Biological Warfare: Warfare involving the use of living organisms or their products as disease etiologic agents against people, animals, or plants.Biological Warfare Agents: Living organisms or their toxic products that are used to cause disease or death of humans during WARFARE.Chemical Warfare Agents: Chemicals that are used to cause the disturbance, disease, or death of humans during WARFARE.Chemical Warfare: Tactical warfare using incendiary mixtures, smokes, or irritant, burning, or asphyxiating gases.Literature, MedievalMustard Gas: Severe irritant and vesicant of skin, eyes, and lungs. It may cause blindness and lethal lung edema and was formerly used as a war gas. The substance has been proposed as a cytostatic and for treatment of psoriasis. It has been listed as a known carcinogen in the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985) (Merck, 11th ed).Glanders: A contagious disease of horses that can be transmitted to humans. It is caused by BURKHOLDERIA MALLEI and characterized by ulceration of the respiratory mucosa and an eruption of nodules on the skin.Bioterrorism: The use of biological agents in TERRORISM. This includes the malevolent use of BACTERIA; VIRUSES; or other BIOLOGICAL TOXINS against people, ANIMALS; or PLANTS.Burkholderia mallei: A species of gram-negative bacteria parasitic on HORSES and DONKEYS causing GLANDERS, which can be transmitted to humans.Plague: An acute infectious disease caused by YERSINIA PESTIS that affects humans, wild rodents, and their ectoparasites. This condition persists due to its firm entrenchment in sylvatic rodent-flea ecosystems throughout the world. Bubonic plague is the most common form.Sarin: An organophosphorus ester compound that produces potent and irreversible inhibition of cholinesterase. It is toxic to the nervous system and is a chemical warfare agent.Anthrax: An acute infection caused by the spore-forming bacteria BACILLUS ANTHRACIS. It commonly affects hoofed animals such as sheep and goats. Infection in humans often involves the skin (cutaneous anthrax), the lungs (inhalation anthrax), or the gastrointestinal tract. Anthrax is not contagious and can be treated with antibiotics.Phosphoric Triester Hydrolases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the three ester bonds in a phosphotriester-containing compound.Soman: An organophosphorus compound that inhibits cholinesterase. It causes seizures and has been used as a chemical warfare agent.Organothiophosphorus Compounds: Compounds containing carbon-phosphorus bonds in which the phosphorus component is also bonded to one or more sulfur atoms. Many of these compounds function as CHOLINERGIC AGENTS and as INSECTICIDES.Human Experimentation: The use of humans as investigational subjects.Persian Gulf Syndrome: Unexplained symptoms reported by veterans of the Persian Gulf War with Iraq in 1991. The symptoms reported include fatigue, skin rash, muscle and joint pain, headaches, loss of memory, shortness of breath, gastrointestinal and respiratory symptoms, and extreme sensitivity to commonly occurring chemicals. (Nature 1994 May 5;369(6475):8)Military ScienceOrganophosphates: Carbon-containing phosphoric acid derivatives. Included under this heading are compounds that have CARBON atoms bound to one or more OXYGEN atoms of the P(=O)(O)3 structure. Note that several specific classes of endogenous phosphorus-containing compounds such as NUCLEOTIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and PHOSPHOPROTEINS are listed elsewhere.Decontamination: The removal of contaminating material, such as radioactive materials, biological materials, or CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS, from a person or object.Nanotubes, Carbon: Nanometer-sized tubes composed mainly of CARBON. Such nanotubes are used as probes for high-resolution structural and chemical imaging of biomolecules with ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY.Neoplasms, Mesothelial: Neoplasms composed of tissue of the mesothelium, the layer of flat cells, derived from the mesoderm, which lines the body cavity of the embryo. In the adult it forms the simple squamous epithelium which covers all true serous membranes (peritoneum, pericardium, pleura). The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in these organs. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Granuloma, Foreign-Body: Histiocytic, inflammatory response to a foreign body. It consists of modified macrophages with multinucleated giant cells, in this case foreign-body giant cells (GIANT CELLS, FOREIGN-BODY), usually surrounded by lymphocytes.Barium Sulfate: A compound used as an x-ray contrast medium that occurs in nature as the mineral barite. It is also used in various manufacturing applications and mixed into heavy concrete to serve as a radiation shield.MinnesotaBarium: An element of the alkaline earth group of metals. It has an atomic symbol Ba, atomic number 56, and atomic weight 138. All of its acid-soluble salts are poisonous.Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Pharyngitis: Inflammation of the throat (PHARYNX).Metals, Heavy: Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Unedited FootageVideotape Recording: Recording of visual and sometimes sound signals on magnetic tape.Video Recording: The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).Denial (Psychology): Refusal to admit the truth or reality of a situation or experience.Filtration: A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Air Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Wetting Agents: A surfactant that renders a surface wettable by water or enhances the spreading of water over the surface.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Polycarboxylate Cement: Water-soluble low-molecular-weight polymers of acrylic or methacrylic acid that form solid, insoluble products when mixed with specially prepared ZnO powder. The resulting cement adheres to dental enamel and is also used as a luting agent.JordanNursing, Supervisory: Administration of nursing services for one or more clinical units.Costa RicaNewspapers: Publications printed and distributed daily, weekly, or at some other regular and usually short interval, containing news, articles of opinion (as editorials and letters), features, advertising, and announcements of current interest. (Webster's 3d ed)Journalism: The collection, preparation, and distribution of news and related commentary and feature materials through such media as pamphlets, newsletters, newspapers, magazines, radio, motion pictures, television, and books. While originally applied to the reportage of current events in printed form, specifically newspapers, with the advent of radio and television the use of the term has broadened to include all printed and electronic communication dealing with current affairs.Military Personnel: Persons including soldiers involved with the armed forces.Mercury: A silver metallic element that exists as a liquid at room temperature. It has the atomic symbol Hg (from hydrargyrum, liquid silver), atomic number 80, and atomic weight 200.59. Mercury is used in many industrial applications and its salts have been employed therapeutically as purgatives, antisyphilitics, disinfectants, and astringents. It can be absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes which leads to MERCURY POISONING. Because of its toxicity, the clinical use of mercury and mercurials is diminishing.World War I: Global conflict primarily fought on European continent, that occurred between 1914 and 1918.War: Hostile conflict between organized groups of people.World War II: Global conflict involving countries of Europe, Africa, Asia, and North America that occurred between 1939 and 1945.Acetylcholinesterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC 3.1.1.7.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Nerve Transfer: Surgical reinnervation of a denervated peripheral target using a healthy donor nerve and/or its proximal stump. The direct connection is usually made to a healthy postlesional distal portion of a non-functioning nerve or implanted directly into denervated muscle or insensitive skin. Nerve sprouts will grow from the transferred nerve into the denervated elements and establish contact between them and the neurons that formerly controlled another area.Cholinesterase Inhibitors: Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.

Development of quantitative real-time PCR assays for detection and quantification of surrogate biological warfare agents in building debris and leachate. (1/48)

Evaluation of the fate and transport of biological warfare (BW) agents in landfills requires the development of specific and sensitive detection assays. The objective of the current study was to develop and validate SYBR green quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR) assays for the specific detection and quantification of surrogate BW agents in synthetic building debris (SBD) and leachate. Bacillus atrophaeus (vegetative cells and spores) and Serratia marcescens were used as surrogates for Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) and Yersinia pestis (plague), respectively. The targets for SYBR green Q-PCR assays were the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) region and recA gene for B. atrophaeus and the gyrB, wzm, and recA genes for S. marcescens. All assays showed high specificity when tested against 5 ng of closely related Bacillus and Serratia nontarget DNA from 21 organisms. Several spore lysis methods that include a combination of one or more of freeze-thaw cycles, chemical lysis, hot detergent treatment, bead beat homogenization, and sonication were evaluated. All methods tested showed similar threshold cycle values. The limit of detection of the developed Q-PCR assays was determined using DNA extracted from a pure bacterial culture and DNA extracted from sterile water, leachate, and SBD samples spiked with increasing quantities of surrogates. The limit of detection for B. atrophaeus genomic DNA using the ITS and B. atrophaeus recA Q-PCR assays was 7.5 fg per PCR. The limits of detection of S. marcescens genomic DNA using the gyrB, wzm, and S. marcescens recA Q-PCR assays were 7.5 fg, 75 fg, and 7.5 fg per PCR, respectively. Quantification of B. atrophaeus vegetative cells and spores was linear (R(2) > 0.98) over a 7-log-unit dynamic range down to 10(1) B. atrophaeus cells or spores. Quantification of S. marcescens (R(2) > 0.98) was linear over a 6-log-unit dynamic range down to 10(2) S. marcescens cells. The developed Q-PCR assays are highly specific and sensitive and can be used for monitoring the fate and transport of the BW surrogates B. atrophaeus and S. marcescens in building debris and leachate.  (+info)

Survival of Burkholderia pseudomallei on Environmental Surfaces. (2/48)

The survival of the biothreat agent Burkholderia pseudomallei on the surfaces of four materials was measured by culture and esterase activity analyses. The culture results demonstrated that this organism persisted for <24 h to <7 days depending on the material, bacterial isolate, and suspension medium. The persistence determined by analysis of esterase activity, as measured with a ScanRDI solid-phase cytometer, was always longer than the persistence determined by culture analysis.  (+info)

Structure- and substrate-based inhibitor design for Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin serotype A. (3/48)

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Early indicators of exposure to biological threat agents using host gene profiles in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. (4/48)

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Dynamics of positional warfare malaria: Finland and Korea compared. (5/48)

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Evasion of complement-mediated lysis and complement C3 deposition are regulated by Francisella tularensis lipopolysaccharide O antigen. (6/48)

The bacterium Francisella tularensis (Ft) is a potential weapon of bioterrorism when aerosolized. Macrophage infection is necessary for disease progression and efficient phagocytosis by human macrophages requires serum opsonization by complement. Microbial complement activation leads to surface deposition of a highly regulated protein complex resulting in opsonization or membrane lysis. The nature of complement component C3 deposition, i.e., C3b (opsonization and lysis) or C3bi (opsonization only) fragment deposition, is central to the outcome of activation. In this study, we examine the mechanisms of Ft resistance to complement-mediated lysis, C3 component deposition on the Ft surface, and complement activation. Upon incubation in fresh nonimmune human serum, Schu S4 (Ft subsp. tularensis), Fn (Ft subsp. novicida), and LVS (Ft subsp. holarctica live vaccine strain) were resistant to complement-mediated lysis, but LVSG and LVSR (LVS strains altered in surface carbohydrate structures) were susceptible. C3 deposition, however, occurred on all strains. Complement-susceptible strains had markedly increased C3 fragment deposition, including the persistent presence of C3b compared with C3bi, which indicates that C3b inactivation results in survival of complement-resistant strains. C1q, an essential component of the classical activation pathway, was necessary for lysis of complement-susceptible strains and optimal C3 deposition on all strains. Finally, use of Francisella LPS mutants confirmed O Ag as a major regulator of complement resistance. These data provide evidence that pathogenic Francisella activate complement, but are resistant to complement-mediated lysis in part due to limited C3 deposition, rapid conversion of surface-bound C3b to C3bi, and the presence of LPS O Ag.  (+info)

Zoonoses likely to be used in bioterrorism. (7/48)

Bioterrorism is the deliberate release of viruses, bacteria, or other agents used "to cause illness or death in people, animals, or plants. Only modest microbiologic skills are needed to produce and effectively use biologic weapons. And biological warfare has afflicted campaigns throughout military history, at times playing an important role in determining their outcomes. There is a long list of potential pathogens for use by terrorists, but only a few are easy to prepare and disperse. Of the infectious diseases, the vast majority are zoonoses. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's highest-priority bioterrorism agents are in Category A. The only disease that does not affect animals in Category A is smallpox, which was eliminated by a worldwide vaccination program in the late 1970s. Because these diseases can infect animals and humans, the medical and veterinary communities should work closely together in clinical, public health, and research settings.  (+info)

Animals as early detectors of bioevents: veterinary tools and a framework for animal-human integrated zoonotic disease surveillance. (8/48)

The threat of bioterrorism and emerging infectious diseases has prompted various public health agencies to recommend enhanced surveillance activities to supplement existing surveillance plans. The majority of emerging infectious diseases and bioterrorist agents are zoonotic. Animals are more sensitive to certain biological agents, and their use as clinical sentinels, as a means of early detection, is warranted. This article provides design methods for a local integrated zoonotic surveillance plan and materials developed for veterinarians to assist in the early detection of bioevents. Zoonotic surveillance in the U.S. is currently too limited and compartmentalized for broader public health objectives. To rapidly detect and respond to bioevents, collaboration and cooperation among various agencies at the federal, state, and local levels must be enhanced and maintained. Co-analysis of animal and human diseases may facilitate the response to infectious disease events and limit morbidity and mortality in both animal and human populations.  (+info)

October 2011, a pentavalent (ABCDE) botulinum toxoid (PBT) vaccine was administered to at-risk workers under an Investigational New Drug (IND) application held by the CDC. Recombinant subunit vaccines are in development, with DynPorts recombinant botulinum vaccine candidate, rBV A/B, completing Phase 2 clinical trials in January 2012. The vaccine was reportedly safe and well-tolerated, and elicited a strong immune response. We are pleased with these results and are looking forward to Phase 3 clinical trials of this vaccine, to support the needs of the Department of Defense and the U.S. warfighter, said Dr. Robert V. House, president of DynPort.. Biodefense vaccine development was discussed at the World Vaccine Congress & Expo USA 2013 (Biodefense vaccines - overview, stockpiling and regulation). If you want to know more about strategy and innovation in vaccines, you might be interested in attending the World Vaccine Congress Asia 2013, 17-20 June 2013, Singapore. Want more from Vaccine ...
A biological weapon usually has two parts.[2] The first is the biological agent (also called a bio-agent, biological threat agent, or biological warfare agent). This is the pathogen that is meant to make people sick. The second is the delivery system - how the biological agent is going to get to and expose the people it is supposed to infect. Some bio-agents can be "weaponized" - changed to make them more dangerous. For example, sometimes scientists can change a pathogens genes so the pathogen is deadlier, and so it will not be killed by usual antidotes or treatments. Some bio-agents can be changed so they are easier to store, spread, or use as weapons.[3]. As of 2016, there are more than 1,200 different kinds of bio-agents that could be made into weapons.[4]. ...
Scientists in private sector and university labs are attempting to create vaccines for biological warfare agents before attacks can be perpetrated or big industries can whisk away funding opportunities for research and development.
To the Editor: In defending against avian influenza virus H5N1, the possibility of adopting treatments being developed for biodefense should not be overlooked. Biodefense medicine primarily concerns respiratory infections because bioweapons in their deadliest form disperse Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis, the causes of anthrax and plague, and highly contagious viruses like smallpox, Ebola, and Marburg as aerosols. The National Institutes of Health and Department of Defense have funded developing novel biodefense medications designed to stimulate innate mucosal immunity by using interferons (IFNs) and interferon inducers. We suggest that studies begin immediately to explore the potential of IFNs to prevent infections and reduce deaths caused by avian influenza viruses in animal models and humans.. Modulating innate mucosal immunity is promising as a rapid-acting, broad-spectrum approach to combat bioterrorism (1). Innate immunity, the initial response to a pathogen, is potentially capable ...
We at The National Center for Biodefense and Infectious Diseases, George Mason University, eagerly look forward to welcoming you to our annual "Host Pathogen Interactions in Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases" conference on the 12th of February, 2015.. We have had successful meetings in the past two years that have fostered many meaningful collaborations and have advertised novel research to the research community in the area. The focus of the meetings has been and will continue to be on interactions between pathogens and hosts following exposure to bacterial and viral agents and the applicability of the knowledge gained to design of novel diagnostics, therapeutics and vaccines.. We look forward to an enriching, interesting and beneficial meeting in 2015.. View all conference details on the NCBID calendar.. ...
The goal of the University of Rochesters Center for Biodefense Immune Modeling (CBIM) is to develop comprehensive, quantitative models of the immune response to influenza A infection, a potential bioterror agent and emerging pathogen, and create computational tools to explore such scenarios in silico. Funded in September 2005, by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) contract N01-AI-50020, the CBIM is comprised of five immunology laboratories, a mathematical modeling core, a statistical and data management core, a bioinformatics core and an educational program. The CBIM represents a multidisciplinary collaboration of human and mouse immunologists, virologists, mathematical modelers, engineers, computer scientists, statisticians and data managers.
The goal of the University of Rochesters Center for Biodefense Immune Modeling (CBIM) is to develop comprehensive, quantitative models of the immune response to influenza A infection, a potential bioterror agent and emerging pathogen, and create computational tools to explore such scenarios in silico. Funded in September 2005, by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) contract N01-AI-50020, the CBIM is comprised of five immunology laboratories, a mathematical modeling core, a statistical and data management core, a bioinformatics core and an educational program. The CBIM represents a multidisciplinary collaboration of human and mouse immunologists, virologists, mathematical modelers, engineers, computer scientists, statisticians and data managers.
The Canadian Food Inspection Agencys (CFIA) Acting Chief Veterinary Officer for Canada and Acting Delegate to the World Organisation for Animal Health, Dr. Jaspinder Komal, chaired a keynote panel discussion on global perspectives and health security at the second World Organisation for Animal Healths (OIE) Global Conference on Biological Threat Reduction held in Ottawa, Canada.
US - The Institute for Infectious Animal Diseases (IIAD) has been recognised as a collaborating centre in the specialty of biological threat reduction for the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE).
The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) gives the highest priority to developing countermeasures against bioterrorism agents that are highly infective when dispersed in aerosol form. Developing drugs to prevent or treat illnesses caused by bioterrorism agents requires testing their effectiveness in animals since human clinical trials would be unethical. At the request of NIAID, the National Academies conducted a study to examine how such testing could be improved. The report provides recommendations to researchers on selecting the kinds of animal models, aerosol generators, and bioterrorism agent doses that would produce conditions that most closely mimic the disease process in humans. It also urges researchers to fully document experimental parameters in the literature so that studies can be reproduced and compared. The report recommends that all unclassified data on bioterrorism agent studies -- including unclassified, unpublished data from U.S. Army Medical Research ...
A summer fellowship opportunity is available in the Division of Laboratory Sciences (DLS) within the National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) on the Chamblee Campus in Atlanta, Georgia. DLS provides laboratory support that improves the detection, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of environmental, tobacco-related, nutritional, newborn, selected chronic and selected infectious diseases. DLS also works to improve the rapid and accurate detection of chemical threat agents, radiologic threat agents, and selected toxins.
The following table presents a summary of the 2013 Top 10 Application Security Risks, and the risk factors we have assigned to each risk. These factors were determined based on the available statistics and the experience of the OWASP Top 10 team. To understand these risks for a particular application or organization, you must consider your own specific threat agents and business impacts. Even egregious software weaknesses may not present a serious risk if there are no threat agents in a position to perform the necessary attack or the business impact is negligible for the assets involved. ...
This trans-agency scientific meeting is sponsored by the Chemical Countermeasures Research Program (CCRP), a component of the broader civilian biodefense research effort within HHS and NIH. The overarching goal of the CCRP is to integrate cutting edge research with the latest technological advances in science and medicine to enhance the nations medical response capabilities during public health emergencies involving the accidental or intentional release of Department of Homeland Security-identified chemical threat agents, which include various ocular toxicants. To learn more about the CCRPs trans-NIH effort, see the recently published (Nov 2018) Report on Research Progress and Future Directions of the NIH Medical Research Program Directed Against Chemical Threats (pdf). ...
Interview with Edward Hammond, Director of the U.S. Office ofthe former The Sunshine Project, an organization focusing on oversight of research involving biological weapons agents. https://youtu.be/fZHJsZg_Fgw
When considering desirable properties (chemical, biological, obtainability, etc.) for a bioweapon; can a mushroom toxin meet this criteria? Please give an.
Federal Select Agent Program shortfalls, the Marburg virus outbreak in Uganda, and stolen Ebola aid donation money in this issue of Biodefense Headlines.
The Texas A&M University System will be the home of one of three national biodefense centers to help the country quickly develop vaccines in the event of a pandemic and strategies for responding to bioterrorism.
The Federation of American Scientists has created an internet resource for biosecurity policy, bioterrorism information, and biodefense research.
Macaque monkeys are the most important animal model for AIDS vaccine development and are increasingly being used in biodefense research. An individuals immunog...
See what were reading this week at Global Biodefense on Ebola expanding in Guinea, the race for a vaccine, the DoDs response efforts and more…
The global biodefense market size was over USD 9.5 billion in 2015. The market is expected to witness growth owing to technological advancements in pathogen detection techniques in the forensic division.
The American Society for Microbiology will host its 2014 Biodefense and Emerging Diseases Research Meeting Jan. 27-29, 2014, at the Marriott Wardman Park Hotel in Washington, D.C.
MarketsandMarkets: Biosensors Market by Application (POC, Home Diagnostics, Research Labs, Biodefense, Environmental Monitoring, Food & Beverages Industry), Technology, Product (Wearable and Non-Wearable), and Geography - Global Forecast to 2022 of 182 pages is now available with MarketReportsHub.com at starting price of US$ 5650 for a single user PDF. Talk to us for other pricing options.
Press Release issued Jan 3, 2018: The research report analyzes the global Biodefense Market on the basis of market forces, current market trends, and major geographies. The report is an in-depth analysis of industry growth drivers, challenges, and opportunities of the market for the forecast period. It includes an analysis of recent technological developments in the market.
To advance the microbial sciences and their application to biosecurity and biodefense now and in the future, ASM will advocate for the following:
BioSante Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (OTC BB: BISP), Lincolnshire, Ill., has reported results of several studies demonstrating the superiority of its innovative calcium phosphate nanoparticulate (CAP) vaccine adjuvant and delivery system, BioVant (TM), compared to the only approved adjuvant, aluminum salts (alum). The company has also recently announced a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) with the U.S. Army to use the new technology in the development of biodefense vaccines. In the reported studies, BioVant was combined with antigens from the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), the Herpes Simplex-2 virus (HSV-2) and the Influenza virus (flu), in proprietary vaccine formulations developed by BioSante scientists. The studies, conducted in a series of animal models, were designed to evaluate the immune enhancement effects of BioVant compared to vaccines using alum. In the study of EBV vaccines, the antibody (IgG) response was significantly higher for the BioVant-EBV vaccine than that of the ...
Sandia National Laboratories scientists are thinking small, building on decades of sensor work to invent tiny detectors that can sniff out everything from
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Through all of his interests and inquiries, he says, runs a passion for forest health, and trying to understand and manage healthy forest ecosystems. "What am I?" he asks with a wistful smile. "Id probably say Im an ecosystem ecologist.". Edmonds, professor emeritus with the School of Environmental and Forest Sciences (SEFS), began his academic work the early 1960s. He grew up in Australia and earned a B.S. in Forestry from the University of Sydney in 1964. Two years later he moved to Seattle and enrolled at the University of Washington to study forest pathology. He earned his masters in 1968, and then his Ph.D. in 1971. Initially, he figured hed return to Australia afterwards, but when he met his future wife-who was from Juneau, Alaska, and also in school in Seattle-he decided to stick around.. A postdoctoral position at the University of Michigan soon had Edmonds studying aerobiology with the US/IBP (International Biological Program Aerobiology Program. "It was pretty interesting work," he ...
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(CIDRAP News) - A new report from the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) offers a few predictions on when certain new countermeasures against biological threats will become available, including a forecast for two novel influenza drugs and possibly a next-generation anthrax vaccine within the next 5 years.
(CIDRAP News) A comprehensive review of the nations tools for reducing the impact of a biological weapons attack or other public health emergency prompted in part by last falls delays in delivery of the pandemic H1N1 vaccine is due to get under way in the next few weeks with a pair of conferences.
Creating a bioweapon previously required resources and training that was only available to powerful industrial nations, such as the Soviet Union and the United States during the Cold War. This limited the possibility of a biological attack to a world war (and which would be the least of the worries of the irradiated survivors of such an event). The advance of science then rendered smaller nations able to develop bioweapons, and we are now in a situation where a single lab could develop a bioweapon. Extrapolating from current trends in DNA synthesis costs, computer aided design, and increases in the sophistication of DIY biology will likely lead to the ability of small groups, or even single individuals, to wreck havoc with home brewed bioweapons. Returning the computer virus analogy, humanity could experience a future where the biological equivalent of black-hat hackers release viruses into the world. However, instead of stealing credit card numbers or emptying bank accounts, these "biohackers" ...
Creating a bioweapon previously required resources and training that was only available to powerful industrial nations, such as the Soviet Union and the United States during the Cold War. This limited the possibility of a biological attack to a world war (and which would be the least of the worries of the irradiated survivors of such an event). The advance of science then rendered smaller nations able to develop bioweapons, and we are now in a situation where a single lab could develop a bioweapon. Extrapolating from current trends in DNA synthesis costs, computer aided design, and increases in the sophistication of DIY biology will likely lead to the ability of small groups, or even single individuals, to wreck havoc with home brewed bioweapons. Returning the computer virus analogy, humanity could experience a future where the biological equivalent of black-hat hackers release viruses into the world. However, instead of stealing credit card numbers or emptying bank accounts, these "biohackers" ...
From Jeff Renses website. Joseph Moshe (Moshe is the mans middle name) is a bio-scientist. He works (worked?) for a unit within Mossad. He is an Isr
Secretary of State Mike Pompeo backed President Donald Trumps assertion that the coronavirus originated in a lab in Wuhan, China.
Late-onset neonatal infections: incidences and pathogens in the era of antenatal antibiotics. Didier, Capucine; Streicher, Marie-Pierre; Chognot, Didier; Campagni, Raphaèle; Schnebelen, Albert; Messer, Jean; Donato, Lionel; Langer, Bruno; Meyer, Nicolas; Astruc, Dominique; Kuhn, Pierre // European Journal of Pediatrics;Apr2012, Vol. 171 Issue 4, p681 Widespread use of intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis has significantly reduced the incidence of early-onset neonatal infection (EONI); however, little is known about the effects of increased maternal exposure to antibiotics on late-onset neonatal infection (LONI). This study aims to evaluate... ...
Published: Aug 29th, 2011. Dr Longinis research interests are in the area of stochastic processes applied to epidemiological problems. He has specialized in the mathematical and statistical theory of epidemics-a process that involves constructing […]. ...
Alongside first responders and other professionals in disaster management, nurses are critical in public health and other roles. With the increasing threat of...
Tetracore provides innovative diagnostic assays, reagents, and devices for the detection of potential biowarfare agents and veterinary diseases. We have two all new devices, the hand-held BioThreat Alert® Reader CX and TX for use with the BioThreat Alert strips and the T-Cor 8™ an ultra-mobile Real-Time PCR device.. ...
Optical chromatography is a technique for the separation of particles that capitalizes on the balance between optic and fluidic forces. When microscopic particles in a fluid flow encounter a laser beam propagating in the opposite direction, they are trapped axially along the beam. They are then optically pushed upstream from the laser focal point to rest at a point where the optic and fluidic forces on the particle balance. Because optical and fluid forces are sensitive to differences in the physical and chemical properties of a particle, both coarse and fine separations are possible. We describe how an optical chromatography beam directed into a tailored flow environment, has been adapted to operate as an optical filter for the concentration/bioenrichment of colloidal and biological samples. In this work, the demonstrated ability to concentrate spores of the biowarfare agent, Bacillus anthracis, may have significant impact in the biodefense arena. Application of these techniques and further ...
Christian Swann Sept.4, 2014 In the security world today, there is not a day that goes by, that we dont hear about chemical agents and biological threats towards us. There is always somebody, somewhere trying to cook up something. I started writing an article about a month ago on Japanese Aum Shinrikyo, whom you will…
Assays to simultaneously detect multiple potential agents of bioterrorism are limited. Two multiplex PCR and RT-PCR enzyme hybridization assays (mPCR-EHA, mRT-PCR-EHA) were developed to simultaneously detect many of the CDC category
a species of bacillus that causes anthrax in humans and in animals (cattle and swine and sheep and rabbits and mice and guinea pigs); can be used a bioweapon. ...
Now, we can take a look at some extra features and amenities that make Tesla cars so great. Each model Tesla comes with a 15+ inch center dashboard touchscreen that controls all of the cars features, moving the seats, climate control, and even BIOWEAPON DEFENSE MODE. While most people dont exactly see a point to this, its pretty exciting. Now you dont have to smell manure as youre driving through the farmland on Highway 5! (I have a sensitive nose…this is a real issue). Now you might be thinking to yourself, "This site is called Because Robots, this isnt a robot! Yes, youre right, its not, but it might as well be considered one. Why? Autopilot mode. This car literally drives itself. Sensors in the car can sense when cars are getting too close to you, and cameras can read and follow the lines on the ground.. ...
Since 1980, a new human pathogen has been identified every seven months (Climate and Health Initiative 2008), and the incidences of many of these pathogens threaten to increase over the next few decades. Duke has a broad array of research activities investigating emerging infectious diseases. Key collaborators include the Duke University Human Vaccine Institute, Center for
Current studies of Dendritic Cells (DCs) have confirmed not only their major role as antigen presenting cells in adaptive immunity but also their important functions in maintaining tolerance and in the initiation of the innate resistance and inflammatory responses. Thus, DCs function as an important bridge between innate resistance and adaptive immunity either through cellular interactions or secretion of pro-inflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokines. The origin and migration pattern of DCs, their cell biological mechanisms of action, their functional diversity, their specializations and activities in specific tissue contexts, as well as their sharing of hematopoietic lineages, functions, and receptors with other phagocytic cell types such as monocytes and macrophages are subjects of intense investigation. Increasingly, the role of dendritic cells in disease pathology and as potential therapeutic targets is being explored both in the laboratory and in the clinic. This is particularly true in ...
Aug 6, 2007 - Healthcare Acquisition Corp. (AMEX HAQ), a publicly-traded special purpose acquisition company, and PharmAthene, Inc., a biodefense company develo
The relatively recent use of biological agents such as ricin and anthrax demonstrates how even small-scale biological warfare attacks will quickly become international news. Once a patient has been diagnosed with a disease caused by a biological warfare agent, healthcare providers will be responsible for communicating not only numerous colleagues and staff but also with public health officials, law enforcement agencies, members of the media, and elected officials. In attacks involving numerous numbers of casualties or high-profile targets such as elected officials, the marshaling of resources to respond will almost certainly reach the national level. (Level V). Important communication points early in the care of the patient among physicians, nurses, and pharmacists will include adequate decontamination of the patient and appropriate precautions for first responders and hospital staff to avoid the spread of contagious diseases or additional casualties. Training and education prior to such an ...
e) New mobile facilities. UK dossier, 24 September 2002, p.6: Iraq has [..] developed mobile laboratories for military use, corroborating earlier reports about the mobile production of biological warfare agents. UK dossier, 24 September 2002, p.18: There was intelligence that Iraq was starting to produce biological warfare agents in mobile production facilities. Planning for the project had begun in 1995 under Dr Rihab Taha, known to have been a central player in the pre-Gulf War programme.. CIA, October 2002, p.17: UNSCOM uncovered a document on Iraqi Military Industrial Commission letterhead indicating that Iraq was interested in developing mobile fermentation units, and an Iraqi scientist admitted to UN inspectors that Iraq was trying to move in the direction of mobile BW production.. CIA, October 2002, p.2: Baghdad has established a large-scale, redundant, and concealed BW agent production capability, which includes mobile facilities; these facilities can evade detection, are highly ...
View United States soldiers vintage historic HD stock video footage in United States USA, 1959. Buy HD video and archival still photo images of clip number 65675061083.
A multi-functional system for use on walls and ceilings is to be developed. The system employs shortened, end-modified single-wall carbon nanotubes as vesicles for potent fullerene-based biocides that incorporate a colored dye, pigment or fluorescent indicator function. The system is to be applied to wall surfaces, and remain dormant until a biological threat comes in contact with the surface. For purposes of the Phase I endeavor, models that mimic common biological warfare agents (BWA) will be used to test the system. Monoclonal antibodies, quaternary amine groups or other moieties on the modified nanotube vesicles will under specific interactions with the BWA mimics, opening the nanotube and exposing the biocide and color agent inside. Upon completion of the decontamination phase of operation, the color agent is designed to decompose, indicating the end of the threat. It is also planned that different colors will be generated in response to different classes of BWA. Incorporation of the system ...
Army scientists have demonstrated, for the first time, that antibody-based therapies can successfully protect monkeys from the deadly Ebola and Marburg viruses. In addition, the animals were fully protected even when treatment was administered two days post-infection, an accomplishment unmatched by any experimental therapy for these viruses to date. The work appears in this weeks electronic edition of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.. The filoviruses, Ebola and Marburg, cause hemorrhagic fever with human case fatality rates as high as 90 percent. They are a global health concern and are considered potential biological threat agents. Currently there are no available vaccines or therapies approved for use in humans, making the development of such products a high priority.. In the article, John M. Dye, Andrew S. Herbert, William D. Pratt, and colleagues from the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID) describe using antibody from monkeys that had ...
The biological threat. It is not surprising so much effort is being put into counteracting biological threats, especially in the US. In 2001, letters containing anthrax spores killed five people and infected 17 others throughout the country. This was a case of bioterrorism that, according to officials like the US Department of Defence, today presents a significant threat to the military and civilians.. The Chemical and Biological Defence Programme (CBDP) 2009 annual report to US Congress stated that antagonist nations, terrorist organisations and other non-state actors continued to possess or seek weapons with the capacity to inflict catastrophic damage (physical, economic, or psychological).. The report said that some terrorists saw chemical, biological and radiological materials as low-cost, high-impact options for achieving their goals and that in September 2006 Abu Ayyub al Masri, al-Qaeda-in-Iraqs leader, publicly called upon scientists for help to develop such weapons. Biological warfare ...
As reported by the Department of Defense in 1992,(6) by the time Iraq invaded Kuwait, Iraq had developed the most extensive biological warfare program in the Arab world (despite having been a signatory to the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention outlawing such endeavors). After the Persian Gulf War (1990-1991), Iraqi authorities admitted the program included anthrax bacteria and botulinum toxin.(2) Then in August 1995, Iraq revealed to United Nations inspectors that it had had a far more extensive and aggressive biological warfare program prior to the Persian Gulf War than had previously been admitted. The Iraqi authorities claimed production of thousands of liters of botulinum toxin and of Bacillus anthracis. Additionally, they stated that unspecified amounts of both agents were loaded on Scud missile warheads and aerial bombs. In this same revelation to United Nations inspectors, the Iraqis claimed to have destroyed the agents during the January-February 1991 time frame, but they have yet to ...
Read this full essay on Biological Warfare in Africa during the 1960s and 1970s. Biological Warfare in Africa during the 1960s and 1970s Throughout my re...
Due to continuing concerns about bioterrorism and the potential for future anthrax attacks, GAO was asked to audit controls over public sales of excess DOD biological equipment and chemical and biological protective clothing that could be used to produce and disseminate biological warfare agents. GAO used a case study approach to determine (1) the extent to which DOD is selling biological equipment and protective clothing that can be used to make and disseminate biological agents, such as anthrax, and (2) whether existing federal regulations and guidance in DOD policies and procedures address the risk of public sales of these items. GAO will be issuing a report with recommendations that DOD, in conjunction with its scientific community, the Department of Homeland Security, and the Department of Health and Human Services, perform a risk assessment as part of an overall effort to develop and implement appropriate controls over sales of selected excess biological equipment. GAO also recommends that DOD
We should criticize "appallingly irresponsible" behavior of all governments actively engaged in producing biological warfare agents.. According to a report published by The Independent on May 2, scientists are criticizing China for engaging in dangerous influenza virus research. The scientists accuse the Chinese researchers of "appalling irresponsibility" and state there is danger a new laboratory created strain of bird-flu virus mixed with human influenza may escape and create a global pandemic killing millions of people.. A former British government scientist and president of the Royal Society, Lord May of Oxford, denounced the Chinese effort. "They claim they are doing this to help develop vaccines and such like. In fact the real reason is that they are driven by blind ambition with no common sense whatsoever," May said.. "The record of containment in labs like this is not reassuring. They are taking it upon themselves to create human-to-human transmission of very dangerous viruses. Its ...
I agree with Dianne Harvey. I certainly believe there is biological experimentation taking place on the public without our consent. However, it seems to me that, as Dianne says , spraying entire countries with biological warfare agents...whether to just test the substances or whether it s to specifically harm us.... is not a very direct or sure way of accomplishing their supposed goal. Vaccines, fluoride in the water supply, infecting ticks and mosquitoes with genetically engineered viruses and bacteria, etc, would seem to be more effective in targeting certain portions of the population. Unless the elite all live underground, they would also be affected by mass aerial spraying. Clifford s explanation may be part of the picture but I really don t believe it explains the main purpose of chemtrails. I suppose TPTB could conceivably be vaccinated for all these different microbes.... but what about all the metallic particles, polymers, barium, etc ...
We report on the development of a compact, portable fluorescence lifetime instrument based on phase resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (PRFS). The PRFS biosensor has been designed for detection and discrimination of individual pathogenic bacteria in a biological mixture. The light source can be modulated from 10 - 200 MHz and fluorescence emission is measured by a miniature photomultiplier tube after passing through a compact spectrometer. We have successfully extracted and measured the existence of a mixture of three far-red fluorescent dyes which have similar or overlapping spectral signatures. Data are presented demonstrating the instruments ability to separate individual fluorophores from a complex mixture using a specially designed chemometric extraction algorithm. This instrument was designed for the possible direct detection and discrimination of the intrinsic fluorescence of biological warfare agents ...
HIV. Non-Lethal Biological Warfare Agents Linked to Autoimmune Disease Epidemic. The Possible Cure For All Viruses Using Scalar Energy w/Tom Paladino. Ebola. 1.
UNIVERSITY OF MEDICINE & DENTISTRY OF NEW JERSEY - SCHOOL OF PUBLIC HEALTH JOINS IN SPONSORING EVENT The Second BioDefense Mobilization Conference & Exhibition will occur October 22-24, 2002 at Loews Philadelphia Hotel. Workshops on bioterrorism and biotechnology are scheduled October 21. Advance registration fees-$595 for public employees, elected officials, and academics ($795 for others)-apply through Sept. 23. Program and registration information is available at www.bio-defense.org. CO-SPONSORS * The University of Medicine & Dentistry of New Jersey-School of Public Health (UMDNJ-SPH), with Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey; New Jersey Institute of Technology; and the Public Health Research Institute * Center for Biodefense, New Jersey Medical School, UMDNJ * Homeland Defense Journal * Consultants in Disease & Injury Control * Homeland Defense Technology Council * Public Health Foundation A LEADER IN HOMELAND DEFENSE The involvement of the UMDNJ-SPH in the conference is significant ...
About Soligenix, Inc.. Soligenix is a clinical stage biopharmaceutical company focused on developing products to treat serious inflammatory diseases where there remains an unmet medical need, as well as developing several biodefense vaccines and therapeutics. Soligenix is developing proprietary formulations of oral BDP (beclomethasone 17,21-dipropionate) for the prevention/treatment of gastrointestinal disorders characterized by severe inflammation, including pediatric Crohns disease (SGX203), acute radiation enteritis (SGX201) and chronic Graft-versus-Host disease (orBec®), as well as developing its novel innate defense regulator (IDR) technology SGX942 for the treatment of oral mucositis. Through its BioDefense Division, Soligenix is developing countermeasures pursuant to the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA) Strategic Plan of 2011-2016 for inclusion in the US governments Strategic National Stockpile. Soligenixs biodefense products in development are a ...
Three years data of aerobiology of Islamabad (2005, 2006, and 2007) indicate that Islamabad is among the cities with highest pollen counts in the world. In our study of 3 years, highest pollen count was that of B. papyrifera on 10th March 2006 (34, 320 pollens/m3 air). The highest pollen count was seen in study of Domínguez[15] with data of last 25 years indicating that in Andalusia, South Spain, the higher pollen count belonged to Olea europaea. During only one day (May 22, 1991), 38, 393 olive pollen grains per cubic meter were detected in the air in Córdoba city [15].. For the first time, pollen and mold calendar of Islamabad was prepared from 3-year study (Tables 5, 4, 5). In spring (March to April), B. papyrifera pollens are the causes of severe allergic diseases like asthma, allergic rhinitis, and urticaria, whereas in fall (July to September), pollens of Cannabis are causing these allergic diseases. Grass pollens and molds are present throughout the year and are causing the above ...
The biological warfare page links to resources on the health effects from biological weapons, emergency response & treatment, counterterrorism, and emergency preparedness.
Researchers at Human Methodist Research Institute have developed a more efficient way to create cells called Block Cell Printing. This process allows 100 percent of the cells to live instead of the current 50 to 80 percent which normally survive during the current process. http://www.techrepulblic.com/article/10-industries-3d-printing-will -disrupt-or-decimate. While this technology is exciting from a number of perspectives, it could also prove highly efficacious in countering bio-terrorism and or bio-warfare agents. If a highly pathogenic disease were to be released, the ability to swiftly print vaccine or medical counter measures on site would certainly have a higher chance of successful containment and at a far earlier stage, than currently exists today with logistic challenges. From a bio-defence perspective, its the pace not the space that makes the difference. 3D bio-printing will very likely change our concept of disease prevention and containment and is particularly well suited to ...
Table of Contents:. Introduction............................................................................................. 1. Early Use (through 1900) ........................................................................ 2. Prehistoric Biological Warfare................................................................ 3. Ancient BW (500 BCE to 1000 AD) ......................................................... 4. Medieval and Early Modern BW (1000 AD to 1750 AD)....................... 5. Late Modern BW (1750 AD to 1900 AD)................................................ 7. Summation ............................................................................................ 11. The Origins of Modern BW (1900-1945) ............................................. 12. Summation ............................................................................................ 27. The Cold War and Beyond (1945-Present) .......................................... ...
TERRE HAUTE, Ind. -- In mid-1944, Terre Haute, which means ``high ground,`` found itself sandwiched between a nerve gas plant to the north and a biological warfare facility to the south.Residents
The misuse of Bacillus anthracis as a bioweapon continues to be a serious concern. Medical personnel and researchers are served well if appropriate non-pathogenic anthrax simulants can be used as countermeasures in preparative planning. While there are several accepted simulants of B. anthracis, the addition of another model organism would be beneficial. This investigation was undertaken to evaluate the suitability of B. pumilus as a simulant for B. anthracis. All organisms were grown on AK Agar #2 to foster sporulation. Optimum conditions for spore formation were determined for B. pumilus as well as for currently used anthrax surrogates B. atrophaeus and B. thuringiensis. Spore dimensions were determined by scanning electron microscopy. Comparative antibody binding studies using commercially available anti-Bacillus antisera were completed with the simulants as well as with a negative control organism, Clostridium sporogenes. We report that B. pumilus sporulated readily (2.9 × 1010 viable spores per
2. Biological warfare programs open Pandoras box.. Bioweapons. Starting in the 1950s, the United States and Russia began programs that turned the concept of controlling infectious diseases upside down. Instead of destroying disease vectors, military researchers developed technologies to make vectors and their toxins more effective. Cheaper and less destructive than hydrogen bombs, it was anticipated that germ weapons could achieve equally devastating effects .. What Is a Bioweapon ?. While humans are subject to a large number of infectious diseases, most of these diseases are not suitable for use as a bioweapon. To be effective, any bioweapon must meet three deceptively simple criteria:. 1. The pathogen must be easy and safe to produce. One of the major perceived advantages of bioweapons over nuclear armaments was that they cost far less to manufacture. Because the pathogen will be required in large amounts literally tons it must be possible to scale up its production for reasonable cost, and ...
Pacific-Southwest Regional Center of Excellence for Biodefense and Emerging Diseases (the Center) is a research consortium comprising 34 project...
The 2009 Army Posture Statement, cites a World Health Organization estimate of between 20 annd 50 percent of the worlds population being effected if a pandemic were to emerge. WHO forecasts it may be six to nine months before a vaccine for a pandemic virus strain becomes available." In a separate report on pandemic influenza, the WHO described several challenges to producing sufficient volumes of vaccine using current, egg based protein-production technology, including the likelihood that two doses per person could be required due to the absence of pre-existing immunity. In short, the potential for a pandemic exists and current technological limitations on defensive measures put the health and readiness of U.S. military forces at risk. A technological solution to increase the speed and adaptability of vaccine production is urgently needed to match the broad biological threat. DARPAs Blue Angel Program seeks to demonstrate a flexible and agile capability for the Department of Defence to ...
The Transformational Medical Technologies (TMT) has been a unique component of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) medical biodefense efforts since 2006. Its mission is to advance countermeasure research and development in support of the broader goal of the DoD to protect warfighters from emerging infectious diseases and future genetically engineered biological weapons. The TMT, using advanced science and technology approaches, focused on the development of roadspectrum countermeasures that target common host and pathogen pathways or enhance the hosts immune response. Many of these pathogens are lethal or cause such debilitating diseases in humans that it is ethically inappropriate to test the efficacy of these countermeasures in human volunteers. In lieu of human participants, these products may be tested in animals and approved for human use under the provisions of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)s 2002 Animal Rule. The reliance on animal models for the development and licensure of ...
Ensuring benefits of synthetic biology are realized through responsible development. Synthetic biology specific news, events, publications and more.
Since the fall 2001 distribution of letters containing Bacillus anthracis spores via the US postal system, increased attention has been paid to the evaluation and management of bioterrorism-related illness. Similarly, the emergence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and other infectious diseases, along with the ongoing threat of global influenza pandemics, have fostered intensive interest in the evaluation and management of emerging infections both in the US and internationally. Data to this end are often limited, however, in that while many such diseases exist in nature, human illness may only rarely occur. The primary purpose of this protocol is to apply standardized, documented, and carefully monitored evaluation and prophylactic and treatment measures in the event of suspected or confirmed exposure to the causative agent of any disease of bioterrorism concern (whether of natural or deliberate origin), to agents under study in biodefense-related research laboratories, or to emerging ...
Threat number two in the countdown in the above video is about the biological threat to our survival. Notice that the Spanish Flu outbreak, after World War One, killed 30,000,000 within in Europe and 100,000,000 of the population worldwide, including the USA, usually within the first half hour from contact, due to "Anaphylactic Spasm", suffocating the victim. That was a fatality rate of a mere 3%. Thus a pandemic virus with 60% lethality would kill 20 times more than that. That is 2,000,000,000 of the world population. Since our world is so much more congested and interconnected than then, thus we could easilly expect double that figure, such that two thirds of the worlds population could be gone within the first few weeks of such a pandemic. Since the virus would be, by design, impregnable to vaccines and antibiotics, the lethality would approach 100%. The worlds number one expert on biological warfare "Popov" has said that by design the biological weapons [small pox virus] that he developed ...
There are nations that actively pursue biological weapons programs (albeit they declare thats not the case). The government declares these threats to be ever-present (generating a climate of fear) and must be ever guarded against (thats where big daddy government comes in). We are going to concentrate on the greater probable domestic threat: an authoritarian government running wild.
The rationale for the use of the Animal Rule must be supported by proof-of-concept animal studies designed to ensure animal welfare, demonstrate relevance of the animal model (species susceptibility to the toxic agent and toxic response similar to humans), define the endpoint used to assess efficacy and predict human clinical benefit (eg, relief or prevention of adverse effects), ensure data quality and integrity in a contained environment, and be conducted under Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) guidelines. When efficacy is demonstrated in a single study, conducted in a sufficiently well‑characterized animal model, it may be necessary to repeat the study, preferably in another laboratory for confirmation. The investigational drug/biologic used in the adequate and well-controlled animal efficacy studies and in the animal pharmacokinetics and/or pharmacodynamics studies used to select a dose and dosing regimen in humans, ideally should be manufactured under current GMP regulations and be as close ...
How will the technologies of the future help protect us against terrorism? The new book Safe: The Race To Protect Ourselves in a Newly Dangerous World ...
The pandemic Level 6 influenzas and other similar epidemics are great ways to depopulate human areas. A better option would be to use the pneumonic plague as was trialled in the Ukraine (D225G) during the supposed swine flu (H1N1) level 6 pandemic. Always remember that no natural animal virus can affect a human being without man-made interventions and genetic engineering in laboratories tied to the CDC/WHO. Vaccines are the preferred way to vector these plagues in order to prevent elitists suffering the same fate. For a more indiscriminate method of vectoring then the use of the waterways and the aerosol campaign can be used with the latter being hidden under Stratospheric Aerosol Geo-engineering disguise.
A Chinese Air Force officer on Saturday accused the U.S. government of creating the new strain of bird flu now afflicting parts of China as a biological warfare attack. Peoples Liberation Army Sr. Col. Dai Xu said the United States released the H7N9 bird flu virus into China in an act of biological warfare, according to a posting on his blog on Saturday. The charge was first reported in the state-run Guangzhou newspaper Southern Metropolis Daily and then picked up by several news outlets in Asia. Of course the US will deny this but never the less, its possible. Thinkof it this way, we have biologial warefare labs and such for a reason and we never use them? No, we do we just dont admit we do. Perhaps this is the case. -Mort ...
The American Society for Microbiology (ASM) is the oldest and largest single life science membership organization in the world. Membership has grown from 59 scientists in 1899 to more than 39,000 members today, with more than one third located outside the United States. The members represent 26 disciplines of microbiological specialization plus a division for microbiology educators.
From the archives: My CBC Viewpoint China Column from 2005 By Sylvia Yu For 63 years, Mr. Chen Chong Wen has had to change the bandages on his leg daily. His home-style remedy for his oozing wound is to use a playing card to stop the flow. Theres no medicine for this, he said, it…
Read Transcript, Download (.mov, 14MB). This final segment introduces the Clinical Decision Guide, a critical benchmark that can be used by clinicians in addition to other factors to help determine if medical countermeasures are indicated for a particular patient.. The Clinical Decision Guide (CDG) is an operational quantity that is specific to a type of radionuclide and a route of exposure (e.g. cesium-137 inhalational exposure). The CDG of children (0-18 yrs) and pregnant women is 20% that of adults.. For most radionuclides, the CDG is defined by the amount (activity) of radioactive material delivering an effective dose of 0.25 Sieverts (Sv) after incorporation into the body. This dose represents about a 1.3% lifetime risk of fatal cancer attributable to the exposure. Radiation measurements from a urine sample above a CDG value suggest the potential for a higher attributable lifetime fatal cancer risk and may help clinicians decide whether or not to start countermeasure treatment.. The CDG can ...
Proving that bioweapons work. In this 1968 weapons field test near Johnston Atoll in the South Pacific, the bioweapon agent was released as a fine powder by a jet, and carried by the wind past a series of barges. Rhesus monkeys on the barges were severely affected for up to 50 miles.. The nature of the bioweapon tested at Johnston Atoll has never been confirmed by the U.S. military, but it seems likely to have been a weaponized form of anthrax. In 1969, one year after the secret Johnston Atoll tests, President Nixon renounced the use of bioweapons by the United States, and ordered all American bioweapons destroyed and American research into germ warfare halted. In 1972 the United States signed the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, along with over 140 other countries. The convention called for the destruction of all stocks of offensive bioweapons, and termination of all research on their development.. The Russian Bioweapons Program Does Not. Russia also signed the treaty, but interviews ...
Maybe we can get Alexander Cockburn, Michael Crichton, Richard Lindzen and Roger Pielke Sr. and Jr. to co-write an article explaining global warming - thatd be amusing reading. :). Since Cockburn throws up some link between biowarfare and climate modeling, lets run with it. Here is the noted physicist Freeman Dyson writing on a related issue in the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists: subscription required :( The article is mostly about the dangers of nuclear and biological warfare technology, but the BAS issue "Approaching Midnight" also addresses climate.. The article is all about the need for transparency in scientific research, but contains this gem of a statement that also describes the climate issue surprisingly well:. This last phrase of Milton identifies precisely the two kinds of people who became candidates for the job of scientific censor in more recent times. "Ignorant, imperious, and remiss" describes the Communist apparatchiks of Russia in the time of Soviet biologist Trofim ...
The National Institutes of Health recently posted a solicitation for the development of medical countermeasures to enhance platelet regeneration and survival following radiation exposure from a nuclear or radiological incident.
The goal of this project is to develop a handheld biosensor for rapid detection of bioanalytes such as proteins, peptides, nucleic acids, toxins, viruses, bacteria and other molecular targets that represent interest for the biodefense area. We propose to build a rugged device, similar to a palm computer, equipped with a disposable sensor cartridge designed for simultaneous detection of multiple target molecules with sensitivity at the level of single molecule detection. Inexpensive sensor cartridge will have an array of printed receptor molecules and set of reagents for a one-step detection process. For many existing technologies, rate of response is slow, which makes them useless for biodefense applications that need results in several minutes or less. In contrast to currently available technologies that require multiple stages of reagent injection and washing, the envisioned biosensor system is based on a one-stage process that allows detection of molecular signatures in a matter of seconds or ...
UV radiation from the sun is the primary germicide in the environment. The goal of this study was to estimate inactivation of viruses by solar exposure. We reviewed published reports on 254-nm UV inactivation and tabulated the sensitivities of a wide variety of viruses, including those with double-stranded DNA, single-stranded DNA, double-stranded RNA, or single-stranded RNA genomes. We calculated D37 values (fluence producing on average one lethal hit per virion and reducing viable virus to 37%) from all available data. We defined "size-normalized sensitivity" (SnS) by multiplying UV254 sensitivities (D37 values) by the genome size, and SnS values were relatively constant for viruses with similar genetic composition. In addition, SnS values were similar for complete virions and their defective particles, even when the corresponding D37 values were significantly different. We used SnS to estimate the UV254 sensitivities of viruses for which the genome composition and size were known but no UV ...
Its time to close the window.. Palermo, Dave // International Gaming & Wagering;Jun2007, Vol. 28 Issue 6, p14 This article reports on the decision of Mississippi Governor Haley Barbour to oppose the expansion of gambling in the state. It discusses the statement he issued during the Southern Gaming Summit 2007, as well as the implications of the decision for the plan of the Choctaw Indians to establish a... ...
Last falls anthrax attacks, and the fear and confusion that followed, made it all too clear that the United States lacks a comprehensive strategy for coping with bioterrorism. For too long, thinking about biological weapons has been held hostage to misplaced analogies to nuclear or chemical weapons. An effective strategy must begin by focusing on the special challenges posed by biological threats.
to interviews with Assaad and this scientist, along with additional Army investigative transcripts obtained by Salon, the Armys biowarfare research lab in the early 1990s was an organizational disaster area. A big problem at the lab, which apparently contributed to specimens going missing, was that after the Gulf War, USAMRIID decided to phase out work some scientists had been doing on projects that the Army lab no longer considered crucial to their core mission of researching vaccines against bioweapons. Many scientists who had been engaged in other projects, such as Lt. Col. Phil Zack, who had been researching the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), were eager to continue working on projects USAMRIID said they should stop. What followed, the documents reveal, were scientists sneaking into the Army biowarfare lab to work on pet projects after-hours and on weekends, former workers like Zack, who left in 1991, still being let in to do lab work, pressure applied to technicians to help out, ...
The unknown variable here, then, is what sort of an effect will this bacteria have on unhealthy people - will they be able to handle it? Will it make them sicker? According to the CBS News report, the test will be conducted in Cambridge and Somerville during off peak hours sometime this summer; DHS held a public hearing on May 16 at the CambridgeYMCAin Central Square, to allow the public to ask questions and voice concerns over the test. Later in the month, Boston mass transit police hailed the test as forward-thinking and said it was a proactive, rather than reactive, measure. Testing to validate performance of technologies "So often in the security field we take action retroactively," said Massachusetts Bay Transit Authority (MBTA) Police Chief Paul MacMillian, who referenced the banning of liquids aboard commercial flights. "These things are done after the fact. We have not had a bio attack but theres all this chatter that we hear about it." DHS itself said in a 28-page summary of the test ...
WIRED) - The Pentagons mad science arm may have come up with its most radical project yet. DARPA is looking to re-write the laws of […]. ...
Long before 9/11, Berkelman was at the forefront of the public health effort to prepare for the threat of emerging infectious diseases. In her roles as assistant surgeon general of the U.S. Public Health Service and deputy director of the National Center for Infectious Diseases, she confronted the critical need to develop strategies against new and reemerging biological pathogens identified over the past two decades. Now, with the additional looming threat of bioterrorism, Berkelman is using her public-health skills to lead a team of faculty, staff and students in programs of training, education and consultation to respond to biologic threats ...
Discerning whether a biological threat comes from terrorism or an emerging infectious disease is one problem that researchers at the Courant Bioinformatics Group at New York University (NYU) want to solve. Bhubaneswar Mishras multidisciplinary team has created a series of complex software programs that allow researchers who deal with intricate, real-world bioinformatics problems to develop their own algorithms. This allows them to use mathematics to solve real issues in biology.With one interac
Language: English Description: This course presents information on the threat that terror organizations may use biological agents to kill people and cause chaos. Biological warfare is regulated and denounced by world governments. Terrorists are increasingly likely to use biological agents for the fear it creates in others. Companies, families, and individuals can prepare by learning about bioterrorism, preparing for attacks, and learning how to mitigate the effects of an attack. This course gives learners practical information they can apply at work and at home. Instructor Description: This class is an independent-study course. Students will have all the resources needed to successfully complete the course within the online material. A student helpdesk is available for technical support during the course enrollment.
the source that is aware of all biological threats and issues, from bioterror to supergerms, keeping the world informed of the pathogenic battles that occur daily
the source that is aware of all biological threats and issues, from bioterror to supergerms, keeping the world informed of the pathogenic battles that occur daily
By Trina Wood. The federal Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) last week announced the Safe Genes program to explore innovative genetic techniques to support bio-innovation and combat biological threats. The effort, supported by a $65 million grant from DARPA over four years, aims to harness gene editing tools in a safe, responsible manner to maximize the benefits of these technologies while minimizing their inherent risks.. ...
D. Hank Ellison (August 24, 2007). Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents. CRC Press. pp. 123-140. ISBN 0-8493-1434 ... For an overview of the evidence and historical interpretations, see Elizabeth A. Fenn, "Biological Warfare in Eighteenth- ... Warfare on the North American frontier was brutal, and the killing of prisoners, the targeting of civilians, and other ...
D. Hank Ellison (24 August 2007). Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents. CRC Press. pp. 123-140. ISBN 0-8493-1434- ... The incident at Fort Pitt was one of the first known cases of deliberate biological warfare in North America.[not in citation ...
D. Hank Ellison (August 24, 2007). Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents. CRC Press. pp. 123-140. ISBN 0-8493-1434 ...
Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents (2nd). CRC Press, 2008. pp 105-139. ISBN 9780849314346 Badreshia, S. (2002 ... Gupta, Ramesh C (ed) (2015). Handbook of Toxicology of Chemical Warfare Agents. Cambridge, MA, USA: Academic Press. pp. 338-339 ... Carbamate nerve agents While the carbamate acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are commonly referred to as "carbamate insecticides ... Urethane (ethyl carbamate) was once produced commercially in the United States as a chemotherapy agent and for other medicinal ...
D. Hank Ellison (August 24, 2007). Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents, Second Edition. CRC Press. p. 456. ISBN ... Thousands of American soldiers were exposed to chemical warfare agents during Cold War testing programs (see Edgewood Arsenal ... Chemical Weapons United States "Closing U.S. Chemical Warfare Agent Disposal Facilities". Centers for Disease Control and ... In June 1990, Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System began destruction of chemical agents stored on Johnston Atoll in ...
D. Hank Ellison (August 24, 2007). Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents, Second Edition. CRC Press. p. 456. ISBN ... produces small quantities of biological agents, for use in biological weapons defense research. According to the U.S. ... A more advanced production facility was constructed in Pine Bluff, Arkansas, which began producing biological agents in 1954. ... November 1969). "Draft NSDM re United States Policy on Warfare Program and Bacteriological/Biological Research Program" (PDF). ...
"Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents, Second Edition". CRC Press - via Google Books. Trivedi, Bijal P. (January 7 ... Using stink bombs for these purposes has advantages over traditional riot control agents: unlike pepper spray and tear gas, ... They range in effectiveness from simple pranks to military grade malodorants or riot control chemical agents. The Guinness Book ... Chemical warfare Malodorant Practical joke List of practical joke topics Thioacetone "Guinness World Records". Ellison, D. Hank ...
D. Hank Ellison (24 August 2007). Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents, Second Edition. CRC Press. pp. 567-570. ... Any biological agents of warfare - living organisms, whatever their nature, or infective material derived from them - which are ... The 1993 Chemical Weapons Convention effectively banned riot control agents from being used as a method of warfare, though ... use in international armed conflicts of: (a) Any chemical agents of warfare - chemical substances, whether gaseous, liquid or ...
This included testing of biological warfare agents, including poisoned bullets. He was implicated in the Nazi human ...
CIA (May 28, 2003). "Iraqi Mobile Biological Warfare Agent Production Plants". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2008-01- ... June 5, 2003 "We recently found two mobile biological weapons facilities which were capable of producing biological agents" ... dry agent, dry biological agent that can kill a lot of people. So we are finding these pieces that were described." Condoleezza ... "They can produce enough dry, biological agent in a single month to kill thousands upon thousands of people." Powell based the ...
Ellison, D. H. (2008). Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents (2nd ed.). p. 28. ISBN 0-8493-1434-8. Commission on ... EA-3148 (Substance 100A) is a "V-series" nerve agent related to the better-known compounds VX and VR. It was studied by both ... the US and Soviet chemical weapons programmes during the Cold War, and is notable as the only nerve agent specifically ... Life Sciences (1982). Possible Long-Term Health Effects of Short-Term Exposure to Chemical Agents. 1. The National Academies ...
at Factsheets on Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents Agrios, George N. (2005). Plant Pathology. Amsterdam: Elsevier Academic ... Biological Weapons for Waging Economic Warfare, Air & Space Power Chronicles NSF. Microbial Genome Helps Blast Devastating Rice ... Kurahasi, Yoshio (1997). "Biological Activity of Carpropamid (KTU 3616): A new fungicide for rice blast disease". Journal of ... It is now known that M. grisea consists of a cryptic species complex containing at least two biological species that have clear ...
Handbook of chemical and biological warfare agents (2nd ed.). CRC Press. ISBN 9780849314346. .. ... "Physical properties of standard agents, candidate agents, and related compounds at several temperatures" (PDF).. ... Ethylsarin (GE), also known as EA-1209[2], is an organophosphate nerve agent of the G-series. It's the ethylphosphonofluoridate ...
They also have been shown to be effective in degrading certain chemical and biological warfare agents. Janus sphere micromotors ... "Water-Driven Micromotors for Rapid Photocatalytic Degradation of Biological and Chemical Warfare Agents". ACS Nano. 8 (11): ... and chemical warfare agents, such as organaphosphate nerve agents- a class of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Therefore, ... has been recent research of TiO2/Au/Mg micromotors and their use and degradation efficacy against biological warfare agents, ...
Biological agents are relatively easy to obtain by terrorists and are becoming more threatening in the U.S., and laboratories ... In contrast to the U.S. Army Biological Warfare Laboratories [1943-1969], also at Fort Detrick, the USAMU's mission was purely ... Methods for predicting the use of biological agents in urban areas as well as assessing the area for the hazards associated ... In addition, forensic technologies are working on identifying biological agents, their geographical origins and/or their ...
Advances in Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering: Implications for the Development of New Biological Warfare Agents. DIANE ... and animals used in biological and medical research. The School's expertise also encompasses related human health concerns, ... animal lentivirus models for evaluation of AIDS vaccines and antiviral agents". Antiviral Research. 15 (4): 267-286. doi: ...
The United States ended its biological warfare program in 1969. When it did, C. burnetii was one of seven agents it had ... Chemical and Biological Warfare. Springer. pp. 30-31. ISBN 0-387-95076-1. "Coxiella genomes in the PATRIC database". Retrieved ... Coxiella burnetii is an obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen, and is the causative agent of Q fever. The genus Coxiella is ... C. burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever Voth, D. E. & Heinzen (2007), "Lounging in a lysosome: The intracellular lifestyle ...
"Cholinesterase Inhibitors: Including Insecticides and Chemical Warfare Nerve Agents, Part 4 - Section 11, Management Strategy 3 ... Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare. Washington, D.C.: Office of the Surgeon General at TMM Publications. pp. ... VX is a type of chemical weapon called a nerve agent. It is a very toxic chemical. Because it is so toxic, it cannot be used as ... "VX: Nerve Agent". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. United States Centers for Disease Control and ...
"Nerve Agent Precursors: Benzilic acid and Methyl Benzilate", Factsheets on Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents, Chemical ... It is used in manufacture of the incapacitating agent 3-quinuclidinyl benzilate (BZ) and is regulated by the Chemical Weapons ...
It was small and focused primarily on anti-animal biological warfare (BW) research aimed at enemy livestock. Anti-animal agents ... "to establish and pursue a program of research and development of certain anti-animal biological warfare agents". The first ... However, the biological warfare mission continued under civilian control until 1969, when the US ended offensive BW research. ... Most of the disease research done by the USDA focused on biological warfare until Richard Nixon ended the U.S. bio-weapons ...
Canada still employs riot control agents which are classified as non-lethal weapons. Canada had a biological warfare research ... There have been some claims that he was a key biological warfare researcher. Like many of his peers in senior positions during ... inspections at CFB Suffield and elsewhere to verify that all remaining military activities involving biological warfare agents ... Tests at CFB Gagetown of Agent Orange and the more toxic Agent Purple in 1966 and 1967 caused a variety of acute and chronic ...
During World War II, Fort Detrick in Maryland was the headquarters of US biological warfare experiments. Operation Whitecoat ... treated as autonomous agents The right to end participation in research at any time Right to safeguard integrity Benefits ... It also conducted biological and chemical weapons tests on prisoners and captured POWs. With the expansion of the empire during ... Medical human subject research often involves analysis of biological specimens, epidemiological and behavioral studies and ...
During World War II, Fort Detrick in Maryland was the headquarters of US biological warfare experiments. Operation Whitecoat ... the causative agent in gas gangrene) and Clostridium tetani (the causative agent in tetanus), experiments conducted to attempt ... It also conducted biological and chemical weapons tests on prisoners and captured POWs. With the expansion of the empire during ... Examples have included the deliberate infection of people with deadly or debilitating diseases, exposing people to biological ...
B. mallei and B. pseudomallei have a history of being on a list of potential biological warfare agents. The Centers for Disease ... The German biological sabotage eventually spread to Argentina, where agents would rely on bacterial cultures from Spain to ... The Germans' plans for biological warfare started in 1915 on the East Coast of the United States; they intended to infect and ... The Japanese used B. mallei in their biological warfare research units. The most notable and notorious unit, Unit 731, used the ...
Him and his crew had very successfully produced a large amount of biological agents to use in warfare. The thing that Baldwin ... Army Biological Warfare Laboratories at Camp Detrick, Maryland. America's biological weapons research program was the first ... After hearing that Germany and Japan were going to start the use of biological warfare, they were asked if it was possible for ... George W. Merck, a key member of the panel advising President Franklin D. Roosevelt on aspects of biological warfare, brought ...
Ledgard, Jared (2006). A Laboratory History of Chemical Warfare Agents. Lulu.com. ISBN 978-0615136455. .. p. 82. ... "Chemical Entities of Biological Interest. UK: European Bioinformatics Institute. 27 October 2006. Main. Retrieved 6 June 2012. ...
For purposes of the Phase I endeavor, models that mimic common biological warfare agents (BWA) will be used to test the system ... The system is to be applied to wall surfaces, and remain dormant until a biological threat comes in contact with the surface. ... Upon completion of the decontamination phase of operation, the color agent is designed to decompose, indicating the end of the ... opening the nanotube and exposing the biocide and color agent inside. ...
... and Prophylaxis for Selected Biological Warfare Agents. (RX). by Internal Medicine News; Health care industry Health, general ... APA style: Vaccines, Therapeutics, and Prophylaxis for Selected Biological Warfare Agents. (RX).. (n.d.) >The Free Library. ( ... MLA style: "Vaccines, Therapeutics, and Prophylaxis for Selected Biological Warfare Agents. (RX).." The Free Library. 2001 ... S.v. Vaccines, Therapeutics, and Prophylaxis for Selected Biological Warfare Agents. (RX).." Retrieved Aug 24 2019 from https ...
2.2 Overview of Chemical Warfare Agents. 2.3 Overview of Biological Warfare Agents. 2.4 Conclusions. References. Chapter 3 US ... Chemical and biological warfare agents are threats to the military and civilians alike in both terrorist and conventional ... Chapter 1 A Brief History of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents and their Decontamination Jeffery K. Smart. 1.1 ... Chapter 2 Introduction to Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents Jennifer Coughlin and Jennifer J. Becker. 2.1 Introduction. ...
... to testify about experiments involving simulated biological and chemical warfare agents. These agents, which the army calls ... My research interests include biological and chemical warfare policies, and I have written in particular about testing done in ... During the next 20 years, the army released simulant agents over hundreds of populated areas around the country. Targets ... vii) chemical, biological, environmental, climate, or tectonic weapons.. (C) The term `exotic weapons systems includes weapons ...
A training film on medical defense against biological warfare in the United States. The proficiency of a biological warfare ... The proficiency of a biological warfare agent like pathogen to transfer through an artificial route in the United States. ... Technicians carry out biological warfare test. Accidental incidents occur due to use of a blender and a centrifuge. A ... agent like pathogen to transfer through a artificial route shows U.S. soldiers having food and water. ...
US11564777 2004-09-17 2006-11-29 Systems and methods for detecting radiation, biotoxin, chemical, and biological warfare agents ... Systems and methods for detecting radiation, biotoxin, chemical, and biological warfare agents using a multiple angle light ... Systems and methods for detecting radiation, biotoxin, chemical, and biological warfare agents using a multiple angle light ... Systems and methods for detecting radiation, biotoxin, chemical, and biological warfare agents using a multiple angle light ...
Synthesis and Docking Studies of Phenylureas as Candidates for the Drug Design Against the Biological Warfare Agent Yersinia ... Synthesis and Docking Studies of Phenylureas as Candidates for the Drug Design Against the Biological Warfare Agent Yersinia ... Synthesis and Docking Studies of Phenylureas as Candidates for the Drug Design Against the Biological Warfare Agent Yersinia ... Abstract:Background: Bubonic plague is amongst the diseases with the highest potential for being used in biological warfare ...
We simultaneously identified multiple biological warfare agents in environmental samples by looking at specific probe responses ... Biological Warfare Dispatch DNA Microarray DNA Probes Fiber Optics Fiber Optic Technology Fluorescence Humans Microsphere ... high-density array composed of 18 species-specific probe microsensors to identify biological warfare agents. ... "The U.S. national civilian vulnerability to the deliberate use of biological and chemical agents has been highlighted by ...
... (BW), also known as germ warfare, is the deliberate use of disease-causing biological agents such as ... There is an overlap between biological warfare and chemical warfare, as the use of toxins produced by living organisms is ... Like some of the chemical weapons, biological weapons may also be useful as area denial weapons. These agents may be lethal or ... Toxins and Psychochemical weapons are often referred to as midspectrum agents. Unlike bioweapons, these midspectrum agents do ...
"We are not developing biological warfare agents," he says. "This is for the benefit of crops and the stability of our food ... Is The Pentagon Modifying Viruses To Save Crops - Or To Wage Biological Warfare?. by Dan Charles NPR Nov. 8, 2018 7:38 a.m. ... to develop biological agents that have no justification for peaceful purposes," she says. ... So the research could be perceived, at least, as a as a violation of the Biological Weapons Treaty. She recently co-authored a ...
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Preventing disease after exposure to a biological agent is partially a function of the immunity of the exposed individual. The ... and stockpiling specific antibody reagents that can be used to protect the population against biological warfare threats. ... only available countermeasure that can provide immediate immunity against a biological agent is passive antibody. Unlike ... Passive antibody therapy has substantial advantages over antimicrobial agents and other measures for postexposure prophylaxis, ...
I define biological warfare as use of agents of disease for hostile purposes. This definition encompasses attacks on human ... Biological warfare was the focus of billion-dollar investments by the United States and the former Soviet Union until President ... Lederberg J. Biological Warfare. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(6):1070-1071. doi:10.3201/eid0706.010636.. ... President Nixons abjuration of biological warfare as a U.S. military weapon in 1969 set in motion the most important ...
April 2006: Three Texas A&M "biodefense" researchers are infected with Q Fever, a biological weapons agent. Rather than ... This entry was posted in All Posts News Politics and-or Videos, Biological Warfare or Non-Lethal, CIA, Corporations, ... 4 thoughts on "Biological Warfare and the National Security State - A Chronology by Tom Burghardt" * Pingback: Jon Eisenberg: ... Biological Warfare and the National Security State - A Chronology by Tom Burghardt. ...
Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agent Decontamination Chemical and biological warfare agents are threats to the ... Plasma Assisted Decontamination of Biological and Chemical Agents Plasma decontamination is a rapidly expanding area of modern ... Plasma Assisted Decontamination of Biological and Chemical Agents Plasma decontamination is a rapidly expanding area of modern ... An increasing number of engineers are using plasma methods for decontamination of chemical and biological agents. Plasma ...
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... events in the United States showed a need to characterize the efficiency of filter sampling against bioterrorism agents (CDC, ... Biological-weapons; Biological-warfare-agents; Biological-agents; Biological-effects; Particulates; Models; Sampling; Author ... events in the United States showed a need to characterize the efficiency of filter sampling against bioterrorism agents (CDC, ...
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A subset of these agents include Bacillus anthracis (Ba), Yersinia pestis (Yp), Francisella tularensis (Ft), ricin toxin (RT) ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has classified several agents which may be used in a bioterrorism attack as ... select agents. They are classified as such based on ease of dissemination, mortality/morbidity rate, and potential for social ... Biological-warfare-agents; Mortality-rates; Mortality-data; Morbidity-rates; Exposure-levels; Biological-agents; Biological- ...
Possible Biological Warfare Agent. To furthermore understand the significance of the component aflatoxin as a known carcinogen ... It is also often a causative agent of aspergilloma and is the most frequently encountered agent of otomycosis. A. niger may ... Topical antifungal agents such as nystatin, tolnaftate, dilute acetic acid, and topical corticosteroids are therapeutic. Oral ... Around 20 species have so far been reported as causative agents of opportunistic infections in man. Among these, Aspergillus ...
... biological warfare] agents." [Blum, 1995]. The biological warfare program is overseen by the US Armys Chemical Warfare Service ... biological agents, chemical agents, obscurants, marking agents, dyes and inks, chaffs and flakes." [United States Patent and ... As part of Project 112, the US military sprays a biological agent on barracks in Oahu, Hawaii. The agent is believed to be ... The BWC would ban all biological warfare, and would provide enforcement for the ban, something the 1972 Biological Weapons ...
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  • A later incident on March 23, 1994 resulted in the accidental release of sarin gas after a chemical agent line was opened for maintenance without properly purging the line with fuel oil. (wikipedia.org)
  • On December 9, 1993, a spill of about 500 pounds (226 kg) of Sarin (Agent GB) occurred inside the Munitions Demilitarization Building (MDB). (wikipedia.org)
  • The strength of the project rests on the collaboration of Materials and Electrochemical Research (MER) Corporation, with extensive nanotechnology experience and Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute (LRRI), which is highly respected for its biological testing expertise and facilities. (sbir.gov)
  • So the research could be perceived, at least, as a as a violation of the Biological Weapons Treaty. (opb.org)
  • it funded and coordinated 137 institutions in the US that conducted research - including chemical warfare agents and prevention of infectious diseases tested on prisoners and children. (ahrp.org)
  • Research on new agents tended to concentrate on viral and rickettsial diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Herbicidal warfare research by the U.S. military began during the Second World War with additional research during the Korean War. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both field tests and process research were maintained for the agent of rice blast disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The U.S. National Research Council's Committee on Evaluation of Chemical Events at Army Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities was provided, by the Army, with a list of 39 incidents that occurred at JACADS from its opening until its closure. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1952, it became a military animal and biological warfare (BW) research facility, moving to civilian control in 1954 as the Plum Island Animal Disease Center. (wikipedia.org)
  • Medical human subject research often involves analysis of biological specimens, epidemiological and behavioral studies and medical chart review studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fusarium sporotrichoides contamination was found in affected grain in 1932, spurring research for medical purposes and for use in biological warfare. (wikipedia.org)
  • Building 257, also known as Lab 257, was a United States biological warfare research laboratory located at Fort Terry on Plum Island, New York. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biological warfare research continued in the building under the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) until a new laboratory was completed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fort Terry went through a period of activations and deactivations through World War II until the U.S. Army Chemical Corps took over the facility in 1952 for use in anti-animal biological warfare (BW) research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Small molecules may be used as research tools to probe biological function as well as leads in the development of new therapeutic agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Delta G did most of the research, production and development of the chemical agents, while RRL developed chemical and biological pathogens and allegedly was involved with genetic engineering. (wikipedia.org)
  • Project AGILE covered a wide range of topics related to warfare under various conditions present in the Far East, from electronic surveillance, used to interdict Communist convoys in the Ho Chi Minh trail, to sociological research on troops likely to be subverted by Communist rebels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subproject VI covered "individual and special projects", which included use of herbicides (such as Agent Orange), psychological warfare, and medical research and equipment. (wikipedia.org)
  • His long-standing interest in biological warfare agents had already led him in 1999 to call for their banning as part of the Sunshine Project, which was followed by the establishment of a research institute with similar objectives in 2003. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although never developed into an effective weapons system, psychochemical warfare theory and research -- along with overlapping mind control drug research -- was secretly pursued in the mid-20th century by the US military and Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in the context of the Cold War. (wikipedia.org)
  • The US Army releases swarms of specially bred mosquitoes in Georgia and Florida as part of an experiment aimed at determining if disease-bearing insects could be used as carriers of biological weapons. (historycommons.org)
  • A greater in-depth discussion of the agents covered here may be found in the Army Surgeon General's Borden Institute Textbook of Military Medicine, "Medical Aspects of Biological Warfare" (2007) and in relevant infectious disease, tropical medicine, and disaster management textbooks. (gpo.gov)
  • Lieutenant Colonel Thomas E. Bearden (U.S. Army, retired) published AIDS Biological Warfare in 1988 which maintains that HIV was developed in American biowarfare labs. (abovetopsecret.com)
  • Both Agent LNA (Agent GREEN) or 2,4-D and Agent LNB (Agent PINK) or 2,4,5-T or had also been standardized by the Army as anti-crop agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thereafter, the Army carried out extensive testing and found no evidence of any of the biological agents previously produced there. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rose, William H. "An Evaluation of Entomological Warfare as a Potential Danger to the United States and European NATO Nations", U.S. Army Test and Evaluation Command, Dugway Proving Ground, March 1981, via thesmokinggun.com, accessed December 25, 2008. (wikipedia.org)
  • The earliest predecessors to the United States Army Chemical Corps owe their existence to changes of military technology early in World War I. In 1915, The United States War Department first became interested in providing individual soldiers with personal protection against chemical warfare and they tasked the Medical Department with developing the technology. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a member of the medical branch of the Heer, and a representative of the Army Medical Inspectorate, he was charged with preventing the spread of infectious disease and developing vaccines, in particular to guard against potential biological warfare agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • An army of Dressites attack Heath, but a small army of Fear Agents rescue Heath. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dugway Proving Ground (DPG) is a U.S. Army facility established in 1942 to test biological and chemical weapons, located about 85 miles (140 km) southwest of Salt Lake City, Utah and 13 miles south of the 2,624 sq mi Utah Test and Training Range forming the largest overland special use airspace in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1941, the US Army Chemical Warfare Service (CWS) determined it needed a testing facility more remote than the US Army's Edgewood Arsenal in Maryland. (wikipedia.org)
  • U.S. Army looking for new chemical warfare agent detector" Archived 2014-02-28 at Archive.is. (wikipedia.org)
  • On May 8, 1944 the Army Special Projects Division (SPD) directed the Vigo Plant to convert its facilities for full-scale biological agent production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dee Dodson Morris of the Army Chemical Corps who coordinated the ongoing investigation, says, "The SHAD tests were intended to show how vulnerable Navy ships were to chemical or biological warfare agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Type 94 Disinfecting Vehicle and Type 94 Gas Scattering Vehicle was a variant of the Type 94 tankette adapted to chemical warfare by the Imperial Japanese Army. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a similar way, the Soviet Red Army developed chemical/biological warfare special protection armored vehicles, including the use of medium or light tanks with modified turrets with dispersers or gas scatterers, liquid or powder dissemination systems and special armor protection against agents for their respective chemical/biological units in the years prior to and during World War II. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 267th Chemical Company was a military unit of the U.S. Army Chemical Corps responsible for the surety of chemical warfare agents dubbed "RED HAT" deployed to the Islands of Okinawa, Japan and subsequently Johnston Atoll in the Pacific Ocean. (wikipedia.org)
  • We describe a fluorescent covalent microsphere immunoassay (FCMIA) to measure specific IgG antibodies to Ba (protective antigen [PA] and lethal factor [LF]), Yp (F1 and V antigens), Ft, RT and SEB simultaneously in human Ba vaccinee sera which had been fortified with animal select agent specific IgG antibodies. (cdc.gov)
  • These agents may be lethal or non-lethal , and may be targeted against a single individual, a group of people, or even an entire population. (princeton.edu)
  • Lethal agents are primarily intended to kill, but incapacitating agents can also kill if administered in a potent enough dose, or in certain scenarios. (wikipedia.org)
  • In biological warfare, a distinction is also made between bio-agents as Lethal Agents (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood agents are fast-acting, potentially lethal poisons that typically manifest at room temperature as volatile colorless gases with a faint odor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some were intended to be lethal on the battlefield, like hydrogen cyanide, and efficient methods of deploying agents were invented. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bottom two floors were, in the 1950s and '60s, where scientists showered and changed into street clothes after working with lethal agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • When F. W. de Klerk became president in 1990, he ordered that production of the chemicals be stopped and the lethal agents destroyed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Basson concentrated on non-lethal chemical agents and chemicals the government had not banned. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nixon noted that biological weapons were unreliable and stated: The United States shall renounce the use of lethal biological agents and weapons, and all other methods of biological warfare. (wikipedia.org)
  • Meselson and his colleagues argued that a biological attack would likely inflict a great toll on civilian populations while remaining largely militarily ineffective. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1943, Schumann wrote to Dr. Heinrich Kliewe, one of the Wehrmacht's biological warfare experts that "in particular, America must be attacked simultaneously with various human and animal epidemic pathogens as well as plant pests. (wikipedia.org)
  • When agents are thickened with the addition of a polymer a T is usually added to the beginning of the symbol (e.g., thickened soman is TGD). (wikipedia.org)
  • Implementation of donor screening for infectious agents transmitted by blood by nucleic acid technology: update to 2003. (medscape.com)
  • A common way to inactivate infectious agents in tissues before histologic analysis is formaldehyde fixation, coincidentally first characterized in 1893 with the fixation of B. anthracis- infected tissue ( 5 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The risk for terrorist events involving the intentional airborne release of infectious agents has led to development of new approaches for sampling and testing ambient air both indoors and outdoors ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Laboratory work continued in Building 470 until 1970, but no infectious agents were again produced there. (wikipedia.org)