One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.
Comprehensive, methodical analysis of complex biological systems by monitoring responses to perturbations of biological processes. Large scale, computerized collection and analysis of the data are used to develop and test models of biological systems.
A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.
The field of biology which deals with the process of the growth and differentiation of an organism.
A field of biological research combining engineering in the formulation, design, and building (synthesis) of novel biological structures, functions, and systems.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
The fundamental, structural, and functional units or subunits of living organisms. They are composed of CYTOPLASM containing various ORGANELLES and a CELL MEMBRANE boundary.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
Cellular processes, properties, and characteristics.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
The application of engineering principles and methods to living organisms or biological systems.
The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Study of the scientific principles, mechanisms, and effects of the interaction of ionizing radiation with living matter. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
Cellular functions, mechanisms, and activities.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The study of the development of an organism during the embryonic and fetal stages of life.
Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.
Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.
The study of the composition, chemical structures, and chemical reactions of living things.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Societies whose membership is limited to scientists.
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.
The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
The process of finding chemicals for potential therapeutic use.
The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Chemically synthesized structures which functionally resemble natural cells.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.
Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
The educational process of instructing.
A definite pathologic process with a characteristic set of signs and symptoms. It may affect the whole body or any of its parts, and its etiology, pathology, and prognosis may be known or unknown.
Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.
Specific languages used to prepare computer programs.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Software designed to store, manipulate, manage, and control data for specific uses.
The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.
Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.
Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.
A course of study offered by an educational institution.
Programs of study which span the traditional boundaries of academic scholarship.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
The procedures involved in combining separately developed modules, components, or subsystems so that they work together as a complete system. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)
Therapeutic approach tailoring therapy for genetically defined subgroups of patients.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A field of medicine concerned with developing and using strategies aimed at repair or replacement of damaged, diseased, or metabolically deficient organs, tissues, and cells via TISSUE ENGINEERING; CELL TRANSPLANTATION; and ARTIFICIAL ORGANS and BIOARTIFICIAL ORGANS and tissues.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The application of discoveries generated by laboratory research and preclinical studies to the development of clinical trials and studies in humans. A second area of translational research concerns enhancing the adoption of best practices.
Chromosomal, biochemical, intracellular, and other methods used in the study of genetics.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.
The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.
Treatments with drugs which interact with or block synthesis of specific cellular components characteristic of the individual's disease in order to stop or interrupt the specific biochemical dysfunction involved in progression of the disease.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
The practical application of physical, mechanical, and mathematical principles. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.
Graphs representing sets of measurable, non-covalent physical contacts with specific PROTEINS in living organisms or in cells.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Use of sophisticated analysis tools to sort through, organize, examine, and combine large sets of information.
A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.
Methods used to study CELLS.
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.
Rapid methods of measuring the effects of an agent in a biological or chemical assay. The assay usually involves some form of automation or a way to conduct multiple assays at the same time using sample arrays.
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
Acquisition of knowledge as a result of instruction in a formal course of study.
Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The study of the structure, growth, activities, and functions of NEURONS and the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Books used in the study of a subject that contain a systematic presentation of the principles and vocabulary of a subject.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
A coordinated effort of researchers to map (CHROMOSOME MAPPING) and sequence (SEQUENCE ANALYSIS, DNA) the human GENOME.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
The transfer of POLLEN grains (male gametes) to the plant ovule (female gamete).
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.
The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.
Processes that incorporate some element of randomness, used particularly to refer to a time series of random variables.
A medical specialty concerned with the hypersensitivity of the individual to foreign substances and protection from the resultant infection or disorder.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.
Application of principles and practices of engineering science to biomedical research and health care.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
The genetic complement of a helminth (HELMINTHS) as represented in its DNA.
Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.
Biological activities and function of the whole organism in human, animal, microorgansims, and plants, and of the biosphere.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The biological science concerned with similarities or differences in the life-supporting functions and processes of different species.
The reproductive organs of plants.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
Methods utilizing the principles of MICROFLUIDICS for sample handling, reagent mixing, and separation and detection of specific components in fluids.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Databases containing information about NUCLEIC ACIDS such as BASE SEQUENCE; SNPS; NUCLEIC ACID CONFORMATION; and other properties. Information about the DNA fragments kept in a GENE LIBRARY or GENOMIC LIBRARY is often maintained in DNA databases.
A love or pursuit of wisdom. A search for the underlying causes and principles of reality. (Webster, 3d ed)
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.

Time-resolved analysis and visualization of dynamic processes in living cells. (1/657)

Recent development of in vivo microscopy techniques, including green fluorescent proteins, has allowed the visualization of a wide range of dynamic processes in living cells. For quantitative and visual interpretation of such processes, new concepts for time-resolved image analysis and continuous time-space visualization are required. Here, we describe a versatile and fully automated approach consisting of four techniques, namely highly sensitive object detection, fuzzy logic-based dynamic object tracking, computer graphical visualization, and measurement in time-space. Systematic model simulations were performed to evaluate the reliability of the automated object detection and tracking method. To demonstrate potential applications, the method was applied to the analysis of secretory membrane traffic and the functional dynamics of nuclear compartments enriched in pre-mRNA splicing factors.  (+info)

Cloning and embryonic stem cells: a new era in human biology and medicine. (2/657)

The cloning of mammals using adult cells as nuclear donors has been achieved and the same procedure can be, at least theoretically, used to clone humans. Another recent technological advance, the derivation of human embryonic stem cells, opens up new possibilities in cell and tissue replacement therapy and heralds significant improvements in gene therapy. Besides suggesting new and potentially valuable medical applications, the insights gained through the use of these techniques could significantly enrich our understanding of basic mechanisms regulating human development. On the other hand, these preliminary results are viewed by many as the opening of the Pandora's box and there are loud voices clamoring that research in these areas be forbidden in perpetuity. I suggest in the following article that at present we do not know enough to make anything but an entirely emotional decision about future applications of these techniques. I try to summarize the current state of the kn owledge in the field and indicate how much further research is necessary if benefits and drawbacks are to be properly understood.  (+info)

Chemical biology: the promise, and confusion, of adolescence. (3/657)

It takes time for any new scientific discipline to gain momentum, and chemical biology is no exception. But with the formation of new training programs and interdisciplinary departments, the changes are coming.  (+info)

DBcat: a catalog of 500 biological databases. (4/657)

The DBcat (http://www.infobiogen.fr/services/dbcat ) is a comprehensive catalog of biological databases, maintained and curated at Infobiogen. It contains 500 databases classified by application domains. The DBcat is a structured flat-file library, that can be searched by means of an SRS server or a dedicated Web interface. The files are available for download from Infobiogen anonymous ftp server.  (+info)

Database resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information. (5/657)

In addition to maintaining the GenBank(R) nucleic acid sequence database, the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) provides data analysis and retrieval and resources that operate on the data in GenBank and a variety of other biological data made available through NCBI's Web site. NCBI data retrieval resources include Entrez, PubMed, LocusLink and the Taxonomy Browser. Data analysis resources include BLAST, Electronic PCR, OrfFinder, RefSeq, UniGene, Database of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (dbSNP), Human Genome Sequencing pages, GeneMap'99, Davis Human-Mouse Homology Map, Cancer Chromosome Aberration Project (CCAP) pages, Entrez Genomes, Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs) database, Retroviral Genotyping Tools, Cancer Genome Anatomy Project (CGAP) pages, SAGEmap, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) and the Molecular Modeling Database (MMDB). Augmenting many of the Web applications are custom implementations of the BLAST program optimized to search specialized data sets. All of the resources can be accessed through the NCBI home page at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih. gov  (+info)

Teaching experimental design to biologists. (6/657)

The teaching of research design and data analysis to our graduate students has been a persistent problem. A course is described in which students, early in their graduate training, obtain extensive practice in designing experiments and interpreting data. Lecture-discussions on the essentials of biostatistics are given, and then these essentials are repeatedly reviewed by illustrating their applications and misapplications in numerous research design problems. Students critique these designs and prepare similar problems for peer evaluation. In most problems the treatments are confounded by extraneous variables, proper controls may be absent, or data analysis may be incorrect. For each problem, students must decide whether the researchers' conclusions are valid and, if not, must identify a fatal experimental flaw. Students learn that an experiment is a well-conceived plan for data collection, analysis, and interpretation. They enjoy the interactive evaluations of research designs and appreciate the repetitive review of common flaws in different experiments. They also benefit from their practice in scientific writing and in critically evaluating their peers' designs.  (+info)

Theoretical biology in the third millennium. (7/657)

During the 20th century our understanding of genetics and the processes of gene expression have undergone revolutionary change. Improved technology has identified the components of the living cell, and knowledge of the genetic code allows us to visualize the pathway from genotype to phenotype. We can now sequence entire genes, and improved cloning techniques enable us to transfer genes between organisms, giving a better understanding of their function. Due to the improved power of analytical tools databases of sequence information are growing at an exponential rate. Soon complete sequences of genomes and the three-dimensional structure of all proteins may be known. The question we face in the new millennium is how to apply this data in a meaningful way. Since the genes carry the specification of an organism, and because they also record evolutionary changes, we need to design a theoretical framework that can take account of the flow of information through biological systems.  (+info)

The past, the future and the biology of memory storage. (8/657)

We here briefly review a century of accomplishments in studying memory storage and delineate the two major questions that have dominated thinking in this area: the systems question of memory, which concerns where in the brain storage occurs; and the molecular question of memory, which concerns the mechanisms whereby memories are stored and maintained. We go on to consider the themes that memory research may be able to address in the 21st century. Finally, we reflect on the clinical and societal import of our increasing understanding of the mechanisms of memory, discussing possible therapeutic approaches to diseases that manifest with disruptions of learning and possible ethical implication of the ability, which is on the horizon, to ameliorate or even enhance human memory.  (+info)

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The Mission of the Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology is to excel in basic scientific research, maintaining the highest quality of scientific output in terms of created and disseminated knowledge, which can be applied in the context of wider societa
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Council on Undergraduate Research CONFERENCE PRESENTATIONS - National and International W.K. Pogozelski, Mary Makowske, Richard D.Feinmann, Using Low-Carbohydrate Diet to Teach Metabolic Pathways to Undergraduate and Medical Students, (poste)r Experimental Biology 2008. S. Vrooman and W.K. Pogozelski, Radiation Effects of Levels of Total Mitochondrial DNA and DNA Bearing the 4977-bp Common Deletion in a Pearsons Syndrome Pedigree (poster), Experimental Biology, 2008. C.Waters, A.J. Macula and W.K. Pogozelski, A DNA Combinatorial Library of 258 Strand Combinations for DNA Computing, (poster)Experimental Biology 2008. W.K. Pogozelski, C. Schiano, C. Waters and A. Macula, Creation of Combinatorial DNA Libraries for DNA Computing, Experimental Biology 2007, Washington, DC, 2007. (poster) W.K. Pogozelski, L. Wood, A. Ray, A.J. Macula, Detection of Cross-Hybridization in Large Pools of DNA Using SYBR Green I, Experimental Biology 2007, Washington, DC, 2007. (poster) W.K. Pogozelski, M.M. Miller, ...
formerly The Role of Biology Education In Preventing the Spread of AIDS) Since the first reports of its occurrence in 1981, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and the underlying infection, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) have grown to an epidemic of global proportions. The impact on individuals, families, and societies is profound. Experts in all areas of biomedicine and health care agree that education holds the most promise for controlling this deadly disease. Biology educators must play a central role in addressing the spread of HIV and the global threat of AIDS. Biology education at all levels of instruction should help to develop and improve understanding of the many dimensions of the HIV/AIDS epidemic by stressing the importance of the following topics, in developmentally appropriate and culturally sensitive ways. NABT supports the development of sound, responsible educational programs that incorporate current information on HIV and AIDS and encourages incorporation of these ...
Masters of Science opportunity in Community Ecology, Biology Education Research, or Science Outreach East Carolina University Greenville, North Carolina, U.S.A. Seeking a M.S. student to conduct research focused on community ecology, biology education, or science outreach beginning fall of 2018. The ideal candidate would already possess some experience working with K-12
Biology majors: Prospective majors should note that Introductory Biology and Chemistry are year-long sequences that can only be started in the fall. In their first year, prospective majors should take Biology 111 in the fall and Biology 112 in the spring. Since Chemistry is required for the Biology major, students who are sure of their intent to major in Biology should enroll in Chemistry 105 or 107 along with Biology 111 in the first semester. This permits a better integration of chemistry into upper level biology courses. Students may, however, delay chemistry until their second year and still complete the Biology major. Students who start their Biology major as sophomores need to take both Biology (111-112) and Chemistry 105/107-108) that year. A mathematics course (calculus or statistics) is required for the Biology major and should be completed in the first or second year.. Additional information. Biochemistry/Molecular Biology majors: Students planning a major in the interdisciplinary ...
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Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution is a much cited message from a paper by Dobzhansky (Dobzhansky, 1973). It emphasizes that identifying the principles, similarities and differences of structures and functions between organisms, their families, phyla and domains leads to an understanding of the pathways of evolution. Of course, biology encompasses experimental animal biology, which includes the comparative study of functions within or across phyla to identify the principles maintained and their potential and special modifications. Knowledge of unifying functional principles provides the foundation when addressing the sensitivities of species to environmental change, considering their phylogeny and mode of life. As experimental biology presently aims at becoming involved in conservation science, one question also is how to shape research to obtain the most powerful contributions to this field.. In this context, the recent paper by Clark and colleagues (Clark et al., ...
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The Company of Biologists is the first not-for-profit publisher to commit to this approach. The Companys three hybrid journals - Development, Journal of Cell Science and Journal of Experimental Biology - have chosen the transformative route towards Open Access. Find out more in this interview with Claire Moulton, Publisher at The Company of Biologists and on our dedicated Transformative Journals page.. ...
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Experimental Biology (EB) is the annual meeting of five societies that explores the latest research in anatomy, biochemistry and molecular biology, investigative pathology, pharmacology, and physiology. Participants represent scientists from academic institutions, government agencies, nonprofit organizations and industry.
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Bringing Synthetic Biology Education to Life Rob Matheson | MIT News Office December 4, 2015 Synthetic biology - which involves engineering biological systems for new uses - has become an increasingly prominent, and promising, field of study in colleges and universities worldwide. Research has yielded, for example, viruses that attack harmful bacteria, yeasts that produce…
Prion biology fascinated me. Not only was the discovery of a novel protein-based contagious disease intriguing, but the resistance with which the idea of prions was met strongly illustrates the slow-moving nature of scientific discovery. Stanley Prusiner, the scientist who had discovered prions, prevailed in the end He generated enough data to support his claim that a non-nucleic acid could, in fact, cause infectious disease. For Prusiner, he attained the epitome of acceptance by his peers when he won the 1997 Nobel Prize in Medicine. For me, after completing my introductory biology class, the take-home message was this: scientists dont have all the answers because science evolves and FACTS CHANGE. ...
This test covers the Carbon, Nitrogen, and Water Cycle. It is a 31 question test that included multiple choice and short essay questions. I think this is a great test to make sure your students have a basic understanding of these cycles in an introductory biology class. Depending on how deep you go ...
Describe the methods and strategies that you are using: Puerto Rico Institute for Microbial Ecology Research (PRIMER), as an authentic research experience model, has provide diverse levels for engagement for students. The skills development has three stages: apprentice (help others to conduct protocols and initial understanding), novice (perform protocols with minimal supervision and are capable of explaining the applied scientific method), and fellow (address new questions with the mentor and are capable of scientific writing with supporting literature). Students develop initial expertise in particular protocols that later teach to peers: a community of learning has evolved. Intellectual development is fostered throughout discussion sessions: regular laboratory meetings, oral presentations at local student forum, and poster presentation at scientific meetings (local and national). Participation at SACNAS National Conference is aimed every year ...
This college biology textbook replacement course covers all of the topics in a standard biology textbook. The lessons offer a convenient way for...
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Philip Skell responds: My essay about Darwinism and modern experimental biology has stirred up a lively discussion, but the responses still provide no evidence that evolutionary theory is the cornerstone of experimental biology. Comparative physiology and comparative genomics have certainly been fruitful, but comparative biology originated before Darwin and owes nothing to his theory. Before the publication of The Origin of Species in 1859, comparative biology focused mainly on morphology, because physiology and biochemistry were in their infancy and genomics lay in the future; but the extension of a comparative approach to these sub-disciplines depended on the development of new methodologies and instruments, not on evolutionary theory and immersion in historical biology ...
Adenylosuccinate lyase (ASL) catalyzes 2 reactions in the de novo synthesis of purine nucleotides. In humans, point mutations of this enzyme are associated with mental retardation, autism, and muscle wasting. The sequence of B. subtilis ASL is 27% identical and 17% similar to the human enzyme. We have cloned, expressed, and purified B. subtilis ASL; the crystal structure of a 73% homologous bacterial enzyme is known (PDB #lc3u). We separately mutated 2 amino acids in the B. subtilis ASL (M10L & N276C) equivalent to the mutations identified in human ASL deficiency (M26L & R303C). The purified M10L and N276C possess specific activities of 0.86 and 0.38 units/mg, respectively, as compared to 1.56 units/mg for wild type (WT) enzyme. Both enzymes are similar to WT in conformation and oligomeric state as indicated by circular dichroism and light scattering. The Km for adenylosuccinate (SAMP) is not appreciably different between M1OL (5.6 uM) and WT (4.9 uM); and the pH dependence of Vmax is also ...
SUMMARY Shedding of vortices is a common phenomenon in the atmosphere over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. However, it is unclear how these vortices of varying scales affect the flight performance of flying animals. In order to examine these interactions, we trained seven hawkmoths ( Manduca sexta ) (wingspan ~9 cm) to fly and feed in a wind tunnel under steady flow (controls) and in the von Kármán vortex street of vertically oriented cylinders (two different cylinders with diameters of 10 and 5 cm) at speeds of 0.5, 1 and 2 m s −1 . Cylinders were placed at distances of 5, 25 and 100 cm upstream of the moths. Moths exhibited large amplitude yaw oscillations coupled with modest oscillations in roll and pitch, and slight increases in wingbeat frequency when flying in both the near (recirculating) and middle (vortex dominated) wake regions. Wingbeat amplitude did not vary among treatments, except at 1 m s −1 for the large cylinder. Yaw and roll oscillations were synchronized ...
In gravity below Earth-normal, a person should be able to take higher leaps in running. We asked 10 subjects to run on a treadmill in five levels of simulated reduced gravity and optically tracked centre-of-mass kinematics. Subjects consistently reduced ballistic height compared with running in normal gravity. We explain this trend by considering the vertical take-off velocity (defined as maximum vertical velocity). Energetically optimal gaits should balance the energetic costs of ground-contact collisions (favouring lower take-off velocity), and step frequency penalties such as leg swing work (favouring higher take-off velocity, but less so in reduced gravity). Measured vertical take-off velocity scaled with the square root of gravitational acceleration, following energetic optimality predictions and explaining why ballistic height decreases in lower gravity. The success of work-based costs in predicting this behaviour challenges the notion that gait adaptation in reduced gravity results from ...
American Medical Association American Epidemiological Society American College of Physicians (Fellow, March 1971) Albemarle County Medical Society American Federation for Clinical Research American Society for Microbiology American Thoracic Society American Association for the Advancement of Science American Association of University Professors Infectious Diseases Society of America Medical Society of Virginia Southern Society for Clinical Investigation Association of Teachers of Preventive Medicine Society for Epidemiologic Research Society for Medical Consultants to the Armed Forces American Clinical and Climatological Association Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine SE Section of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine American Academy of Microbiology Virginia Thoracic Society International Epidemiological Association American College of Epidemiology (Fellow, August 1981) International Society for Antiviral Research Virginia Infectious Disease Society (VIDS) 1. Gwaltney JM ...
This is an open access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles in this journal without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI) definition of open access ...
This is an open access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles in this journal without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI) definition of open access ...
Biology[edit]. Rafinesque published 6,700 binomial names of plants, many of which have priority over more familiar names.[26] ... He wrote prolifically on such diverse topics as anthropology, biology, geology, and linguistics, but was honored in none of ...
Molecular Biology and Evolution. 14 (5): 537-543. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a025790. PMID 9159931.. ... "Systematic Biology. 58 (6): 573-585. doi:10.1093/sysbio/syp060. PMC 2777972. PMID 20525610.. ... Smith, Craig R.; Baco, Amy R. (2003). "Ecology of Whale Falls at the Deep-Sea Floor". Oceanography and Marine Biology: An ... The Evolutionary Biology of Hearing. Springer-Verlag. pp. 717-750. doi:10.1007/978-1-4612-2784-7_44. ISBN 978-1-4612-7668-5.. ...
Biology[edit]. The polyps of fire corals are near microscopic size and are mostly embedded in the skeleton and connected by a ... Wood, E.M. (1983) Reef corals of the world: biology and field guide. T.F.H. Publications, New Jersey, USA. ...
Biology[edit]. The bluespotted cornetfish is usually a solitary predator, stalking and feeding on small fishes, crustaceans, ...
Bio-dispersing[edit]. Dispersants are used to prevent formation of biofouling or biofilms in industrial processes. It is also ...
Biology[edit]. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (October 2016) ...
Biology[edit]. Because of its size, the tree has been studied for its water pull. Water from the roots can be pushed up only a ... Aliso: A Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Biology. 30 (1): 19-32 - via Semantic Scholar.. ... "Aliso: A Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Biology. 30 (2): 103-107 - via Scholarship @ Claremont.. ...
Biology[edit]. Some of the best-known difference equations have their origins in the attempt to model population dynamics. For ...
Bio. Zentr. 51, 194-199. *^ Stern C. 1936. "Somatic crossing-over and segregation in Drosophila melanogaster". Genetics 21, 625 ... Use in experimental biology[edit]. Genetic mosaics can be extraordinarily useful in the study of biological systems, and can be ...
Biology[edit]. Significance[edit]. Vitamin C is an essential nutrient for certain animals including humans. The term vitamin C ... "Genome Biology. 11 (3): R26. doi:10.1186/gb-2010-11-3-r26. PMC 2864566. PMID 20210993.. ... Bulley S, Laing W (October 2016). "The regulation of ascorbate biosynthesis". Current Opinion in Plant Biology. 33: 15-22. doi: ... Prockop DJ, Kivirikko KI (1995). "Collagens: molecular biology, diseases, and potentials for therapy". Annual Review of ...
"The Journal of Cell Biology. 35 (2): C11-6. doi:10.1083/jcb.35.2.c11. PMC 2107130 . PMID 6055998.. ... "The Journal of Cell Biology. 119 (2): 287-99. doi:10.1083/jcb.119.2.287. PMC 2289658 . PMID 1400574.. ... "The Journal of Cell Biology. 119 (2): 301-11. doi:10.1083/jcb.119.2.301. PMC 2289660 . PMID 1400575.. ... "The Journal of Cell Biology. 131 (3): 591-602. doi:10.1083/jcb.131.3.591. PMC 2120622 . PMID 7593182.. ...
"Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology. 14: 759-774. doi:10.1038/nrm3696.. *^ Russell, Ryan C.; Yuan, Hai-Xin; Guan, Kun-Liang ( ... "Molecular Biology of the Cell. 25 (2): 290-301. doi:10.1091/mbc.E13-08-0448. PMC 3890349. PMID 24258026.. ... "Molecular Biology of the Cell. 19 (12): 5360-72. doi:10.1091/mbc.E08-01-0080. PMC 2592660. PMID 18843052.. ... "Molecular Biology of the Cell. 15 (3): 1101-11. doi:10.1091/mbc.E03-09-0704. PMC 363084. PMID 14699058.. ...
Biology[edit]. The behaviour of the Palpimanidae is in general poorly investigated. All species produce ecribellate silk.[2] ...
Biology, chemistry. Biologists use a number of -phobia/-phobic terms to describe predispositions by plants and animals against ... Photophobia (biology) - a negative phototaxis or phototropism response, or a tendency to stay out of the light ... in biology to describe organisms that dislike certain conditions (e.g. acidophobia), and in medicine to describe ...
Biology[edit]. It flies at night in July and August [1] and is attracted to light, especially the males. ...
Biology[edit]. *Pilot fish (Naucrates ductor), a small fish. *Pilot whale, a whale-like dolphin ...
In biology, phylogenetics /ˌfaɪloʊdʒəˈnɛtɪks, -lə-/[1][2] (from Greek φυλή/φῦλον (phylé/phylon) "tribe, clan, race", and ... "Molecular Biology and Evolution. 4 (4): 406-25. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a040454. PMID 3447015.. ... Outside biology[edit]. Phylogenetic tools and representations (trees and networks) can also be applied to studying the ... Archibald, J. David (2008). "Edward Hitchcock's Pre-Darwinian (1840) 'Tree of Life'". Journal of the History of Biology. 42 (3 ...
Biology[edit]. Habitat: Deciduous and coniferous woodland and anthropophilic, occurring along field hedges, in suburban gardens ...
10 e− + 30 H+ + 5 BiO−. 3(s) → 5 Bi3+(aq) + 15 H2O(l). Adding these two reactions eliminates the electrons terms and yields the ... 2 e− + 6 H+ + BiO−. 3(s) → Bi3+(aq) + 3 H2O(l) ...
Biology[edit]. Comparison between the female (right) and the male (left). Adults are visible from May to September. Early in ...
Biology[edit]. Unlike other species of tahr, the Arabian tahr is solitary or lives in small groups consisting of a female and a ...
Biology[edit]. The false scad is a schooling species, forming large protective masses, often mingling with other semi-pelagic ... Wysokinski, A. (1973). "Biology and catches of the horse mackerels (Trachurus trachurus, Trachurus trecae and Caranx rhonchus) ... Khanna, D.R.; P.R. Yadav (2004). Biology of Fishes. Discovery Publishing House. p. 400. ISBN 978-81-7141-908-1.. ... Okera, W. (1977). "Fishes taken by the beach seines fishing at Lumley, Freetown (Sierra Leone)". Journal of Fish Biology. 12 (1 ...
... from cell biology and genetics to microbiology and developmental biology. It is also used in quantum optics and nano-crystal ... "The Journal of Cell Biology. 105 (1): 41-48. doi:10.1083/jcb.105.1.41. ISSN 0021-9525. PMC 2114888 . PMID 3112165.. ... Biology and medicine[edit]. Example of a stack of confocal microscope images showing the distribution of actin filaments ... Amos, W.B.; White, J.G. (2003). "How the Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope entered Biological Research". Biology of the Cell. ...
In cell biology[edit]. Retrograde signals are transmitted from plastids to the nucleus in plants and eukaryotic algae,[1][3] ... Retrograde signaling in biology is a process whereby the function of one part of a cell is controlled by feedback from another ... In cell biology, retrograde signaling occurs between different subcellular organelles. A typical example in plants is ... Annual Review of Plant Biology. 57: 739-759. doi:10.1146/annurev.arplant.57.032905.105310. PMID 16669780.. ...
Glatston, A. R. (2010). Red Panda: Biology and Conservation of the First Panda. William Andrew. ISBN 978-1-4377-7813-7.. ... Glatston, Angela R. (2010). Red Panda: Biology and Conservation of the First Panda. William Andrew. p. 61. ISBN 1-4377-7813-5. ... Molecular Biology and Evolution. 18 (6): 1070-1076. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a003878. PMID 11371595.. ...
Biology and ecology[edit]. Apparently solitary in nature, the longtail stingray is a predator of bottom-dwelling bony fishes ...
Biology and medicine[edit]. *HR (gene) (Hairless homolog (mouse)), a gene which encodes a protein whose function has been ...
Biology[edit]. Evolution[edit]. In evolution, anastomosis is a recombination of evolutionary lineage. Conventional accounts of ... The term is used in medicine, biology, mycology, geology, geography and architecture. ...
Biology and chemistry[edit]. *Induction (birth). *Induction chemotherapy, in medicine. *Induction period, the time interval ...
Biology[edit]. Fumaric acid is found in fumitory (Fumaria officinalis), bolete mushrooms (specifically Boletus fomentarius var ...
Look up biology in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.. Wikiversity has learning resources about Biology at The School of Biology ... Molecular biology is the study of biology at the molecular level.[43] This field overlaps with other areas of biology, ... "Molecular Biology - Definition". biology-online.org. Retrieved 2013-10-02.. *^ Gray, Henry (1918). Anatomy of the Human Body ( ... Main article: Bibliography of biology. *. Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, Raff M, Roberts K, Walter P (2002). Molecular Biology ...
Journal of Experimental Biology is the leading primary research journal in comparative physiology and publishes papers on the ... The biology of fat. Guest editors: Raul K. Suarez and Hans H. Hoppeler ...
UTSA Department of Biology. Biotechnology, Sciences and Engineering Building (BSE), Suite 1.600 , 210-458-4511 , biology@utsa. ... Ph.D. in Marine Biology; Scripps Institution of Oceanography B.A. in Zoology; University of California, Santa Barbara ...
BIO 2018 Convention Summary. View the full stats and recap of the history-making BIO 2018 in Boston! ... Save the Date: BIO 2019. BIO is returning to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania June 3-6, 2019. ... BIO 2018 to Mark First 25 Years of the BIO Century in Boston ... BIO One-on-One Partnering™ * BIO One-on-One Partnering™ ... Following Food, Health and Environmental Future Day at the 2018 BIO International Convention, BIOs Executive ... ...
... is Europes flagship laboratory for basic research in molecular biology. EMBL operates from five sites: the main laboratory in ... Iskander Khusainov, Institute of Genetics and Molecular and Cellular Biology, France. 10:00 - Room 202 ... an intergovernmental organisation with more than 80 independent research groups covering the spectrum of molecular biology. It ...
"If its green or wriggles, its biology.. If it stinks, its chemistry.. If it doesnt work, its physics!" ...
... of the NIA funds Nathan Shock Centers of Excellence in the Basic Biology of Aging across the U.S. There are currently 5 funded ... The Division of Aging Biology (DAB) of the NIA funds Nathan Shock Centers of Excellence in the Basic Biology of Aging across ... The Centers provide leadership in the pursuit of basic research into the biology of aging. They do so through a Research ... The Jackson Laboratory Nathan Shock Center of Excellence in the Basic Biology of Aging. The Jackson Laboratory. Gary A. ...
Info concerning University of Minnesota cellular biology, registering in a technical degree program, and taking free practice ... Cell Biology - Test 1. Cell Biology - Test 2. Industrial Chemistry 1. Industrial Chemistry 2. Industrial Chemistry 3. ... This website is not affiliated with University of Minnesota cellular biology, and all trademarks are exclusive property of the ... University of Minnesota cellular biology. To request course information, please complete this form. You may receive information ...
About Anpac Bio Decades of research by the worlds most respected cancer scientists and physicians consistently reveals one ... This fact led Anpac Bio Co-Founders, Dr. Chris Yu and Dr. Herbert Yu, to ask the question that ultimately launched the company: ... Anpac Bios proprietary Cancer Differentiation Analysis (CDA) technology detects early signals of threatening cancer-and the ... Together they founded Anpac Bio-Medical Science Co., Ltd. in 2008, bringing together a multi-national team of medical, ...
News from BiO. BiO is delighted to announce the appointment of Tristan Rodríguez (Imperial College London) to the editor team. ... Biology Open (BiO) is an online Open Access journal that supports the community of biologists through the publication of peer- ... BiO also aspires to promote a peer-review system that is timely, thorough, constructive and fair. ... Authors are encouraged to submit work of appropriate scope directly to BiO. Editorial decisions are made by an international ...
... * 1. Health is a state of physical, mental and social well being. The conditions necessary for good health are :i) Good ...
Cell Biology (3 s.h.) S. (Formerly: BIOLOGY 0330.). Prerequisite: Biology 3096 (W204) with a C- or better. Recent developments ... Applied Biology (3 s.h.) F. RCI: SB.. (Formerly: BIOLOGY C073.). Prerequisite: Biology 1007 (C070) with a C- or better, or ... Molecular Biology (3 s.h.) F. (Formerly: BIOLOGY 0324.). Prerequisite: Biology 2296 (2203, 0203) with a grade of C- or better, ... Contemporary Biology (3 s.h.) F. (Formerly: BIOLOGY 3365 & 0385.). Prerequisite: Biology 3096 (W204) with a C- or better. ...
Undergraduate Studies in Biology. The Department of Biology offers a wide variety of courses to its students, taught by award- ... Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Students in the Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Ph.D program work closely with ... The community that forms the Department of Biology at the University of Oklahoma (OU Biology) is repulsed by the 400-year ... OU Biology appreciates, studies, and works to preserve the diversity of life and we will no longer be passive in the movement ...
Industrial Biology. Nature volume 216, pages957-958(1967)Cite this article ... Industrial Biology. Nature 216, 957-958 (1967). https://doi.org/10.1038/216957c0 ...
Computational evolutionary biology[edit]. Computational biology has assisted the field of evolutionary biology in many ... Some notable examples include Journal of Computational Biology and PLOS Computational Biology. The PLOS computational biology ... Cancer computational biology[edit]. Cancer computational biology is a field that aims to determine the future mutations in ... Computational biology, bioinformatics and mathematical biology are all interdisciplinary approaches to the life sciences that ...
Education and information about Cyclosporiasis biology.
Education and information about Toxoplasmosis biology specifically focusing on the Life Cycle of the parasite. ...
Cell Biology - Test 1. Cell Biology - Test 2. Industrial Chemistry 1. Industrial Chemistry 2. Industrial Chemistry 3. ... Molecular Biology. 299,319 views. The major procedures in molecular biology are covered in the following video, opening with a ... Biology is one of the original natural sciences, even reaching back as far as the study of anatomy in ancient Egypt, where ... Cellular biology may be broken down further into a structural analysis of cell organelles and lipid membrane boundries, such as ...
Using a tiny array of electrodes implanted in the brains somatosensory cortex, Caltech scientists have induced sensations of touch and movement in the hand and arm of a paralyzed man ...
Spring 2021 Outstanding Biology Learning Assistant Awards. May 6, 2021. The Biology Department recognized the hard work and ... Are you interested in making a donation for a specific purpose? Please reach out to Biology Department Chair Kim McCall or BU ... 2021 Biology Department Undergraduate Research Award Winners. May 5, 2021. Congratulations to the recipients of the 2021 ... Giving Day 2021 is on April 7! Show your support for BU Biology at our Giving Day page! ...
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical processes, ... Sub-disciplines of biology are defined by the research methods employed and the kind of system studied: theoretical biology ... Biology recognizes the cell as the basic unit of life, genes as the basic unit of heredity, and evolution as the engine that ... Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical processes, ...
Marine Biology A Course Outline Marine Biology A: Assignment Sheet. Marine Biology B Course Outline Marine Biology B: ... Welcome, Marine Biology Students!. This is Mr. Vallejos web page for marine biology classes at Chatsworth High School in the ... Ben Vallejo is an adjunct professor of biology at Moorpark College, as well as one of the forty-nine National Board Certified ... Student Reviews of Marine Web Sites: These reviews of marine web sites are written by our very own marine biology students here ...
5 , Communications Biology. Fig. 5. From: A TonB-dependent receptor constitutes the outer membrane transport system for a ...
Biology is the study of living things. Topics covered include:. 1. Chemistry of Life. 2. Structure and Function of Cells. 3. ... This is a full year Biology course designed to introduce you to basic biological principles and to provide laboratory and ...
Welcome to Chemistry/Biology I Science at ABHS First semester of Chemistry/ Biology I science at ABHS is Chemistry I. The ... second semester of science is Biology I. This webpage will be updated frequently with important assignments and materials ...
Scientific American is the essential guide to the most awe-inspiring advances in science and technology, explaining how they change our understanding of the world and shape our lives.
Other articles where Acoelomate is discussed: animal: Acoelomates: Flatworms (phyla Platyhelminthes, Nemertea, and Mesozoa) lack a coelom, although nemerteans have a fluid-filled cavity at their anterior, or head, end, which is used to eject the proboscis rapidly. The lack of a fluid-filled cavity adjacent to the muscles reduces the extent to which…
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In cell biology or molecular biology labs the emphasis is on working sterile, quickly and reproducibly. So companies have been ... tags: Lab Trash, recycle, molecular biology, cell biology, streaming video Ive been telling you about the perils of plastics, ... tags: The Nature of Cell Science, cell biology, microscopy, research, science, music, Venetian Snares, Szamár Madár, field ... tags: Glowing Life in an Underwater World, marine biology, bioluminescence, luciferase, luciferin, green fluorescent protein, ...
... is a bimonthly academic English journal supervised by the Ministry of Education of China. The journal is ... Related subjects » Animal Sciences - Biochemistry & Biophysics - Cell Biology - Evolutionary & Developmental Biology - ... cell and developmental biology, biochemistry and molecular biology, medical biology, microbiology, immunology, and plane ... cell and developmental biology, biochemistry and molecular biology, medical biology, microbiology, immunology, and plane ...
  • The life sciences are defined by the scale at which organisms are studied, in that biochemistry focuses on chemical processes of life while molecular biology involves molecules and protein synthesis. (southerncrescenttech.com)
  • [1] The field is broadly defined and includes foundations in biology , applied mathematics , statistics , biochemistry , chemistry , biophysics , molecular biology , genetics , genomics , computer science and evolution . (wikipedia.org)
  • Structural biology is a branch of molecular biology, biochemistry, and biophysics concerned with the molecular structure of biological macromolecules (especially proteins, made up of amino acids, and RNA or DNA, made up of nucleotides), how they acquire the structures they have, and how alterations in their structures affect their function. (fastweb.com)
  • Students may elect undergraduate level courses in a variety of areas of biology and biochemistry, or may choose to obtain more advanced, in-depth training in one particular area. (brandeis.edu)
  • While other course schedules are possible, the ones described above allows students ample time to complete the remaining requirements (biochemistry, calculus, physics, and three or five biology electives) for the biology degree during the junior and senior years and leaves students the option of enrolling in Senior Research during the senior year. (brandeis.edu)
  • While foundation-level courses are needed by all biologists (chemistry, physics, mathematics, as well as biology), advanced training in molecular biology (genetics, molecular techniques, biochemistry, environmental/medical forensics, statistics, and criminal justice procedures) will focus a student's skill-set to give them the background and training needed to enter the field of forensic biology. (bgsu.edu)
  • You are a biologist with a PhD focusing on molecular biology, biochemistry, biotechnology, microbiology, toxicology, plant biology or bioinformation technology, have successfully completed your PhD and already have several years of industrial experience. (basf.com)
  • The mission of Bowdoin College's Biology Department is to offer an educational program that informs, challenges and stimulates undergraduates in a broad range of biological inquiry at many levels of organization, from biochemistry and molecular biology through population and ecosystem ecology. (bowdoin.edu)
  • Our work helps to develop the tools and techniques of biochemistry, molecular genetics, and structural biology. (bnl.gov)
  • of Leeds used the term in its now accepted sense, to describe the area of research, closely related to and often overlapping biochemistry, conducted by biologists whose approach to and interest in biology are principally at the molecular level of organization. (factmonster.com)
  • Check with the developmental biology department for course registration deadlines, and evolution program requirements. (southerncrescenttech.com)
  • Beyond major requirements within the developmental biology department, you may consider Williston State College medical transcription as a complementary elective to your primary course of study. (southerncrescenttech.com)
  • Dr Philip Lewis is an Honorary Reader in the Cell and Developmental Biology department at UCL. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • To this end, the Reproductive and Developmental Biology Laboratory uses basic research to understand important toxicological principles in the context of reproductive and developmental health at a fundamental level. (nih.gov)
  • The Reproductive and Developmental Biology Laboratory is comprised of five research groups that study the mechanisms and molecules with key roles in reproduction and development. (nih.gov)
  • The Department of Cell and Developmental Biology has a very active MPhil/PhD programme. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Select 'Division of Biosciences' for the UCL Department you are applying to and 'Research Degree: Cell and Developmental Biology' for Programme Title. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • The 3 year version is available in laboratories in the Cell and Developmental Biology Department. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Microbiome research has thus integrated the diverse fields of microbiology, genomics, bioinformatics, cell and developmental biology and health and medicine, among others. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Throughout the 2020-21 academic year, the OU Department of Biology will take its popular department seminar series online via Zoom Meetings. (ou.edu)
  • View the full stats and recap of the history-making BIO 2018 in Boston! (bio.org)
  • Miss a Session at BIO 2018? (bio.org)
  • The biology department has more than 25 full-time faculty members with teaching and research interests in the fields of genetics, molecular biology, development, immunology, neurobiology, motility, cell biology, and structural biology. (brandeis.edu)
  • Modern biology is becoming an interdisciplinary field, overlapping with biomedical engineering, molecular chemistry, and genetics. (southerncrescenttech.com)
  • Chemistry 1031 and 1032 (formerly C071 and C072) must be passed with a C or better as prerequisites to Biology 1111 and 2112 (formerly 0101 and 0102), respectively. (temple.edu)
  • First semester of Chemistry/ Biology I science at ABHS is Chemistry I. The second semester of science is Biology I. This webpage will be updated frequently with important assignments and materials throughout the year so be sure to check this page often! (google.com)
  • Students wishing to concentrate in biology should enroll in General Chemistry during their first year. (brandeis.edu)
  • It features over 300 classroom-ready activities ranging from word-based problem-solving exercises to hands-on laboratory experiments and includes examples drawn from biology, physics, chemistry, and the geosciences, all linked to National Science Education Standards. (csun.edu)
  • BGSU offers three areas of forensic specializations that will be able to take advantage of the close proximity of the new state crime lab, Forensic Biology, Forensic Chemistry and Forensic Investigations. (bgsu.edu)
  • In the ChemBio division, we combine and develop protein engineering, synthetic chemistry, and state-of-the-art biophysical methods (spectroscopy, live cell imaging and nanotechnology) to address cutting-edge questions in biology to meet medical challenges related to human health. (chalmers.se)
  • Journal of Experimental Biology is the leading primary research journal in comparative physiology and publishes papers on the form and function of living organisms at all levels of biological organisation, from the molecular and subcellular to the integrated whole animal. (biologists.org)
  • Biology Open (BiO) is an online Open Access journal that supports the community of biologists through the publication of peer-reviewed original research across all aspects of the biological sciences. (biologists.org)
  • Computational biology involves the development and application of data-analytical and theoretical methods, mathematical modeling and computational simulation techniques to the study of biological, ecological, behavioral, and social systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Computational biology is different from biological computing , which is a subfield of computer science and computer engineering using bioengineering and biology to build computers , but is similar to bioinformatics , which is an interdisciplinary science using computers to store and process biological data. (wikipedia.org)
  • Computational Biology, which includes many aspects of bioinformatics , is the science of using biological data to develop algorithms or models to understand biological systems and relationships. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike computational biology, evolutionary computation is not concerned with modeling and analyzing biological data. (wikipedia.org)
  • Computational biology has been used to help sequence the human genome, create accurate models of the human brain, and assist in modeling biological systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Integrative Biology publishes original biological research based on innovative experimental and theoretical methodologies that answer biological questions. (rsc.org)
  • This is a full year Biology course designed to introduce you to basic biological principles and to provide laboratory and activity based learning opportunities that reinforce these principles. (google.com)
  • He delivers the Dynamic Biological Systems module to UCL undergraduates and the SysMIC eLearning course which provides training in quantitative biology aimed at the postgraduate research community. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Ecology serves as a foundation for Conservation Biology, which is the application of biological knowledge and techniques to the conservation and restoration of natural biodiversity. (bgsu.edu)
  • The undergraduate program in biology, leading either to the B.A. or to the B.S. degree, is designed to give students an understanding of both fundamental and current biological knowledge in a variety of fields. (brandeis.edu)
  • A concentration in biology provides excellent preparation for students intent on careers in biological research who want to go to graduate school, for those seeking careers in medicine, veterinary medicine, and dentistry, and for those interested in the allied health professions such as genetic counseling, physical therapy, physician assistant, and so forth. (brandeis.edu)
  • The graduate program in molecular and cell biology, leading to the degree of doctor of philosophy, is designed to provide each student with the theoretical foundations and research experience needed to become an independent and original investigator of basic biological phenomena. (brandeis.edu)
  • CONSERVATION BIOLOGY, an interdisciplinary, mission-oriented science with the goal of alleviating the extinction crisis and fostering biological diversity . (encyclopedia.com)
  • The Computational and Predictive Biology Group brings together and collaborates with scientists from related experimental, computational, and technical disciplines to build increasingly detailed computational models of biological systems. (ornl.gov)
  • For more information about these courses, see the Department of Biological Sciences bio.ucalgary.ca . (ucalgary.ca)
  • I recently took part in a panel at Engineering Biology for Science & Industry , where I talked about the path biology is taking as it becomes more and more of an engineering discipline, and how understanding the path electronics followed will help us build our own hopes and dreams for the biological revolution. (oreilly.com)
  • Since biological entities span a range from macromolecules such as DNA and proteins within cells, to organs such as animal hearts or plant leaves, to entire ecosystems, you'll be exposed to the breadth of biology through courses, labs, local and global field experiences and research. (lawrence.edu)
  • Researchers in Brookhaven's Biology Department seek to unravel and describe the complexities of biological systems-from how plants make oils and other products to the role of proteins in disease. (bnl.gov)
  • The field of molecular biology has grown with the increasing sophistication of available techniques and has quickly built upon its own increases in the understanding of biological processes. (factmonster.com)
  • Please check out our list of available projects within the Department of Biology and Biological Engineering. (chalmers.se)
  • Biology Open is abstracted and/or indexed by: Biological Abstracts CAB Abstracts Chemical Abstracts Thomson ISI PubMed Central PubMed Scopus It is a member of OASPA (Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association) and is indexed in the DOAJ (Directory of Open Access Journals). (wikipedia.org)
  • Workshop on Synthetic Biology took place on 10 December 2015. (europa.eu)
  • Speakers from academia, scientific committees, Commission services and Member States made presentations on synthetic biology. (europa.eu)
  • The workshop provided the opportunity to review the work on synthetic biology at EU level and to discuss challenges that synthetic biology may pose. (europa.eu)
  • What is synthetic biology? (europa.eu)
  • Inspired by the way open source data has stimulated innovation in computing, a new UK centre will create a climate of openness in synthetic biology, helping young researchers and entrepreneurs develop and share new tools and libraries of plant DNA. (cam.ac.uk)
  • In this new episode of the Hardware Podcast-which features our first discussion focusing specifically on synthetic biology-David Cranor and I talk with Charles Fracchia , an IBM Fellow at the MIT Media Lab and founder of the synthetic biology company BioBright . (oreilly.com)
  • Cell-free systems (CFS) have recently evolved into key platforms for synthetic biology applications. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Many synthetic biology tools have traditionally relied on cell-based systems, and while their adoption has s. (biomedcentral.com)
  • and evolutionary biology examines the processes that produced the diversity of life. (wikipedia.org)
  • Get the facts about Southern Crescent Tech evolutionary biology, and registering for elective seminars and lectures. (southerncrescenttech.com)
  • Concentrating on Southern Crescent Tech evolutionary biology, for example, you may gain an advantage in job recruiting on-campus. (southerncrescenttech.com)
  • Students in the Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Ph.D program work closely with internationally recognized experts in areas ranging from physiological ecology to phylogenetic reconstruction. (ou.edu)
  • Evolutionary theory is a cornerstone of biology. (ou.edu)
  • [4] The terms computational biology and evolutionary computation have a similar name, but are not to be confused. (wikipedia.org)
  • While evolutionary computation is not inherently a part of computational biology, Computational evolutionary biology is a subfield of it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Paleontology remained disenfranchised from mainstream evolutionary thought through the eclipse of Darwinism (1875-1925), but, following the reunification of Darwin's views in modern biology in the Modern Synthesis (1940), paleontology became a unique discipline combining approaches in both geology and biology. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The modern era of molecular biology and molecular genetics has enabled much to be learnt about how plastids function, and how they relate to their evolutionary past. (cambridge.org)
  • Becker will serve as an Assistant Professor of Biology in the area of Population / Disease Ecology. (ou.edu)
  • Students completing a Bachelor of Science specialization in Ecology and Conservation Biology (ECB) will gain a solid foundation in ecology, evolution, and organismal biology while developing the quantitative, analytical, and technical skills essential to qualify for professional positions or advanced study in this area. (bgsu.edu)
  • ECB graduates will be highly competitive for employment with businesses, government, or consulting agencies performing conservation assessment and ecological research, restoration or management of habitat or populations of rare, economically important, or invasive species, or for subsequent graduate training in ecology or conservation biology. (bgsu.edu)
  • The Ecology and Conservation Biology specialization (ECB) requires completion of a suite of core courses in basic biology, genetics, ecology, evolution, and conservation biology. (bgsu.edu)
  • Elective courses in diverse areas of ecology (Group A) provide more specialized training, while advanced courses in organismal biology (Group B) create depth of knowledge in biodiversity. (bgsu.edu)
  • The application of the theory in biogeography, ecology, ethology and other areas of biology. (ucalgary.ca)
  • Below are photographs of plants taken at the University, mostly in Boyer Woodlot (In support of the Plant Biology course SC/BIOL2010 ). (yorku.ca)
  • Please attribute to Plant Biology Photography @ York University . (yorku.ca)
  • Text and pictures are provided to guide users though a virtual experience of plant biology. (merlot.org)
  • You just viewed Plant Biology . (merlot.org)
  • Why choose Plant Biology? (ucalgary.ca)
  • Plant Biology is a challenging, dynamic, and broad branch of biology. (ucalgary.ca)
  • As a Plant Biology major, you will have the opportunity to participate in a two-term independent research project in a plant biology laboratory supervised by faculty member where you will gain hands-on research experience. (ucalgary.ca)
  • A degree in Plant Biology can also be used as a stepping-stone to graduate studies or a professional degree such as law, medicine, veterinary medicine, or architecture. (ucalgary.ca)
  • I learned about the plant biology program soon after starting my studies at UCalgary. (ucalgary.ca)
  • This inspired me to major in plant biology, and I haven't looked back. (ucalgary.ca)
  • Although systems biology models should be used with care considering the complexity of regulatory programs and the limitations of current genomics data, methods describing interactions can provide hypotheses about the underlying cause of emergent properties and are needed if we are to identify target genes other than those constituting the "low hanging fruit" of genomic analysis. (diva-portal.org)
  • Research in the field of Systems Biology is highly interdisciplinary. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Vivek Kohar and Mingyang Lu from Jackson Laboratory have developed a systems-biology modeling method s tochastic ra ndom ci rcuit pe rturbation (sRACIPE), which takes the GRC topology as the only input, and simulates an ensemble of models with random kinetic parameters at multiple noise levels. (nature.com)
  • To tackle such problems we also develop new technical methods and systems such as KBase (the Department of Energy Systems Biology Knowledgebase), and work with researchers at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility to develop exascale applications that run on some of the world's fastest supercomputers. (ornl.gov)
  • Integrative Biology welcomes primary research papers (including fundamental and theoretical papers), Reviews and Technical innovations. (rsc.org)
  • Frontiers in Biology provides a forum for a broad range of invited and unsolicited high quality critical review papers, in English, on the latest advances in all areas of Biology in order to promote rapid communication and the exchange of ideas among biologists all around the world. (springer.com)
  • Biology Open (BiO) is an online-only peer-reviewed Open Access scientific journal published by The Company of Biologists. (wikipedia.org)
  • Submit your ideas for sessions and speakers at BIO 2019. (bio.org)
  • BIO 2019 will be held at the Pennsylvania Convention Center: 1101 Arch St, Philadelphia, PA 19107. (bio.org)
  • Molecular Imaging and Biology is ranked #15 in the Google Scholar H-5 Index of Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy, with a 2019 H-5 Index of 31. (springer.com)
  • This data has now become commonplace, particularly in molecular biology and genomics . (wikipedia.org)
  • Fully revised and updated content matching the new Cambridge International Examinations Biology 9700 syllabus for first teaching in 2014 and first examination in 2016. (cambridge.org)
  • Since the late 1990s, computational biology has become an important part of developing emerging technologies for the field of biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sometimes referred to as genetic algorithms , the research of this field can be applied to computational biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent advances in sequencing, proteomic, and metabolomic technologies, as well as analytical and computational tools, are generating valuable insights into the biology of microbial communities, and their impact on their surroundings and their hosts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Biology Open considers original research, Methods & Techniques papers, papers on computational analysis, replication studies and reports presenting negative results. (wikipedia.org)
  • Contributions from Biology Education Research (CBER) is the international book series of the European Researchers in Didactics of Biology (ERIDOB). (springer.com)
  • So, the main audiences for the series range from senior to early career biology education researchers and pre- or in-service biology teachers working at all educational levels. (springer.com)
  • The Muscle Biology lab is on the 10th floor of the medical research building and is a component of the 5,000 sq. ft. of wet lab space for researchers from the Department of Nutrition & Metabolism and the Sealy Center on Aging. (utmb.edu)
  • The inter-connecting labs allow for scientific collaboration among other researchers interested in muscle biology, metabolism and aging. (utmb.edu)
  • Founded in 1974, EMBL is Europe's flagship laboratory for the life sciences - an intergovernmental organisation with more than 80 independent research groups covering the spectrum of molecular biology. (embl.de)
  • The Centers provide leadership in the pursuit of basic research into the biology of aging. (nih.gov)
  • Staff of the Biology Department conduct research and offer teaching programs in all these areas. (mcgill.ca)
  • The Department of Biology's well-equipped teaching and research laboratories are located in the Stewart Biology Building and the Bellini Life Sciences Building. (mcgill.ca)
  • BiO is looking to appoint a new member of its international team of research-active Editors . (biologists.org)
  • Congratulations to the recipients of the 2021 Biology Department Undergraduate Research Award. (bu.edu)
  • Sub-disciplines of biology are defined by the research methods employed and the kind of system studied: theoretical biology uses mathematical methods to formulate quantitative models while experimental biology performs empirical experiments to test the validity of proposed theories and understand the mechanisms underlying life and how it appeared and evolved from non-living matter about 4 billion years ago through a gradual increase in the complexity of the system. (fastweb.com)
  • Understand the uses of modelling in biology with reference to examples drawn across the spectrum of bioscience research. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Read more about the Duda Lab's Liver Cancer Research Program in the Edwin L. Steele Laboratories for Tumor Biology. (massgeneral.org)
  • A complete list of faculty research interests and recent publications is available from the biology department or can be viewed on the World Wide Web at www.bio.brandeis.edu. (brandeis.edu)
  • The journal Genome Biology is published by BioMedCentral, and offers free access to primary research articles and a preprint depository to which authors may submit work for free distribution over the web. (scidev.net)
  • It aims to provide an international forum for the dissemination, discussion and critical review of information about all areas of biology informed by genomic research. (scidev.net)
  • The Department of Biology takes advantage of the learning and research opportunities provided by the diverse animal and plant habitats. (uwec.edu)
  • Usually you will start in one of the global research divisions specializing in biology research: Bioscience Research or Crop Protection. (basf.com)
  • This special issue captures some of the progress being made in a field of research that has infiltrated traditional life science domains and changed our perception of organismal biology. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Marine Biology Centre produces outstanding research of our oceans, whilst leading the way in South Australia for students to study and experience first-hand, a broad range of projects within our marine ecosystems. (edu.au)
  • The aim of the series is to shed light on global issues and trends in the teaching and learning of biology by gathering cutting edge research findings, theoretical views, and implications or concrete suggestions for everyday school practice regarding biology. (springer.com)
  • The books may serve as resources for (a) getting informed about the most recent findings of biology education research to possibly integrate them in new personal research, and (b) studying about the teaching and learning of biology as a pre-service or in-service biology teacher. (springer.com)
  • Molecular Imaging and Biology presents original research contributions on the utilization of molecular imaging in problems of relevance in biology and medicine. (springer.com)
  • One of our largest majors at Lawrence, the biology program's coursework and collaborative research with faculty will help you study and apply your talents to create new knowledge. (lawrence.edu)
  • Senior Capstone in Biology course (BIOL 380), LAB version, in which students will collaboratively undertake a hands-on research project and write it up in a scientific paper. (csbsju.edu)
  • In addition to wet lab space, the muscle biology lab also uses a newly built exercise training facility for performing clinical trials utilizing exercise interventions and the UTMB CTSA Clinical Research Center for performing metabolic studies and muscle biopsies. (utmb.edu)
  • The Rehabilitation Sciences program has four research focus areas including the Muscle Biology of Rehabilitation track. (utmb.edu)
  • This year, the fourth annual John Nambu Memorial Summer REU Program welcomed seven participants from The Wilkes Honors College and the Biology department to research labs on the FAU Jupiter and Boca Raton campuses. (constantcontact.com)
  • Dr. Alex Keene, Associate Professor in the Biology Department, hosted the 8th annual Flies on the Beach Research Symposium at FAU's John D. MacArthur Campus in Jupiter. (constantcontact.com)
  • Biology Open is a signatory of the San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment (DORA). (wikipedia.org)
  • Biology is the natural science that involves the study of life and living organisms , including their physical structure , chemical composition , function , development and evolution . (wikipedia.org)
  • Biology recognizes the cell as the basic unit of life, genes as the basic unit of heredity , and evolution as the engine that propels the creation of new species . (wikipedia.org)
  • Biology in general is the study of life and living organisms, with specific attention to function, growth, evolution, identification and taxonomy. (southerncrescenttech.com)
  • Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical processes, molecular interactions, physiological mechanisms, development and evolution. (fastweb.com)
  • Info concerning University of Minnesota cellular biology, registering in a technical training program, and taking tests for free online. (cellular-biology.org)
  • If you major in cellular biology, for example, there are a variety of specializations that may appeal to you, such as medical assisting or occupational rehabilitation. (cellular-biology.org)
  • Further, due to advances in medical systems, there is a growing skill-shortage of graduates in cellular biology, and nursing professionals in general. (cellular-biology.org)
  • Cellular biology may be broken down further into a structural analysis of cell organelles and lipid membrane boundries, such as in skin tissue or alveolar sacs in the lungs. (southerncrescenttech.com)
  • Our outstanding faculty, state-of-the-art lab facilities, close proximity to field sites, and small class sizes provide our students hands-on experience across the full range of modern biology disciplines, from the sub-cellular level to the biosphere. (middlebury.edu)
  • In this accessible text, Kevin Pyke expertly describes how the plastids are highly complex organelles at the very core of plant cellular function, providing final year undergraduate and graduate students with an overview of plastid biology and recent developments in the field. (cambridge.org)
  • molecular biology, scientific study of the molecular basis of life processes, including cellular respiration, excretion, and reproduction. (factmonster.com)
  • The Department of Biology offers a wide variety of courses to its students, taught by award-winning faculty members. (ou.edu)
  • The community that forms the Department of Biology at the University of Oklahoma (OU Biology) is repulsed by the 400-year legacy of social injustices, discrimination, and oppression and the present-day manifestations of racism that continue to profoundly impact our community every day. (ou.edu)
  • To make the Department of Biology at the University of Oklahoma a paragon of justice and inclusivity will require our community to work collectively and continuously. (ou.edu)
  • The OU Department of Biology is pleased to welcome Dr. Alexandra Bentz, who will join our faculty next fall. (ou.edu)
  • Please reach out to Biology Department Chair Kim McCall or BU Development . (bu.edu)
  • The Biology Department recognized the hard work and innovation of all of. (bu.edu)
  • The Department of Biology will be hosting a memorial service for Sir. (bu.edu)
  • You will also find that within the walls of Phillips Hall, home of the Biology Department, there are several labs, collections, and greenhouses to explore. (uwec.edu)
  • The goals of the Biology department are to provide students opportunities to explore the diversity of life within the tradition of a liberal arts education. (middlebury.edu)
  • The faculty of the Biology Department seeks to share the excitement of these discoveries with students. (csbsju.edu)
  • The students and faculty of the Biology Department are a community of learners, using inquiry-based methods to investigate the breadth of biology, its connection to other disciplines, and its relevance to individuals and to society. (csbsju.edu)
  • The Biology Department has adopted a multifaceted approach to assessing the effectiveness of its curriculum. (csbsju.edu)
  • Courses in the Biology Department also meet the needs of non-majors and contribute to general scientific literacy. (bowdoin.edu)
  • Together with the Collider-Accelerator Department, the Biology Department manages the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven, which is used by radiobiologists and physicists to study the effects of space radiation on both living and non-living systems with the aim of protecting future astronauts. (bnl.gov)
  • The Biology Department is part of Brookhaven's Environment, Biology, and Nuclear Science & Nonproliferation Directorate . (bnl.gov)
  • The Division of Aging Biology (DAB) of the NIA funds Nathan Shock Centers of Excellence in the Basic Biology of Aging across the U.S. There are currently 5 funded Centers, in Maine (The Jackson Laboratory), Michigan (University of Michigan), Texas (University of Texas Health Sciences Center in San Antonio), Washington (University of Washington) and New York (Albert Einstein College of Medicine). (nih.gov)
  • Laboratory Safety - Laboratory safety for the biology classroom. (csun.edu)
  • Equipping the Biology Laboratory - Strategies for developing your lab. (csun.edu)
  • Dr. Ted Graber working in the Muscle Biology Laboratory. (utmb.edu)
  • Biology for the IB Diploma, Second edition covers in full the requirements of the IB syllabus for Biology for first examination in 2016. (cambridge.org)
  • This edition of our successful series to support the Cambridge IGCSE Biology syllabus (0610) is fully updated for the revised syllabus for first examination from 2016. (cambridge.org)
  • This is Mr. Vallejo's web page for marine biology classes at Chatsworth High School in the Los Angeles Unified High School District . (angelfire.com)
  • These reviews of marine web sites are written by our very own marine biology students here at Chatsworth High School. (angelfire.com)
  • The Degree of Master of Science is offered in Biology and Marine Biology to full-time and part-time students. (mun.ca)
  • A program of study leading to a Degree of Master of Science with a specialization in Marine Biology is governed by the above regulations. (mun.ca)
  • Marine biology at a land-locked college? (lawrence.edu)
  • The interdisciplinary Master's degree in Marine Science and Oceanography will be jointly administered by the Charles E. Schmidt College of Science and Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute, and will foster collaboration between HBOI and existing strengths at FAU in marine biology and geoscience. (constantcontact.com)
  • Although modern biology is a relatively recent development, sciences related to and included within it have been studied since ancient times. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biology is one of the original natural sciences, even reaching back as far as the study of anatomy in ancient Egypt, where evidence has been found of surgery, forensics, and anatomical knowledge of both organ structure and function. (southerncrescenttech.com)
  • Fields of biology are intimately intertwined with all other areas of natural science as well as the social sciences, philosophy, art, and the humanities. (bgsu.edu)
  • Graduate students in the Muscle Biology lab enroll in the UTMB Rehabilitation Sciences PhD program. (utmb.edu)
  • The term molecular biology was coined in 1938 by Warren Weaver , then director of the natural sciences program at the Rockefeller Foundation. (factmonster.com)
  • Cytology Cytology is the branch of biology that studies cells, the building blocks of life. (bookrags.com)
  • Genome Biology and BMC Biology are pleased to launch the publication of this special issue on Microbiome Biology. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For authors who originally submitted to Development, Journal of Cell Science, Journal of Experimental Biology or Disease Models & Mechanisms, there is a simple option to request transfer of your article for consideration by BiO if the paper is not accepted. (biologists.org)
  • Learn more about how the Boucher Lab within the Edwin L. Steele Laboratories for Tumor Biology is studying the delivery of oncolytic viruses and large therapeutic agents in tumors as well as tumor cell migration and metastasis. (massgeneral.org)
  • The programme provides training at the interface between developmental and stem cell biology. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Everything you need to understand or teach Cell biology . (bookrags.com)
  • In cell biology, you will create a portfolio of images using our confocal microscope (check out the video below). (lawrence.edu)
  • To learn more about the biology concentration, students should attend the 'Meet the Majors' meeting held each fall or consult with the undergraduate advising head. (brandeis.edu)
  • The science that concerns itself with these objects we will indicate by the name biology [Biologie] or the doctrine of life [Lebenslehre]. (wikipedia.org)
  • Together they founded Anpac Bio-Medical Science Co., Ltd. in 2008, bringing together a multi-national team of medical, biomedical and nanotechnology scientists, and engineering experts. (anpacbio.com)
  • Ben Vallejo is an adjunct professor of biology at Moorpark College , as well as one of the forty-nine National Board Certified Teachers in science in the state of California. (angelfire.com)
  • Science Museums - Science museums with biology science exhibits. (csun.edu)
  • Science Shows - Science shows that illustrate biology concepts. (csun.edu)
  • In addition to conceptual/theoretical lecture courses, students will get hands-on training in molecular biology techniques through our new course facilitated by Dr. Scott Rogers . (bgsu.edu)
  • A student will be required to take a minimum of 6 credit hours and Biology 7000 (Graduate Core Seminar). (mun.ca)
  • Students will be required to take Biology 7000 (Graduate Core Seminar) and an additional 12 credit hours. (mun.ca)
  • The remaining credit hours may be selected from any other Biology graduate courses or relevant graduate courses in other Departments. (mun.ca)
  • Our goal is to educate student in biology to prepare for graduate school or for professions in education or allied health professions, as well as to become life-long learners and well-informed citizens. (csbsju.edu)
  • In addition to covering current and historical concepts and controversies in biology, the curriculum is designed to give students critical analytical, problem-solving, quantitative and writing skills, thereby preparing them for further study in biology and related fields at the graduate level, in the health professions, in scientific education, or in other areas, depending upon the students' interests. (bowdoin.edu)
  • 1007. Foundations of Biology (4 s.h. (temple.edu)
  • Students will begin with Foundations of Biology (BIOL 101), followed by two intermediate courses (BIOL 201 and 202). (csbsju.edu)
  • [1] Modern biology is a vast field, composed of many branches . (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the origins of modern biology and its approach to the study of nature are most often traced back to ancient Greece . (wikipedia.org)
  • An introduction to the principles of biology using the human as a model organism. (temple.edu)
  • Homeostasis is one of the basic principles of biology. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Biology deals with the study of life and organisms . (wikipedia.org)
  • For first examination from 2022, these resources meet the real needs of the biology classroom. (cambridge.org)
  • Network biology: Understanding the cell's functional organization. (springer.com)
  • Biology and identification of disease-carrying, toxic and parasitic arthropods. (bgsu.edu)
  • Neuroscience is an interdisciplinary field, drawing upon biology , psychology , and philosophy to understand the mind, how the brain functions, and the role of the nervous system in normal and abnormal behavior. (middlebury.edu)
  • BiO also aspires to promote a peer-review system that is timely, thorough, constructive and fair. (biologists.org)
  • Existing peer review reports will be passed to BiO, which usually enables a more rapid publication decision. (biologists.org)
  • The groundwork for the modern field of conservation biology was laid in the early 1900s with the development of the fields of fisheries, forestry, and wildlife management, along with the first modern formulation of a land ethic, generally credited to Aldo Leopold . (encyclopedia.com)
  • From its inception, two core goals of conservation biology have been to preserve functioning samples of all global ecosystems in their natural range and to maintain viable populations of all native species within those ecosystems. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Explore how the Fukumura Lab within the Edwin L. Steele Laboratories for Tumor Biology is working to uncover the fundamental nature of vascular biology in both physiological and pathophysiological settings, and to utilize this knowledge for detection and treatment of diseases. (massgeneral.org)
  • The Huang Lab within the Edwin L. Steele Laboratories for Tumor Biology focuses on the development of spontaneous tumors in mice and on how the age, genetic background, and immune status of the mice-as well as the presence or absence of specific genes-affect the histopathological characteristics of the tumors. (massgeneral.org)
  • Learn more about the Jain Lab within the Edwin L. Steele Laboratories for Tumor Biology, is celebrated for a new hypothesis that antiangiogenic therapy can "normalize" the abnormal tumor vasculature and improve both the delivery and efficacy of therapeutics. (massgeneral.org)
  • Our operational units and competence centers are also looking for new colleagues with expertise, for example in bio-information technology, toxicology, eco-toxicology, product safety, environmental monitoring, patents or scientific information. (basf.com)