Gene Expression Profiling
Gene Regulatory Networks
Metabolic Networks and Pathways
Molecular Sequence Data
Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Gene Expression Regulation
Life Cycle Stages
Amino Acid Sequence
Biological Science Disciplines
Information Storage and Retrieval
Database Management Systems
Disease Models, Animal
Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental
Translational Medical Research
Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
Molecular Sequence Annotation
Molecular Targeted Therapy
Protein Interaction Maps
High-Throughput Screening Assays
Expressed Sequence Tags
Neoplastic Stem Cells
Terminology as Topic
Protein Structure, Tertiary
Reproducibility of Results
Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Plant Physiological Phenomena
Textbooks as Topic
Tumor Markers, Biological
Human Genome Project
Green Fluorescent Proteins
Embryonic Stem Cells
Sequence Analysis, Protein
Allergy and Immunology
Academies and Institutes
Drug Delivery Systems
Clinical Trials as Topic
Microfluidic Analytical Techniques
Databases, Nucleic Acid
Time-resolved analysis and visualization of dynamic processes in living cells. (1/657)Recent development of in vivo microscopy techniques, including green fluorescent proteins, has allowed the visualization of a wide range of dynamic processes in living cells. For quantitative and visual interpretation of such processes, new concepts for time-resolved image analysis and continuous time-space visualization are required. Here, we describe a versatile and fully automated approach consisting of four techniques, namely highly sensitive object detection, fuzzy logic-based dynamic object tracking, computer graphical visualization, and measurement in time-space. Systematic model simulations were performed to evaluate the reliability of the automated object detection and tracking method. To demonstrate potential applications, the method was applied to the analysis of secretory membrane traffic and the functional dynamics of nuclear compartments enriched in pre-mRNA splicing factors. (+info)
Cloning and embryonic stem cells: a new era in human biology and medicine. (2/657)The cloning of mammals using adult cells as nuclear donors has been achieved and the same procedure can be, at least theoretically, used to clone humans. Another recent technological advance, the derivation of human embryonic stem cells, opens up new possibilities in cell and tissue replacement therapy and heralds significant improvements in gene therapy. Besides suggesting new and potentially valuable medical applications, the insights gained through the use of these techniques could significantly enrich our understanding of basic mechanisms regulating human development. On the other hand, these preliminary results are viewed by many as the opening of the Pandora's box and there are loud voices clamoring that research in these areas be forbidden in perpetuity. I suggest in the following article that at present we do not know enough to make anything but an entirely emotional decision about future applications of these techniques. I try to summarize the current state of the kn owledge in the field and indicate how much further research is necessary if benefits and drawbacks are to be properly understood. (+info)
Chemical biology: the promise, and confusion, of adolescence. (3/657)It takes time for any new scientific discipline to gain momentum, and chemical biology is no exception. But with the formation of new training programs and interdisciplinary departments, the changes are coming. (+info)
DBcat: a catalog of 500 biological databases. (4/657)The DBcat (http://www.infobiogen.fr/services/dbcat ) is a comprehensive catalog of biological databases, maintained and curated at Infobiogen. It contains 500 databases classified by application domains. The DBcat is a structured flat-file library, that can be searched by means of an SRS server or a dedicated Web interface. The files are available for download from Infobiogen anonymous ftp server. (+info)
Database resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information. (5/657)In addition to maintaining the GenBank(R) nucleic acid sequence database, the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) provides data analysis and retrieval and resources that operate on the data in GenBank and a variety of other biological data made available through NCBI's Web site. NCBI data retrieval resources include Entrez, PubMed, LocusLink and the Taxonomy Browser. Data analysis resources include BLAST, Electronic PCR, OrfFinder, RefSeq, UniGene, Database of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (dbSNP), Human Genome Sequencing pages, GeneMap'99, Davis Human-Mouse Homology Map, Cancer Chromosome Aberration Project (CCAP) pages, Entrez Genomes, Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs) database, Retroviral Genotyping Tools, Cancer Genome Anatomy Project (CGAP) pages, SAGEmap, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) and the Molecular Modeling Database (MMDB). Augmenting many of the Web applications are custom implementations of the BLAST program optimized to search specialized data sets. All of the resources can be accessed through the NCBI home page at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih. gov (+info)
Teaching experimental design to biologists. (6/657)The teaching of research design and data analysis to our graduate students has been a persistent problem. A course is described in which students, early in their graduate training, obtain extensive practice in designing experiments and interpreting data. Lecture-discussions on the essentials of biostatistics are given, and then these essentials are repeatedly reviewed by illustrating their applications and misapplications in numerous research design problems. Students critique these designs and prepare similar problems for peer evaluation. In most problems the treatments are confounded by extraneous variables, proper controls may be absent, or data analysis may be incorrect. For each problem, students must decide whether the researchers' conclusions are valid and, if not, must identify a fatal experimental flaw. Students learn that an experiment is a well-conceived plan for data collection, analysis, and interpretation. They enjoy the interactive evaluations of research designs and appreciate the repetitive review of common flaws in different experiments. They also benefit from their practice in scientific writing and in critically evaluating their peers' designs. (+info)
Theoretical biology in the third millennium. (7/657)During the 20th century our understanding of genetics and the processes of gene expression have undergone revolutionary change. Improved technology has identified the components of the living cell, and knowledge of the genetic code allows us to visualize the pathway from genotype to phenotype. We can now sequence entire genes, and improved cloning techniques enable us to transfer genes between organisms, giving a better understanding of their function. Due to the improved power of analytical tools databases of sequence information are growing at an exponential rate. Soon complete sequences of genomes and the three-dimensional structure of all proteins may be known. The question we face in the new millennium is how to apply this data in a meaningful way. Since the genes carry the specification of an organism, and because they also record evolutionary changes, we need to design a theoretical framework that can take account of the flow of information through biological systems. (+info)
The past, the future and the biology of memory storage. (8/657)We here briefly review a century of accomplishments in studying memory storage and delineate the two major questions that have dominated thinking in this area: the systems question of memory, which concerns where in the brain storage occurs; and the molecular question of memory, which concerns the mechanisms whereby memories are stored and maintained. We go on to consider the themes that memory research may be able to address in the 21st century. Finally, we reflect on the clinical and societal import of our increasing understanding of the mechanisms of memory, discussing possible therapeutic approaches to diseases that manifest with disruptions of learning and possible ethical implication of the ability, which is on the horizon, to ameliorate or even enhance human memory. (+info)
Neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth of cells that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Neoplasms can occur in any part of the body and can affect various organs and tissues. The term "neoplasm" is often used interchangeably with "tumor," but while all tumors are neoplasms, not all neoplasms are tumors.
Types of Neoplasms
There are many different types of neoplasms, including:
1. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the epithelial cells lining organs and glands. Examples include breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Examples include osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and soft tissue sarcoma.
3. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system, specifically affecting the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
4. Leukemias: These are cancers of the blood and bone marrow that affect the white blood cells. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
5. Melanomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Examples include skin melanoma and eye melanoma.
Causes and Risk Factors of Neoplasms
The exact causes of neoplasms are not fully understood, but there are several known risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing a neoplasm. These include:
1. Genetic predisposition: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that increase their risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as radiation and certain chemicals, can increase the risk of developing a neoplasm.
3. Infection: Some neoplasms are caused by viruses or bacteria. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common cause of cervical cancer.
4. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a poor diet can increase the risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
5. Family history: A person's risk of developing a neoplasm may be higher if they have a family history of the condition.
Signs and Symptoms of Neoplasms
The signs and symptoms of neoplasms can vary depending on the type of cancer and where it is located in the body. Some common signs and symptoms include:
1. Unusual lumps or swelling
4. Weight loss
5. Change in bowel or bladder habits
6. Unexplained bleeding
7. Coughing up blood
8. Hoarseness or a persistent cough
9. Changes in appetite or digestion
10. Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the size or color of an existing mole.
Diagnosis and Treatment of Neoplasms
The diagnosis of a neoplasm usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy. A biopsy involves removing a small sample of tissue from the suspected tumor and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.
The treatment of neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Some common treatments include:
1. Surgery: Removing the tumor and surrounding tissue can be an effective way to treat many types of cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Using drugs to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
3. Radiation therapy: Using high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer is located in a specific area of the body.
4. Immunotherapy: Boosting the body's immune system to fight cancer can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
5. Targeted therapy: Using drugs or other substances to target specific molecules on cancer cells can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
Prevention of Neoplasms
While it is not always possible to prevent neoplasms, there are several steps that can reduce the risk of developing cancer. These include:
1. Avoiding exposure to known carcinogens (such as tobacco smoke and radiation)
2. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
3. Getting regular exercise
4. Not smoking or using tobacco products
5. Limiting alcohol consumption
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viruses that are associated with cancer (such as human papillomavirus, or HPV)
7. Participating in screening programs for early detection of cancer (such as mammograms for breast cancer and colonoscopies for colon cancer)
8. Avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight and using protective measures such as sunscreen and hats to prevent skin cancer.
It's important to note that not all cancers can be prevented, and some may be caused by factors that are not yet understood or cannot be controlled. However, by taking these steps, individuals can reduce their risk of developing cancer and improve their overall health and well-being.
There are many different types of diseases, ranging from acute and short-term conditions such as the common cold or flu, to chronic and long-term conditions such as diabetes, heart disease, or cancer. Some diseases are infectious, meaning they can be transmitted from one person to another through contact with a contaminated surface or exchange of bodily fluids. Other diseases are non-infectious, meaning they are not transmitted from person to person and are typically caused by genetic mutations or environmental factors.
The diagnosis and treatment of disease is the focus of the medical field, and doctors and other healthcare professionals use a variety of tools and techniques to identify and manage diseases. These may include physical exams, laboratory tests, imaging studies, and medications. In some cases, surgery or other procedures may be necessary to treat a disease.
Some common examples of diseases include:
1. Heart disease: A condition that affects the heart and blood vessels, often caused by high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or smoking.
2. Diabetes: A condition in which the body is unable to properly regulate blood sugar levels, often caused by genetics or obesity.
3. Cancer: A condition in which abnormal cells grow and multiply, often causing damage to surrounding tissues.
4. Inflammatory diseases: Conditions such as arthritis, where the body's immune system causes inflammation and pain in the joints.
5. Neurological diseases: Conditions that affect the brain and nervous system, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, or multiple sclerosis.
6. Infectious diseases: Conditions caused by the presence of pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, or fungi, including the common cold, flu, and tuberculosis.
7. Genetic diseases: Conditions that are caused by changes in DNA, such as sickle cell anemia or cystic fibrosis.
8. Autoimmune diseases: Conditions where the body's immune system attacks healthy cells and tissues, such as rheumatoid arthritis or lupus.
9. Pulmonary diseases: Conditions that affect the lungs, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or lung cancer.
10. Gastrointestinal diseases: Conditions that affect the digestive system, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) or irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).
These are just a few examples of the many different types of diseases that exist. Diseases can be caused by a wide range of factors, including genetics, lifestyle choices, and environmental factors. Understanding the causes and symptoms of different diseases is important for developing effective treatments and improving patient outcomes.
1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.
2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.
3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.
4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.
5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.
6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.
7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.
8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.
9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.
10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.
There are different types of Breast Neoplasms such as:
1. Fibroadenomas: These are benign tumors that are made up of glandular and fibrous tissues. They are usually small and round, with a smooth surface, and can be moved easily under the skin.
2. Cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that can develop in both breast tissue and milk ducts. They are usually benign and can disappear on their own or be drained surgically.
3. Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS): This is a precancerous condition where abnormal cells grow inside the milk ducts. If left untreated, it can progress to invasive breast cancer.
4. Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC): This is the most common type of breast cancer and starts in the milk ducts but grows out of them and invades surrounding tissue.
5. Invasive Lobular Carcinoma (ILC): It originates in the milk-producing glands (lobules) and grows out of them, invading nearby tissue.
Breast Neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as a lump or thickening in the breast or underarm area, skin changes like redness or dimpling, change in size or shape of one or both breasts, discharge from the nipple, and changes in the texture or color of the skin.
Treatment options for Breast Neoplasms may include surgery such as lumpectomy, mastectomy, or breast-conserving surgery, radiation therapy which uses high-energy beams to kill cancer cells, chemotherapy using drugs to kill cancer cells, targeted therapy which uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack cancer cells while minimizing harm to normal cells, hormone therapy, immunotherapy, and clinical trials.
It is important to note that not all Breast Neoplasms are cancerous; some are benign (non-cancerous) tumors that do not spread or grow.
Explanation: Neoplastic cell transformation is a complex process that involves multiple steps and can occur as a result of genetic mutations, environmental factors, or a combination of both. The process typically begins with a series of subtle changes in the DNA of individual cells, which can lead to the loss of normal cellular functions and the acquisition of abnormal growth and reproduction patterns.
Over time, these transformed cells can accumulate further mutations that allow them to survive and proliferate despite adverse conditions. As the transformed cells continue to divide and grow, they can eventually form a tumor, which is a mass of abnormal cells that can invade and damage surrounding tissues.
In some cases, cancer cells can also break away from the primary tumor and travel through the bloodstream or lymphatic system to other parts of the body, where they can establish new tumors. This process, known as metastasis, is a major cause of death in many types of cancer.
It's worth noting that not all transformed cells will become cancerous. Some forms of cellular transformation, such as those that occur during embryonic development or tissue regeneration, are normal and necessary for the proper functioning of the body. However, when these transformations occur in adult tissues, they can be a sign of cancer.
See also: Cancer, Tumor
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There are several key features of inflammation:
1. Increased blood flow: Blood vessels in the affected area dilate, allowing more blood to flow into the tissue and bringing with it immune cells, nutrients, and other signaling molecules.
2. Leukocyte migration: White blood cells, such as neutrophils and monocytes, migrate towards the site of inflammation in response to chemical signals.
3. Release of mediators: Inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines and chemokines, are released by immune cells and other cells in the affected tissue. These molecules help to coordinate the immune response and attract more immune cells to the site of inflammation.
4. Activation of immune cells: Immune cells, such as macrophages and T cells, become activated and start to phagocytose (engulf) pathogens or damaged tissue.
5. Increased heat production: Inflammation can cause an increase in metabolic activity in the affected tissue, leading to increased heat production.
6. Redness and swelling: Increased blood flow and leakiness of blood vessels can cause redness and swelling in the affected area.
7. Pain: Inflammation can cause pain through the activation of nociceptors (pain-sensing neurons) and the release of pro-inflammatory mediators.
Inflammation can be acute or chronic. Acute inflammation is a short-term response to injury or infection, which helps to resolve the issue quickly. Chronic inflammation is a long-term response that can cause ongoing damage and diseases such as arthritis, asthma, and cancer.
There are several types of inflammation, including:
1. Acute inflammation: A short-term response to injury or infection.
2. Chronic inflammation: A long-term response that can cause ongoing damage and diseases.
3. Autoimmune inflammation: An inappropriate immune response against the body's own tissues.
4. Allergic inflammation: An immune response to a harmless substance, such as pollen or dust mites.
5. Parasitic inflammation: An immune response to parasites, such as worms or fungi.
6. Bacterial inflammation: An immune response to bacteria.
7. Viral inflammation: An immune response to viruses.
8. Fungal inflammation: An immune response to fungi.
There are several ways to reduce inflammation, including:
1. Medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs).
2. Lifestyle changes, such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, stress management, and getting enough sleep.
3. Alternative therapies, such as acupuncture, herbal supplements, and mind-body practices.
4. Addressing underlying conditions, such as hormonal imbalances, gut health issues, and chronic infections.
5. Using anti-inflammatory compounds found in certain foods, such as omega-3 fatty acids, turmeric, and ginger.
It's important to note that chronic inflammation can lead to a range of health problems, including:
3. Heart disease
5. Alzheimer's disease
6. Parkinson's disease
7. Autoimmune disorders, such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis.
Therefore, it's important to manage inflammation effectively to prevent these complications and improve overall health and well-being.
Pathologic neovascularization can be seen in a variety of conditions, including cancer, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration. In cancer, for example, the formation of new blood vessels can help the tumor grow and spread to other parts of the body. In diabetic retinopathy, the growth of new blood vessels in the retina can cause vision loss and other complications.
There are several different types of pathologic neovascularization, including:
* Angiosarcoma: a type of cancer that arises from the cells lining blood vessels
* Hemangiomas: benign tumors that are composed of blood vessels
* Cavernous malformations: abnormal collections of blood vessels in the brain or other parts of the body
* Pyogenic granulomas: inflammatory lesions that can form in response to trauma or infection.
The diagnosis of pathologic neovascularization is typically made through a combination of physical examination, imaging studies (such as ultrasound, CT scans, or MRI), and biopsy. Treatment options vary depending on the underlying cause of the condition, but may include medications, surgery, or radiation therapy.
In summary, pathologic neovascularization is a process that occurs in response to injury or disease, and it can lead to serious complications. It is important for healthcare professionals to be aware of this condition and its various forms in order to provide appropriate diagnosis and treatment.
Brain neoplasms can arise from various types of cells in the brain, including glial cells (such as astrocytes and oligodendrocytes), neurons, and vascular tissues. The symptoms of brain neoplasms vary depending on their size, location, and type, but may include headaches, seizures, weakness or numbness in the limbs, and changes in personality or cognitive function.
There are several different types of brain neoplasms, including:
1. Meningiomas: These are benign tumors that arise from the meninges, the thin layers of tissue that cover the brain and spinal cord.
2. Gliomas: These are malignant tumors that arise from glial cells in the brain. The most common type of glioma is a glioblastoma, which is aggressive and hard to treat.
3. Pineal parenchymal tumors: These are rare tumors that arise in the pineal gland, a small endocrine gland in the brain.
4. Craniopharyngiomas: These are benign tumors that arise from the epithelial cells of the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus.
5. Medulloblastomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the cerebellum, specifically in the medulla oblongata. They are most common in children.
6. Acoustic neurinomas: These are benign tumors that arise on the nerve that connects the inner ear to the brain.
7. Oligodendrogliomas: These are malignant tumors that arise from oligodendrocytes, the cells that produce the fatty substance called myelin that insulates nerve fibers.
8. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system that can arise in the brain and spinal cord. The most common type of lymphoma in the CNS is primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma, which is usually a type of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
9. Metastatic tumors: These are tumors that have spread to the brain from another part of the body. The most common types of metastatic tumors in the CNS are breast cancer, lung cancer, and melanoma.
These are just a few examples of the many types of brain and spinal cord tumors that can occur. Each type of tumor has its own unique characteristics, such as its location, size, growth rate, and biological behavior. These factors can help doctors determine the best course of treatment for each patient.
Disease progression can be classified into several types based on the pattern of worsening:
1. Chronic progressive disease: In this type, the disease worsens steadily over time, with a gradual increase in symptoms and decline in function. Examples include rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and Parkinson's disease.
2. Acute progressive disease: This type of disease worsens rapidly over a short period, often followed by periods of stability. Examples include sepsis, acute myocardial infarction (heart attack), and stroke.
3. Cyclical disease: In this type, the disease follows a cycle of worsening and improvement, with periodic exacerbations and remissions. Examples include multiple sclerosis, lupus, and rheumatoid arthritis.
4. Recurrent disease: This type is characterized by episodes of worsening followed by periods of recovery. Examples include migraine headaches, asthma, and appendicitis.
5. Catastrophic disease: In this type, the disease progresses rapidly and unpredictably, with a poor prognosis. Examples include cancer, AIDS, and organ failure.
Disease progression can be influenced by various factors, including:
1. Genetics: Some diseases are inherited and may have a predetermined course of progression.
2. Lifestyle: Factors such as smoking, lack of exercise, and poor diet can contribute to disease progression.
3. Environmental factors: Exposure to toxins, allergens, and other environmental stressors can influence disease progression.
4. Medical treatment: The effectiveness of medical treatment can impact disease progression, either by slowing or halting the disease process or by causing unintended side effects.
5. Co-morbidities: The presence of multiple diseases or conditions can interact and affect each other's progression.
Understanding the type and factors influencing disease progression is essential for developing effective treatment plans and improving patient outcomes.
Neoplastic metastasis can occur in any type of cancer but are more common in solid tumors such as carcinomas (breast, lung, colon). It is important for cancer diagnosis and prognosis because metastasis indicates that the cancer has spread beyond its original site and may be more difficult to treat.
Metastases can appear at any distant location but commonly found sites include the liver, lungs, bones, brain, and lymph nodes. The presence of metastases indicates a higher stage of cancer which is associated with lower survival rates compared to localized cancer.
Explanation: Genetic predisposition to disease is influenced by multiple factors, including the presence of inherited genetic mutations or variations, environmental factors, and lifestyle choices. The likelihood of developing a particular disease can be increased by inherited genetic mutations that affect the functioning of specific genes or biological pathways. For example, inherited mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes increase the risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer.
The expression of genetic predisposition to disease can vary widely, and not all individuals with a genetic predisposition will develop the disease. Additionally, many factors can influence the likelihood of developing a particular disease, such as environmental exposures, lifestyle choices, and other health conditions.
Inheritance patterns: Genetic predisposition to disease can be inherited in an autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, or multifactorial pattern, depending on the specific disease and the genetic mutations involved. Autosomal dominant inheritance means that a single copy of the mutated gene is enough to cause the disease, while autosomal recessive inheritance requires two copies of the mutated gene. Multifactorial inheritance involves multiple genes and environmental factors contributing to the development of the disease.
Examples of diseases with a known genetic predisposition:
1. Huntington's disease: An autosomal dominant disorder caused by an expansion of a CAG repeat in the Huntingtin gene, leading to progressive neurodegeneration and cognitive decline.
2. Cystic fibrosis: An autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the CFTR gene, leading to respiratory and digestive problems.
3. BRCA1/2-related breast and ovarian cancer: An inherited increased risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer due to mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes.
4. Sickle cell anemia: An autosomal recessive disorder caused by a point mutation in the HBB gene, leading to defective hemoglobin production and red blood cell sickling.
5. Type 1 diabetes: An autoimmune disease caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors, including multiple genes in the HLA complex.
Understanding the genetic basis of disease can help with early detection, prevention, and treatment. For example, genetic testing can identify individuals who are at risk for certain diseases, allowing for earlier intervention and preventive measures. Additionally, understanding the genetic basis of a disease can inform the development of targeted therapies and personalized medicine."
These disorders are caused by changes in specific genes that fail to function properly, leading to a cascade of effects that can damage cells and tissues throughout the body. Some inherited diseases are the result of single gene mutations, while others are caused by multiple genetic changes.
Inherited diseases can be diagnosed through various methods, including:
1. Genetic testing: This involves analyzing a person's DNA to identify specific genetic changes that may be causing the disease.
2. Blood tests: These can help identify certain inherited diseases by measuring enzyme levels or identifying specific proteins in the blood.
3. Imaging studies: X-rays, CT scans, and MRI scans can help identify structural changes in the body that may be indicative of an inherited disease.
4. Physical examination: A healthcare provider may perform a physical examination to look for signs of an inherited disease, such as unusual physical features or abnormalities.
Inherited diseases can be treated in various ways, depending on the specific condition and its causes. Some treatments include:
1. Medications: These can help manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease.
2. Surgery: In some cases, surgery may be necessary to correct physical abnormalities or repair damaged tissues.
3. Gene therapy: This involves using genes to treat or prevent inherited diseases.
4. Rehabilitation: Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and other forms of rehabilitation can help individuals with inherited diseases manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.
Inherited diseases are a significant public health concern, as they affect millions of people worldwide. However, advances in genetic research and medical technology have led to the development of new treatments and management strategies for these conditions. By working with healthcare providers and advocacy groups, individuals with inherited diseases can access the resources and support they need to manage their conditions and improve their quality of life.
There are several types of lung neoplasms, including:
1. Adenocarcinoma: This is the most common type of lung cancer, accounting for approximately 40% of all lung cancers. It is a malignant tumor that originates in the glands of the respiratory tract and can be found in any part of the lung.
2. Squamous cell carcinoma: This type of lung cancer accounts for approximately 25% of all lung cancers and is more common in men than women. It is a malignant tumor that originates in the squamous cells lining the airways of the lungs.
3. Small cell lung cancer (SCLC): This is a highly aggressive form of lung cancer that accounts for approximately 15% of all lung cancers. It is often found in the central parts of the lungs and can spread quickly to other parts of the body.
4. Large cell carcinoma: This is a rare type of lung cancer that accounts for only about 5% of all lung cancers. It is a malignant tumor that originates in the large cells of the respiratory tract and can be found in any part of the lung.
5. Bronchioalveolar carcinoma (BAC): This is a rare type of lung cancer that originates in the cells lining the airways and alveoli of the lungs. It is more common in women than men and tends to affect older individuals.
6. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM): This is a rare, progressive, and often fatal lung disease that primarily affects women of childbearing age. It is characterized by the growth of smooth muscle-like cells in the lungs and can lead to cysts, lung collapse, and respiratory failure.
7. Hamartoma: This is a benign tumor that originates in the tissue of the lungs and is usually found in children. It is characterized by an overgrowth of normal lung tissue and can be treated with surgery.
8. Secondary lung cancer: This type of cancer occurs when cancer cells from another part of the body spread to the lungs through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. It is more common in people who have a history of smoking or exposure to other carcinogens.
9. Metastatic cancer: This type of cancer occurs when cancer cells from another part of the body spread to the lungs through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. It is more common in people who have a history of smoking or exposure to other carcinogens.
10. Mesothelioma: This is a rare and aggressive form of cancer that originates in the lining of the lungs or abdomen. It is caused by asbestos exposure and can be treated with surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.
Lung diseases can also be classified based on their cause, such as:
1. Infectious diseases: These are caused by bacteria, viruses, or other microorganisms and can include pneumonia, tuberculosis, and bronchitis.
2. Autoimmune diseases: These are caused by an overactive immune system and can include conditions such as sarcoidosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
3. Genetic diseases: These are caused by inherited mutations in genes that affect the lungs and can include cystic fibrosis and primary ciliary dyskinesia.
4. Environmental diseases: These are caused by exposure to harmful substances such as tobacco smoke, air pollution, and asbestos.
5. Radiological diseases: These are caused by exposure to ionizing radiation and can include conditions such as radiographic breast cancer and lung cancer.
6. Vascular diseases: These are caused by problems with the blood vessels in the lungs and can include conditions such as pulmonary embolism and pulmonary hypertension.
7. Tumors: These can be benign or malignant and can include conditions such as lung metastases and lung cancer.
8. Trauma: This can include injuries to the chest or lungs caused by accidents or other forms of trauma.
9. Congenital diseases: These are present at birth and can include conditions such as bronchopulmonary foregut malformations and congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation.
Each type of lung disease has its own set of symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any persistent or severe respiratory symptoms, as early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes and quality of life.
There are several types of gliomas, including:
1. Astrocytoma: This is the most common type of glioma, accounting for about 50% of all cases. It arises from the star-shaped cells called astrocytes that provide support and nutrients to the brain's nerve cells.
2. Oligodendroglioma: This type of glioma originates from the oligodendrocytes, which are responsible for producing the fatty substance called myelin that insulates the nerve fibers.
3. Glioblastoma (GBM): This is the most aggressive and malignant type of glioma, accounting for about 70% of all cases. It is fast-growing and often spreads to other parts of the brain.
4. Brain stem glioma: This type of glioma arises in the brain stem, which is responsible for controlling many of the body's vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure.
The symptoms of glioma depend on the location and size of the tumor. Common symptoms include headaches, seizures, weakness or numbness in the arms or legs, and changes in personality, memory, or speech.
Gliomas are diagnosed through a combination of imaging tests such as CT or MRI scans, and tissue biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells. Treatment options for glioma depend on the type and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Surgery is often the first line of treatment to remove as much of the tumor as possible, followed by radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy to kill any remaining cancer cells.
The prognosis for glioma patients varies depending on the type and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. In general, the prognosis is better for patients with slow-growing, low-grade tumors, while those with fast-growing, high-grade tumors have a poorer prognosis. Overall, the 5-year survival rate for glioma patients is around 30-40%.
Malignant prostatic neoplasms are cancerous tumors that can be aggressive and spread to other parts of the body (metastasize). The most common type of malignant prostatic neoplasm is adenocarcinoma of the prostate, which accounts for approximately 95% of all prostate cancers. Other types of malignant prostatic neoplasms include sarcomas and small cell carcinomas.
Prostatic neoplasms can be diagnosed through a variety of tests such as digital rectal examination (DRE), prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test, imaging studies (ultrasound, CT scan or MRI), and biopsy. Treatment options for prostatic neoplasms depend on the type, stage, and grade of the tumor, as well as the patient's age and overall health. Treatment options can include active surveillance, surgery (robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy or open prostatectomy), radiation therapy (external beam radiation therapy or brachytherapy), and hormone therapy.
In summary, Prostatic Neoplasms are tumors that occur in the prostate gland, which can be benign or malignant. The most common types of malignant prostatic neoplasms are adenocarcinoma of the prostate, and other types include sarcomas and small cell carcinomas. Diagnosis is done through a variety of tests, and treatment options depend on the type, stage, and grade of the tumor, as well as the patient's age and overall health.
1. Tumor size and location: Larger tumors that have spread to nearby tissues or organs are generally considered more invasive than smaller tumors that are confined to the original site.
2. Cellular growth patterns: The way in which cancer cells grow and divide can also contribute to the overall invasiveness of a neoplasm. For example, cells that grow in a disorganized or chaotic manner may be more likely to invade surrounding tissues.
3. Mitotic index: The mitotic index is a measure of how quickly the cancer cells are dividing. A higher mitotic index is generally associated with more aggressive and invasive cancers.
4. Necrosis: Necrosis, or the death of cells, can be an indication of the level of invasiveness of a neoplasm. The presence of significant necrosis in a tumor is often a sign that the cancer has invaded surrounding tissues and organs.
5. Lymphovascular invasion: Cancer cells that have invaded lymphatic vessels or blood vessels are considered more invasive than those that have not.
6. Perineural invasion: Cancer cells that have invaded nerve fibers are also considered more invasive.
7. Histological grade: The histological grade of a neoplasm is a measure of how abnormal the cancer cells look under a microscope. Higher-grade cancers are generally considered more aggressive and invasive than lower-grade cancers.
8. Immunohistochemical markers: Certain immunohistochemical markers, such as Ki-67, can be used to evaluate the proliferative activity of cancer cells. Higher levels of these markers are generally associated with more aggressive and invasive cancers.
Overall, the degree of neoplasm invasiveness is an important factor in determining the likelihood of the cancer spreading to other parts of the body (metastasizing) and in determining the appropriate treatment strategy for the patient.
There are several types of melanoma, including:
1. Superficial spreading melanoma: This is the most common type of melanoma, accounting for about 70% of cases. It usually appears as a flat or slightly raised discolored patch on the skin.
2. Nodular melanoma: This type of melanoma is more aggressive and accounts for about 15% of cases. It typically appears as a raised bump on the skin, often with a darker color.
3. Acral lentiginous melanoma: This type of melanoma affects the palms of the hands, soles of the feet, or nail beds and accounts for about 5% of cases.
4. Lentigo maligna melanoma: This type of melanoma usually affects the face and is more common in older adults.
The risk factors for developing melanoma include:
1. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure from the sun or tanning beds
2. Fair skin, light hair, and light eyes
3. A history of sunburns
4. Weakened immune system
5. Family history of melanoma
The symptoms of melanoma can vary depending on the type and location of the cancer. Common symptoms include:
1. Changes in the size, shape, or color of a mole
2. A new mole or growth on the skin
3. A spot or sore that bleeds or crusts over
4. Itching or pain on the skin
5. Redness or swelling around a mole
If melanoma is suspected, a biopsy will be performed to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment options for melanoma depend on the stage and location of the cancer and may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these. Early detection and treatment are key to successful outcomes in melanoma cases.
In conclusion, melanoma is a type of skin cancer that can be deadly if not detected early. It is important to practice sun safety, perform regular self-exams, and seek medical attention if any suspicious changes are noticed on the skin. By being aware of the risk factors, symptoms, and treatment options for melanoma, individuals can take steps to protect themselves from this potentially deadly disease.
Glioblastomas are highly malignant tumors that can grow rapidly and infiltrate surrounding brain tissue, making them difficult to remove surgically. They often recur after treatment and are usually fatal within a few years of diagnosis.
The symptoms of glioblastoma can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor but may include headaches, seizures, weakness or numbness in the arms or legs, and changes in personality, memory or cognitive function.
Glioblastomas are diagnosed through a combination of imaging tests such as CT or MRI scans, and a biopsy to confirm the presence of cancerous cells. Treatment typically involves surgery to remove as much of the tumor as possible, followed by radiation therapy and chemotherapy to slow the growth of any remaining cancerous cells.
Prognosis for glioblastoma is generally poor, with a five-year survival rate of around 5% for newly diagnosed patients. However, the prognosis can vary depending on factors such as the location and size of the tumor, the patient's age and overall health, and the effectiveness of treatment.
Some common examples of neurodegenerative diseases include:
1. Alzheimer's disease: A progressive loss of cognitive function, memory, and thinking skills that is the most common form of dementia.
2. Parkinson's disease: A disorder that affects movement, balance, and coordination, causing tremors, rigidity, and difficulty with walking.
3. Huntington's disease: An inherited condition that causes progressive loss of cognitive, motor, and psychiatric functions.
4. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS): A disease that affects the nerve cells responsible for controlling voluntary muscle movement, leading to muscle weakness, paralysis, and eventually death.
5. Prion diseases: A group of rare and fatal disorders caused by misfolded proteins in the brain, leading to neurodegeneration and death.
6. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: A rare, degenerative, and fatal brain disorder caused by an abnormal form of a protein called a prion.
7. Frontotemporal dementia: A group of diseases that affect the front and temporal lobes of the brain, leading to changes in personality, behavior, and language.
Neurodegenerative diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, age, lifestyle, and environmental factors. They are typically diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment options for neurodegenerative diseases vary depending on the specific condition and its underlying causes, but may include medications, therapy, and lifestyle changes.
Preventing or slowing the progression of neurodegenerative diseases is a major focus of current research, with various potential therapeutic strategies being explored, such as:
1. Stem cell therapies: Using stem cells to replace damaged neurons and restore brain function.
2. Gene therapies: Replacing or editing genes that are linked to neurodegenerative diseases.
3. Small molecule therapies: Developing small molecules that can slow or prevent the progression of neurodegenerative diseases.
4. Immunotherapies: Harnessing the immune system to combat neurodegenerative diseases.
5. Lifestyle interventions: Promoting healthy lifestyle choices, such as regular exercise and a balanced diet, to reduce the risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases.
In conclusion, neurodegenerative diseases are a complex and diverse group of disorders that can have a profound impact on individuals and society. While there is currently no cure for these conditions, research is providing new insights into their causes and potential treatments. By continuing to invest in research and developing innovative therapeutic strategies, we can work towards improving the lives of those affected by neurodegenerative diseases and ultimately finding a cure.
These diseases can cause a wide range of symptoms such as fatigue, weight changes, and poor wound healing. Treatment options vary depending on the specific condition but may include lifestyle changes, medications, or surgery.
Adenocarcinoma is a term used to describe a variety of different types of cancer that arise in glandular tissue, including:
1. Colorectal adenocarcinoma (cancer of the colon or rectum)
2. Breast adenocarcinoma (cancer of the breast)
3. Prostate adenocarcinoma (cancer of the prostate gland)
4. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (cancer of the pancreas)
5. Lung adenocarcinoma (cancer of the lung)
6. Thyroid adenocarcinoma (cancer of the thyroid gland)
7. Skin adenocarcinoma (cancer of the skin)
The symptoms of adenocarcinoma depend on the location of the cancer and can include:
1. Blood in the stool or urine
2. Abdominal pain or discomfort
3. Changes in bowel habits
4. Unusual vaginal bleeding (in the case of endometrial adenocarcinoma)
5. A lump or thickening in the breast or elsewhere
6. Weight loss
8. Coughing up blood (in the case of lung adenocarcinoma)
The diagnosis of adenocarcinoma is typically made through a combination of imaging tests, such as CT scans, MRI scans, and PET scans, and a biopsy, which involves removing a sample of tissue from the affected area and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.
Treatment options for adenocarcinoma depend on the location of the cancer and can include:
1. Surgery to remove the tumor
2. Chemotherapy, which involves using drugs to kill cancer cells
3. Radiation therapy, which involves using high-energy X-rays or other particles to kill cancer cells
4. Targeted therapy, which involves using drugs that target specific molecules on cancer cells to kill them
5. Immunotherapy, which involves using drugs that stimulate the immune system to fight cancer cells.
The prognosis for adenocarcinoma is generally good if the cancer is detected and treated early, but it can be more challenging to treat if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
There are several types of chromosome aberrations, including:
1. Chromosomal deletions: Loss of a portion of a chromosome.
2. Chromosomal duplications: Extra copies of a chromosome or a portion of a chromosome.
3. Chromosomal translocations: A change in the position of a chromosome or a portion of a chromosome.
4. Chromosomal inversions: A reversal of a segment of a chromosome.
5. Chromosomal amplifications: An increase in the number of copies of a particular chromosome or gene.
Chromosome aberrations can be detected through various techniques, such as karyotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), or array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). These tests can help identify changes in the chromosomal makeup of cells and provide information about the underlying genetic causes of disease.
Chromosome aberrations are associated with a wide range of diseases, including:
1. Cancer: Chromosome abnormalities are common in cancer cells and can contribute to the development and progression of cancer.
2. Birth defects: Many birth defects are caused by chromosome abnormalities, such as Down syndrome (trisomy 21), which is caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21.
3. Neurological disorders: Chromosome aberrations have been linked to various neurological disorders, including autism and intellectual disability.
4. Immunodeficiency diseases: Some immunodeficiency diseases, such as X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), are caused by chromosome abnormalities.
5. Infectious diseases: Chromosome aberrations can increase the risk of infection with certain viruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
6. Ageing: Chromosome aberrations have been linked to the ageing process and may contribute to the development of age-related diseases.
7. Radiation exposure: Exposure to radiation can cause chromosome abnormalities, which can increase the risk of cancer and other diseases.
8. Genetic disorders: Many genetic disorders are caused by chromosome aberrations, such as Turner syndrome (45,X), which is caused by a missing X chromosome.
9. Rare diseases: Chromosome aberrations can cause rare diseases, such as Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY), which is caused by an extra copy of the X chromosome.
10. Infertility: Chromosome abnormalities can contribute to infertility in both men and women.
Understanding the causes and consequences of chromosome aberrations is important for developing effective treatments and improving human health.
Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is the most common type of malignant pancreatic neoplasm and accounts for approximately 85% of all pancreatic cancers. It originates in the glandular tissue of the pancreas and has a poor prognosis, with a five-year survival rate of less than 10%.
Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) are less common but more treatable than pancreatic adenocarcinoma. These tumors originate in the hormone-producing cells of the pancreas and can produce excess hormones that cause a variety of symptoms, such as diabetes or high blood sugar. PNETs are classified into two main types: functional and non-functional. Functional PNETs produce excess hormones and are more aggressive than non-functional tumors.
Other rare types of pancreatic neoplasms include acinar cell carcinoma, ampullary cancer, and oncocytic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. These tumors are less common than pancreatic adenocarcinoma and PNETs but can be equally aggressive and difficult to treat.
The symptoms of pancreatic neoplasms vary depending on the type and location of the tumor, but they often include abdominal pain, weight loss, jaundice, and fatigue. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of imaging tests such as CT scans, endoscopic ultrasound, and biopsy. Treatment options for pancreatic neoplasms depend on the type and stage of the tumor but may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these.
Prognosis for patients with pancreatic neoplasms is generally poor, especially for those with advanced stages of disease. However, early detection and treatment can improve survival rates. Research into the causes and mechanisms of pancreatic neoplasms is ongoing, with a focus on developing new and more effective treatments for these devastating diseases.
1. Coronary artery disease: The narrowing or blockage of the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart.
2. Heart failure: A condition in which the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs.
3. Arrhythmias: Abnormal heart rhythms that can be too fast, too slow, or irregular.
4. Heart valve disease: Problems with the heart valves that control blood flow through the heart.
5. Heart muscle disease (cardiomyopathy): Disease of the heart muscle that can lead to heart failure.
6. Congenital heart disease: Defects in the heart's structure and function that are present at birth.
7. Peripheral artery disease: The narrowing or blockage of blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients to the arms, legs, and other organs.
8. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT): A blood clot that forms in a deep vein, usually in the leg.
9. Pulmonary embolism: A blockage in one of the arteries in the lungs, which can be caused by a blood clot or other debris.
10. Stroke: A condition in which there is a lack of oxygen to the brain due to a blockage or rupture of blood vessels.
There are several types of skin neoplasms, including:
1. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC): This is the most common type of skin cancer, and it usually appears as a small, fleshy bump or a flat, scaly patch. BCC is highly treatable, but if left untreated, it can grow and invade surrounding tissue.
2. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC): This type of skin cancer is less common than BCC but more aggressive. It typically appears as a firm, flat, or raised bump on sun-exposed areas. SCC can spread to other parts of the body if left untreated.
3. Melanoma: This is the most serious type of skin cancer, accounting for only 1% of all skin neoplasms but responsible for the majority of skin cancer deaths. Melanoma can appear as a new or changing mole, and it's essential to recognize the ABCDE signs (Asymmetry, Border irregularity, Color variation, Diameter >6mm, Evolving size, shape, or color) to detect it early.
4. Sebaceous gland carcinoma: This rare type of skin cancer originates in the oil-producing glands of the skin and can appear as a firm, painless nodule on the forehead, nose, or other oily areas.
5. Merkel cell carcinoma: This is a rare and aggressive skin cancer that typically appears as a firm, shiny bump on the skin. It's more common in older adults and those with a history of sun exposure.
6. Cutaneous lymphoma: This type of cancer affects the immune system and can appear as a rash, nodules, or tumors on the skin.
7. Kaposi sarcoma: This is a rare type of skin cancer that affects people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS. It typically appears as a flat, red or purple lesion on the skin.
While skin cancers are generally curable when detected early, it's important to be aware of your skin and notice any changes or unusual spots, especially if you have a history of sun exposure or other risk factors. If you suspect anything suspicious, see a dermatologist for an evaluation and potential biopsy. Remember, prevention is key to avoiding the harmful effects of UV radiation and reducing your risk of developing skin cancer.
1. Atherosclerosis: A condition in which plaque builds up inside the arteries, causing them to narrow and harden. This can lead to heart disease, heart attack, or stroke.
2. Hypertension: High blood pressure that can damage blood vessels and increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and other conditions.
3. Peripheral artery disease (PAD): A condition in which the blood vessels in the legs and arms become narrowed or blocked, leading to pain, cramping, and weakness in the affected limbs.
4. Raynaud's phenomenon: A condition that causes blood vessels in the hands and feet to constrict in response to cold temperatures or stress, leading to discoloration, numbness, and tissue damage.
5. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT): A condition in which a blood clot forms in the deep veins of the legs, often caused by immobility or injury.
6. Varicose veins: Enlarged, twisted veins that can cause pain, swelling, and cosmetic concerns.
7. Angioplasty: A medical procedure in which a balloon is used to open up narrowed blood vessels, often performed to treat peripheral artery disease or blockages in the legs.
8. Stenting: A medical procedure in which a small mesh tube is placed inside a blood vessel to keep it open and improve blood flow.
9. Carotid endarterectomy: A surgical procedure to remove plaque from the carotid arteries, which supply blood to the brain, to reduce the risk of stroke.
10. Bypass surgery: A surgical procedure in which a healthy blood vessel is used to bypass a blocked or narrowed blood vessel, often performed to treat coronary artery disease or peripheral artery disease.
Overall, vascular diseases can have a significant impact on quality of life and can increase the risk of serious complications such as stroke, heart attack, and amputation. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time, as early diagnosis and treatment can help to prevent long-term damage and improve outcomes.
Benign ovarian neoplasms include:
1. Serous cystadenoma: A fluid-filled sac that develops on the surface of the ovary.
2. Mucinous cystadenoma: A tumor that is filled with mucin, a type of protein.
3. Endometrioid tumors: Tumors that are similar to endometrial tissue (the lining of the uterus).
4. Theca cell tumors: Tumors that develop in the supportive tissue of the ovary called theca cells.
Malignant ovarian neoplasms include:
1. Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC): The most common type of ovarian cancer, which arises from the surface epithelium of the ovary.
2. Germ cell tumors: Tumors that develop from germ cells, which are the cells that give rise to eggs.
3. Stromal sarcomas: Tumors that develop in the supportive tissue of the ovary.
Ovarian neoplasms can cause symptoms such as pelvic pain, abnormal bleeding, and abdominal swelling. They can also be detected through pelvic examination, imaging tests such as ultrasound and CT scan, and biopsy. Treatment options for ovarian neoplasms depend on the type, stage, and location of the tumor, and may include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.
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- This Roadmap provides a commercially focused and strategic view of how synthetic biology could underpin a thriving Australian bioeconomy worth up to $27 billion by 2040. (www.csiro.au)
- Synthetic biology is a transformative and interdisciplinary field of science. (www.csiro.au)
- Synthetic biology-enabled solutions have applications in sectors like health, agriculture, biosecurity and the environment and could help us solve some of Australia's greatest challenges. (www.csiro.au)
- This National Synthetic Biology Roadmap report, released in August 2021, identifies the value that synthetic biology could unlock for Australia and discusses how Australia can accelerate the demonstration, scaling, and commercial success of its applications. (www.csiro.au)
- Under a high growth, high market share scenario, synthetic biology could unlock up to $27 billion in annual revenue and 44,000 new jobs for Australia by 2040. (www.csiro.au)
- The largest emerging markets for synthetic biology applications are expected to be food and agriculture, followed by health and medicine industries. (www.csiro.au)
- Capturing the full opportunity will require synthetic biology to be a critical national capability that underpins a thriving Australian bioeconomy. (www.csiro.au)
- This will require maintaining investments in synthetic biology research while increasing support for the ecosystem's most critical challenge: industrial translation and scale-up. (www.csiro.au)
- Professor Claudia Vickers: Synthetic Biology is basically recoding life using DNA. (www.csiro.au)
- Professor Claudia Vickers: By 2040 Synthetic Biology could deliver a $27 billion industry for Australia and it's an opportunity we can't afford to miss out on. (www.csiro.au)
- Since then, biotechnology advanced to its second-generation, also called "synthetic biology. (cdc.gov)
- Biology (Basel);12(6)2023 Jun 13. (bvsalud.org)
- Our researchers manipulate microbial systems, plants and mammalian cell biology using state-of-the-art omics technologies, mathematical modelling and systems biology. (york.ac.uk)
- In the Department of Biology we offer courses and degree programs that deal with the scientific study of animals and plants, as well as fungi and other microbial life, and medical biology. (brandonu.ca)
- The Biology Education Major at BYU-Idaho requires completion of coursework in Biology, BYU-Idaho General Education classes, and Education classes needed for certification as a secondary (grades 6th through 12th) education teacher in the state of Idaho (Idaho certification can be transferred to other states) The Biology Education major at BYU-Idaho also requires the completion of a Science Education Minor. (byui.edu)
- Our program, which typically requires two years, provides advanced training and expertise in biology through coursework, research, and a strong academic environment. (cwu.edu)
- The PhD in Biology requires a minimum of 90 credit hours, including at least 24 credit hours of graded coursework and at least 30 hours of research credit. (k-state.edu)
- Innate Immunity in Cancer Biology and Therapy. (bvsalud.org)
- These subdivisions, in turn, provide the fundamental knowledge on which the biomedical professions (e.g. medicine, dentistry, optometry) are based, as well as for careers in agriculture, wildlife biology and environmental science . (brandonu.ca)
- The Biology Forum is a great place to discuss articles in the BellaOnline Biology Site, share interesting biological information, or share fun facts about you. (bellaonline.com)
- The London Vascular Biology Forum hold regular research meetings for its members with a focus on vascular biology research based in London. (kcl.ac.uk)
- We place great emphasis on practice, which is why research-oriented internships run through all areas of biology, and are constant companions for students during their studies. (uni-bayreuth.de)
- Subscribe for free weekly updates from this Biology site. (bellaonline.com)
- The 64th London Vascular Biology Forum Christmas Poster Meeting takes place on 4 December 2019. (kcl.ac.uk)
- The Biology Graduate Program prepares you to become an enlightened, responsible, and productive scientist with essential skills, a deep understanding of your discipline, respect for diversity, and the ability to think critically and communicate clearly. (cwu.edu)
- 1 Department of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology, Cell Science Research Center, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, ACECR, Tehran, Iran. (nih.gov)
- In the Otolaryngology Branch, basic molecular biology and genetic research is carried out in the Molecular Biology and Genetics Section. (nih.gov)
- The Laboratory of Cardiovascular Biology, led by Dr. Leslie Kennedy, investigates pathways and mechanisms that can be exploited to ultimately benefit patients prone to cardiovascular pathologies. (nih.gov)
- The Structural Biology Core Facility helps NIEHS researchers design projects to express, purify, and biophysically characterize proteins and macromolecular complexes. (nih.gov)
- The Structural Biology Unit is part of the Biological Imaging Core Facility . (nih.gov)
- The Structural Biology Unit is located in building 6 room 206 on the NIH main campus. (nih.gov)
- The goal of the Common Fund's Structural Biology program was to develop novel methods to isolate large amounts of membrane proteins and determine their protein structures. (nih.gov)
- During the first phase of the Structural Biology Research Program (FY2004-2008), the Common Fund supported two Centers for Innovation in Membrane Protein Production that enabled interdisciplinary groups of scientists to develop innovative methods for producing large quantities of membrane proteins. (nih.gov)
- During the second phase of the Structural Biology Research Program (FY2009-2013), researchers developed additional innovative approaches for membrane protein production as well as structure determination, including methodologies that can be applied to protein complexes made up of multiple protein components, such as different types of proteins. (nih.gov)
- Please note that since the Structural Biology program is no longer supported by the Common Fund, the program website is being maintained as an archive and will not be updated on a regular basis. (nih.gov)
- For more information on the Structural Biology Program, please contact Dr. Peter C. Preusch ( pr[email protected] ) or Dr. Jean Chin ( [email protected] ). (nih.gov)
- The Structural Biology program has transitioned from Common Fund support. (nih.gov)
- The Structural Biology program was supported by the Common Fund FY2004 through FY2013. (nih.gov)
- Efforts in the area of structural biology will continue via various other means of funding outside of the Common Fund. (nih.gov)
- Progress in many of these areas, for example, structural biology, bioinformatics, modeling of complex and interacting systems, population genetics and evolution, would benefit from including individuals with training in the quantitative disciplines cited above. (nih.gov)
- An ideal program in integrative cancer biology will be organized around an important problem in cancer that balances and seamlessly integrates experimental biology with computation and modeling. (nih.gov)
- NIEHS research uses state-of-the-art science and technology to investigate the interplay between environmental exposures, human biology, genetics, and common diseases to help prevent disease and improve human health. (nih.gov)
- NIAID conducts and supports a comprehensive vector biology research program to advance science and identify approaches that will help control or prevent the transmission of vector-borne pathogens to humans. (nih.gov)
- The NCI, through the NIH Biomedical Information Science and Technology Initiative or BISTI, also supports smaller specific applications primarily focused on bio-computing and bioinformatics. (nih.gov)
- It will enable the formation of teams of researchers from a spectrum of fields, including biology, imaging, engineering, technology, bioinformatics, and computational modeling, who can focus on understanding and modeling some aspect of the complexity of cancer. (nih.gov)
- The Cardiovascular Biology Section was formed in 2000 and is comprised of three units: Basic Cardiac Studies unit, Basic Vascular Studies Unit, and Translational Studies Unit. (nih.gov)
- The Cutaneous Leukocyte Biology Section aims to understand how skin functions as an immune organ and studies mechanisms that underlie host-microbial symbiosis during health and disease, in both experimental models and human diseases. (nih.gov)
- The Arthritis Biology Program covers basic as well as patient-relevant clinical research in a number of arthritic diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, Lyme arthritis, and viral arthritis. (nih.gov)
- This includes basic research to better understand the biology of arthropod vectors, how they transmit diseases, and how they find and interact with human hosts. (nih.gov)
- The overall thrust of this program will be the integration of experimental and computational approaches towards the understanding of cancer biology. (nih.gov)
- This initiative is intended to facilitate the establishment of research programs in integrative cancer biology, which bring together cancer biologists and scientists from fields such as mathematics, physics, information technology, imaging sciences, and computer science to work on a common cancer biology problem. (nih.gov)
- These Integrative Cancer Biology Programs (ICBPs) will fund teams capable of addressing questions of cancer complexity with a wide scope of research activities. (nih.gov)
- This initiative is designed to foster the emergence of the new field of systems biology focused on the understanding of cancer as a complex disease. (nih.gov)