Warfare involving the use of living organisms or their products as disease etiologic agents against people, animals, or plants.
Living organisms or their toxic products that are used to cause disease or death of humans during WARFARE.
Chemicals that are used to cause the disturbance, disease, or death of humans during WARFARE.
Tactical warfare using incendiary mixtures, smokes, or irritant, burning, or asphyxiating gases.
Severe irritant and vesicant of skin, eyes, and lungs. It may cause blindness and lethal lung edema and was formerly used as a war gas. The substance has been proposed as a cytostatic and for treatment of psoriasis. It has been listed as a known carcinogen in the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985) (Merck, 11th ed).
A contagious disease of horses that can be transmitted to humans. It is caused by BURKHOLDERIA MALLEI and characterized by ulceration of the respiratory mucosa and an eruption of nodules on the skin.
The use of biological agents in TERRORISM. This includes the malevolent use of BACTERIA; VIRUSES; or other BIOLOGICAL TOXINS against people, ANIMALS; or PLANTS.
A species of gram-negative bacteria parasitic on HORSES and DONKEYS causing GLANDERS, which can be transmitted to humans.
An acute infectious disease caused by YERSINIA PESTIS that affects humans, wild rodents, and their ectoparasites. This condition persists due to its firm entrenchment in sylvatic rodent-flea ecosystems throughout the world. Bubonic plague is the most common form.
An organophosphorus ester compound that produces potent and irreversible inhibition of cholinesterase. It is toxic to the nervous system and is a chemical warfare agent.
An acute infection caused by the spore-forming bacteria BACILLUS ANTHRACIS. It commonly affects hoofed animals such as sheep and goats. Infection in humans often involves the skin (cutaneous anthrax), the lungs (inhalation anthrax), or the gastrointestinal tract. Anthrax is not contagious and can be treated with antibiotics.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the three ester bonds in a phosphotriester-containing compound.
An organophosphorus compound that inhibits cholinesterase. It causes seizures and has been used as a chemical warfare agent.
Compounds containing carbon-phosphorus bonds in which the phosphorus component is also bonded to one or more sulfur atoms. Many of these compounds function as CHOLINERGIC AGENTS and as INSECTICIDES.
The use of humans as investigational subjects.
Unexplained symptoms reported by veterans of the Persian Gulf War with Iraq in 1991. The symptoms reported include fatigue, skin rash, muscle and joint pain, headaches, loss of memory, shortness of breath, gastrointestinal and respiratory symptoms, and extreme sensitivity to commonly occurring chemicals. (Nature 1994 May 5;369(6475):8)
Carbon-containing phosphoric acid derivatives. Included under this heading are compounds that have CARBON atoms bound to one or more OXYGEN atoms of the P(=O)(O)3 structure. Note that several specific classes of endogenous phosphorus-containing compounds such as NUCLEOTIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and PHOSPHOPROTEINS are listed elsewhere.
The removal of contaminating material, such as radioactive materials, biological materials, or CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS, from a person or object.
Nanometer-sized tubes composed mainly of CARBON. Such nanotubes are used as probes for high-resolution structural and chemical imaging of biomolecules with ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY.
Neoplasms composed of tissue of the mesothelium, the layer of flat cells, derived from the mesoderm, which lines the body cavity of the embryo. In the adult it forms the simple squamous epithelium which covers all true serous membranes (peritoneum, pericardium, pleura). The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in these organs. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Histiocytic, inflammatory response to a foreign body. It consists of modified macrophages with multinucleated giant cells, in this case foreign-body giant cells (GIANT CELLS, FOREIGN-BODY), usually surrounded by lymphocytes.
A compound used as an x-ray contrast medium that occurs in nature as the mineral barite. It is also used in various manufacturing applications and mixed into heavy concrete to serve as a radiation shield.
An element of the alkaline earth group of metals. It has an atomic symbol Ba, atomic number 56, and atomic weight 138. All of its acid-soluble salts are poisonous.
Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Inflammation of the throat (PHARYNX).
Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Recording of visual and sometimes sound signals on magnetic tape.
The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).
A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A surfactant that renders a surface wettable by water or enhances the spreading of water over the surface.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
Water-soluble low-molecular-weight polymers of acrylic or methacrylic acid that form solid, insoluble products when mixed with specially prepared ZnO powder. The resulting cement adheres to dental enamel and is also used as a luting agent.
Administration of nursing services for one or more clinical units.
Publications printed and distributed daily, weekly, or at some other regular and usually short interval, containing news, articles of opinion (as editorials and letters), features, advertising, and announcements of current interest. (Webster's 3d ed)
The collection, preparation, and distribution of news and related commentary and feature materials through such media as pamphlets, newsletters, newspapers, magazines, radio, motion pictures, television, and books. While originally applied to the reportage of current events in printed form, specifically newspapers, with the advent of radio and television the use of the term has broadened to include all printed and electronic communication dealing with current affairs.
Persons including soldiers involved with the armed forces.
A silver metallic element that exists as a liquid at room temperature. It has the atomic symbol Hg (from hydrargyrum, liquid silver), atomic number 80, and atomic weight 200.59. Mercury is used in many industrial applications and its salts have been employed therapeutically as purgatives, antisyphilitics, disinfectants, and astringents. It can be absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes which leads to MERCURY POISONING. Because of its toxicity, the clinical use of mercury and mercurials is diminishing.
The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.
Blood, mucus, tissue removed at surgery or autopsy, soiled surgical dressings, and other materials requiring special disposal procedures.
Management, removal, and elimination of biologic, infectious, pathologic, and dental waste. The concept includes blood, mucus, tissue removed at surgery or autopsy, soiled surgical dressings, and other materials requiring special control and handling. Disposal may take place where the waste is generated or elsewhere.
Disposal, processing, controlling, recycling, and reusing the solid, liquid, and gaseous wastes of plants, animals, humans, and other organisms. It includes control within a closed ecological system to maintain a habitable environment.
Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.
Procedures that render the female sterile by interrupting the flow in the FALLOPIAN TUBE. These procedures generally are surgical, and may also use chemicals or physical means.
Procedures to block or remove all or part of the genital tract for the purpose of rendering individuals sterile, incapable of reproduction. Surgical sterilization procedures are the most commonly used. There are also sterilization procedures involving chemical or physical means.

Development of quantitative real-time PCR assays for detection and quantification of surrogate biological warfare agents in building debris and leachate. (1/48)

Evaluation of the fate and transport of biological warfare (BW) agents in landfills requires the development of specific and sensitive detection assays. The objective of the current study was to develop and validate SYBR green quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR) assays for the specific detection and quantification of surrogate BW agents in synthetic building debris (SBD) and leachate. Bacillus atrophaeus (vegetative cells and spores) and Serratia marcescens were used as surrogates for Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) and Yersinia pestis (plague), respectively. The targets for SYBR green Q-PCR assays were the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) region and recA gene for B. atrophaeus and the gyrB, wzm, and recA genes for S. marcescens. All assays showed high specificity when tested against 5 ng of closely related Bacillus and Serratia nontarget DNA from 21 organisms. Several spore lysis methods that include a combination of one or more of freeze-thaw cycles, chemical lysis, hot detergent treatment, bead beat homogenization, and sonication were evaluated. All methods tested showed similar threshold cycle values. The limit of detection of the developed Q-PCR assays was determined using DNA extracted from a pure bacterial culture and DNA extracted from sterile water, leachate, and SBD samples spiked with increasing quantities of surrogates. The limit of detection for B. atrophaeus genomic DNA using the ITS and B. atrophaeus recA Q-PCR assays was 7.5 fg per PCR. The limits of detection of S. marcescens genomic DNA using the gyrB, wzm, and S. marcescens recA Q-PCR assays were 7.5 fg, 75 fg, and 7.5 fg per PCR, respectively. Quantification of B. atrophaeus vegetative cells and spores was linear (R(2) > 0.98) over a 7-log-unit dynamic range down to 10(1) B. atrophaeus cells or spores. Quantification of S. marcescens (R(2) > 0.98) was linear over a 6-log-unit dynamic range down to 10(2) S. marcescens cells. The developed Q-PCR assays are highly specific and sensitive and can be used for monitoring the fate and transport of the BW surrogates B. atrophaeus and S. marcescens in building debris and leachate.  (+info)

Survival of Burkholderia pseudomallei on Environmental Surfaces. (2/48)

The survival of the biothreat agent Burkholderia pseudomallei on the surfaces of four materials was measured by culture and esterase activity analyses. The culture results demonstrated that this organism persisted for <24 h to <7 days depending on the material, bacterial isolate, and suspension medium. The persistence determined by analysis of esterase activity, as measured with a ScanRDI solid-phase cytometer, was always longer than the persistence determined by culture analysis.  (+info)

Structure- and substrate-based inhibitor design for Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin serotype A. (3/48)

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Early indicators of exposure to biological threat agents using host gene profiles in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. (4/48)

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Dynamics of positional warfare malaria: Finland and Korea compared. (5/48)

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Evasion of complement-mediated lysis and complement C3 deposition are regulated by Francisella tularensis lipopolysaccharide O antigen. (6/48)

The bacterium Francisella tularensis (Ft) is a potential weapon of bioterrorism when aerosolized. Macrophage infection is necessary for disease progression and efficient phagocytosis by human macrophages requires serum opsonization by complement. Microbial complement activation leads to surface deposition of a highly regulated protein complex resulting in opsonization or membrane lysis. The nature of complement component C3 deposition, i.e., C3b (opsonization and lysis) or C3bi (opsonization only) fragment deposition, is central to the outcome of activation. In this study, we examine the mechanisms of Ft resistance to complement-mediated lysis, C3 component deposition on the Ft surface, and complement activation. Upon incubation in fresh nonimmune human serum, Schu S4 (Ft subsp. tularensis), Fn (Ft subsp. novicida), and LVS (Ft subsp. holarctica live vaccine strain) were resistant to complement-mediated lysis, but LVSG and LVSR (LVS strains altered in surface carbohydrate structures) were susceptible. C3 deposition, however, occurred on all strains. Complement-susceptible strains had markedly increased C3 fragment deposition, including the persistent presence of C3b compared with C3bi, which indicates that C3b inactivation results in survival of complement-resistant strains. C1q, an essential component of the classical activation pathway, was necessary for lysis of complement-susceptible strains and optimal C3 deposition on all strains. Finally, use of Francisella LPS mutants confirmed O Ag as a major regulator of complement resistance. These data provide evidence that pathogenic Francisella activate complement, but are resistant to complement-mediated lysis in part due to limited C3 deposition, rapid conversion of surface-bound C3b to C3bi, and the presence of LPS O Ag.  (+info)

Zoonoses likely to be used in bioterrorism. (7/48)

Bioterrorism is the deliberate release of viruses, bacteria, or other agents used "to cause illness or death in people, animals, or plants. Only modest microbiologic skills are needed to produce and effectively use biologic weapons. And biological warfare has afflicted campaigns throughout military history, at times playing an important role in determining their outcomes. There is a long list of potential pathogens for use by terrorists, but only a few are easy to prepare and disperse. Of the infectious diseases, the vast majority are zoonoses. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's highest-priority bioterrorism agents are in Category A. The only disease that does not affect animals in Category A is smallpox, which was eliminated by a worldwide vaccination program in the late 1970s. Because these diseases can infect animals and humans, the medical and veterinary communities should work closely together in clinical, public health, and research settings.  (+info)

Animals as early detectors of bioevents: veterinary tools and a framework for animal-human integrated zoonotic disease surveillance. (8/48)

The threat of bioterrorism and emerging infectious diseases has prompted various public health agencies to recommend enhanced surveillance activities to supplement existing surveillance plans. The majority of emerging infectious diseases and bioterrorist agents are zoonotic. Animals are more sensitive to certain biological agents, and their use as clinical sentinels, as a means of early detection, is warranted. This article provides design methods for a local integrated zoonotic surveillance plan and materials developed for veterinarians to assist in the early detection of bioevents. Zoonotic surveillance in the U.S. is currently too limited and compartmentalized for broader public health objectives. To rapidly detect and respond to bioevents, collaboration and cooperation among various agencies at the federal, state, and local levels must be enhanced and maintained. Co-analysis of animal and human diseases may facilitate the response to infectious disease events and limit morbidity and mortality in both animal and human populations.  (+info)

October 2011, a pentavalent (ABCDE) botulinum toxoid (PBT) vaccine was administered to at-risk workers under an Investigational New Drug (IND) application held by the CDC. Recombinant subunit vaccines are in development, with DynPorts recombinant botulinum vaccine candidate, rBV A/B, completing Phase 2 clinical trials in January 2012. The vaccine was reportedly safe and well-tolerated, and elicited a strong immune response. We are pleased with these results and are looking forward to Phase 3 clinical trials of this vaccine, to support the needs of the Department of Defense and the U.S. warfighter, said Dr. Robert V. House, president of DynPort.. Biodefense vaccine development was discussed at the World Vaccine Congress & Expo USA 2013 (Biodefense vaccines - overview, stockpiling and regulation). If you want to know more about strategy and innovation in vaccines, you might be interested in attending the World Vaccine Congress Asia 2013, 17-20 June 2013, Singapore. Want more from Vaccine ...
A biological weapon usually has two parts.[2] The first is the biological agent (also called a bio-agent, biological threat agent, or biological warfare agent). This is the pathogen that is meant to make people sick. The second is the delivery system - how the biological agent is going to get to and expose the people it is supposed to infect. Some bio-agents can be weaponized - changed to make them more dangerous. For example, sometimes scientists can change a pathogens genes so the pathogen is deadlier, and so it will not be killed by usual antidotes or treatments. Some bio-agents can be changed so they are easier to store, spread, or use as weapons.[3]. As of 2016, there are more than 1,200 different kinds of bio-agents that could be made into weapons.[4]. ...
Scientists in private sector and university labs are attempting to create vaccines for biological warfare agents before attacks can be perpetrated or big industries can whisk away funding opportunities for research and development.
To the Editor: In defending against avian influenza virus H5N1, the possibility of adopting treatments being developed for biodefense should not be overlooked. Biodefense medicine primarily concerns respiratory infections because bioweapons in their deadliest form disperse Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis, the causes of anthrax and plague, and highly contagious viruses like smallpox, Ebola, and Marburg as aerosols. The National Institutes of Health and Department of Defense have funded developing novel biodefense medications designed to stimulate innate mucosal immunity by using interferons (IFNs) and interferon inducers. We suggest that studies begin immediately to explore the potential of IFNs to prevent infections and reduce deaths caused by avian influenza viruses in animal models and humans.. Modulating innate mucosal immunity is promising as a rapid-acting, broad-spectrum approach to combat bioterrorism (1). Innate immunity, the initial response to a pathogen, is potentially capable ...
When the U.S. Postal Inspection Service assigned forensic chemist Stephanie Smith to a temporary assignment to support the Security and Crime Prevention Group, one of her first duties was to write the job description of a new permanent scientific advisor position.. Whoever worked in that important role would enhance the detection of chemical and biological security threats in the mail.. Smith early on realized the position demanded a strong chemistry and bio foundation, and she wanted to expand her knowledge, especially in the area of biodefense.. She found what she was looking for at George Mason Universitys biodefense program at the Schar School of Policy and Government. Originally enrolled in a biodefense certificate program, Smith became intrigued by the broad program.. Im a forensic chemist by training, thats what Ive done my entire career, she said. I came to Mason to study the bio-side of this complex advisor position, but I realized I was also expanding my knowledge beyond ...
We at The National Center for Biodefense and Infectious Diseases, George Mason University, eagerly look forward to welcoming you to our annual Host Pathogen Interactions in Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases conference on the 12th of February, 2015.. We have had successful meetings in the past two years that have fostered many meaningful collaborations and have advertised novel research to the research community in the area. The focus of the meetings has been and will continue to be on interactions between pathogens and hosts following exposure to bacterial and viral agents and the applicability of the knowledge gained to design of novel diagnostics, therapeutics and vaccines.. We look forward to an enriching, interesting and beneficial meeting in 2015.. View all conference details on the NCBID calendar.. ...
The goal of the University of Rochesters Center for Biodefense Immune Modeling (CBIM) is to develop comprehensive, quantitative models of the immune response to influenza A infection, a potential bioterror agent and emerging pathogen, and create computational tools to explore such scenarios in silico. Funded in September 2005, by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) contract N01-AI-50020, the CBIM is comprised of five immunology laboratories, a mathematical modeling core, a statistical and data management core, a bioinformatics core and an educational program. The CBIM represents a multidisciplinary collaboration of human and mouse immunologists, virologists, mathematical modelers, engineers, computer scientists, statisticians and data managers.
The goal of the University of Rochesters Center for Biodefense Immune Modeling (CBIM) is to develop comprehensive, quantitative models of the immune response to influenza A infection, a potential bioterror agent and emerging pathogen, and create computational tools to explore such scenarios in silico. Funded in September 2005, by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) contract N01-AI-50020, the CBIM is comprised of five immunology laboratories, a mathematical modeling core, a statistical and data management core, a bioinformatics core and an educational program. The CBIM represents a multidisciplinary collaboration of human and mouse immunologists, virologists, mathematical modelers, engineers, computer scientists, statisticians and data managers.
The Canadian Food Inspection Agencys (CFIA) Acting Chief Veterinary Officer for Canada and Acting Delegate to the World Organisation for Animal Health, Dr. Jaspinder Komal, chaired a keynote panel discussion on global perspectives and health security at the second World Organisation for Animal Healths (OIE) Global Conference on Biological Threat Reduction held in Ottawa, Canada.
US - The Institute for Infectious Animal Diseases (IIAD) has been recognised as a collaborating centre in the specialty of biological threat reduction for the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE).
The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) gives the highest priority to developing countermeasures against bioterrorism agents that are highly infective when dispersed in aerosol form. Developing drugs to prevent or treat illnesses caused by bioterrorism agents requires testing their effectiveness in animals since human clinical trials would be unethical. At the request of NIAID, the National Academies conducted a study to examine how such testing could be improved. The report provides recommendations to researchers on selecting the kinds of animal models, aerosol generators, and bioterrorism agent doses that would produce conditions that most closely mimic the disease process in humans. It also urges researchers to fully document experimental parameters in the literature so that studies can be reproduced and compared. The report recommends that all unclassified data on bioterrorism agent studies -- including unclassified, unpublished data from U.S. Army Medical Research ...
A summer fellowship opportunity is available in the Division of Laboratory Sciences (DLS) within the National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) on the Chamblee Campus in Atlanta, Georgia. DLS provides laboratory support that improves the detection, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of environmental, tobacco-related, nutritional, newborn, selected chronic and selected infectious diseases. DLS also works to improve the rapid and accurate detection of chemical threat agents, radiologic threat agents, and selected toxins.
The following table presents a summary of the 2013 Top 10 Application Security Risks, and the risk factors we have assigned to each risk. These factors were determined based on the available statistics and the experience of the OWASP Top 10 team. To understand these risks for a particular application or organization, you must consider your own specific threat agents and business impacts. Even egregious software weaknesses may not present a serious risk if there are no threat agents in a position to perform the necessary attack or the business impact is negligible for the assets involved. ...
This trans-agency scientific meeting is sponsored by the Chemical Countermeasures Research Program (CCRP), a component of the broader civilian biodefense research effort within HHS and NIH. The overarching goal of the CCRP is to integrate cutting edge research with the latest technological advances in science and medicine to enhance the nations medical response capabilities during public health emergencies involving the accidental or intentional release of Department of Homeland Security-identified chemical threat agents, which include various ocular toxicants. To learn more about the CCRPs trans-NIH effort, see the recently published (Nov 2018) Report on Research Progress and Future Directions of the NIH Medical Research Program Directed Against Chemical Threats (pdf). ...
Interview with Edward Hammond, Director of the U.S. Office ofthe former The Sunshine Project, an organization focusing on oversight of research involving biological weapons agents. https://youtu.be/fZHJsZg_Fgw
When considering desirable properties (chemical, biological, obtainability, etc.) for a bioweapon; can a mushroom toxin meet this criteria? Please give an.
Federal Select Agent Program shortfalls, the Marburg virus outbreak in Uganda, and stolen Ebola aid donation money in this issue of Biodefense Headlines.
The Texas A&M University System will be the home of one of three national biodefense centers to help the country quickly develop vaccines in the event of a pandemic and strategies for responding to bioterrorism.
The Federation of American Scientists has created an internet resource for biosecurity policy, bioterrorism information, and biodefense research.
Macaque monkeys are the most important animal model for AIDS vaccine development and are increasingly being used in biodefense research. An individuals immunog...
See what were reading this week at Global Biodefense on Ebola expanding in Guinea, the race for a vaccine, the DoDs response efforts and more…
The global biodefense market size was over USD 9.5 billion in 2015. The market is expected to witness growth owing to technological advancements in pathogen detection techniques in the forensic division.
The American Society for Microbiology will host its 2014 Biodefense and Emerging Diseases Research Meeting Jan. 27-29, 2014, at the Marriott Wardman Park Hotel in Washington, D.C.
MarketsandMarkets: Biosensors Market by Application (POC, Home Diagnostics, Research Labs, Biodefense, Environmental Monitoring, Food & Beverages Industry), Technology, Product (Wearable and Non-Wearable), and Geography - Global Forecast to 2022 of 182 pages is now available with MarketReportsHub.com at starting price of US$ 5650 for a single user PDF. Talk to us for other pricing options.
Press Release issued Jan 3, 2018: The research report analyzes the global Biodefense Market on the basis of market forces, current market trends, and major geographies. The report is an in-depth analysis of industry growth drivers, challenges, and opportunities of the market for the forecast period. It includes an analysis of recent technological developments in the market.
To advance the microbial sciences and their application to biosecurity and biodefense now and in the future, ASM will advocate for the following:
For several decades, the Laboratory has been at the forefront of protecting the country against biological threats of any type, said Senior Science Adviser Dave Rakestraw, who formerly ran LLNLs biodefense programs and is coordinating the Labs COVID-19 technical response. Weve been putting a large amount of focus for the last six years on using the computational resources at LLNL to try to accelerate the timescales for developing a response to an emerging biological threat. Weve done that, that by using our extensive computational capabilities (staff and computer infrastructure) and developing partnerships with universities, drug companies and tech companies. That effort has put us in a position where we have tools now that are applicable to helping with the current response.. When the COVID-19 outbreak began, LLNLs Adam Zemla developed and published a predicted 3D protein structure of the virus, which was downloaded and used by more than a dozen outside research groups. Since then, the ...
BioSante Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (OTC BB: BISP), Lincolnshire, Ill., has reported results of several studies demonstrating the superiority of its innovative calcium phosphate nanoparticulate (CAP) vaccine adjuvant and delivery system, BioVant (TM), compared to the only approved adjuvant, aluminum salts (alum). The company has also recently announced a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) with the U.S. Army to use the new technology in the development of biodefense vaccines. In the reported studies, BioVant was combined with antigens from the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), the Herpes Simplex-2 virus (HSV-2) and the Influenza virus (flu), in proprietary vaccine formulations developed by BioSante scientists. The studies, conducted in a series of animal models, were designed to evaluate the immune enhancement effects of BioVant compared to vaccines using alum. In the study of EBV vaccines, the antibody (IgG) response was significantly higher for the BioVant-EBV vaccine than that of the ...
Sandia National Laboratories scientists are thinking small, building on decades of sensor work to invent tiny detectors that can sniff out everything from
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Through all of his interests and inquiries, he says, runs a passion for forest health, and trying to understand and manage healthy forest ecosystems. What am I? he asks with a wistful smile. Id probably say Im an ecosystem ecologist.. Edmonds, professor emeritus with the School of Environmental and Forest Sciences (SEFS), began his academic work the early 1960s. He grew up in Australia and earned a B.S. in Forestry from the University of Sydney in 1964. Two years later he moved to Seattle and enrolled at the University of Washington to study forest pathology. He earned his masters in 1968, and then his Ph.D. in 1971. Initially, he figured hed return to Australia afterwards, but when he met his future wife-who was from Juneau, Alaska, and also in school in Seattle-he decided to stick around.. A postdoctoral position at the University of Michigan soon had Edmonds studying aerobiology with the US/IBP (International Biological Program Aerobiology Program. It was pretty interesting work, he ...
Core competence of other disciplines are as well as cooperations with partners from science and industry essential to realize our projects and services in order to grant the best possible and innovative pollen information on a scientific basis. High-quality services, which we want to provide for free, are in need of different partnerships. We pay special attention to the preservation of our independence and objectivity and not to face our users with direct advertising.. ...
Core competence of other disciplines are as well as cooperations with partners from science and industry essential to realize our projects and services in order to grant the best possible and innovative pollen information on a scientific basis. High-quality services, which we want to provide for free, are in need of different partnerships. We pay special attention to the preservation of our independence and objectivity and not to face our users with direct advertising.. ...
Core competence of other disciplines are as well as cooperations with partners from science and industry essential to realize our projects and services in order to grant the best possible and innovative pollen information on a scientific basis. High-quality services, which we want to provide for free, are in need of different partnerships. We pay special attention to the preservation of our independence and objectivity and not to face our users with direct advertising.. ...
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(CIDRAP News) - A new report from the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) offers a few predictions on when certain new countermeasures against biological threats will become available, including a forecast for two novel influenza drugs and possibly a next-generation anthrax vaccine within the next 5 years.
(CIDRAP News) A comprehensive review of the nations tools for reducing the impact of a biological weapons attack or other public health emergency prompted in part by last falls delays in delivery of the pandemic H1N1 vaccine is due to get under way in the next few weeks with a pair of conferences.
Creating a bioweapon previously required resources and training that was only available to powerful industrial nations, such as the Soviet Union and the United States during the Cold War. This limited the possibility of a biological attack to a world war (and which would be the least of the worries of the irradiated survivors of such an event). The advance of science then rendered smaller nations able to develop bioweapons, and we are now in a situation where a single lab could develop a bioweapon. Extrapolating from current trends in DNA synthesis costs, computer aided design, and increases in the sophistication of DIY biology will likely lead to the ability of small groups, or even single individuals, to wreck havoc with home brewed bioweapons. Returning the computer virus analogy, humanity could experience a future where the biological equivalent of black-hat hackers release viruses into the world. However, instead of stealing credit card numbers or emptying bank accounts, these biohackers ...
CONTENTSElementary Biology of Military SignificanceGeneral Properties of Biological Warfare AgentsPossible Antipersonnel Biological Warfare AgentsPossible Antianimal Biological Warfare AgentsPossible Anticrop Biological Warfare AgentsDisseminationU. S. Department of the Army Staff is the author of Military Biology and Biological Warfare Agents, published 2003 under ISBN 9781410206992 and ISBN 1410206998. [read more] ...
The relatively recent use of biological agents such as ricin and anthrax demonstrates how even small-scale biological warfare attacks will quickly become international news. Once a patient has been diagnosed with a disease caused by a biological warfare agent, healthcare providers will be responsible for communicating not only numerous colleagues and staff but also with public health officials, law enforcement agencies, members of the media, and elected officials. In attacks involving numerous numbers of casualties or high-profile targets such as elected officials, the marshaling of resources to respond will almost certainly reach the national level. (Level V). Important communication points early in the care of the patient among physicians, nurses, and pharmacists will include adequate decontamination of the patient and appropriate precautions for first responders and hospital staff to avoid the spread of contagious diseases or additional casualties. Training and education prior to such an ...
e) New mobile facilities. UK dossier, 24 September 2002, p.6: Iraq has [..] developed mobile laboratories for military use, corroborating earlier reports about the mobile production of biological warfare agents. UK dossier, 24 September 2002, p.18: There was intelligence that Iraq was starting to produce biological warfare agents in mobile production facilities. Planning for the project had begun in 1995 under Dr Rihab Taha, known to have been a central player in the pre-Gulf War programme.. CIA, October 2002, p.17: UNSCOM uncovered a document on Iraqi Military Industrial Commission letterhead indicating that Iraq was interested in developing mobile fermentation units, and an Iraqi scientist admitted to UN inspectors that Iraq was trying to move in the direction of mobile BW production.. CIA, October 2002, p.2: Baghdad has established a large-scale, redundant, and concealed BW agent production capability, which includes mobile facilities; these facilities can evade detection, are highly ...
View United States soldiers vintage historic HD stock video footage in United States USA, 1959. Buy HD video and archival still photo images of clip number 65675061083.
A multi-functional system for use on walls and ceilings is to be developed. The system employs shortened, end-modified single-wall carbon nanotubes as vesicles for potent fullerene-based biocides that incorporate a colored dye, pigment or fluorescent indicator function. The system is to be applied to wall surfaces, and remain dormant until a biological threat comes in contact with the surface. For purposes of the Phase I endeavor, models that mimic common biological warfare agents (BWA) will be used to test the system. Monoclonal antibodies, quaternary amine groups or other moieties on the modified nanotube vesicles will under specific interactions with the BWA mimics, opening the nanotube and exposing the biocide and color agent inside. Upon completion of the decontamination phase of operation, the color agent is designed to decompose, indicating the end of the threat. It is also planned that different colors will be generated in response to different classes of BWA. Incorporation of the system ...
Army scientists have demonstrated, for the first time, that antibody-based therapies can successfully protect monkeys from the deadly Ebola and Marburg viruses. In addition, the animals were fully protected even when treatment was administered two days post-infection, an accomplishment unmatched by any experimental therapy for these viruses to date. The work appears in this weeks electronic edition of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.. The filoviruses, Ebola and Marburg, cause hemorrhagic fever with human case fatality rates as high as 90 percent. They are a global health concern and are considered potential biological threat agents. Currently there are no available vaccines or therapies approved for use in humans, making the development of such products a high priority.. In the article, John M. Dye, Andrew S. Herbert, William D. Pratt, and colleagues from the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID) describe using antibody from monkeys that had ...
The biological threat. It is not surprising so much effort is being put into counteracting biological threats, especially in the US. In 2001, letters containing anthrax spores killed five people and infected 17 others throughout the country. This was a case of bioterrorism that, according to officials like the US Department of Defence, today presents a significant threat to the military and civilians.. The Chemical and Biological Defence Programme (CBDP) 2009 annual report to US Congress stated that antagonist nations, terrorist organisations and other non-state actors continued to possess or seek weapons with the capacity to inflict catastrophic damage (physical, economic, or psychological).. The report said that some terrorists saw chemical, biological and radiological materials as low-cost, high-impact options for achieving their goals and that in September 2006 Abu Ayyub al Masri, al-Qaeda-in-Iraqs leader, publicly called upon scientists for help to develop such weapons. Biological warfare ...
As reported by the Department of Defense in 1992,(6) by the time Iraq invaded Kuwait, Iraq had developed the most extensive biological warfare program in the Arab world (despite having been a signatory to the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention outlawing such endeavors). After the Persian Gulf War (1990-1991), Iraqi authorities admitted the program included anthrax bacteria and botulinum toxin.(2) Then in August 1995, Iraq revealed to United Nations inspectors that it had had a far more extensive and aggressive biological warfare program prior to the Persian Gulf War than had previously been admitted. The Iraqi authorities claimed production of thousands of liters of botulinum toxin and of Bacillus anthracis. Additionally, they stated that unspecified amounts of both agents were loaded on Scud missile warheads and aerial bombs. In this same revelation to United Nations inspectors, the Iraqis claimed to have destroyed the agents during the January-February 1991 time frame, but they have yet to ...
Read this full essay on Biological Warfare in Africa during the 1960s and 1970s. Biological Warfare in Africa during the 1960s and 1970s Throughout my re...
Due to continuing concerns about bioterrorism and the potential for future anthrax attacks, GAO was asked to audit controls over public sales of excess DOD biological equipment and chemical and biological protective clothing that could be used to produce and disseminate biological warfare agents. GAO used a case study approach to determine (1) the extent to which DOD is selling biological equipment and protective clothing that can be used to make and disseminate biological agents, such as anthrax, and (2) whether existing federal regulations and guidance in DOD policies and procedures address the risk of public sales of these items. GAO will be issuing a report with recommendations that DOD, in conjunction with its scientific community, the Department of Homeland Security, and the Department of Health and Human Services, perform a risk assessment as part of an overall effort to develop and implement appropriate controls over sales of selected excess biological equipment. GAO also recommends that DOD
We should criticize appallingly irresponsible behavior of all governments actively engaged in producing biological warfare agents.. According to a report published by The Independent on May 2, scientists are criticizing China for engaging in dangerous influenza virus research. The scientists accuse the Chinese researchers of appalling irresponsibility and state there is danger a new laboratory created strain of bird-flu virus mixed with human influenza may escape and create a global pandemic killing millions of people.. A former British government scientist and president of the Royal Society, Lord May of Oxford, denounced the Chinese effort. They claim they are doing this to help develop vaccines and such like. In fact the real reason is that they are driven by blind ambition with no common sense whatsoever, May said.. The record of containment in labs like this is not reassuring. They are taking it upon themselves to create human-to-human transmission of very dangerous viruses. Its ...
I agree with Dianne Harvey. I certainly believe there is biological experimentation taking place on the public without our consent. However, it seems to me that, as Dianne says , spraying entire countries with biological warfare agents...whether to just test the substances or whether it s to specifically harm us.... is not a very direct or sure way of accomplishing their supposed goal. Vaccines, fluoride in the water supply, infecting ticks and mosquitoes with genetically engineered viruses and bacteria, etc, would seem to be more effective in targeting certain portions of the population. Unless the elite all live underground, they would also be affected by mass aerial spraying. Clifford s explanation may be part of the picture but I really don t believe it explains the main purpose of chemtrails. I suppose TPTB could conceivably be vaccinated for all these different microbes.... but what about all the metallic particles, polymers, barium, etc ...
We report on the development of a compact, portable fluorescence lifetime instrument based on phase resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (PRFS). The PRFS biosensor has been designed for detection and discrimination of individual pathogenic bacteria in a biological mixture. The light source can be modulated from 10 - 200 MHz and fluorescence emission is measured by a miniature photomultiplier tube after passing through a compact spectrometer. We have successfully extracted and measured the existence of a mixture of three far-red fluorescent dyes which have similar or overlapping spectral signatures. Data are presented demonstrating the instruments ability to separate individual fluorophores from a complex mixture using a specially designed chemometric extraction algorithm. This instrument was designed for the possible direct detection and discrimination of the intrinsic fluorescence of biological warfare agents ...
HIV. Non-Lethal Biological Warfare Agents Linked to Autoimmune Disease Epidemic. The Possible Cure For All Viruses Using Scalar Energy w/Tom Paladino. Ebola. 1.
UNIVERSITY OF MEDICINE & DENTISTRY OF NEW JERSEY - SCHOOL OF PUBLIC HEALTH JOINS IN SPONSORING EVENT The Second BioDefense Mobilization Conference & Exhibition will occur October 22-24, 2002 at Loews Philadelphia Hotel. Workshops on bioterrorism and biotechnology are scheduled October 21. Advance registration fees-$595 for public employees, elected officials, and academics ($795 for others)-apply through Sept. 23. Program and registration information is available at www.bio-defense.org. CO-SPONSORS * The University of Medicine & Dentistry of New Jersey-School of Public Health (UMDNJ-SPH), with Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey; New Jersey Institute of Technology; and the Public Health Research Institute * Center for Biodefense, New Jersey Medical School, UMDNJ * Homeland Defense Journal * Consultants in Disease & Injury Control * Homeland Defense Technology Council * Public Health Foundation A LEADER IN HOMELAND DEFENSE The involvement of the UMDNJ-SPH in the conference is significant ...
About Soligenix, Inc.. Soligenix is a clinical stage biopharmaceutical company focused on developing products to treat serious inflammatory diseases where there remains an unmet medical need, as well as developing several biodefense vaccines and therapeutics. Soligenix is developing proprietary formulations of oral BDP (beclomethasone 17,21-dipropionate) for the prevention/treatment of gastrointestinal disorders characterized by severe inflammation, including pediatric Crohns disease (SGX203), acute radiation enteritis (SGX201) and chronic Graft-versus-Host disease (orBec®), as well as developing its novel innate defense regulator (IDR) technology SGX942 for the treatment of oral mucositis. Through its BioDefense Division, Soligenix is developing countermeasures pursuant to the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA) Strategic Plan of 2011-2016 for inclusion in the US governments Strategic National Stockpile. Soligenixs biodefense products in development are a ...
Three years data of aerobiology of Islamabad (2005, 2006, and 2007) indicate that Islamabad is among the cities with highest pollen counts in the world. In our study of 3 years, highest pollen count was that of B. papyrifera on 10th March 2006 (34, 320 pollens/m3 air). The highest pollen count was seen in study of Domínguez[15] with data of last 25 years indicating that in Andalusia, South Spain, the higher pollen count belonged to Olea europaea. During only one day (May 22, 1991), 38, 393 olive pollen grains per cubic meter were detected in the air in Córdoba city [15].. For the first time, pollen and mold calendar of Islamabad was prepared from 3-year study (Tables 5, 4, 5). In spring (March to April), B. papyrifera pollens are the causes of severe allergic diseases like asthma, allergic rhinitis, and urticaria, whereas in fall (July to September), pollens of Cannabis are causing these allergic diseases. Grass pollens and molds are present throughout the year and are causing the above ...
The biological warfare page links to resources on the health effects from biological weapons, emergency response & treatment, counterterrorism, and emergency preparedness.
Researchers at Human Methodist Research Institute have developed a more efficient way to create cells called Block Cell Printing. This process allows 100 percent of the cells to live instead of the current 50 to 80 percent which normally survive during the current process. http://www.techrepulblic.com/article/10-industries-3d-printing-will -disrupt-or-decimate. While this technology is exciting from a number of perspectives, it could also prove highly efficacious in countering bio-terrorism and or bio-warfare agents. If a highly pathogenic disease were to be released, the ability to swiftly print vaccine or medical counter measures on site would certainly have a higher chance of successful containment and at a far earlier stage, than currently exists today with logistic challenges. From a bio-defence perspective, its the pace not the space that makes the difference. 3D bio-printing will very likely change our concept of disease prevention and containment and is particularly well suited to ...
Table of Contents:. Introduction............................................................................................. 1. Early Use (through 1900) ........................................................................ 2. Prehistoric Biological Warfare................................................................ 3. Ancient BW (500 BCE to 1000 AD) ......................................................... 4. Medieval and Early Modern BW (1000 AD to 1750 AD)....................... 5. Late Modern BW (1750 AD to 1900 AD)................................................ 7. Summation ............................................................................................ 11. The Origins of Modern BW (1900-1945) ............................................. 12. Summation ............................................................................................ 27. The Cold War and Beyond (1945-Present) .......................................... ...
TERRE HAUTE, Ind. -- In mid-1944, Terre Haute, which means ``high ground,`` found itself sandwiched between a nerve gas plant to the north and a biological warfare facility to the south.Residents
The misuse of Bacillus anthracis as a bioweapon continues to be a serious concern. Medical personnel and researchers are served well if appropriate non-pathogenic anthrax simulants can be used as countermeasures in preparative planning. While there are several accepted simulants of B. anthracis, the addition of another model organism would be beneficial. This investigation was undertaken to evaluate the suitability of B. pumilus as a simulant for B. anthracis. All organisms were grown on AK Agar #2 to foster sporulation. Optimum conditions for spore formation were determined for B. pumilus as well as for currently used anthrax surrogates B. atrophaeus and B. thuringiensis. Spore dimensions were determined by scanning electron microscopy. Comparative antibody binding studies using commercially available anti-Bacillus antisera were completed with the simulants as well as with a negative control organism, Clostridium sporogenes. We report that B. pumilus sporulated readily (2.9 × 1010 viable spores per
2. Biological warfare programs open Pandoras box.. Bioweapons. Starting in the 1950s, the United States and Russia began programs that turned the concept of controlling infectious diseases upside down. Instead of destroying disease vectors, military researchers developed technologies to make vectors and their toxins more effective. Cheaper and less destructive than hydrogen bombs, it was anticipated that germ weapons could achieve equally devastating effects .. What Is a Bioweapon ?. While humans are subject to a large number of infectious diseases, most of these diseases are not suitable for use as a bioweapon. To be effective, any bioweapon must meet three deceptively simple criteria:. 1. The pathogen must be easy and safe to produce. One of the major perceived advantages of bioweapons over nuclear armaments was that they cost far less to manufacture. Because the pathogen will be required in large amounts literally tons it must be possible to scale up its production for reasonable cost, and ...
Pacific-Southwest Regional Center of Excellence for Biodefense and Emerging Diseases (the Center) is a research consortium comprising 34 project...
The 2009 Army Posture Statement, cites a World Health Organization estimate of between 20 annd 50 percent of the worlds population being effected if a pandemic were to emerge. WHO forecasts it may be six to nine months before a vaccine for a pandemic virus strain becomes available. In a separate report on pandemic influenza, the WHO described several challenges to producing sufficient volumes of vaccine using current, egg based protein-production technology, including the likelihood that two doses per person could be required due to the absence of pre-existing immunity. In short, the potential for a pandemic exists and current technological limitations on defensive measures put the health and readiness of U.S. military forces at risk. A technological solution to increase the speed and adaptability of vaccine production is urgently needed to match the broad biological threat. DARPAs Blue Angel Program seeks to demonstrate a flexible and agile capability for the Department of Defence to ...
The Transformational Medical Technologies (TMT) has been a unique component of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) medical biodefense efforts since 2006. Its mission is to advance countermeasure research and development in support of the broader goal of the DoD to protect warfighters from emerging infectious diseases and future genetically engineered biological weapons. The TMT, using advanced science and technology approaches, focused on the development of roadspectrum countermeasures that target common host and pathogen pathways or enhance the hosts immune response. Many of these pathogens are lethal or cause such debilitating diseases in humans that it is ethically inappropriate to test the efficacy of these countermeasures in human volunteers. In lieu of human participants, these products may be tested in animals and approved for human use under the provisions of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)s 2002 Animal Rule. The reliance on animal models for the development and licensure of ...
The deadly animal-borne coronavirus spreading globally may have originated in a laboratory in the city of Wuhan linked to Chinas covert biological weapons program, said an Israeli biological warfare analyst.
Ensuring benefits of synthetic biology are realized through responsible development. Synthetic biology specific news, events, publications and more.
Since the fall 2001 distribution of letters containing Bacillus anthracis spores via the US postal system, increased attention has been paid to the evaluation and management of bioterrorism-related illness. Similarly, the emergence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and other infectious diseases, along with the ongoing threat of global influenza pandemics, have fostered intensive interest in the evaluation and management of emerging infections both in the US and internationally. Data to this end are often limited, however, in that while many such diseases exist in nature, human illness may only rarely occur. The primary purpose of this protocol is to apply standardized, documented, and carefully monitored evaluation and prophylactic and treatment measures in the event of suspected or confirmed exposure to the causative agent of any disease of bioterrorism concern (whether of natural or deliberate origin), to agents under study in biodefense-related research laboratories, or to emerging ...
Threat number two in the countdown in the above video is about the biological threat to our survival. Notice that the Spanish Flu outbreak, after World War One, killed 30,000,000 within in Europe and 100,000,000 of the population worldwide, including the USA, usually within the first half hour from contact, due to Anaphylactic Spasm, suffocating the victim. That was a fatality rate of a mere 3%. Thus a pandemic virus with 60% lethality would kill 20 times more than that. That is 2,000,000,000 of the world population. Since our world is so much more congested and interconnected than then, thus we could easilly expect double that figure, such that two thirds of the worlds population could be gone within the first few weeks of such a pandemic. Since the virus would be, by design, impregnable to vaccines and antibiotics, the lethality would approach 100%. The worlds number one expert on biological warfare Popov has said that by design the biological weapons [small pox virus] that he developed ...
There are nations that actively pursue biological weapons programs (albeit they declare thats not the case). The government declares these threats to be ever-present (generating a climate of fear) and must be ever guarded against (thats where big daddy government comes in). We are going to concentrate on the greater probable domestic threat: an authoritarian government running wild.
The rationale for the use of the Animal Rule must be supported by proof-of-concept animal studies designed to ensure animal welfare, demonstrate relevance of the animal model (species susceptibility to the toxic agent and toxic response similar to humans), define the endpoint used to assess efficacy and predict human clinical benefit (eg, relief or prevention of adverse effects), ensure data quality and integrity in a contained environment, and be conducted under Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) guidelines. When efficacy is demonstrated in a single study, conducted in a sufficiently well‑characterized animal model, it may be necessary to repeat the study, preferably in another laboratory for confirmation. The investigational drug/biologic used in the adequate and well-controlled animal efficacy studies and in the animal pharmacokinetics and/or pharmacodynamics studies used to select a dose and dosing regimen in humans, ideally should be manufactured under current GMP regulations and be as close ...
How will the technologies of the future help protect us against terrorism? The new book Safe: The Race To Protect Ourselves in a Newly Dangerous World ...
The pandemic Level 6 influenzas and other similar epidemics are great ways to depopulate human areas. A better option would be to use the pneumonic plague as was trialled in the Ukraine (D225G) during the supposed swine flu (H1N1) level 6 pandemic. Always remember that no natural animal virus can affect a human being without man-made interventions and genetic engineering in laboratories tied to the CDC/WHO. Vaccines are the preferred way to vector these plagues in order to prevent elitists suffering the same fate. For a more indiscriminate method of vectoring then the use of the waterways and the aerosol campaign can be used with the latter being hidden under Stratospheric Aerosol Geo-engineering disguise.
A Chinese Air Force officer on Saturday accused the U.S. government of creating the new strain of bird flu now afflicting parts of China as a biological warfare attack. Peoples Liberation Army Sr. Col. Dai Xu said the United States released the H7N9 bird flu virus into China in an act of biological warfare, according to a posting on his blog on Saturday. The charge was first reported in the state-run Guangzhou newspaper Southern Metropolis Daily and then picked up by several news outlets in Asia. Of course the US will deny this but never the less, its possible. Thinkof it this way, we have biologial warefare labs and such for a reason and we never use them? No, we do we just dont admit we do. Perhaps this is the case. -Mort ...
The American Society for Microbiology (ASM) is the oldest and largest single life science membership organization in the world. Membership has grown from 59 scientists in 1899 to more than 39,000 members today, with more than one third located outside the United States. The members represent 26 disciplines of microbiological specialization plus a division for microbiology educators.
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From the archives: My CBC Viewpoint China Column from 2005 By Sylvia Yu For 63 years, Mr. Chen Chong Wen has had to change the bandages on his leg daily. His home-style remedy for his oozing wound is to use a playing card to stop the flow. Theres no medicine for this, he said, it…
The tools of synthetic biology can be considered dual-use technologies, which can be used for both productive, useful applications, but also for weapons of mass destruction. Therefore, synthetic biologys potential to benefit humanity must be weighed against the potential development of bioweapons. The creation of such bioweapons may be simply the reconstruction of a previously eradicated disease such as smallpox[4], increasing the lethality of existing diseases[5], or create entirely new diseases. A key consideration when weighing these possibilities is the resources and knowledge required to create a bioweapon. Will our biological future mirror the computing world, where malicious programs are easily available for relatively inexperienced hackers, and the most sophisticated are used in cyberwarfare between antagonistic nations? Creating a bioweapon previously required resources and training that was only available to powerful industrial nations, such as the Soviet Union and the United States ...
Sidell, Frederick R. (1997). "Chapter 5: Nerve Agents" (PDF). Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare. p. 144ff. ... Some chemical warfare nerve agents such as VX can also cause complete flaccid paralysis. In some situations, prominently in ... AFP is also associated with a number of other pathogenic agents including enteroviruses other than polio, echoviruses, West ... Curare acts as a neuromuscular blocking agent that induces flaccid paralysis. This poison binds to the acetylcholine (ACh) ...
Handbook of chemical and biological warfare agents. Boca Raton: CRC Press. ISBN 978-0-8493-1434-6. OCLC 82473582. Badreshia, S ... Gupta, Ramesh C (ed) (2015). Handbook of Toxicology of Chemical Warfare Agents. Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Academic Press. ... and some such as T-1123 and EA-3990 were investigated for potential military use as nerve agents. However, since all compounds ... was once produced commercially in the United States as a chemotherapy agent and for other medicinal purposes. It was found to ...
Ellison HD (2007). Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents. CRC Press. p. 156. ISBN 978-0849314346. Fitzgerald GM, ... Phenyldichloroarsine is an obsolete chemical warfare agent and is classified as a vesicant or a vomiting/incapacitating agent. ... is an organic arsenical vesicant and vomiting agent developed by Germany and France for use as a chemical warfare agent during ... Phenyldichloroarsine is an arsenical vesicant which can be mixed with mustard agents for use in chemical warfare. PD was ...
Ellison, Hank D. (2007). Handbook of chemical and biological warfare agents. CRC Press. ISBN 978-0-8493-1434-6. Girard, James ( ... Several were developed as chemical warfare agents during World War I, including vesicants such as lewisite and vomiting agents ... ISBN 978-0-7637-5939-1. Somani, Satu M. (2001). Chemical warfare agents: toxicity at low levels. CRC Press. ISBN 978-0-8493- ... During the Vietnam War, the United States used Agent Blue, a mixture of sodium cacodylate and its acid form, as one of the ...
D. Hank Ellison (August 24, 2007). Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents. CRC Press. pp. 123-140. ISBN 978-0-8493- ... Fenn, Elizabeth A (March 2000). "Biological Warfare in Eighteenth-Century North America: Beyond Jeffrey Amherst". Journal of ... In June 1975, two FBI agents seeking to make an armed robbery arrest at Pine Ridge Reservation were wounded in a firefight, and ... This is related historically to the greater impact of disease and warfare on the Virginia Indian populations, as well as their ...
Ellison DH (2008). Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents. (Second ed.). CRC Press. pp. 157-159. ISBN 9780849314346 ... Hoenig SL (2006). Compendium of Chemical Warfare Agents. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 9780387346267. v t e. ...
D. Hank Ellison (24 August 2007). Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents. CRC Press. pp. 123-140. ISBN 978-0-8493- ... Medical Aspects of Biological Warfare. Government Printing Office. 2007. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-16-087238-9. In retrospect, it is ... Barras V, Greub G (June 2014). "History of biological warfare and bioterrorism". Clinical Microbiology and Infection. 20 (6): ... gained lasting infamy in an exchange of letters with his commanding officer Amherst who suggested a form of biological warfare ...
D. Hank Ellison (August 24, 2007). Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents. CRC Press. pp. 123-140. ISBN 978-0-8493- ... Medical Aspects of Biological Warfare. Government Printing Office. 2007. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-16-087238-9. In retrospect, it is ... Barras V, Greub G (June 2014). "History of biological warfare and bioterrorism". Clinical Microbiology and Infection. 20 (6): ... As a whole, the analysis of the various 'pre-micro- biological" attempts at BW illustrate the difficulty of differentiating ...
Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare. Textbook of Military Medicine. Washington, DC: US Government Printing ... ISBN 978-1-4243-0080-8. A Personal Story of Medical Testing of Army Volunteers with Incapacitating Chemical Agents During the ... ISBN 978-1-4243-0080-8. A Personal Story of Medical Testing of Army Volunteers with Incapacitating Chemical Agents During the ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) James S. Ketchum (2012). Chemical Warfare: Secrets Almost Forgotten. AuthorHouse. pp. ...
Handbook of chemical and biological warfare agents (2nd. ed.). Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC. ISBN 9780849314346. "Isoquinilinium ... EA-3990 EA-4056 T-1123 VX (nerve agent) Gupta, edited by Ramesh C. (2009). Handbook of toxicology of chemical warfare agents ( ... Since the agent molecule is positively charged, it does not cross the blood brain barrier very well. Octamethylene-bis(5- ... Octamethylene-bis(5-dimethylcarbamoxyisoquinolinium bromide) is an extremely potent carbamate nerve agent. It works by ...
C01-A035 Ellison, D. Hank (2007). Handbook of chemical and biological warfare agents (2nd. ed.). Boca Raton: CRC. ISBN ... C01-A039 is a Novichok agent. It is the ethyl phosphorofluoridate ester of phosgene oxime. ...
Ellison, D. Hank (2007). Handbook of chemical and biological warfare agents (2nd ed.). Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC. ISBN ... CNS is a mixture of chloroacetophenone, chloropicrin and chloroform that is used as a chemical warfare agent. CNS has the ... Hoenig, Steven L. (2007), Compendium of Chemical Warfare Agents, Springer, ISBN 978-0-387-34626-7 v t e v t e. ... CNS was used as a riot control agent, but it's no longer used now. ...
No biological warfare agents or munitions were ultimately detected. In 1992, the 203rd deployed a TECHINT liaison team as part ... Vesser, Dale A. (1 March 2000). "Biological Warfare Investigation Close Out Report Endnote 23". Special Assistant for Gulf War ... The detachment consisted of a headquarters section, seven three-man biological detection teams and five chemical/biological ... Act as the HQDA executive agent for foreign materiel used for training purposes. Conduct TECHINT training for DoD and reserve ...
Handbook of chemical and biological warfare agents (2nd ed.). CRC Press. ISBN 9780849314346. "Physical properties of standard ... Potential Military Chemical/Biological Agents and Compounds (PDF). Washington, D.C.: Headquarters, Dept. of the Army. Retrieved ... It is absorbed through skin and causes burns and mild nerve agent symptoms. It reacts with water producing HF fumes and ... agents, candidate agents, and related compounds at several temperatures" (PDF). U. S. Army (12 Dec 1990). ...
D. Hank Ellison (August 24, 2007). Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents, Second Edition. CRC Press. p. 456. ISBN ... Thousands of American soldiers were exposed to chemical warfare agents during Cold War testing programs (see Edgewood Arsenal ... Chemical Weapons United States "Closing U.S. Chemical Warfare Agent Disposal Facilities". Centers for Disease Control and ... In June 1990, Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System began destruction of chemical agents stored on Johnston Atoll in ...
"ChemIDplus". Handbook of chemical and biological warfare agents (2nd ed.). CRC Press. ISBN 9780849314346. v t e. ... EA-4352 is an organophosphate nerve agent of the G-series. It's the isopropyl analog of tabun. " ...
Noah DL, Huebner, KD, Darling RG, Waeckerle JF,. The history and threat of biological warfare and terrorism. Ludwig m. Deppisch ... Darling RG, Catlett CL, Huebner KD, et al., Threat syndromes in bioterrorism I: CDC category agents. ... Nuclear, biological and chemical medical defense training as a model for planners. ... biological, radiological and nuclear defense (CBRNE) training and readiness programs. On November 6, 1998, Darling facilitated ...
EA-3966 EA-4056 T-1123 Hank ED (2008). Handbook of chemical and biological warfare agents (2nd ed.). Boca Raton: CRC Press. p. ... Handbook of toxicology of chemical warfare agents (2nd ed.). Amsterdam: Elsevier/Academic Press. pp. 338-339. ISBN ... Despite of this, EA-3990 is claimed to be about three times more toxic than VX (another nerve agent). For VX, the median lethal ... Patent assigned to US army for EA-3990 among other similar nerve agents was filed in December 7, 1967. EA-3990 lethality in ...
D. Hank Ellison (August 24, 2007). Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents, Second Edition. CRC Press. pp. 567-570. ... Casualty recording Collateral damage Asymmetric warfare Fourth generation warfare Loss exchange ratio Just war Distinction (law ... ISBN 978-1-5924-0315-8. Neiberg, Michael S. (2002): Warfare in World History, pp. 68-70, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-22954-8. ... a percentage which he states is unprecedented in modern warfare. Journalist and commentator Evelyn Gordon writes in Commentary ...
Nerve agent VX (nerve agent) Ellison, D. Hank (2007). Handbook of chemical and biological warfare agents (2nd ed.). Boca Raton ... Hoenig, Steven L. (2007), Compendium of Chemical Warfare Agents, Springer, ISBN 978-0-387-34626-7 Munro, NB; Talmage, SS; ... and toxicity of chemical warfare agent degradation products". Environmental Health Perspectives. 107 (12): 933-74. doi:10.1289/ ... EA-2192 is an extremely toxic degradation product of the VX nerve agent. It is a white solid that is very soluble and stable in ...
D. Hank Ellison (August 24, 2007). Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents, Second Edition. CRC Press. p. 456. ISBN ... produces small quantities of biological agents, for use in biological weapons defense research. According to the U.S. ... A more advanced production facility was constructed in Pine Bluff, Arkansas, which began producing biological agents in 1954. ... November 1969). "Draft NSDM re United States Policy on Warfare Program and Bacteriological/Biological Research Program" (PDF). ...
Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents, Second Edition. CRC Press. ISBN 9781420003291 - via Google Books. Trivedi, ... Using stink bombs for these purposes has advantages over traditional riot control agents: unlike pepper spray and tear gas, ... They range in effectiveness from simple pranks to military grade malodorants or riot control chemical agents. The Guinness Book ... Chemical warfare Malodorant Practical joke List of practical joke topics Stinkpot (disambiguation) Thioacetone "Guinness World ...
Tabun (nerve agent) GV (nerve agent) "ChemIDplus". Ellison, D. Hank (2007). Handbook of chemical and biological warfare agents ... Fluorotabun is a highly toxic organophosphate nerve agent of the G-series. It's the fluorinated analog of tabun, i.e. the ...
Ellison, D. Hank (2007). Handbook of chemical and biological warfare agents (2nd ed.). Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC. ISBN ... 2009). Handbook of toxicology of chemical warfare agents (1st ed.). London: Academic Press. ISBN 9780123744845. BOWERY, N. G.; ... They have toxicity comparable to nerve agents. However, they are not acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. They act as GABA receptor ...
Handbook of chemical and biological warfare agents (2nd ed.). CRC Press. ISBN 9780849314346. Compendium of chemical warfare ... This include blister agents, blood agents and vomiting agents. Ethyldichloroarsine Lewisite Methyldichloroarsine ... In a military context, the term arsenical refer to toxic arsenic compounds that are used as chemical warfare agents. ...
Handbook of chemical and biological warfare agents (2nd ed.). CRC Press. ISBN 9780849314346. "Export Control List: Chemical ... Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 16 (7): 708-10. doi:10.1248/bpb.16.708. PMID 8401407.. ...
... candidate agents, and related compounds at several temperatures" (PDF). Handbook of chemical and biological warfare agents (2nd ... Compendium of chemical warfare agents. Springer. ISBN 9780387346267. v t e. ... Ethylsarin (GE), also known as EA-1209, is an organophosphate nerve agent of the G-series. It's the ethylphosphonofluoridate ...
D. Hank Ellison (August 24, 2007). Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents, Second Edition. CRC Press. pp. 567-570. ... This type of warfare is distinct from nuclear warfare and biological warfare, which together make up NBC, the military ... All may be used in warfare and are known by the military acronym NBC (for nuclear, biological, and chemical warfare). Weapons ... "Chemical Warfare Agents". "U.S. Army Chemical Materials Agency (home page)". Archived from the original on October 15, 2004. ...
Ellison DH (2008). Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents (Second ed.). CRC Press. ISBN 978-0-849-31434-6. US ... EA-1356 is an organophosphate nerve agent of the G-series. It is highly resistant to enzymatic degradation in the body. ... Söderström MT, Ketola RA, Kostiainen O (1995). "Identification of some nerve agent homologues and dialkyl methylphosphonates by ... Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center v t e. ...
p., 277 D. Hank Ellison (24 August 2007). Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents, Second Edition. CRC Press. pp. ... Any biological agents of warfare - living organisms, whatever their nature, or infective material derived from them - which are ... biological weapons] research, develop new biological weapons, and ultimately engage in [biological weapons] arms races". ... The 1993 Chemical Weapons Convention effectively banned riot control agents from being used as a method of warfare, though ...
It has the potential to be weaponised for use in biological warfare,[226][227] and was investigated by Biopreparat for such use ... Ebolavirus is classified as a biosafety level 4 agent, as well as a Category A bioterrorism agent by the Centers for Disease ... Zubray G (2013). Agents of Bioterrorism: Pathogens and Their Weaponization. New York, NY, USA: Columbia University Press. pp. ... May 2002). "Hemorrhagic fever viruses as biological weapons: medical and public health management". Journal of the American ...
Ledgard, Jared (2006). A Laboratory History of Chemical Warfare Agents. Lulu.com. ISBN 978-0615136455. .. p. 82. ... "Chemical Entities of Biological Interest. UK: European Bioinformatics Institute. 27 October 2006. Main. Retrieved 6 June 2012. ...
Chemical Warfare Secrets Almost Forgotton. A Personal Story of Medical Testing of Army Volunteers with Incapacitating Chemical ... Possible Long-Term Health Effects of Short-Term Exposure to Chemical Agents, Volume 1 (1982). Commission on Life Sciences. The ... Integrated Platform of Small Molecules and Biological Activities". Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry 4: 217-241. doi: ... Agents During the Cold War. ChemBooks Inc 2006. ISBN 978-1-4243-0080-8 ...
a b Tuncer Oren (2001). "Advances in Computer and Information Sciences: From Abacus to Holonic Agents", Turk J Elec Engin 9 (1 ... mirip dengan pakaian dipakai oleh askar-askar moden untuk perlindungan terhadap senjata biological, kimia dan nukelar. Oleh ... memakai pakaian who fireproof untuk melindungi diri mereka dari api-api gunpowder dan juga kimia-kimia dalam gunpowder warfare ...
Biological warfare. *Carcinogen. *Food safety. *Hazard symbol. *List of extremely hazardous substances ... Pradhan B.K.; Sandle N.K. (1999). "Effect of different oxidizing agent treatments on the surface properties of activated ... a flocculating agent. Impregnated carbons are also used for the adsorption of Hydrogen Sulfide(H2S) and thiols. Adsorption ... activated carbon is allowed for use as a processing agent to adsorb brown color pigments from white grape concentrates.[16] It ...
Endicott, S. L.; Hageman, E. (1998). The United States and Biological Warfare: Secrets from the Early Cold War and Korea. ... A local doctor concluded that some unspecified infectious agent had arrived in a package from New Orleans.[74][75] 650 ... Yellow fever has been researched by several countries as a potential biological weapon.[105] ... The mosquito hypothetically considered as an agent in the transmission of yellow fever) Anales de la Real Academia de Ciencias ...
It permanently bans the use of all forms of chemical and biological warfare.[11] The agreement was signed after World War I, ... Nerve gas or nerve agent is the name of a family of chemical poisons. Usually people call them nerve agents (they are not ... People were afraid that chemical and biological warfare could have terrible effects in any future war. The protocol was ... Nerve agents have long-lasting effects. People who survive nerve agent poisoning almost always have chronic damage to the brain ...
Pasteur isolated the infectious agent from anthrax. He then derived a vaccine by altering the infectious agent so as to make it ... "A History of the Warfare of Science with Theology. New York: D. Appleton and Company.. ... including the risk of prion contamination of biological materials) are likely to be used more and more often. However, they are ... Pasteur also isolated a crude preparation of the infectious agent for rabies. In a brave piece of rapid medicine development, ...
Croddy, Eric (2002). Chemical and biological warfare: a comprehensive survey for the concerned citizen. Springer. p. 128. ISBN ... It is known as a food additive to the FAO as an acidity regulator, a flour treatment agent and as a leavener.[11] It has E ... Sayers, W. (2006). "The Use of Quicklime in Medieval Naval Warfare". The Mariner's Mirror. Volume 92. Issue 3. pp. 262-269. ... Adrienne Mayor (2005), "Ancient Warfare and Toxicology", in Philip Wexler (ed.), Encyclopedia of Toxicology, 4 (2nd ed.), ...
"Biological Warfare at the 1346 Siege of Caffa". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 8 (9): 971-975. doi:10.3201/eid0809.010536. ISSN ... He commuted the contribution system to a fixed poll tax which was collected by imperial agents and forwarded to units in need.[ ... they decided to use the infected corpses as a biological weapon. The corpses were catapulted over the city walls, infecting the ... "Numbers in Mongol Warfare". In Rogers, Clifford J.; DeVries, Kelly; France, John (eds.). Journal of Medieval Military History ...
... of the radioactive agents being infused.[15] Methods, techniques and devices are available to lower the occurrence of this type ... Biological dose units and quantities. *Wireless electronic devices and health. *Radiation Heat-transfer ... These medications were the first agents of what is known as radioimmunotherapy, and they were approved for the treatment of ...
that in the second year after its launch, biological preprints hosted on bioRxiv repository were tweeted about on over 20,000 ... 2019-02-21: Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry. *2019-02-20: Psychology & Marketing ...
Biological transmission requires a period of incubation of the trypanosomes within the tsetse host. The term 'biological' is ... Trypanosoma agents. Distribution. Glossina vectors. Sleeping sickness - chronic form. humans. T. brucei gambiense. Western ... Anti-Submarine Warfare: An Illustrated History, 2007, by David Owen. Page 170. Seaforth Publishing. ... Tsetse are biological vectors of trypanosomes, meaning that in the process of feeding, they acquire and then transmit small, ...
Biological agent. *Biological warfare. *Bioterrorism. *Colony Collapse Disorder. *Defaunation. *Dysgenics. *Interplanetary ... The American Institute of Biological Sciences published a similar paper in support of this concept in 2009.[10] In addition, ...
"Biological Psychiatry. 66 (12): 1075-82. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2009.06.026. PMC 2787650. PMID 19748076.. ... First-line pharmacotherapy agents include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and the selective serotonin-norepinephrine ... warfare, traffic collisions, child abuse, or other threats on a person's life.[1][6] Symptoms may include disturbing thoughts, ... "Biological Psychiatry. 66 (12): 1072-4. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2009.09.023. PMC 2825567. PMID 19944792.. ...
Agents Chemother. 23 (2): 267-72. doi:10.1128/aac.23.2.267. PMC 186035 . PMID 6340603. Gattas MV, Forteza R, Fragoso MA, ... Rada B, Leto TL (2009). "Redox warfare between airway epithelial cells and Pseudomonas: Dual oxidase versus pyocyanin". Immunol ... Reiter B, Härnulv G (1984). "Lactoperoxidase antibacterial system natural occurrence, biological functions and practical ... OSCN− has also been identified as an antimicrobial agent in milk, saliva, tears, and mucus. OSCN− is considered as safe product ...
Chemical, biological (CB) - and sometimes radiological - warfare agents were assigned what is termed a military symbol by the U ... Chlamydial Biological Agents[edit]. *SI - psittacosis. Rickettsial Biological Agents[edit]. *RI - rocky mountain spotted fever ... With biological agents a 1 signifies a wet-type agent (e.g., UL1), and a 2 signifies a dry-type agent (e.g., UL2). Binary ... or combining letters of the two agents (e.g., HD mixed with L is HL). Furthermore, one strain of the biological agent Tularemia ...
See also: Ski warfare. Snow affects warfare conducted in winter, alpine environments or at high latitudes. The main factors are ... Clays, desert dust and biological particles can be nuclei.[20] Artificial nuclei include particles of silver iodide and dry ice ... The first group may be cold hardy owing to the ability to produce antifreeze agents in their body fluids that allows survival ... Snow can also provide cover and fortification against small-arms fire.[91] Noted winter warfare campaigns where snow and other ...
... biological control agents' and their presence encouraged in biological pest control programmes.[119] ... Shawkey, Matthew D.; Pillai, Shreekumar R.; Hill, Geoffrey E. (2003). "Chemical warfare? Effects of uropygial oil on feather- ... "Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 278 (1716): 2333-2337. PMC 3119002 . PMID 21208965. doi:10.1098/rspb. ... Biological exuberance: Animal homosexuality and natural diversity. New York: St. Martin's, 1999. pp. 479-655. One hundred ...
Fighting and warfare. The second element of Alfred's society is fighting men. The subject of war and the Anglo-Saxons is a ... biological make-up is none the less likely to have been substantially, indeed predominantly, British".[39] The development of ... and kings and their agents sought in various ways to establish social order.[89] This process started with Edward the Elder - ... The role of churchmen was analogous with that of the warriors waging heavenly warfare. However what Alfred was alluding to was ...
Biological warfare. The British used smallpox as a biological warfare agent at the Siege of Fort Pitt during the French and ... "Biological Warfare in Eighteenth-Century North America: Beyond Jeffery Amherst", The Journal of American History, Vol. 86, No. ... "Smallpox and biological warfare: a disease revisited". Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent). 18 (1): 13-20. doi:10.1080/08998280.2005. ... for use in biological warfare.[150] Insertion of the synthesized smallpox DNA into existing related pox viruses could ...
Competition for dwindling resources resulted in warfare and many casualties (an additional "Runaway Train" iteration). Together ... humanity's economic struggle to work and earn a livelihood is largely a continuation and extension of the biological struggle ...
Mustard gas was used as a chemical warfare agent during World War I and was discovered to be a potent suppressor of ... Active targeting uses biological molecules (antibodies, proteins, DNA and receptor ligands) to preferentially target the ... Available agents[edit]. Main article: List of antineoplastic agents. There is an extensive list of antineoplastic agents. ... Alkylating agents[edit]. Main article: Alkylating antineoplastic agent. Alkylating agents are the oldest group of ...
The first is the biological agent (also called a bio-agent, biological threat agent, or biological warfare agent). This is the ... Examples of biological weaponsEdit. A biological agent by itself is not enough to make a biological weapon. Neither is a ... Examples of biological agentsEdit. Examples of some biological agents and toxins are listed below. Experts have said that these ... A biological weapon has to have both: the bio-agent that is meant to make people sick, and a system to deliver that agent.[2] ...
PCD is carried out in a biological process, which usually confers advantage during an organism's life-cycle. For example, the ... Only natural forces on the cell are considered to be atrophic factors, whereas, for example, agents of mechanical or chemical ... it is not uncommon for the chemical warfare waged by prokaryotes to succeed, with the consequence known as infection by its ... Since then several theories were proposed to understand its biological significance during neural development. PCD in the ...
National Biological Warfare. Defense Analysis Center. Defense. Science & Technology Directorate Plum Island Animal Disease ... U.S. CBP Office of Field Operations agent checking the authenticity of a travel document at an international airport using a ...
Host Specificity Testing of Exotic Arthropod Biological Control Agents: The Biological Basis for Improvement in Safety. Xth ... While predatory species are often used as biological control agents, introduced species of coccinellids are not necessarily ... This makes some of them particularly valuable as agents in biological control programmes. Determination of specialisation need ... Evaluating host specificity of agents for biological control of arthropods: rationale, methodology and interpretation, pp. 69- ...
"EPA is not aware of any deliberate actions to release chemical or biological agents into the atmosphere." Theorists have ... or biological or chemical warfare and that the trails are causing respiratory illnesses and other health problems.[1][4] ... consisting of chemical or biological agents left in the sky by high-flying aircraft, sprayed for nefarious purposes undisclosed ...
Wheelis M. Biological Warfare at the 1346 Siege of Caffa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2002;8(9):971-975. doi:10.3201/ ... pestis as the major agent of the pandemic suggest that its extent and symptoms can be explained by a combination of bubonic ... "History of biological warfare and bioterrorism" (PDF). Clinical Microbiology and Infection. 20 (6): 498. doi:10.1111/1469- ... Twigg, G., (1984), The Black Death: A Biological Reappraisal, London: Batsford.. *. Ziegler, Philip (1998). The Black Death. ...
"The legacy of Agent Orange". BBC News. 29 April 2005.. *^ "Agent Orange's Long Legacy, for Vietnam and Veterans". nytimes.com. ... Main articles: Rainbow herbicide and Herbicidal warfare. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (December ... Weeds resistant to multiple herbicides with completely different biological action modes are on the rise. In Missouri, 43% of ... Agent Orange was a herbicide blend used by the British military during the Malayan Emergency and the U.S. military during the ...
For purposes of the Phase I endeavor, models that mimic common biological warfare agents (BWA) will be used to test the system ... The system is to be applied to wall surfaces, and remain dormant until a biological threat comes in contact with the surface. ... Upon completion of the decontamination phase of operation, the color agent is designed to decompose, indicating the end of the ... opening the nanotube and exposing the biocide and color agent inside. ...
Military Biology and Biological Warfare Agents. Military Biology and Biological Warfare Agents. by U. S. Department of the Army ... Properties of Biological Warfare AgentsPossible Antipersonnel Biological Warfare AgentsPossible Antianimal Biological Warfare ... S. Department of the Army Staff is the author of Military Biology and Biological Warfare Agents, published 2003 under ISBN ...
... and Prophylaxis for Selected Biological Warfare Agents. (RX). by Internal Medicine News; Health care industry Health, general ... APA style: Vaccines, Therapeutics, and Prophylaxis for Selected Biological Warfare Agents. (RX).. (n.d.) >The Free Library. ( ... MLA style: "Vaccines, Therapeutics, and Prophylaxis for Selected Biological Warfare Agents. (RX).." The Free Library. 2001 ... S.v. Vaccines, Therapeutics, and Prophylaxis for Selected Biological Warfare Agents. (RX).." Retrieved Aug 24 2019 from https ...
2.2 Overview of Chemical Warfare Agents. 2.3 Overview of Biological Warfare Agents. 2.4 Conclusions. References. Chapter 3 US ... Chemical and biological warfare agents are threats to the military and civilians alike in both terrorist and conventional ... Chapter 1 A Brief History of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents and their Decontamination Jeffery K. Smart. 1.1 ... Chapter 2 Introduction to Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents Jennifer Coughlin and Jennifer J. Becker. 2.1 Introduction. ...
... to testify about experiments involving simulated biological and chemical warfare agents. These agents, which the army calls ... My research interests include biological and chemical warfare policies, and I have written in particular about testing done in ... During the next 20 years, the army released simulant agents over hundreds of populated areas around the country. Targets ... vii) chemical, biological, environmental, climate, or tectonic weapons.. (C) The term `exotic weapons systems includes weapons ...
T-2 Mycotoxins and Biological Warfare - Same Destructive Agent as Indoor Mold in Fungal Infections /by Carolyn Willbanks. ... 2 important factors when considering an agent as a biological warfare agent). ... Inhalation: Declassified reports prove that T-2 mycotoxin has been used as a simple but effective biological warfare agent on ... 56T-2 Mycotoxins and Biological Warfare - Same Destructive Agent as Indoor Mold. ...
A training film on medical defense against biological warfare in the United States. The proficiency of a biological warfare ... The proficiency of a biological warfare agent like pathogen to transfer through an artificial route in the United States. ... Technicians carry out biological warfare test. Accidental incidents occur due to use of a blender and a centrifuge. A ... agent like pathogen to transfer through a artificial route shows U.S. soldiers having food and water. ...
US11564777 2004-09-17 2006-11-29 Systems and methods for detecting radiation, biotoxin, chemical, and biological warfare agents ... Systems and methods for detecting radiation, biotoxin, chemical, and biological warfare agents using a multiple angle light ... Systems and methods for detecting radiation, biotoxin, chemical, and biological warfare agents using a multiple angle light ... Systems and methods for detecting radiation, biotoxin, chemical, and biological warfare agents using a multiple angle light ...
Synthesis and Docking Studies of Phenylureas as Candidates for the Drug Design Against the Biological Warfare Agent Yersinia ... Synthesis and Docking Studies of Phenylureas as Candidates for the Drug Design Against the Biological Warfare Agent Yersinia ... Synthesis and Docking Studies of Phenylureas as Candidates for the Drug Design Against the Biological Warfare Agent Yersinia ... Abstract:Background: Bubonic plague is amongst the diseases with the highest potential for being used in biological warfare ...
We simultaneously identified multiple biological warfare agents in environmental samples by looking at specific probe responses ... Biological Warfare Dispatch DNA Microarray DNA Probes Fiber Optics Fiber Optic Technology Fluorescence Humans Microsphere ... high-density array composed of 18 species-specific probe microsensors to identify biological warfare agents. ... "The U.S. national civilian vulnerability to the deliberate use of biological and chemical agents has been highlighted by ...
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Biological Warfare Agents Remediation System SBC: Physical Optics Corporation Topic: HSB0142001 To address the DHS need for a ... proposes to develop a Biological Warfare Agents Remediation (BIFAR) system based on photocatalytic ionization of hydrogen ... Office for Chemical and Biological Defense (25) Apply Office for Chemical and Biological Defense filter ... Agents must rely on sign-cutting to detect traffic and start their pursuit. These signs can be difficult or impossible to ...
Preventing disease after exposure to a biological agent is partially a function of the immunity of the exposed individual. The ... and stockpiling specific antibody reagents that can be used to protect the population against biological warfare threats. ... only available countermeasure that can provide immediate immunity against a biological agent is passive antibody. Unlike ... Passive antibody therapy has substantial advantages over antimicrobial agents and other measures for postexposure prophylaxis, ...
Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agent Decontamination Chemical and biological warfare agents are threats to the ... Plasma Assisted Decontamination of Biological and Chemical Agents Plasma decontamination is a rapidly expanding area of modern ... Plasma Assisted Decontamination of Biological and Chemical Agents Plasma decontamination is a rapidly expanding area of modern ... An increasing number of engineers are using plasma methods for decontamination of chemical and biological agents. Plasma ...
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... biological warfare] agents." [Blum, 1995]. The biological warfare program is overseen by the US Armys Chemical Warfare Service ... biological agents, chemical agents, obscurants, marking agents, dyes and inks, chaffs and flakes." [United States Patent and ... As part of Project 112, the US military sprays a biological agent on barracks in Oahu, Hawaii. The agent is believed to be ... The BWC would ban all biological warfare, and would provide enforcement for the ban, something the 1972 Biological Weapons ...
Microrockets Fueled by Water Neutralize Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents. no picReleased 29 Oct 2014 5 00 PM EDTSource ... Date October 30 2014 Source Springer Summary Biological membranes are mainly composed of lipid bilayers Gaining a better ... understanding of adsorption of solution ions onto lipid membranes helps clarify functional processes in biological cells A ... Contact Information Available for logged in reporters only Citations ACS NanoWith fears growing over chemical and biological ...
direct energy weapons, chemical and/or biological agents, in a macabre experiment of future warfare. By Prof. Paola Manduca ... and chemical and/or biological agents, in a sort of macabre experiment of future warfare, where there is no respect for ... anything: International rules (from the Geneva Convention to the treaties on biological and chemical weapons), refugees, ...
Protection Against Biological Warfare Agents 1161. Food and WaterInfective Microorganisms 1169. Prevention of Infection from ... acid action activity addition agents alcohol ammonium antimicrobial antiseptic Appl application Association Bacillus bacteria ...
Results of search for su:{Chemical warfare agents.} and su-to:Biological warfare. ... by (2nd: World Congress on New Compounds in Biological and Chemical Warfare Ghent, Belgium) 1986: , Heyndrickx, Bruno , ... by (1st: World Congress on New Compounds in Biological and Chemical Warfare Ghent, Belgium) 1984: , Heyndrickx, Aubin , ... First world congress : new compounds in biological and chemical warfare, toxicological evaluation, proceedings, Ghent, May 21st ...
CBRNE - Biological Warfare Agents * Skin Grafts and Biologic Skin Substitutes * CBRNE - Evaluation of a Biological Warfare ... CBRNE - Biological Warfare Agents * 2002 830992-overview Procedures Procedures CBRNE - Evaluation of a Biological Warfare ...
... biological warfare agent samples; research samples; and raw samples (bacteria, virus, genomic DNA, etc.); As will be ... A recent report from NIH-NIAID (NIAID Biodefense Research Agenda for CDC Category A Agents, February 2002, National Institutes ... These potential bioterror agents include: Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) toxin, Yersinia pestus (plague), botulinum toxin, ... Nor are there rapid, reliable methods to identify the presence of these agents in the field, particularly for use by first ...
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... biological warfare agent samples; research samples (i.e. in the case of nucleic acids, the sample may be the products of an ... If, for example, the bead comprising a first agent has a 1 concentration of IBL, and a second bead comprising a second agent ... Thus, for example, a specific combination of IMs can serve to code the bead, and be used to identify the agent on the bead upon ... Molecular biological diagnostic systems including electrodes. US5633972. 29 Nov 1995. 27 May 1997. Trustees Of Tufts College. ...
Detection of biological warfare agents. US6855540. Aug 8, 2001. Feb 15, 2005. Dade Behring Inc.. Reagent container and canister ... The purpose of the analysis may be to identify an unknown biological agent or target in the sample, to determine the ... The identification cards are used to identify the particular unknown biological agent, i.e., microorganism, present in the ... The biological sample test tube 30A and its associated identification card 28A can be thought of as a set. The biological ...
Unidentified chemicals involved with clandestine production of WMD agents or drugs, explosive… ... Chemical Warfare Agents Biological Warfare Agents Radiological Material Explosive Material Illegal Drugs ... military chemical and potential biological agents. Using a combination of technical details, practical examples and humor, Mr. ... Unidentified chemicals involved with clandestine production of WMD agents or drugs, explosive materials, unlabeled waste, and ...
Biological Warfare Agents. REDUCTION, RECYCLING, AND RESOURCE RECOVERY. Overview of Waste Treatment for Resource Recovery. ... Factors Involved in Biological Treatment. Aerobic Treatment of Organic Wastes. Anaerobic Treatment of Organic Wastes. ...
Make research projects and school reports about Agent Orange easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and ... and pictures about Agent Orange at Encyclopedia.com. ... See alsoChemical and Biological Warfare ; Insecticides and ... Gough, M. Agent Orange: The Facts. New York: Perseus Books, 1986.. National Academy of Sciences. Veterans and Agent Orange: ... Agent Orange. Agent Orange is a defoliant, that is, a chemical that kills plants and causes the leaves to fall off the dying ...
  • Biological warfare (BW), also known as germ warfare , is the deliberate use of disease -causing biological agents such as protozoa , fungi , bacteria , protists , or viruses , to kill or incapacitate humans, other animals or plants. (princeton.edu)
  • Biological warfare (BW), also known as a germ warfare , biological weapons , and bioweapons , is the use of any pathogen ( bacterium , virus or other disease-causing organism) as a weapon of war. (bionity.com)
  • Do you have any reason to believe that you, or any members of your unit, were exposed to chemical warfare or germ warfare? (gulfweb.org)
  • President Bush used information from Curveball to charge in his 2003 State of the Union address that Iraq had "mobile biological weapons labs" designed to produce "germ warfare agents. (latimes.com)
  • Biological warfare (BW), commonly called germ warfare is the use of biological toxins or infectious agents (bacteria, viruses, and fungi) to ill or incapacitate people directky or the animals and plants on which people depend. (histclo.com)
  • Sometimes known as 'germ warfare,' biological weapons involve the use of toxins or infectious agents that are biological in origin. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Claims that old and sick people died after scientists used them as guinea pigs in germ warfare experiments are to be investigated by the police. (rense.com)
  • The goal: to see what might happen in a real germ-warfare attack. (indymedia.org)
  • Now, with anthrax in the mail and fear mounting of further biological attacks, researchers are again looking back at the only other time this country faced the perils of germ warfare -- albeit self-inflicted. (indymedia.org)
  • The threat of bioterrorism has stimulated renewed interest in the "Blue Book," a pocket-sized manual published by the United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Md. The fourth edition of the manual, entitled "Medical Management of Biological Casualties Handbook" (February 2001), includes a summary of medical agents from which this table is adapted. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The potential threat of biological warfare and bioterrorism is inversely proportional to the number of immune persons in the targeted population. (cdc.gov)
  • The environmental sampling conducted during the 2001 anthrax bioterrorism events in the United States showed a need to characterize the efficiency of filter sampling against bioterrorism agents (CDC, 2002). (cdc.gov)
  • For the use of biological agents by terrorists, see bioterrorism . (bionity.com)
  • it addresses the effect of bioterrorism on drinking water safety, particularly safeguards that are in place to protect consumers against the microbial agents involved. (wiley.com)
  • The growing threat of biowarfare agents and bioterrorism has led to the development of specific field tools that perform on-the-spot analysis and identification of encountered suspect materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention classifies anthrax as a Category A agent with serious bioterrorism potential. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • We learned a lot about how vulnerable we are to biological attack from those tests,' says Leonard Cole, adjunct professor of political science at Rutgers University in New Jersey and author of several books on bioterrorism. (indymedia.org)
  • The release of nerve gas in the Tokyo subways, the spread of biological weapons, and the anthrax attack of 2001 in the United States demonstrate that not only is the threat of such menacing weapons real, but also that we must urgently prepare to deal with future acts of bioterrorism. (springer.com)
  • Comprehensive and authoritative, Biological Weapons Defense: Infectious Diseases and Counterbioterrorism provides researchers, physicians, and policymakers with a sound basis for understanding not only the diseases caused by these infectious organisms, but also an appreciation of the universe of bioterrorism problems that must be mastered to develop effective countermeasures. (springer.com)
  • As the 2001 anthrax attacks amply demonstrated, the threat posed by a biological weapons' incident may be closer to home than any of us care to think. (wordpress.com)
  • 2001). Botulinum toxin as a biological weapon: medical and public health management. (springer.com)
  • While there has been substantial effort since the 2001 distribution of Bacillus anthracis spores through the US Postal System to develop analyzers to detect this and other biological agents, the analyzers lack sensitivity, lack specificity (produce high false-positive rates), are too slow, or cannot be fielded. (omicsonline.org)
  • Upon completion of the decontamination phase of operation, the color agent is designed to decompose, indicating the end of the threat. (sbir.gov)
  • This book is a comprehensive overview of the scientific research and development that has been done in chemical and biological agent decontamination technology in the US military. (labmate-online.com)
  • It begins with a section on the background of decontamination, which includes a chronological history of military research, an overview of the US Department of Defense decontamination principles and requirements and a chapter that acts as a primer on chemical and biological warfare agents. (labmate-online.com)
  • An increasing number of engineers are using plasma methods for decontamination of chemical and biological agents. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Chemical and biological warfare agents are threats to the military and civilians alike in both terrorist and conventional warfare scenarios. (labmate-online.com)
  • This article proposes a biological defense initiative based on developing, producing, and stockpiling specific antibody reagents that can be used to protect the population against biological warfare threats. (cdc.gov)
  • Public information on biological and chemical threats. (who.int)
  • Biological and chemical threats. (who.int)
  • Dr. Lederberg is cochair of a study on biological weapon threats and defensive measures tasked by the Defense Science Board and the Defense Threat Reduction Agency. (cdc.gov)
  • Sensing capabilities now packaged in small, lightweight forms that are easy to use and specific for some forms of biological and chemical warfare threats already exist. (nap.edu)
  • Biodefense refers to measures to restore biosecurity to a group of organisms who are, or may be, subject to biological threats or infectious diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The traditional approach toward protecting agriculture, food, and water: focusing on the natural or unintentional introduction of a disease is being strengthened by focused efforts to address current and anticipated future biological weapons threats that may be deliberate, multiple, and repetitive. (wikipedia.org)
  • Target audience are military and civilian healthcare providers treating biological warfare injuries, and members of the military, defense agencies and relevant contractors that need to know the different bacterial and viral agents and biological toxins being used in warfare (and need to stay current on bioterrorist threats). (gpo.gov)
  • Includes topics such as scientific and clinical aspects of threats agents, history of past use, and overarching policies to control their use. (jhsph.edu)
  • Builds skills in crafting evidence-based public health policy options in preparing and responding to chemical and biological threats. (jhsph.edu)
  • The system is to be applied to wall surfaces, and remain dormant until a biological threat comes in contact with the surface. (sbir.gov)
  • The potential threat of biological warfare with a specific agent is proportional to the susceptibility of the population to that agent. (cdc.gov)
  • Biological weapons may be employed in various ways to gain a strategic or tactical advantage over an adversary, either by threat or by actual deployment. (princeton.edu)
  • Unidentified chemicals involved with clandestine production of WMD agents or drugs, explosive materials, unlabeled waste, and forensic samples all pose a threat to the worker and those they protect. (routledge.com)
  • Were it not for the Biological Weapons Convention, a gradually escalating technology race would have amplified even further this threat to human existence. (cdc.gov)
  • The following references provide information on evaluating the threat of botulinum toxin being used as biological weapon. (osha.gov)
  • This work was supported by the Chemical and Biological Technologies Department of the Defense Threat Reduction Agency in the "Dynamic Multifunctional Materials for a Second Skin D[MS] 2 " program. (scitechdaily.com)
  • they are designed to perform isolated experiments to detect or verify the presence of known threat agents. (nap.edu)
  • No threat agents detected," one wrote in his computer journal. (latimes.com)
  • A case in which a potentially exposed person is being evaluated by health-care workers or public health officials for poisoning by a particular chemical agent, but no specific credible threat exists. (cdc.gov)
  • Reviews the scientific principles and outcomes of threat agent use. (jhsph.edu)
  • According to the current declassified literature, the T-2 mycotoxin is the only mycotoxin known to have been used as a biological weapon. (mold-help.org)
  • The report of "yellow rain" in remote sections of jungle in Laos (1975-81), which resulted in more than 6,378 deaths, has been viewed as use of T-2 mycotoxin as a biological weapon. (mold-help.org)
  • Other reported uses of T-2 mycotoxin as a biological weapon concern Kampuchea (1979-81) with 1,034 deaths and Afghanistan (1979-81) with 3,042 deaths. (mold-help.org)
  • For example, smallpox virus would not be considered a useful biological weapon against a population universally immunized with vaccinia. (cdc.gov)
  • The US Army Chemical Warfare Service, working with a Harvard University team of researchers led by Dr. Louis Fieser, develop napalm (naphthenic palmitic acids), a flammable, gasoline-based incendiary weapon. (historycommons.org)
  • A biological weapon may be intended to kill, incapacitate or seriously impede an adversary. (bionity.com)
  • As a strategic weapon, BW is again militarily problematic, although with a possible exception with the Soviets, the weaponized biological agents did not spread from person to person. (bionity.com)
  • President Nixon's abjuration of biological warfare as a U.S. military weapon in 1969 set in motion the most important diplomatic and legal steps towards its eradication globally, laying the groundwork for the Biological Weapons Convention treaty. (cdc.gov)
  • A number of states named by the U.S. State Department as "state sponsors of terrorism" have developed or are developing botulinum toxin as a biological weapon. (osha.gov)
  • Answers basic questions regarding the signs and symptoms of botulism, how long it takes to develop and recover, what treatments and vaccines exist, as well as provides a background for naturally occurring botulism and as a biological weapon. (osha.gov)
  • Botulinum Toxin as a Biological Weapon. (osha.gov)
  • This policy statement replaces the 2000 policy statement, with an added focus on systems issues that are key in minimizing morbidity and mortality to children after their exposure to a chemical or biological weapon. (aappublications.org)
  • The Working Group on Civilian Biodefense has developed consensus-based recommendations for measures to be taken by medical and public health professionals if tularemia is used as a biological weapon against a civilian population. (nih.gov)
  • OutpostS Book Review calls it: "The most massive, well-documented assembly of evidence ever published in support of the idea that the AIDS virus could have been manufactured as a biological weapon. (abovetopsecret.com)
  • VX is a type of chemical weapon called a nerve agent . (wikipedia.org)
  • Mucous membranes or breaks in the skin also are vulnerable sites and require protection against biological warfare agents. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • The Medical Management of Biological Casualties Handbook, which has been known as the "Blue Book" has been enormously successful. (gpo.gov)
  • One type of assay, known as an immunoassay, is commonly used to detect and identify biological agents, including bacteria, viruses, and proteins. (nap.edu)
  • Medical professionals learn about effective available medical countermeasures against many of the bacteria, viruses, and toxins that might be used as biological weapons against military forces or civilian communities. (gpo.gov)
  • The bacteria were carried for miles throughout the subway system, leading Army officials to conclude in a January 1968 report: 'Similar covert attacks with a pathogenic (disease-causing) agent during peak traffic periods could be expected to expose large numbers of people to infection and subsequent illness or death. (indymedia.org)
  • The purpose of this handbook is to serve as a concise, pocket-sized manual that can be pulled off the shelf (or from a pocket) in a crisis to guide medical personnel in the prophylaxis and management of biological casualties. (gpo.gov)
  • Background: Bubonic plague is amongst the diseases with the highest potential for being used in biological warfare attacks today. (eurekaselect.com)
  • This article reviews the activity of humoral immunity against several biological agents, discusses the advantages and disadvantages of an antibody-based defense strategy ( Table ), and proposes stockpiling specific antibodies for use in the event of biological attacks. (cdc.gov)
  • In some countries private, local, and provincial (state) capabilities are being augmented by and coordinated with federal assets, to provide layered defenses against biological weapons attacks. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was the Japanese who made the most use of biological weapons during World War II, as among other terrifyingly indiscriminate attacks, the Japanese Army Air Force dropped ceramic bombs full of fleas carrying the bubonic plague on Ningbo, China. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • As early as the 1950s, the army's Fort Detrick in partnership with the CIA launched a multi-million dollar research program under which dengue fever and several addition exotic diseases were studied for use in offensive biological warfare attacks. (preventdisease.com)
  • Current detection systems and technologies, which may also be suitable for civilian defenses against biological weapons of mass destruction, will have to be adapted to the unique needs of the future soldier environment. (nap.edu)
  • This handbook was first produced by the Chemical, Biological and Radiological (CBRN) Subcommittee in June 1995. (fas.org)
  • This handbook is intended to supply information to first responders for use in making a preliminary assessment of a situation when a possible chemical, biological agent or radiological material is suspected. (fas.org)
  • When evaluating and taking action against a possible chemical, biological, or radiological incident, your personal safety is of primary concern. (fas.org)
  • Section A What Is the Difference Between a Chemical, Biological, or Radiological Event? (fas.org)
  • Chemical, biological, and radiological material as well as industrial agents can be dispersed in the air we breath, the water we drink, or on surfaces we physically contact. (fas.org)
  • The following sections contain indicators of chemical/biological/radiological material release and key information to relay to responding organizations. (fas.org)
  • When approaching a scene that may involve chemical, biological, or radiological materials the most critical consideration is the safety of oneself and other responders. (fas.org)
  • Be cognizant that the presence and identification of hazardous agents may not be immediately verifiable, especially in the case of biological and radiological agents. (fas.org)
  • The following actions/measures to be considered by first responders are applicable to either a chemical, biological, or radiological incident. (fas.org)
  • Recent terrorist events in the United States underscore the importance of emergency response procedures for dealing with terrorist-related events involving chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear (CBRN) agents. (cdc.gov)
  • Passive antibody therapy has substantial advantages over antimicrobial agents and other measures for postexposure prophylaxis, including low toxicity and high specific activity. (cdc.gov)
  • Defense strategies against biological weapons include such measures as enhanced epidemiologic surveillance, vaccination, and use of antimicrobial agents, with the important caveat that the final line of defense is the immune system of the exposed individual. (cdc.gov)
  • citation needed] Pre-treatment with pyridostigmine prior to exposure, and treatment with other drugs such as atropine and diazepam after exposure, will reduce symptoms of nerve agent toxicity but may not be sufficient to prevent death if a large dose of nerve agent has been absorbed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Somani SM, Husain K. Low-level nerve agent toxicity under normal and stressful conditions. (cdc.gov)
  • Since publication of the 2000 technical report, many additional acts of chemical and biological terrorism have occurred, including the release of anthrax spores through the US postal system, intentional food contamination by toxic chemicals in Grand Rapids, Michigan, and Fresno, California, and the identification of ricin-laden letters in a post office in South Carolina. (aappublications.org)
  • Indeed, in the largest biological weapons accident known-the anthrax outbreak in Sverdlovsk (now Yekaterinburg ) in the Soviet Union in 1979, sheep became ill with anthrax as far as 200 kilometers from the release point of the organism from a military facility in the southeastern portion of the city (known as Compound 19 and still off limits to visitors today, see Sverdlovsk anthrax leak ). (wikipedia.org)
  • While all of these techniques have been employed for biological agent detection to some extent (e.g. identification of anthrax on mail sorting equipment by PCR), none of them satisfy all of the requirements of speed, sensitivity, selectivity, and field ruggedness, especially the latter as required by military personnel. (omicsonline.org)
  • We developed a fiber-optic, microsphere-based, high-density array composed of 18 species-specific probe microsensors to identify biological warfare agents. (cdc.gov)
  • Consequently the need for a portable technology that can rapidly identify biological warfare agents with high specificity (no false-positive responses) and sensitivity (e.g. 10 4 spores for B. anthracis [ 1 ]) in the field remains. (omicsonline.org)
  • During the past decade, various techniques have been developed to detect and identify biological agents. (omicsonline.org)
  • In April 2000, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Committee on Environmental Health and Committee on Infectious Diseases published the technical report "Chemical-Biological Terrorism and Its Impact on Children. (aappublications.org)
  • it funded and coordinated 137 institutions in the US that conducted research - including chemical warfare agents and prevention of infectious diseases tested on prisoners and children. (ahrp.org)
  • In Biological Weapons Defense: Infectious Diseases and Counterbioterrorism, prominent experts in biodefense research-many from the US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases-authoritatively delineate the universe of scientific, medical, and legal issues facing the biodefense research community. (springer.com)
  • Biological weapons (often referred to as bioweapons ) are living organisms or replicating entities ( virus ) that reproduce or replicate within their host victims. (princeton.edu)
  • There is an overlap between biological warfare and chemical warfare , as the use of toxins produced by living organisms is considered under the provisions of both the Biological Weapons Convention and the Chemical Weapons Convention . (princeton.edu)
  • Using nonliving toxic products, even if produced by living organisms (e.g., toxins), is considered Chemical warfare under the provisions of the Chemical Weapons Convention . (bionity.com)
  • Because living organisms can be unpredictable and incredibly resilient, biological weapons are difficult to control, potentially devastating on a global scale, and prohibited globally under numerous treaties. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • T-2 mycotoxins and Yellow Rain - the same destructive neurological and immunological agents that are found in indoor molds. (mold-help.org)
  • Currently, the United States Army is conducting 90% of their biological warfare research in T-2 mycotoxins, according to Dr. William Deagle, in a recent telephone interview. (mold-help.org)
  • However, skin contact does not pose a significant risk, because intact skin provides an effective barrier to all biological agents except trichothecene mycotoxins. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • 2. acoustic warfare countermeasures. (af.mil)
  • Acoustic warfare countermeasures involve intentional underwater acoustic emissions for deception and jamming. (af.mil)
  • 3. acoustic warfare counter-countermeasures. (af.mil)
  • Acoustic warfare counter-countermeasures involve anti-acoustic warfare support measures and anti-acoustic warfare countermeasures, and ma not involve underwater acoustic emissions. (af.mil)
  • The proficiency of a biological warfare agent like pathogen to transfer through a artificial route shows U.S. soldiers having food and water. (criticalpast.com)
  • The U.S. military used aircraft to spray Agent Orange in order to deprive enemy Viet Cong soldiers of thick jungle that they used for cover, whether for snipers along riverbanks or for supply roads secretly carved through the undergrowth. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Then there's the the Bari incident , when soldiers and sailors were swimming in mustard agent when Germans bombed U.S. ships in that Italian harbor. (wired.com)
  • The creation and stockpiling of biological weapons ("offensive BW") was outlawed by the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention (BWC), signed by over 100 countries. (bionity.com)
  • The best-known documented use of ricin as an agent of biological warfare was by the Soviet Union 's KGB during the Cold War . (wikidoc.org)
  • Note that two of these targets are toxins (botulinum and ricin) while the remainder are infectious agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Monsanto's Agent Orange: The Persistent Ghost from the Vietnam War , Meryl Nass, Organic Consumers Assn., 2002. (wordpress.com)
  • The continuing occurrence of chemical and biological terrorism makes clear the ongoing need to improve public health and health care system preparedness in all respects, including the detection of covert events, establishment of comprehensive response protocols for children, and implementation of plans for rapid resource mobilization. (aappublications.org)
  • The overall goal of the course is to provide a survey of the various software and hardware aspects associated with chemical and biological detection. (umd.edu)
  • Is The Pentagon Modifying Viruses To Save Crops - Or To Wage Biological Warfare? (opb.org)
  • Agent Orange is one of several herbicidal (plant-killing) preparations that was used by the U.S. military to destroy forests and enemy crops in Vietnam in the 1960s. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Other uses of Agent Orange included destroying crops that the Viet Cong relied on for food . (howstuffworks.com)
  • The final chapter presents strategies for use in identifying or characterizing suspected weapons of mass destruction, illegal drugs, explosive substances, biological hazards, and other hazardous materials. (routledge.com)
  • This chapter discusses biological sensors and their role on future Army battlefields. (nap.edu)
  • During the first Gulf War the United Nations activated a biological and chemical response team, Task Force Scorpio , to respond to any potential use of weapons of mass destruction on civilians. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biological warfare was the focus of billion-dollar investments by the United States and the former Soviet Union until President Nixon's unilateral abjuration in 1969. (cdc.gov)
  • In this context, the recruitment of top German and Japanese scientists who had conducted grisly "medical" experiments whilst waging biological war against China and the Soviet Union would be free of any moralizing or political wavering. (wordpress.com)
  • Largely unknown to the public was the huge advances thathe Germans and made in CW during the War creating deadly nerve agents and the massive BW progrm launched by the Soviet Union after the War. (histclo.com)
  • And akthough chemicl warfare was very limited suring the War, WMD were largely unknown to the public was the huge advances that he Germans and made in CW during the War creating deadly nerve agents and the massive BW progrm launched by the Soviet Union after the War. (histclo.com)
  • The study of deleterious or beneficial biochemical interactions between plants (allelopathy) and the chemicals responsible for these interactions (allelochemicals) has wide implications in many areas of biological science. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Nerve agents, sometimes also called nerve gases, are a class of organic chemicals that disrupt the mechanisms by which nerves transfer messages to organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemical Warfare (CW) uses chemicals, commonly called poison gas, to kill. (histclo.com)
  • Agent Orange is one of the most dangerous chemicals known to mankind. (wordpress.com)
  • Exposure to chemicals and chemical warfare agents occurs by inhaling chemical gas or vapor. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • The proficiency of a biological warfare agent like pathogen to transfer through an artificial route in the United States. (criticalpast.com)
  • Handbook of chemical and biological warfare agents (2nd ed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Known as the USAMRIID Blue Book, this invaluable handbook supplies basic summary and treatment information quickly for the healthcare provider on the front lines of a biological incident. (gpo.gov)
  • Probabilistic Modelling in Bioinformatics and Medical Informatics has been written for researchers and students in statistics, machine learning, and the biological sciences. (environmental-expert.com)
  • VX is one of the "V-series nerve agents" which were made in the 1950s by the United Kingdom 's military researchers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unknown to most Americans is that dengue fever has been the intense focus of U.S. army and CIA biological warfare researchers for over fifty years. (preventdisease.com)
  • That Iraq had already used chemical warfare agents led coalition forces to take protective action. (rand.org)
  • George J. Tenet was director of the CIA when the U.S. insisted that Iraq had an active biological weapons program. (latimes.com)
  • According to the Germans, President Bush mischaracterized Curveball's information when he warned before the war that Iraq had at least seven mobile factories brewing biological poisons. (latimes.com)
  • 1. Under Saddam Hussein Iraq developed chemical and biological weapons, acquired missiles allowing it to attack neighbouring countries with these weapons and persistently tried to develop a nuclear bomb. (globalsecurity.org)
  • First world congress : new compounds in biological and chemical warfare, toxicological evaluation, proceedings, Ghent, May 21st-23rd, 1984 / edited by A. Heyndrickx. (who.int)
  • Agent Orange's development came about in part due to work by Dr. Arthur W. Galston, a botanist who researched compounds that boost plant growt-h, known as growth regulators . (howstuffworks.com)
  • Her specialty is international law, including the Biological Weapons Convention, which the United States ratified in 1975. (opb.org)
  • This declaration was followed by the negotiation, ratification, and coming into force (in 1975) of the Biological Weapons Convention, a categorical ban on the development, production, and use of biological weapons. (cdc.gov)
  • This is a new Web site that we have created to put together for all those who may have interest in everything that we have been able to uncover and understand about the chemical and biological testing of warfare agents done from probably the early 1940s up through 1975," said Dr. Michael Kilpatrick. (wired.com)
  • Over 4 million Vietnamese still suffer from Agent Orange exposure, hundreds of thousands of children born long after the war ended in 1975 suffer birth defects caused by Agent Orange. (wordpress.com)
  • Yet many Gulf War veterans have reported a host of symptoms that could be construed as coming from exposure to chemical or biological weapons. (rand.org)
  • Some reports demonstrate that T-2 mycotoxin was the operative agent in the "plague" of Athens in 430 BC. (mold-help.org)
  • These agents are used to incapacitate or kill humans, animals, or plants as part of a war effort. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • VX nerve agent was developed in 1952 by British chemists who were researching different types of insecticides. (faqs.org)
  • Unlike bioweapons, these midspectrum agents do not reproduce in their host and are typically characterized by shorter incubation periods. (princeton.edu)
  • According to congressional testimony by Dr. Alan M. Pearson, Director of the Biological and Chemical Weapons Control Program at the Washington D.C.-based Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation , with very little in the way of effective oversight or accountability, tens of billions of dollars "have been appropriated for bioweapons-related research and development activities. (wordpress.com)
  • Agent Orange was created by mixing equal quantities of two agricultural herbicides commonly used to kill weeds: 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T. Present in the 2,4,5-T as an impurity was 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (usually abbreviated to TCDD), a dioxin contaminant that is highly toxic to some animals. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Nerve agents are the most toxic and rapidly acting of the known chemical warfare agents. (cdc.gov)
  • All nerve agents cause their toxic effects by preventing the proper operation of an enzyme that acts as the body's "off switch" for glands and muscles. (cdc.gov)
  • VX is the most toxic nerve agent ever created. (wikipedia.org)
  • VX nerve agent (O-ethyl S-[2-diisoproylaminoethyl] methylphsophonothioate) is one of the most toxic substances ever developed. (faqs.org)
  • Nerve agents like Sarin kill by disrupting the metabolic processes, causing a buildup of a chemical messenger (acetylcholine) by inhibiting the production of acetylcholinesterase, a key regulator of neurotransmission. (gulfweb.org)
  • Initial symptoms following exposure to nerve agents (like sarin) are a runny nose, tightness in the chest, and constriction of the pupils. (wikipedia.org)
  • The reaction product of the most important nerve agents, including soman, sarin, tabun and VX, with acetylcholinesterase were solved by the U.S. Army using X-ray crystallography in the 1990s. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sarin is a human-made chemical warfare agent classified as a nerve agent. (cdc.gov)
  • Sarin is the most volatile of the nerve agents. (cdc.gov)
  • Since the introduction of chemical agents in World War I, the Army has had to make special preparations to defend against chemical and biological warfare. (nap.edu)
  • CW was developed by the Germans and first used in World War I. The World War I chemical agents, however, rather primitive. (histclo.com)
  • The Japanese also had an active program and actually used both biological and chemical agents in china, primarily in China. (histclo.com)
  • Personal protective equipment (PPE) refers to the respiratory equipment, garments, and barrier materials used to protect rescuers and medical personnel from exposure to biological, chemical, and radioactive hazards. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • The types of hazards addressed here include biological warfare agents (BWAs), chemical warfare agents (CWAs), and radioactive agents. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Biological sensors, or biosensors, may be defined as devices that probe the environment for specific molecules or entities through chemical, biochemical, or biological assays. (nap.edu)
  • Nerve agent pre-treatment drugs (NAPP) administered to U.S. servicemen and women, such as pyridostigmine bromide, also disrupt these metabolic processes by creating a carbamate-inhibited acetylcholinesterase, which preempts the action of the nerve agent. (gulfweb.org)
  • The ability to separate molecular constituents in complex solutions is crucial to many biological and man-made processes. (scitechdaily.com)
  • Children remain potential victims of chemical or biological terrorism. (aappublications.org)
  • Moreover, many new principles in the care of children after chemical and biological terrorism have been developed. (aappublications.org)
  • CONTENTSElementary Biology of Military SignificanceGeneral Properties of Biological Warfare AgentsPossible Antipersonnel Biological Warfare AgentsPossible Antianimal Biological Warfare AgentsPossible Anticrop Biological Warfare AgentsDisseminationU. (valorebooks.com)
  • S. Department of the Army Staff is the author of 'Military Biology and Biological Warfare Agents', published 2003 under ISBN 9781410206992 and ISBN 1410206998. (valorebooks.com)
  • It is important to note that all of the classical and modern biological weapons organisms are animal diseases, the only exception being smallpox. (wikipedia.org)