Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
Measurable biological parameters that serve for drug development, safety and dosing (DRUG MONITORING).
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.
A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Ligand-binding assays that measure protein-protein, protein-small molecule, or protein-nucleic acid interactions using a very large set of capturing molecules, i.e., those attached separately on a solid support, to measure the presence or interaction of target molecules in the sample.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.
Methods to determine in patients the nature of a disease or disorder at its early stage of progression. Generally, early diagnosis improves PROGNOSIS and TREATMENT OUTCOME.
A diverse family of extracellular proteins that bind to small hydrophobic molecules. They were originally characterized as transport proteins, however they may have additional roles such as taking part in the formation of macromolecular complexes with other proteins and binding to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.
The dynamic collection of metabolites which represent a cell's or organism's net metabolic response to current conditions.
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)
Proteins that are secreted into the blood in increased or decreased quantities by hepatocytes in response to trauma, inflammation, or disease. These proteins can serve as inhibitors or mediators of the inflammatory processes. Certain acute-phase proteins have been used to diagnose and follow the course of diseases or as tumor markers.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
Therapeutic approach tailoring therapy for genetically defined subgroups of patients.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
Research using processes by which the reliability and relevance of a procedure for a specific purpose are established.
Isoprostanes derived from the free radical oxidation of ARACHIDONIC ACID. Although similar in structure to enzymatically synthesized prostaglandin F2alpha (DINOPROST), they occur through non-enzymatic oxidation of cell membrane lipids.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.
Microtubule-associated proteins that are mainly expressed in neurons. Tau proteins constitute several isoforms and play an important role in the assembly of tubulin monomers into microtubules and in maintaining the cytoskeleton and axonal transport. Aggregation of specific sets of tau proteins in filamentous inclusions is the common feature of intraneuronal and glial fibrillar lesions (NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; NEUROPIL THREADS) in numerous neurodegenerative disorders (ALZHEIMER DISEASE; TAUOPATHIES).
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A type I keratin found associated with KERATIN-8 in simple, or predominately single layered, internal epithelia.
A series of prostaglandin-like compounds that are produced by the attack of free-radical species on unsaturated fatty acids, especially ARACHIDONIC ACID, of cellular MEMBRANES. Once cleaved from the lipid membrane by the action of phospholipases they can circulate into various bodily fluids and eventually be excreted. Although these compounds resemble enzymatically synthesized prostaglandins their stereoisometric arrangement is usually different than the "naturally occurring" compounds.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Abrupt reduction in kidney function. Acute kidney injury encompasses the entire spectrum of the syndrome including acute kidney failure; ACUTE KIDNEY TUBULAR NECROSIS; and other less severe conditions.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).
An extracellular cystatin subtype that is abundantly expressed in bodily fluids. It may play a role in the inhibition of interstitial CYSTEINE PROTEASES.
Examination of urine by chemical, physical, or microscopic means. Routine urinalysis usually includes performing chemical screening tests, determining specific gravity, observing any unusual color or odor, screening for bacteriuria, and examining the sediment microscopically.
Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.
The simultaneous analysis, on a microchip, of multiple samples or targets arranged in an array format.
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
Establishment of the level of a quantifiable effect indicative of a biologic process. The evaluation is frequently to detect the degree of toxic or therapeutic effect.
The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex. It is a cardiac-specific protein that binds to TROPOMYOSIN. It is released from damaged or injured heart muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC). Defects in the gene encoding troponin T result in FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.
A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex. It inhibits F-actin-myosin interactions.
Treatments with drugs which interact with or block synthesis of specific cellular components characteristic of the individual's disease in order to stop or interrupt the specific biochemical dysfunction involved in progression of the disease.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Methods to identify and characterize cancer in the early stages of disease and predict tumor behavior.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
Carbohydrate antigen most commonly seen in tumors of the ovary and occasionally seen in breast, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract tumors and normal tissue. CA 125 is clearly tumor-associated but not tumor-specific.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
A prodromal phase of cognitive decline that may precede the emergence of ALZHEIMER DISEASE and other dementias. It may include impairment of cognition, such as impairments in language, visuospatial awareness, ATTENTION and MEMORY.
Soluble protein fragments formed by the proteolytic action of plasmin on fibrin or fibrinogen. FDP and their complexes profoundly impair the hemostatic process and are a major cause of hemorrhage in intravascular coagulation and fibrinolysis.
Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.
The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
Non-invasive methods of visualizing the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the brain, by various imaging modalities.
Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Any visual display of structural or functional patterns of organs or tissues for diagnostic evaluation. It includes measuring physiologic and metabolic responses to physical and chemical stimuli, as well as ultramicroscopy.
The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.
A type of extracellular vesicle, containing RNA and proteins, that is secreted into the extracellular space by EXOCYTOSIS when MULTIVESICULAR BODIES fuse with the PLASMA MEMBRANE.
The N-glucuronide conjugate of cotinine is a major urinary metabolite of NICOTINE. It thus serves as a biomarker of exposure to tobacco SMOKING. It has CNS stimulating properties.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A subspecialty of pathology concerned with the molecular basis (e.g., mutations) of various diseases.
Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.
The application of discoveries generated by laboratory research and preclinical studies to the development of clinical trials and studies in humans. A second area of translational research concerns enhancing the adoption of best practices.
Mold and yeast inhibitor. Used as a fungistatic agent for foods, especially cheeses.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.
Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
Any tests done on exhaled air.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The clear portion of BLOOD that is left after BLOOD COAGULATION to remove BLOOD CELLS and clotting proteins.
Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A peptide hormone that lowers calcium concentration in the blood. In humans, it is released by thyroid cells and acts to decrease the formation and absorptive activity of osteoclasts. Its role in regulating plasma calcium is much greater in children and in certain diseases than in normal adults.
An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.
Antibodies that are chemically bound to a substrate material which renders their location fixed.
A fluid occurring in minute amounts in the gingival crevice, believed by some authorities to be an inflammatory exudate and by others to cleanse material from the crevice, containing sticky plasma proteins which improve adhesions of the epithelial attachment, have antimicrobial properties, and exert antibody activity. (From Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
Concentration or quantity that is derived from the smallest measure that can be detected with reasonable certainty for a given analytical procedure.
An examination of chemicals in the blood.
Major component of chondrocyte EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of various tissues including bone, tendon, ligament, SYNOVIUM and blood vessels. It binds MATRILIN PROTEINS and is associated with development of cartilage and bone.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
A group of condensed ring hydrocarbons.
The act of BREATHING out.
A growth differentiation factor that is secreted in response to cell stress and in response to MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION. In addition growth differentiation factor 15 demonstrates a diverse array of biological properties including the induction of cartilage formation, the inhibition of hematopoietic progenitor proliferation, and the induction of neuronal migration.
A calcium-binding protein that is 92 AA long, contains 2 EF-hand domains, and is concentrated mainly in GLIAL CELLS. Elevation of S100B levels in brain tissue correlates with a role in neurological disorders.
State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
The study of existing genetic knowledge, and the generation of new genetic data, to understand and thus avoid DRUG TOXICITY and adverse effects from toxic substances from the environment.
A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Carcinogenic substances that are found in the environment.
A statistical analytic technique used with discrete dependent variables, concerned with separating sets of observed values and allocating new values. It is sometimes used instead of regression analysis.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Facilities that collect, store, and distribute tissues, e.g., cell lines, microorganisms, blood, sperm, milk, breast tissue, for use by others. Other uses may include transplantation and comparison of diseased tissues in the identification of cancer.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Neoplasms composed of glandular tissue, an aggregation of epithelial cells that elaborate secretions, and of any type of epithelium itself. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the various glands or in epithelial tissue.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
Agents capable of exerting a harmful effect on the body.
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The thick green-to-black mucilaginous material found in the intestines of a full-term fetus. It consists of secretions of the INTESTINAL GLANDS; BILE PIGMENTS; FATTY ACIDS; AMNIOTIC FLUID; and intrauterine debris. It constitutes the first stools passed by a newborn.
An ACUTE PHASE REACTION protein present in low concentrations in normal sera, but found at higher concentrations in sera of older persons and in patients with AMYLOIDOSIS. It is the circulating precusor of amyloid A protein, which is found deposited in AA type AMYLOID FIBRILS.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
A branch of genetics which deals with the genetic variability in individual responses to drugs and drug metabolism (BIOTRANSFORMATION).
A thiol-containing amino acid formed by a demethylation of METHIONINE.
PROTEOGLYCANS-associated proteins that are major components of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of various tissues including CARTILAGE; and INTERVERTEBRAL DISC structures. They bind COLLAGEN fibers and contain protein domains that enable oligomer formation and interaction with other extracellular matrix proteins such as CARTILAGE OLIGOMERIC MATRIX PROTEIN.
A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.
The systematic study of the structure and function of the complete set of glycans (the glycome) produced in a single organism and identification of all the genes that encode glycoproteins.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Liquid components of living organisms.
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
Proteins secreted by the epididymal epithelium. These proteins are both tissue- and species-specific. They are important molecular agents in the process of sperm maturation.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.
A family of highly acidic calcium-binding proteins found in large concentration in the brain and believed to be glial in origin. They are also found in other organs in the body. They have in common the EF-hand motif (EF HAND MOTIFS) found on a number of calcium binding proteins. The name of this family derives from the property of being soluble in a 100% saturated ammonium sulfate solution.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The residual portion of BLOOD that is left after removal of BLOOD CELLS by CENTRIFUGATION without prior BLOOD COAGULATION.
An isoenzyme of creatine kinase found in the CARDIAC MUSCLE.
The process of finding chemicals for potential therapeutic use.
The use of molecularly targeted imaging probes to localize and/or monitor biochemical and cellular processes via various imaging modalities that include RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING; ULTRASONOGRAPHY; MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; FLUORESCENCE IMAGING; and MICROSCOPY.
Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.
Plasma glycoproteins that form a stable complex with hemoglobin to aid the recycling of heme iron. They are encoded in man by a gene on the short arm of chromosome 16.
Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
A member of the MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES that cleaves triple-helical COLLAGEN types I, II, and III.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.
Genes whose abnormal expression, or MUTATION are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS.
A group of compounds that has the general structure of a dicarboxylic acid-substituted benzene ring. The ortho-isomer is used in dye manufacture. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The dialdehyde of malonic acid.
A highly conserved heterodimeric glycoprotein that is differentially expressed during many severe physiological disturbance states such as CANCER; APOPTOSIS; and various NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS. Clusterin is ubiquitously expressed and appears to function as a secreted MOLECULAR CHAPERONE.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
Peptides that regulate the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in the body, also known as natriuretic peptide hormones. Several have been sequenced (ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR; BRAIN NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE; C-TYPE NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE).
Liquid material found in epithelial-lined closed cavities or sacs.
Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).

Investigation of the molecular mechanisms preceding PDE4 inhibitor-induced vasculopathy in rats: tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1, a potential predictive biomarker. (1/311)

Phosphodiesterase (PDE) 4 inhibitors are a class of drugs that can provide novel therapies for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Their development is frequently hampered by the induction of vascular toxicity in rat mesenteric tissue during preclinical studies. Whereas these vascular lesions in rats have been well characterized histologically, little is known about their pathogenesis and in turn, sensitive and specific biomarkers for preclinical and clinical monitoring do not exist. In order to investigate the early molecular mechanisms underlying vascular injury, time-course studies were performed by treating rats for 2-24 h with high doses of the PDE4 inhibitor CI-1044. Transcriptomics analyses in mesenteric tissue were performed using oligonucleotide microarray and real-time RT-PCR technologies and compared to histopathological observations. In addition, protein measurements were performed in serum samples to identify soluble biomarkers of vascular injury. Our results indicate that molecular alterations preceded the histological observations of inflammatory and necrotic lesions in mesenteric arteries. Some gene expression changes suggest that the development of the lesions could follow a primary modulation of the vascular tone in response to the pharmacological effect of the compound. Activation of genes coding for pro- and antioxidant enzymes, cytokines, adhesion molecules, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) indicates that biomechanical stimuli may contribute to vascular oxidant stress, inflammation, and tissue remodeling. TIMP-1 appeared to be an early and sensitive predictive biomarker of the inflammatory and the tissue remodeling components of PDE4 inhibitor-induced vascular injury.  (+info)

Evaluation of the antiandrogenic effects of flutamide, DDE, and linuron in the weanling rat assay using organ weight, histopathological, and proteomic approaches. (2/311)

The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) is currently funding the validation of the Hershberger assay as a rapid in vivo means of identifying (anti-) androgens. However, as the assay measures weight changes in the androgen-sensitive tissues of castrated rats, the evaluation of the androgen-stimulated intact weanling as a more ethical model to use in the assay has been requested. As part of the OECD validation exercise two weak antiandrogens, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4 chlorophenyl)ethane (DDE) and linuron (LIN), were investigated in our laboratory at several dose levels in the testosterone propionate (TP)-stimulated weanling using flutamide (FM) as a positive control. In addition to weight measurements (sex accessory tissues [SATs], epididymides, and testes), histopathological assessment of the seminal vesicles, prostate, and testes was conducted for vehicle control, TP-stimulated, and TP-stimulated animals treated with FM or the top dose level of DDE or LIN. The modulation of a novel prostate protein associated with apoptosis, L-amino acid oxidase (LAO), was evaluated in these same treatment groups. Our gravimetric data (supported by the histopathology data) indicated that the weanling assay can detect SAT and epididymal weight changes induced by the antiandrogens evaluated. Inconsistent and variable data were recorded for the testicular weight and histopathological effects, suggesting that the testis is of little value in the identification of antiandrogens using this model. Three isoforms of LAO were identified, and all were regulated by TP. Modulation of LAO by the antiandrogens indicated that this protein could be a biomarker for endocrine disruption in male rodents.  (+info)

Toxicogenomics of drug-induced hemolytic anemia by analyzing gene expression profiles in the spleen. (3/311)

Hemolytic anemia is a serious adverse effect of therapeutic drugs that is caused by increased destruction of drug-damaged erythrocytes by macrophages in the spleen and liver. We previously applied a toxicogenomic approach to the toxicity by analyzing microarray data of the liver of rats dosed with two hemolytic agents: phenylhydrazine and phenacetin. In the present study, we analyzed gene expression profiles in the spleen, the primary organ for destruction of damaged erythrocytes, of the same models in order to identify splenic gene expression alterations that could be used to predict the hematotoxicity. Microarray analyses revealed hundreds of genes commonly deregulated under all severe hemolytic conditions, which included genes related to splenic events characteristic of the hematotoxicity, such as proteolysis and iron metabolism. Eleven upregulated genes were selected as biomarker candidates, and their expression changes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR. The transcript levels of most of these genes showed strong correlation with the results of classical toxicological assays (e.g., histopathology and hematology). Furthermore, hierarchical clustering analysis suggested that altered expression patterns of the 11 genes sensitively reflected the erythrocyte damage even under a condition that caused no decrease in erythrocyte counts. Among the selected genes, heme oxygenase 1 was one of the most promising biomarker candidates, the upregulation of which on the protein level was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. These results indicate that altered splenic expression of a subset of genes may allow detection of drug-induced hemolytic anemia, with better sensitivity than that of erythrocyte counts in the blood.  (+info)

Relapse following discontinuation of imatinib mesylate therapy for FIP1L1/PDGFRA-positive chronic eosinophilic leukemia: implications for optimal dosing. (4/311)

Although imatinib is clearly the treatment of choice for FIP1L1/PDGFRA-positive chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL), little is known about optimal dosing, duration of treatment, and the possibility of cure in this disorder. To address these questions, 5 patients with FIP1L1/PDGFRA-positive CEL with documented clinical, hematologic, and molecular remission on imatinib (400 mg daily) and without evidence of cardiac involvement were enrolled in a dose de-escalation trial. The imatinib dose was tapered slowly with close follow-up for evidence of clinical, hematologic, and molecular relapse. Two patients with endomyocardial fibrosis were maintained on imatinib 300 to 400 mg daily and served as controls. All 5 patients who underwent dose de-escalation, but neither of the control patients, experienced molecular relapse (P < .05). None developed recurrent symptoms, and eosinophil counts, serum B12, and tryptase levels remained suppressed. Reinitiation of therapy at the prior effective dose led to molecular remission in all 5 patients, although 2 patients subsequently required increased dosing to maintain remission. These data are consistent with suppression rather than elimination of the clonal population in FIP1L1/PDGFRA-positive CEL and suggest that molecular monitoring may be the most useful method in determining optimal dosing without the risk of disease exacerbation. This trial was registered at as no. NCT00044304.  (+info)

Biomarker method validation in anticancer drug development. (5/311)

Over recent years the role of biomarkers in anticancer drug development has expanded across a spectrum of applications ranging from research tool during early discovery to surrogate endpoint in the clinic. However, in Europe when biomarker measurements are performed on samples collected from subjects entered into clinical trials of new investigational agents, laboratories conducting these analyses become subject to the Clinical Trials Regulations. While these regulations are not specific in their requirements of research laboratories, quality assurance and in particular assay validation are essential. This review, therefore, focuses on a discussion of current thinking in biomarker assay validation. Five categories define the majority of biomarker assays from 'absolute quantitation' to 'categorical'. Validation must therefore take account of both the position of the biomarker in the spectrum towards clinical end point and the level of quantitation inherent in the methodology. Biomarker assay validation should be performed ideally in stages on 'a fit for purpose' basis avoiding unnecessarily dogmatic adherence to rigid guidelines but with careful monitoring of progress at the end of each stage. These principles are illustrated with two specific examples: (a) absolute quantitation of protein biomarkers by mass spectrometry and (b) the M30 and M65 ELISA assays as surrogate end points of cell death.  (+info)

Developmental neurotoxicity of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants. (6/311)

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of flame retardants used in a variety of consumer products. In the past 25 years, PBDEs have become ubiquitous environmental contaminants. They have been detected in soil, air, sediments, birds, marine species, fish, house dust, and human tissues, blood and breast milk. Diet and house dust appear to be the major sources of PBDE exposure in the general population, though occupational exposure can also occur. Levels of PBDEs in human tissues are particularly high in North America, compared to Asian and European countries, and have been increasing in the past 30 years. Concentrations of PBDEs are particularly high in breast milk, resulting in high exposure of infants. In addition, for toddlers, dust has been estimated to account for a large percentage of exposure. PBDEs can also cross the placenta, as they have been detected in fetal blood and liver. Tetra-, penta- and hexaBDEs are most commonly present in human tissues. The current greatest concern for potential adverse effects of PBDEs relates to their developmental neurotoxicity. Pre- or postnatal exposure of mice or rats to various PBDEs has been shown to cause long-lasting changes in spontaneous motor activity, mostly characterized as hyperactivity or decreased habituation, and to disrupt performance in learning and memory tests. While a reduction in circulating thyroid hormone (T(4)) may contribute to the developmental neurotoxicity of PBDEs, direct effects on the developing brain have also been reported. Among these, PBDEs have been shown to affect signal transduction pathways and to cause oxidative stress. Levels of PBDEs causing developmental neurotoxicity in animals are not much dissimilar from levels found in highly exposed infants and toddlers.  (+info)

Current opinion: safety evaluation of drug metabolites in development of pharmaceuticals. (7/311)

Safety assessment of drug metabolites in the development of pharmaceuticals was discussed in January 2007 at the kick-off meeting of a "Drug Evaluation Forum", with reference to the views of clinicians and other academic representatives. Safety evaluation of metabolites cannot readily be based on a single theoretical framework, and basically a case-by-case approach is called for. These evaluations should be performed precisely and an accurate profile secured taking into account adverse reactions that are unpredictable from the parent compound administered in clinical studies and any signs or symptoms that may be associated with the metabolites. In addition, elimination of scientifically meaningless metabolite safety assessment studies is essential for prompt supply of high-quality drugs to the medical frontline. Preparation of an outline concept paper would be useful for achievement of shared understanding of issues of this type. Collective viewpoints obtained in this fashion are also relevant to the discussion on the need for guidance, and given a degree of flexibility may also be helpful for drug development and, in turn, society at large.  (+info)

Gene expression profiling of rat liver treated with serum triglyceride-decreasing compounds. (8/311)

We have constructed a large-scale transcriptome database of rat liver treated with various drugs. In an effort to identify a biomarker for interpretation of plasma triglyceride (TG) decrease, we extracted 218 probe sets of rat hepatic genes from data of 15 drugs that decreased the plasma TG level but differentially affected food consumption. Pathway and gene ontology analysis revealed that the genes belong to amino acid metabolism, lipid metabolism and xenobiotics metabolism. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that 12 out of 15 compounds were separated in the direction of PC1, and these 12 were separated in the direction of PC2, according to their hepatic gene expression profiles. It was found that genes with either large or small eigenvector values in principal component PC 2 were those reported to be regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)alpha or constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), respectively. In fact, WY-14,643, clofibrate, gemfibrozil and benzbromarone, reported to be PPARalpha activators, distributed to the former, whereas propylthiouracil, omeprazole, phenobarbital, thioacetamide, methapyrilene, sulfasalazine and coumarin did to the latter. We conclude that these identified 218 probe sets could be a useful source of biomarkers for classification of plasma TG decrease, based on the mechanisms involving PPARalpha and CAR.  (+info)

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation in previously immunocompetent critically ill patients is associated with increased mortality, which has been hypothesized to result from virus-induced immunomodulation. Therefore, we studied the effects of CMV reactivation on the temporal course of host response biomarkers in patients with sepsis. In this matched cohort study, each sepsis patient developing CMV reactivation between day 3 and 17 (CMV+) was compared with one CMV seropositive patient without reactivation (CMVs+) and one CMV seronegative patient (CMVs−). CMV serostatus and plasma loads were determined by enzyme-linked immunoassays and real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Systemic interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, IL-18, interferon-gamma-induced protein-10 (IP-10), neutrophilic elastase, IL-1 receptor antagonist (RA), and IL-10 were measured at five time points by multiplex immunoassay. The effects of CMV reactivation on sequential concentrations of these biomarkers were assessed in multivariable
The rapidly expanding arsenal of chemotherapeutic agents approved in the past 5 years represents significant progress in the field. However, this poses a challenge for oncologists to choose which drug or combination of drugs is best for any individual. Because only a fraction of patients respond to any drug, efforts have been made to devise strategies to personalize care. The majority of efforts have involved development of predictive biomarkers. While there are notable successes, there are no predictive biomarkers for most drugs. Moreover, predictive biomarkers enrich the cohort of individuals likely to benefit; they do not guarantee benefit. There is a need to devise alternate strategies to tailor cancer care. One alternative approach is to enhance the current adaptive approach, which involves administration of a drug and cessation of treatment once progression is documented. This currently involves radiographic tests for the most part, which are expensive, inconvenient and imperfect in their ability
Recent advances in biomedical and sequencing technologies have revealed the genomic landscape of common forms of human cancer in unprecedented detail. Of the genes that drive tumorigenesis when altered, for most cancers it is believed that there exist a small number of
Cancer prevention has advanced tremendously in the past few decades, driven primarily by greater insights into the mechanisms of early stages of neoplastic development as well as progress in the screening, early detection, and surgical removal of precancerous lesions and cancer. The area of chemoprevention, however, has seen slower and less steady progress. Though we now have refined insights into disease pathogenesis, successful risk assessments and new risk models, as well as the established efficacy of 13 agents approved for the treatment of precancerous lesions and cancer risk reduction (1), progress has been hindered by a lack of validated biomarkers of risk and interventive response. The identification and development of accurate, reliable, and easily measurable risk and response biomarkers within the field of cancer prevention could dramatically alter our approach to the disease. Confirmed risk biomarkers would allow us to more precisely predict who will develop cancer and, therefore, who ...
Tissue imaging of treatment-induced metabolic changes is useful for optimizing cancer therapies, but commonly used methods require trade-offs between assay sensitivity and spatial resolution. Nanostructure-Initiator Mass Spectrometry imaging (NIMS) permits quantitative co-localization of drugs and treatment response biomarkers in cells and tissues with relatively high resolution. The present feasibility studies use NIMS to monitor phosphorylation of 3′-deoxy-3′-fluorothymidine (FLT) to FLT-MP in lymphoma cells and solid tumors as an indicator of drug exposure and pharmacodynamic responses. NIMS analytical sensitivity and spatial resolution were examined in cultured Burkitts lymphoma cells treated briefly with Rapamycin or FLT. Sample aliquots were dispersed on NIMS surfaces for single cell imaging and metabolic profiling, or extracted in parallel for LC-MS/MS analysis. Docetaxel-induced changes in FLT metabolism were also monitored in tissues and tissue extracts from mice bearing drug-sensitive
Purpose: Despite major progress in the molecular characterization of ovarian cancers (OC), women with recurrent, advanced stage OC continue to be treated with cytotoxic chemotherapy agents that have poor overall response rates. This contrasts with the treatment paradigm for other cancers, where outcomes have been improved by selecting treatment based upon actionable genomic alteration(s) that are in drug-targetable pathways. There is a need to determine if molecular profiling for OC patients can improve treatment outcomes. Such a profile should comprehensively identify actionable genetic aberrations as well as measure expression levels of proteins that are drug targets/response biomarkers.. Methods: The presence of mutations or alterations [e.g., copy number (CN)] in ~200 genes was determined using a validated exon-capture sequencing platform (Foundation Medicine, Inc) and protein levels of ERBB2, EGFR, ESR1, cMET, PTEN, RB1, and p16 were measured by IHC (Caris Life Sciences and Clarient, ...
Different drugs elicit a different response depending on the patient; understanding the reasons for this may not only improve treatment, but the development of future anti-cancer drugs. Tailoring treatment to the individual ensures the optimum patient response, reducing disease progression and drug toxicity. Currently, using biomarkers to tailor cancer therapy focuses on the prognosis and prediction of disease.. A review by Shahil Amin and Oliver Bathe discusses the potential of using biomarkers in an alternative way, to assess a patients response to treatment. The authors explore the implications of treatment response biomarkers which, they argue, may not only benefit individual patients, by minimizing exposure to drugs which may be ineffective or toxic, but could also revolutionize how drugs are developed and clinical trials are conducted.. Significant dose-response relationship between alcohol consumption and prostate cancer risk. A meta-analysis and systematic review by Zhao et al. ...
Primary Objective To determine the MTD and/or RD of SNS-062 Secondary Objectives To characterize the safety profile of SNS-062 To characterize the PK profile of SNS-062 To characterize the antitumor activity of SNS-062 To assess the preliminary effect of SNS-062 on the QTc interval Exploratory Objectives To evaluate changes in pharmacodynamic markers of BTK pathway activation To evaluate the potential effects of CYP (cytochrome P450) genotype on pharmacokinetics To evaluate the effect of SNS-062 on overall survival. ...
The immune landscape of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in pretreated areas remains poorly documented. We aimed to assess the tumor microenvironment for biomarkers of antitumor immune responses in tumors in previously irradiated areas compared with de novo tumors. This retrospective monocentric study analyzed 100 paraffin‑embedded surgical samples of invasive head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (oral cavity, oropharynx, larynx, hypopharynx) from patients who underwent surgery between January 2010 and November 2017. We compared the immune microenvironment in 50 de novo tumors and 50 tumors recurring within irradiated areas. We used immunohistochemistry to assess p16 status, CD3+/CD8+ tumor‑infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), and programmed death‑ligand 1 (PD‑L1) expression on tumor and immune cells in stromal and intratumoral components. CD3+ TIL counts were significantly lower in intratumoral and stromal components (P=0.003 and P=0.020, respectively) in the irradiated area cohort; ...
0128]The LRP-1 or LRP-2 molecules are also useful as pharmacodynamic markers. As used herein, a pharmacodynamic marker is an objective biochemical marker which correlates specifically with drug effects. The presence or quantity of a pharmacodynamic marker is not related to the disease state or disorder for which the drug is being administered; therefore, the presence or quantity of the marker is indicative of the presence or activity of the drug in a subject. For example, a pharmacodynamic marker can be indicative of the concentration of the drug in a biological tissue, in that the marker is either expressed or transcribed or not expressed or transcribed in that tissue in relationship to the level of the drug. In this fashion, the distribution or uptake of the drug can be monitored by the pharmacodynamic marker. Similarly, the presence or quantity of the pharmacodynamic marker can be related to the presence or quantity of the metabolic product of a drug, such that the presence or quantity of ...
I think youve missed an important point about Bayesian statistics--essentially, choosing a prior lets the statistician to formally incorporate information we already know into the analysis. This prior knowledge could come from other research papers on the topic, prior stages in the same experiment (very useful in clinical trials) or maybe just intuitive logic. Frequentists do exactly the same thing, but the difference is that they arent supposed to--it technically invalidates their results. Consider for example a placebo-controlled clinical trial. The treatment and placebo groups are never truly random--ethics dictate that we balance the two groups to look as similar as possible, because this will increase the statistical power and help us identify potential risks of treatment much sooner, potentially saving lives. At the end of the trial we get a frequentist p-value of, say, 0.05, but in reality this is wrong--we are pretty sure that because of balancing the two groups the real p-value is ...
I think youve missed an important point about Bayesian statistics--essentially, choosing a prior lets the statistician to formally incorporate information we already know into the analysis. This prior knowledge could come from other research papers on the topic, prior stages in the same experiment (very useful in clinical trials) or maybe just intuitive logic. Frequentists do exactly the same thing, but the difference is that they arent supposed to--it technically invalidates their results. Consider for example a placebo-controlled clinical trial. The treatment and placebo groups are never truly random--ethics dictate that we balance the two groups to look as similar as possible, because this will increase the statistical power and help us identify potential risks of treatment much sooner, potentially saving lives. At the end of the trial we get a frequentist p-value of, say, 0.05, but in reality this is wrong--we are pretty sure that because of balancing the two groups the real p-value is ...
There are two dominant approaches to statistics. Here, I explain why you need to choose one or the other, and link to resources to help you make your choice. Most ecologists use the frequentist approach. This approach focuses on P(D|H), the probability of the data, given the hypothesis. That is, this approach treats data as…
There are two dominant approaches to statistics. Here, I explain why you need to choose one or the other, and link to resources to help you make your choice. Most ecologists use the frequentist approach. This approach focuses on P(D|H), the probability of the data, given the hypothesis. That is, this approach treats data as…
Product Page for PGX Daily Ultra Matrix Softgel 750 mg 120 Softgels made by natural-factors offering price, ingredients and full item description from betterlife
Poisson clearly distinguished between objective and subjective probabilities in 1837.[6] Soon thereafter a flurry of nearly simultaneous publications by Mill, Ellis (On the Foundations of the Theory of Probabilities[7] and Remarks on the Fundamental Principles of the Theory of Probabilities[8]), Cournot (Exposition de la théorie des chances et des probabilités)[9] and Fries introduced the frequentist view. Venn provided a thorough exposition (The Logic of Chance: An Essay on the Foundations and Province of the Theory of Probability (published editions in 1866, 1876, 1888))[10] two decades later. These were further supported by the publications of Boole and Bertrand. By the end of the 19th century the frequentist interpretation was well established and perhaps dominant in the sciences.[6] The following generation established the tools of classical inferential statistics (significance testing, hypothesis testing and confidence intervals) all based on frequentist ...
Natural Factors PGX 240 SoftgelsBy simply taking PGX before a meal, you can painlessly shed pounds without ever feeling starved, because PGX creates and maintains a satisfying sense of fullness. Based on sound clinical research, PGX helps to promote normal appetite regulation, eliminating the trap of yo-yo dieting. Incorporating PGX Daily Ultra Matrix Softgels into your diet can help you lose weight safely and gradually, even if you are not yet ready to make other positive diet and lifestyle changes at first. Taking PGX with food can reduce a meals glycemic index, promote healthy blood sugar levels* and create a sense of satiety (fullness). Naturally, the beneficial effects of PGX will be enhanced by a healthy diet and exercise, leading to incredible results. Suggested Usage: Start with 1-2 softgels per meal and slowly build up to the recommended dose of 3-6 softgels per meal. For best results take PGX Daily softgels before meals with a glass of water (8 oz), or as directed by a health professional.
The current treatment for Alzheimers disease (AD) is purely symptomatic, but medications interfering with underlying pathophysiological processes are being developed. To evaluate a possible disease-modifying effect, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomark
A small percentage of people may initially experience minor digestive changes when taking PGX. Slowly work up to the full dose to give your body time to adjust. It is important to drink adequate amounts of water (8-16 oz. or 1-2 cups) after taking PGX. Consult your health professional before use if you are under 18 years of age or have any health concerns. If you are taking medication, take it one hour prior to two hours after taking PGX. As with any supplement, consult your health professional before use if you are pregnant, breastfeeding, or trying to conceive, or if you have a medical condition, or anticipate a surgery. Keep out of reach of children. Sealed for your protection. Do not use if seal is broken. For freshness, store in a cool, dry place. ...
The latest market report published by Credence Research, Inc. Global Pharmacogenomics Market - Growth, Share, Opportunities, Competitive Analysis, and Forecast, 2016 - 2023, the global pharmacogenomics market was valued at US$ 7,167.6 Mn in 2015, and is expected to reach US$ 11,938.8 Mn by 2024, expanding at a CAGR of 5.6% from 2016 to 2024.. Browse the full report Global Pharmacogenomics Market - Growth, Share, Opportunities, Competitive Analysis, and Forecast, 2016 - 2024 at Market Insights. Pharmacogenomics or personalized medicine is defined as the tailoring of medical treatment to the specific characteristics of each patient. This concept in reality involves the ability to classify individuals into subpopulations that are uniquely or disproportionately susceptible to a particular disease or responsive to a specific treatment. Personalized medicine emphasizes on paradigm shift in medicine from reaction to prevention. The ...
Lab tests can help you improve your future health. Knowing the predictive biomarkers can guide your lifestyle. Predictive biomarkers are tests that ca...
Alternatively, the frequentist multivariate solutions contain approximations and assumptions that are not stated explicitly or confirmed when the strategies are applied (see discussion on meta-analysis designs over). As an example, the mvmeta bundle for Stata allows community meta-analysis inside of a frequentist framework.[63] Nevertheless, if there isnt a prevalent comparator while in the network, then this should be managed by augmenting the dataset with fictional arms with higher variance, which isnt pretty objective and involves a call as to what constitutes a adequately large variance ...
Few doctors are familiar with both the genetics and pharmacology of drug response, pharmacogenomic reporting is not useful without explaining care implications
Implements various mainstream and specialised changepoint methods for finding single and multiple changepoints within data. Many popular non-parametric and frequentist methods are included. The cpt.mean(), cpt.var(), cpt.meanvar() functions should be your first point of call.. ...
|strong|The Power of Predictive|/strong||a href=||img class= wp-image-4482 alignleft title=BiomarkersAd ...
Understanding the impact of BRAF signaling inhibition in human melanoma on key disease mechanisms is important for developing biomarkers of therapeutic response and combination strategies to improve long term disease control. This work investigates the downstream metabolic consequences of BRAF inhibition with vemurafenib, the molecular and biochemical processes that underpin them, their significance for antineoplastic activity and potential as non-invasive imaging response biomarkers.1H NMR spectroscopy showed that vemurafenib decreases the glycolytic activity of BRAF mutant (WM266.4 and SKMEL28) but not BRAFWT (CHL-1 and D04) human melanoma cells. In WM266.4 cells, this was associated with increased acetate, glycine and myo-inositol levels and decreased fatty acyl signals, while the bioenergetic status was maintained. 13C NMR metabolic flux analysis of treated WM266.4 cells revealed inhibition of de novo lactate synthesis and glucose utilization, associated with increased oxidative and ...
PGX (PolyGlycopleX) is a precise blend of naturally occurring water-soluble polysaccharides (fibers) that together, have highly unique and desirable properties for weight loss and overall good health. PGX is the result of extensive research by the University of Toronto and the Canadian Center for Functional Medicine. PGX is the worlds most viscous soluble fiber blend. What does viscous mean? Simply to thicken. Once PGX is added to water or food it thickens or becomes viscous. The viscosity of soluble fiber is important as it relates directly to the overall health benefits. The most important advantage of PGX over other soluble fiber products is that significantly less PGX is required to obtain the same important health benefits, including appetite control and reduced food cravings. Why take PGX? PGX has been clinically proven to: - Reduce appetite comfortably and safely - Reduce food cravings - Balance metabolism - Improve regularity - Maintain glucose levels already within normal range
PGX, the short-form of PolyGlycopleX, is a form of fiber that is sold either on its own or as a supplement for weight loss in many major stores.
Press Release issued Dec 22, 2014: One of the major breakthroughs that genetic testing has paved way for includes Personalized Medicine. Personalized medicine is the use of new methods of molecular analysis for better management of a patients disease or predisposition towards a disease. PGx, the study of variations of DNA and RNA characteristics as related to drug response, is one of the most exciting areas of personalized medicine today. Patients typically have variability in response to many drugs that are currently available. PGx seeks to understand how differences in genes and their expression affect the bodys response to medications. Such approaches promise the advent of Personalized Medicine in which drugs and drug combinations are optimized for each individuals unique genetic makeup.
Bayesian probability represents a level of certainty relating to a potential outcome or idea. This is in contrast to a frequentist probability that represents the frequency with which a particular outcome will occur over any number of trials. An event with Bayesian probability of .6 (or 60%) should be interpreted as stating With confidence 60%, this event contains the true outcome, whereas a frequentist interpretation would view it as stating Over 100 trials, we should observe event X approximately 60 times. The difference is more apparent when discussing ideas. A frequentist will not assign probability to an idea, either it is true or false and it cannot be true 6 times out of 10. ...
The latest market report published by Credence Research, Inc. Global Pharmacogenomics Market - Growth, Share, Opportunities, Competitive Analysis, and Forecast, 2016 - 2023, the global pharmacogenomics market was valued at US$ 7,167.6 Mn in 2015, and is expected to reach US$ 11,938.8 Mn by 2024, expanding at a CAGR of 5.6% from 2016 to 2024.. Browse the full report Global Pharmacogenomics Market - Growth, Share, Opportunities, Competitive Analysis, and Forecast, 2016 - 2024 at Market Insights. Pharmacogenomics or personalized medicine is defined as the tailoring of medical treatment to the specific characteristics of each patient. This concept in reality involves the ability to classify individuals into subpopulations that are uniquely or disproportionately susceptible to a particular disease or responsive to a specific treatment. Personalized medicine emphasizes on paradigm shift in medicine from reaction to prevention. The ...
Given its ability to detect a disease in its very early stage, consequently improving clinical outcomes, pharmacogenomic testing is slowly gaining greater acceptance across Europe.
Pharmacogenomics is the science of understanding the role of genes in determining the response a person may have when given a drug.
First, let me take a minute to make fun of frequentists. According to conventional hypothesis testing, the data from the scouting report is not statistically significant. If the null hypothesis is that Monty has the same chance of blinking regardless of the location of the car, the p-value of the sample we saw is 0.27 (I used Fishers exact test, computed using this online calculator). We cant reject the null hypothesis, so if we play by the rules of conventional hypothesis testing, I guess that means we cant take advantage of Montys tell. If you are a committed frequentist, you should stop reading now ...
Dr Ascierto talks to ecancertv at ITOC-3 about PD-L1 checkpoint inhibition. In particular, he discusses whether or not it can be truly considered a
A new dating site promises to match users according to genetic capability, requiring a saliva sample to test DNA for two key markers.
Allergic Asthma functional & Pharmaco-genomics for Early and Late Phase Response Biomarkers --- Biomarkers of a Sympathetic Anti-inflammatory Pathway, Neuro-regulation of Sympathetic Anti-inflammatory Activity --- Clinical Investigator Collaborative (CIC) --- Development of a Microarray Genotyping Chip for Clinical Trials --- Environmental impact, inflammation and the role of IL-13 receptor a2 --- Genetics of the early and late responses to AllerGen challenge --- Hemopoietic stem cell biomarkers in the diagnosis and prediction of allergic inflammation and disease --- Metabolomics --- Strengthening the Case for Ongoing Reduction of Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution (SCORE-TRAP) --- The Clinical Investigator Collaborative (CIC)-Allergic Asthma (AA) --- Thymic Stromal Lymphopoitin-induced Cord Blood Hemopoietic Progenitors: Biomarkers for the Development of Atopy and Asthma --- Urine NMR-based Metabolomics for Asthma Diagnosis -- Predictive Biomarkers of the Late-Phase Response -- Urine ...
By simply taking PGX® before a meal‚ you can shed pounds without ever feeling starved‚ because PGX creates and maintains a satisfying sense of fullness. Based on sound clinical research‚ PGX helps to promote normal appetite regulation‚ eliminating the trap of yo-yo dieting. Incorporating PGX Daily Ultra Matrix Softgels into your diet can help you lose weight safely and gradually‚ even if you are not yet ready to make other positive diet and lifestyle changes at first. Taking PGX with food can reduce a meals glycemic index‚ promote healthy blood sugar levels already within normal range and create a sense of satiety (fullness). Naturally‚ the beneficial effects of PGX will be enhanced by a healthy diet and exercise‚ leading to incredible results.. These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). These products are not meant to diagnose‚ treat or cure any disease or medical condition. Please consult your doctor before starting any exercise or ...
This category is for sites about the closely related fields of pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics. Both involve themselves with the variation in drug reaction and expression in individuals with different genetic makeup; pharmacogenetics considers the influence of one or several individual genes, whereas pharmacogenomics deals with the entire genome.
Participant eligibility includes age, gender, type and stage of disease, and previous treatments or health concerns. Guidelines differ from study to study, and identify who can or cannot participate. There is no guarantee that every individual who qualifies and wants to participate in a trial will be enrolled. Contact the study team to discuss study eligibility and potential participation.. ...
Pharmacogenomics is the mixture of pharmaceuticals and genetics. This field has very bright future. It provides methods of drug insertion by knowing the variations in the structures of proteins and DNA.
Biomarkers are widely employed as biochemical indicators of health and disease states and processes. We have expanded our coverage of Biomarkers in Vizit.
A unique approach to connecting people and ideas in the life sciences, creating a space for probing conversations and deep insight into the topics and trends shaping our future.
Innovative genomic test for amantadin personalised pharmacogenomic analysis to explore how your genes can affect and modulate your response to amantadin ...
Innovative genomic test for butamirate personalised pharmacogenomic analysis to explore how your genes can affect and modulate your response to butamirate ...
uBiome gone? - posted in Biomarkers & Genes: Now that uBiome is defunct, where/how does one get their test results/data? I have several test results that I can no longer access since their site is no longer.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Response-driven imaging biomarkers for predicting radiation necrosis of the brain. AU - Zadeh, Mohammad Reza Nazem. AU - Chapman, Christopher H.. AU - Chenevert, Thomas. AU - Lawrence, Theodore S.. AU - Ten Haken, Randall K.. AU - Tsien, Christina I.. AU - Cao, Yue. PY - 2014/5/21. Y1 - 2014/5/21. N2 - Radiation necrosis is an uncommon but severe adverse effect of brain radiation therapy (RT). Current predictive models based on radiation dose have limited accuracy. We aimed to identify early individual response biomarkers based upon diffusion tensor (DT) imaging and incorporated them into a response model for prediction of radiation necrosis. Twenty-nine patients with glioblastoma received six weeks of intensity modulated RT and concurrent temozolomide. Patients underwent DT-MRI scans before treatment, at three weeks during RT, and one, three, and six months after RT. Cases with radiation necrosis were classified based on generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) of whole brain ...
wikilink,Bayesian probability}} {{arbitallink,,Bayes rule: Probability form}} Bayesian probability represents a level of certainty relating to a potential outcome or idea. This is in contrast to a [[Wikipedia:Frequentist_inference,frequentist]] probability that represents the frequency with which a particular outcome will occur over any number of trials. An [[Wikipedia:Event (probability theory),event]] with Bayesian probability of .6 (or 60%) should be interpreted as stating With confidence 60%, this event contains the true outcome, whereas a frequentist interpretation would view it as stating Over 100 trials, we should observe event X approximately 60 times. The difference is more apparent when discussing ideas. A frequentist will not assign probability to an idea; either it is true or false and it cannot be true 6 times out of 10. ==Blog posts== *[ What is Bayesianism?] ...
SlimStyles Strawberry Weight Loss Drink Mix with PGX 1lb 12 oz PowderProduct DescriptionDelicious SlimStyles weight loss drink mix succeeds where other diet plans fail thanks to the revolutionary ingredient known as PGX PolyGlycopleX . In the stomach, PGX continues to thicken and expand to fill you up with a healthy, h
Pharmacogenomics Testing Services for doctors, clinics, hospitals, and more in Fort Worth. Texas Genetic Testing, LLC. (855) 306-8347
Thesis, English, The Emerging Role Of Pharmacogenomics In The Treatment Of Patients With Hypertension for Shabeb Reda Abd Elazeem Mohammed
This article is an attempt to summarize basic material [/lw/kh/explainers_shoot_high_aim_low/], and thus probably wont have anything new for the hard core posting crowd. Itd be interesting to know whether you think theres anything essential I missed, though. Youve probably seen the word Bayesian used a lot on this site, but may be a bit uncertain of what exactly we mean by that. You may have read the intuitive explanation [], but that only seems to explain a certain math formula. Theres a wiki entry about Bayesian [], but that doesnt help much. And the LW usage seems different from just the Bayesian and frequentist statistics thing, too. As far as I can tell, theres no article explicitly defining whats meant by Bayesianism. The core ideas are sprinkled across a large amount of posts, Bayesian has its own tag [/tag/bayesian/], but theres not a single post that explicitly comes out to make the connections and
This Editorial article provides an insight into how pharmacogenomics can assist in guided dosing of fentanyl for the treatment of pain.
At present, novel pharmacological approaches to diseases or conditions are reported at a rate of almost one per week.[3] So far ... Other cutting-edge studies have focused on genetics to identify specific biomarkers that may predict an individual's specific ... Trends in Pharmacological Sciences. doi:10.1016/ Kwako, L. E., Bickel, W. K., & Goldman, D. (2018). Addiction ... It is at this point known with relative certainty that the primary shared effects of a broad pharmacological group of ...
"Brain biomarkers of treatment for multi-domain dysfunction: pharmacological FMRI studies in pediatric mania" ... There are a number of pharmacological and psychotherapeutic techniques used to treat bipolar disorder. Individuals may use self ... Pharmacological treatment of mania increases ventral prefrontal cortex (vPFC) activity, normalizing it relative to controls, ... The literature examining the pharmacological treatment of rapid cycling is sparse and there is no clear consensus with respect ...
"Brain biomarkers of treatment for multi-domain dysfunction: pharmacological FMRI studies in pediatric mania" ... Goodman, Brunton L, Chabner B, Knollman B (2011). Goodman Gilman's pharmacological basis of therapeuti (Twelfth ed.). New York ... Pharmacological treatment of mania increases ventral prefrontal cortex(vPFC) activity, normalizing it relative to controls, ...
Biochemical mechanisms and biomarkers of cardiometabolic activity". Pharmacological Research. 113 (Pt B): 771-780. doi:10.1016/ ... Dambrova, M; Makrecka-Kuka, M; Vilskersts, R; Makarova, E; Kuka, J; Liepinsh, E (2 February 2016). "Pharmacological effects of ... This has made meldonium a possible pharmacological agent for ischemic preconditioning. The mechanisms underlying the central ...
"Pharmacological effects of meldonium: Biochemical mechanisms and biomarkers of cardiometabolic activity". Pharmacological ... A review of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic potential". Drugs. 41 (1): 81-103. doi:10.2165/00003495-199141010- ...
These epigenetic biomarkers are being considered in clinical use as a tool to detect disease, classify tumors, and understand ... Trends in Pharmacological Sciences. 35 (8): 384-96. doi:10.1016/ PMID 24993164. Kelly, Theresa K; De ... Ingelman-Sundberg, M; Cascorbi, I (2016). "Pharmacogenomic or -Epigenomic Biomarkers in Drug Treatment: Two Sides of the Same ...
Yerba mate: Pharmacological Properties Research and Biotechnology[dead link] "Yerba mate drinking methods". 2011. Archived from ... Biomarkers & Prevention. 17 (5): 1262-1268. doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-08-0025. PMID 18483349. Retrieved ...
Pharmacological Research. 55 (3): 224-236. doi:10.1016/j.phrs.2007.01.009. ISSN 1043-6618. PMC 2737735. PMID 17317210. Dixon, G ... Biomarkers & Prevention. 5 (9): 733-748. ISSN 1055-9965. PMID 8877066. Higdon, Jane V.; Delage, Barbara; Williams, David E.; ...
These probes can be used for biomarkers in clinical trials as well as used as an agent for oncological diagnostics. He has ... "Understanding the pharmacological properties of a metabolic PET tracer in prostate cancer". Proceedings of the National Academy ... "Applying PET to Broaden the Diagnostic Utility of the Clinically Validated CA19.9 Serum Biomarker for Oncology". Journal of ... these probes span from oncological metabolic detection to understanding the biological processes of cancer and pharmacological ...
... pharmacological selectivity of the kappa opioid receptor antagonist LY2456302 using pupillometry as a translational biomarker ...
PDE3a expression has been described as a biomarker for sensitivity for PDE3-inhibitor Zardaverine in different types of cancer ... PDE3A and PDE3B have strikingly similar pharmacological and kinetic properties, but the distinction is in expression profiles ... Pharmacological Reviews. 58 (3): 488-520. doi:10.1124/pr.58.3.5. PMID 16968949. S2CID 7397281. Lugnier C (March 2006). "Cyclic ...
Due to its overexpression in a range of cancer phenotypes, TERC has been investigated as a potential cancer biomarker. It was ... European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences. 24 (2): 526-534. doi:10.26355/eurrev_202001_20029. PMID 32016954. ... February 2020). "Telomere-associated genes and telomeric lncRNAs are biomarker candidates in lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC ... found to be an effective biomarker of lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC). "Human PubMed Reference:". National Center for ...
Triggle, David J. (1996). Dictionary of Pharmacological Agents. Boca Raton: Chapman & Hall/CRC. ISBN 0-412-46630-9.. ... Kotinin se koristi kao biomarker za izlaganje duvanskom dimu. On je u prodaji kao antidepresiv pod imenom Scotine.[1] ...
A systematic review of ADHD biomarkers also indicated that urinary phenethylamine levels could be a diagnostic biomarker for ... Lindemann L, Hoener MC (May 2005). "A renaissance in trace amines inspired by a novel GPCR family". Trends in Pharmacological ... Similarly, urinary biogenic trace amine PEA levels could be a biomarker for the diagnosis of ADHD,20,57,58 for treatment ... In particular, because amphetamine has remained the most effective pharmacological treatment in ADHD for many years, a ...
A biomarker named six-miRNA signature allows effective treatment of patients with HCC and is able to predict its recurrence in ... it is hoped that identifying the aberrant genes and the resultant proteins could lead to the identification of pharmacological ... biomarkers and therapeutic targets". Journal of Hepatology. 67 (3): 603-618. doi:10.1016/j.jhep.2017.04.009. ISSN 1600-0641. ... and other predictive biomarkers. As similar research is yielding results in various other malignant diseases, ...
... and therapeutic biomarkers that can be used to follow up on the effect of pharmacological and therapeutic interventions. " ... He coordinates a project titled "Neurophysiological biomarkers in autism - A magnetoencephalographic study" with the aim of ... both diagnostic biomarkers that can aid the clinical diagnostic procedure, ... finding structural and functional biomarkers for autism using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetoencephalography (MEG ...
Imaging biomarkers (a characteristic that is objectively measured by an imaging technique, which is used as an indicator of ... pharmacological response to a therapy) and surrogate endpoints have shown to facilitate the use of small group sizes, obtaining ...
... pathogenic processes or pharmacological responses to a therapeutic intervention. Type 0 biomarkers are those related to the ... They can be of several types like body fluid biomarkers, imaging biomarkers or genetic biomarkers. They are expected to play an ... It is common to classify them according to their source (imaging biomarkers, body fluid biomarkers and genetic biomarkers) or ... Though biomarkers are normally assumed to be chemical compounds in body fluids, image can also be considered a biomarker. For ...
Pharmacological activation of this pathway opposed the progression of neurodegenerative disease in rodent models. More recent ... July 2014). "A defined, controlled culture system for primary bovine chromaffin progenitors reveals novel biomarkers and ... Several pieces of evidence suggest that in the adult brain, pharmacological activation of the STAT3-Ser/Hes3 signaling axis ... Hes3 has been used as a biomarker to identify putative endogenous stem cells in tissues. The pathway is an example of non- ...
For instance, pharmacodynamic (PD) biomarkers are markers of a certain pharmacological response, which are of special interest ... or biopsy biomarkers. Molecular biomarkers refer to non-imaging biomarkers that have biophysical properties, which allow their ... disease prognosis biomarkers (cancer biomarkers), and biomarkers for monitoring the clinical response to an intervention (HbAlc ... biomarker is becoming a synonym for molecular biomarker, such as elevated prostate specific antigen as a molecular biomarker ...
... or pharmacological responses to a therapeutic intervention."Biomarkers characterize disease progression starting from the ... Biomarkers can be classified on their clinical applications as molecular biomarkers, cellular biomarkers or imaging biomarkers ... Four of the main types of molecular biomarkers are genomic biomarkers, transcriptomic biomarkers, proteomic biomarkers and ... Three broad classes of biomarkers are prognostic biomarkers, predictive biomarkers and pharmacodynamic biomarkers. Prognostic ...
... supports the Clinical Trials Network, which focuses on new pharmacological treatments. It also supports the ... Diagnosis includes epidemiology, early diagnosis, and biomarkers. Autism therapies include medication, behavioral, and ...
For instance, pharmacological drug therapy with Periplocin in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, is also found to inhibit ... predominantly exhibit circulating proteasomes which can be applied as clinical biomarkers. As aforementioned, the proteasome ...
... with blood biomarker data suggesting possible loss of safety concerns of the corticosteroid class In Phase 2a dose-ranging ... Pharmacological Research. 136: 140-150. doi:10.1016/j.phrs.2018.09.007. PMC 6218284. PMID 30219580. Hoffman, Eric P.; Schwartz ... and showed blood biomarker data consistent with a myofiber membrane stabilization and anti-inflammatory effects, and possible ... Week 2 changes of proinflammatory PD biomarkers showed exposure-dependent decreases. The E50 was 260 ng·h/mL for insulin-like ...
2008). "Antidepressant-like pharmacological profile of a novel triple reuptake inhibitor, (1S,2S)-3-(methylamino)-2-(naphthalen ... "Assessment of biomarkers of drug-induced kidney injury in cynomolgus monkeys treated with a triple reuptake inhibitor". ... Cocaine is a short-acting SNDRI that also exerts auxiliary pharmacological actions on other receptors. Cocaine is a relatively ... 2010). "The novel triple reuptake inhibitor JZAD-IV-22 exhibits an antidepressant pharmacological profile without locomotor ...
Morton IK, Hall JM (1999). Concise Dictionary of Pharmacological Agents: Properties and Synonyms. Springer. p. 227. ISBN 978-0- ... January 1998). "Aromatase inhibitors as potential cancer chemopreventives". Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention. 7 (1 ... Minamestane Macdonald F (1997). Dictionary of Pharmacological Agents. CRC Press. p. 1635. ISBN 978-0-412-46630-4. Retrieved 19 ...
Ferrari MD, Saxena PR (June 1993). "On serotonin and migraine: a clinical and pharmacological review". Cephalalgia. 13 (3): 151 ... Edvinsson L (2006). "Neuronal signal substances as biomarkers of migraine". Headache. 46 (7): 1088-94. doi:10.1111/j.1526- ... The mammalian calcitonin gene-related peptides, adrenomedullin, amylin, and calcitonin receptors". Pharmacological Reviews. 54 ... Pharmacological Research. 111: 592-599. doi:10.1016/j.phrs.2016.07.015. PMID 27438459. Wang W, Wang EQ, Balthasar JP (November ...
In terms of pharmacological treatment, the AASLD and EASL do not recommend metformin, but vitamin E may improve liver health ... Some biomarker-based blood tests have been developed and may be useful for diagnosis. Although blood tests cannot diagnose ... Weight loss is associated with improvements in biomarkers, NAFLD grade, and reduced chances of NASH, but their impact on long- ... Wong VW, Adams LA, de Lédinghen V, Wong GL, Sookoian S (August 2018). "Noninvasive biomarkers in NAFLD and NASH - current ...
... a valid pharmacological target?". British Journal of Pharmacology. 171 (8): 2191-2205. doi:10.1111/bph.12476. ISSN 0007-1188. ... models and biomarkers in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis". Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis & Frontotemporal Degeneration. 14 (1): ...
The brain isoform of glycogen phosphorylase (PYGB) has been proposed as a biomarker for gastric cancer.[21] ... Current Pharmacological Design. 9 (15): 1177-89. doi:10.2174/1381612033454919. PMID 12769745.. ...
Recent pharmacological and biochemical studies have proposed that survival and lethal autophagy can be distinguished by the ... "Negative regulators of cell death pathways in cancer: perspective on biomarkers and targeted therapies". Apoptosis: 1-20. doi ...
An ADHD biomarker review also indicated that urinary phenethylamine levels could be a diagnostic biomarker for ADHD.[16][25] ... Many of these psychoactive compounds exert their pharmacological effects primarily by modulating monoamine neurotransmitter ... Similarly, urinary biogenic trace amine PEA levels could be a biomarker for the diagnosis of ADHD,20,57,58 for treatment ... Scassellati C, Bonvicini C, Faraone SV, Gennarelli M (October 2012). "Biomarkers and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: ...
Various pharmacological agents are applied for the production of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) or maintain the ... Epigenetic changes have been found to be reflective of lifestyle and may act as functional biomarkers of disease before ... as well as use it as a biomarker for assessing the efficacy of therapeutic interventions (121,122,124). Some of these proposed ... "Potential Diagnostic and Prognostic Biomarkers of Epigenetic Drift within the Cardiovascular Compartment". BioMed Research ...
Part II: focus on pharmacological treatment". Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience (in English, Spanish, and French). 16 (2): 227 ... Heightened startle responses and a smaller hippocampal volume have been identified as biomarkers for the risk of developing ... Amos T, Stein DJ, Ipser JC (July 2014). "Pharmacological interventions for preventing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)". ... guidelines for the pharmacological treatment of anxiety, obsessive-compulsive and post-traumatic stress disorders - first ...
Clinical and pharmacological considerations and treatment". Drug Safety. 6 (4): 247-65. doi:10.2165/00002018-199106040-00003. ... the immune ataxia remains of unknown origin and lacks biomarkers. This entity is called primary auto-immune ataxia (PACA).[32] ... The movement disorders associated with ataxia can be managed by pharmacological treatments and through physical therapy and ...
Multiple studies have compared pharmacological rate and rhythm strategies but have failed to identify a superior therapy, a ... "Diagnosing Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation: Are Biomarkers the Solution to This Elusive Arrhythmia?". Biomed Res Int. 2015: ...
2006). "Symptomatic pharmacological therapy in Parkinson's disease". Parkinson's Disease. London: Royal College of Physicians. ... "Blood-based biomarkers for Parkinson's disease". Parkinsonism & Related Disorders. 20 Suppl 1: S99-103. doi:10.1016/S1353-8020 ... Connolly BS, Lang AE (23-30 April 2014). "Pharmacological treatment of Parkinson disease: a review". JAMA. 311 (16): 1670-83. ... Tolosa E, Katzenschlager R (2007). "Pharmacological management of Parkinson's disease". In Tolosa E, Jankovic JJ. Parkinson's ...
Biomarkers[edit]. A 2013 review concluded moderate-quality evidence exists to support the use of the procalcitonin level as a ... "Therapeutic interventions in sepsis: Current and anticipated pharmacological agents". British Journal of Pharmacology. 171 (22 ... to try to identify biomarkers and drug targets for intervention.[119] ...
"Molecular genetics and biomarkers of polyglutamine diseases". Curr. Mol. Med. 8 (3): 221-34. doi:10.2174/156652408784221298 ... "Advances in the Pharmacological Management of Huntington's Disease". Drugs. 70 (5): 561-71. doi:10.2165/11534430-000000000- ...
Evidence from physiological, pharmacological and neuroimaging studies suggest serotonin may play a role in anorexia. While ... "Can Interoception Improve the Pragmatic Search for Biomarkers in Psychiatry?". Frontiers in Psychiatry. 7: 121. doi:10.3389/ ...
2008). "Biomarkers of alcoholism: an updated review.". Scand J Clin Lab Invest 68 (2): 81-92. doi:10.1080/00365510701532662 . ... Soyka, M.; Rösner, S. (Nov 2008). "Opioid antagonists for pharmacological treatment of alcohol dependence - a critical review ...
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences. 1991;12(10):383-88. doi:10.1016/0165-6147(91)90609-V. PMID 1763432. ... "Alzheimer disease: Epidemiology, Diagnostic Criteria, Risk Factors and Biomarkers". Biochemical Pharmacology. 88 (4): 640-651 ...
Niki, Etsuo (2014). "Biomarkers of lipid peroxidation in clinical material". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - General ... may be responsible for the airways damage which occurs in the more severe forms of asthma and that pharmacological inhibitors ... "Chemistry of Lipid Peroxidation Products and Their Use as Biomarkers in Early Detection of Diseases". Journal of Oleo Science. ... "Lipid peroxidation biomarkers for evaluating oxidative stress and assessing antioxidant capacity in vivo". Journal of Clinical ...
Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods. 51 (1): 1-23. doi:10.1016/j.vascn.2004.07.006. PMID 15596111.. ... "Fluorescent proteins as biomarkers and biosensors: throwing color lights on molecular and cellular processes". Current Protein ...
Pharmacological activation of endogenous neural stem cells has been reported to induce neuroprotection and behavioral recovery ...
Pharmacological fMRI, assaying brain activity after drugs are administered, can be used to check how much a drug penetrates the ... Other biomarkers now looked at to provide better contrast include temperature, acidity/alkalinity (pH), calcium-sensitive ... Newer methods which improve both spatial and time resolution are being researched, and these largely use biomarkers other than ...
... plays a role in breast cancer progression and tamoxifen resistance.[20] GPER has also been proposed as a biomarker in ... Pharmacological Research. 71: 53-60. doi:10.1016/j.phrs.2013.02.008. PMID 23466742.. ... acts as a vitamin although neither activates the GPR109A nor exhibits the pharmacological properties of nicotinic acid. In the ...
There is no certain pharmacological treatment or cure for CFS[2] although various drugs have been or are being investigated.[85 ... "Myalgic Encephalomyelitis: Symptoms and Biomarkers". Current Neuropharmacology. 13 (5): 701-734. doi:10.2174/ ...
Robinson L, Hutchings D, Dickinson HO, et al. (2007). "Effectiveness and acceptability of non-pharmacological interventions to ... Marksteiner J, Hinterhuber H, Humpel C (Juni 2007). "Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease: beta- ... Hermans DG, Htay UH, McShane R (2007). "Non-pharmacological interventions for wandering of people with dementia in the domestic ... Sink KM, Holden KF, Yaffe K (2005). "Pharmacological treatment of neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia: a review of the ...
These biomarkers are often named "EEG biomarkers" or "Neurophysiological Biomarkers" and are quantified using Quantitative ... "Oscillatory properties of guinea-pig inferior olivary neurones and their pharmacological modulation: an in vitro study". J ... EEG biomarkers can be extracted from the EEG using the open-source Neurophysiological Biomarker Toolbox. ... Neural oscillations are sensitive to several drugs influencing brain activity; accordingly, biomarkers based on neural ...
Biomarkers of inflammation such as C-reactive protein, which are associated with chronic diseases, are reduced in active ... Valero T (2014). "Mitochondrial biogenesis: pharmacological approaches". Curr. Pharm. Des. 20 (35): 5507-09. doi:10.2174/ ... Research that includes direct indices of change in such biomarkers will help to determine the mechanisms by which exercise may ... When compared to psychological or pharmacological therapies, exercise appears to be no more effective, though this conclusion ...
Ross RA (Mar 2009). "The enigmatic pharmacology of GPR55". Trends in Pharmacological Sciences. 30 (3): 156-63. doi:10.1016/j. ... in cancer and opens the possibility of considering this orphan receptor as a new therapeutic target and potential biomarker in ... Trends in Pharmacological Sciences. 27 (1): 1-4. doi:10.1016/ PMID 16318877.. ...
"Physiological Biomarkers for Predicting Performance".. *^ Sell, Aaron; Cosmides, Leda; Tooby, John; Sznycer, Daniel; Rueden, ... "Non-pharmacological management of osteoporosis: a consensus of the Belgian Bone Club". Osteoporos Int. 22 (11): 2769-88. doi ...
Biomarkers[խմբագրել , խմբագրել կոդը]. A 2013 review concluded moderate-quality evidence exists to support use of the ... Therapeutic interventions in sepsis: current and anticipated pharmacological agents»։ British Journal of Pharmacology 171 (22 ... to try to identify biomarkers and drug targets for intervention.[110] ...
Biological and pharmacological activities which have been investigated in greater depth are described below. Research at the ... Chukwumah Y, Walker LT, Verghese M (2009). "Peanut skin color: a biomarker for total polyphenolic content and antioxidative ... Flavonoids have been shown to have a wide range of biological and pharmacological activities in in vitro studies. Examples ...
A blood test for circulatory miRNA and inflammatory biomarkers is a potential alternative indicator.[296] ... Trends in Pharmacological Sciences. 12 (10): 383-88. doi:10.1016/0165-6147(91)90609-V. PMID 1763432.. ... "Effectiveness and acceptability of non-pharmacological interventions to reduce wandering in dementia: a systematic review". ... "Exploring Biomarkers for Alzheimer's Disease". Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (Review). 10 (7): KE01-06. doi ...
Cardiovascular Disease in COPD: Evidences from Epidemiology, Genetics, Bio-Markers, Animal Models, Clinical Studies & ... Pharmacological treatments. Executive Summary. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute convened a meeting of ... Cardiovascular Disease in COPD: Evidences from Epidemiology, Genetics, Bio-Markers, Animal Models, Clinical Studies & ...
RNA EDITING BIOMARKERS FOR DIAGNOSIS, PHARMACOLOGICAL SCREENING AND PROGNOSTICATION IN CANCER Abstract. Compositions and ... 21, 26, 27). These data show that RESSq-PCR for these and other RNA editing biomarkers can form the basis of screening methods ... 14--shows the selection of CSC-specific RNA editing biomarkers used for RESSq-PCR assay primer design. [0040] FIG. 15--shows ... This will also allow one to use edited miRNA signature, instead of a general miRNA profile as disease biomarkers. Moreover, the ...
Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging As a Biomarker for the Pharmacological Response of PTK787/ZK 222584, an ...
Accueil,Cell biology, Molecular Targets and innovative therapies,Research teams,Research,,Pharmacological targets and ... identify novel biomarkers and (3) screen for small synthetic and natural libraries to identify compounds unable to modulate ... to identify potent pharmacological tools and novel biological targets involved in cancer and neurological disorders. We are ...
Pharmacological Actions : Anticarcinogenic Agents : CK(1099) : AC(519), Chemopreventive : CK(2835) : AC(787) ... DNA damage and aberrant crypt foci as putative biomarkers to evaluate the chemopreventive effect of annatto (Bixa orellana L.) ...
NRF2 metagene signature is a novel prognostic biomarker in colorectal cancer.. September 3, 2020 ... Pharmacological Inhibition and Activation of the Ca Activated Cl Channel TMEM16A.. Apr 12, 2020 ...
Pharmacological Research (2019) * Intestinal bacterial β-glucuronidase as a possible predictive biomarker of irinotecan-induced ... Pharmacological inhibition of bacterial β-glucuronidase prevents irinotecan-induced diarrhea without impairing its antitumor ...
Our results suggest RAC1 P29S status may offer a predictive biomarker for RAF inhibitor resistance in melanoma patients, where ... The RAC1 P29S hotspot mutation in melanoma confers resistance to pharmacological inhibition of RAF Cancer Res. 2014 Sep 1;74(17 ...
ACC/AHA Practice Guideline; biomarkers, pharmacological; cardiovascular disease; cholesterol; diabetes mellitus; drug therapy; ...
A liquid biopsy for detecting circulating mesothelial precursor cells: A new biomarker for diagnosis and prognosis in ... Trends in Pharmacological Sciences (2020) * ...
Dietary strawberries selectively increase antioxidant biomarkers in obese adults with elevated serum lipids.Dec 31, 2015. ... Pharmacological Actions : Antioxidants, Catalase Up-Regulation, Heme oxygenase-1 up-regulation. Additional Keywords : Plant ... Pharmacological Actions : Antioxidants, Catalase Up-Regulation, Superoxide Dismutase Up-regulation. Additional Keywords : Anti- ... Pharmacological Actions : Antioxidants, Catalase Up-Regulation, Superoxide Dismutase Up-regulation. Additional Keywords : Gene ...
Biomarkers, Pharmacological. Intervention *Drug: Huperzine A dosage form: tablet dose frequency: once only ...
Despite intense investigation, no specific pharmacological treatment for ARDS has been shown to affect the mortality, even ... Septic shock biomarkers: ProCESS study. A large biomarker study of 1341 individuals enrolled in the Protocolized Care of Early ... Biomarkers. In ARDS biomarkers have promise in diagnosis and stratification, assessment of prognosis and to evaluate response ... MicroRNAs as biomarkers of acute lung injury. Ann Transl Med. 2018;6:34.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
Other: Pharmacological Study Correlative Studies. Other: Laboratory Biomarker Analysis Correlative Studies. Biological: Anti- ... Biological: Anti-LAG-3 Monoclonal Antibody BMS 986016 Biological: Anti-PD-1 Other: Pharmacological Study Other: Laboratory ... To explore potential associations between biomarker measures and anti-tumor activity by analyzing markers of inflammation, ... on biomarkers in peripheral blood, including the T cell compartments, and serum proteins (cytokines and other immune modulators ...
Other: Pharmacological Study Correlative Studies. Other: Laboratory Biomarker Analysis Correlative Studies. Biological: Anti- ... Biological: Anti-LAG-3 Monoclonal Antibody BMS 986016 Biological: Anti-PD-1 Other: Pharmacological Study Other: Laboratory ...
Various medications alter salivary biomarker levels and diurnal variation in children.May 01, 2007. ...
Other: laboratory biomarker analysis. *Other: pharmacological study. Interventional. Phase 1. *University of Arizona ...
Inflammatory mediators as biomarkers in brain disorders. Inflammation 37: 639-648.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Physio-pharmacological Investigations About the Anti-inflammatory and Antinociceptive Efficacy of (+)-Limonene Epoxide. ... Regulatory T cell levels and cytokine production in active non-infectious uveitis: in vitro effects of pharmacological ...
Measuring biomarkers in blood may help pinpoint newborns with HIE Measuring a number of biomarkers over time that are produced ... Alcohol, Cannabis and Other Drugs: A Pharmacological Evaluation Understanding the interactions between alcohol and cannabis can ...
... Antiviral Res. 2010 Dec;88 Suppl 1:S10-8. ... Biomarkers, Pharmacological * Dosage Forms * Drug Evaluation, Preclinical * Drug and Narcotic Control * Endpoint Determination ... Incorporation of new models, assays and biomarkers has expanded our ability to understand the mechanisms of action underlying ...
Other oxidative stress biomarkers such as malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione, total antioxidant capacity, catalase activity, ... Pharmacological Research, 2020. DOI:10.1016/j.phrs.2020.104918 [3] The Contribution of Fluoride to the Pathogenesis of Eye ... "Nuclear Factor-Kappa B and Other Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Serum of Autistic Children" written by Omar M. E. Abdel-Salam, ... Biomarkers in autism spectrum disorders: Current progress. Clinica Chimica Acta, 2020. DOI:10.1016/j.cca.2019.12.009 ...
To enhance understanding of the use of biomarkers in pharmacology and toxicology. ... To develop advanced understanding of the processes surrounding pharmacological drug design and molecular targeting using ... PA4303: CURRENT TOPICS IN PHARMACOLOGICAL RESEARCH (2019-2020). Last modified: 25 Sep 2019 09:58 ...
2 biomarkers for the treatment of leukodystrophies. Manager: A. PUJOL, Fundació Privada Institut dInvestigacio Biomedica de ... 3 pharmacological strategies to treat leukodystrophies. Responsibles for : H. WERNER, Max Planck Gesellschaft zur Foerderung ... Objective: To determine, in biological samples collected from patients, markers (biomarkers) of the disease or its severity in ...
Pharmacological Actions : Anti-Apoptotic, Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors, Interleukin-6 Downregulation, ... Mindfulness meditation reduces intraocular pressure, lowers stress biomarkers and modulates gene expression in glaucoma.Nov 30 ... Pharmacological Actions : Antihypertensive Agents, Antioxidants, Neuroprotective Agents. Additional Keywords : Antihypertensive ... Pharmacological Actions : Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Interleukin-1 alpha downregulation, Interleukin-1 beta downregulation, ...
Biomarkers, Pharmacological. Measurable biological parameters that serve for drug development, safety and dosing (DRUG ...
Pharmacological MRI. Biomarkers identification. *Immunohistochemistry of amyloid plaques, phosphorylated Tau, GFAP, Iba1 and ... In CVN mice, the motor deficit is reproducible but is used more as a biomarker endpoint and less to assess efficacy. The ... Either aged or scopolamine-treated animals (to impair cognition) are used for touchscreen and biomarker assessment of ... and biomarker measurement using immunohistochemical staining at just 5 months of age. ...
Sleep apnea, obstructive, Tonsillectomy, Obesity, Biomarkers, pharmacological. Clinical Trials. Predicting Risk Factors in ...
Computational modeling and biomarker studies of pharmacological treatment of Alzheimers disease (Review). Mubashir Hassan, ... Evaluation of the effect of glucosamine administration on biomarkers of cartilage and bone metabolism in bicycle racers. Rei ...
Glutamatergic Deficits in Schizophrenia - Biomarkers and Pharmacological Interventions within the Ketamine Model , 2018; 19(4 ... Role of MicroRNA 21 in Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC) Differentiation: A Powerful Biomarker in MSCs Derived Cells. , 2015; 16(1): ... He is one of the author of the patent "Nanoconstructs with pharmacological activity" (n° WO2014013473-A1), and co-founder of ... Global Cell Proteome Profiling, Phospho-signaling and Quantitative Proteomics for Identification of New Biomarkers in Acute ...
Glutamatergic Deficits in Schizophrenia - Biomarkers and Pharmacological Interventions within the Ketamine Model , 19(4): 293 ... Glutamatergic Deficits in Schizophrenia - Biomarkers and Pharmacological Interventions within the Ketamine Model ... He is one of the author of the patent "Nanoconstructs with pharmacological activity" (n° WO2014013473-A1), and co-founder of ...
  • Pharmacological Inhibition and Activation of the Ca Activated Cl Channel TMEM16A. (
  • We will test the ability of pharmacological general PHD inhibition to prevent iron and redox dysregulation, mitochondrial dysfunction and midbrain dopaminergic cell loss associated with a chronic, age-related pre-clinical model of PD recently established by our laboratory, inducible dopaminergic glutathione depletion (Chinta et al. (
  • Pharmacological inhibition of JAK2 with tyrphostin B42 (AG490) attenuated STAT3 activation and GFAP expression in the MPTP model. (
  • S. Alban, " Pharmacological Strategies for Inhibition of Thrombin Activity", Current Pharmaceutical Design (2008) 14: 1152. (
  • TRPV4 inhibition also diminished renal IR-induced increase in AKI biomarkers. (
  • This Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) invites applications that propose to develop and implement Phase I or II clinical trials of promising pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions in individuals with age-related cognitive decline and in individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) across the spectrum from pre-symptomatic to more severe stages of disease, as well as to stimulate studies to enhance trial design and methods. (
  • Pharmacological interventions for hypertensive emergencies. (
  • The Biomarker and Intervention Development for Childhood-Onset Mental Disorders Branch supports research leading to the development of novel, mechanism-based treatments, and preventive interventions for childhood-onset mental disorders. (
  • The programs within this branch support research to develop novel cognitive, behavioral, psychosocial, pharmacological, and device-based interventions. (
  • We have developed expertise in a large variety of screening methods (BRET, TR-FRET, Alpha screen, RILES) to identify potent pharmacological tools and novel biological targets involved in cancer and neurological disorders. (
  • He examines this central question from both psychological and biological perspectives, particularly using pharmacological methods. (
  • A biological marker, commonly known as a biomarker, measures and evaluates biological and pathogenic processes. (
  • Since the development of alcohol-related diseases is a complex multi-step process involving many biological pathways as well as environmental factors, NIAAA is especially interested in the pattern-based molecular fingerprints which consist of multiple genes, RNAs, proteins, metabolites, or combination of them for novel biomarkers with high sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. (
  • Biomarker panels have potential applications in molecular phenotyping for identifying patients at risk of developing ARDS, diagnosis of ARDS, risk stratification and monitoring. (
  • The increasing evidence for heterogeneity of asthma, the growing emphasis on asthma subphenotypes, including molecular phenotypes identified by omics technologies, and their possible implications for different asthma severity and progression and therapeutic response, are changing the paradigm of treating patients with asthma only based on classification of their disease severity to a pharmacological strategy more focused on the individual asthmatic patient. (
  • Both techniques rely on molecular detection: optofluidic microscopy relies on molecular biomarkers, and scanning ion conductance microscopy on functional imaging of molecular structures. (
  • The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) invites small business grant applications to use genomic, proteomic, and/or metabolomic technologies to identify molecular fingerprints as novel biomarkers for alcohol exposure and alcohol induced organ damage. (
  • The course aims to develop an understanding of pharmacological targeting and molecular toxicology at an advanced level. (
  • Many researchers have now focused their efforts on developing biomarkers for depression-tests for aspects of a patient's physiology that can predict a clinical outcome. (
  • The pharmacological MRI (phMRI) technique is being increasingly used in both pre-clinical and clinical models to investigate pharmacological effects on task-free brain function. (
  • The branch also supports the identification of reliable and valid biomarkers useful for stratification of research participants in clinical trials or for use as objective predictors or indicators of treatment response (surrogate endpoints). (
  • Targeting TLR4 signaling therefore represents a pharmacological strategy to prevent intractable fibrosis. (
  • To explore potential associations between biomarker measures and anti-tumor activity by analyzing markers of inflammation, immune activation, host tumor growth factors, and tumor-derived proteins in the pre-treatment and on-treatment setting. (
  • Here we review estrogen receptor-related putative breast cancer biomarkers, including those of putative breast cancer stem cells, a minor population of estrogen receptor negative tumor cells that retain the stem cell property of self renewal. (
  • We analyzed PAC cultivation and pharmacological perturbation of tumor tissue slices from patients. (
  • Conclusion: The PAC system facilitates the cultivation and pharmacological perturbation of tumor tissue slices in the context of the complex tumor microenvironment. (
  • DNA damage and aberrant crypt foci as putative biomarkers to evaluate the chemopreventive effect of annatto (Bixa orellana L.) in rat colon carcinogenesis. (
  • Sang, Q.-X. Putative Biomarkers and Targets of Estrogen Receptor Negative Human Breast Cancer. (
  • NRF2 metagene signature is a novel prognostic biomarker in colorectal cancer. (
  • Lack of new predictive and prognostic biomarkers for a more accurate patient stratification, limited access to kidney tissue from patients at various stages of DKD as well as novel model systems to better understand the pathogenesis of the disease, are likely reasons for the stagnating development of new treatments. (
  • 3) identification of potential targets and biomarkers for neurological/neurodegenerative diseases. (
  • Dietary strawberries selectively increase antioxidant biomarkers in obese adults with elevated serum lipids. (
  • I. To assess the pharmacodynamic effects of anti-LAG-3 antibody (BMS-986016), anti-CD137 antibody (BMS- 663513), and/or anti-PD-1 antibody (BMS-936558) on biomarkers in peripheral blood, including the T cell compartments, and serum proteins (cytokines and other immune modulators). (
  • Serum levels of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) concentration were determined by chemiluminescence and serum levels of all other biomarkers by ELISA. (
  • Two subphenotypes of ARDS have been identified on the basis of blood biomarkers: hypo-inflammatory and hyper-inflammatory. (
  • This study aimed at investigating the association between haemostatic biomarkers, proinflammatory, and anti-inflammatory cytokines with chronic kidney disease in type 1 diabetic patients. (
  • It concerns a Phase 2, randomized, placebo-controlled, 5-way cross-over pharmacological study, with a classical inhalation combination of an anti-inflammatory corticoid (ICS) - beclomethasone- and a long-acting beta-agonist (LABA) - formoterol. (
  • Our results suggest RAC1 P29S status may offer a predictive biomarker for RAF inhibitor resistance in melanoma patients, where it should be evaluated clinically. (
  • It also measures pharmacological responses to a therapeutic intervention. (
  • Objectives Development of digital biomarkers to predict treatment response to a digital behavioural intervention. (
  • Digital biomarkers have potential to improve treatment outcomes in a digital behavioural intervention. (
  • Role of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in cognition in physiology and disease: pharmacological targets and biomarkers. (
  • Conclusions Machine learning was used to transform data from a digital therapeutic into digital biomarkers that predicted treatment response in individual participants. (
  • He is one of the author of the patent "Nanoconstructs with pharmacological activity" (n° WO2014013473-A1), and co-founder of the spin-off company inTHEna srl, aiming to design and development of molecules, nanostructures and technologies for biomedical studies and diagnosis, prevention and therapy of human and animal diseases. (
  • Her2/neu, CA15.3, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and cytokeratins are biomarkers that have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for disease diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy selection. (
  • A KRAS variant is a biomarker of poor outcome, platinum chemotherapy resistance and a potential target for therapy in ovarian cancer. (
  • The structural and functional complexity of protein biomarkers and the heterogeneity of the breast cancer pathology present challenges to the scientific community. (
  • PURPOSE: This phase I trial is studying biomarker-guided fluorouracil in treating patients with colorectal cancer receiving combination chemotherapy. (
  • We conclude that NAC has the potential to impact upon tobacco smoke carcinogenicity in humans because it can modulate certain cancer-associated biomarkers in specific organs. (
  • Drugs such as opium, alcohol, and certain plants have been used for millennia by humans to ease suffering or change awareness, but until the modern scientific era knowledge of how the substances actually worked was quite limited, most pharmacological knowledge being more a series of observation than a coherent model. (
  • Biomarkers, designs, and interpretations of resting-state fMRI in translational pharmacological research: A review of state-of-the-Art, challenges, and opportunities for studying brain chemistry. (
  • The aim of the present study was to characterize the systemic response of biomarkers known to be involved in the vascular response to coronary stenting and determine if oral sirolimus has any effect on the behavior of these biomarkers. (
  • In the present study, we show that pharmacological activation of TRPV4 channels constricted preglomerular microvessels and elicited renal hypoperfusion in neonatal pigs. (
  • Outcome trials are needed to determine whether improvement in biomarkers translates into a reduction in cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes. (
  • In this chapter, we review the recent findings on the detrimental cross‐talk between sepsis and AKI and the identification of new, early biomarkers and targeted therapies aimed at improving the outcome of these critically ill patients. (
  • Outcomes for COPD pharmacological trials: from lung function to biomarkers. (
  • Proof-of-concept biomarkers demonstrated good power to predict treatment outcomes despite the small size of the training dataset. (
  • Written by experts working with infected patients on a daily basis, it discusses the pathogenesis of congenital, cardiac, gastrointestinal and oral Chagas disease, as well as its treatment and the pharmacological aspects of drug development in this area. (
  • Chapter "Chagas Disease Treatment Efficacy Biomarkers: Myths and Realities" is available open access under a via (
  • Pharmacological treatment of asthma is going toward a personalized approach. (
  • Asthma control is the primary goal of pharmacological treatment of patients with asthma. (
  • There are few available pharmacological therapies for treatment of renal disease [ 4 ]. (
  • National and international guidelines for the pharmacological treatment of IPF recommend 2 antifibrotic drugs, nintedanib and pirfenidone. (
  • In addition, selective pharmacological and genetic tools have been developed both to explore alternative metabolic routes and to produce eCB‐based drugs as therapeutics for the prevention/treatment of a variety of diseases. (
  • Incorporation of new models, assays and biomarkers has expanded our ability to understand the mechanisms of action underlying microbicide toxicity and efficacy, enabling a more rational selection of drug and formulation candidates. (
  • The CRC's Imaging Unit with high-end large-scale equipment will allow the following unique opportunities: for example, identification of MR-based biomarkers to assess the effect of drugs (surrogate parameters), establishment of normal levels and reference ranges for MRI-based biomarkers, evaluation of the most relevant MRI sequences for drug monitoring in outpatient care. (
  • To investigate the drug effects common biomarkers (Ki67, γH2AX, HIF1α, GMNN, cleaved caspase-3) were analyzed in IHC staining. (
  • The following biomarkers were evaluated: high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), soluble interleukin-2 receptor alpha (IL-2sRα), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), tissue inhibitor of MMP-1 (TIMP-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and P-selectin. (
  • Ligands and effectors associated with activation of this pathway may serve as early 'biomarkers' of neurological/neurotoxic hazards. (
  • Biomarkers serve as indicators of pathological, physiological, or pharmacological processes. (
  • IMI1, FP7 and US consortia, like SUMMIT, KIDNEYCONNECT, Syskid, CPROBE and C-Path, in an unprecedented search for new and better biomarkers for DKD, through a better understanding of the disease. (
  • Validated using multiple endpoints including cognitive testing, measurement of the levels of soluble and insoluble beta amyloid, and biomarker measurement using immunohistochemical staining at just 5 months of age. (
  • This includes validating new and existing nutritional products that may have a pharmacological profile useful in cognitive enhancement - for example, the bacopa extract CDRI08. (
  • For pharmacological perturbation experiments culture medium was supplemented with 13 μM Cisplatin and constantly delivered to slices for 72 h, mimicking the in vivo situation in patients. (
  • Biomarkers of particular interest have included interleukins (IL-6 and IL-8), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), surfactant proteins (SPD and SPB), von Willebrand factor antigen, angiopoietin 1/2 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). (
  • Cytokines and haemostatic biomarkers remained associated with nephropathy after adjustments (use of statin, acetylsalicylic acid, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, and angiotensin antagonist). (
  • Ketamine, an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist, induces a strong phMRI response and represents a promising pharmacological model to investigate the role of glutamatergic abnormalities in psychiatric symptomatology. (
  • The market dominance of North America is attributed to the high concentration of pharmaceutical company and their research and development (R&D) center in this region, also the aging population and rising healthcare expenditure in North America is fueling the demand of biomarker in this region. (
  • NIAAA is also interested in research applications to develop or improve the technologies or methodologies in these areas that would benefit the biomarker discovery for alcohol-induced organ damage. (
  • The finding could lead to new pharmacological treatments for depression and could change the way schools deal with the condition. (
  • Teenagers could be screened for the biomarker and those at risk provided with targeted treatments. (