One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.
Comprehensive, methodical analysis of complex biological systems by monitoring responses to perturbations of biological processes. Large scale, computerized collection and analysis of the data are used to develop and test models of biological systems.
A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.
The field of biology which deals with the process of the growth and differentiation of an organism.
A field of biological research combining engineering in the formulation, design, and building (synthesis) of novel biological structures, functions, and systems.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
The fundamental, structural, and functional units or subunits of living organisms. They are composed of CYTOPLASM containing various ORGANELLES and a CELL MEMBRANE boundary.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
Cellular processes, properties, and characteristics.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
The application of engineering principles and methods to living organisms or biological systems.
The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Study of the scientific principles, mechanisms, and effects of the interaction of ionizing radiation with living matter. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
Cellular functions, mechanisms, and activities.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The study of the development of an organism during the embryonic and fetal stages of life.
Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.
Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.
The study of the composition, chemical structures, and chemical reactions of living things.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Societies whose membership is limited to scientists.
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.
The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
The process of finding chemicals for potential therapeutic use.
The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Chemically synthesized structures which functionally resemble natural cells.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.
Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
The educational process of instructing.
A definite pathologic process with a characteristic set of signs and symptoms. It may affect the whole body or any of its parts, and its etiology, pathology, and prognosis may be known or unknown.
Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.
Specific languages used to prepare computer programs.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Software designed to store, manipulate, manage, and control data for specific uses.
The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.
Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.
Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.
A course of study offered by an educational institution.
Programs of study which span the traditional boundaries of academic scholarship.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
The procedures involved in combining separately developed modules, components, or subsystems so that they work together as a complete system. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)
Therapeutic approach tailoring therapy for genetically defined subgroups of patients.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A field of medicine concerned with developing and using strategies aimed at repair or replacement of damaged, diseased, or metabolically deficient organs, tissues, and cells via TISSUE ENGINEERING; CELL TRANSPLANTATION; and ARTIFICIAL ORGANS and BIOARTIFICIAL ORGANS and tissues.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The application of discoveries generated by laboratory research and preclinical studies to the development of clinical trials and studies in humans. A second area of translational research concerns enhancing the adoption of best practices.
Chromosomal, biochemical, intracellular, and other methods used in the study of genetics.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.
The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.
Treatments with drugs which interact with or block synthesis of specific cellular components characteristic of the individual's disease in order to stop or interrupt the specific biochemical dysfunction involved in progression of the disease.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
The practical application of physical, mechanical, and mathematical principles. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.
Graphs representing sets of measurable, non-covalent physical contacts with specific PROTEINS in living organisms or in cells.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Use of sophisticated analysis tools to sort through, organize, examine, and combine large sets of information.
A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.
Methods used to study CELLS.
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.
Rapid methods of measuring the effects of an agent in a biological or chemical assay. The assay usually involves some form of automation or a way to conduct multiple assays at the same time using sample arrays.
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
Acquisition of knowledge as a result of instruction in a formal course of study.
Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The study of the structure, growth, activities, and functions of NEURONS and the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Books used in the study of a subject that contain a systematic presentation of the principles and vocabulary of a subject.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
A coordinated effort of researchers to map (CHROMOSOME MAPPING) and sequence (SEQUENCE ANALYSIS, DNA) the human GENOME.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
The transfer of POLLEN grains (male gametes) to the plant ovule (female gamete).
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.
The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.
Processes that incorporate some element of randomness, used particularly to refer to a time series of random variables.
A medical specialty concerned with the hypersensitivity of the individual to foreign substances and protection from the resultant infection or disorder.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.
Application of principles and practices of engineering science to biomedical research and health care.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
The genetic complement of a helminth (HELMINTHS) as represented in its DNA.
Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.
Biological activities and function of the whole organism in human, animal, microorgansims, and plants, and of the biosphere.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The biological science concerned with similarities or differences in the life-supporting functions and processes of different species.
The reproductive organs of plants.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
Methods utilizing the principles of MICROFLUIDICS for sample handling, reagent mixing, and separation and detection of specific components in fluids.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Databases containing information about NUCLEIC ACIDS such as BASE SEQUENCE; SNPS; NUCLEIC ACID CONFORMATION; and other properties. Information about the DNA fragments kept in a GENE LIBRARY or GENOMIC LIBRARY is often maintained in DNA databases.
A love or pursuit of wisdom. A search for the underlying causes and principles of reality. (Webster, 3d ed)
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.

Time-resolved analysis and visualization of dynamic processes in living cells. (1/657)

Recent development of in vivo microscopy techniques, including green fluorescent proteins, has allowed the visualization of a wide range of dynamic processes in living cells. For quantitative and visual interpretation of such processes, new concepts for time-resolved image analysis and continuous time-space visualization are required. Here, we describe a versatile and fully automated approach consisting of four techniques, namely highly sensitive object detection, fuzzy logic-based dynamic object tracking, computer graphical visualization, and measurement in time-space. Systematic model simulations were performed to evaluate the reliability of the automated object detection and tracking method. To demonstrate potential applications, the method was applied to the analysis of secretory membrane traffic and the functional dynamics of nuclear compartments enriched in pre-mRNA splicing factors.  (+info)

Cloning and embryonic stem cells: a new era in human biology and medicine. (2/657)

The cloning of mammals using adult cells as nuclear donors has been achieved and the same procedure can be, at least theoretically, used to clone humans. Another recent technological advance, the derivation of human embryonic stem cells, opens up new possibilities in cell and tissue replacement therapy and heralds significant improvements in gene therapy. Besides suggesting new and potentially valuable medical applications, the insights gained through the use of these techniques could significantly enrich our understanding of basic mechanisms regulating human development. On the other hand, these preliminary results are viewed by many as the opening of the Pandora's box and there are loud voices clamoring that research in these areas be forbidden in perpetuity. I suggest in the following article that at present we do not know enough to make anything but an entirely emotional decision about future applications of these techniques. I try to summarize the current state of the kn owledge in the field and indicate how much further research is necessary if benefits and drawbacks are to be properly understood.  (+info)

Chemical biology: the promise, and confusion, of adolescence. (3/657)

It takes time for any new scientific discipline to gain momentum, and chemical biology is no exception. But with the formation of new training programs and interdisciplinary departments, the changes are coming.  (+info)

DBcat: a catalog of 500 biological databases. (4/657)

The DBcat ( ) is a comprehensive catalog of biological databases, maintained and curated at Infobiogen. It contains 500 databases classified by application domains. The DBcat is a structured flat-file library, that can be searched by means of an SRS server or a dedicated Web interface. The files are available for download from Infobiogen anonymous ftp server.  (+info)

Database resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information. (5/657)

In addition to maintaining the GenBank(R) nucleic acid sequence database, the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) provides data analysis and retrieval and resources that operate on the data in GenBank and a variety of other biological data made available through NCBI's Web site. NCBI data retrieval resources include Entrez, PubMed, LocusLink and the Taxonomy Browser. Data analysis resources include BLAST, Electronic PCR, OrfFinder, RefSeq, UniGene, Database of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (dbSNP), Human Genome Sequencing pages, GeneMap'99, Davis Human-Mouse Homology Map, Cancer Chromosome Aberration Project (CCAP) pages, Entrez Genomes, Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs) database, Retroviral Genotyping Tools, Cancer Genome Anatomy Project (CGAP) pages, SAGEmap, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) and the Molecular Modeling Database (MMDB). Augmenting many of the Web applications are custom implementations of the BLAST program optimized to search specialized data sets. All of the resources can be accessed through the NCBI home page at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih. gov  (+info)

Teaching experimental design to biologists. (6/657)

The teaching of research design and data analysis to our graduate students has been a persistent problem. A course is described in which students, early in their graduate training, obtain extensive practice in designing experiments and interpreting data. Lecture-discussions on the essentials of biostatistics are given, and then these essentials are repeatedly reviewed by illustrating their applications and misapplications in numerous research design problems. Students critique these designs and prepare similar problems for peer evaluation. In most problems the treatments are confounded by extraneous variables, proper controls may be absent, or data analysis may be incorrect. For each problem, students must decide whether the researchers' conclusions are valid and, if not, must identify a fatal experimental flaw. Students learn that an experiment is a well-conceived plan for data collection, analysis, and interpretation. They enjoy the interactive evaluations of research designs and appreciate the repetitive review of common flaws in different experiments. They also benefit from their practice in scientific writing and in critically evaluating their peers' designs.  (+info)

Theoretical biology in the third millennium. (7/657)

During the 20th century our understanding of genetics and the processes of gene expression have undergone revolutionary change. Improved technology has identified the components of the living cell, and knowledge of the genetic code allows us to visualize the pathway from genotype to phenotype. We can now sequence entire genes, and improved cloning techniques enable us to transfer genes between organisms, giving a better understanding of their function. Due to the improved power of analytical tools databases of sequence information are growing at an exponential rate. Soon complete sequences of genomes and the three-dimensional structure of all proteins may be known. The question we face in the new millennium is how to apply this data in a meaningful way. Since the genes carry the specification of an organism, and because they also record evolutionary changes, we need to design a theoretical framework that can take account of the flow of information through biological systems.  (+info)

The past, the future and the biology of memory storage. (8/657)

We here briefly review a century of accomplishments in studying memory storage and delineate the two major questions that have dominated thinking in this area: the systems question of memory, which concerns where in the brain storage occurs; and the molecular question of memory, which concerns the mechanisms whereby memories are stored and maintained. We go on to consider the themes that memory research may be able to address in the 21st century. Finally, we reflect on the clinical and societal import of our increasing understanding of the mechanisms of memory, discussing possible therapeutic approaches to diseases that manifest with disruptions of learning and possible ethical implication of the ability, which is on the horizon, to ameliorate or even enhance human memory.  (+info)

Neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth of cells that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Neoplasms can occur in any part of the body and can affect various organs and tissues. The term "neoplasm" is often used interchangeably with "tumor," but while all tumors are neoplasms, not all neoplasms are tumors.

Types of Neoplasms

There are many different types of neoplasms, including:

1. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the epithelial cells lining organs and glands. Examples include breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Examples include osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and soft tissue sarcoma.
3. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system, specifically affecting the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
4. Leukemias: These are cancers of the blood and bone marrow that affect the white blood cells. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
5. Melanomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Examples include skin melanoma and eye melanoma.

Causes and Risk Factors of Neoplasms

The exact causes of neoplasms are not fully understood, but there are several known risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing a neoplasm. These include:

1. Genetic predisposition: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that increase their risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as radiation and certain chemicals, can increase the risk of developing a neoplasm.
3. Infection: Some neoplasms are caused by viruses or bacteria. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common cause of cervical cancer.
4. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a poor diet can increase the risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
5. Family history: A person's risk of developing a neoplasm may be higher if they have a family history of the condition.

Signs and Symptoms of Neoplasms

The signs and symptoms of neoplasms can vary depending on the type of cancer and where it is located in the body. Some common signs and symptoms include:

1. Unusual lumps or swelling
2. Pain
3. Fatigue
4. Weight loss
5. Change in bowel or bladder habits
6. Unexplained bleeding
7. Coughing up blood
8. Hoarseness or a persistent cough
9. Changes in appetite or digestion
10. Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the size or color of an existing mole.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Neoplasms

The diagnosis of a neoplasm usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy. A biopsy involves removing a small sample of tissue from the suspected tumor and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.

The treatment of neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Some common treatments include:

1. Surgery: Removing the tumor and surrounding tissue can be an effective way to treat many types of cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Using drugs to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
3. Radiation therapy: Using high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer is located in a specific area of the body.
4. Immunotherapy: Boosting the body's immune system to fight cancer can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
5. Targeted therapy: Using drugs or other substances to target specific molecules on cancer cells can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.

Prevention of Neoplasms

While it is not always possible to prevent neoplasms, there are several steps that can reduce the risk of developing cancer. These include:

1. Avoiding exposure to known carcinogens (such as tobacco smoke and radiation)
2. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
3. Getting regular exercise
4. Not smoking or using tobacco products
5. Limiting alcohol consumption
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viruses that are associated with cancer (such as human papillomavirus, or HPV)
7. Participating in screening programs for early detection of cancer (such as mammograms for breast cancer and colonoscopies for colon cancer)
8. Avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight and using protective measures such as sunscreen and hats to prevent skin cancer.

It's important to note that not all cancers can be prevented, and some may be caused by factors that are not yet understood or cannot be controlled. However, by taking these steps, individuals can reduce their risk of developing cancer and improve their overall health and well-being.

There are many different types of diseases, ranging from acute and short-term conditions such as the common cold or flu, to chronic and long-term conditions such as diabetes, heart disease, or cancer. Some diseases are infectious, meaning they can be transmitted from one person to another through contact with a contaminated surface or exchange of bodily fluids. Other diseases are non-infectious, meaning they are not transmitted from person to person and are typically caused by genetic mutations or environmental factors.

The diagnosis and treatment of disease is the focus of the medical field, and doctors and other healthcare professionals use a variety of tools and techniques to identify and manage diseases. These may include physical exams, laboratory tests, imaging studies, and medications. In some cases, surgery or other procedures may be necessary to treat a disease.

Some common examples of diseases include:

1. Heart disease: A condition that affects the heart and blood vessels, often caused by high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or smoking.
2. Diabetes: A condition in which the body is unable to properly regulate blood sugar levels, often caused by genetics or obesity.
3. Cancer: A condition in which abnormal cells grow and multiply, often causing damage to surrounding tissues.
4. Inflammatory diseases: Conditions such as arthritis, where the body's immune system causes inflammation and pain in the joints.
5. Neurological diseases: Conditions that affect the brain and nervous system, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, or multiple sclerosis.
6. Infectious diseases: Conditions caused by the presence of pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, or fungi, including the common cold, flu, and tuberculosis.
7. Genetic diseases: Conditions that are caused by changes in DNA, such as sickle cell anemia or cystic fibrosis.
8. Autoimmune diseases: Conditions where the body's immune system attacks healthy cells and tissues, such as rheumatoid arthritis or lupus.
9. Pulmonary diseases: Conditions that affect the lungs, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or lung cancer.
10. Gastrointestinal diseases: Conditions that affect the digestive system, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) or irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).

These are just a few examples of the many different types of diseases that exist. Diseases can be caused by a wide range of factors, including genetics, lifestyle choices, and environmental factors. Understanding the causes and symptoms of different diseases is important for developing effective treatments and improving patient outcomes.

1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.

2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.

3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.

4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.

5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.

6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.

7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.

8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.

9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.

10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.

There are different types of Breast Neoplasms such as:

1. Fibroadenomas: These are benign tumors that are made up of glandular and fibrous tissues. They are usually small and round, with a smooth surface, and can be moved easily under the skin.

2. Cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that can develop in both breast tissue and milk ducts. They are usually benign and can disappear on their own or be drained surgically.

3. Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS): This is a precancerous condition where abnormal cells grow inside the milk ducts. If left untreated, it can progress to invasive breast cancer.

4. Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC): This is the most common type of breast cancer and starts in the milk ducts but grows out of them and invades surrounding tissue.

5. Invasive Lobular Carcinoma (ILC): It originates in the milk-producing glands (lobules) and grows out of them, invading nearby tissue.

Breast Neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as a lump or thickening in the breast or underarm area, skin changes like redness or dimpling, change in size or shape of one or both breasts, discharge from the nipple, and changes in the texture or color of the skin.

Treatment options for Breast Neoplasms may include surgery such as lumpectomy, mastectomy, or breast-conserving surgery, radiation therapy which uses high-energy beams to kill cancer cells, chemotherapy using drugs to kill cancer cells, targeted therapy which uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack cancer cells while minimizing harm to normal cells, hormone therapy, immunotherapy, and clinical trials.

It is important to note that not all Breast Neoplasms are cancerous; some are benign (non-cancerous) tumors that do not spread or grow.

Explanation: Neoplastic cell transformation is a complex process that involves multiple steps and can occur as a result of genetic mutations, environmental factors, or a combination of both. The process typically begins with a series of subtle changes in the DNA of individual cells, which can lead to the loss of normal cellular functions and the acquisition of abnormal growth and reproduction patterns.

Over time, these transformed cells can accumulate further mutations that allow them to survive and proliferate despite adverse conditions. As the transformed cells continue to divide and grow, they can eventually form a tumor, which is a mass of abnormal cells that can invade and damage surrounding tissues.

In some cases, cancer cells can also break away from the primary tumor and travel through the bloodstream or lymphatic system to other parts of the body, where they can establish new tumors. This process, known as metastasis, is a major cause of death in many types of cancer.

It's worth noting that not all transformed cells will become cancerous. Some forms of cellular transformation, such as those that occur during embryonic development or tissue regeneration, are normal and necessary for the proper functioning of the body. However, when these transformations occur in adult tissues, they can be a sign of cancer.

See also: Cancer, Tumor

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There are several key features of inflammation:

1. Increased blood flow: Blood vessels in the affected area dilate, allowing more blood to flow into the tissue and bringing with it immune cells, nutrients, and other signaling molecules.
2. Leukocyte migration: White blood cells, such as neutrophils and monocytes, migrate towards the site of inflammation in response to chemical signals.
3. Release of mediators: Inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines and chemokines, are released by immune cells and other cells in the affected tissue. These molecules help to coordinate the immune response and attract more immune cells to the site of inflammation.
4. Activation of immune cells: Immune cells, such as macrophages and T cells, become activated and start to phagocytose (engulf) pathogens or damaged tissue.
5. Increased heat production: Inflammation can cause an increase in metabolic activity in the affected tissue, leading to increased heat production.
6. Redness and swelling: Increased blood flow and leakiness of blood vessels can cause redness and swelling in the affected area.
7. Pain: Inflammation can cause pain through the activation of nociceptors (pain-sensing neurons) and the release of pro-inflammatory mediators.

Inflammation can be acute or chronic. Acute inflammation is a short-term response to injury or infection, which helps to resolve the issue quickly. Chronic inflammation is a long-term response that can cause ongoing damage and diseases such as arthritis, asthma, and cancer.

There are several types of inflammation, including:

1. Acute inflammation: A short-term response to injury or infection.
2. Chronic inflammation: A long-term response that can cause ongoing damage and diseases.
3. Autoimmune inflammation: An inappropriate immune response against the body's own tissues.
4. Allergic inflammation: An immune response to a harmless substance, such as pollen or dust mites.
5. Parasitic inflammation: An immune response to parasites, such as worms or fungi.
6. Bacterial inflammation: An immune response to bacteria.
7. Viral inflammation: An immune response to viruses.
8. Fungal inflammation: An immune response to fungi.

There are several ways to reduce inflammation, including:

1. Medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs).
2. Lifestyle changes, such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, stress management, and getting enough sleep.
3. Alternative therapies, such as acupuncture, herbal supplements, and mind-body practices.
4. Addressing underlying conditions, such as hormonal imbalances, gut health issues, and chronic infections.
5. Using anti-inflammatory compounds found in certain foods, such as omega-3 fatty acids, turmeric, and ginger.

It's important to note that chronic inflammation can lead to a range of health problems, including:

1. Arthritis
2. Diabetes
3. Heart disease
4. Cancer
5. Alzheimer's disease
6. Parkinson's disease
7. Autoimmune disorders, such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis.

Therefore, it's important to manage inflammation effectively to prevent these complications and improve overall health and well-being.

Pathologic neovascularization can be seen in a variety of conditions, including cancer, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration. In cancer, for example, the formation of new blood vessels can help the tumor grow and spread to other parts of the body. In diabetic retinopathy, the growth of new blood vessels in the retina can cause vision loss and other complications.

There are several different types of pathologic neovascularization, including:

* Angiosarcoma: a type of cancer that arises from the cells lining blood vessels
* Hemangiomas: benign tumors that are composed of blood vessels
* Cavernous malformations: abnormal collections of blood vessels in the brain or other parts of the body
* Pyogenic granulomas: inflammatory lesions that can form in response to trauma or infection.

The diagnosis of pathologic neovascularization is typically made through a combination of physical examination, imaging studies (such as ultrasound, CT scans, or MRI), and biopsy. Treatment options vary depending on the underlying cause of the condition, but may include medications, surgery, or radiation therapy.

In summary, pathologic neovascularization is a process that occurs in response to injury or disease, and it can lead to serious complications. It is important for healthcare professionals to be aware of this condition and its various forms in order to provide appropriate diagnosis and treatment.

Brain neoplasms can arise from various types of cells in the brain, including glial cells (such as astrocytes and oligodendrocytes), neurons, and vascular tissues. The symptoms of brain neoplasms vary depending on their size, location, and type, but may include headaches, seizures, weakness or numbness in the limbs, and changes in personality or cognitive function.

There are several different types of brain neoplasms, including:

1. Meningiomas: These are benign tumors that arise from the meninges, the thin layers of tissue that cover the brain and spinal cord.
2. Gliomas: These are malignant tumors that arise from glial cells in the brain. The most common type of glioma is a glioblastoma, which is aggressive and hard to treat.
3. Pineal parenchymal tumors: These are rare tumors that arise in the pineal gland, a small endocrine gland in the brain.
4. Craniopharyngiomas: These are benign tumors that arise from the epithelial cells of the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus.
5. Medulloblastomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the cerebellum, specifically in the medulla oblongata. They are most common in children.
6. Acoustic neurinomas: These are benign tumors that arise on the nerve that connects the inner ear to the brain.
7. Oligodendrogliomas: These are malignant tumors that arise from oligodendrocytes, the cells that produce the fatty substance called myelin that insulates nerve fibers.
8. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system that can arise in the brain and spinal cord. The most common type of lymphoma in the CNS is primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma, which is usually a type of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
9. Metastatic tumors: These are tumors that have spread to the brain from another part of the body. The most common types of metastatic tumors in the CNS are breast cancer, lung cancer, and melanoma.

These are just a few examples of the many types of brain and spinal cord tumors that can occur. Each type of tumor has its own unique characteristics, such as its location, size, growth rate, and biological behavior. These factors can help doctors determine the best course of treatment for each patient.

Disease progression can be classified into several types based on the pattern of worsening:

1. Chronic progressive disease: In this type, the disease worsens steadily over time, with a gradual increase in symptoms and decline in function. Examples include rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and Parkinson's disease.
2. Acute progressive disease: This type of disease worsens rapidly over a short period, often followed by periods of stability. Examples include sepsis, acute myocardial infarction (heart attack), and stroke.
3. Cyclical disease: In this type, the disease follows a cycle of worsening and improvement, with periodic exacerbations and remissions. Examples include multiple sclerosis, lupus, and rheumatoid arthritis.
4. Recurrent disease: This type is characterized by episodes of worsening followed by periods of recovery. Examples include migraine headaches, asthma, and appendicitis.
5. Catastrophic disease: In this type, the disease progresses rapidly and unpredictably, with a poor prognosis. Examples include cancer, AIDS, and organ failure.

Disease progression can be influenced by various factors, including:

1. Genetics: Some diseases are inherited and may have a predetermined course of progression.
2. Lifestyle: Factors such as smoking, lack of exercise, and poor diet can contribute to disease progression.
3. Environmental factors: Exposure to toxins, allergens, and other environmental stressors can influence disease progression.
4. Medical treatment: The effectiveness of medical treatment can impact disease progression, either by slowing or halting the disease process or by causing unintended side effects.
5. Co-morbidities: The presence of multiple diseases or conditions can interact and affect each other's progression.

Understanding the type and factors influencing disease progression is essential for developing effective treatment plans and improving patient outcomes.

Neoplastic metastasis can occur in any type of cancer but are more common in solid tumors such as carcinomas (breast, lung, colon). It is important for cancer diagnosis and prognosis because metastasis indicates that the cancer has spread beyond its original site and may be more difficult to treat.

Metastases can appear at any distant location but commonly found sites include the liver, lungs, bones, brain, and lymph nodes. The presence of metastases indicates a higher stage of cancer which is associated with lower survival rates compared to localized cancer.

Explanation: Genetic predisposition to disease is influenced by multiple factors, including the presence of inherited genetic mutations or variations, environmental factors, and lifestyle choices. The likelihood of developing a particular disease can be increased by inherited genetic mutations that affect the functioning of specific genes or biological pathways. For example, inherited mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes increase the risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer.

The expression of genetic predisposition to disease can vary widely, and not all individuals with a genetic predisposition will develop the disease. Additionally, many factors can influence the likelihood of developing a particular disease, such as environmental exposures, lifestyle choices, and other health conditions.

Inheritance patterns: Genetic predisposition to disease can be inherited in an autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, or multifactorial pattern, depending on the specific disease and the genetic mutations involved. Autosomal dominant inheritance means that a single copy of the mutated gene is enough to cause the disease, while autosomal recessive inheritance requires two copies of the mutated gene. Multifactorial inheritance involves multiple genes and environmental factors contributing to the development of the disease.

Examples of diseases with a known genetic predisposition:

1. Huntington's disease: An autosomal dominant disorder caused by an expansion of a CAG repeat in the Huntingtin gene, leading to progressive neurodegeneration and cognitive decline.
2. Cystic fibrosis: An autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the CFTR gene, leading to respiratory and digestive problems.
3. BRCA1/2-related breast and ovarian cancer: An inherited increased risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer due to mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes.
4. Sickle cell anemia: An autosomal recessive disorder caused by a point mutation in the HBB gene, leading to defective hemoglobin production and red blood cell sickling.
5. Type 1 diabetes: An autoimmune disease caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors, including multiple genes in the HLA complex.

Understanding the genetic basis of disease can help with early detection, prevention, and treatment. For example, genetic testing can identify individuals who are at risk for certain diseases, allowing for earlier intervention and preventive measures. Additionally, understanding the genetic basis of a disease can inform the development of targeted therapies and personalized medicine."

These disorders are caused by changes in specific genes that fail to function properly, leading to a cascade of effects that can damage cells and tissues throughout the body. Some inherited diseases are the result of single gene mutations, while others are caused by multiple genetic changes.

Inherited diseases can be diagnosed through various methods, including:

1. Genetic testing: This involves analyzing a person's DNA to identify specific genetic changes that may be causing the disease.
2. Blood tests: These can help identify certain inherited diseases by measuring enzyme levels or identifying specific proteins in the blood.
3. Imaging studies: X-rays, CT scans, and MRI scans can help identify structural changes in the body that may be indicative of an inherited disease.
4. Physical examination: A healthcare provider may perform a physical examination to look for signs of an inherited disease, such as unusual physical features or abnormalities.

Inherited diseases can be treated in various ways, depending on the specific condition and its causes. Some treatments include:

1. Medications: These can help manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease.
2. Surgery: In some cases, surgery may be necessary to correct physical abnormalities or repair damaged tissues.
3. Gene therapy: This involves using genes to treat or prevent inherited diseases.
4. Rehabilitation: Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and other forms of rehabilitation can help individuals with inherited diseases manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.

Inherited diseases are a significant public health concern, as they affect millions of people worldwide. However, advances in genetic research and medical technology have led to the development of new treatments and management strategies for these conditions. By working with healthcare providers and advocacy groups, individuals with inherited diseases can access the resources and support they need to manage their conditions and improve their quality of life.

There are several types of lung neoplasms, including:

1. Adenocarcinoma: This is the most common type of lung cancer, accounting for approximately 40% of all lung cancers. It is a malignant tumor that originates in the glands of the respiratory tract and can be found in any part of the lung.
2. Squamous cell carcinoma: This type of lung cancer accounts for approximately 25% of all lung cancers and is more common in men than women. It is a malignant tumor that originates in the squamous cells lining the airways of the lungs.
3. Small cell lung cancer (SCLC): This is a highly aggressive form of lung cancer that accounts for approximately 15% of all lung cancers. It is often found in the central parts of the lungs and can spread quickly to other parts of the body.
4. Large cell carcinoma: This is a rare type of lung cancer that accounts for only about 5% of all lung cancers. It is a malignant tumor that originates in the large cells of the respiratory tract and can be found in any part of the lung.
5. Bronchioalveolar carcinoma (BAC): This is a rare type of lung cancer that originates in the cells lining the airways and alveoli of the lungs. It is more common in women than men and tends to affect older individuals.
6. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM): This is a rare, progressive, and often fatal lung disease that primarily affects women of childbearing age. It is characterized by the growth of smooth muscle-like cells in the lungs and can lead to cysts, lung collapse, and respiratory failure.
7. Hamartoma: This is a benign tumor that originates in the tissue of the lungs and is usually found in children. It is characterized by an overgrowth of normal lung tissue and can be treated with surgery.
8. Secondary lung cancer: This type of cancer occurs when cancer cells from another part of the body spread to the lungs through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. It is more common in people who have a history of smoking or exposure to other carcinogens.
9. Metastatic cancer: This type of cancer occurs when cancer cells from another part of the body spread to the lungs through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. It is more common in people who have a history of smoking or exposure to other carcinogens.
10. Mesothelioma: This is a rare and aggressive form of cancer that originates in the lining of the lungs or abdomen. It is caused by asbestos exposure and can be treated with surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.

Lung diseases can also be classified based on their cause, such as:

1. Infectious diseases: These are caused by bacteria, viruses, or other microorganisms and can include pneumonia, tuberculosis, and bronchitis.
2. Autoimmune diseases: These are caused by an overactive immune system and can include conditions such as sarcoidosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
3. Genetic diseases: These are caused by inherited mutations in genes that affect the lungs and can include cystic fibrosis and primary ciliary dyskinesia.
4. Environmental diseases: These are caused by exposure to harmful substances such as tobacco smoke, air pollution, and asbestos.
5. Radiological diseases: These are caused by exposure to ionizing radiation and can include conditions such as radiographic breast cancer and lung cancer.
6. Vascular diseases: These are caused by problems with the blood vessels in the lungs and can include conditions such as pulmonary embolism and pulmonary hypertension.
7. Tumors: These can be benign or malignant and can include conditions such as lung metastases and lung cancer.
8. Trauma: This can include injuries to the chest or lungs caused by accidents or other forms of trauma.
9. Congenital diseases: These are present at birth and can include conditions such as bronchopulmonary foregut malformations and congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation.

Each type of lung disease has its own set of symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any persistent or severe respiratory symptoms, as early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes and quality of life.

There are several types of gliomas, including:

1. Astrocytoma: This is the most common type of glioma, accounting for about 50% of all cases. It arises from the star-shaped cells called astrocytes that provide support and nutrients to the brain's nerve cells.
2. Oligodendroglioma: This type of glioma originates from the oligodendrocytes, which are responsible for producing the fatty substance called myelin that insulates the nerve fibers.
3. Glioblastoma (GBM): This is the most aggressive and malignant type of glioma, accounting for about 70% of all cases. It is fast-growing and often spreads to other parts of the brain.
4. Brain stem glioma: This type of glioma arises in the brain stem, which is responsible for controlling many of the body's vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure.

The symptoms of glioma depend on the location and size of the tumor. Common symptoms include headaches, seizures, weakness or numbness in the arms or legs, and changes in personality, memory, or speech.

Gliomas are diagnosed through a combination of imaging tests such as CT or MRI scans, and tissue biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells. Treatment options for glioma depend on the type and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Surgery is often the first line of treatment to remove as much of the tumor as possible, followed by radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy to kill any remaining cancer cells.

The prognosis for glioma patients varies depending on the type and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. In general, the prognosis is better for patients with slow-growing, low-grade tumors, while those with fast-growing, high-grade tumors have a poorer prognosis. Overall, the 5-year survival rate for glioma patients is around 30-40%.

Malignant prostatic neoplasms are cancerous tumors that can be aggressive and spread to other parts of the body (metastasize). The most common type of malignant prostatic neoplasm is adenocarcinoma of the prostate, which accounts for approximately 95% of all prostate cancers. Other types of malignant prostatic neoplasms include sarcomas and small cell carcinomas.

Prostatic neoplasms can be diagnosed through a variety of tests such as digital rectal examination (DRE), prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test, imaging studies (ultrasound, CT scan or MRI), and biopsy. Treatment options for prostatic neoplasms depend on the type, stage, and grade of the tumor, as well as the patient's age and overall health. Treatment options can include active surveillance, surgery (robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy or open prostatectomy), radiation therapy (external beam radiation therapy or brachytherapy), and hormone therapy.

In summary, Prostatic Neoplasms are tumors that occur in the prostate gland, which can be benign or malignant. The most common types of malignant prostatic neoplasms are adenocarcinoma of the prostate, and other types include sarcomas and small cell carcinomas. Diagnosis is done through a variety of tests, and treatment options depend on the type, stage, and grade of the tumor, as well as the patient's age and overall health.

1. Tumor size and location: Larger tumors that have spread to nearby tissues or organs are generally considered more invasive than smaller tumors that are confined to the original site.
2. Cellular growth patterns: The way in which cancer cells grow and divide can also contribute to the overall invasiveness of a neoplasm. For example, cells that grow in a disorganized or chaotic manner may be more likely to invade surrounding tissues.
3. Mitotic index: The mitotic index is a measure of how quickly the cancer cells are dividing. A higher mitotic index is generally associated with more aggressive and invasive cancers.
4. Necrosis: Necrosis, or the death of cells, can be an indication of the level of invasiveness of a neoplasm. The presence of significant necrosis in a tumor is often a sign that the cancer has invaded surrounding tissues and organs.
5. Lymphovascular invasion: Cancer cells that have invaded lymphatic vessels or blood vessels are considered more invasive than those that have not.
6. Perineural invasion: Cancer cells that have invaded nerve fibers are also considered more invasive.
7. Histological grade: The histological grade of a neoplasm is a measure of how abnormal the cancer cells look under a microscope. Higher-grade cancers are generally considered more aggressive and invasive than lower-grade cancers.
8. Immunohistochemical markers: Certain immunohistochemical markers, such as Ki-67, can be used to evaluate the proliferative activity of cancer cells. Higher levels of these markers are generally associated with more aggressive and invasive cancers.

Overall, the degree of neoplasm invasiveness is an important factor in determining the likelihood of the cancer spreading to other parts of the body (metastasizing) and in determining the appropriate treatment strategy for the patient.

There are several types of melanoma, including:

1. Superficial spreading melanoma: This is the most common type of melanoma, accounting for about 70% of cases. It usually appears as a flat or slightly raised discolored patch on the skin.
2. Nodular melanoma: This type of melanoma is more aggressive and accounts for about 15% of cases. It typically appears as a raised bump on the skin, often with a darker color.
3. Acral lentiginous melanoma: This type of melanoma affects the palms of the hands, soles of the feet, or nail beds and accounts for about 5% of cases.
4. Lentigo maligna melanoma: This type of melanoma usually affects the face and is more common in older adults.

The risk factors for developing melanoma include:

1. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure from the sun or tanning beds
2. Fair skin, light hair, and light eyes
3. A history of sunburns
4. Weakened immune system
5. Family history of melanoma

The symptoms of melanoma can vary depending on the type and location of the cancer. Common symptoms include:

1. Changes in the size, shape, or color of a mole
2. A new mole or growth on the skin
3. A spot or sore that bleeds or crusts over
4. Itching or pain on the skin
5. Redness or swelling around a mole

If melanoma is suspected, a biopsy will be performed to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment options for melanoma depend on the stage and location of the cancer and may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these. Early detection and treatment are key to successful outcomes in melanoma cases.

In conclusion, melanoma is a type of skin cancer that can be deadly if not detected early. It is important to practice sun safety, perform regular self-exams, and seek medical attention if any suspicious changes are noticed on the skin. By being aware of the risk factors, symptoms, and treatment options for melanoma, individuals can take steps to protect themselves from this potentially deadly disease.

Glioblastomas are highly malignant tumors that can grow rapidly and infiltrate surrounding brain tissue, making them difficult to remove surgically. They often recur after treatment and are usually fatal within a few years of diagnosis.

The symptoms of glioblastoma can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor but may include headaches, seizures, weakness or numbness in the arms or legs, and changes in personality, memory or cognitive function.

Glioblastomas are diagnosed through a combination of imaging tests such as CT or MRI scans, and a biopsy to confirm the presence of cancerous cells. Treatment typically involves surgery to remove as much of the tumor as possible, followed by radiation therapy and chemotherapy to slow the growth of any remaining cancerous cells.

Prognosis for glioblastoma is generally poor, with a five-year survival rate of around 5% for newly diagnosed patients. However, the prognosis can vary depending on factors such as the location and size of the tumor, the patient's age and overall health, and the effectiveness of treatment.

Some common examples of neurodegenerative diseases include:

1. Alzheimer's disease: A progressive loss of cognitive function, memory, and thinking skills that is the most common form of dementia.
2. Parkinson's disease: A disorder that affects movement, balance, and coordination, causing tremors, rigidity, and difficulty with walking.
3. Huntington's disease: An inherited condition that causes progressive loss of cognitive, motor, and psychiatric functions.
4. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS): A disease that affects the nerve cells responsible for controlling voluntary muscle movement, leading to muscle weakness, paralysis, and eventually death.
5. Prion diseases: A group of rare and fatal disorders caused by misfolded proteins in the brain, leading to neurodegeneration and death.
6. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: A rare, degenerative, and fatal brain disorder caused by an abnormal form of a protein called a prion.
7. Frontotemporal dementia: A group of diseases that affect the front and temporal lobes of the brain, leading to changes in personality, behavior, and language.

Neurodegenerative diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, age, lifestyle, and environmental factors. They are typically diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment options for neurodegenerative diseases vary depending on the specific condition and its underlying causes, but may include medications, therapy, and lifestyle changes.

Preventing or slowing the progression of neurodegenerative diseases is a major focus of current research, with various potential therapeutic strategies being explored, such as:

1. Stem cell therapies: Using stem cells to replace damaged neurons and restore brain function.
2. Gene therapies: Replacing or editing genes that are linked to neurodegenerative diseases.
3. Small molecule therapies: Developing small molecules that can slow or prevent the progression of neurodegenerative diseases.
4. Immunotherapies: Harnessing the immune system to combat neurodegenerative diseases.
5. Lifestyle interventions: Promoting healthy lifestyle choices, such as regular exercise and a balanced diet, to reduce the risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases.

In conclusion, neurodegenerative diseases are a complex and diverse group of disorders that can have a profound impact on individuals and society. While there is currently no cure for these conditions, research is providing new insights into their causes and potential treatments. By continuing to invest in research and developing innovative therapeutic strategies, we can work towards improving the lives of those affected by neurodegenerative diseases and ultimately finding a cure.

These diseases can cause a wide range of symptoms such as fatigue, weight changes, and poor wound healing. Treatment options vary depending on the specific condition but may include lifestyle changes, medications, or surgery.

Adenocarcinoma is a term used to describe a variety of different types of cancer that arise in glandular tissue, including:

1. Colorectal adenocarcinoma (cancer of the colon or rectum)
2. Breast adenocarcinoma (cancer of the breast)
3. Prostate adenocarcinoma (cancer of the prostate gland)
4. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (cancer of the pancreas)
5. Lung adenocarcinoma (cancer of the lung)
6. Thyroid adenocarcinoma (cancer of the thyroid gland)
7. Skin adenocarcinoma (cancer of the skin)

The symptoms of adenocarcinoma depend on the location of the cancer and can include:

1. Blood in the stool or urine
2. Abdominal pain or discomfort
3. Changes in bowel habits
4. Unusual vaginal bleeding (in the case of endometrial adenocarcinoma)
5. A lump or thickening in the breast or elsewhere
6. Weight loss
7. Fatigue
8. Coughing up blood (in the case of lung adenocarcinoma)

The diagnosis of adenocarcinoma is typically made through a combination of imaging tests, such as CT scans, MRI scans, and PET scans, and a biopsy, which involves removing a sample of tissue from the affected area and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.

Treatment options for adenocarcinoma depend on the location of the cancer and can include:

1. Surgery to remove the tumor
2. Chemotherapy, which involves using drugs to kill cancer cells
3. Radiation therapy, which involves using high-energy X-rays or other particles to kill cancer cells
4. Targeted therapy, which involves using drugs that target specific molecules on cancer cells to kill them
5. Immunotherapy, which involves using drugs that stimulate the immune system to fight cancer cells.

The prognosis for adenocarcinoma is generally good if the cancer is detected and treated early, but it can be more challenging to treat if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.

There are several types of chromosome aberrations, including:

1. Chromosomal deletions: Loss of a portion of a chromosome.
2. Chromosomal duplications: Extra copies of a chromosome or a portion of a chromosome.
3. Chromosomal translocations: A change in the position of a chromosome or a portion of a chromosome.
4. Chromosomal inversions: A reversal of a segment of a chromosome.
5. Chromosomal amplifications: An increase in the number of copies of a particular chromosome or gene.

Chromosome aberrations can be detected through various techniques, such as karyotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), or array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). These tests can help identify changes in the chromosomal makeup of cells and provide information about the underlying genetic causes of disease.

Chromosome aberrations are associated with a wide range of diseases, including:

1. Cancer: Chromosome abnormalities are common in cancer cells and can contribute to the development and progression of cancer.
2. Birth defects: Many birth defects are caused by chromosome abnormalities, such as Down syndrome (trisomy 21), which is caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21.
3. Neurological disorders: Chromosome aberrations have been linked to various neurological disorders, including autism and intellectual disability.
4. Immunodeficiency diseases: Some immunodeficiency diseases, such as X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), are caused by chromosome abnormalities.
5. Infectious diseases: Chromosome aberrations can increase the risk of infection with certain viruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
6. Ageing: Chromosome aberrations have been linked to the ageing process and may contribute to the development of age-related diseases.
7. Radiation exposure: Exposure to radiation can cause chromosome abnormalities, which can increase the risk of cancer and other diseases.
8. Genetic disorders: Many genetic disorders are caused by chromosome aberrations, such as Turner syndrome (45,X), which is caused by a missing X chromosome.
9. Rare diseases: Chromosome aberrations can cause rare diseases, such as Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY), which is caused by an extra copy of the X chromosome.
10. Infertility: Chromosome abnormalities can contribute to infertility in both men and women.

Understanding the causes and consequences of chromosome aberrations is important for developing effective treatments and improving human health.

Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is the most common type of malignant pancreatic neoplasm and accounts for approximately 85% of all pancreatic cancers. It originates in the glandular tissue of the pancreas and has a poor prognosis, with a five-year survival rate of less than 10%.

Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) are less common but more treatable than pancreatic adenocarcinoma. These tumors originate in the hormone-producing cells of the pancreas and can produce excess hormones that cause a variety of symptoms, such as diabetes or high blood sugar. PNETs are classified into two main types: functional and non-functional. Functional PNETs produce excess hormones and are more aggressive than non-functional tumors.

Other rare types of pancreatic neoplasms include acinar cell carcinoma, ampullary cancer, and oncocytic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. These tumors are less common than pancreatic adenocarcinoma and PNETs but can be equally aggressive and difficult to treat.

The symptoms of pancreatic neoplasms vary depending on the type and location of the tumor, but they often include abdominal pain, weight loss, jaundice, and fatigue. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of imaging tests such as CT scans, endoscopic ultrasound, and biopsy. Treatment options for pancreatic neoplasms depend on the type and stage of the tumor but may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these.

Prognosis for patients with pancreatic neoplasms is generally poor, especially for those with advanced stages of disease. However, early detection and treatment can improve survival rates. Research into the causes and mechanisms of pancreatic neoplasms is ongoing, with a focus on developing new and more effective treatments for these devastating diseases.

1. Coronary artery disease: The narrowing or blockage of the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart.
2. Heart failure: A condition in which the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs.
3. Arrhythmias: Abnormal heart rhythms that can be too fast, too slow, or irregular.
4. Heart valve disease: Problems with the heart valves that control blood flow through the heart.
5. Heart muscle disease (cardiomyopathy): Disease of the heart muscle that can lead to heart failure.
6. Congenital heart disease: Defects in the heart's structure and function that are present at birth.
7. Peripheral artery disease: The narrowing or blockage of blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients to the arms, legs, and other organs.
8. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT): A blood clot that forms in a deep vein, usually in the leg.
9. Pulmonary embolism: A blockage in one of the arteries in the lungs, which can be caused by a blood clot or other debris.
10. Stroke: A condition in which there is a lack of oxygen to the brain due to a blockage or rupture of blood vessels.

There are several types of skin neoplasms, including:

1. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC): This is the most common type of skin cancer, and it usually appears as a small, fleshy bump or a flat, scaly patch. BCC is highly treatable, but if left untreated, it can grow and invade surrounding tissue.
2. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC): This type of skin cancer is less common than BCC but more aggressive. It typically appears as a firm, flat, or raised bump on sun-exposed areas. SCC can spread to other parts of the body if left untreated.
3. Melanoma: This is the most serious type of skin cancer, accounting for only 1% of all skin neoplasms but responsible for the majority of skin cancer deaths. Melanoma can appear as a new or changing mole, and it's essential to recognize the ABCDE signs (Asymmetry, Border irregularity, Color variation, Diameter >6mm, Evolving size, shape, or color) to detect it early.
4. Sebaceous gland carcinoma: This rare type of skin cancer originates in the oil-producing glands of the skin and can appear as a firm, painless nodule on the forehead, nose, or other oily areas.
5. Merkel cell carcinoma: This is a rare and aggressive skin cancer that typically appears as a firm, shiny bump on the skin. It's more common in older adults and those with a history of sun exposure.
6. Cutaneous lymphoma: This type of cancer affects the immune system and can appear as a rash, nodules, or tumors on the skin.
7. Kaposi sarcoma: This is a rare type of skin cancer that affects people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS. It typically appears as a flat, red or purple lesion on the skin.

While skin cancers are generally curable when detected early, it's important to be aware of your skin and notice any changes or unusual spots, especially if you have a history of sun exposure or other risk factors. If you suspect anything suspicious, see a dermatologist for an evaluation and potential biopsy. Remember, prevention is key to avoiding the harmful effects of UV radiation and reducing your risk of developing skin cancer.

1. Atherosclerosis: A condition in which plaque builds up inside the arteries, causing them to narrow and harden. This can lead to heart disease, heart attack, or stroke.
2. Hypertension: High blood pressure that can damage blood vessels and increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and other conditions.
3. Peripheral artery disease (PAD): A condition in which the blood vessels in the legs and arms become narrowed or blocked, leading to pain, cramping, and weakness in the affected limbs.
4. Raynaud's phenomenon: A condition that causes blood vessels in the hands and feet to constrict in response to cold temperatures or stress, leading to discoloration, numbness, and tissue damage.
5. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT): A condition in which a blood clot forms in the deep veins of the legs, often caused by immobility or injury.
6. Varicose veins: Enlarged, twisted veins that can cause pain, swelling, and cosmetic concerns.
7. Angioplasty: A medical procedure in which a balloon is used to open up narrowed blood vessels, often performed to treat peripheral artery disease or blockages in the legs.
8. Stenting: A medical procedure in which a small mesh tube is placed inside a blood vessel to keep it open and improve blood flow.
9. Carotid endarterectomy: A surgical procedure to remove plaque from the carotid arteries, which supply blood to the brain, to reduce the risk of stroke.
10. Bypass surgery: A surgical procedure in which a healthy blood vessel is used to bypass a blocked or narrowed blood vessel, often performed to treat coronary artery disease or peripheral artery disease.

Overall, vascular diseases can have a significant impact on quality of life and can increase the risk of serious complications such as stroke, heart attack, and amputation. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time, as early diagnosis and treatment can help to prevent long-term damage and improve outcomes.

Benign ovarian neoplasms include:

1. Serous cystadenoma: A fluid-filled sac that develops on the surface of the ovary.
2. Mucinous cystadenoma: A tumor that is filled with mucin, a type of protein.
3. Endometrioid tumors: Tumors that are similar to endometrial tissue (the lining of the uterus).
4. Theca cell tumors: Tumors that develop in the supportive tissue of the ovary called theca cells.

Malignant ovarian neoplasms include:

1. Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC): The most common type of ovarian cancer, which arises from the surface epithelium of the ovary.
2. Germ cell tumors: Tumors that develop from germ cells, which are the cells that give rise to eggs.
3. Stromal sarcomas: Tumors that develop in the supportive tissue of the ovary.

Ovarian neoplasms can cause symptoms such as pelvic pain, abnormal bleeding, and abdominal swelling. They can also be detected through pelvic examination, imaging tests such as ultrasound and CT scan, and biopsy. Treatment options for ovarian neoplasms depend on the type, stage, and location of the tumor, and may include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.

... in fiction Glossary of biology List of biological websites List of biologists List of biology journals List of biology ... Molecular biology is the branch of biology that seeks to understand the molecular basis of biological activity in and between ... Dobzhansky, T. (1973). "Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution". The American Biology Teacher. 35 (3 ... topics List of life sciences List of omics topics in biology National Association of Biology Teachers Outline of biology ...
Raff, Jordan (2012). "Biology Open (BiO) - making life easier for us all". Biology Open. 1 (1): 1. doi:10.1242/bio.2011002. PMC ... About , Biology Open , The Company of Biologists , Biology Open , The Company of Biologists "About Biology Open". Biology Open ... "News". Biology Open. The Company of Biologists. Archived from the original on 2016-02-21. "BiO Online". Biology Open. The ... eight years at the helm of Biology Open". Biology Open. 7 (8). doi:10.1242/bio.037317. PMC 6124572. PMID 30154107.{{cite ...
Metal ions in biology were studied in various specializations. In nutrition, it was to define the essentials for life; in ... Since then, understanding of zinc in human biology has advanced to the point that it is considered as important as iron. Modern ... Biometals are metals normally present, in small but important and measurable amounts, in biology, biochemistry, and medicine. ... Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Biology and pharmacology of chemical elements). ...
... , Landscape ecology, Environmental conservation, Habitat, Biology terminology, Philosophy of biology). ... Conservation biology as a discipline reaches beyond biology, into subjects such as philosophy, law, economics, humanities, arts ... There is a movement in conservation biology suggesting a new form of leadership is needed to mobilize conservation biology into ... Considerable research effort is now directed at urban conservation biology. The Society for Conservation Biology originated in ...
... is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research on substance abuse. It is one of two ... "Addiction Biology". 2020 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). Clarivate Analytics. 2021. Official website ( ... The major focus of Addiction Biology is on neuroscience contributions from animal experimentation and clinical point of views. ...
Colonisation or colonization is the process in biology by which a species spreads to new areas. Colonisation often refers to ... biology) Invasive species Pioneer species Look up colonise in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Wilson, E.O. (1962) The nature ...
... is the set of approaches in the field of biology concerned with the conduction of experiments to ... Due to the complexity of the investigated systems, biology is primarily an experimental science. However, as a consequence of ... The term is opposed to theoretical biology which is concerned with the mathematical modelling and abstractions of the ... The methods employed in experimental biology are numerous and of different nature including molecular, biochemical, biophysical ...
... is an approach to biology that is concerned with the influence of gender values, the removal of gender bias, ... Biology and Gender Study Group (1988). "The Importance of Feminist Critique for Contemporary Cell Biology". Hypatia. 3 (1): 61- ... it aims to enhance biology by incorporating feminist critique in matters varying from the mechanisms of cell biology and sex ... A Critique of Biology and Its Theories on Women and inspired the university's endowed fellowship for feminist biology), ...
... is a peer-reviewed scientific journal "concerned with reproduction, demographics, genetics, behavior, medicine, ...
Biology was an indie rock band that was signed up to Vagrant Records. Biology was a creation of From Autumn to Ashes drummer ... Making Moves, Biology's only album, was released September 27, 2005, via Vagrant Records. Biology announced a breakup on April ... Biology on Myspace Biology's Purevolume site Interview with Francis Mark -[permanent dead link] Interview with ... Francis Mark - Making Moves at Biology at v t e (Articles with hCards, Pages using ...
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mutualism (biology). Look up mutualism (biology) in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Boucher, D. H. (editor) (1985) The Biology of Mutualism : Ecology and Evolution London : Croom Helm 388 p. ISBN 0-7099-3238-3 ( ... Bronstein, JL (1994). "Our current understanding of mutualism". Quarterly Review of Biology. 69 (1): 31-51. doi:10.1086/418432 ... Journal of Theoretical Biology. 363: 332-343. arXiv:1305.5411. Bibcode:2014JThBi.363..332G. doi:10.1016/j.jtbi.2014.08.039. ...
... a systematic study of physiome in biology. Cancer systems biology is an example of the systems biology approach, which can be ... Systems biology was begun as a new field of science around 2000, when the Institute for Systems Biology was established in ... Systems biology is the computational and mathematical analysis and modeling of complex biological systems. It is a biology- ... ISBN 978-1-4419-9864-4. Look up systems biology in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Biological Systems in bio-physics-wiki (CS1 ...
The term effector is used in other fields of biology. For instance, the effector end of a neuron is the terminus where an axon ... Biology terminology, All stub articles, Protein stubs). ...
In biotechnology, combinatorial biology is the creation of a large number of compounds (usually proteins or peptides) through ... Combinatorial biology allows the generation and selection of the large number of ligands for high-throughput screening. ... Combinatorial Biology Argonne National Laboratory: Biosciences Division v t e v t e (Biotechnology, Combinatorics, All stub ... Combinatorial biology techniques generally begin with large numbers of peptides, which are generated and screened by physically ...
In a vascular plant, the stele is the central part of the root or stem containing the tissues derived from the procambium. These include vascular tissue, in some cases ground tissue (pith) and a pericycle, which, if present, defines the outermost boundary of the stele. Outside the stele lies the endodermis, which is the innermost cell layer of the cortex. The concept of the stele was developed in the late 19th century by French botanists P. E. L. van Tieghem and H. Doultion as a model for understanding the relationship between the shoot and root, and for discussing the evolution of vascular plant morphology. Now, at the beginning of the 21st century, plant molecular biologists are coming to understand the genetics and developmental pathways that govern tissue patterns in the stele.[citation needed] Moreover, physiologists are examining how the anatomy (sizes and shapes) of different steles affect the function of organs. The earliest vascular plants had stems with a central core of vascular ...
... is the leading peer-reviewed scientific journal in the field of ribonucleic acid (RNA) research. It is indexed for ... "RNA Biology". 2018 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). Thomson Reuters. 2018. Official website (Use dmy ...
Other terms in biology refer similarly to various taxa; for example: Fungi are described by their growth patterns: molds, ... Habit, equivalent to habitus in some applications in biology, refers variously to aspects of behaviour or structure, as follows ... ". "". (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Horticulture, Behavior, Plant ...
"Resynthesizing Evolutionary and Developmental Biology". Developmental Biology. 173:357-372 G von Dassow and E Munro. " ... Current Opinion in Structural Biology". 19:335-340. CR Baker, LN Booth, TR Sorrells, AD Johnson. 2012. "Protein Modularity, ... Articles lacking in-text citations from July 2015, All articles lacking in-text citations, Biology terminology). ... "Simple Topological Features Reflect Dynamics and Modularity in Protein Interaction Networks". PLoS Computational Biology. 9(10 ...
A pincer is the part of an arthropod that enables it to carry loads, to defend against other creatures, or to attack prey. In insects, the pincers are usually part of the creature's mandible, and often venom or acid can be injected through the pincer into an enemy during a pincer strike. Some arthropods such as crabs, lobsters, and scorpions possess pincers in the form of chelae at the ends of their front limbs (pedipalps), to assist in feeding, defence or even courtship. Chela (organ) Krukenberg procedure Pedipalp Pincer (tool) (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles lacking sources from July 2011, All articles lacking sources, Arthropod anatomy ...
In biology, autolysis, more commonly known as self-digestion, refers to the destruction of a cell through the action of its own ... ISBN 978-0-470-28173-4. Lodish, H; Berk, A; Zipursky, SL (2000). Molecular Cell Biology (Fourth ed.). New York, NY: W. H. ... ISBN 0-7167-3136-3. Kevin Kavanagh (2005). Fungi: biology and applications. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons. pp. 138-140. ISBN 0- ...
In biology, a homonym is a name for a taxon that is identical in spelling to another such name, that belongs to a different ...
In biology, a nymph is the immature form of some invertebrates, particularly insects, which undergoes gradual metamorphosis ( ... Naiads in Greek mythology Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nymphs (biology). Encyclopedia of Entomology Ed. John L. ...
In botany, a hilum (pronounced /ˈhaɪləm/) is a scar or mark left on a seed coat by the former attachment to the ovary wall or to the funiculus (which in turn attaches to the ovary wall). On a bean seed, the hilum is called the "eye". For some species of fungus, the hilum is the microscopic indentation left on a spore when it separates from the sterigma of the basidium. A hilum can also be a nucleus of a starch grain; the point around which layers of starch are deposited. The adjectival form hilar denotes the presence of such a mark, and can be used as a distinguishing characteristic of a seed or spore. Kirk PM, Cannon PF, Minter DW, Stalpers JA (2008). Dictionary of the Fungi (10th ed.). Wallingford, UK: CABI. p. 317. ISBN 978-0-85199-826-8. (Plant anatomy, Fungal morphology and anatomy ...
Biology is a quarterly, peer-reviewed, open access, scientific journal covering research on all aspects of biology. It was ... Biology publishes reviews, research papers and communications in all areas of biology and at the interface of related ... "Biology". Retrieved 2022-03-06. "Biology". Retrieved 2022-03-06. Official website (Articles ... This journal covers all topics related to Biology. Research fields of interest include but are not limited to: • bacteriology ...
Generative and Relational Principles in Biology. by Gerry Webster; Brian Goodwin". The Quarterly Review of Biology. 73 (1): 62- ... The philosopher of biology Michael Ruse similarly wrote that Thompson "had little time for natural selection", certainly ... Brian Goodwin, described by Wagner as part of "a fringe movement in evolutionary biology", denies that biological complexity ... With respect to molecular biology, Kauffman has been criticised for ignoring the role of energy in driving biochemical ...
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In general, flux in biology relates to movement of a substance between compartments. There are several cases where the concept ... v t e (Articles needing additional references from July 2018, All articles needing additional references, Biology terminology, ...
"Colony - Biology-Online Dictionary". Retrieved 2017-05-06. Hiebert, Laurel S.; Simpson, Carl; Tiozzo, ... In biology, a colony is composed of two or more conspecific individuals living in close association with, or connected to, one ... 1994). Molecular Biology of the Cell (3rd ed.). New York: Garland Science. ISBN 0-8153-1620-8. Retrieved 2014-06-11. "Hydrozoa ... Ant colony Beehive (beekeeping) Bird colony Clonal colony Coenocyte Colonisation (biology) Coral reef Eusociality Superorganism ...
In biology, a tagma (Greek: τάγμα, plural tagmata - τάγματα - body of soldiers; battalion) is a specialized grouping of ... Biology of Arthropoda. Discovery Publishing House. ISBN 978-81-7141-897-8. Ruppert, Fox & Barnes (2004), pp. 518-520. Ruppert, ...
In biology, function has been defined in many ways. In physiology, it is simply what an organ, tissue, cell or molecule does. ... In evolutionary biology, function is the reason some object or process occurred in a system that evolved through natural ... In the philosophy of biology, evolution is a blind process which has no 'goal' for the future. For example, a tree does not ... "Teleological Notions in Biology". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 18 May 2003. Retrieved 28 July 2016. Hall, Brian K.; ...
This project is trying to untangle the biology behind milk production, how milk affects babies development, and how babies and ...
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Cox, E., May, R. Biology writ large. Nature 326, 225-226 (1987). ...
BU Biology Alum, Professor Michael Dustin, has been awarded a prestigious fellowship from The Royal Society. May 16, 2023 ...
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Background: Embryonic diapause is a reproductive strategy that confers blastocyst dormancy and uterine quiescence without implantation until conditions become favorable.Results: Mice devoid of uterine muscle segment homeobox genes (Msx) show heightened inflammatory signature with failure of diapause.Conclusion: Msx coordinates various pathways limiting inflammation in the uterus for diapause.Significance: This study identifies a previously unrecognized role of Msx in this unique phenomenon ...
The Structural Biology Core Facility helps NIEHS researchers design projects to express, purify, and biophysically characterize ... human biology, genetics, and common diseases to help prevent disease and improve human health. ...
The London Vascular Biology Forum hold regular research meetings for its members with a focus on vascular biology research ... 64th London Vascular Biology Forum Christmas Poster Meeting 04 December 2019, 14:00 to 18:30 ... 63rd London Vascular Biology Forum Meeting. 09 October 2019, 14:00 to 18:30 ... 62nd London Vascular Biology Forum Meeting. 17 July 2019, 14:00 to 18:00 ...
Dr. Shuiwang Ji, a professor in the Department of Computer Science and Engineering at Texas A&M University, is part of a collaborative research community that recently had its paper titled "BigNeuron: a resource to benchmark and predict performance of algorithms for automated tracing of neurons in light microscopy datasets" published in the April issue of the journal Nature Methods.. ...
Research in the Epithelial Systems Biology Laboratory, led by Dr. Mark A. Knepper, concentrates on the physiology and ... The Epithelial Systems Biology Laboratory, headed by Mark Knepper, uses systems biology-based approaches to study how the ... Epithelial Systems Biology. Research in the Epithelial Systems Biology Laboratory, led by Dr. Mark A. Knepper, concentrates on ... He has been a NIH scientist since 1978 and is currently head of the Epithelial Systems Biology Laboratory at the NHLBI. Dr. ...
Lists frequently asked questions regarding funding of stress biology research ... Stress Biology Research FAQs. Q1. How do NIMH priorities in stress biology research vary across institute divisions?. A1. ... Q4: What are DTRs current priorities in stress biology research?. A4: Current DTR priorities in stress biology research ... What are DNBBS current priorities in stress biology research?. A3. Current DNBBS priorities in stress biology research include ...
Our researchers manipulate microbial systems, plants and mammalian cell biology using state-of-the-art omics technologies, ...
Including 5 in biology at Higher Level. Additional entry requirements. All candidates are considered on an individual basis and ... A levels: biology required. Excluded subjects. General studies, critical thinking, Science and Society, citizenship studies and ... A levels: biology required. Excluded subjects. General studies, critical thinking, Science and Society, citizenship studies and ... Please note biology is required.. Please note: Applicants whose backgrounds or personal circumstances have impacted their ...
WKU Biology. *Degrees and Programs. GraduateUndergraduateMolecular Biotechnology MajorApplied Research and Technology ... Prospective StudentsTransfer StudentsCurrent StudentsBiology FormsStudy SuccessCareer Resources ...
NIDDK Mathematical Biology Section, which studies Mathematical and computational modeling of biological systems ...
Requisite: Biology 18. Limited to 24 students. Not open to first-year students. Fall semester. Professor Clotfelter. ...
"Its not just your basic Biology I or Biology II. Ive taken classes as specific as Genes and Phenotype in Evolution and ... Once on campus, Muppala chose to major in biochemistry and molecular biology to give her a solid foundation for medical school ... she applied to several Texas schools with strong chemistry and biology departments. After that, she went with her gut. ...
major: Biology. Degree: Master of Science (MS) 2022-2023 Prerequisites. An undergraduate degree in Biology or an undergraduate ... BSC 5487 Advanced Biology of Marine Mammals (3 credits). BSC 5487L Advanced Biology of Marine Mammals Lab. BSC 5905 Directed ... BSC 5028 Advanced Biology of Aging (3 credits). MCB 5505 Advanced Virology (3 credits). BCH 5418 Advanced Molecular Biology and ... BSC 5936 ST: Biology (1-3 credits). BSC 5872 Advanced Biological Pharmacology (3 credits). BSC 5930 Biology Seminar (1 credits) ...
... Prog Hemost Thromb. 1991;10:175-214. ...
This Roadmap provides a commercially focused and strategic view of how synthetic biology could underpin a thriving Australian ... Australias Synthetic Biology Roadmap. This Roadmap provides a commercially focused and strategic view of how synthetic biology ... This National Synthetic Biology Roadmap report, released in August 2021, identifies the value that synthetic biology could ... Synthetic Biology Roadmap]. Professor Claudia Vickers: CSIRO has delivered a Synthetic Biology Roadmap that identifies the ...
Sharks Hunting Strategies More Like Physics Than Biology. When sharks and other ocean predators cant find food, their ...
The latest news on Koreas top companies spanning semiconductors to electric vehicle batteries and bio industries, and ... Koreas largest conglomerate added the bio sector as a business that Lee aims to foster as the groups flagship business. Lee ... over the next five years until 2027 to become a top-tier bio and vaccine powerhouse, its CEO said Friday. ... with innovative biotech companies in the United States as Chairman Lee Jae-yong held a series of meetings with the CEOs of bio ...
About Biology. Biology is the science of life. In the Department of Biology we offer courses and degree programs that deal with ... Included within the scope of biology are subdisciplines such as anatomy, physiology, cell & molecular biology, bioinformatics, ... Department of Biology. Brandon University. 3rd Floor, John R. Brodie Science Centre. 270 - 18th Street. Brandon, Manitoba. R7A ... genetics, ecology, parasitology, evolution, paleontology, developmental biology, and immunology. These subdivisions, in turn, ...
Page for Biology Education Advising including staff contact information. ... The Biology Education Major at BYU-Idaho requires completion of coursework in Biology, BYU-Idaho General Education classes, and ... Students who graduate from this program are eligible for teacher certification in biology and in their chosen Science education ... The Biology Education major at BYU-Idaho also requires the completion of a Science Education Minor. ...
Study Biology (teaching programme) at the University of Bayreuth ... Biology, Teaching Programme. Hot on the trail of the secrets of ... One nice thing about studying biology in Bayreuth is that there is a practical course for almost every lecture, in which you ... Free time is in short supply in a biology degree programme, because especially as a teaching assistant, you still have a minor ... We place great emphasis on practice, which is why research-oriented internships run through all areas of biology, and are ...
The Biology website has moved to another URL. Please update your bookmarks. The new Biology website is at:. https://manoa. ...
Anatomy & Cell Biology 3640 University Street. Strathcona Anatomy & Dentistry Building. Montreal, Quebec, H3A 0C7. 514-398-6350 ... Associate Member & Assistant Professor (Research), Department of Anatomy & Cell Biology. Associate Professor, Department of ...
Bio-Bibliographies. A B C D F G H I J K M N O P Q R S T V Y Z ...
Justus-Liebig-Universität. 35392 Gießen. Sekretariat Goesmann. Erdgeschoss, Raum 0003.A. Tel.: +49 (0) 641 99 35801. Fax: +49 (0) 641 99 35809. sekretariat. Reguläre Sprechzeiten: Montag bis Freitag 09:00 - 12:00 Uhr. ...
  • This Roadmap provides a commercially focused and strategic view of how synthetic biology could underpin a thriving Australian bioeconomy worth up to $27 billion by 2040. (
  • Synthetic biology is a transformative and interdisciplinary field of science. (
  • Synthetic biology-enabled solutions have applications in sectors like health, agriculture, biosecurity and the environment and could help us solve some of Australia's greatest challenges. (
  • This National Synthetic Biology Roadmap report, released in August 2021, identifies the value that synthetic biology could unlock for Australia and discusses how Australia can accelerate the demonstration, scaling, and commercial success of its applications. (
  • Under a high growth, high market share scenario, synthetic biology could unlock up to $27 billion in annual revenue and 44,000 new jobs for Australia by 2040. (
  • The largest emerging markets for synthetic biology applications are expected to be food and agriculture, followed by health and medicine industries. (
  • Capturing the full opportunity will require synthetic biology to be a critical national capability that underpins a thriving Australian bioeconomy. (
  • This will require maintaining investments in synthetic biology research while increasing support for the ecosystem's most critical challenge: industrial translation and scale-up. (
  • Professor Claudia Vickers: Synthetic Biology is basically recoding life using DNA. (
  • Professor Claudia Vickers: By 2040 Synthetic Biology could deliver a $27 billion industry for Australia and it's an opportunity we can't afford to miss out on. (
  • Since then, biotechnology advanced to its second-generation, also called "synthetic biology. (
  • Our researchers manipulate microbial systems, plants and mammalian cell biology using state-of-the-art omics technologies, mathematical modelling and systems biology. (
  • In the Department of Biology we offer courses and degree programs that deal with the scientific study of animals and plants, as well as fungi and other microbial life, and medical biology. (
  • The Biology Education Major at BYU-Idaho requires completion of coursework in Biology, BYU-Idaho General Education classes, and Education classes needed for certification as a secondary (grades 6th through 12th) education teacher in the state of Idaho (Idaho certification can be transferred to other states) The Biology Education major at BYU-Idaho also requires the completion of a Science Education Minor. (
  • Our program, which typically requires two years, provides advanced training and expertise in biology through coursework, research, and a strong academic environment. (
  • The PhD in Biology requires a minimum of 90 credit hours, including at least 24 credit hours of graded coursework and at least 30 hours of research credit. (
  • Innate Immunity in Cancer Biology and Therapy. (
  • These subdivisions, in turn, provide the fundamental knowledge on which the biomedical professions (e.g. medicine, dentistry, optometry) are based, as well as for careers in agriculture, wildlife biology and environmental science . (
  • An undergraduate degree in Biology or an undergraduate degree in a related field and 12 credit hours of upper level undergraduate biology courses. (
  • An undergraduate degree in biology or closely related field. (
  • Then a teaching degree in biology in Bayreuth is exactly the right choice. (
  • Free time is in short supply in a biology degree programme, because especially as a teaching assistant, you still have a minor subject keeping you busy. (
  • The Biology Forum is a great place to discuss articles in the BellaOnline Biology Site, share interesting biological information, or share fun facts about you. (
  • The London Vascular Biology Forum hold regular research meetings for its members with a focus on vascular biology research based in London. (
  • We place great emphasis on practice, which is why research-oriented internships run through all areas of biology, and are constant companions for students during their studies. (
  • Biology is the science of life. (
  • Students who graduate from this program are eligible for teacher certification in biology and in their chosen Science education minor. (
  • Subscribe for free weekly updates from this Biology site. (
  • You can find all information about the teaching programme Biology at the University of Bayreuth on this website. (
  • The Biology website has moved to another URL. (
  • Hot on the trail of the secrets of life: As a teacher, do you wish to pass on your love of biology to your students? (
  • Most Biology PhD students will graduate in about 5 years and publish 2-5 papers. (
  • The 64th London Vascular Biology Forum Christmas Poster Meeting takes place on 4 December 2019. (
  • The Biology Graduate Program prepares you to become an enlightened, responsible, and productive scientist with essential skills, a deep understanding of your discipline, respect for diversity, and the ability to think critically and communicate clearly. (
  • 1 Department of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology, Cell Science Research Center, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, ACECR, Tehran, Iran. (
  • In the Otolaryngology Branch, basic molecular biology and genetic research is carried out in the Molecular Biology and Genetics Section. (
  • The Laboratory of Cardiovascular Biology, led by Dr. Leslie Kennedy, investigates pathways and mechanisms that can be exploited to ultimately benefit patients prone to cardiovascular pathologies. (
  • The Structural Biology Core Facility helps NIEHS researchers design projects to express, purify, and biophysically characterize proteins and macromolecular complexes. (
  • The Structural Biology Unit is part of the Biological Imaging Core Facility . (
  • The Structural Biology Unit is located in building 6 room 206 on the NIH main campus. (
  • The goal of the Common Fund's Structural Biology program was to develop novel methods to isolate large amounts of membrane proteins and determine their protein structures. (
  • During the first phase of the Structural Biology Research Program (FY2004-2008), the Common Fund supported two Centers for Innovation in Membrane Protein Production that enabled interdisciplinary groups of scientists to develop innovative methods for producing large quantities of membrane proteins. (
  • During the second phase of the Structural Biology Research Program (FY2009-2013), researchers developed additional innovative approaches for membrane protein production as well as structure determination, including methodologies that can be applied to protein complexes made up of multiple protein components, such as different types of proteins. (
  • Please note that since the Structural Biology program is no longer supported by the Common Fund, the program website is being maintained as an archive and will not be updated on a regular basis. (
  • For more information on the Structural Biology Program, please contact Dr. Peter C. Preusch ( pr[email protected] ) or Dr. Jean Chin ( [email protected] ). (
  • The Structural Biology program has transitioned from Common Fund support. (
  • The Structural Biology program was supported by the Common Fund FY2004 through FY2013. (
  • Efforts in the area of structural biology will continue via various other means of funding outside of the Common Fund. (
  • Progress in many of these areas, for example, structural biology, bioinformatics, modeling of complex and interacting systems, population genetics and evolution, would benefit from including individuals with training in the quantitative disciplines cited above. (
  • An ideal program in integrative cancer biology will be organized around an important problem in cancer that balances and seamlessly integrates experimental biology with computation and modeling. (
  • NIEHS research uses state-of-the-art science and technology to investigate the interplay between environmental exposures, human biology, genetics, and common diseases to help prevent disease and improve human health. (
  • NIAID conducts and supports a comprehensive vector biology research program to advance science and identify approaches that will help control or prevent the transmission of vector-borne pathogens to humans. (
  • The NCI, through the NIH Biomedical Information Science and Technology Initiative or BISTI, also supports smaller specific applications primarily focused on bio-computing and bioinformatics. (
  • It will enable the formation of teams of researchers from a spectrum of fields, including biology, imaging, engineering, technology, bioinformatics, and computational modeling, who can focus on understanding and modeling some aspect of the complexity of cancer. (
  • The Cardiovascular Biology Section was formed in 2000 and is comprised of three units: Basic Cardiac Studies unit, Basic Vascular Studies Unit, and Translational Studies Unit. (
  • The Cutaneous Leukocyte Biology Section aims to understand how skin functions as an immune organ and studies mechanisms that underlie host-microbial symbiosis during health and disease, in both experimental models and human diseases. (
  • The Arthritis Biology Program covers basic as well as patient-relevant clinical research in a number of arthritic diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, Lyme arthritis, and viral arthritis. (
  • This includes basic research to better understand the biology of arthropod vectors, how they transmit diseases, and how they find and interact with human hosts. (
  • The overall thrust of this program will be the integration of experimental and computational approaches towards the understanding of cancer biology. (
  • This initiative is intended to facilitate the establishment of research programs in integrative cancer biology, which bring together cancer biologists and scientists from fields such as mathematics, physics, information technology, imaging sciences, and computer science to work on a common cancer biology problem. (
  • These Integrative Cancer Biology Programs (ICBPs) will fund teams capable of addressing questions of cancer complexity with a wide scope of research activities. (
  • This initiative is designed to foster the emergence of the new field of systems biology focused on the understanding of cancer as a complex disease. (