Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer Techniques
Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer
Moving and Lifting Patients
Tacrolimus Binding Protein 1A
Gene Transfer Techniques
Recombinant Fusion Proteins
GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gi-Go
Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-2
Green Fluorescent Proteins
Protein Structure, Tertiary
Protein Structure, Quaternary
Molecular Sequence Data
Amino Acid Sequence
Greatly enhanced detection of a volatile ligand at femtomolar levels using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET). (1/23)(+info)
Cyclic AMP control measured in two compartments in HEK293 cells: phosphodiesterase K(M) is more important than phosphodiesterase localization. (2/23)(+info)
Varicella zoster virus ORF25 gene product: an essential hub protein linking encapsidation proteins and the nuclear egress complex. (3/23)(+info)
Following glucose oxidase activity by chemiluminescence and chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (CRET) processes involving enzyme-DNAzyme conjugates. (4/23)(+info)
Acute depletion of plasma membrane phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate impairs specific steps in endocytosis of the G-protein-coupled receptor. (5/23)(+info)
Fluorescence/bioluminescence resonance energy transfer techniques to study G-protein-coupled receptor activation and signaling. (6/23)(+info)
P2X2 and P2X5 subunits define a new heteromeric receptor with P2X7-like properties. (7/23)(+info)
Nuclear shuttling precedes dimerization in mineralocorticoid receptor signaling. (8/23)(+info)
Luciferases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of luciferin to produce light. Renilla luciferase is a specific type of luciferase that is found in the marine copepod Renilla reniformis. It is commonly used as a reporter gene in molecular biology research, as it produces a bright green light that can be easily detected and quantified. In medical research, Renilla luciferase is often used to measure gene expression levels in cells or tissues, or to detect the presence of specific molecules or proteins. It is also used in some diagnostic tests and as a tool for drug discovery and development.
Luminescent proteins are a class of proteins that emit light when they are excited by a chemical or physical stimulus. These proteins are commonly used in the medical field for a variety of applications, including imaging and diagnostics. One of the most well-known examples of luminescent proteins is green fluorescent protein (GFP), which was first discovered in jellyfish in the 1960s. GFP has since been widely used as a fluorescent marker in biological research, allowing scientists to track the movement and behavior of specific cells and molecules within living organisms. Other luminescent proteins, such as luciferase and bioluminescent bacteria, are also used in medical research and diagnostics. Luciferase is an enzyme that catalyzes a chemical reaction that produces light, and it is often used in assays to measure the activity of specific genes or proteins. Bioluminescent bacteria, such as Vibrio fischeri, produce light through a chemical reaction that is triggered by the presence of certain compounds, and they are used in diagnostic tests to detect the presence of these compounds in biological samples. Overall, luminescent proteins have proven to be valuable tools in the medical field, allowing researchers to study biological processes in greater detail and develop new diagnostic tests and treatments for a wide range of diseases.
Arrestins are a family of proteins that play a role in regulating the activity of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in the cell. They are named for their ability to "arrest" or stop the activity of GPCRs after they have been activated by a signaling molecule such as a hormone or neurotransmitter. When a GPCR is activated, it triggers a signaling cascade that can lead to a variety of cellular responses. Arrestins bind to the activated GPCR and prevent it from interacting with other signaling molecules, effectively turning off the signaling cascade. This allows the cell to quickly reset the receptor and prepare for the next signaling event. Arrestins also play a role in the internalization of GPCRs, which is the process by which the receptors are removed from the cell surface and transported to the cell's interior. This can help to regulate the availability of GPCRs on the cell surface and prevent overstimulation of the receptor. Arrestins are found in a variety of organisms, including humans, and are involved in a wide range of physiological processes, including vision, metabolism, and the immune response. They are also the targets of several drugs, including some used to treat conditions such as diabetes and obesity.
Tacrolimus Binding Protein 1A (FKBP1A) is a protein that plays a role in the immune system. It is a member of the FKBP family of proteins, which are involved in various cellular processes, including protein folding and stability, and the regulation of signal transduction pathways. In the context of the medical field, FKBP1A is particularly important because it is a key component of the immunosuppressive drug tacrolimus (also known asFK506). Tacrolimus is used to prevent organ transplant rejection and to treat certain autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis. It works by binding to FKBP1A and inhibiting the activity of calcineurin, a protein that plays a critical role in the activation of T cells, a type of immune cell that is involved in transplant rejection and autoimmune responses. In summary, FKBP1A is a protein that plays a role in the immune system and is a key component of the immunosuppressive drug tacrolimus.
Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled (GPCRs) are a large family of membrane proteins that play a crucial role in transmitting signals from the outside of a cell to the inside. They are found in almost all types of cells and are involved in a wide range of physiological processes, including sensory perception, neurotransmission, and hormone signaling. GPCRs are activated by a variety of molecules, including neurotransmitters, hormones, and sensory stimuli such as light, sound, and odor. When a molecule binds to a GPCR, it causes a conformational change in the protein that activates a G protein, a small molecule that acts as a molecular switch. The activated G protein then triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling events that ultimately lead to a cellular response. Because GPCRs are involved in so many different physiological processes, they are an important target for drug discovery. Many drugs, including those used to treat conditions such as hypertension, depression, and allergies, work by binding to specific GPCRs and modulating their activity.
Recombinant fusion proteins are proteins that are produced by combining two or more genes in a single molecule. These proteins are typically created using genetic engineering techniques, such as recombinant DNA technology, to insert one or more genes into a host organism, such as bacteria or yeast, which then produces the fusion protein. Fusion proteins are often used in medical research and drug development because they can have unique properties that are not present in the individual proteins that make up the fusion. For example, a fusion protein might be designed to have increased stability, improved solubility, or enhanced targeting to specific cells or tissues. Recombinant fusion proteins have a wide range of applications in medicine, including as therapeutic agents, diagnostic tools, and research reagents. Some examples of recombinant fusion proteins used in medicine include antibodies, growth factors, and cytokines.
GTP-binding protein alpha subunits, Gi-Go, are a family of proteins that play a crucial role in signal transduction pathways in cells. They are also known as G proteins or heterotrimeric G proteins because they consist of three subunits: an alpha subunit, a beta subunit, and a gamma subunit. The alpha subunit of Gi-Go proteins is responsible for binding to guanosine triphosphate (GTP), a small molecule that is involved in regulating many cellular processes. When GTP binds to the alpha subunit, it causes a conformational change in the protein, which in turn activates or inhibits downstream signaling pathways. Gi-Go proteins are involved in a wide range of cellular processes, including cell growth and differentiation, metabolism, and immune function. They are also involved in the regulation of neurotransmitter release in the nervous system and the contraction of smooth muscle cells in the cardiovascular system. Dysfunction of Gi-Go proteins has been implicated in a number of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders. Therefore, understanding the role of these proteins in cellular signaling pathways is an important area of research in the medical field.
Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-2 (β2-adrenergic receptors) are a type of protein found on the surface of cells in the body that bind to and respond to the hormone adrenaline (also known as epinephrine). These receptors are part of the adrenergic receptor family, which also includes alpha-adrenergic receptors (α-adrenergic receptors). β2-adrenergic receptors are found in many different tissues throughout the body, including the lungs, heart, and blood vessels. When adrenaline binds to these receptors, it triggers a series of chemical reactions within the cell that can have a variety of effects, depending on the tissue type and the specific receptor subtype. In the lungs, activation of β2-adrenergic receptors can cause bronchodilation, which is the widening of the airways and can help to improve breathing. In the heart, activation of these receptors can increase heart rate and contractility, which can help to improve blood flow. In the blood vessels, activation of β2-adrenergic receptors can cause vasodilation, which is the widening of blood vessels and can help to lower blood pressure. β2-adrenergic receptors are also important in the body's response to stress. When the body is under stress, the adrenal gland releases adrenaline, which binds to these receptors and triggers the body's "fight or flight" response. This response can help the body to prepare for physical activity and to respond to potential threats. In the medical field, β2-adrenergic receptors are the target of many medications, including bronchodilators used to treat asthma and other respiratory conditions, and beta blockers used to treat high blood pressure and other cardiovascular conditions.
Green Fluorescent Proteins (GFPs) are a class of proteins that emit green light when excited by blue or ultraviolet light. They were first discovered in the jellyfish Aequorea victoria and have since been widely used as a tool in the field of molecular biology and bioimaging. In the medical field, GFPs are often used as a marker to track the movement and behavior of cells and proteins within living organisms. For example, scientists can insert a gene for GFP into a cell or organism, allowing them to visualize the cell or protein in real-time using a fluorescent microscope. This can be particularly useful in studying the development and function of cells, as well as in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. GFPs have also been used to develop biosensors, which can detect the presence of specific molecules or changes in cellular environment. For example, researchers have developed GFP-based sensors that can detect the presence of certain drugs or toxins, or changes in pH or calcium levels within cells. Overall, GFPs have become a valuable tool in the medical field, allowing researchers to study cellular processes and diseases in new and innovative ways.
Luciferases are enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of luciferin, a small molecule, to produce light. In the medical field, luciferases are commonly used as reporters in bioluminescence assays, which are used to measure gene expression, protein-protein interactions, and other biological processes. One of the most well-known examples of luciferases in medicine is the green fluorescent protein (GFP) luciferase, which is derived from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria. GFP luciferase is used in a variety of applications, including monitoring gene expression in living cells and tissues, tracking the movement of cells and proteins in vivo, and studying the dynamics of signaling pathways. Another example of a luciferase used in medicine is the firefly luciferase, which is derived from the firefly Photinus pyralis. Firefly luciferase is used in bioluminescence assays to measure the activity of various enzymes and to study the metabolism of drugs and other compounds. Overall, luciferases are valuable tools in the medical field because they allow researchers to visualize and quantify biological processes in a non-invasive and sensitive manner.
Biopolymers are large molecules made up of repeating units of smaller molecules called monomers. In the medical field, biopolymers are often used as biomaterials, which are materials that are designed to interact with biological systems in a specific way. Biopolymers can be used to create a wide range of medical devices, such as implants, scaffolds for tissue engineering, and drug delivery systems. They can also be used as diagnostic tools, such as in the development of biosensors. Some examples of biopolymers used in medicine include proteins, nucleic acids, and polysaccharides.
Bacterial proteins are proteins that are synthesized by bacteria. They are essential for the survival and function of bacteria, and play a variety of roles in bacterial metabolism, growth, and pathogenicity. Bacterial proteins can be classified into several categories based on their function, including structural proteins, metabolic enzymes, regulatory proteins, and toxins. Structural proteins provide support and shape to the bacterial cell, while metabolic enzymes are involved in the breakdown of nutrients and the synthesis of new molecules. Regulatory proteins control the expression of other genes, and toxins can cause damage to host cells and tissues. Bacterial proteins are of interest in the medical field because they can be used as targets for the development of antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. They can also be used as diagnostic markers for bacterial infections, and as vaccines to prevent bacterial diseases. Additionally, some bacterial proteins have been shown to have therapeutic potential, such as enzymes that can break down harmful substances in the body or proteins that can stimulate the immune system.
Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is a signaling molecule that plays a crucial role in many cellular processes, including metabolism, gene expression, and cell proliferation. It is synthesized from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by the enzyme adenylyl cyclase, and its levels are regulated by various hormones and neurotransmitters. In the medical field, cAMP is often studied in the context of its role in regulating cellular signaling pathways. For example, cAMP is involved in the regulation of the immune system, where it helps to activate immune cells and promote inflammation. It is also involved in the regulation of the cardiovascular system, where it helps to regulate heart rate and blood pressure. In addition, cAMP is often used as a tool in research to study cellular signaling pathways. For example, it is commonly used to activate or inhibit specific signaling pathways in cells, allowing researchers to study the effects of these pathways on cellular function.
Luciferases are enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of luciferin to produce light. Firefly luciferase is a specific type of luciferase that is found in the bioluminescent organs of certain species of fireflies. In the medical field, firefly luciferase is often used as a reporter gene in genetic studies, where it is used to detect the expression of a particular gene. This is done by inserting a gene that encodes firefly luciferase into a cell or organism, and then measuring the amount of light produced by the luciferase enzyme. This can be used to study gene function, to detect the presence of specific genes in cells or tissues, and to monitor the progression of diseases.
Förster resonance energy transfer
Martin J. Lohse
List of materials analysis methods
Carl H. Johnson
Green fluorescent protein
Optogenetic methods to record cellular activity
List of effects
Fluorescence in the life sciences
List of biochemists
High-speed recording of neural spikes in awake mice and flies with a fluorescent voltage sensor - PubMed
PAR-23-168: Assay Development and Screening for Discovery of Validated Chemical Hits for Brain Disorders (R01 Clinical Trial...
National Institute on Drug Abuse Intramural Research Program
NEW (2012) MESH HEADINGS WITH SCOPE NOTES (UNIT RECORD FORMAT; 9/8/2011
PAR-05-147: Solicitation of Assays for High Throughput Screening (HTS) in the Molecular Libraries Screening Centers Network ...
An Ultrasensitive Bioluminescent Enzyme Immunoassay Based on Nanobody/Nanoluciferase Heptamer Fusion for the Detection of...
Optical Imaging of Rheumatoid Arthritis
caNanoLab Glossary - ICR - caNanoLab - NCI Wiki
The Promises and Challenges of Toxico-Epigenomics: Environmental Chemicals and Their Impacts on the Epigenome | Environmental...
Diversity Program Consortium Publications
- At each step of the workflow the information in the previous step is transformed into contextual data, 1 The bioluminescence imaging methods will not be discussed here. (nih.gov)
- PMID- 3504214 TI - Thermodynamic cycle integration by computer simulation as a tool for obtaining free energy differences in molecular chemistry. (nih.gov)
- AB - A new and promising development in the field of computer simulation of molecular systems is the so-called thermodynamic cycle integration technique, which combines well-known results from statistical thermodynamics with powerful computer simulation methods. (nih.gov)