oil biomass". The Star Online. Retrieved 25 February 2013 ...
Biomass briquettes[edit]. Main article: Biomass briquettes. The extrusion production technology of fuel briquettes is the ...
Biomass[edit]. Biomass degradation refers to the utilization of microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi to produce enzymes ...
Biomass[edit]. Sources of biomass in the Netherlands include the biogenic fraction of waste that is burned in waste ... Total biomass 21 649 42 886 12 123 76 657 - *The consumption of biofuels for mobile vehicles in the construction and farming ... Biomass gross final consumption (TJ) by energy sector, 2013. (Data extract).[20] Electricity Heat Transport Total ... Decentralised electricity production from solid biomass and bioliquid 3 904 1 436 5 340 ...
Biomass functions applicable to European beech[permanent dead link] E. CIENCIALA, M. ČERNÝ, J. APLTAUER, Z. EXNEROVÁ, JOURNAL ... Assessment of forest biomass and carbon stocks[edit]. In 2013, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations ... 1983 Allometric biomass equations for 98 species of herbs, shrubs, and small trees. Research note NC-299. USDA Forest Service, ... In 2012, FAO and CIRAD published a manual for building tree volume and biomass allometric equations for students, technicians ...
"Republic Services announces LFGTE project in California". Biomass. 4 May 2015. Retrieved 13 July 2016. Gerlat, Allan (27 July ... "Republic Services announces LFGTE project in California". Biomass Magazine. 4 May 2015. Retrieved 13 July 2016. Toplikar, Dave ...
"Lipid and biomass production by the halotolerant microalga Nannochloropsis salina". Biomass. 12: 37-47. doi:10.1016/0144-4565( ... Various strains of Nannochloropsis were shown to accumulate up to 60% - 70% of their overall biomass as lipids in nitrogen ...
Total consumption of biomass amounted to 107 PJ in 2013. There were 39 CHP plants using biomass as a fuel in 2014 consuming ... Biomass. Biomass provides the largest share of renewable energy in Denmark when considering the electricity sector, heating and ... Biomass is sometimes co-fired with other fuels including a small percentage that is co-fired with waste. Around 40% of the ... Total consumption of Biomass is expected to rise to 115PJ by 2024. A number of power stations are being converted from using ...
Biomass Magazine. Retrieved 2008-11-17. Dickerson, Marla (2008-07-10). "Letting the sea cultivate the land". Los Angeles Times ...
It is also suitable to produce large amounts of biomass, able to make 10 to 20 metric tons (11 to 22 short tons) per hectare ... Brooker, M.I.H. & Kleinig, D.A. Field Guide to Eucalyptus, Bloomings, Melbourne 2001 "Mallee". Biomass Producer. Australian ...
Due to this change in the carbon stock of the soil and the biomass, indirect land use change has consequences in the GHG ... Because natural lands, such as rainforests and grasslands, store carbon in their soil and biomass as plants grow each year, ... "BIO asks EPA to maintain flexibility in life-cycle analysis for RFS". Biomass Magazine. 2009-06-06. Retrieved 2009-06-17. " ... Goettemoeller, Jeffrey; Adrian Goettemoeller (2007). "Sustainable Ethanol: Biofuels, Biorefineries, Cellulosic Biomass, Flex- ...
"Landfill gas ranks Coca-Cola third in EPA green power users". Biomass Magazine. Retrieved 8/9/2012. Check date values in: , ...
"Online Plant Map". Biomass Magazine. BBI International. Retrieved 22 March 2015. Nacogdoches Generating Facility "International ...
It is also suitable to produce large amounts of biomass, able to make 10 to 20 metric tons (11 to 22 short tons) per hectare ... "Mallee". Biomass Producer. Australian Government. 2013. Retrieved 6 May 2017. "Open mallee woodlands and sparse mallee ...
biomass power plant". Biomass Magazine. Retrieved 2014-02-01. Simet, Anna (2013-11-14). "Rentech provides update on Ontario ... At the same year it purchased the 55 MW biomass integrated gasification combined cycle power plant project in Port St. Joe, ... It closed its product demonstration unit in Commerce City which was developing technology for conversion of cellulosic biomass ... "Rentech plans to build $500M biomass plant in Ontario". TheRecord. The Canadian Press. 2011-05-06. Retrieved 2014-02-01. " ...
"Waste Biomass Carbonization Plant - KG Biomass Plant". Field, Christopher B. "Emissions pathways, climate change, and impacts ... Carbon 14 dating can determine with precision the biomass fraction of waste, and also determine the biomass calorific value. ... In addition, nearly all biodegradable waste is biomass. That is, it has biological origin. This material has been formed by ... Such considerations are the main reason why several countries administrate WtE of the biomass part of waste as renewable energy ...
Algae Biomass. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 1980. pp. 603-610. Ben-Amotz A, Avron M. Accumulation of metabolites by halotolerant algae ...
"Use of mobile fast pyrolysis plants to densify biomass and reduce biomass handling costs-A preliminary assessment". Biomass & ... Assessment of sustainable energy potential of non-plantation biomass resources in Sri Lanka, 29 Biomass & Bioenergy 199, 204 ( ... If biomass is pyrolyzed to biochar and put back into the soil, rather than being completely burned, this may reduce carbon ... Mobile pyrolysis units can be used to lower the costs of transportation of the biomass if the biochar is returned to the soil ...
"Alter NRG Announces Commissioning of Biomass Gasifier at Waste To Liquids Facility in China" (Press release). Alter NRG. ... "INEOS Bio Commercializes bioenergy technology in Florida" (PDF). Biomass Program. 2011-11-21. "The Plasma Arc Waste Destruction ... biomass, industrial waste, hazardous waste, and solid hydrocarbons, such as coal, oil sands, petcoke and oil shale. Small ...
"Integrated Size Reduction and Separation to Pre-Fractionate Biomass" (PDF). Annual Report to Congress on the Biomass Research ... "Biomass Products & Technology". February 2010. "Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) project: Combined Drying and Grinding ... "Integrated Size Reduction and Separation to Pre-Fractionate Biomass" (PDF). University of Tennessee, Al Womac, Ph.D, P.E. 2005 ... Thermix/KDS Biomass Combustion System" (PDF). Sustainable Development Technology Fund - 2008 Annual Report Supplement. " ...
"Official opening of biomass terminal at Port of Hull signals start of City's renewables revolution" (Press release). ABP. 4 ... In 2013, a 1 million tonne per year capacity sea to rail biomass facility, with a 164 ft (50 m) silo was constructed to supply ... A 160 by 390 feet (50 by 120 m) specialised biomass dry bulk warehouse was opened in late 2015. In addition to the dry docks in ... Burton, James (11 December 2015). "ABP opens £4m biomass warehouse in King George Dock". Hull Daily Mail. Retrieved 22 December ...
"Shalivahana Green Energy , Bio Mass , Municipal Solid Waste , Wind Energy , Hydel Energy". Shalivahanagroup.com. Retrieved 2012 ...
The break up of other renewable energy sources (RES) is: wind power (28,700.44 MW), Solar power (9,012.69 MW), Biomass power & ... "Shalivahana Green Energy , Bio Mass , Municipal Solid Waste , Wind Energy , Hydel Energy". Shalivahanagroup.com. Retrieved 2012 ...
Crofts volunteers as an NED of the Biomass Energy Co-op, was a founding director of trading arm of Knowsley Foodbank and serves ... "About Us , Biomass Energy". biomassenergy.coop. Retrieved 2017-02-03. (http://www.forepoint.co.uk), Forepoint. "Governance , ...
Kitani, Osumu; Carl W. Hall (1989). Biomass Handbook. Taylor & Francis US. p. 256. ISBN 2-88124-269-3. Pimental, David (2007). ... accounting for at least half the biomass on Earth. The biodiversity of the prokaryotes is unknown, but may be very large. A May ...
The tree is suitable to produce large amounts of biomass, able to make 10 to 20 metric tons (11 to 22 short tons) per hectare ... "Mallee". Biomass Producer. Australian Government. 2013. Retrieved 6 May 2017. ...
Biomass, (1990). 23(4): p. 289-305. Macfarlane, AL, Prestidge, R, Farid, MM, Chen, JJJ, Dissolved air flotation: A novel ... With the AST process, lignocellulosic biomass is treated with sulfuric acid, water, butanol and other organic solvents, water, ... Sarkanen, KV, Acid-catalysed delignification of lignocellulosics in organic solvents, in Progress in Biomass Conversion, K V ... residual biomass, and lignin recovery was investigated using RSM. The glucose concentration at the optimum conditions was 4.22- ...
E. socialis is suitable to produce large amounts of biomass, able to make 10 to 20 metric tons (11 to 22 short tons) per ... "Mallee". Biomass Producer. Australian Government. 2013. Retrieved 6 May 2017. "Eucalyptus socialis ssp. socialis (Myrtaceae) ... Biomass Carbon Stocks in the Great Western Woodlands. Australian National University Press. ISBN 9781921666704. "Eucalyptus ...
Here we quantify the human-made mass, referred to as anthropogenic mass, and compare it to the overall living biomass on ... Estimates of global total biomass (the mass of all living things) and anthopogenic mass (the mass embedded in inanimate objects ... will surpass all global living biomass. On average, for each person on the globe, anthropogenic mass equal to more than his or ... An emerging question is how the overall material output of human activities compares to the overall natural biomass. ...
The company says it will use waste wood as its primary source of biomass and expects the plant to be the largest biomass plant ... Categories Air, Clean Energy, Environmental Management, FacilitiesTags Biomass, Government, Sustainability, U.S., Utilities, ... Xcel Energy Plans Midwest Biomass Plant. February 25, 2009. by Paul Nastu. ... When completed, the project will convert the plants remaining coal-fired unit to biomass gasification technology, allowing it ...
Resources - Biomass. Posted on April 29, 2014. by John A A slist of peer-reviewed studies, NGO reports, briefings and letters ... Biofuelwatch Report: Biomass: The Chain of Destruction (including the case report Plantations for Energy: A Case Study of ... Biomass Sustainability Standards - a Credible Tool for Avoiding Negative Impacts from Large-scale Bioenergy?, joint briefing by ...
Different biomass feedstocks generate more or less carbon, but some sources of biomass are unsustainable, such as corn grown ... aerosolsatmospheric warmingbioconversionbioelectricitybioenergybiofuelbiomassbiomass processingblack sootbrown rotcarbon ... Further, the (non-industrial) burning of biomass in the developing world-especially woody biomass derived from forests/ ... The actual research results were published in the March 2010 edition of the journal of Biomass Bioenergy.. Image: biomass- ...
First the complementarity features of economic equilibrium and its integration with an ecological representation of the biomass ... The complementarity format permits detailed modeling of the growth and harvest of a biomass stock together with a second-best ... for gauging the likely effects of environmental subsidies and taxes intended to promote increases CO2 storage in forest biomass ... This study introduces a framework for modeling a renewable forest biomass stock interacting with economic sectors in a ...
"The Biomass Crop Assistance Program currently supports more than 890 growers and landowners farming nearly 49,000 acres to ... Facilities seeking to be qualified by USDA to accept biomass can begin enrollment between today, May 23, and June 6, 2016. BCAP ... 4, 2016, USDA will accept applications from foresters and farmers seeking incentives to remove biomass residues from fields or ... The funds come through the Biomass Crop Assistance Program (BCAP), which was reauthorized by the 2014 Farm Bill. ...
... the publication maintains a core editorial focus on biomass logistics: generating, cultivating, collecting, transporting, ... Biomass Magazine is a monthly trade publication tailored to serve companies and organizations engaged in producing and/or ... utilizing biomass power and heat, advanced biofuels, biogas, wood pellets and biobased chemicals. In addition to policy, ... Since joining the biomass team, hes strived to cover the most relevant, useful and pressing issues on all things biomass-based ...
A biomass combined-heat-and-power (CHP) project in southwest England is beginning the final phase of commissioning and is on ... A biomass combined-heat-and-power (CHP) project in southwest England is beginning the final phase of commissioning and is on ... UK biomass CHP plant begins commissioning By Erin Voegele , February 19, 2018 ...
biomass (usually uncountable, plural biomasses). *The total mass of a living thing or part thereof, such as a cell. *2005, ... Since protein constitutes the majority of the biomass of a cell, building new protein is a major way that cells increase their ... sharks make up 75 per cent of the fish biomass.. ...
... and degradable aquatic biomass. Process inputs can give small industries… ... Sources biomass * 1. BIOENERGY 1. Biomass: sources, characteristics & preparation:  Sources and classification of biomass ... Reference: Forests as biomass energy resources in India by B. N. Dwivedi and O. N. Kaul in Biomass Energy Systems, Edited by P. ... Biomass & Bio-energy 14, no5-6, pp 479-488, 1998 A techno-economic evaluation of biomass briquetteing in India A.K.Tripathi, ...
An outline of the different types of biomass produced by agriculture, and how their production must meet environmental ... Biomass resources in agriculture. Biomass is derived from organic material such as trees, plants, and agricultural and urban ... Sustainable biomass production. Production of agricultural biomass in the EU, whether used for food, feed, material or energy, ... The majority of biomass produced by EU agriculture comes in the form of biogas, and feedstocks for making biodiesel and ...
Biomass is another earth-friendly source of energy. ... Biomass gasification involves heating biomass under pressure in ... Types of biomass include wood, crops, landfill gas, alcohol fuels and trash. Biomass can either be a waste product or grown ... Co-firing mixes biomass with coal at coal-fired power plants, which may offer a transitional means of somewhat cleaner energy ... In short, biomass is organic material made by living organisms that contains stored energy from the sun. Plants absorb radiant ...
Home Heating with Biomass Humans have heated their dwellings and cooked their food with wood (biomass) for thousands of years. ... Commercial Heating with Biomass Biomass is also considered a viable source of renewable thermal energy for the commercial ... Biomass Biomass is organic matter, including plant material that may be considered fuel and used as an energy source. ... Biomass Incentive and Grant Programs To help achieve sustainability and meet carbon reduction goals the State currently has ...
EVALUATION STUDY ON PROGRAMME FORGRID-CONNECTED BIOMASS POWER, BAGASSE COGENERATION AND NON-BAGASSE COGENERATION IN INDUSTRIES ... EVALUATION OF BIOMASS POWER PLANTS The evaluation of biomass power plants is categorized into the following:  Biomass as a ... Another way through which biomass is procured is through biomass agents who buy biomass from farmers, store it for months ... biomass sector is 17,000 MW 5% of land use for biomass generation increases the biomass power potential to 32,000 MW ...
Infocast is scheduled to present its first Biomass Trade & Transport Summit in Charlotte, North Carolina, ... Infocast Biomass Trade & Transport Summit BrochureInfocasts Biomass Trade & Transport Summit is an unprecedented opportunity ... long-term flow of biomass, and what infrastructures are required for efficient biomass logistics in a supply chain. The ... Due to foreign initiatives to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, the demand for US export of biomass to Europe and Asia has ...
... assists communities and businesses for biomass removal and market development, and develops and deploys the science and ... The Forest Service manages and utilizes biomass on national forests, ... technology to better manage and utilize biomass resources. ... Woody Biomass Utilization *Home. *What is Woody Biomass ... Incentives for Biomass Utilization at the Federal Level (PDF, 0.4 MB) - presentation by Marcia Patton-Mallory, PhD, Biomass and ...
In the righthand image (September 7), a large carbon monoxide plume is seen over Brazil, produced primarily by biomass burning ... result of South American fire emissions and the transport of carbon monoxide across the Atlantic Ocean from widespread biomass ...
Some cities are turning to trees and grass as their best bet for producing renewable energy, leading to a new building boom in biomass power plants.
Biomass Plant matter of recent (nongeologic) origin. Cellulase One or more enzymes that catalyze the reaction of water with ... Cellulosic biomass Also known as lignocellulosic biomass, the structural part of plants that is not edible by humans and ... Cummer KR, Brown RC (2002) Ancillary equipment for biomass gasification. Biomass Bioenergy 23:113-128CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Wyman CE (1995). Biomass-derived oxygenates for transportation fuels. Proceedings - biomass conference of the Americas: energy ...
News for Biomass continually updated from thousands of sources on the web : Sacramento Municipal Utility DISTRICTRagingWires ... Biomass News. News on Biomass continually updated from thousands of sources around the net. ... Connecticut to phase down value of biomass, landfill gas RECs Friday Feb 16 , World News Report , ...
The biomass gasification and pyrolysis market in North America is expected to experience high growth during the next few years ... Biomass Gasification and Pyrolysis Market: Capital Cost and Generation Cost Ranges by Technology (North America), 2010 Slide 51 ... Biomass Gasification and Pyrolysis Market: Market Drivers Ranked in Order of Impact (North America), 2011-2017 Slide 27 ... Biomass Gasification and Pyrolysis Market: Market Restraints Ranked in Order of Impact (North America), 2011-2017 Slide 32 ...
Biomass: Threatening the Climate and the Forest Center for Biological Diversity. 2.16.10. Forest Biomass: Forest Use or Forest ... Forest Biomass from Public Lands slideshow. Energy Eugene at YouTube.com. 5.06.09. Wildfire Hysteria and "Forest Biomass" ... Forest biomass "mythbusters". Massachusetts Forest Watch. 4.11.09. (St)Umpqua Banks "eco-banking" greenwash. 4.2.09. Wood ... Photo of Forest Biomass Facility using Whole Trees. 1.27.10. Effects of Forest Fires on Carbon Emissions Overstated. ...
Biomass Deconstruction and Pretreatment. Our mission is to transform lignocellulose into intermediate streams with low toxicity ... The majority of the pretreatment and biomass deconstruction equipment is located in the NREL Integrated Biorefinery Research ... After chemical and/or mechanical deconstruction, an enzymatic hydrolysis is performed to convert biomass polysaccharides into ... by noble metal and acid zeoloite catalytic upgrading of biomass-derived lignin waste streams from the NREL-developed ...
... 1 - 4 June 2015, Vienna, Austria ... Join us in Vienna for the 23rd European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, the leading international platform for dialogue ...
A) Absolute biomass is represented using a Voronoi diagram, with the area of each cell being proportional to the global biomass ... General framework for estimating global biomass. The procedure begins with local samples of biomass across the globe. The more ... Graphical representation of the global biomass distribution by taxa. (A) Absolute biomasses of different taxa are represented ... we extrapolate the biomass across the entire globe. The resolution of the resulting biomass distribution map is dependent on ...
... a biomass boiler can produce enough energy to provide central heating and hot water for your business, in place of ... Why should you use biomass for your business? ... Biomass benefits for Business * Installing biomass gives A ... Potential incentive by using Biomass Biomass Boilers System Performance. Boiler running hours are estimated at 1,500 hours per ... Why should you use biomass for your business? a biomass boiler can produce enough energy to provide central heating and hot ...
But there is another dimension to the oil palm industrys energy potential - the use of biomass to generate electricity. ... Umakanthan, who has over 30 years experience in fossil fuel and biomass power plant design, says biomass as a renewable energy ... He says it is now an appropriate time to tap RE resources such as biomass, before fossil fuels such as oil and coal are ... According to Umakanthan, it will take 20 to 22 months at a cost of about RM70mil to build a 10MW biomass power plant. The ...
Biomass energy.. [Library of Congress. Science, Technology, and Business Division. Science Reference Services,;] ... Biomass energy.. Author:. Library of Congress. Science, Technology, and Business Division. Science Reference Services,. ... Biomass energy./Library of Congress. Science, Technology, and Business Division. Science Reference Services,;; [Washington, D.C ... http://id.loc.gov/authorities/subjects/sh85014231> # Biomass energy. a schema:Intangible ;. schema:name "Biomass energy"@en ;. ...
... biomass related websites and resources, including local producer groups ... A selection of links, organised by category, to other, generally non-commercial, biomass related websites and resources, ...
This includes pyrolysis chemistry of individual biomass-derived polymers (e.g. cellulose), reaction-transport models of biomass ... 446d) Biomass Pyrolysis: Can a Single Severity Factor Describe the Effect of Pyrolysis Conditions on the Final Biochar Product? ... 446b) Global Kinetics of Species Formation during High Temperature Pyrolysis of Coal and Biomass in CO2 Environment ... 446c) Fast Pyrolysis Kinetic Study for Ten Ecuadorian Agricultural Residual Biomass Samples ...
Through bioconversion of biomass to a mixed alcohol fuel, more energy from the biomass will end up as liquid fuels than in ... The bioconversion of biomass to mixed alcohol fuels can be accomplished using the MixAlco process. ... Advanced Biomass Refinery - Third-Generation 2007 (video) Archived 1 July 2010 at the Wayback Machine. ... As the microoganisms anaerobically digest the biomass and convert it into a mixture of carboxylic acids, the pH must be ...
The use of biomass has increased significantly in the last two decades making bioenergy the most widely used renewable energy ... to continue since several large scale combined heat and power plants have plans to convert from fossil fuels to woody biomass. ... Biomass is the most dominant source of renewable energy in Denmark. In the 1980s and 1990s the use of solid biomass was ... Biomass. The use of biomass has increased significantly in the last two decades making bioenergy the most widely used renewable ...
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UTB ID 201503541, Liquid hydrocarbons from biomass derived ethanol, U.S. Patent App. 15/178,046. ...
About the Western Regional Biomass Research Center (WRBRC). The Western Regional Biomass Research Center (WRBRC) is a network ... The oils have biomass application as well as other industrial uses. Castor is another potentially valuable source of hydroxyl ... The WRBRC is one of four regional USDA Biomass Research Centers that were established in 2010 to coordinate USDA-ARS intramural ... Simulation models are being used to predict biomass yields and greenhouse gas fluxes in various biofuel cropping systems in ...
  • Xcel Energy plans to install biomass gasification technology at its Bay Front Power Plant in Ashland, Wis. (environmentalleader.com)
  • When completed, the project will convert the plant's remaining coal-fired unit to biomass gasification technology, allowing it to use 100 percent biomass in all three boilers. (environmentalleader.com)
  • What is biomass gasification power generation? (leiderschapondervuur.nl)
  • To improve the power generation efficiency, the biomass gasification power plant is equipped with a heat recovery boiler and a steam turbine. (leiderschapondervuur.nl)
  • Biomass gasification power generation The process of biomass gasification. (leiderschapondervuur.nl)
  • The raw materials for biomass gasification are various, including wood processing waste, agriculture residues. (leiderschapondervuur.nl)
  • WASHINGTON, May 23, 2016 - U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Farm Service Agency (FSA) Administrator Val Dolcini today announced that incentives resume this month for farmers and foresters who grow and harvest biomass for renewable energy and biobased products. (usda.gov)
  • Through BCAP, USDA is incentivizing more than 890 growers and landowners farming nearly 49,000 acres to establish and produce dedicated, nonfood energy crops for delivery to energy conversion facilities, and the department has expanded insurance coverage and other safety net options to support farmers producing biomass for renewable energy. (usda.gov)
  • Biomass is the country's largest source of domestic renewable energy, supplying about three times as much energy as wind and solar power combined. (wfpa.org)
  • Forest thinning to improve forest health by reducing fuel loads on eastside dry land forests can provide woody biomass for additional renewable energy feedstocks. (wfpa.org)
  • U.S. forests, including family-owned forests, are a potential source of biomass for renewable energy. (umass.edu)
  • For over 46 years, English Boiler has constructed complete renewable energy systems using biomass as a fuel source. (soliday-sonnenstudio.de)
  • Biomass is a promising option for providing locally produced, renewable energy in Pennsylvania. (leiderschapondervuur.nl)
  • Ashwell Biomass in Leicester specialises in the manufacture, supply, installation and maintenance of high quality biomass boilers. (soliday-sonnenstudio.de)
  • Biomass boilers last longer and work more effectively than usual boilers. (soliday-sonnenstudio.de)
  • ISGEC manufactures boilers like oil and gas fired boiler , bagasse fired boiler, biomass fired boiler , travelling grate boiler, dumping grate boiler and btg package. (soliday-sonnenstudio.de)
  • Biomass Systems Supply offers a full range of biomass boilers using technology from Denmark and Sweden. (biomasssystemssupply.com)
  • The biomass boilers range from 40,000 btu/hr (12kw) all the way up to 119,000,000 btu/hr (35MW). (biomasssystemssupply.com)
  • AHG introduces the Pellexia Pellet Boiler as a solution to the increasing call for biomass boilers that use renewable resources. (gasthaus-krenzien.de)
  • Wood pellet biomass boilers are simply boilers that run solely on burning wood pellets and can provide all of your heating and hot water requirements. (gasthaus-krenzien.de)
  • 2019-10-4·Biomass Boilers and Furnaces available at Obadiah's. (gasthaus-krenzien.de)
  • Biomass briquette hot water boilers, can adopt wood chips, small size wood log, rice hust pellet, straw pellet, olive as reliable, cost saving and enviroment friendly heating system, are widely used in domestic heating, hotel heating, hospitable and school heating and other hot water needed field. (gasthaus-krenzien.de)
  • Biomass Engineering is the main distributor for Fröling biomass boilers in the Republic of Ireland with turnkey solutions ranging from 7kW to 1,500kW. (biomassengineering.ie)
  • A biomass boiler can achieve energy efficiency of 89 - 91% which is equal to the high efficiency gas and oil boilers on the market. (leiderschapondervuur.nl)
  • Oct 09, 2018 · Domestic biomass boilers usually start at around £10,000 and commercial biomass boilers can cost considerably more so overall it is a big investment. (leiderschapondervuur.nl)
  • The definition of "biomass boilers" refers to all boilers and plants powered by fuels of organic origin: industrial and urban waste of plant or animal origin which can no longer be used, but which can be transformed into electricity and heat. (leiderschapondervuur.nl)
  • Thankfully there are green alternatives to biomass boilers in the form of heat pumps. (leiderschapondervuur.nl)
  • Generating electricity with biomass provides environmental benefits that make it a preferred alternative to fossil fuels. (wfpa.org)
  • If we substitute biomass fuels for fossil fuels, we recycle carbon to the atmosphere rather than introducing geologic carbon to the atmosphere - helping reduce the buildup of CO₂. (wfpa.org)
  • Approximately 50% of the world's population uses biomass fuels for cooking, light and heat, often in dwellings where ventilation is poor. (ersjournals.com)
  • The new biomass fuel is formed into pellets, and consequently has less volume than woody chip fuels, leading to improved transportation efficiency. (japanfs.org)
  • By removing trees to reduce wildfire fuels on the land, these communities produce the wood, or biomass, needed for wood-burning systems. (colostate.edu)
  • leaving researchers with the option of utilising lignocellulosic biomass with complex organic structures for conversion to fuels ethanol through biological processes. (scirp.org)
  • Biomass fuels are organic materials produced in a renewable manner. (soliday-sonnenstudio.de)
  • Steam & Power Generation from Biomass & Waste Fuels. (soliday-sonnenstudio.de)
  • Companies, acadamia, governments that have a green thinking agenda are now using biomass to off set the impact of their activities that previously used fossil fuels. (biomasssystemssupply.com)
  • 2019-10-2·Pellet fuels (or pellets) are biofuels made from compressed organic matter or biomass. (gasthaus-krenzien.de)
  • The types of biomass fuels used are abbreviated: "mill" refers to mill wastes, etc. (leiderschapondervuur.nl)
  • Most of the agricultural biomass resources tend to have a relatively low energy density compared with fossil fuels. (bioenergyconsult.com)
  • 2018-1-28·The Pelco PC 2520 is a biomass hot water boiler that is efficient and suited for commercial or industrial needs. (gasthaus-krenzien.de)
  • In Washington State, woody biomass is a by-product of the normal forest management harvesting and replanting cycle. (wfpa.org)
  • Forest thinnings have been identified as the nation's largest underutilized source of woody biomass. (wfpa.org)
  • By carbonizing at a relatively low temperature, torrefaction, also known as semi-carbonization, allows woody biomass to retain more stored heat compared to normal carbonization. (japanfs.org)
  • Biomass is woody plant material, derived from the trunks and branches of trees. (colostate.edu)
  • Woody biomass is a clean and renewable alternative for heating today's new buildings," said Tim Reader, wood products program specialist with the CSFS. (colostate.edu)
  • The goal of this study is to understand how Massachusetts family forest owners feel about harvesting residual woody biomass from their property. (umass.edu)
  • BCAP provides financial assistance to farmers and ranchers who establish and maintain new crops of energy biomass, or who harvest and deliver forest or agricultural residues to a USDA-approved facility that creates energy or biobased products. (usda.gov)
  • Also, between June 15 to Aug. 4, 2016, USDA will accept applications from foresters and farmers seeking incentives to remove biomass residues from fields or national forests for delivery to energy generation facilities. (usda.gov)
  • Our partnerships with Jernforsen, LINKA and TwinHeat give our clients the opportunity to use baled straw, miscanthus and switchgrass for a fuel along with many other types of agricultural feed stocks, forest residues, waste from wood processing mills and many other types of biomass residues. (biomasssystemssupply.com)
  • 1] Pellets can be made from any one of five general categories of biomass: industrial waste and co-products, food waste, agricultural residues, energy crops, and virgin lumber. (gasthaus-krenzien.de)
  • Whether the biomass comes from forest residues on hill country, straw residues from cereal crops grown on arable land, or the non-edible components of small scale, subsistence farming systems, the relative cost of collection will be considerable. (bioenergyconsult.com)
  • Some crop residues are often not competitive because the biomass resource is dispersed over large areas leading to high collection and transport costs. (bioenergyconsult.com)
  • In the context of creating an operational biomass ECV product, USGS scientists evaluated the individual effectiveness of high-resolution commercial imagery (WorldView-2), moderate-resolution multispectral imagery (Landsat 8), and airborne lidar data for estimating the aboveground biomass of forests and woodlands on the San Carlos Apache Reservation in Arizona. (usgs.gov)
  • This includes decayed or partially-decayed plant, animal, and microorganism material in the soil, which in the northern latitudes, accounts for a large amount of stored carbon biomass. (riverwestcurrents.org)
  • In contrast, burning biomass releases carbon dioxide that would have been released anyway through decay or wildfire, and is therefore part of the natural carbon cycle. (wfpa.org)
  • Thus energy produced from biomass is carbon neutral as long as the region practices sustainable forestry. (wfpa.org)
  • Large uncertainties in terrestrial biomass estimates contribute to errors in carbon stock assessments and climate and ecosystem process modeling. (usgs.gov)
  • GO Carbon Neutral with a Hurst Biomass Boiler System. (soliday-sonnenstudio.de)
  • Remember: A biomass boiler is still capable of producing carbon monoxide so make sure you have a detector installed. (leiderschapondervuur.nl)
  • Biofuels (bioethanol) can be produced from biomass feedstocks that are rich in simple sugar such as sucrose, fructose and galactose (e.g. sugarcane) and starchy materials such as plant grain and tubers through direct biodegradation process called fermentation. (scirp.org)
  • The funds come through the Biomass Crop Assistance Program (BCAP), which was reauthorized by the 2014 Farm Bill. (usda.gov)
  • The Biomass Crop Assistance Program currently supports more than 890 growers and landowners farming nearly 49,000 acres to establish and produce dedicated, nonfood energy crops for delivery to energy conversion facilities, and it is a key piece of USDA's strategy to grow the rural economy and create new markets for our farmers and ranchers. (usda.gov)
  • A Percolation reactor for the thermochemical pre-treatment of lignocellulosic biomass as a precursor for the production of biofuel such as bioethanol from complex organic polymers is developed by this study. (scirp.org)
  • The provision of an adequate environment and pre-conditions for enabling chemical hydrolysis of these biomass wastes for biofuel production e.g. bioethanol is the object of this work. (scirp.org)
  • Hence, a percolation reactor is developed for the thermochemical degradation of the cellulose, hemicellulose and the lignin structure of biomass wastes to fermentable sugars. (scirp.org)
  • 2019-8-30·The ideal fuel for this biomass water boiler is biomass pellets made from wood branches, saw dust, wood bark, wood block, wood pellets, husk, straw, rice straw, manure and other biomass wastes from wood processing industry. (gasthaus-krenzien.de)
  • Biomass is readily available in most parts of the country, but the exact type often depends on nearby sources-for example, wood products in forested regions and agricultural wastes in farming regions. (leiderschapondervuur.nl)
  • Biomass logistics involves all the unit operations necessary to move biomass wastes from the land to the biomass energy plant. (bioenergyconsult.com)
  • Nippon Paper Industries Co., a major paper manufacturer in Japan, announced on April 3, 2013, that it had developed a new biomass solid fuel using torrefaction, as a project (practical application) under the Strategic Development of Next-Generation Bioenergy Utilization Technology adopted in fiscal 2011 by the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO). (japanfs.org)
  • Biomass is just organic matter - think, stuff that's made in nature - like wood pellets, grass clippings and even dung. (leiderschapondervuur.nl)
  • Facilities seeking to be qualified by USDA to accept biomass can begin enrollment between today, May 23, and June 6, 2016. (usda.gov)
  • Farmers and forest landowners may enroll for biomass establishment and maintenance payments for these two projects between June 15 and Sept. 13, 2016. (usda.gov)
  • The company says it will use waste wood as its primary source of biomass and expects the plant to be the largest biomass plant in the Midwest. (environmentalleader.com)
  • Each biomass plant contributes $8 million to $14 million a year to the local community where it operates, through salaries, purchases and tax revenue.See Biomass Power Association Biomass Basics for more information. (wfpa.org)
  • This study evaluated the effect of four root-pruning containers: Air-Pots ® , Light Pots TM , Root Pouch Pots, and Smart Pots on plant biomass, root architecture, and medium temperature, relative to standard plastic containers. (ishs.org)
  • The crops that are categorized as lignocellulosic biomass include maize husk, cassava peelings, wheat straws, guinea corn husk, rice husk, millet husk, sawdust and sorghum plant, which cannot be converted directly to bioethanol but have to undergo the process of chemical hydrolysis to convert their complex organic content to fermentable simple sugar. (scirp.org)
  • The biomass can be transported directly from farm or from stacks next to the farm to the processing plant. (bioenergyconsult.com)
  • Biomass may be minimally processed before being shipped to the plant, as in case of biomass supply from the stacks. (bioenergyconsult.com)
  • The logistics of transporting, handling and storing the bulky and variable biomass material for delivery to the biopower plant is a key part of the biomass supply chain that is often overlooked by project developers. (bioenergyconsult.com)
  • Careful development of a system to minimize machinery use, human effort and energy inputs can have a considerable impact on the cost of the biomass as delivered to the biomass processing plant gate. (bioenergyconsult.com)
  • The logistics of supplying a biomass power plant with consistent and regular volumes of biomass are complex. (bioenergyconsult.com)
  • It can then be converted in the nearby biomass energy plant to more transportable forms of energy carrier if not to be utilized on-site. (bioenergyconsult.com)
  • The logistics of supplying a biopower plant with sufficient volumes of biomass from a number of sources at suitable quality specifications and possibly all year round, are complex. (bioenergyconsult.com)
  • In addition, a viable biomass production and distribution system must include producer incentives, encouraging them to sell their post-harvest plant residue. (bioenergyconsult.com)
  • The more than 100 biomass plants in the country generate 8,500 megawatts of electricity, enough to power 8.5 million homes. (wfpa.org)
  • In the Northwest, biomass electricity is primarily created by the controlled burning of wood waste that otherwise would be dumped in landfills, burned in open air or left to decompose. (wfpa.org)
  • Family forest owners constitute a significant portion of the overall forestland in the U.S., yet little is known about family forest owners' preferences for supplying wood-based biomass. (umass.edu)
  • Now that you're aware of the advantages and disadvantages of biomass, you'll be in a better position to decide if biomass is the best option for you. (leiderschapondervuur.nl)
  • Two of the World's leading suppliers of biomass boiler systems have partnered up in a new agreement. (biomasssystemssupply.com)
  • The reactor is designed to hold 3 kg of pulverised biomass of 0.5≤ and ≥0.3 mm particle size for each hydrolysis run, while the mass of other biomass is determined on the basis of density. (scirp.org)
  • The efficiency of the percolation reactor was determined to be 64.4% ± 2% in the hydrolysis of biomass such as cassava peelings to simple sugar. (scirp.org)
  • Many researchers have reported on the use of various reactor such as Stir-tank, Plug flow and Batch reactors for the hydrolysis of biomass. (scirp.org)
  • Trucking seems to be the most common mode of biomass transportation option but rail and pipeline may become attractive once the capital costs for these transport modes are reduced. (bioenergyconsult.com)
  • Firewood, for example, is a commonly known form of biomass that provides fuel for heating. (colostate.edu)
  • Biomass Sustainability Standards - a Credible Tool for Avoiding Negative Impacts from Large-scale Bioenergy? (biofuelwatch.org.uk)
  • 2019-4-27 · Biomass steam boiler (also called biomass hot water boiler) is the hot sale SZL Series biomass boiler which adopts chain grate which is suitable for burning the biomass fuel like wood chip, biomass pellet, etc. (gasthaus-krenzien.de)
  • Wood Biomass Pellet Steam Boiler. (gasthaus-krenzien.de)
  • Biomass Pellet Water Boiler - full functions. (gasthaus-krenzien.de)
  • biomass pellet hot water boiler Zozen High-quality brand Pelco PC 2520 Biomass Hot Water Boiler by Obadiah's Woodstoves. (gasthaus-krenzien.de)
  • Soil samples (0 to 15 cm) belonging to 15 soil series were collected from the agricultural fields of Potohar, northern Punjab, Pakistan in September, 2008 and analysed for P fractions and microbial parameters including microbial biomass C, microbial biomass N, microbial biomass P, and activities of dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase enzymes. (ajol.info)
  • The bioavailable P fractions that is, resin-P, NaHCO3-Pi and NaHCO3-Po showed significant positive relationship with Olsen-P, microbial biomass P, and total organic C, but also with microbial biomass C, microbial biomass N, dehydrogenase activity and alkaline phosphatase activity in the soils. (ajol.info)
  • An operational biomass Essential Climate Variable (ECV) can improve biomass retrievals by synergistically combining structural information from active remote sensing data with spectral information from passive remote sensing data. (usgs.gov)
  • Today I was alerted to a paper that demonstrates the major role of biomass burning on regional climate. (wordpress.com)
  • Co-firing was tested in a pulverized coal boiler at Nippon Paper's Yatsushiro Mill, and as a result, it was possible to mix 25 percent (as a weight ratio) of the new biomass solid fuel with the coal under the maximum load of the boiler. (japanfs.org)
  • In addition, the new biomass solid fuel may have better crushability and water resistance, and may significantly improve the co-firing rate of biomass in a pulverized coal boiler. (japanfs.org)
  • Therefore, when media typical to nursery container production are used in such studies, root biomass data will be unreliable and, if reported, should probably be viewed with skepticism. (ishs.org)
  • The study estimates the probability that Massachusetts landowners will harvest biomass as part of a timber harvest using data from a survey of 932 Massachusetts family forest owners. (umass.edu)
  • Biomass already provides a significant share of energy production in the U.S. (wfpa.org)
  • The Romanian Government approved (effective as of 14 April of this year) a State aid scheme which is aimed at stimulating investments in an area which both government officials and market players view as insufficiently developed - the production of energy (power and/or heat) from biomass, biogas, and geothermal sources. (wolftheiss.com)
  • To ensure sufficient and consistent biomass supplies, all agents involved with the production, collection, storage, and transportation of biomass require compensation for their share of costs incurred. (bioenergyconsult.com)