Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer Techniques: Techniques for determining the proximity of molecules based on ENERGY TRANSFER between bioluminescent chromophores and acceptor fluorophores that have overlapping emission and absorption spectra.Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer: A type of FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY using two FLUORESCENT DYES with overlapping emission and absorption spectra, which is used to indicate proximity of labeled molecules. This technique is useful for studying interactions of molecules and PROTEIN FOLDING.Energy Transfer: The transfer of energy of a given form among different scales of motion. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed). It includes the transfer of kinetic energy and the transfer of chemical energy. The transfer of chemical energy from one molecule to another depends on proximity of molecules so it is often used as in techniques to measure distance such as the use of FORSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER.Luciferases, Renilla: Luciferases from RENILLA that oxidizes certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to cause emission of PHOTONS.Luminescent Measurements: Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.Renilla: A genus of bioluminescent marine invertebrates in the family Renillidae, order Pennatulacea, class ANTHOZOA. It contains Renilla LUCIFERASE which oxidizes coelenterazine resulting in LUMINESCENCE.Luminescence: Emission of LIGHT when ELECTRONS return to the electronic ground state from an excited state and lose the energy as PHOTONS. It is sometimes called cool light in contrast to INCANDESCENCE. LUMINESCENT MEASUREMENTS take advantage of this type of light emitted from LUMINESCENT AGENTS.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Arrestins: Regulatory proteins that down-regulate phosphorylated G-protein membrane receptors, including rod and cone photoreceptors and adrenergic receptors.Luminescent Agents: Compound such as LUMINESCENT PROTEINS that cause or emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE).Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Moving and Lifting Patients: Moving or repositioning patients within their beds, from bed to bed, bed to chair, or otherwise from one posture or surface to another.Tacrolimus Binding Protein 1A: A 12-KDa tacrolimus binding protein that is found associated with and may modulate the function of calcium release channels. It is a peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase which is inhibited by both tacrolimus (commonly called FK506) and SIROLIMUS.Protein Multimerization: The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.HEK293 Cells: A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled: The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.Gene Transfer Techniques: The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Biosensing Techniques: Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gi-Go: A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that were originally identified by their ability to inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES. Members of this family can couple to beta and gamma G-protein subunits that activate POTASSIUM CHANNELS. The Gi-Go part of the name is also spelled Gi/Go.Quantum Dots: Nanometer sized fragments of semiconductor crystalline material which emit PHOTONS. The wavelength is based on the quantum confinement size of the dot. They can be embedded in MICROBEADS for high throughput ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-2: A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-2 receptors are more sensitive to EPINEPHRINE than to NOREPINEPHRINE and have a high affinity for the agonist TERBUTALINE. They are widespread, with clinically important roles in SKELETAL MUSCLE; LIVER; and vascular, bronchial, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary SMOOTH MUSCLE.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Luciferases: Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.Biopolymers: Polymers synthesized by living organisms. They play a role in the formation of macromolecular structures and are synthesized via the covalent linkage of biological molecules, especially AMINO ACIDS; NUCLEOTIDES; and CARBOHYDRATES.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Protein Structure, Quaternary: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Immunoprecipitation: The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Embryo Transfer: The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Radioligand Assay: Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Luciferases, Firefly: Luciferases from FIREFLIES, usually Photinus, that oxidizes FIREFLY LUCIFERIN to cause emission of PHOTONS.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Receptor, PAR-1: A thrombin receptor subtype that couples to HETEROTRIMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS resulting in the activation of a variety of signaling mechanisms including decreased intracellular CYCLIC AMP, increased TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES and increased PHOSPHOLIPASE A2.Receptor, PAR-2: A G-protein-coupled, proteinase-activated receptor that is expressed in a variety of tissues including ENDOTHELIUM; LEUKOCYTES; and the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. The receptor is activated by TRYPSIN, which cleaves off the N-terminal peptide from the receptor. The new N-terminal peptide is a cryptic ligand for the receptor. The uncleaved receptor can also be activated by the N-terminal peptide present on the activated THROMBIN RECEPTOR and by small synthetic peptides that contain the unmasked N-terminal sequence.

Greatly enhanced detection of a volatile ligand at femtomolar levels using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET). (1/23)

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Cyclic AMP control measured in two compartments in HEK293 cells: phosphodiesterase K(M) is more important than phosphodiesterase localization. (2/23)

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Varicella zoster virus ORF25 gene product: an essential hub protein linking encapsidation proteins and the nuclear egress complex. (3/23)

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Following glucose oxidase activity by chemiluminescence and chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (CRET) processes involving enzyme-DNAzyme conjugates. (4/23)

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Acute depletion of plasma membrane phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate impairs specific steps in endocytosis of the G-protein-coupled receptor. (5/23)

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Fluorescence/bioluminescence resonance energy transfer techniques to study G-protein-coupled receptor activation and signaling. (6/23)

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P2X2 and P2X5 subunits define a new heteromeric receptor with P2X7-like properties. (7/23)

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Nuclear shuttling precedes dimerization in mineralocorticoid receptor signaling. (8/23)

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  • Ando Y, Niwa K, Yamada N et al (2008) Firefly bioluminescence quantum yield and colour change by pH-sensitive green emission. (springerprofessional.de)
  • Part I I wasraised in a redbrick Baltimore row housewhere summer was marked by the ti- honored ritual of firefly-chasing - a backyard tradition that has endured the gene- tions.Amidtheexcitement,myfatheroftentoldthestoryofhow,whenhewasachild, researchers at the Johns Hopkins University had appealed for the systematic capture of live fireflies en masse. (weltbild.de)
  • Bioluminescence identified from firefly beetle is an example of ATP‐dependent photo‐production, whereas in jellyfish and Renilla sp. (els.net)
  • a) Overall chemical steps in firefly bioluminescence. (els.net)
  • [email protected]#To investigate the feasibilily of screening and identifying the red blood cell type alloantibodies by means of surface plasman resonance(SPR) technique so as to provide a new method for detecting the transfusion compatibility of red blood cells. (bvsalud.org)
  • the results of SPR technique in 7 patients with positive blood group antibodies were as follows: 3 cases with anti-E, 1 case anti-M, 1 case anti-C, 1 case anti-Jka and 1 case autoantibody, which were consistent with the results of microcolumn agglutination tests, and the compatible red blood cells were selected for transfusion, of which the infusion of 6 cases was effective. (bvsalud.org)
  • [email protected]#For screening and identification of blood group alloantibodies, the performance of SPR chip technique is equivalent to the micro-column agglutination, but the procedure of SPR technique is simpler, faster and high-throughput and label-free, which can meet the basic requirements for rapid screening and identification of blood group alloantibodies before transfusion of red blood cells. (bvsalud.org)
  • Optical-based techniques are instrumental in studying the dynamics and organization of receptor complexes in living cells [ 7 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A number of assay techniques are currently used to study ligand binding to GPCRs in living cells. (bmglabtech.com)
  • Multiple solid tumors have positive targets of mesothelin expressed on the surfaces of the tumor cells, we use the technique of CRISPR-Cas9 to knocked out the PD-1 and TCR of chimeric anti. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Over the past few decades, different nanoprobes have been developed and applied to molecular imaging of inflammation by computed tomography ( 9 ), magnetic resonance imaging ( 10 ), optical methods ( 11 ), positron emission tomography ( 12 ), and multimodal approaches ( 13 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • This clinical trial studies gallium-68 (68Ga)-prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) (gallium Ga 68-labeled PSMA ligand Glu-urea-Lys[Ahx]) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) or PET/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in identifying prostate cancer that may have returned after a period of improvement (biochemical recurrence). (stanford.edu)
  • A different, but in many ways complementary approach to the use of more traditional experimental techniques, are those involving computational methods that possess obvious merit in the study of the dynamics of oligomer formation and function. (nih.gov)
  • The techniques used to study oligomerization of GPCRs may be divided into five categories, which are biochemical methods, biophysical methods, physiological methods, X-ray crystallography and computational methods. (nih.gov)
  • A special technique for imaging changes in ion levels, pH levels or voltage are ratiometric imaging methods. (leica-microsystems.com)
  • In G Protein-Coupled Receptor Signaling in Plants: Methods and Protocols, experts in the field describe techniques used in the study of small GTPases and related proteins. (stanford.edu)
  • Authoritative and cutting-edge, Bioluminescence: Methods and Protocols, Second Edition provides protocols that are detailed enough to be followed and adapted by scientific teams who have no previous expertise in bioluminescence in order to foster the potentially numerous breakthroughs and new applications from basic to applied science and medicine that must continue to be developed. (weltbild.de)
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Levels of p38 MAPK isoforms in the serum of HNSCC and healthy controls were quantified by surface plasmon resonance technology. (bvsalud.org)
  • Conventional methods for evaluating cell culturing techniques and assay design consist of manual inspection of a small subset of the cell population at random locations and time points. (biotek.tw)
  • Many of these techniques study potassium channels as cellular proteins as well as the resultant membrane biophysics. (springer.com)
  • Although a range of quantitative and imaging techniques have been developed so far, the discovery of green fluorescent proteins (GFPs) has revolutionized the advancement in the field of metabolomics. (bvsalud.org)
  • In this review, we have focused on how different techniques have been accustomed so far to determine the interaction between and among proteins of the target complex or same metabolic/signaling pathway. (ijpsr.com)
  • These features make live-cell imaging a requisite technique for addressing questions in cell biology, cancer research, developmental biology and neuroscience. (leica-microsystems.com)
  • The range of microscopic techniques applied for live-cell imaging is also extremely wide. (leica-microsystems.com)
  • Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) is a powerful technique for monitoring the temporal and spatial dynamics of gene expression in the mouse brain. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Now a routine tool in biomedical and life science research, live cell imaging has made major progress enabling this core biochemical, cell, and molecular biology technique to become even more powerful, versatile, and affordable. (springer.com)
  • Among these techniques, luminescence imaging is a facile, low-cost, rapid, straightforward, and highly sensitive approach that enables real-time detection of a wide variety of cellular, subcellular, or molecular events during an inflammatory response in unperturbed environments ( 14 - 16 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Finally, noninvasive bioluminescence imaging has also evolved as an attractive tool for interrogating human cellular biology in rodent models. (els.net)
  • Bioluminescence is the active luminescence light producing event encountered among diverse group of living organisms in nature, more commonly in deep sea organisms. (els.net)
  • At the same time, "omic" techniques are providing us with overviews of the entire function of a cell or tissue at the levels of the genome, the transcriptome, the proteome, and the metabolome. (keystonesymposia.org)
  • We are also working on techniques to adapt such measurements to high throughput screening in order to search for compounds with unusual signalling properties, which might make them new classes of drugs with only a subset of effects compared to conventional drugs. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • By either chemically forming a covalent bond or non-covalent hybridization, these techniques are prerequisites to perform state-of-the-art single-molecule experiments. (bvsalud.org)
  • The advantages of this technique in studies of small living animals are the following: high signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio with low background signal intensities, low limit and simplicity of detection, wide dynamic range of signal intensities, and applicability to genetic manipulation as well as continuous and quantitative analyses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This review demonstrates the detection of protease activity based on the energy transfer of quantum dots (QDs). (thno.org)
  • Optogenetic techniques allow intracellular manipulation of Ca ++ by illumination of light-absorbing probe molecules such as channelrhodopsins and melanopsins. (kurzweilai.net)