Warfare involving the use of living organisms or their products as disease etiologic agents against people, animals, or plants.
Living organisms or their toxic products that are used to cause disease or death of humans during WARFARE.
Tactical warfare using incendiary mixtures, smokes, or irritant, burning, or asphyxiating gases.
Chemicals that are used to cause the disturbance, disease, or death of humans during WARFARE.
A contagious disease of horses that can be transmitted to humans. It is caused by BURKHOLDERIA MALLEI and characterized by ulceration of the respiratory mucosa and an eruption of nodules on the skin.
The use of biological agents in TERRORISM. This includes the malevolent use of BACTERIA; VIRUSES; or other BIOLOGICAL TOXINS against people, ANIMALS; or PLANTS.
A species of gram-negative bacteria parasitic on HORSES and DONKEYS causing GLANDERS, which can be transmitted to humans.
An acute infectious disease caused by YERSINIA PESTIS that affects humans, wild rodents, and their ectoparasites. This condition persists due to its firm entrenchment in sylvatic rodent-flea ecosystems throughout the world. Bubonic plague is the most common form.
An acute infection caused by the spore-forming bacteria BACILLUS ANTHRACIS. It commonly affects hoofed animals such as sheep and goats. Infection in humans often involves the skin (cutaneous anthrax), the lungs (inhalation anthrax), or the gastrointestinal tract. Anthrax is not contagious and can be treated with antibiotics.
The manipulation of psychological influences, primarily concerned with morale, to strengthen the ability of one's own country and weaken the enemy.
Refusal to admit the truth or reality of a situation or experience.
An armed conflict between Communist and non-Communist forces in Korea from June 25, 1950, to July 27, 1953. The parties included United Nations forces from 15 member nations under United States command against military from North Korea and the Peoples Republic of China.
A country located on the Korean Peninsula whose capital is Pyongyang. The country was established September 9, 1948.
Persons ordained for religious duties, who serve as leaders and perform religious services.
A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.
An acute infectious disease of humans, particularly children, caused by any of three serotypes of human poliovirus (POLIOVIRUS). Usually the infection is limited to the gastrointestinal tract and nasopharynx, and is often asymptomatic. The central nervous system, primarily the spinal cord, may be affected, leading to rapidly progressive paralysis, coarse FASCICULATION and hyporeflexia. Motor neurons are primarily affected. Encephalitis may also occur. The virus replicates in the nervous system, and may cause significant neuronal loss, most notably in the spinal cord. A rare related condition, nonpoliovirus poliomyelitis, may result from infections with nonpoliovirus enteroviruses. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp764-5)
Vaccines used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS. They include inactivated (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, INACTIVATED) and oral vaccines (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, ORAL).
A live vaccine containing attenuated poliovirus, types I, II, and III, grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture, used for routine immunization of children against polio. This vaccine induces long-lasting intestinal and humoral immunity. Killed vaccine induces only humoral immunity. Oral poliovirus vaccine should not be administered to immunocompromised individuals or their household contacts. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Global conflict involving countries of Europe, Africa, Asia, and North America that occurred between 1939 and 1945.
Those educational activities engaged in by holders of a bachelor's degree in nursing, which are primarily designed to prepare them for entrance into a specific field of nursing, and may lead to board certification or a more advanced degree.
Nanometer-sized tubes composed mainly of CARBON. Such nanotubes are used as probes for high-resolution structural and chemical imaging of biomolecules with ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY.
Neoplasms composed of tissue of the mesothelium, the layer of flat cells, derived from the mesoderm, which lines the body cavity of the embryo. In the adult it forms the simple squamous epithelium which covers all true serous membranes (peritoneum, pericardium, pleura). The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in these organs. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Histiocytic, inflammatory response to a foreign body. It consists of modified macrophages with multinucleated giant cells, in this case foreign-body giant cells (GIANT CELLS, FOREIGN-BODY), usually surrounded by lymphocytes.

Bioterrorism alleging use of anthrax and interim guidelines for management--United States, 1998. (1/96)

From October 30 through December 23, 1998, CDC received reports of a series of bioterroristic threats of anthrax exposure. Letters alleged to contain anthrax were sent to health clinics on October 30, 1998, in Indiana, Kentucky, and Tennessee. During December 17-23 in California, a letter alleged to contain anthrax was sent to a private business, and three telephone threats of anthrax contamination of ventilation systems were made to private and public buildings. All threats were hoaxes and are under investigation by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and local law enforcement officials. The public health implications of these threats were investigated to assist in developing national public health guidelines for responding to bioterrorism. This report summarizes the findings of these investigations and provides interim guidance for public health authorities on bioterrorism related to anthrax.  (+info)

Health status of Persian Gulf War veterans: self-reported symptoms, environmental exposures and the effect of stress. (2/96)

BACKGROUND: Most US troops returned home from the Persian Gulf War (PGW) by Spring 1991 and many began reporting increased health symptoms and medical problems soon after. This investigation examines the relationships between several Gulf-service environmental exposures and health symptom reporting, and the role of traumatic psychological stress on the exposure-health symptom relationships. METHODS: Stratified, random samples of two cohorts of PGW veterans, from the New England area (n = 220) and from the New Orleans area (n = 71), were selected from larger cohorts being followed longitudinally since arrival home from the Gulf. A group of PGW-era veterans deployed to Germany (n = 50) served as a comparison group. The study protocol included questionnaires, a neuropsychological test battery, an environmental interview, and psychological diagnostic interviews. This report focuses on self-reported health symptoms and exposures of participants who completed a 52-item health symptom checklist and a checklist of environmental exposures. RESULTS: The prevalence of reported symptoms was greater in both Persian Gulf-deployed cohorts compared to the Germany cohort. Analyses of the body-system symptom scores (BSS), weighted to account for sampling design, and adjusted by age, sex, and education, indicated that Persian Gulf-deployed veterans were more likely to report neurological, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, cardiac, dermatological, musculoskeletal, psychological and neuropsychological system symptoms than Germany veterans. Using a priori hypotheses about the toxicant effects of exposure to specific toxicants, the relationships between self-reported exposures and body-system symptom groupings were examined through multiple regression analyses, controlling for war-zone exposure and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Self-reported exposures to pesticides, debris from Scuds, chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agents, and smoke from tent heaters each were significantly related to increased reporting of specific predicted BSS groupings. CONCLUSIONS: Veterans deployed to the Persian Gulf have higher self-reported prevalence of health symptoms compared to PGW veterans who were deployed only as far as Germany. Several Gulf-service environmental exposures are associated with increased health symptom reporting involving predicted body-systems, after adjusting for war-zone stressor exposures and PTSD.  (+info)

The efforts of WHO and Pugwash to eliminate chemical and biological weapons--a memoir. (3/96)

The World Health Organization and the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs (Nobel Peace Prize 1995) have been involved in questions concerning chemical and biological arms since the early 1950s. This memoir reviews a number of milestones in the efforts of these organizations to achieve the elimination of these weapons through international treaties effectively monitored and enforced for adherence to their provisions. It also highlights a number of outstanding personalities who were involved in the efforts to establish and implement the two major treaties now in effect, the Biological Weapons Convention of 1972 and the Chemical Weapons Convention of 1993.  (+info)

Chemical and biological weapons: new questions, new answers. (4/96)

The words "chemical and biological weapons" (CBW) send a shiver down most spines these days. With the end of the Cold War, the possibility of a massive nuclear confrontation appears remote, so today many popular doomsday scenarios center on the aggressive use of chemical or biological warfare by rogue nations or terrorist groups. As exaggerated as some of the accounts are, with CBW cast as the latest unseen, unstoppable enemy, the threat posed by these weapons is all too real, and growing.  (+info)

Biological warfare agents as threats to potable water. (5/96)

Nearly all known biological warfare agents are intended for aerosol application. Although less effective as potable water threats, many are potentially capable of inflicting heavy casualties when ingested. Significant loss of mission capability can be anticipated even when complete recovery is possible. Properly maintained field army water purification equipment can counter this threat, but personnel responsible for the operation and maintenance of the equipment may be most at risk of exposure. Municipal water treatment facilities would be measurably less effective. Some replicating (infectious) agents and a few biotoxins are inactivated by chlorine disinfection; for others chlorine is ineffective or of unknown efficacy. This report assesses the state of our knowledge of agents as potable water threats and contemplates the consequences of intentional or collateral contamination of potable water supplies by 18 replicating agents and 9 biotoxins known or likely to be weaponized or otherwise used as threats.  (+info)

The next target of bioterrorism: your food. (6/96)

One of the many forms that biological warfare may take is the targeting of major food crops. In a poor country where millions of citizens depend on staple crops such as rice, an act of bioterrorism that destroys the crop would create a famine, resulting not only in malnutrition and starvation but also in reduced immune resistance to a range of common illnesses. To reduce the potential of deliberate introductions of crop pathogens as acts of terrorism, researchers must be able to "fingerprint" pathogens at the molecular level and discriminate between naturally occurring and deliberately introduced outbreaks. Several domestic and international surveillance, tracking, and reporting efforts are under way.  (+info)

Biological and chemical terrorism: strategic plan for preparedness and response. Recommendations of the CDC Strategic Planning Workgroup. (7/96)

The U.S. national civilian vulnerability to the deliberate use of biological and chemical agents has been highlighted by recognition of substantial biological weapons development programs and arsenals in foreign countries, attempts to acquire or possess biological agents by militants, and high-profile terrorist attacks. Evaluation of this vulnerability has focused on the role public health will have detecting and managing the probable covert biological terrorist incident with the realization that the U.S. local, state, and federal infrastructure is already strained as a result of other important public health problems. In partnership with representatives for local and state health departments, other federal agencies, and medical and public health professional associations, CDC has developed a strategic plan to address the deliberate dissemination of biological or chemical agents. The plan contains recommendations to reduce U.S. vulnerability to biological and chemical terrorism--preparedness planning, detection and surveillance, laboratory analysis, emergency response, and communication systems. Training and research are integral components for achieving these recommendations. Success of the plan hinges on strengthening the relationships between medical and public health professionals and on building new partnerships with emergency management, the military, and law enforcement professionals.  (+info)

Stopping poliovirus vaccination after eradication: issues and challenges. (8/96)

Since 1988 reported polio cases worldwide have declined by about 85% and the number of known or suspected polioendemic countries has decreased from over 120 to less than 50. With eradication of poliomyelitis approaching, issues potentially affecting when and how vaccination against poliovirus can be stopped become extremely important. Because of the potential risks and benefits inherent in such a decision, the best available science, a risk-benefit analysis, contingency plans, a stock pile of poliovirus vaccines, and the endorsement by the global policy-making committees will all be needed before vaccination can be discontinued. The scientific basis for stopping polio immunization has been reviewed by WHO. This Round Table article summarizes the current state of knowledge, provides an update on the processes and timelines for certification, containment, and stopping vaccination, and highlights some of the unanswered scientific questions that will be addressed by further research. These include whether transmission of vaccine-derived poliovirus strains could be sustained so that poliomyelitis could re-emerge in a future unvaccinated population and whether prolonged excretion of vaccine-derived poliovirus from individuals with immune deficiencies could be a mechanism through which this could occur.  (+info)

CONTENTSElementary Biology of Military SignificanceGeneral Properties of Biological Warfare AgentsPossible Antipersonnel Biological Warfare AgentsPossible Antianimal Biological Warfare AgentsPossible Anticrop Biological Warfare AgentsDisseminationU. S. Department of the Army Staff is the author of Military Biology and Biological Warfare Agents, published 2003 under ISBN 9781410206992 and ISBN 1410206998. [read more] ...
The relatively recent use of biological agents such as ricin and anthrax demonstrates how even small-scale biological warfare attacks will quickly become international news. Once a patient has been diagnosed with a disease caused by a biological warfare agent, healthcare providers will be responsible for communicating not only numerous colleagues and staff but also with public health officials, law enforcement agencies, members of the media, and elected officials. In attacks involving numerous numbers of casualties or high-profile targets such as elected officials, the marshaling of resources to respond will almost certainly reach the national level. (Level V). Important communication points early in the care of the patient among physicians, nurses, and pharmacists will include adequate decontamination of the patient and appropriate precautions for first responders and hospital staff to avoid the spread of contagious diseases or additional casualties. Training and education prior to such an ...
As reported by the Department of Defense in 1992,(6) by the time Iraq invaded Kuwait, Iraq had developed the most extensive biological warfare program in the Arab world (despite having been a signatory to the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention outlawing such endeavors). After the Persian Gulf War (1990-1991), Iraqi authorities admitted the program included anthrax bacteria and botulinum toxin.(2) Then in August 1995, Iraq revealed to United Nations inspectors that it had had a far more extensive and aggressive biological warfare program prior to the Persian Gulf War than had previously been admitted. The Iraqi authorities claimed production of thousands of liters of botulinum toxin and of Bacillus anthracis. Additionally, they stated that unspecified amounts of both agents were loaded on Scud missile warheads and aerial bombs. In this same revelation to United Nations inspectors, the Iraqis claimed to have destroyed the agents during the January-February 1991 time frame, but they have yet to ...
Subsequent historians have offered other explanations to the disease outbreaks during the spring of 1952. For example, it has been noted that spring time is usually a period of epidemics within China and North Korea,[35] and years of warfare had also caused a breakdown in the Korean health care system. Historians have argued that under these circumstances, diseases could easily spread throughout the entire military and civilian populations within Korea.[38][39] Australian historian Gavan McCormack argued that the claim of US biological warfare use was far from inherently implausible, pointing out that one of the POWs who confessed, Walker Mahurin, was in fact associated with Fort Detrick.[40] He also pointed out that, as the deployment of nuclear and chemical weapons was considered, there is no reason to believe that ethical principles would have overruled the resort to biological warfare.[41] He also suggested that the outbreak in 1951 of viral haemorrhagic fever, which had previously been ...
Read this full essay on Biological Warfare in Africa during the 1960s and 1970s. Biological Warfare in Africa during the 1960s and 1970s Throughout my re...
Biological warfare (BW), also known as germ warfare, is the deliberate use of disease-causing biological agents such as protozoa, fungi, bacteria, protists, or viruses, to kill or incapacitate humans, other animals or plants. Biological weapons (often referred to as bioweapons) are living organisms or replicating entities (virus) that reproduce or replicate within their host victims.. Biological weapons may be employed in various ways to gain a strategic or tactical advantage over an adversary, either by threat or by actual deployment. Like some of the chemical weapons, biological weapons may also be useful as area denial weapons. These agents may be lethal or non-lethal, and may be targeted against a single individual, a group of people, or even an entire population. They may be developed, acquired, stockpiled or deployed by nation states or by non-national groups. In the latter case, or if a nation-state uses it clandestinely, it may also be considered bioterrorism.[1]. There is an overlap ...
The biological threat. It is not surprising so much effort is being put into counteracting biological threats, especially in the US. In 2001, letters containing anthrax spores killed five people and infected 17 others throughout the country. This was a case of bioterrorism that, according to officials like the US Department of Defence, today presents a significant threat to the military and civilians.. The Chemical and Biological Defence Programme (CBDP) 2009 annual report to US Congress stated that antagonist nations, terrorist organisations and other non-state actors continued to possess or seek weapons with the capacity to inflict catastrophic damage (physical, economic, or psychological).. The report said that some terrorists saw chemical, biological and radiological materials as low-cost, high-impact options for achieving their goals and that in September 2006 Abu Ayyub al Masri, al-Qaeda-in-Iraqs leader, publicly called upon scientists for help to develop such weapons. Biological warfare ...
Biological warfare (BW) - also known as bacteriological warfare, or germ warfare - has had a presence in popular culture for over 100 years. Public interest in it became intense during the Cold War, especially the 1960s and 70s, and continues unabated. This article comprises a list of popular culture works referencing BW or bio-terrorism, but not those pertaining to natural, or unintentional, epidemics. (Alphabetical by authors surname, and chronologically by author) In Suzanne Collinss book Gregor and the Curse of the Warmbloods (2005), there is a plague, which turns out to be a biological weapon which accidentally infected an innocent bystander prematurely. In Frank Herberts science fiction novel The White Plague (1982), a vengeful molecular biologist creates an artificial plague that kills only women, but for which men are the carriers. He releases it in Ireland (to support terrorists), in England (to oppress the Irish), and in Libya (to train said terrorists), and then holds the ...
The biological warfare page links to resources on the health effects from biological weapons, emergency response & treatment, counterterrorism, and emergency preparedness.
Six pathogens, throughout the history of biological warfare, have been considered the most deadly and therefore the most suitable as weapons: anthrax, botulinium, plague, smallpox, tularaemia and viral hemorrhagic fever(s), of these, only smallpox has no other known host, but humans.. ...
Much has been written on the Soviet Biopreparat program since its discovery in 1989, following the defection of several senior scientists who headed up the program, notably one of the largest clandestine BW programs ever run by a State. Expert analysis on all facets of Biopreparat are in the public domain and this is not intended as a review of those experts work only a glimpse into one aspect common to all military BW programs. Often overlooked, but of interest in understanding how biological warfare programs develop is the procurement and acquisition process undertaken in obtaining culture collections particularly after the ratification of the BTWC in 1976. While the fall of the Soviet Union ushered in an era of concern over scientific flight and while states such as Syria, Iran and the DPRK are suspected of having obtained highly pathogenic strains of Category A agents from the former Soviet stocks, it is the Soviet acquisition of India 1 a particularly virulent strain of smallpox, which is ...
Table of Contents:. Introduction............................................................................................. 1. Early Use (through 1900) ........................................................................ 2. Prehistoric Biological Warfare................................................................ 3. Ancient BW (500 BCE to 1000 AD) ......................................................... 4. Medieval and Early Modern BW (1000 AD to 1750 AD)....................... 5. Late Modern BW (1750 AD to 1900 AD)................................................ 7. Summation ............................................................................................ 11. The Origins of Modern BW (1900-1945) ............................................. 12. Summation ............................................................................................ 27. The Cold War and Beyond (1945-Present) .......................................... ...
TERRE HAUTE, Ind. -- In mid-1944, Terre Haute, which means ``high ground,`` found itself sandwiched between a nerve gas plant to the north and a biological warfare facility to the south.Residents
e) New mobile facilities. UK dossier, 24 September 2002, p.6: Iraq has [..] developed mobile laboratories for military use, corroborating earlier reports about the mobile production of biological warfare agents. UK dossier, 24 September 2002, p.18: There was intelligence that Iraq was starting to produce biological warfare agents in mobile production facilities. Planning for the project had begun in 1995 under Dr Rihab Taha, known to have been a central player in the pre-Gulf War programme.. CIA, October 2002, p.17: UNSCOM uncovered a document on Iraqi Military Industrial Commission letterhead indicating that Iraq was interested in developing mobile fermentation units, and an Iraqi scientist admitted to UN inspectors that Iraq was trying to move in the direction of mobile BW production.. CIA, October 2002, p.2: Baghdad has established a large-scale, redundant, and concealed BW agent production capability, which includes mobile facilities; these facilities can evade detection, are highly ...
View United States soldiers vintage historic HD stock video footage in United States USA, 1959. Buy HD video and archival still photo images of clip number 65675061083.
A multi-functional system for use on walls and ceilings is to be developed. The system employs shortened, end-modified single-wall carbon nanotubes as vesicles for potent fullerene-based biocides that incorporate a colored dye, pigment or fluorescent indicator function. The system is to be applied to wall surfaces, and remain dormant until a biological threat comes in contact with the surface. For purposes of the Phase I endeavor, models that mimic common biological warfare agents (BWA) will be used to test the system. Monoclonal antibodies, quaternary amine groups or other moieties on the modified nanotube vesicles will under specific interactions with the BWA mimics, opening the nanotube and exposing the biocide and color agent inside. Upon completion of the decontamination phase of operation, the color agent is designed to decompose, indicating the end of the threat. It is also planned that different colors will be generated in response to different classes of BWA. Incorporation of the system ...
Each of the panelists will speak for about 10 minutes, and the forum then will be open for questions and comments from the audience.. The main entrance to UTD is on University Boulevard on the north side of Campbell Road between Coit and Floyd Roads.. The group is gathering at UTD to work on a book funded by NATO that will address the history of biological weapons from World War II to the present.. About UTD. The University of Texas at Dallas, located at the convergence of Richardson, Plano and Dallas in the heart of the complex of major multinational technology corporations known as the Telecom Corridor, enrolls more than 7,000 undergraduate and 5,000 graduate students. The schools freshman class traditionally stands at the forefront of Texas state universities in terms of average SAT scores. The university offers a broad assortment of bachelors, masters and doctoral degree programs. For additional information about UTD, please visit the universitys Web site at www.utdallas.edu. ...
While preventing proliferation of WMD is a noble cause, advancements, specifically in offensive biological weapon development and deployment platforms, which in some sectors of BW has resulted in de-skilling, make proliferation and acquisition more likely. We simply can not afford to continue countering the threat of BW to our forces with current drug development models, outdated non-proliferation treaties and highly limited methodologies. If we compare developments in the chemical weapon field Johnathan B. Tucker noted in his paper entitled, The Future of Chemical Weapons: At the same time that the process of economic globalization is undermining traditional nonproliferation measures such as export controls, a number of emerging chemical technologies have the potential to transform the nature of the CW threat as well. The pharmaceutical industry, for example, uses a technique called combinatorial chemistry to discover promising drug candidates. This method involves the automated mixing ...
However, reports on recent cases of tularemia caused concerns in the U.S. where some media outlets surmised the outbreak may have resulted from a leak of deadly substances from biological warfare facilities present in the affected provinces. What makes it notable is that tularemia is a fairly rare disease. Thus, the Ryazan area had only four known cases in 2004, the PHXNews Website wrote. The other factor that makes these outbreaks notable is the presence of biological warfare facilities in the region, especially in the Nizhny Novgorod area. Those are, an idle biological weapons destruction facility in Chapayvevsk, Nizhny Novogorod, the Gorokhovets bioweapons storage facility in the Vladimir region and a facility used for the production of chemical weapons in Dzerzhinsk, Nizhny Novogorod. There was more news this week at Red Nova on the Soviets bioweapons program:. The lack of modern biosafety equipment is also raising concern among U.S. officials about the potential for an accidental ...
There are nations that actively pursue biological weapons programs (albeit they declare thats not the case). The government declares these threats to be ever-present (generating a climate of fear) and must be ever guarded against (thats where big daddy government comes in). We are going to concentrate on the greater probable domestic threat: an authoritarian government running wild.
Milton Leitenberg is a senior research associate at the Center for International and Security Studies at the University of Maryland (CISSM). His research is concentrated in three disparate areas of study: biological weapons; actual wars and conflicts of the past two decades and the issue of international intervention in these; and the history of nuclear weapons between the United States and Soviet Union and Russia between 1945 and 1995. CISSM published his major monograph, Biological Weapons Arms Control, in 1996. Since 1992, he has published over 30 papers in the area of biological weapons. Several of these papers concern the biowarfare program of the former Soviet Union, and The Soviet Biological Weapons Program: A History was published by Harvard University Press in 2013. Leitenberg published two other recent books on the subject of biological weapons: The Problem of Biological Weapons (National Defense College, Stockholm, 2004) and Assessing the Biological Weapons and Bioterrorism Threat (US ...
How will the technologies of the future help protect us against terrorism? The new book Safe: The Race To Protect Ourselves in a Newly Dangerous World ...
The pandemic Level 6 influenzas and other similar epidemics are great ways to depopulate human areas. A better option would be to use the pneumonic plague as was trialled in the Ukraine (D225G) during the supposed swine flu (H1N1) level 6 pandemic. Always remember that no natural animal virus can affect a human being without man-made interventions and genetic engineering in laboratories tied to the CDC/WHO. Vaccines are the preferred way to vector these plagues in order to prevent elitists suffering the same fate. For a more indiscriminate method of vectoring then the use of the waterways and the aerosol campaign can be used with the latter being hidden under Stratospheric Aerosol Geo-engineering disguise.
Looking for online definition of biological weapon in the Medical Dictionary? biological weapon explanation free. What is biological weapon? Meaning of biological weapon medical term. What does biological weapon mean?
A biological weapon usually has two parts.[2] The first is the biological agent (also called a bio-agent, biological threat agent, or biological warfare agent). This is the pathogen that is meant to make people sick. The second is the delivery system - how the biological agent is going to get to and expose the people it is supposed to infect. Some bio-agents can be weaponized - changed to make them more dangerous. For example, sometimes scientists can change a pathogens genes so the pathogen is deadlier, and so it will not be killed by usual antidotes or treatments. Some bio-agents can be changed so they are easier to store, spread, or use as weapons.[3]. As of 2016, there are more than 1,200 different kinds of bio-agents that could be made into weapons.[4]. ...
October 2011, a pentavalent (ABCDE) botulinum toxoid (PBT) vaccine was administered to at-risk workers under an Investigational New Drug (IND) application held by the CDC. Recombinant subunit vaccines are in development, with DynPorts recombinant botulinum vaccine candidate, rBV A/B, completing Phase 2 clinical trials in January 2012. The vaccine was reportedly safe and well-tolerated, and elicited a strong immune response. We are pleased with these results and are looking forward to Phase 3 clinical trials of this vaccine, to support the needs of the Department of Defense and the U.S. warfighter, said Dr. Robert V. House, president of DynPort.. Biodefense vaccine development was discussed at the World Vaccine Congress & Expo USA 2013 (Biodefense vaccines - overview, stockpiling and regulation). If you want to know more about strategy and innovation in vaccines, you might be interested in attending the World Vaccine Congress Asia 2013, 17-20 June 2013, Singapore. Want more from Vaccine ...
The United States and Biological Warfare] is a major contribution to our understanding of the past involvement by the US and Japanese governments with BW, with important, crucial implications for the future…. Pieces of this story, including the Korean War allegations, have been told before, but never so authoritatively, and with such a convincing foundation in historical research…. This is a brave and significant scholarly contribution on a matter of great importance to the future of humanity. ―Richard Falk, Albert G. Milbank Professor of International Law and Practice, Princeton University The United States and Biological Warfare argues persuasively that the United States experimented with and deployed biological weapons during the Korean War. Endicott and Hagerman explore the political and moral dimensions of this issue, asking what restraints were applied or forgotten in those years of ideological and political passion and military crisis. For the first time, there is hard evidence that ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Flow Cytometry and T-Cell Response Monitoring after Smallpox Vaccination. AU - Poccia, Fabrizio. AU - Gioia, Cristiana. AU - Montesano, Carla. AU - Martini, Federico. AU - Horejsh, Douglas. AU - Castilletti, Concetta. AU - Pucillo, Leopoldo Paolo. AU - Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria. AU - Ippolito, Giuseppe. PY - 2003/11. Y1 - 2003/11. N2 - Orthopoxvirus zoonosis or smallpox as result of bioterrorism or biological warfare represents a risk for epidemic spread. By monitoring T-cell responses by flow cytometry, we observed a recall response after recent vaccination against smallpox. When the high similarity between the orthopoxviruses is considered, this rapid assay that uses vaccinia antigens could identify recently exposures.. AB - Orthopoxvirus zoonosis or smallpox as result of bioterrorism or biological warfare represents a risk for epidemic spread. By monitoring T-cell responses by flow cytometry, we observed a recall response after recent vaccination against smallpox. When the ...
Dr. Luke Blackburn was a respected medical doctor and philanthropist until he allegedly attempted to create a yellow fever outbreak targeting Northern civilians and soldiers during the Civil War. Despite widespread outrage at the time, he later won a landslide victory to become the governor of Kentu...
been in command of chemical tankers (mainly) for more than 6640 days -- spread over 30 years ( a world record! ) . My Chemical posts are free for ALL sailors on this planet . Any profit making person or institution publishing extracts, must clearly write reproduced from ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com ,- it pays to remember, that the chemical contents are patented . This blogsite will transform your mind . You yourself, are the teacher, the pupil, the messiah, the seeker, the traveller and the destination . It is no measure of health to be well adjusted to this profoundly sick society . I am from INDIA, the mother of all civilizations . I will be re-writing world history , and this will surely not gratify the evil hijackers of human history . Awaken your inner voice . Experience the joy of your own being . Your own conscience is the best interpreter . In a time of universal deceit, telling the truth is a revolutionary act . The naked truth can never be hate speech or defamation. This blogsite ...
div class=citation vocab=http://schema.org/,,i class=fa fa-external-link-square fa-fw,,/i, Data from ,span resource=http://link.library.in.gov/resource/8X2WIUwyT14/ typeof=CreativeWork http://bibfra.me/vocab/lite/Work,,span property=name http://bibfra.me/vocab/lite/label,,a href=http://link.library.in.gov/resource/8X2WIUwyT14/,Twenty-first century biological threats : hearing before the Subcommittee on Bioterrorism and Public Health Preparedness of the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions, United States Senate, One Hundred Ninth Congress, first session, on examining twenty-first century biological threats, focusing on dual-purpose preparedness against natural and deliberate microbial threats, May 11, 2005,/a,,/span, - ,span property=potentialAction typeOf=OrganizeAction,,span property=agent typeof=LibrarySystem http://library.link/vocab/LibrarySystem resource=http://link.library.in.gov/,,span property=name http://bibfra.me/vocab/lite/label,,a ...
There is ample evidence that the U.S. pursued the development of biological warfare agents long after signing the 1972 convention with Britain and the USSR outlawing such weaponry. The Gulf War Syndrome of as British troops call it, Desert Fever, suffered by many veterans of Operation Desert Storm may have been the result of U.S. attacks on stockpiles of biological agents supplied to Saddam Hussein in the 1980s by then Special Envoy to Iraq Donald Rumsfeld. The Pentagon long denied that Gulf War Syndrome was associated with any weapons or vaccines administered to U.S. troops but Secretary of Defense Les Aspin confirmed the presence in Iraq and Saudi Arabia of banned Sarin and mustard gas. There were also reports at the time that U.S. forces, under the orders of then-Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney, deployed banned chem-bio weapons to the theater to prove that Saddam Hussein not only had them in his possession but had used them against allied forces. Saddams use of the weapons would be ...
Scientists in private sector and university labs are attempting to create vaccines for biological warfare agents before attacks can be perpetrated or big industries can whisk away funding opportunities for research and development.
China deception fuels fears of biological weapons ethnic experiments Chinese government deception regarding the coronavirus outbreak is raising new fears about Beijings biological weapons activities, including population-specific research on germ weapons capable of attacking ethnic groups, according to current and former U.S. officials. A senior Trump administration official told The Washington Times that China is…
Emperor Hirohito and the Japanese government decided to build a secret state-of-the-art chemical and biological warfare testing center in the province of Pingfang. The project was started in 1934 and the complex was completed in 1939. The Japanese government had originally named the facility, Epidemic Prevention and Water Purification Department of the Kwantung Army. The name of the complex was changed to Unit 731 in 1941. The prison camps were filled with prisoners of war from Russia, China, South East Asia, America and from captured British soldiers.. The complex can best be described like a Nazi concentration camp encompassing a cluster of buildings, which made up the laboratory complex, surrounded by prison camps. It was built in an uninhabited area and the local population was prohibited from entering the area. The official explanation was that the Japanese government had built a large lumber mill and declared it a military zone for security reasons.. The Japanese government allocated the ...
Turns out just about every doctor wouldve missed it, according to UNCs Bill Goldman. The first symptoms of the plague really are indistinguishable from the flu, he says. But unlike the flu, the plague is already well on its way to shutting down the lungs by the time a patient begins to feel sick. Its a sneaky, extremely contagious, and fatal disease, three reasons why governments and researchers think the plague is a bioterrorism threat-a twenty-first-century weapon of mass destruction.. In medieval times of war, combatants would catapult infected bodies over city walls. Today, a bioterrorist attack would be stealthier and a lot more dangerous.. After the anthrax scare of 2001, the U.S. government pushed for scientists to research various biological warfare threats, such as Yersinia pestis, the bacterium that causes the plague. I hate to put it this way, but terrorists arent going to unload a bunch of rats or fleas into town, Goldman says. Theyll culture the bacteria in massive amounts. ...
1961: Dr. Yi Sung-ki oversees construction of the February 8 Vinalon Factory in Hamhung, South Hamgyong Province. Dr. Yi also assumes the position of director of the Chemistry Institute at the Academy of Sciences Hamhung Branch. He is later referred to by Japanese and South Korean sources as the godfather of weapons of mass destruction (WMD), including chemical and nuclear weapons.. 1980: North Korea succeeds with experiments in bacteria and virus cultivation for biological weapons and by the late 1980s completes live experiments with such weapons, according to a 1999 white paper by South Koreas Ministry of National Defense.. March 1987: North Korea accedes to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC).. 1990-1995: North Koreas chemical warfare effort is intensified and expanded, according to the U.S. Department of Defense. By the late 1980s, North Korea was already able to produce large quantities of chemical agents and munitions independently.. November 1991: South Korean ...
Lt. Gen. Shiro Ishii was the primary organizer, promoter, and director of the Japanese biological warfare (BW) program. He was involved at all levels from pitch-man to the Japanese military and academia to personally supervising research on human subjects. He began his work research on the potential of biological weapons in the late 1920s.. One of Ishiis first facilities was called the Zhong Ma Castle in Beiyinhe northern Manchuria. Initially, their test subjects were trouble makers among the Chinese population: criminals, communists, and other suspicious persons. Ishii began by focusing on plague, glanders, and anthrax. Subjects were injected with the pathogen and the course of their disease was monitored; all were extensively autopsied. (p. 33-34) There are numerous reports of autopsies being carried out on the unconscious, as in not yet dead.. In 1939 the stressed Japanese military allowed Ishii to send several BW attacks against Soviet forces in the Nomonhan region. Details of the mission ...
The Canadian Food Inspection Agencys (CFIA) Acting Chief Veterinary Officer for Canada and Acting Delegate to the World Organisation for Animal Health, Dr. Jaspinder Komal, chaired a keynote panel discussion on global perspectives and health security at the second World Organisation for Animal Healths (OIE) Global Conference on Biological Threat Reduction held in Ottawa, Canada.
US - The Institute for Infectious Animal Diseases (IIAD) has been recognised as a collaborating centre in the specialty of biological threat reduction for the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE).
The first use of horses in warfare occurred over 5,000 years ago. The earliest evidence of horses ridden in warfare dates from Eurasia between 4000 and 3000 BC. A Sumerian illustration of warfare from 2500 BC depicts some type of equine pulling wagons. By 1600 BC, improved harness and chariot designs made chariot warfare common throughout the Ancient Near East, and the earliest written training manual for war horses was a guide for training chariot horses written about 1350 BC. As formal cavalry tactics replaced the chariot, so did new training methods, and by 360 BC, the Greek cavalry officer Xenophon had written an extensive treatise on horsemanship. The effectiveness of horses in battle was also revolutionized by improvements in technology, including the invention of the saddle, the stirrup, and later, the horse collar. Many different types and sizes of horse were used in war, depending on the form of warfare. The type used varied with whether the horse was being ridden or driven, and whether ...
Iraq admitted, among other things, an offensive biological warfare capability, notably, 5,000 gallons of botulinum, which causes botulism; 2,000 gallons of anthrax; 25 biological-filled Scud warheads; and 157 aerial bombs. And I might say UNSCOM inspectors believe that Iraq has actually greatly understated its production.... Over the past few months, as [the weapons inspectors] have come closer and closer to rooting out Iraqs remaining nuclear capacity, Saddam has undertaken yet another gambit to thwart their ambitions by imposing debilitating conditions on the inspectors and declaring key sites which have still not been inspected off limits.... It is obvious that there is an attempt here, based on the whole history of this operation since 1991, to protect whatever remains of his capacity to produce weapons of mass destruction, the missiles to deliver them, and the feed stocks necessary to produce them. The UNSCOM inspectors believe that Iraq still has stockpiles of chemical and biological ...
Iraq admitted, among other things, an offensive biological warfare capability, notably, 5,000 gallons of botulinum, which causes botulism; 2,000 gallons of anthrax; 25 biological-filled Scud warheads; and 157 aerial bombs. And I might say UNSCOM inspectors believe that Iraq has actually greatly understated its production.... Over the past few months, as [the weapons inspectors] have come closer and closer to rooting out Iraqs remaining nuclear capacity, Saddam has undertaken yet another gambit to thwart their ambitions by imposing debilitating conditions on the inspectors and declaring key sites which have still not been inspected off limits.... It is obvious that there is an attempt here, based on the whole history of this operation since 1991, to protect whatever remains of his capacity to produce weapons of mass destruction, the missiles to deliver them, and the feed stocks necessary to produce them. The UNSCOM inspectors believe that Iraq still has stockpiles of chemical and biological ...
____________________________ The allegations by Francis Boyle, legal expert on Biological and Chemical Warfare, that Ebola strain killing thousands of West Africans and infecting tens of thousands more is man-made in U.S. biological warfare laboratories should be the subject of a Congressional investigation. The further question emerges: What is going on in those laboratories? ____________________________ Ebola…
Vaccines are one of the most successful medical interventions of the past millennium (1). Millions of lives have been saved by mass administration of vaccines against deadly pathogens such as smallpox and flu. However, effective vaccines are still lacking for many pathogens, including biothreat agents such as the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus anthracis that causes anthrax and the Gram-negative bacterium Yersinia pestis that causes plague. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), these two organisms are two of the Tier 1 select agents that pose the greatest threat to national security (2). Both are highly virulent resulting in mortality (as high as 100%) of the subjects within 3 to 6 days of infection. The organisms can be weaponized and transmitted through inhalation of aerosolized droplets and can be disseminated relatively easily for the purposes of biological warfare or bioterrorism (3, 4). Designing a vaccine that can protect the public against these threats is ...
human) RATIONALE FOR SURVEILLANCE Anthrax is a widespread zoonosis transmitted from domestic animals (cattle, sheep, goats, buffaloes, pigs and other) to humans by direct contact or through animal products. Human anthrax is a serious problem in several countries and has potential for explosive outbreaks (especially the gastrointestinal form); while pulmonary (inhalation) anthrax is mainly occupational, the threat of biological warfare attacks should not be forgotten. Anthrax has a serious impact on the trade of animal products. The control of anthrax is based on its prevention in livestock: programmes based only on prevention in humans are costly and likely to be ineffective except for those industrially exposed. There is an effective vaccine for those occupationally exposed, and successful vaccines for livestock, particularly for herds with ongoing exposure to contaminated soil. In most countries anthrax is a notifiable disease. Surveillance is important to monitor the control programmes and to ...
Also in those final months of his life, Ochs began compiling curious lists, with entries that clearly were references to US biological warfare research: shellfish toxin, Fort Dietrich, cobra venom, Chantilly Race Track, hollow silver dollars, New York Cornell Hospital Many years before Ochs metamorphosis, in an interesting bit of foreshadowing, psychological warfare operative George Estabrooks explained how US intelligence agencies could create the perfect spy: We start with an excellent subject we need a man or woman who is highly intelligent and physically tough. Then we start to develop a case of multiple personality through hypnotism. In his normal waking state, which we will call Personality A, or PA, this individual will become a rabid communist. He will join the party, follow the party line and make himself as objectionable as possible to the authorities. Note that he will be acting in good faith. He is a communist, or rather his PA is a communist and will behave as such. Then we develop ...
Rather than having Demons represent the embodiment of a human emotion or fear (as Games Workshop has its Chaos Gods; Khorne is violence and slaughter, Slaanesh is unfettered decadence and perversion and so on) I imagined my Demon Lords (or Ladys) as having a particular fetish or obsession that reflected their attitude to warfare and conquest. So my previous two Demon Lords have been a melee-fighting Warlord and a multi-armed magic using Mage Lord. These are some ideas Ive been sketching for a Demon Lord whose interests are in biological warfare, diseases and poisons. More of these when I get time!. ...
Anthrax has been recognized as a highly likely biological warfare or terrorist agent. The purpose of this work was to design a culture technique to rapidly isolate and identify `live anthrax. In liquid or solid media form, 3AT medium (3-amino-L-tyrosine, the main ingredient) accelerated germination and growth of anthrax spores in 5 to 6 hours to a point expected at 18 to 24 hours with ordinary medium. During accelerated growth, standard definitive diagnostic tests such as sensitivity to lysis by penicillin or bacteriophage can be run. During this time, the bacteria synthesized a fluorescent and thermochemiluminescent polymer. Bacteria captured by specific antibody are, therefore, already labeled. Because living bacteria are required to generate the polymer, the test converts immunoassays for anthrax into viability assays. Furthermore, the polymer formation leads to the death of the vegetative form and non-viability of the spores produced in the medium. By altering the formulation of the medium, ...
This 1449 word essay is about Medicine, Health, Clinical medicine, Vaccines, Anthrax, Biological warfare, RTT, Vaccination, Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed. Read the full essay now!
Public and private health protection is a critical national mission. Following the attacks on 9/11, the United States renewed its focus on the potential threat of biological warfare from rogue terrorist groups. The government set aside significant funding for new laboratories to develop diagnostics, perform analyses, and develop countermeasures for attacks.. A competition for these labs followed, and the University of Texas Medical Branch was awarded one of the two grants, which then became known as the Galveston National Lab. The GNL project was commissioned and went hot in almost record time, making many new discoveries and major contributions to the fight against diseases like Ebola. While NIH was weighing these concerns, so was the newly formed Department of Homeland Security (DHS). They funded a second new lab facility with a two-part mission, to examine the forensic analysis of evidence involved in an attack, and to develop diagnostics and countermeasures for diseases that could be ...
According to two Senate Committee Reports that will be completed in 1994, one on May 25 and another on October 7, dual-use chemical and biological agents exported to Iraq from the US significantly contributed to the countrys weapons arsenal. The initial May report will say the agents were not attenuated or weakened and were capable of reproduction and the October report will reveal that the microorganisms exported by the United States were identical to those the United Nations inspectors found and removed from the Iraqi biological warfare program. The 1994 investigation also determines that other exports such as plans and equipment also contributed significantly to Iraqs military capabilities. UN inspectors had identified many United States manufactured items that had been exported from the United States to Iraq under licenses issued by the Department of Commerce, and established] that these items were used to further Iraqs chemical and nuclear weapons development and its missile ...
Will biological warfare revolutionize the battle against gynecologic cancers? Two experts share the latest molecular tactics using special agents. Lethal weapons like Herceptin can throw up some roadblocks, even when they cant always destroy a tumor.
880-01Yersinia pestis and Francisella tularensis, the causative agents of plague and tularemia, have been labeled as potential biological weapons. In the event of an intentional aerosol release of either pathogen, the only FDA-approved treatment is rigorous antibiotic therapy. The focus of this research was to determine if use of known immune stimulants could provide rapid and sustained vaccine protection against pneumonic infections of Y. pestis or F. tularensis.;880-02The AGPs also functioned effectively as adjuvant in a plague vaccine. Our two-dose intranasal (i.n.) vaccine with Y. pestis -derived Caf1 and V antigens provided mice with 100% protection just 21 days after the priming dose. A single i.n. vaccine protected more than 75% of vaccinates 45-180 days post-vaccine. The protection levels seen from our AGP-based vaccine correlated well with total sera IgG titers and promoted a mixed Th1/Th2 response. Our intranasal vaccine protected 90% of Sprague-Dawley rats challenged with ...
Elizabeth Fenn tells the gruesome, riveting story of smallpox during the era of the American Revolution. Few people know that a terrible epidemic ravaged North America in these years, influencing the Revolutionary War, dashing the dreams of freedom-loving African Americans, and wreaking havoc on Native Americans across the continent. Elizabeth also addresses eighteenth-century biological warfare in her talk.. ...
UV irradiation is commonly used in the disinfection of drinking water. Although to a lesser extent, UV has also been used in the disinfection of air, mostly in health care settings. Anecdotal health information as well as laboratory research suggests it is an effective technology for inactivating airborne viruses, bacteria and their spores. However, there is a significant difference between addressing disease-causing organisms in a laboratory setting, and ensuring that deadly biological warfare pathogens are completely removed from an airstream. Installation, construction, and design of UV systems must be of paramount importance, and a focus of air decontamination must now include securing air streams in ducts and HVAC systems from outside infiltration. Since the threat of this kind of terrorism has only recently been realized, independent scientific investigators have begun to do fundamental research into the biological decontamination of airstreams to update this science. In November 2002, a ...
not the greatest author in the world, but ill give it a shot. So as a story line i was thinking that in the semi distant future, 20-30 years, a second cold war had broken out between the Americans and the Russians. Nuclear weapons had gotten to a point where it would spell world disaster if used.The Americans had been working for some time now on modifying genes, and with the start if this war the focus had moved from creating a bigger and badder bomb to biological warfare. The Americans were working on modifying strands of Bovine Spongiform encephalopathy (mad cow disease) to create a similar effect in humans. eventually a team of scientists felt they had something ready for testing, however it was required to be transported to a larger facility to accommodate these tests. (Obviously they dont test on humans, they would use ordinary cells) 10 containers would be transported via cargo ship to the new facility. When removing the cargo containers (the big metal ones) at the new destination the ...
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Important Note: Back in World-war 2, Ziklon-b pellets (Auschwitz) were found to dispense the deadly compound to the prisoneers from the outside of the concentration camps. In 2013, however, the dispensed biopellets may recombine easily using a electrochemical media (the so-called biopellet dispenser). Therefore the forced installation of RF devices (smart meter) into the homes of civilian populations may be more appropriately defined as a biopellet pharmacochemical inducer device. Hence with the installation of such assault devices the governement modus operandi may seek to enforce asymmetrical biological warfare on civilian populations by attempting to cross-link the human chromosome 21 with synthetically transcripted genes. -ER ...
S. marcescens is credited with a long fanatical history dating back to antiquity, when, because of its ability to produce a red pigment it was described as having masqueraded as blood . Early in this century, this distinctive red pigmentation of S. marcescens, combined with an apparent low level of virulence, led to its use as a biological marker of infection. Consequently, S. marcescens was used in a number of classic bacterial transmission experiments, which led to improved understanding of the epidemiology of infection. Under more controversial settings, S. marcescens was also used by the US military in a series of biological warfare test experiments conducted on the general population . From 1960 onwards, however, non-pigmented isolates of S. marcescenspredominated over pigmented strains in the clinical setting and were increasingly implicated in healthcare-associated infection particularly among compromised patients ...
Welcome!. This page is dedicated to all volunteers of the US Army Project CD22 - Operation Whitecoat and it contains a lot of information on the project. Here you can find information on the history of Project CD22, you can browse the gallery that is full of pictures of the Eight Ball at Fort Detrick, you can find references to books that focus on Operation Whitecoat and biological warfare and so much more.. *NOTE* This website is up and running, and we will be continuously updating and adding articles, photos, and videos as we go along.. Here is a little background information about me:. • My name is Ken Jones and I manage and update this site frequently.. • I was born October 30, 1933, Hill Top, Kentucky (McCreary County). I responded to the draft August 24, 1954, in Louisville, Kentucky, and was processed at Fort Knox as a 1-AO. At Fort Sam Houston, San Antonio, Texas, I immediately jumped into the first eight weeks of Medical Aid training. I then had an opportunity to have a brief ...
Sorry to hear about your cancer. We are of similar ages/ I grew up on the Pine Bluff Arsenal. I am not sure what all was done there in the 60s and early 70s but some type of Biological warfare deve ...
Diseases discussed here have a history of use as an agent for biological warfare, either in the U.S. or abroad. Its use may have been experimental or actual, and any detrimental consequences upon humans, animals or the environment may have been intentional or not, depending on the circumstances, the point in time, and the nature of the disease ...
Diseases discussed here have a history of use as an agent for biological warfare, either in the U.S. or abroad. Its use may have been experimental or actual, and any detrimental consequences upon humans, animals or the environment may have been intentional or not, depending on the circumstances, the point in time, and the nature of the disease ...
For several decades, the Laboratory has been at the forefront of protecting the country against biological threats of any type, said Senior Science Adviser Dave Rakestraw, who formerly ran LLNLs biodefense programs and is coordinating the Labs COVID-19 technical response. Weve been putting a large amount of focus for the last six years on using the computational resources at LLNL to try to accelerate the timescales for developing a response to an emerging biological threat. Weve done that, that by using our extensive computational capabilities (staff and computer infrastructure) and developing partnerships with universities, drug companies and tech companies. That effort has put us in a position where we have tools now that are applicable to helping with the current response.. When the COVID-19 outbreak began, LLNLs Adam Zemla developed and published a predicted 3D protein structure of the virus, which was downloaded and used by more than a dozen outside research groups. Since then, the ...
Biological warfare. The British used smallpox as a biological warfare agent at the Siege of Fort Pitt during the French and ... "Biological Warfare in Eighteenth-Century North America: Beyond Jeffery Amherst", The Journal of American History, Vol. 86, No. ... "Smallpox and biological warfare: a disease revisited". Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent). 18 (1): 13-20. doi:10.1080/08998280.2005. ... for use in biological warfare.[150] Insertion of the synthesized smallpox DNA into existing related pox viruses could ...
Biological warfare. Some of the earliest instances of biological warfare were said to have been products of the plague, as ... "Biological Warfare at the 1346 Siege of Caffa". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 8 (9). doi:10.3201/eid0809.010536 - via Centers ... one of the first known instances of biological warfare.[45] When spring arrived, the Italian merchants fled on their ships, ... May 2000). "Plague as a biological weapon: medical and public health management. Working Group on Civilian Biodefense". JAMA. ...
... a biological warfare unit of the Imperial Japanese Army. Ishii led the development and application of biological weapons at ... The Plague Makers: The Secret World of Biological Warfare, Frog Ltd, 1999. ISBN 978-1-883319-85-4 ISBN 978-0-7567-5698-7 ISBN ... The United States and Biological Warfare: Secrets from the Early Cold War and Korea, Indiana University Press, 1999. ISBN 978-0 ... A Higher Form of Killing: The Secret History of Chemical and Biological Warfare, Random House, 2002. ISBN 978-0-8129-6653-4 ...
a b c d Fenn, Elizabeth A. Biological Warfare in Eighteenth-Century North America: Beyond Jeffery Amherst Archived 3 April 2015 ... Biological warfare[edit]. When Old World diseases were first carried to the Americas at the end of the fifteenth century, they ... In the centuries that followed, accusations and discussions of biological warfare were common. Well-documented accounts of ... colonists had the knowledge and technology to attempt biological warfare with the smallpox virus. They well understood the ...
Biological warfare project[edit]. In 1932, he began his preliminary experiments in biological warfare as a secret project for ... In his travels, he did extensive research on the effects of biological warfare and chemical warfare developments from World War ... The United States and Biological Warfare: Secrets from the Early Cold War and Korea, Indiana University Press, 1999. ISBN 978-0 ... The Plague Makers: The Secret World of Biological Warfare, Frog Ltd, 1999. ISBN 978-1-883319-85-4 ISBN 978-0-7567-5698-7 ISBN ...
Appel, J. M. (2009), "Is all fair in biological warfare? The controversy over genetically engineered biological weapons", ... Biological warfare involving smallpox[edit]. One of the most infamous and well documented issues during Pontiac's War was the ... a b Fenn, Elizabeth A. Biological Warfare in Eighteenth-Century North America: Beyond Jeffery Amherst Archived 3 April 2015 at ... use of biological warfare against the Native Americans. The suggestion was posed by Amherst himself in letters to Colonel Henry ...
Frischknecht F (June 2003). "The history of biological warfare". EMBO Rep. 4 Spec No (Supp1): S47-52. doi:10.1038/sj.embor. ... Agent Orange Red rain in Kerala Sverdlovsk anthrax leak Aral smallpox incident Allegations of biological warfare in the Korean ... RW Wannemacher; SL Wiener (1997). "Trichothecene mycotoxins: in Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare" (PDF). U.S ... Christopher GW, Cieslak TJ, Pavlin JA, Eitzen EM (August 1997). "Biological warfare. A historical perspective". JAMA. 278 (5): ...
His topics have included nanotechnology, transhumanism and biological warfare. His articles have appeared in several scientific ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Tucker, Jonathan B. (Winter 1999). "Biological warfare". Issues in Science and ... The Biology of Doom: America's Secret Germ Warfare Project. Henry Holt & Co. 1999. ISBN 0-8050-5765-X. The Info Mesa: Science, ...
LANGMUIR, A D; ANDREWS J M (March 1952). "Biological warfare defense. 2. The Epidemic Intelligence Service of the Communicable ... Dembek, ZF (2005). "3 Epidemiology of biowarfare and bioterrorism". Biological Warfare (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) ... due to biological warfare concerns arising from the Korean War, it has become a hands-on two-year postgraduate training program ... Golovchenko, N. N.; Korotkin, L.M. (eds.). "ANTI-EPIDEMIC MEASURES AT THE LIQUIDATION OF BIOLOGICAL TERRORIST ATTACK ...
... and train laboratory workers for rapid recognition of biological warfare germs. It arose from biological warfare concerns ... Langmuir said that it was of utmost importance to planning of appropriate defense measures against biological warfare germs, ... Langmuir, Alexander D.; Andrews, Justin M. (March 1952). "Biological Warfare Defense". American Journal of Public Health and ... Popham, John (March 31, 1951). "Langmuir Warns of Germ Warfare". New York Times News Service. Chattanooga Daily Times ( ...
Judson, Chemical and Biological Warfare, p. 68 "Bert Stokes remembers Passchendaele". New Zealand History Online. New Zealand ... Evidence exists that the Germans used horses in their experimentations with chemical and biological warfare. German agents in ... ISBN 978-0-275-98726-8. Judson, Karen (2003). Chemical and Biological Warfare. Open for Debate. Marshall Cavendish. ISBN 0-7614 ... generally the mode of warfare changed. Tanks were beginning to take over the role of shock combat. The use of trench warfare, ...
One of the challenges of preventing the proliferation of biological warfare capability is verifying that a legitimate ... Croddy, Eric (5 November 1999). "Chinese Chemical and Biological Warfare (CBW) Capabilities". Conference report: China and ... Chemical Biological Warfare Review. van Westerhoven 2007. Archived from the original on 2006-05-09. Retrieved 2007-10-17. ... biological, and radiological threats (CBR), or nuclear-biological-chemical (NBC), as well as more general safety and public ...
Wheelis, Mark (1999). "Biological warfare before 1914". In Geissler, E.; Moon, J. (eds.). Biological and Toxin Weapons: ... This event is best known as an early instance of biological warfare, where the British gave items from a smallpox infirmary as ... This event is usually described as an early attempt at biological warfare. However the plan's effectiveness is generally ... Mann 2009, p. 9. Barras, V.; Greub, G. (June 2014). "History of biological warfare and bioterrorism". Clinical Microbiology and ...
The United States ended its biological warfare program in 1969. When it did, C. burnetii was one of seven agents it had ... Croddy, Eric C.; Hart, C. Perez-Armendariz J. (2002). Chemical and Biological Warfare. Springer. pp. 30-31. ISBN 0-387-95076-1 ... standardized as biological weapons. At least five completely sequenced genomes of Coxiella burnetii exist, which contain about ...
146-. ISBN 978-1-85109-490-5. "Biological Warfare: Dark Harvest". Time. 9 November 1981. Drainey, Nick (2002-03-04). "SNLA ... Biological and Radiological Agent Threats. IOS Press. pp. 55-. ISBN 978-1-58603-744-4. Weapons of Mass Destruction. ABC-CLIO. ...
Leo M. van Westerhoven (2007). "The Fuchs NBC reconnaissance system is getting a makeover". Chemical Biological Warfare Review ... Detecting shallow-water and beach mines remains a challenge, since mine warfare is a deadly "poor man's weapon." While initial ... Magnetic Anomaly Detection (MAD) is used in antisubmarine warfare, for final localization before attack. The existence of the ... Navies use a variety of acoustic systems, especially passive, in antisubmarine warfare, both tactical and strategic. For ...
Wright, Susan (2002). Biological Warfare and Disarmament. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield. p. 272. ISBN 0-7425-2469-8. Varadarajan ... The al-Hakam germ warfare center, headed by the British-educated Iraqi biologist Dr. Rihab Rashid Taha, was blown up by UNSCOM ... Between 1991 and 1995, UN inspectors uncovered a massive program to develop biological and nuclear weapons. A large amount of ... In June 1999, Ritter said: When you ask the question, "Does Iraq possess militarily viable biological or chemical weapons?" the ...
Watstein, Sarah; Jovanovic, John (2003). "Bioterrorism and Biological Warfare". Statistical Handbook on Infectious Diseases. An ...
... biological warfare entities; formulation of [global] problems, threats and treaties entities; ethical committees for vaccine ... Bartfai is an expert on the detection, destruction and decontamination of chemical and biological weapons, and the immediate ...
Biological warfare against crops. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-333-92085-5. Hiro, Dilip (2001). Neighbors, not friends ... biological, chemical, nuclear weapons or military equipment). The Council also required the Secretary-General and IAEA Director ...
K. Bhushan, G. Katyal (2002). Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Warfare. APH Publishing. p. 204. ISBN 978-81-7648-312-4. Kalim ...
K. Bhushan; G. Katyal (1 January 2002). Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Warfare. APH Publishing. p. 191. ISBN 978-81-7648-312- ...
ISBN 978-0-683-04481-2. K. Bhushan; G. Katyal (2002). Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Warfare. APH Publishing. p. 125. ISBN ... A radiation burn is a damage to the skin or other biological tissue and organs as an effect of radiation. The radiation types ... Wagner, L. K.; Eifel, P. J.; Geise, R. A. (1994). "Potential biological effects following high X-ray dose interventional ...
Bowcott, Owen; Evans, Rob (16 May 2010). "British secret biological warfare testing". The Guardian. London. Spinage, Clive A. ( ... "Chemical and Biological Weapons: Possession and Programs Past and Present" (PDF). James Martin Center for Nonproliferation ... Rinderpest is of concern as a biological weapon for the following reasons: The disease has high rates of morbidity and ... Rinderpest was one of more than a dozen agents the United States researched as potential biological weapons before terminating ...
Sakhalin Biological engineering Development of biological warfare has been widely carried out by many countries. During the ... Nishamara was genetically converting the mosquitos into deadly agents of biological warfare, and Tanlin became a victim of his ... Frischknecht, Friedrich (2003). "The history of biological warfare". EMBO Reports. 4 (Suppl 1): S47-S52. doi:10.1038/sj.embor. ... Germany and Japan were engaged in developing biological warfare. The author, Premendra Mitra, was aware of the latest ...
ISBN 0-375-40642-5. Barras, V; Greub, G (2014). "History of biological warfare and bioterrorism". Clinical Microbiology and ... 2007). Medical Aspects of Biological Warfare. Government Printing Office. ISBN 978-0-16-087238-9. Dixon, David (2005). Never ... Warfare on the North American frontier was brutal, and the killing of prisoners, the targeting of civilians, and other ... ISBN 0-8018-7079-8. Fenn, Elizabeth A. (2000). "Warfare in Eighteenth-Century North America: Beyond Jeffery Amherst". The ...
disease [caused by tropical conditions and the use of biological warfare by the Portuguese, according to the Spanish commander ... They also used biological warfare. The Spaniards withdrew - after losing half of their men from hunger, disease and desertion ... PRIMERA GUERRA DEL III PACTO DE FAMILIA (1762-1763) Sandler, Stanley- Ground Warfare: An International Encyclopedia, Volume 1, ... The Cambridge Illustrated Atlas of Warfare: Renaissance to Revolution, 1492-1792, 1996. ISBN 9780521470339 Dumouriez, Charles- ...
Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Warfare. The DSCSC library comprises 3 sections; the Reference Library, Lending Library and ... Maritime Warfare. Strategic Studies and International Affairs. ICRC Workshop on International Humanitarian Law (IHL). Term 4 - ... Term 2 - Operations of War (17 Weeks) Air Warfare. Military Assistance to Civil Authorities. Operations of War. Strategic ...
ISBN 978-1-250-01649-2. Bhushan, K.; G. Katyal (2002). Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Warfare. India: APH Publishing. pp. 75 ... a section titled radiological warfare addressed the issue. The Operation Antler/Round 1 test by the British at the Tadje site ... thermonuclear weapon is thus automatically a weapon of radiological warfare, but its fallout decays much more rapidly than that ...
"After the War: Biological Warfare; Subject of Anthrax Inquiry Tied to Anti-Germ Training". New York Times. July 2, 2003. ... James Hamblin, 21 Days: An expert in biological warfare warns against complacency in public measures against Ebola, The ... Hamblin, James,21 Days: An expert in biological warfare warns against complacency in public measures against Ebola, The ... "Biological Warfare Experts Questioned in Anthrax Probe", Washington Post, June 28, 2002 (UCLA copy); Brian Ross, "Blueprint for ...
Of those going on active duty, most enter the Navy as Naval Aviators, Naval Flight Officers, Surface Warfare Officers, ... former Deputy Director Expeditionary Warfare; Commander, Joint Task Force, Guantanamo; Commanding Officer USS Carney (DDG-64) ...
It has the potential to be weaponised for use in biological warfare,[226][227] and was investigated by Biopreparat for such use ... May 2002). "Hemorrhagic fever viruses as biological weapons: medical and public health management". Journal of the American ...
... and may have engaged in endemic warfare.[38][57] Some argue that there was no formal leadership during the Middle and Upper ... "Cooking as a biological trait" (PDF). Comp Biochem Physiol a Mol Integr Physiol. 136 (1): 35-46. doi:10.1016/S1095-6433(03) ...
Ledgard, Jared (2006). A Laboratory History of Chemical Warfare Agents. Lulu.com. ISBN 978-0615136455. .. p. 82. ... "Chemical Entities of Biological Interest. UK: European Bioinformatics Institute. 27 October 2006. Main. Retrieved 6 June 2012. ...
Chemical Warfare Secrets Almost Forgotton. A Personal Story of Medical Testing of Army Volunteers with Incapacitating Chemical ... Integrated Platform of Small Molecules and Biological Activities". Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry 4: 217-241. doi: ...
... mirip dengan pakaian dipakai oleh askar-askar moden untuk perlindungan terhadap senjata biological, kimia dan nukelar. Oleh ... memakai pakaian who fireproof untuk melindungi diri mereka dari api-api gunpowder dan juga kimia-kimia dalam gunpowder warfare ...
Biological warfare. *Carcinogen. *Food safety. *Hazard symbol. *List of extremely hazardous substances ...
Sonar interferes with the basic biological functions of whales-such as feeding and mating-by impacting their ability to ... This functions as an upward biological pump, reversing an earlier presumption that whales accelerate the loss of nutrients to ... Biological warfare. *Fermentation *In food processing. *Food microbiology. *List of microbes. *Microbial art ...
Endicott, S. L.; Hageman, E. (1998). The United States and Biological Warfare: Secrets from the Early Cold War and Korea. ... Yellow fever has been researched by several countries as a potential biological weapon.[105] ...
It permanently bans the use of all forms of chemical and biological warfare.[11] The agreement was signed after World War I, ... People were afraid that chemical and biological warfare could have terrible effects in any future war. The protocol was ... Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare. Washington, D.C.: Office of the Surgeon General at TMM Publications. pp. ... extended by the Biological Weapons Convention (1972) and the Chemical Weapons Convention (1993). ...
Turing, A. M. (1952). "The Chemical Basis of Morphogenesis". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological ... remarkable during a century of near-constant warfare between the two nations. The work was written up in three papers in ... In 1887, the Transactions split into series "A" and "B", dealing with the physical and biological sciences respectively. In ... Biological Sciences). Both journals now publish themed issues and issues resulting from papers presented at the Discussion ...
Sexing skeletons is based on the observation that biological males and biological females differ most in the skull and pelvis; ... Andrushko, Valerie A.; Schwitalla, Al W.; Walker, Phillip L. (2010). "Trophy-Taking and Dismemberment as Warfare Strategies in ... Cambridge Studies in Biological and Evolutionary Anthropology: Cambridge University Press, 2008. Mays, Simon. The Archaeology ... Cambridge Studies in Biological and Evolutionary Anthropology: Cambridge University Press, 2008. 273-303. Buikstra, Jane E. " ...
... a shift in military interest in cyber warfare has motivated the creation of the first U.S. Cyber Warfare Intelligence Center.[ ... "US Air Force Prepares For Cyber Warfare". Space Daily.. *^ "US needs 'digital warfare force'". BBC News. 5 May 2009. Retrieved ... Reportedly, this is in response to North Korea's creation of a cyber warfare unit.[53] In addition, the British GCHQ has begun ... Others have also discussed the creation of a cyber-warfare branch.[40][41] Lieutenant Colonel Gregory Conti[42] and Colonel ...
Recruits are sent to the "gas chamber" during Phase I, as part of training for defensive chemical warfare. They are also ... including protection against biological and chemical attack, basic marksmanship on the M16 rifle as well as first aid). ... Drills, First aid and chemical warfare, PT and obstacle course, First weapon qualification (FAMAS, pistol and grenade), Signals ... warfare command and strategy, and associated technologies. ...
"A History of the Warfare of Science with Theology. New York: D. Appleton and Company.. ... including the risk of prion contamination of biological materials) are likely to be used more and more often. However, they are ...
Series B, Biological Sciences. 286 (1015): 483-505. JSTOR 2418066.. *^ Stadnicka, Julita; Schirmer, Kristin; Ashauer, Roman ( ... Biological warfare. *Carcinogen. *Food safety. *Hazard symbol. *List of extremely hazardous substances ... Thus, the longer the biological half-life of a toxic substance, the greater the risk of chronic poisoning, even if ...
Educated in the fundamentals of maneuver warfare, tactics, combined arms, and the time-tested principles of battle ... Marine Corps Chemical Biological Incident Response Force, Marine Corps Security Force Regiment, or the Marine Corps Embassy ...
Croddy, Eric (2002). Chemical and biological warfare: a comprehensive survey for the concerned citizen. Springer. p. 128. ISBN ... Sayers, W. (2006). "The Use of Quicklime in Medieval Naval Warfare". The Mariner's Mirror. Volume 92. Issue 3. pp. 262-269. ... Adrienne Mayor (2005), "Ancient Warfare and Toxicology", in Philip Wexler (ed.), Encyclopedia of Toxicology, 4 (2nd ed.), ... Quicklime may have been used in medieval naval warfare - up to the use of "lime-mortars" to throw it at the enemy ships.[24] ...
"Biological Warfare at the 1346 Siege of Caffa". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 8 (9): 971-975. doi:10.3201/eid0809.010536. ISSN ... they decided to use the infected corpses as a biological weapon. The corpses were catapulted over the city walls, infecting the ... "Numbers in Mongol Warfare". In Rogers, Clifford J.; DeVries, Kelly; France, John (eds.). Journal of Medieval Military History ...
Later, it was included in A. dorsata as a subspecies[1] based on the biological species concept, though authors applying a ... "Calcium-independent phospholipases A2 and their roles in biological processes and diseases". Journal of Lipid Research. 56 (9 ...
... biological and chemical warfare laboratories cooperated closely with Allied counterparts.[10] In 1944, Chalmers Mackenzie and ...
Four aircraft converted as Nuclear, biological and chemical warfare reconnaissance versions of the An-24B, carrying RR8311-100 ...
Biological dose units and quantities. *Wireless electronic devices and health. *Radiation Heat-transfer ...
British Association for Biological Anthropology and Osteoarchaeology. *Museum of Osteology. *v. *t ...
that in the second year after its launch, biological preprints hosted on bioRxiv repository were tweeted about on over 20,000 ...
Biological transmission requires a period of incubation of the trypanosomes within the tsetse host. The term 'biological' is ... Anti-Submarine Warfare: An Illustrated History, 2007, by David Owen. Page 170. Seaforth Publishing. ... Tsetse are biological vectors of trypanosomes, meaning that in the process of feeding, they acquire and then transmit small, ... The cycle of biological transmission of trypanosomiasis involves two phases, one inside the tsetse host and the other inside ...
The American Institute of Biological Sciences published a similar paper in support of this concept in 2009.[10] In addition, ... Nuclear warfare. *Electromagnetic pulse (EMP). *Safety of high-energy particle collision experiments *Micro black hole ...
"Biological Psychiatry. 66 (12): 1075-82. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2009.06.026. PMC 2787650. PMID 19748076.. ... warfare, traffic collisions, child abuse, or other threats on a person's life.[1][6] Symptoms may include disturbing thoughts, ... "Biological Psychiatry. 66 (12): 1072-4. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2009.09.023. PMC 2825567. PMID 19944792.. ... "Biological Psychiatry. 76 (4): 306-14. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2013.10.007. PMC 3984614. PMID 24231200.. ...
Rada B, Leto TL (2009). "Redox warfare between airway epithelial cells and Pseudomonas: Dual oxidase versus pyocyanin". Immunol ... Reiter B, Härnulv G (1984). "Lactoperoxidase antibacterial system natural occurrence, biological functions and practical ... Rada B, Leto TL (2009). "Redox warfare between airway epithelial cells and Pseudomonas: Dual oxidase versus pyocyanin". Immunol ...
In Africa, there are many socio-cultural and biological factors that have led to heightened psychological struggles, while also ... due to its dramatic mental health crisis after warfare, but not much was benefited. Aside from financial reasons, it is so ...
... (BW), also known as germ warfare, is the deliberate use of disease-causing biological agents such as ... There is an overlap between biological warfare and chemical warfare, as the use of toxins produced by living organisms is ... Biological weapons may be employed in various ways to gain a strategic or tactical advantage over an adversary, either by ... Biological weapons (often referred to as bioweapons) are living organisms or replicating entities (virus) that reproduce or ...
Challenges to this task include minimizing the labor, equipment, and time for identifying biological and chemical agents. ... objective is to develop tools and medicines to detect and treat biological and chemical weapons in the field at concentrations ... of the presence of a biological threat. The second method involves the development of a wearable, non-invasive diagnostic ...
... warfare is a subtype of biological warfare. Offensive biological warfare is prohibited under customary international ... Biological warfare, also known as germ warfare, is the use of biological toxins or infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses ... Entomological warfare (EW) is a type of biological warfare that uses insects to attack the enemy. The concept has existed for ... Biological warfare and chemical warfare overlap to an extent, as the use of toxins produced by some living organisms is ...
This method of Biological warfare attack and the test program to study it was known as the Large Area Coverage (LAC) concept. ... The Dorset Biological Warfare Experiments were a series of experiments conducted between 1953 and 1975 to determine the extent ... The Dorset Biological Warfare Experiments 1963-75 Jim Carlton,Of Microbes and Mock Attacks: Years Ago, The Military Sprayed ... to which a single ship or aircraft could dispense biological warfare agents over the United Kingdom. The tests between 1971- ...
a b c d e f g h i j k Sheldon H. Harris (3 May 2002). Factories of Death: Japanese Biological Warfare, 1932-45, and the ... Biological and Radiological Warfare and Recommendations, which advocated urgent development of a biological weapons program.[4] ... a b "Reviews of The United States and Biological Warfare: secrets of the Early Cold War and Korea", York University, compiled ... The United States and Biological Warfare: Secrets from the Early Cold War and Korea, (Google Books, relevant excerpt), Indiana ...
"NBC: Islamic Biological Warfare," from the Strategy Page, with thanks to EPG:. It turns out there are there are Islamic " ... Islamic Biological Warfare. May 12, 2005. 6:40 am. By Robert Spencer ... In particular, biological weapons. But these mass killers have been developed within Islamic nations, and are doing most of ...
Diplomacy and biological warfare. The first diplomatic effort to limit biological warfare was the Geneva Protocol for the ... Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention Bioterrorism Chemical Warfare Infectious Disease, Threats to Security Viral Biology ... Early History of Biological Warfare Examples of the use of biological weapons exist in ancient records. In the sixth century B. ... In contrast to bioterrorism, biological warfare is defined as the statesanctioned use of biological weapons on an opposing ...
... Weapons of mass destruction By type Biological warfare Chemical warfare Nuclear weapons Radiological weapons ... For the use of biological agents by terrorists, see bioterrorism. Biological warfare (BW), also known as a germ warfare, ... ed.) (1997). Historical Overview of Biological Warfare. In Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare, pp. 415-423. ... Bacteria · Biological hazard · Biological warfare · Decontamination · Infectious disease · Virus · Toxin · Terrorism. ...
Moon is an expert on the history of biological warfare and edited Biological and Toxin Weapons: Research, Development and Use ... Wheelis is an expert on biological weapons and the history of biological warfare. He has acted as a lobbyist and technical ... Symposium On Biological Warfare,. Bioterrorism to be Held at UTD Oct. 26 ... Chevrier is an expert in both biological and chemical warfare and arms control and has been quoted in the media on several ...
... the chemical and biological warfare defense program, and (B) the chemical and biological medical defense program. ... Annual report on chemical and biological warfare defense. (a) Report required. The Secretary of Defense shall include in the ... A) any lethal chemical or any biological warfare agent, or. (B) any delivery system specifically designed to disseminate any ... On and after October 7, 1970, no chemical or biological warfare agent shall be disposed of within or outside the United States ...
... biological warfare, in the latest comments likely to strain Brazils relations with China. ... Biological Warfare. President Jair Bolsonaro says the novel coronavirus may have been made in a laboratory to wage biological ... President Jair Bolsonaro says the novel coronavirus may have been made in a laboratory to wage "biological warfare," in the ... www.barrons.com/news/brazil-s-bolsonaro-links-pandemic-to-biological-warfare-01620269144 ...
Training for Biological Warfare. Share. A new slew of technology is increasing the US militarys capability to respond to ... biological agents. As participants in the "field identification of biological warfare (BW) agents" course for training in ... Biological warfare and bioterrorism are expected to remain significant threats, despite the creation and stockpiling of ... The biological threat. It is not surprising so much effort is being put into counteracting biological threats, especially in ...
Even assuming this is true (it isnt), if it was unintentional then it wasnt biological warfare ... Well if we are talking about biological WARFARE, we have to argue semantics. You just listed a lot of reasons why it would be ... It is a biological weapon facility. Whether its intentional or not is completely irrelevant - as were LITERALLY on the brink ... The same city with the countrys first TOP biological weapons research facility. Imagine thinking you can debunk something ...
How Many Nedas? Iran Sanctions Are Biological Warfare Against Civilians. This is not an economic policy. It is the collective ... It is an act of biological warfare against children, the elderly, and people of all ages. ... It is an act of biological warfare against children, the elderly, and people of all ages. ...
For purposes of the Phase I endeavor, models that mimic common biological warfare agents (BWA) will be used to test the system ... The system is to be applied to wall surfaces, and remain dormant until a biological threat comes in contact with the surface. ... which is highly respected for its biological testing expertise and facilities. ...
Medical Aspects of Biological Warfare (an update of Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare published in 1997) ... Emergency first providers and responders, specialists in biological warfare and terrorism may also have an interest in this ... Reflecting the critical threat posed by biological warfare and terrorism in a post 9-11 world, ... History of Biological Weapons: From Poisoned Darts to Intentional Epidemics. James W. Martin, George W. Christopher, and Edward ...
1991 ICAAC: Symposium: "Biological Warfare.". *1992 GM: Presidents Forum: "Biological Warfare: An Old Problem - Future ... ASM and Biological Warfare: A Brief Chronology RETURN TO CHOMA HOME PAGE. 13 April, 1942: The ASMs "War Committee on ... May, 1951: This committee reports as "Committee on Information Concerning Civil Defense against Biological Warfare." They also ... and whereas we believe that biological warfare does not lend itself even to the degree of control that atomic warfare does. Our ...
Japanese biological warfare research on humans: a case study of microbiology and ethics.. Harris S1. ...
Biological warfare was the focus of billion-dollar investments by the United States and the former Soviet Union until President ... I define biological warfare as use of agents of disease for hostile purposes. This definition encompasses attacks on human ... Lederberg J. Biological Warfare. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(6):1070-1071. doi:10.3201/eid0706.010636.. ... President Nixons abjuration of biological warfare as a U.S. military weapon in 1969 set in motion the most important ...
HomeArchiveObama Using Biological Warfare Against U.S. Citizens. Obama Using Biological Warfare Against U.S. Citizens July 22, ... 1 Comment on Obama Using Biological Warfare Against U.S. Citizens * jeffrey m woods July 25, 2015 at 10:58 New York Avenue ... The Obama White House is effectively waging biological warfare against U.S. citizens. ... This was a racist biological attack against me, was trying to start up a major 3rd party and had contacted grassroots about a ...
Properties of Biological Warfare AgentsPossible Antipersonnel Biological Warfare AgentsPossible Antianimal Biological Warfare ... Military Biology and Biological Warfare Agents. Military Biology and Biological Warfare Agents. by U. S. Department of the Army ... S. Department of the Army Staff is the author of Military Biology and Biological Warfare Agents, published 2003 under ISBN ...
... deprives of civilians of hospitals and medicine-as Bashar Al-Assad is doing in Syria-he is conducting a sort of biological ... Biological warfare has a long history, going back to when the Assyrians poisoned enemy water sources more than two millennia ... A form of biological warfare in Syria and Yemen By Elisabeth Eaves, November 6, 2018 ... But biological warfare, as commonly understood, has always involved introducing some sort of pathogen-ancient poisons, diseased ...
... 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. ...
... british army nuclear chemical and biological warfare detection demonstration london chemical nuclear and biological ... british army nuclear chemical and biological warfare detection demonstration london chemical nuclear and biological ... british army nuclear chemical and biological warfare detection demonstration london chemical nuclear and biological ... british army nuclear chemical and biological warfare detection demonstration london chemical nuclear and biological ...
The fungus appears to work like a biological Internet, carrying vital intelligence from plant to plant. ...
Detecting Biological Warfare Agents. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(10):1629-1632. doi:10.3201/eid1110.050269.. ... Song, L., Ahn, S., & Walt, D. R. (2005). Detecting Biological Warfare Agents. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11(10), 1629-1632. ... Each primer pool has 1 primer pair for each biological warfare agent of interest. Multiplex PCR was run as follows: an initial ... Her research interests include applications of DNA microarrays and microarray-based detection of biological warfare agents and ...
Is The Pentagon Modifying Viruses To Save Crops - Or To Wage Biological Warfare?. by Dan Charles NPR Nov. 8, 2018 7:38 a.m. ... "We are not developing biological warfare agents," he says. "This is for the benefit of crops and the stability of our food ... So the research could be perceived, at least, as a as a violation of the Biological Weapons Treaty. She recently co-authored a ... Her specialty is international law, including the Biological Weapons Convention, which the United States ratified in 1975. The ...
... and Prophylaxis for Selected Biological Warfare Agents. (RX). by Internal Medicine News; Health care industry Health, general ... APA style: Vaccines, Therapeutics, and Prophylaxis for Selected Biological Warfare Agents. (RX).. (n.d.) >The Free Library. ( ... MLA style: "Vaccines, Therapeutics, and Prophylaxis for Selected Biological Warfare Agents. (RX).." The Free Library. 2001 ... S.v. Vaccines, Therapeutics, and Prophylaxis for Selected Biological Warfare Agents. (RX).." Retrieved Aug 24 2019 from https ...
He provides a brief history of biological warfare, including a link to a Nova slideshow on the topic, and writes that a flu ... Restricting Publication Of H5N1 Research More Perilous Than Threat Of Biological Warfare. Jan 10, 2012 ...
  • Biological warfare (BW), also known as germ warfare , is the deliberate use of disease -causing biological agents such as protozoa , fungi , bacteria , protists , or viruses , to kill or incapacitate humans, other animals or plants. (princeton.edu)
  • Biological warfare, also known as germ warfare, is the use of biological toxins or infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, insects, and fungi with the intent to kill, harm or incapacitate humans, animals or plants as an act of war. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vaccinate everyone, to crush the germ warfare of American imperialism! (wikipedia.org)
  • Biological warfare (BW), also known as a germ warfare , biological weapons , and bioweapons , is the use of any pathogen ( bacterium , virus or other disease-causing organism) as a weapon of war. (bionity.com)
  • Biological warfare (BW), commonly called germ warfare is the use of biological toxins or infectious agents (bacteria, viruses, and fungi) to ill or incapacitate people directky or the animals and plants on which people depend. (histclo.com)
  • Biological warfare (or germ warfare ) is when pathogens are used as a weapon . (wikipedia.org)
  • Sometimes known as 'germ warfare,' biological weapons involve the use of toxins or infectious agents that are biological in origin. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • 1943 - In response to Japan's full-scale germ warfare program, the U.S. begins research on biological weapons at Fort Detrick, MD. (scribd.com)
  • In contrast to bioterrorism, biological warfare is defined as the 'statesanctioned' use of biological weapons on an opposing military force or civilian population. (faqs.org)
  • For the use of biological agents by terrorists, see bioterrorism . (bionity.com)
  • RICHARDSON, Texas (Oct. 22, 2001) - The University of Texas at Dallas (UTD) will host a symposium about biological warfare and bioterrorism - particularly focusing on the recent anthrax outbreaks - Friday, Oct. 26, from 10 to 11:30 a.m. in Room JO 4.614 of the Jonsson Building on the UTD campus. (utdallas.edu)
  • Accurately detecting and identifying biological warfare agents (BWAs) is the focal point for countering bioterrorism. (cdc.gov)
  • The threat of bioterrorism has stimulated renewed interest in the "Blue Book," a pocket-sized manual published by the United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Md. The fourth edition of the manual, entitled "Medical Management of Biological Casualties Handbook" (February 2001), includes a summary of medical agents from which this table is adapted. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Biological warfare and bioterrorism. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Fanny Ewan of the Interpol Bioterrorism Prevention Unit CBRNE and Vulnerable Targets Sub-directorate said the Internet is a rich source for recipes, materials, knowledge and tutorials on bioterrorism, bio-warfare and biological crimes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Britain produced five million anthrax cakes at the UK Chemical and Biological Defense Establishment at Porton Down with the intent of dropping them on Germany to infect the food chain. (faqs.org)
  • But biological warfare, as commonly understood, has always involved introducing some sort of pathogen-ancient poisons, diseased corpses, plague-infested fleas, anthrax-into a population. (thebulletin.org)
  • As the 2001 anthrax attacks amply demonstrated, the threat posed by a biological weapons' incident may be closer to home than any of us care to think. (wordpress.com)
  • It contains events related to the event October 2, 2001: Letter Calling Muslim Scientist Potential Biological Warfare Terrorist Arrives Days before First Signs of Anthrax Attacks . (historycommons.org)
  • Today, pathogens for diseases like anthrax or smallpox could be used as agents for biological weapons. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was also believed to have an active program developing biological weapons (in particular, anthrax and botulinum toxin). (health.mil)
  • Anthrax spores have been used as a weapon in biological warfare. (teara.govt.nz)
  • Six pathogens, throughout the history of biological warfare, have been considered the most deadly and therefore the most suitable as weapons: anthrax, botulinium, plague, smallpox, tularaemia and viral hemorrhagic fever(s), of these, only smallpox has no other known host, but humans. (blogspot.com)
  • Therefore, the use of biological agents in armed conflict is a war crime. (wikipedia.org)
  • Accordingly, biological agents are potentially useful as strategic deterrents, in addition to their utility as offensive weapons on the battlefield. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some biological agents (smallpox, pneumonic plague) have the capability of person-to-person transmission via aerosolized respiratory droplets. (wikipedia.org)
  • Challenges to this task include minimizing the labor, equipment, and time for identifying biological and chemical agents. (faqs.org)
  • The second method involves the development of a wearable, non-invasive diagnostic device that detects a broad-spectrum of biological and chemical agents. (faqs.org)
  • The Dorset Biological Warfare Experiments were a series of experiments conducted between 1953 and 1975 to determine the extent to which a single ship or aircraft could dispense biological warfare agents over the United Kingdom. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Senate subcommittee hearings in 1977, the US Army revealed: Between 1949 and 1969 open-air tests of biological agents were conducted 239 times. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a strategic weapon, BW is again militarily problematic, although with a possible exception with the Soviets, the weaponized biological agents did not spread from person to person. (bionity.com)
  • Restrictions on use of human subjects for testing of chemical or biological agents. (house.gov)
  • directed Secretary of Defense to submit an annual report to Congress on expenditures for research, development, test, and evaluation of all lethal and nonlethal chemical and biological agents. (house.gov)
  • Over 20 days, curriculum students at Fort Detrick, Maryland, get quite close to one of the deadliest and most difficult threats to detect - biological agents. (army-technology.com)
  • As participants in the "field identification of biological warfare (BW) agents" course for training in technologies for confirmation and identification of BW agents, the students learn how to set-up, maintain and operate a deployable confirmatory laboratory under field conditions. (army-technology.com)
  • Unlike chemical agents, biological agents have an incubation period that can take days to develop symptoms. (army-technology.com)
  • For purposes of the Phase I endeavor, models that mimic common biological warfare agents (BWA) will be used to test the system. (sbir.gov)
  • Reflecting the critical threat posed by biological warfare and terrorism in a post 9-11 world, Medical Aspects of Biological Warfare (an update of Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare published in 1997) addresses the weaponization of biological agents, categorizing potential agents as food, waterborne, or agricultural agents or toxins, and discusses their respective epidemiology. (gpo.gov)
  • I define biological warfare as use of agents of disease for hostile purposes. (cdc.gov)
  • S. Department of the Army Staff is the author of 'Military Biology and Biological Warfare Agents', published 2003 under ISBN 9781410206992 and ISBN 1410206998. (valorebooks.com)
  • We developed a fiber-optic, microsphere-based, high-density array composed of 18 species-specific probe microsensors to identify biological warfare agents. (cdc.gov)
  • We simultaneously identified multiple biological warfare agents in environmental samples by looking at specific probe responses after hybridization and response patterns of the multiplexed array. (cdc.gov)
  • to develop biological agents that have no justification for peaceful purposes," she says. (opb.org)
  • We are not developing biological warfare agents," he says. (opb.org)
  • Vaccines, Therapeutics, and Prophylaxis for Selected Biological Warfare Agents. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • It was not until the 1970s when South Africa started producing more destructive agents, even though South Africa signed the Biological Warfare Convention (BWC) in 1972 and ratified it in November of 1975(Boston). (brightkite.com)
  • South Africa increased their production of more aggressive biological and chemical agents so that they may prevent the Communist onslaught from the Soviet Union and Cuban-backed regimes, which had made threats to takeover Mozambique and Angola during the mid to late 1970s (Boston). (brightkite.com)
  • The new fungal agents were dubbed Agent Green by the Sunshine Project, a non-governmental organization opposed to the use of biological weapons, and were developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and by two other facilities using U.S. government funding--a private company in Montana, and a former Soviet biological weapons facility in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. (panna.org)
  • In-depth definitions of biological agents, biological weapons, and biological warfare (BW) are included, as well as an appendix of further reading on the subject. (gpo.gov)
  • Ironically, when Senator Riegle first approached officials at the Department of Defense about veterans' possible exposures to chemical and biological warfare agents in the Persian Gulf, he was told by Walter Reed Army Medical Center commander Major General Ronald Blank that the issue was not even explored because "military intelligence maintained that such exposures never occurred. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • patent (6,569,353) for a gel-based formulation capable of decontaminating both chemical and biological warfare agents. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Smiths Detection provides systems to detect chemical and biological warfare agents, explosives and drugs to the military, transportation and facility security markets. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The focus of the grants was aimed at developing an ultrasensitive hand-held biochip system for detecting the deployment of chemical and biological warfare agents. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Maclellan notes that under Project 112 and SHAD, weapons with sarin, VX and other chemical and biological agents were tested in Hawai'i, Panama, and the Marshall Islands in the 1960s. (nautilus.org)
  • Project 112 included tests on land while Project SHAD encompassed tests at sea designed to identify U.S. warships' vulnerabilities to attacks with chemical or biological warfare agents and to develop procedures to respond to such attacks while maintaining a war-fighting capability. (nautilus.org)
  • Pentagon documents released in 2002 show the US Defense Department sprayed live nerve and biological agents on ships and sailors, and sprayed a germ toxin on Enewetak Atoll in the Marshall Islands. (nautilus.org)
  • The Japanese also had an active program and actually used both biological and chemical agents in china, primarily in China. (histclo.com)
  • And akthough chemicl warfare was very limited suring the War, WMD were largely unknown to the public was the huge advances that he Germans and made in CW during the War creating deadly nerve agents and the massive BW progrm launched by the Soviet Union after the War. (histclo.com)
  • One could say that cigarettes and all their chemicals are weapons of mass destruction, filled with agents of biological warfare that slowly destroy human cells and end life early for millions of people that become "hooked" on them. (naturalnews.com)
  • Chemical and biological warfare agents are threats to the military and civilians alike in both terrorist and conventional warfare scenarios. (labmate-online.com)
  • It begins with a section on the background of decontamination, which includes a chronological history of military research, an overview of the US Department of Defense decontamination principles and requirements and a chapter that acts as a primer on chemical and biological warfare agents. (labmate-online.com)
  • Types of Pathogens that are used in Biological Agents. (brainscape.com)
  • More recently, however, the possibility has been recognized that there might have been other types of releases of chemical or biological agents, most plausibly during bombing of Iraqi munitions bunkers or production facilities. (health.mil)
  • This section summarizes an analysis, drawn from information collected predominantly from U.S. sources, but with corroboration from British sources, of evidence relevant to possible exposures of U.S. forces to biological and chemical agents. (health.mil)
  • Biological agents are easily recognized through their effects on a target population. (health.mil)
  • Attention has also focused on chemical weapons, and the possibility that troops were targeted by these weapons, or were exposed to low levels of chemical warfare agents. (health.mil)
  • As a result, the concentration of chemical warfare agents in the air is reduced to an insignificant level very rapidly as a function of distance and time. (health.mil)
  • Biological Warfare Agents" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (childrensmercy.org)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Biological Warfare Agents" by people in this website by year, and whether "Biological Warfare Agents" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (childrensmercy.org)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Biological Warfare Agents" by people in Profiles. (childrensmercy.org)
  • On Sept. 11, Russian media reported that the Richard Lugar Center for Public Health Research laboratory, a research facility for high-level biohazard agents located near Tbilisi, Georgia, has used human beings for conducting biological experiments. (batr.net)
  • To address the DHS need for a novel technology platform that is non-destructive to common environmental surfaces but capable of destroying a range of biological agents, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a Biological Warfare Agents Remediation (BIFAR) system based on photocatalytic ionization of hydrogen peroxide inside porous microcarriers. (sbir.gov)
  • This system uses a one to 10 um collection sample size, which is the typical size of most bio-warfare agents. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The hazards caused by microbial agents were classified as natural outbreaks, accidental release, bio-crime, bio-terrorism and bio-warfare as well as related challenges and opportunities. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • May, 1951: This committee reports as "Committee on Information Concerning Civil Defense against Biological Warfare. (asm.org)
  • Home / Journal of Civil Defense / Journal of Civil Defense 2019, Volume 53, Issue 2, "Biological Warfare, Can you Survive? (tacda.org)
  • I would like to start with two definitions defining chemical warfare and biological warfare from a civil defense point of view. (jamanetwork.com)
  • The Dorset Biological Warfare Experiments 1963-75 Jim Carlton,Of Microbes and Mock Attacks: Years Ago, The Military Sprayed Germs on U.S. Cities, The Wall Street Journal, (October 22, 2001). (wikipedia.org)
  • Innovative Design of Experiments (DOE) methods are used to significantly reduce the number of simulations required to model biological warfare (BW) attacks. (jmp.com)
  • In this context, the recruitment of top German and Japanese scientists who had conducted grisly "medical" experiments whilst waging biological war against China and the Soviet Union would be free of any moralizing or political wavering. (wordpress.com)
  • These Cold War-era experiments to test the Navy's vulnerability to toxic warfare involved about 4,300 US military personnel, mostly from the Navy. (nautilus.org)
  • stories likened the study to Japanese bio-warfare experiments on Chinese prisoners in World War II. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 1942 - Chemical Warfare Services begins mustard gas experiments on approximately 4,000 servicemen. (scribd.com)
  • When indexed to weapon mass and cost of development and storage, biological weapons possess destructive potential and loss of life far in excess of nuclear, chemical or conventional weapons. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a tactical weapon for military use, a significant problem with biological warfare is that it would take days to be effective, and therefore might not immediately stop an opposing force. (wikipedia.org)
  • Smallpox was used as a biological weapon several times during the colonization of the Americas. (faqs.org)
  • Between 1918 and 1945, the Japanese government conducted extensive biological weapon research at Unit 731 in occupied Manchuria, China. (faqs.org)
  • A biological weapon may be intended to kill, incapacitate or seriously impede an adversary. (bionity.com)
  • It is a biological weapon facility. (hltv.org)
  • Dr. Lederberg is cochair of a study on biological weapon threats and defensive measures tasked by the Defense Science Board and the Defense Threat Reduction Agency. (cdc.gov)
  • President Nixon's abjuration of biological warfare as a U.S. military weapon in 1969 set in motion the most important diplomatic and legal steps towards its eradication globally, laying the groundwork for the Biological Weapons Convention treaty. (cdc.gov)
  • He provides a brief history of biological warfare, including a link to a Nova slideshow on the topic, and writes that a flu strain has never been used as a weapon "for good reason" - "Influenza in general is an equal-opportunity menace" that would "put at great risk anyone trying to assemble a pandemic H5N1 to launch at 'target' populations. (kff.org)
  • According to the current declassified literature, the T-2 mycotoxin is the only mycotoxin known to have been used as a biological weapon. (mold-help.org)
  • The report of "yellow rain" in remote sections of jungle in Laos (1975-81), which resulted in more than 6,378 deaths, has been viewed as use of T-2 mycotoxin as a biological weapon. (mold-help.org)
  • Other reported uses of T-2 mycotoxin as a biological weapon concern Kampuchea (1979-81) with 1,034 deaths and Afghanistan (1979-81) with 3,042 deaths. (mold-help.org)
  • This is called a biological weapon . (wikipedia.org)
  • At that time insider information indicated that SARS was a biological weapon. (reuters.com)
  • https://www.aircrap.org/2018/01/16/chemtrail-flu-biological-warfare. (12160.info)
  • Pursuant to Sections 306(a), 307(a), and 307(d) of the Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and Warfare Elimination Act of 1991, as amended (22 U.S.C. Section 5604(a) and Section 5605(a)), on August 6, 2018, the Deputy Secretary of State determined that the Government of the Russian Federation has used chemical weapons in violation of international law or lethal chemical weapons against its own nationals. (federalregister.gov)
  • Join us on The Truth Perspective this Sunday, 4 February 2018, from 12-2pm EST / 5-7pm UTC / 6-8pm CET as Dilyana shares the results of her in-depth investigations and her most recent work on the Pentagon's Bio-warfare labs. (sott.net)
  • 2018. Medical Aspects of Biological Warfare, Textbooks of military medicine: Office of the Surgeon General, Borden Institute, US Army Medical Department Center and School, Health Readiness Center of Excellence. (netecweb.org)
  • Biological weapons (often referred to as bioweapons ) are living organisms or replicating entities ( virus ) that reproduce or replicate within their host victims. (princeton.edu)
  • There is an overlap between biological warfare and chemical warfare , as the use of toxins produced by living organisms is considered under the provisions of both the Biological Weapons Convention and the Chemical Weapons Convention . (princeton.edu)
  • Biological warfare and chemical warfare overlap to an extent, as the use of toxins produced by some living organisms is considered under the provisions of both the BWC and the Chemical Weapons Convention. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using nonliving toxic products, even if produced by living organisms (e.g., toxins), is considered Chemical warfare under the provisions of the Chemical Weapons Convention . (bionity.com)
  • Living organisms or their toxic products that are used to cause disease or death of humans during WARFARE. (childrensmercy.org)
  • Because living organisms can be unpredictable and incredibly resilient, biological weapons are difficult to control, potentially devastating on a global scale, and prohibited globally under numerous treaties. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Biological warfare is the intentional use of living organisms or their toxic products to produce death, disability, or damage to man, animals, or crops. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Biological warfare is distinct from warfare involving other types of weapons of mass destruction (WMD), including nuclear warfare, chemical warfare, and radiological warfare. (wikipedia.org)
  • The status of nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) warfare defense training and readiness among the Armed Forces and measures being taken to include realistic nuclear, biological, and chemical warfare simulations in war games, battle simulations, and training exercises. (cornell.edu)
  • Nuclear warfare -- Safety measures. (powells.com)
  • Examples include biological, chemical and nuclear weapons. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The figure below illustrates the increase in the number of reports logged within the NBC (Nuclear, Biological and Chemical) cells of the Central Command, Army Central Command and VII Army Corps. (health.mil)
  • Since the media has decided to scare everyone with predictions of chemical, biological, or nuclear warfare on our turf I decided to write a paper and keep things in their proper perspective. (angelfire.com)
  • What's so crazy about all this is that Israel has a very large arsenal of nuclear and bio-warfare weapons while Iran remains under UN nuclear inspection. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The creation and stockpiling of biological weapons ("offensive BW") was outlawed by the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention (BWC), signed by over 100 countries. (bionity.com)
  • This declaration was followed by the negotiation, ratification, and coming into force (in 1975) of the Biological Weapons Convention, a categorical ban on the development, production, and use of biological weapons. (cdc.gov)
  • Were it not for the Biological Weapons Convention, a gradually escalating technology race would have amplified even further this threat to human existence. (cdc.gov)
  • Her specialty is international law, including the Biological Weapons Convention, which the United States ratified in 1975. (opb.org)
  • A description of the chemical warfare defense preparations that have been and are being undertaken by the Department of Defense to address needs which may arise under article X of the Chemical Weapons Convention. (cornell.edu)
  • The U.S. plan to spray Fusarium oxysporum would violate the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC), which prohibits international transfers of bioweapons and equipment. (panna.org)
  • The production, and stockpiling of such weapons was forbidden in the Biological Weapons Convention of 1972. (wikipedia.org)
  • On 30 June 1950, soon after the outbreak of the Korean War, the US Defense Secretary George Marshall received the Report of the Committee on Chemical, Biological and Radiological Warfare and Recommendations , which advocated urgent development of a biological weapons program. (wikipedia.org)
  • The report said that some terrorists saw chemical, biological and radiological materials as low-cost, high-impact options for achieving their goals and that in September 2006 Abu Ayyub al Masri, al-Qaeda-in-Iraq's leader, publicly called upon scientists for help to develop such weapons. (army-technology.com)
  • Define Radiological Warfare. (brainscape.com)
  • What is Radiological Warfare? (cram.com)
  • According to congressional testimony by Dr. Alan M. Pearson, Director of the Biological and Chemical Weapons Control Program at the Washington D.C.-based Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation , with very little in the way of effective oversight or accountability, tens of billions of dollars "have been appropriated for bioweapons-related research and development activities. (wordpress.com)
  • South Africa's Chemical and Biological Warfare program has been ongoing since World War I. Even after the Geneva Convention of 1925 was established South Africa did not entirely cease production and research of their Chemical and Biological Warfare program (Boston). (brightkite.com)
  • In fact, during World War II, South Africa sidestepped the convention protocol and began planning a more extensive Chemical and Biological Warfare program, to protect the country from the threat of the Nazi regime. (brightkite.com)
  • Estimates are that over 3,000 prisoners died as a result of infection by these biological pathogens or execution following such infections. (faqs.org)
  • Biological weapons may be employed in various ways to gain a strategic or tactical advantage over the enemy, either by threats or by actual deployments. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is not surprising so much effort is being put into counteracting biological threats, especially in the US. (army-technology.com)
  • U.S. legislators are making new threats to use biological weapons in Colombia's civil war. (panna.org)
  • Biological weapons include pathogenic viruses, bacteria, and biological toxins. (faqs.org)
  • The only reference to BW is in a report from Oct. 1943: "On the basis of recommendations made by members of the Committee and by other members of the Society, a program of activities was drawn up to cover the following fields:… 9) [of 9] Bacteriological warfare and the effect of warfare upon essential bacterial processes (gas warfare and soil bacteria). (asm.org)
  • On the other hand, a group of Yemeni doctors identified the source of the spread of the epidemic, they confirmed the theory that Saudi Arabia used biological weapons, and one of the doctors participating in the campaign that they have examined the sources of water in different areas, where they found in the water a type of bacteria used in biological weapons. (iuvmpress.com)
  • Biological warfare in Yemen is not limited to the spread of disease bacteria, but includes the use of other biological weapons, as evidenced by the strange burns suffered by Yemenis wounded by the Saudi bombing, which eventually kill them. (iuvmpress.com)
  • 1950 - In an experiment to determine how susceptible an American city would be to biological attack, the U.S. Navy sprays a cloud of bacteria from ships over San Franciso. (scribd.com)
  • Human rights activists describe what is happening in Yemen in biological warfare, while analysts believe that America bears a large part of the responsibility because it supports Saudi Arabia in the war on Yemen since 2015. (iuvmpress.com)
  • [4] The biological weapons research facility at Fort Detrick in Maryland was expanded, and a new one in Pine Bluff, Arkansas , was developed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The United States government's biological warfare facility was headquartered at Fort Detrick in Maryland beginning in 1942. (faqs.org)
  • Several cases are known of researchers becoming infected and dying of Ebola, which they had been working with in the lab (though nobody else was infected in those cases) - while there is no evidence that their work was directed towards biological warfare, it demonstrates the potential for accidental infection even of careful researchers fully aware of the dangers. (wikipedia.org)
  • They include South Africa's Chemical and Biological Warfare Program and the beginning of the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and the Ebola virus. (brightkite.com)
  • In this report I will discuss the South Africa's Chemical and Biological Warfare Program and bits of the AIDS theories and the Ebola virus. (brightkite.com)
  • The use of this generalist and highly persistent fungal pathogen would legitimize biological warfare, and provide a major threat to the health and environment within Colombia. (panna.org)
  • The proficiency of a biological warfare agent like pathogen to transfer through an artificial route in the United States. (criticalpast.com)
  • The proficiency of a biological warfare agent like pathogen to transfer through a artificial route shows U.S. soldiers having food and water. (criticalpast.com)
  • Biological warfare, as defined by the United Nations, is the use of any living organism (e.g. bacterium, virus) or an infective component (e.g., toxin), to cause disease or death in humans, animals, or plants. (faqs.org)
  • During World War I, Germany developed a biological warfare program based on the bacterium Bacillus anthracis and a strain of Pseudomonas known as Burkholderia mallei , which causes glanders disease in cattle. (faqs.org)
  • Dr. Orient warned of the imminent danger of serious disease and virus epidemics, using the terms "collusion" and "biological weapons attack" in reference to the health crisis. (americanfreepress.net)
  • In a story for Foreign Policy , the doctor and global public health expert Annie Sparrow advances a more unusual argument: That Syria's embattled dictator Bashar Al-Assad, by deliberately degrading healthcare to encourage disease and death, is also conducting a form of biological warfare. (thebulletin.org)
  • Biological warfare is defined as "the use of harmful living things (such as germs that cause disease) as weapons in a war" (Merriam-Webster Dictionary). (brightkite.com)
  • And in two of the three written records we have of these events, the victims interpreted the stench resulting from biological aggression as the cause of subsequent disease. (heavengames.com)
  • While limited use of chemicals and disease in warfare dates from ancient times, the origins of modern chemical and biological weapons systems date from the era of the two world wars. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Understanding sensitivity or resistance to rabies is important, she said, not only because the disease still causes 55,000 deaths a year globally, but it could also potentially be weaponized and used as a bio-warfare agent. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Intelligence estimates indicate that up to a dozen countries may have developed biological weapons. (cdc.gov)
  • Biological warfare: Microorganisms as drivers of host-parasite interactions. (stonybrook.edu)
  • But both despots deploy this alternative form of biological warfare at their peril-at everybody's peril, really. (thebulletin.org)
  • The first form of biological warfare may have been when the plague hit the Mongols . (wikipedia.org)
  • Rudimentary forms of biological warfare have been practiced since antiquity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Fourth International Congress for Microbiology joins the International Society of Cell Biology in condemning in the strongest possible terms all forms of biological warfare. (asm.org)
  • Britain has secret contingency plans to cope with a deliberate release of chemical or biological weapons in populated areas. (sott.net)
  • Japanese biological warfare research on humans: a case study of microbiology and ethics. (nih.gov)
  • RMSF is transmitted to humans by tick bites, the only way I know of (short of biological warfare). (911blogger.com)
  • Careful analysis by the Coalition forces following Desert Storm led to the conclusion that there was no intentional, tactical use of either biological or chemical weapons by Iraq during the war. (health.mil)
  • Chemical warfare is the intentional use of toxic chemicals to kill or confuse man. (jamanetwork.com)
  • The Conventions outlaw acts such as the intentional targeting of civilian populations and the creation and stockpiling of biological weapons. (heitordepaola.online)
  • Is The Pentagon Modifying Viruses To Save Crops - Or To Wage Biological Warfare? (opb.org)
  • In the 1960s, South Africa realized that they needed to update their Chemical and Biological Warfare program after the Egyptians starting using chemicals in Yemen during the mid 60s. (brightkite.com)
  • Chemical Warfare (CW) uses chemicals, commonly called poison gas, to kill. (histclo.com)
  • Offensive biological warfare is prohibited under customary international humanitarian law and several international treaties. (wikipedia.org)
  • During 1951, as the war turned against the United States, the Chinese and North Koreans made vague allegations of biological warfare, but these were not pursued. (wikipedia.org)
  • [7] Schwable disclosed in his press statement that B-29s flew biological warfare missions to Korea from airfields in American-occupied Okinawa starting in November 1951. (wikipedia.org)
  • April, 1951: Ad Hoc Committee on Biological Warfare formed. (asm.org)
  • The group is gathering at UTD to work on a book funded by NATO that will address the history of biological weapons from World War II to the present. (utdallas.edu)
  • At least since the 2002 publication of "Unrestricted Warfare," a book by two People's Liberation Army (PLA) colonels, Chinese military thinking has extended the concept of a battlefield to every aspect of military and civilian existence. (heitordepaola.online)
  • The Chemical and Biological Defence Programme (CBDP) 2009 annual report to US Congress stated that antagonist nations, terrorist organisations and other non-state actors continued to possess or seek weapons with the capacity to inflict catastrophic damage (physical, economic, or psychological). (army-technology.com)
  • Please cite an example of an accident in biological weapons work. (cornell.edu)
  • He has acted as a lobbyist and technical expert on biological weapons control and can provide insight into how terrorists or hostile governments might mount a biological attack and how it could be detected. (utdallas.edu)
  • Inspections in the post-war period by UN biological weapons teams found no weaponized stores of toxins, spores or organisms (although this finding does not answer the question of the size and scope of the Iraqi program in biological weapons, since the evidence has almost certainly been hidden or may have been destroyed in the period immediately after the ground war). (health.mil)
  • A biological attack could conceivably result in large numbers of civilian casualties and cause severe disruption to economic and societal infrastructure. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rationale behind the agreement is to avoid the devastating impact of a successful biological attack which could conceivably result in millions, possibly even billions, of deaths and cause severe disruptions to societies and economies. (bionity.com)
  • Until the end of World War II, Japan operated a covert biological and chemical warfare research and development unit called Unit 731 in Harbin . (wikipedia.org)
  • Meanwhile, U.S. strategic planners and their British partners advocated the tactical, strategic, and covert possibilities of biological weapons as well as their potential as weapons of mass destruction. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Background: Bubonic plague is amongst the diseases with the highest potential for being used in biological warfare attacks today. (eurekaselect.com)
  • It was the Japanese who made the most use of biological weapons during World War II, as among other terrifyingly indiscriminate attacks, the Japanese Army Air Force dropped ceramic bombs full of fleas carrying the bubonic plague on Ningbo, China. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The quantities, characteristics, and capabilities of fielded chemical and biological defense equipment to meet wartime and peacetime requirements for support of the Armed Forces, including individual protective items. (cornell.edu)
  • The status of research and development programs, and acquisition programs, for required improvements in chemical and biological defense equipment and medical treatment, including an assessment of the ability of the Department of Defense and the industrial base to meet those requirements. (cornell.edu)
  • Measures taken to ensure the integration of requirements for chemical and biological defense equipment and material among the Armed Forces. (cornell.edu)
  • Inventory of chemical/biological defense equipment & supplies is conducted. (cram.com)
  • In 1950 the U.S. government, concurrent with the growing tensions of the early Cold War, and especially the outbreak of the Korean War , secretly launched a heavily funded and far-ranging crash program in biological warfare. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Atomic Biological and Chemical Warfare Home Defence! (angelfire.com)
  • Developed world besides their conventional armies have established bio-defense units for defence against bio-warfare if any. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • So in this series we will discuss fundamentals of biological warfare to outline some preventative preparations you can take in order to safeguard yourselves. (readynutrition.com)
  • Driven by reports of Japanese and German programs to develop biological weapons, the Allies embarked on vigorous efforts to develop their own biological weapons during World War II. (faqs.org)
  • In contrast, defensive biological research for prophylactic, protective or other peaceful purposes is not prohibited by the BWC. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dr. John Ellis van Courtland Moon , retired professor of history, Fitchburg State College, Fitchburg, Mass. Moon is an expert on the history of biological warfare and edited Biological and Toxin Weapons: Research, Development and Use from the Middle Ages to 1945 . (utdallas.edu)
  • The strength of the project rests on the collaboration of Materials and Electrochemical Research (MER) Corporation, with extensive nanotechnology experience and Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute (LRRI), which is highly respected for its biological testing expertise and facilities. (sbir.gov)
  • So the research could be perceived, at least, as a as a violation of the Biological Weapons Treaty. (opb.org)
  • Throughout my research in many different books, reports on Biological warfare in Africa during the 1960's and 1970's, I have found a number of things. (brightkite.com)
  • Following World War II, the South African Defense Force continued to research Chemical and Biological Warfare but more for riot control. (brightkite.com)
  • The United States government, although declaring a self-imposed moratorium on actively pursuing biological weapons back in the 1970's has plenty of Bio-Level 4 facilities with weapons research and testing. (readynutrition.com)
  • This book is a comprehensive overview of the scientific research and development that has been done in chemical and biological agent decontamination technology in the US military. (labmate-online.com)
  • Currently, the United States Army is conducting 90% of their biological warfare research in T-2 mycotoxins, according to Dr. William Deagle, in a recent telephone interview. (mold-help.org)
  • Recently declassified Government files reveal the events that led to research on biological weapons. (scientificamerican.com)
  • FBR Press a global publisher that specialises in biomedical research books, articles, magazines and novels, announced on Tuesday that it will release an Armageddon bio-warfare political thriller by author and filmmaker Paul McKellips, titled Jericho 3, on 9 July 2012. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Researchers in industry, government and academia are applying microfluidic technologies for use in food process controls, protein separation, drug development, diagnostics, environmental monitoring and chemical and biological warfare agent detection. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The recently formed division includes Graseby, with its chemical and biological warfare agent detection capability, Barringer Instruments (now Smiths Detection Warren) with their expertise in trace explosive and narcotics detection and Environmental Technologies Group (Now Smiths Detection Edgewood) with their expertise in artillery meteorology and biological warfare agent detection. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Critics say the plan proposes illegal acts of biological warfare, poses major ecological risks to one of the world's most bio-diverse countries, and will increase the human damage of a failed eradication policy. (panna.org)