Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.
Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.
Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.
Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.
Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS. Human vaccines are intended to reduce the incidence of UTERINE CERVICAL NEOPLASMS, so they are sometimes considered a type of CANCER VACCINES. They are often composed of CAPSID PROTEINS, especially L1 protein, from various types of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.
A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.
An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.
A suspension of formalin-inactivated poliovirus grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture and used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with ROTAVIRUS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.
Vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER and/or PARATYPHOID FEVER which are caused by various species of SALMONELLA. Attenuated, subunit, and inactivated forms of the vaccines exist.
A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.
A live, attenuated varicella virus vaccine used for immunization against chickenpox. It is recommended for children between the ages of 12 months and 13 years.
A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by MUMPS VIRUS. Best known is the live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had mumps or been immunized with live mumps vaccine. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.
Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.
A combined vaccine used to prevent MEASLES; MUMPS; and RUBELLA.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent ANTHRAX.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with DENGUE VIRUS. These include live-attenuated, subunit, DNA, and inactivated vaccines.
Vaccines using VIROSOMES as the antigen delivery system that stimulates the desired immune response.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Any vaccine raised against any virus or viral derivative that causes hepatitis.
A live vaccine containing attenuated poliovirus, types I, II, and III, grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture, used for routine immunization of children against polio. This vaccine induces long-lasting intestinal and humoral immunity. Killed vaccine induces only humoral immunity. Oral poliovirus vaccine should not be administered to immunocompromised individuals or their household contacts. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Vaccine used to prevent YELLOW FEVER. It consists of a live attenuated 17D strain of the YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.
A suspension of killed Yersinia pestis used for immunizing people in enzootic plague areas.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed fungi administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious fungal disease.
A live attenuated virus vaccine of duck embryo or human diploid cell tissue culture origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of nonpregnant adolescent and adult females of childbearing age who are unimmunized and do not have serum antibodies to rubella. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Vaccines that are produced by using only the antigenic part of the disease causing organism. They often require a "booster" every few years to maintain their effectiveness.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent SAIDS; (SIMIAN ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME); and containing inactivated SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS or type D retroviruses or some of their component antigens.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with SALMONELLA. This includes vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER or PARATYPHOID FEVER; (TYPHOID-PARATYPHOID VACCINES), and vaccines used to prevent nontyphoid salmonellosis.
Vaccines using supra-molecular structures composed of multiple copies of recombinantly expressed viral structural proteins. They are often antigentically indistinguishable from the virus from which they were derived.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent EBOLA HEMORRHAGIC FEVER.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Combined vaccines consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and an acellular form of PERTUSSIS VACCINE. At least five different purified antigens of B. pertussis have been used in various combinations in these vaccines.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS.
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.
Vaccines used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS. They include inactivated (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, INACTIVATED) and oral vaccines (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, ORAL).
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
A combined vaccine used to prevent infection with diphtheria and tetanus toxoid. This is used in place of DTP vaccine (DIPHTHERIA-TETANUS-PERTUSSIS VACCINE) when PERTUSSIS VACCINE is contraindicated.
Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat both enterotoxigenic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infections.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with WEST NILE VIRUS.
Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY) caused by species of SHIGELLA.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.
An attenuated vaccine used to prevent and/or treat HERPES ZOSTER, a disease caused by HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 3.
Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.
A bacterial vaccine for the prevention of brucellosis in man and animal. Brucella abortus vaccine is used for the immunization of cattle, sheep, and goats.
The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection by any virus from the family HERPESVIRIDAE.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A compound with many biomedical applications: as a gastric antacid, an antiperspirant, in dentifrices, as an emulsifier, as an adjuvant in bacterins and vaccines, in water purification, etc.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with LEISHMANIA.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Aluminum metal sulfate compounds used medically as astringents and for many industrial purposes. They are used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of ulcerative stomatitis, leukorrhea, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, metritis, and minor wounds.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with viruses from the genus SIMPLEXVIRUS. This includes vaccines for HSV-1 and HSV-2.
The formaldehyde-inactivated toxin of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It is generally used in mixtures with TETANUS TOXOID and PERTUSSIS VACCINE; (DTP); or with tetanus toxoid alone (DT for pediatric use and Td, which contains 5- to 10-fold less diphtheria toxoid, for other use). Diphtheria toxoid is used for the prevention of diphtheria; DIPHTHERIA ANTITOXIN is for treatment.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES.
Warfare involving the use of living organisms or their products as disease etiologic agents against people, animals, or plants.
Treatment of diseases with biological materials or biological response modifiers, such as the use of GENES; CELLS; TISSUES; organs; SERUM; VACCINES; and humoral agents.
Protection conferred on a host by inoculation with one strain or component of a microorganism that prevents infection when later challenged with a similar strain. Most commonly the microorganism is a virus.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE).
Administration of a vaccine to large populations in order to elicit IMMUNITY.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent conception.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines derived from edible plants. Transgenic plants (PLANTS, TRANSGENIC) are used as recombinant protein production systems and the edible plant tissue functions as an oral vaccine.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Active immunization where vaccine is administered for therapeutic or preventive purposes. This can include administration of immunopotentiating agents such as BCG vaccine and Corynebacterium parvum as well as biological response modifiers such as interferons, interleukins, and colony-stimulating factors in order to directly stimulate the immune system.
An acute, highly contagious, often fatal infectious disease caused by an orthopoxvirus characterized by a biphasic febrile course and distinctive progressive skin eruptions. Vaccination has succeeded in eradicating smallpox worldwide. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A respiratory infection caused by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS and characterized by paroxysmal coughing ending in a prolonged crowing intake of breath.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
The relationship between an elicited ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSE and the dose of the vaccine administered.
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.
Vaccines for the prevention of diseases caused by various species of Rickettsia.
Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with parainfluenza viruses in humans and animals.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Infection with any of the rotaviruses. Specific infections include human infantile diarrhea, neonatal calf diarrhea, and epidemic diarrhea of infant mice.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PSEUDORABIES (Aujeszky's disease), a herpesvirus of swine and other animals.
Neoplasms of the skin and mucous membranes caused by papillomaviruses. They are usually benign but some have a high risk for malignant progression.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
The process of keeping pharmaceutical products in an appropriate location.
Acute VIRAL CNS INFECTION affecting mammals, including humans. It is caused by RABIES VIRUS and usually spread by contamination with virus-laden saliva of bites inflicted by rabid animals. Important animal vectors include the dog, cat, bat, fox, raccoon, skunk, and wolf.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
An acute infectious disease of humans, particularly children, caused by any of three serotypes of human poliovirus (POLIOVIRUS). Usually the infection is limited to the gastrointestinal tract and nasopharynx, and is often asymptomatic. The central nervous system, primarily the spinal cord, may be affected, leading to rapidly progressive paralysis, coarse FASCICULATION and hyporeflexia. Motor neurons are primarily affected. Encephalitis may also occur. The virus replicates in the nervous system, and may cause significant neuronal loss, most notably in the spinal cord. A rare related condition, nonpoliovirus poliomyelitis, may result from infections with nonpoliovirus enteroviruses. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp764-5)
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Infections with bacteria of the species NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.
Biological activities and function of the whole organism in human, animal, microorgansims, and plants, and of the biosphere.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Vaccines used in conjunction with diagnostic tests to differentiate vaccinated animals from carrier animals. Marker vaccines can be either a subunit or a gene-deleted vaccine.
A type of H. influenzae isolated most frequently from biotype I. Prior to vaccine availability, it was a leading cause of childhood meningitis.
Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Strains of Neisseria meningitidis which are the most common ones causing infections or disease in infants. Serogroup B strains are isolated most frequently in sporadic cases, and are less common in outbreaks and epidemics.
The non-susceptibility to infection of a large group of individuals in a population. A variety of factors can be responsible for herd immunity and this gives rise to the different definitions used in the literature. Most commonly, herd immunity refers to the case when, if most of the population is immune, infection of a single individual will not cause an epidemic. Also, in such immunized populations, susceptible individuals are not likely to become infected. Herd immunity can also refer to the case when unprotected individuals fail to contract a disease because the infecting organism has been banished from the population.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent LYME DISEASE.
An acute infectious disease caused by RUBULAVIRUS, spread by direct contact, airborne droplet nuclei, fomites contaminated by infectious saliva, and perhaps urine, and usually seen in children under the age of 15, although adults may also be affected. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
A disease caused by tetanospasmin, a powerful protein toxin produced by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI. Tetanus usually occurs after an acute injury, such as a puncture wound or laceration. Generalized tetanus, the most common form, is characterized by tetanic muscular contractions and hyperreflexia. Localized tetanus presents itself as a mild condition with manifestations restricted to muscles near the wound. It may progress to the generalized form.
Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.
Living organisms or their toxic products that are used to cause disease or death of humans during WARFARE.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat PSEUDOMONAS INFECTIONS.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
A fulminant infection of the meninges and subarachnoid fluid by the bacterium NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS, producing diffuse inflammation and peri-meningeal venous thromboses. Clinical manifestations include FEVER, nuchal rigidity, SEIZURES, severe HEADACHE, petechial rash, stupor, focal neurologic deficits, HYDROCEPHALUS, and COMA. The organism is usually transmitted via nasopharyngeal secretions and is a leading cause of meningitis in children and young adults. Organisms from Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, B, C, Y, and W-135 have been reported to cause meningitis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp689-701; Curr Opin Pediatr 1998 Feb;10(1):13-8)
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of WHOOPING COUGH. Its cells are minute coccobacilli that are surrounded by a slime sheath.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
A localized infection of mucous membranes or skin caused by toxigenic strains of CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE. It is characterized by the presence of a pseudomembrane at the site of infection. DIPHTHERIA TOXIN, produced by C. diphtheriae, can cause myocarditis, polyneuritis, and other systemic toxic effects.
Viruses containing two or more pieces of nucleic acid (segmented genome) from different parents. Such viruses are produced in cells coinfected with different strains of a given virus.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
... and Novartis Vaccines. Rappuoli earned his doctoral and bachelor's degrees in biological sciences at the University of Siena. ... He co-founded the field of cellular microbiology, a discipline combining cell biology and microbiology, and pioneered the ... Rappuoli joined Chiron as head of European vaccines research in 1992 with the acquisition of Italian vaccines company Sclavo ... Rappuoli, was previously the Global Head of Vaccines Research for Novartis Vaccines & Diagnostics (Siena, Italy) Since 2015, Dr ...
... of vaccine candidates to protect against HIV infection and progression to AIDS has led to a renewed focus on the biological ... A limited period of therapy combining anti-retrovirals with drugs targeting the latent reservoir may one day allow for total ... HIV vaccine[edit]. Main article: HIV vaccine. An HIV vaccine is a vaccine that would be given to a person who does not have HIV ... Only a vaccine is thought to be able to halt the pandemic. This is because a vaccine would cost less, thus being affordable for ...
... for the adaptive combination of novel agents in this new paradigm where the combined multi-agents serve as a systems biological ... Cancer Breakthroughs 2020, is a coalition with the goal of finding vaccine-based immunotherapies against cancer. By pooling the ... and vaccines in preclinical and clinical studies. FDA Regulation: Novel approaches ... and testing a variety of treatments including novel combinations of vaccines, cell-based immunotherapy, metronomic (regularly ...
Live attenuated vaccines are contraindicated while taking amantadine, as it may limit the efficacy of the administered vaccine ... Due to its effects on the central nervous system, it should not be combined with additional CNS stimulants or anticholinergic ... Rimantadine is a closely related adamantane derivative with similar biological properties; both target the M2 proton channel of ... Live attenuated vaccines are contraindicated while taking amantadine. It is possible that amantadine will inhibit viral ...
This discipline falls under the branch of biorobotics because of its combined field of study between biological bodies and ... human growth hormones and vaccines. In research, scientists genetically modify organisms to observe physical and behavioral ... Android (robot) Bio-inspired robotics Molecular machine#Biological Biological devices Biomechatronics Biomimetics Cultured ... It's a portmanteau that combines biology and electronics. The history of bionics goes as far back in time as ancient Egypt. A ...
The vaccine-given under a seven-dose schedule-was developed by the Nes Tziona Biological Institute. A group of study volunteers ... see Anthrax toxin-combined with various adjuvants such as aluminum hydroxide (Alhydrogel), saponin QS-21, and monophosphoryl ... New third-generation vaccines being researched include recombinant live vaccines and recombinant sub-unit vaccines. In the ... These vaccines may be given by aerosol, scarification, or subcutaneous injection. A Georgian/Russian live anthrax spore vaccine ...
Combined with pathogenicity prediction, this application guides research to test the effect of top candidate variants in ... As such RAG2 knockout mice represent a very valuable research tool used in transplantation experiments, vaccine development and ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 290 (19): 11802-17. doi:10.1074/jbc.M115.638627. PMC 4424321. PMID 25745109. Oettinger MA ... Also, the RAG2 mutation can be combined with other mutations in order to develop further models useful for basic immunology ...
van der Eb A. "USA FDA CTR For Biologics Evaluation and Research Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee ... Zagranichnaya TK, Wu X, Villereal ML (August 2005). "Endogenous TRPC1, TRPC3, and TRPC7 proteins combine to form native store- ... Pro-life medical ethicists have said that since the cell lines are immortal, receiving the COVID-19 vaccine does not increase ... Schorr I (20 December 2020). "The Facts about the COVID Vaccines and Fetal Cell Lines". National Review. "Covid: Vatican says ...
PREPARATION AND USES THEREOF NANOPARTICLES FOR USE AS A THERAPEUTIC VACCINE METALLIC NANOPARTICLES, PREPARATION AND USES ... Synthesis and Characterization of Multifunctional Nanoclinics for Biological Applications". Chemistry of Materials. American ... THEREOF WO/2014/191569: PHARMACEUTICAL COMPOSITION, PREPARATION AND USES THEREOF PHARMACEUTICAL COMPOSITION COMBINING AT LEAST ...
Slightly more than half of the biological scientists are employed by the Federal State and local governments. The field of ... The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) estimates that jobs in the biochemist, combined with the statistics of biophysicists ... and vaccine production; while the governmental and environmental fields includes forensic science, wildlife management, marine ... General biological scientists in nonsupervisory, supervisory, and managerial positions earned an average salary of $69,908; ...
Arcturus is combining its self-replicating mRNA STARR technology with LUNAR to develop a prophylactic vaccine against influenza ... LUNAR mediated delivery to the liver has been confirmed in collaboration with the Salk Institute for Biological Studies in La ... Vaccine medicines include a vaccine candidate for COVID-19, currently co-developed with Singaporean scientists at Duke-NUS ... The company has a portfolio of eight mRNA-based therapeutics and two mRNA-based vaccines in development. On June 27th 2019, the ...
By combining the DNA of cruzipain and chagasin to synthesize a vaccine, a balanced immune response that decreases blood and ... drug target and vaccine candidate" (PDF). Biological Chemistry. 383 (5): 739-49. doi:10.1515/BC.2002.077. PMID 12108538. S2CID ... It has been reported that cruzipain is an efficient prophylactic vaccine, combined with several adjuvants, and administered ... The localization of cruzipain within the cell differs based on which stage of the biological cycle the parasite is in. ...
Pandemic, biological, chemical, and radio-nuclear threats were regarded as important to global health security. It was founded ... The stockpile includes vaccines, medical equipment, and therapeutics, designed to be deployed within 12 hours of a public ... The agenda is the combined effort of 67 nations, the WHO, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), and the United ... to biological threats. Whereas traditional approaches to security regard the State as the referent object of analysis, the ...
Another was the combined diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis (whooping cough) vaccine. The trials for the combined vaccine has ... She was president of the Biological Society of the RCSI in 1952, president of the Irish Society for Medical Officers of Health ... was an Irish physician and epidemiologist working on TB and was the first woman president of the Biological Society of the ... and Sweden with three medical colleagues from Dublin Corporation's TB service to investigate the success of the BCG vaccine. By ...
Systems biology is the study of biological systems in a holistic manner by integrating data at all levels of the biological ... The vision of ISB is to integrate these concepts using a cross-disciplinary approach combining the efforts of biologists, ... Global Health - Use of the systems approach towards the study of infectious diseases, vaccine development, emergence of chronic ... ISB concentrates on systems biology, the study of relationships and interactions between various parts of biological systems, ...
The FPT SAC on Public Health Response Plan for Biological Events has been in place since at least October 2017: outlines how ... an Ebola virus vaccine developed by PHAC "GC InfoBase". www.tbs-sct.gc.ca. "GC InfoBase". www.tbs-sct.gc.ca. "Federal ... with combined issues in March/April and July/August. CCDR publishes surveillance reports, outbreak reports, original research, ... radioactive substances or biological threats. The PHAC houses the Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Surveillance System (CJDSS) at its ...
Many Chinese feel that sex education should be limited to biological science. Combined with migration of young unmarried women ... A vaccine was developed and first-round testing on human volunteers completed in 2004. The 2002 SARS in China demonstrated at ... These combine to cause a situation where many people in China do not even realize that they are infected with the disease and ... There is equity because it was more available and combined western and traditional medicines. Intersectoral coordination is ...
... or is also available in a 7in1 vaccine that combines with the clostridial 5in1 vaccine into one vaccination. The 7in1 vaccine ... Vaccinations for cattle involves the process of applying subcutaneous injections of biological microorganisms in a weakened ... vaccine. A separate vaccine is available for protection against botulism if required. Leptospirosis vaccine is available as a ... Botulism vaccines follow the same program as the 5in1 and 7in1 vaccines however it takes 4 to 5 weeks to develop immunity and ...
Pelley, J. L.; Daar, A. S.; Saner, M. A. (2009). "State of Academic Knowledge on Toxicity and Biological Fate of Quantum Dots ... in this case along with a vaccine, by a microneedle patch." The research "was funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation ... owing to the high extinction coefficient combined with a comparable quantum yield to fluorescent dyes) as well as their ... They have potential uses in diode lasers, amplifiers, and biological sensors. Quantum dots may be excited within a locally ...
... combination vaccine. The Wistar-developed vaccine led the charge in the eradication of rubella, which was declared eradicated ... Wistar's vision of a center for "new and original research" in the biological and medical sciences. Under the leadership of ... combining academic course work at CCP with specialized laboratory training the Institute and other affiliated research ... This vaccine, which was developed at Wistar in the 1960s and '70s, has helped to make rabies-related human death a rarity in ...
Rufus, like most inhabitants of Jonestown, had a biological immunity to the nanites, but while the vaccine helped prevent dying ... believed that the world can be saved by combining humans and nanites together. The first group created a body of nanites to ... Velma talks to Quentin in her office, where Quentin explains that Rufus survived due to a vaccine made to counteract the ... Meanwhile, Quentin explains that the vaccine was a potential cure that was still in its experimental stages, but Rufus took it ...
have run clinical trials of their VLP flu vaccines. VLPs have also been used to develop a pre-clinical vaccine candidate ... Series B, Biological Sciences. 276 (943): 113-22. Bibcode:1976RSPTB.276..113A. doi:10.1098/rstb.1976.0102. PMID 13422. Ding Y, ... combined with Hepatitis B surface antigen (S), and adjuvanted with AS01 (consisting of (MPL)A and saponin). Research suggests ... compared to 9 months for traditional vaccines. In early clinical trials, VLP vaccines for influenza appeared to provide ...
A re-emergence of the disease either by accident or as a result of biological warfare would meet an unprotected population and ... This may also be combined with radioactivity to achieve apoptosis of malignant cells. Some antiviral drugs, such as acyclovir ( ... Mass vaccination to combat a smallpox epidemic could be challenging because the only approved smallpox vaccine, Vaccinia Virus ... Byun Y, Thirumamagal BT, Yang W, Eriksson S, Barth RF, Tjarks W (September 2006). "Preparation and biological evaluation of 10B ...
Alexander Stewart's Ontario Vaccine Farm in Palmerston, Ontario successfully provided a dependable supply of vaccines to much ... Needham, Joseph (2000-04-13). Science and Civilisation in China: Volume 6, Biology and Biological Technology, Part 6, Medicine ... of the combined operations. The move was rejected by shareholders. In September 1989, Swiss-based Ciba-Geigy (now Novartis) and ... WHO codified vaccine production standards in its document, Methodology of Freeze-dried Smallpox Vaccine Production, based ...
Hill, R.E.,Jr.; Foley, P.L.; Clough, N.E.; Ludemann, L.R.; Murtle, D.C. (2013). "Translating research into licensed vaccines ... The FDA has a list of approximately 800 such approved ingredients that are combined in various ways to create more than 100,000 ... "To amend the Public Health Service Act to provide for the licensing of comparable and interchangeable biological products, and ... CVM does not regulate vaccines for animals; these are handled by the United States Department of Agriculture. The FDA regulates ...
Later, they improved the vaccine performance by combining the DNA-based rabies vaccine with a controlled quantity of ... in 1989 and did his post doctoral work at Salk Institute for Biological Studies during 1990-92. After serving Howard Hughes ... "A novel vaccine formulation consisting of dna vaccine inactivated virus". Orbit. 2017. "IISc-developed rabies vaccine cleared ... "Immune Response to DNA Combined Tissue Culture Inactivated anti-rabies Vaccine (DINARAB)". Indian Journals. 2017. "Gene ...
... including vaccines and therapeutics. For instance, the HPA is the sole licensed manufacturer of the anthrax vaccine in the UK [ ... Combining these services into one grouping will facilitate and reinforce close team working among those with the skills ... The NIBSC mission is to assure the quality of biological medicines. At the heart of the work is the preparation, storage and ... Total civilian control was established by moving biological defence work to the Chemical Defence Establishment (now [dstl]), ...
... will likely interfere with any vaccine given while people are taking it. It should not be used in combination with ... One of those signals is the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), combined with the antigen, and the other signal is the CD80 ... Some doctors criticize its cost ($3,500 to $3,800 a month, like other biological drugs of its class) and its promotional ... People should be tested for tuberculosis and any infection cleared before starting abatacept; vaccines should be updated prior ...
In addition, DaRT was able to turn the tumor into its own vaccine and stimulate a systemic anti-tumor immune response. This ... These results suggest that DaRT combined with immunotherapy induces a tumor-specific systemic immune response.[citation needed ... which translates into a high Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE). The invention of DaRT makes possible the use of alpha ... "Combining alpha radiation-based brachytherapy with immunomodulators promotes complete tumor regression in mice via tumor- ...
A key element of the Act was to allow stockpiling and distribution of vaccines that had not been tested for safety or efficacy ... research effort combines new technological advances, such as genetic engineering and molecular modeling, applying them toward ... The U.S. biological defense program began as a small defensive effort that parallels the country's offensive biological weapons ... In recent years certain critics have claimed the U.S. stance on biological warfare and the use of biological agents has ...
"Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research = Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Medicas e Biologicas. 39 (8): 1065-70. ... Combined formulations. *Abacavir/lamivudine°#. *Abacavir/dolutegravir/lamivudine°. *Abacavir/lamivudine/zidovudine. *Atazanavir ...
... that has a biological or psychological effect on a patient may also have potential to possess dangerous biological or ... Vaccine. 20 (Suppl 1): S89-93. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(01)00290-0. PMID 11587822.. ... of extravagant claims by the alternative medical community combined with inadequate media scrutiny and attacks on critics.[122] ... Alternative medicine describes any practice that aims to achieve the healing effects of medicine, but which lacks biological ...
The modern era really began with Edward Jenner's discovery of the smallpox vaccine at the end of the 18th century (inspired by ... Biomechanics is the study of the structure and function of biological systems by means of the methods of Mechanics. ... In some jurisdictions this function is combined with the emergency department.. *Veterinary medicine; veterinarians apply ... Biophysics is an interdisciplinary science that uses the methods of physics and physical chemistry to study biological systems. ...
Vaccines have been formulated and approved for prevention of Lyme disease in dogs. Currently, three Lyme disease vaccines are ... "Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research = Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Medicas e Biologicas. 40 (4): 443-56. ... when 68 cases were recorded in the UK and Republic of Ireland combined.[195] In the UK there were 23 confirmed cases in 1988 ... Poland GA, Jacobson RM (March 2001). "The prevention of Lyme disease with vaccine". Vaccine. 19 (17-19): 2303-8. doi:10.1016/ ...
Combined Estrogen-progestogen Contraceptives and Combined Estrogen-progestogen Menopausal Therapy. World Health Organization. ... Ovandrotone albumin (Fecundin, Ovastim) and Androvax (androstenedione albumin) are immunogens and vaccines against ... from mediating their biological effects in the body. They act by blocking the androgen receptor (AR) and/or inhibiting or ... When castration is combined with a nonsteroidal antiandrogen like bicalutamide, this strategy is referred to as combined ...
Ensure Environmental Sustainability: Deforestation remains a critical problem, particularly in regions of biological diversity ... delivering vaccines to several parts of the world and joining combat forces. In 2000 the bank announced a "war on AIDS" and in ... by combining an analysis of local groups with an analysis of the country's financial and economic situation the World Bank ...
... composition recommended by the World Health Organization on 15 February 2006 and the US FDA's Vaccines and Related Biological ... Pigs can carry human influenza viruses, which can combine (i.e. exchange homologous genome subunits by genetic reassortment) ... Since the protective ability of influenza vaccines depends primarily on the closeness of the match between the vaccine virus ... Flu vaccines are based on predicting which "mutants" of H1N1, H3N2, H1N2, and influenza B will proliferate in the next season. ...
... is the study of chemical processes and interactions of all biological and non-biological components of foods.[1] ... When combined in the way that the image to the right depicts, sucrose, one of the more common sugar products found in plants, ... Nuts, grains and legumes provide vegetable sources of protein, and protein combining of vegetable sources is used to achieve ... Comprising 75% of the biological world and 80% of all food intake for human consumption, the most common known human ...
Lipids and nucleic acids are antigenic only when combined with proteins and polysaccharides.[citation needed] Non-microbial non ... Vaccines are examples of antigens in an immunogenic form, which are intentionally administered to a recipient to induce the ... Antigenic molecules, normally "large" biological polymers, usually present surface features that can act as points of ... the adjuvant component of vaccines plays an essential role in the activation of the innate immune system.[10][11] ...
"Expert opinion on biological therapy 10 (8): 1181-95. PMC 2904634. PMID 20624114. doi:10.1517/14712598.2010.496776.. ... Reynell, L; Trkola, A (2012-03-02). "HIV vaccines: an attainable goal?". Swiss medical weekly 142: w13535. PMID 22389197. doi: ... "UNAIDS reports a 52% reduction in new HIV infections among children and a combined 33% reduction among adults and children ... "Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 356 (1410): 867-76. PMC 1088480. PMID 11405934. doi: ...
A combined study of open cases and a meta-analysis". Revista de Psiquiatria y Salud Mental. 6 (4): 144-9. doi:10.1016/j.rpsm. ... Biological Psychiatry. 27 (3): 419-23. doi:10.1016/S0278-5846(03)00028-9. PMID 12691776.. ...
These vaccines can be effective against multiple strains and are used either as part of a preventative strategy, or combined ... Series B, Biological Sciences. 356 (1416): 1861-70. doi:10.1098/rstb.2001.0999. PMC 1088562. PMID 11779385.. ... background for pandemic influenza vaccine safety monitoring". Vaccine. 27 (15): 2114-20. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.01.125. ... "Vaccine. 26 Suppl 4: D49-53. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.07.039. PMC 3074182. PMID 19230160.. ...
"Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 279 (1740): 2913-21. PMC 3385474 . PMID 22593110. doi:10.1098/rspb. ... Other miRNAs are epigenetically regulated by either histone modifications or by combined DNA methylation and histone ... the bacterium to randomly change its characteristics into six alternative states that could pave the way to improved vaccines. ... Series B, Biological Sciences. 326 (1235): 329-338. Bibcode:1990RSPTB.326..329H. doi:10.1098/rstb.1990.0015.. ...
... combines penetrating discovery in molecular biology with creative leadership in the public policy of chemical and biological ... Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance For providing sustained access to childhood vaccines around the globe, saving millions of lives, and ... For technological advances that enabled development of HPV vaccines for prevention of cervical cancer and other tumors caused ...
The tide soon turns against the UIR, with its forces obliterated by the combined firepower of the United States, Saudi Arabia, ... a biological attack in the country using a weaponized strain of Ebola virus, a kidnapping attempt on Ryan's youngest daughter ...
Nasal: the vaccine is sprayed into the nose and absorbed through the nasal passage. Oral: the vaccine is swallowed and ingested ... By combining these drugs with a system that detects the concentration of drug particles in the blood, proper dosing could be ... A 'dose' of any chemical or biological agent (active ingredient) has several factors which are critical to its effectiveness. ... Most vaccines require multiple doses for full immunity, given in recommended intervals depending on the vaccine. There are ...
Fisher's Method for combining multiple tests with alpha reduced for positive correlation among tests is one. Another is ... Biological and. epidemiological statistics. *Case-control study. *Randomized controlled trial. *Relative risk ...
Hu XD, Chen ST, Li JY, Yu DH, Cai H (March 2010). "An IL-15 adjuvant enhances the efficacy of a combined DNA vaccine against ... "The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 291 (46): 23869-23881. doi:10.1074/jbc.M116.733600. PMC 5104912. PMID 27650494.. ... doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.12.076. PMID 20064480.. *^ Hock K, Laengle J, Kuznetsova I, Egorov A, Hegedus B, Dome B, Wekerle T, ... One combines IL-15 and IL-15Rα-Fc (R&D Systems) in vitro to generate the complex. It is referred to as IL-15 SA. A second IL-15 ...
Describing the effects of using alcohol to treat pain is difficult.[21] Alcohol has biological, mental, and social effects ... Smith, Howard S.; Raffa, Robert B.; Pergolizzi, Joseph V.; Taylor, Robert; Tallarida, Ronald J. (2014-07-01). "Combining opioid ...
Existing vaccines against seasonal flu provide no protection. Vaccines were released in North America in late October. ... Virus experts are concerned that a more dangerous and easily transmitted strain could emerge if H1N1/09 combines again with ... has a clear biological advantage over seasonal flu strains and that reassortment is unlikely at this time due to its currently ... Existing vaccines against seasonal flu provided no protection. A study at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ( ...
Alternative Vaccine Delivery Methods [Chapter 61]. In: Plotkin SA, Orenstein WA, Offit PA, eds. Vaccines, 6th ed. Philadelphia ... Since the jet injector breaks the barrier of the skin, there is a risk of blood and biological material being transferred from ... Researchers developed a new jet injection design by combining the drug reservoir, plunger and nozzle into a single-use ... doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2007.12.041. PMID 18272265.. *^ a b Hoffman, P.N; R.A Abuknesha; N.J Andrews; D Samuel; J.S Lloyd (2001- ...
Issels, R. (1999). "Hyperthermia Combined with Chemotherapy - Biological Rationale, Clinical Application, and Treatment Results ... Combined modality chemotherapy is the use of drugs with other cancer treatments, such as surgery, radiation therapy, or ... Active targeting uses biological molecules (antibodies, proteins, DNA and receptor ligands) to preferentially target the ... Electrochemotherapy is the combined treatment in which injection of a chemotherapeutic drug is followed by application of high- ...
1973). "Lipid A: Chemical structure and biological activity". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 128: S17-S29. doi:10.1093/ ... or broad-spectrum carbapenem combined with fluoroquinolones, macrolides, or aminoglycosides) are recommended. The choice of ... "Anti-endotoxin vaccines: Back to the future". Virulence. 5 (1): 219-25. doi:10.4161/viru.25965. PMC 3916378. PMID 23974910 ... "Usefulness of suPAR as a biological marker in patients with systemic inflammation or infection: A systematic review" ...
Vaccine Research Center Information concerning vaccine research clinical trials for Emerging and re-Emerging Infectious ... Vaisberg, Horneck G.; Eschweiler, U.; Reitz, G.; Wehner, J.; Willimek, R.; Strauch, K. (1995). "Biological responses to space: ... combined with ribavirin, it has been shown that genetic polymorphisms near the human IL28B gene, encoding interferon lambda 3, ... Edward Jenner, Jonas Salk and Albert Sabin developed effective vaccines for smallpox and polio, which would later result in the ...
... vaccine, Hepatitis B (HepB) vaccine, inactivated polio vaccine (IPV), and pneumococcal vaccine (PCV). Research was conducted by ... all key participants in mortuary rituals.[62] By combining the methods of household surveys, vital registries, and asking " ... the gender most affected by infant mortality changed from males experiences a biological disadvantage, to females facing a ... This tells us that not only is it extremely necessary for every child to get these vaccines to prevent serious diseases, but ...
Combining science and politics, Rajendra Kumar Pachauri was the elected chief of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ... For 2017, U.S. News & World Report ranks NC State's Nuclear Engineering program 6th in the nation and its Biological & ... vaccine development; cancer immuno-therapy; emerging and infectious zoonotic diseases; and diseases of the lung, respiratory ... During the Great Depression, the North Carolina state government, under Governor O. Max Gardner, administratively combined the ...
VaccinesEdit. Vaccinations (see Vaccine) are typically dosed in milliliters because most are administered as liquids. Each ... By combining these drugs with a system that detects the concentration of drug particles in the blood, proper dosing could be ... A 'dose' of any chemical or biological agent (active ingredient) has several factors which are critical to its effectiveness. ... Most vaccines require multiple doses for full immunity, given in recommended intervals depending on the vaccine. There are ...
The FDA, on the other hand, is mandated to approve foods, dietary supplements, drugs, vaccines, biological medical products, ... There are published studies on the clinical treatments and effects of these medications and numerous cocktails of combined ...
Four elements (earth, air, fire and water) combine into "complexion", which combines into states (the four temperaments: ... Biological and. epidemiological statistics. *Case-control study. *Randomized controlled trial. *Relative risk ...
Risks of combined alcohol/medication use in older adults»։ The American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy 5 (1): 64-74։ ... The biological cost of mutational antibiotic resistance: any practical conclusions?»։ Current Opinion in Microbiology 9 (5): ... Donald RG, Anderson AS (2011)։ «Current Strategies for Antibacterial Vaccine development»։ in Miller AA, Miller PF։ Emerging ... 34,0 34,1 «Interaction between broad-spectrum antibiotics and the combined oral contraceptive pill. A literature review»։ ...
vaccine, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus. biological. toxoids. Measurements. overall: 1 1/4 in x 1 3/8 in x 2 7/8 in; 3.175 cm x ... Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Pertussis Vaccine Combined - Alum Precipitated - Squibb. National Museum of American History ... Vaccines. Record ID. nmah_719516. Usage of Metadata (Object Detail Text). CC0. GUID (Link to Original Record). http://n2t.net/ ...
Biological: PriorixTM Subcutaneous administration in left upper arm. Biological: VarilrixTM Subcutaneous administration in ... Immunogenicity & Safety Study of GSK Biologicals Combined Measles-mumps-rubella-varicella Vaccine 208136. This study has been ... Immunogenicity & Safety Study of GSK Biologicals Combined Measles-mumps-rubella-varicella Vaccine 208136. ... Use of any investigational or non-registered product (drug or vaccine) other than the study vaccine(s) within 30 days preceding ...
Biological: Rotarix. Biological: RotaTeq. Active Comparator: ROTA 7 a dose of monovalent vaccine Rotarix followed by a dose of ... Single-blind Clinical Study to Assess Vaccine Interchangeability Between Rota Vaccine 5 and Rota Vaccine 1 Using Seven Combined ... Biological: Rotarix. Biological: RotaTeq. Active Comparator: ROTA 6 one dose of pentavalent vaccine RotaTeq followed by a dose ... Biological: Rotarix. Biological: RotaTeq. Active Comparator: ROTA 5 two doses of pentavalent vaccine RotaTeq followed by a dose ...
Biological: DTaP-HB-PRP~T vaccine Biological: Tritanrix-HepB/Hib™ Biological: Oral Polio Vaccine Phase 3 ... Immunogenicity Study of Antibody Persistence and Booster Effect of DTaP-HB-PRP~T Combined Vaccine or Tritanrix-HepB/Hib™. The ... Immunogenicity Study of the Antibody Persistence and Booster Effect of DTaP-Hep B-PRP-T Combined Vaccine or Tritanrix HepB/Hib ... Known systemic hypersensitivity to any of the vaccine components or history of a life-threatening reaction to a vaccine ...
Requirements for diphtheria toxoid, pertussis vaccine, tetanus toxoid and combined vaccines : requirements for Biological ... Requirements for diphtheria toxoid, pertussis vaccine, tetanus toxoid and combined vaccines : requirements for Biological ... Requirements for diphtheria toxoid, pertussis vaccine, tetanus toxoid and combined vaccines : (‎requirements for biological ... Biologicals Unit; WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization (‎1984 : Geneva, Switzerland)‎ (‎WHO/BS/84.1431. ...
Biological: Inactivated Hep A vaccine; Attenuated Measles Mumps Rubella Biological: Attenuated Measles Mumps Rubella; ... Immunogenicity and Safety of Hepatitis A Vaccine Given at the Same Time of Measles, Mumps, Rubella Combined Vaccine. The safety ... Biological: Inactivated Hep A vaccine; Attenuated Measles Mumps Rubella 0.5 mL, IM (HAV Day 0 and 168); 0.5 mL, IM (MMR, Day 0) ... Biological: Attenuated Measles Mumps Rubella; Inactivated Hep A vaccine 0.5 mL, IM (MMR, Day 0); 0.5 mL, IM (HAV Day 28 and 168 ...
6Biological Research Department, Drug Discovery and Biomedical Technology Unit, Daiichi-Sankyo R&D Novare Co., Ltd., 1-16-13 ... The Peptide Vaccine Combined with Prior Immunization of a Conventional Diphtheria-Tetanus Toxoid Vaccine Induced Amyloid β ... We previously reported that the Aβ peptide vaccine including the T-cell epitope of diphtheria-tetanus combined toxoid (DT) ... Cynomolgus monkeys were primed with 0.5 mL of absorbed diphtheria-tetanus combined toxoid (DT vaccine: The Kitasato Institute, ...
Combined tetanus, diphtheria, and 5-component pertussis vaccine for use in adolescents and adults. JAMA 2005;293:3003--11. * ... Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee, March 15, 2005: FDA ADACEL briefing information. Rockville, MD: US ... vaccine. All tetanus toxoid--containing vaccines and vaccines with pertussis components (e.g., Tdap, Td, and pediatric DTaP) ... 1-C. Simultaneous Vaccination with Tdap and Other Vaccines If two or more vaccines are indicated, they should be administered ...
Combined tetanus, diphtheria, and 5-component pertussis vaccine for use in adolescents and adults. JAMA 2005;293:3003--11. * ... Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee, March 15, 2005: FDA ADACEL briefing information. Rockville, MD: US ... vaccine. All tetanus toxoid--containing vaccines and vaccines with pertussis components (e.g., Tdap, Td, and pediatric DTaP) ... Hepatitis B Vaccine Safety and immunogenicity of ADACEL co-administered with hepatitis B vaccine (Recombivax HB®, Merck and Co ...
GlaxoSmithKline has announced that its combination meningitis vaccine, MenHibrix has been approved by the US Food and Drug ... Vaccines are biological products that impart immunity to the recipient. Vaccines may be live attenuated, killed or toxoids. ... "MenHibrix gives healthcare providers the option of combining Hib immunization with meningococcal C and Y immunization without ... Hib Vaccine. Encyclopedia section of medindia gives general info about Hib Vaccine ...
A vaccine against schistosomiasis, a disease caused by parasitic worms that afflicts more than 200 million people worldwide, ... Vaccines are biological products that impart immunity to the recipient. Vaccines may be live attenuated, killed or toxoids. ... Diabetes Combined With Obesity Linked to Cancer More Than Half of U.S Children Will Have Obesity as Adults. ... Hib Vaccine. Encyclopedia section of medindia gives general info about Hib Vaccine ...
Use of alum-treated pertussis vaccine, and alum-precipitated combined pertussis vaccine and diphtheria toxoid, for active ... IV: Biological properties: extended trial in the common cold. Lancet 2:630-635.. View. ... Field study of alum-precipitated combined pertussis vaccine and diphtheria toxoid for active immunization. American Journal of ... Cold vaccines: an evaluation based on a controlled study. Journal of American Medical Association 111:1168-1173.. View. ...
... or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose ... Synthetic Vaccines: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, ... Japanese Encephalitis Vaccines 7. Malaria Vaccines 8. Combined Vaccines 9. Biological Markers (Surrogate Marker) ... Recombinant Vaccines; Vaccines, Synthetic; Synthetic Antigens; Synthetic Immunogens; Vaccines, Chemical; Vaccines, Molecular; ...
Thesis title: Polyugient synthetic vaccines: combining a-wallner with TLR agonists. Tamayanthi Rajakumar. Supervisor: Andrew ... Meet the current postgraduate students at the School of Biological Sciences, and find out what their thesis topics are. ...
Imaging combined with genetic screening of cells enhances genomic discoveries 10/01/2019 Vaccines & Immunizations ... "The device was designed with both biological and mechanical factors in mind," Cook said. "It is unique in design and ... A team of University of Missouri and Columbia University researchers have found a way to create these biological joints in ... replacing the old one with a fully functional biological joint? ... Delivery system can make RNA vaccines more powerful 09/26/2019 ...
Insecure world powers want to secure vaccine stocks and score reputational kudos, fuelling a breakneck sprint and even a spot ... Sinovac and Sinopharm combined phase-one and phase-two trials for their candidates. ... Snapping at its heels is the Beijing Biological Products Institute, affiliated with pharmaceutical giant Sinopharm. ... Search for COVID-19 vaccine morphs into geopolitical battle. Insecure world powers want to secure vaccine stocks and score ...
Now that all the information about the covid-19 is extracted, the vaccines are tested well and deployed. The kits and medicines ... Recombinant means the ability of an organism to combine different gene cells. ... There is one main Covid-19 recombinant protein vaccine called RBD-S which prevent respiratory syndrome caused due to this virus ... and vaccines are developed accordingly. It is absolutely safe to use and is sure to cure. Research on this is done every day to ...
Read chapter Appendix G Executive Summary and Recommendations of the DoD Report Acquisition of Vaccine Production: Malaria is ... Report on Biological Warfare Defense Vaccine Research and Development Programs. Washington, D.C.: Department of Defense. [ ... A combined, integrated approach drawing on industry, DoD, and national scientific strengths and assets is essential. The DoD ... Appendix B Current Requirements for a Malaria Vaccine 95 * Appendix C Suggested Design of Trials for Testing Malaria Vaccines ...
bNational Engineering Technology Research Center for Combined Vaccines, Wuhan Institute of Biological Products Co. Ltd., 430207 ... bNational Engineering Technology Research Center for Combined Vaccines, Wuhan Institute of Biological Products Co. Ltd., 430207 ... bNational Engineering Technology Research Center for Combined Vaccines, Wuhan Institute of Biological Products Co. Ltd., 430207 ... bNational Engineering Technology Research Center for Combined Vaccines, Wuhan Institute of Biological Products Co. Ltd., 430207 ...
... is to combine biological analysis with statistical learning methods to better understand viral evolution and accelerate vaccine ... In this project we combine statistical and computational methods to derive biological explanations and pharmacological ... Viruses, Vaccines, and Digital Life. Viruses are the simplest known self-replicating computational systems. They also happen to ... Biological Language Modeling Project. Pattern recognition from protein sequences and automated mapping between sequences, ...
Vaccine A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease. A vaccine typically contains an ... Hexaxim®: DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T Combined Vaccine, Hexaxim®: DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T Combined Vaccine ... A combined vaccine used to prevent infection with diphtheria and tetanus toxoid. This is used in place of DTP vaccine ( ... Study of Sanofi Pasteurs DTaP-IPV Hep B-PRP-T Combined Vaccine in Infants Who Previously Received Hepatitis B Vaccine ...
Conditions: Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma; Pancreatic Cancer Intervention: Biological: Autologous DC vaccine Sponsors: Baylor ... More News: Allergy & Immunology , Cancer , Cancer & Oncology , Cancer Vaccines , Immunotherapy , Study , Vaccines ... Anti-tumour effects of a xenogeneic fibroblast activation protein-based whole cell tumour vaccine in murine tumour models. ... Immunotherapy With IFx-Hu2.0 Vaccine for Advanced MCC or cSCC. Conditions: Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Cutaneous Squamous Cell ...
Biological therapy uses the bodys immune system to fight cancer. Research has found that the immune system may be able to ... Scientists are testing the value of vaccines in treating many types of cancer. Sometimes, vaccines are combined with other ... Immunotherapy/Biological Therapy. WHAT IS BIOLOGICAL THERAPY?. Biological therapy is also called immunotherapy, biological ... Vaccine therapy. Vaccine therapy is a growing area of cancer research. The idea of vaccine therapy is to get the bodys immune ...
PORTABLE COOLED/HEATED BIOLOGICAL VACCINE BOX. A portable cooled/heated biological vaccine box, comprising a housing (4). A ...
By combining molecular genetics, biochemical and biophysical approaches, he has characterized the structure, function and ... In particular, the natural property of the CyaA toxin to target immune cells has been exploited to create innovative vaccines ... His laboratory is focused on Clostridium toxins through genetic and biological activity analysis and has investigated the ... Two CyaA-based recombinant vaccines are currently evaluated in clinical trials. D. Ladant also designed a CyaA-based two-hybrid ...
Biological and Chemical weapons may be the most devastating and uncontrollable weapons ever rendered by man. Biological weapons ... How to Survive a Chemical or Biological Attack. ... No vaccine available. Antibiotics like, combined Amoxicillin ... Get a pneumonia vaccine shot. In past Chemical or Biological pandemics, many victims succumbed to secondary pneumonia infection ... Dont count on a vaccine being available. The flu vaccine that is currently used for seasonal flu will not work against any ...
Machine learning holds considerable promise for understanding complex biological processes such as vaccine responses. Capturing ... Combining all assays in a multivariate analysis and elastic net regression model with 72 analytes, we identified seven that ... The Cancer Vaccine Consortium of the Sabin Vaccine Institute (CVC/SVI) is conducting an ongoing large-scale immune monitoring ... The Split Virus Influenza Vaccine rapidly activates immune cells through Fc gamma receptors VACCINE OGorman, W. E., Huang, H ...
  • Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. (curehunter.com)
  • It's already been 5 months since covid-19 has attacked and after all the studies, all the concepts of the virus such as recombinant proteins, covid-19 antigens, spike proteins has been identified, and vaccines are developed accordingly. (prlog.org)
  • There was also evidence of de novo generation of T cells to well-described prostate-associated antigens not found in the vaccine, providing indirect evidence of immune-mediated tumor killing. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The recent identification and characterization of genes coding for tumour antigens (Ag) has enabled the design of antigen-specific cancer vaccines based on plasmid DNA and recombinant viral vectors. (hindawi.com)
  • Several tumor-associated antigens have been engineered into vaccinia virus vectors [including modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA)] and the recombinant vaccines shown to induce tumor-associated antigen-specific immune responses in cancer patients ( 9 - 11 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents. (curehunter.com)
  • The need to evaluate and potentially change the vaccine strains is unique to the influenza vaccine, as the composition of antigens included in other preventive vaccines doesn't change. (disabled-world.com)
  • The present study will explore the immunogenicity of AVAXIM™ 80U-Pediatric in 12-13 months Turkish children and check if the administration of the MMR trivalent vaccine on the same day but at different site will interfere on immunogenicity for the four valences Hepatitis A, Measles, Mumps, and Rubella. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To provide information concerning the immunogenicity of Hepatitis A Vaccine in subjects receiving Pediatric vaccines. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • We previously reported that the A β peptide vaccine including the T-cell epitope of diphtheria-tetanus combined toxoid (DT) induced anti-A β antibodies, and the prior immunization with conventional DT vaccine enhanced the immunogenicity of the peptide. (hindawi.com)
  • To evaluate the immunogenicity of the study vaccine 1 month after the 3-dose primary series in HIV-exposed infected and in HIV-exposed uninfected infants. (bioportfolio.com)
  • To evaluate the immunogenicity of the study vaccine 1 month after the booster dose in HIV-exposed infected and in HIV-exposed uninfected infants. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The trial is a parallel group, multi-centre, randomized, double blind, non-inferiority trial investigating the immunogenicity and safety of two DTaP-IPV combination vaccines: A)The invest. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Combined or single strategies to enhance the efficacy and immunogenicity of DNA vaccines are applied in completed and ongoing clinical trials, where the safety and tolerability of the DNA platform are substantiated. (hindawi.com)
  • As the field of cancer vaccines advances into clinical trials, overcoming low immunogenicity is a limiting step in achieving full success of this therapeutic approach. (mdpi.com)
  • Hypotheses The seroconversion percentages and geometric mean titers (GMT) of anti-rotavirus antibodies from Groups 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 are not inferior to the seroconversion percentages and the GMTs induced in subjects that received the routine vaccination schedules with two doses of the monovalent vaccine and three doses of the pentavalent vaccine (Groups 1 and 2). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Study participants will receive a booster vaccination of DTaP-HB-PRP~T or Tritanrix-HepB/Hib™ either concomitantly with Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) following the completion of a three dose primary series with DTaP-Hep B-PRP-T combined vaccine or Tritanrix HepB/Hib™, both given concomitantly with OPV. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Cynomolgus monkeys were given the peptide vaccine subcutaneously in combination with the prior DT vaccination. (hindawi.com)
  • GlaxoSmithKline has announced that its combination meningitis vaccine, MenHibrix has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration as a protective vaccination for infants against two bacterial diseases. (medindia.net)
  • Childhood vaccination has saved many lives, yet lots more has to be done to increase awareness and eliminate myths regarding vaccines. (medindia.net)
  • ConclusionThus, in one volunteer we show a granuloma forming by peptides combined with an efficient adjuvant in a water-in-oil-emulsion, inducing antigen specific T cells detectable in circulation and at the vaccination site, after one single vaccination only. (medworm.com)
  • Hence, XS15 is a promising adjuvant candidate for peptide vaccination, in particular for tumor peptide vaccines in a personalized setting. (medworm.com)
  • Successful vaccination requires four components -knowing the vaccine target, what kind of immune response you want, how to generate that response, and understanding responses in the people who you want to vaccinate," says Sarah Fortune, chair of Harvard Chan's Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases . (harvard.edu)
  • 2001 postal anthrax attack and a HEPA/vaccine plan, HEPA filters are 99.97% effective for 0.3-µm particles (3), which relies on HEPA vacuuming, HEPA air cleaners, and vaccination of reoccupants. (cdc.gov)
  • The combined administration of RMD+IBET151 during vaccination resulted in a significant increase in the frequency and number of Ag-specific CD8 + T cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • T he number of vaccines on the CDC's recommended vaccination schedule for children under the age of 2 increased from 10 to 36 after Congress passed a law ( The National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act of 1986 ) in 1986 preventing vaccine-injured citizens from suing the vaccine manufacturer responsible for the production of the vaccine. (google.com)
  • The source of such change can be traced back, in part at least, to the discovery and exploitation of vaccines, vaccination, and vaccinology. (springer.com)
  • 9. For subcutaneous route of vaccination, use 200 mL diluent per 1,000 doses of vaccine. (drugs.com)
  • Additionally, large number of vaccination programs, government and non-government initiatives, and increase in demand for combined vaccine boost the growth of the market. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • The decision about when to administer an intramuscular vaccine, including DAPTACEL, to an infant born prematurely should be based on consideration of the individual infant's medical status and the potential benefits and possible risks of vaccination. (nih.gov)
  • Vaccines are biological products that impart immunity to the recipient. (medindia.net)
  • HII will develop artificial intelligence-powered models of immunity that can be used to accelerate the design and testing of vaccines and therapeutics for a wide range of diseases. (harvard.edu)
  • The Human Immunomics Initiative will combine new testing techniques with advanced biological and computational science to model immunity across populations. (harvard.edu)
  • The holy grail of HIV prophylactics is a vaccine preventing acquisition, achieving "sterilizing immunity. (frontiersin.org)
  • Most previous vaccine strategies have focused on achieving systemic immunity with conventional intramuscular immunization. (frontiersin.org)
  • We have talked to Associate Professor Katharina Lahl, head of the research group "Mucosal Immunity to Viruses" at DTU Health Tech, about her research, in which she investigates the fundamental biology behind immune responses to get a better understanding of the basal requirements for better vaccine development. (dtu.dk)
  • The other is a vaccine with a viral structure-the same virus that effectively tackled Ebola in 2015-designed to elicit immunity in infected cells. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The curative effect of vaccine is improved if specific stimulation of the immunity is combined with metabolic supplementation to compensate a genetic default. (environmental-expert.com)
  • A critical hindrance to the development of a novel vaccine against Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a lack of understanding of protective correlates of immunity and of host factors involved in a successful adaptive immune response. (asm.org)
  • Further validation of this panel of mediators as a predictor of vaccine efficacy will facilitate vaccine development, and determining how each promotes adaptive immunity will advance our understanding of antimycobacterial immune responses. (asm.org)
  • Vaccines are biological preparations, generally produced from living organisms that enhance immunity against a particular disease. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • Anti-idiotype antibodies have the ability to mimic foreign antigen approach that leads to their development as vaccine to induce immunity against virus, bacteria, and protozoa in experimental animals. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • The peptide vaccine induced anti-A β antibodies in cynomolgus monkeys and guinea pigs without chemical adjuvants, and excessive immune responses were not observed. (hindawi.com)
  • The peptide vaccine could induce a similar binding profile of anti-A β antibodies in cynomolgus monkeys and guinea pigs. (hindawi.com)
  • Nonspecific immunomodulating agents are biological therapy drugs that stimulate the immune system in a general way, causing it to produce more cytokines and antibodies to help fight cancer and infections in the body. (nyhq.org)
  • Antigenicity is the ability to combine specifically with the final products of the immune response (i.e. secreted antibodies and/or surface receptors on T-cells). (absoluteastronomy.com)
  • Robust techniques combining an antibody library displayed on the phage surface and protein microarray allowed the identification of auto antibodies recognized by patient sera. (mdpi.com)
  • Antibodies have been used for antigen detection and therapeutics, and their specificity combined with low toxicity make them a promising pharmaceutical commodity [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • If the research teams manage to reproduce a response that produces antibodies against all strains of HIV, they could create a universal vaccine. (medicalxpress.com)
  • In one approach, the group has developed an improved protein-based vaccine to create antibodies against HIV. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The fundamental approach underlying an antidrug vaccine is the same as for a vaccine against a pathogenic virus or bacterium: You inject a person with an antigen, which is an agent that will stimulate production of antibodies. (drugabuse.gov)
  • Viral vaccines contain killed or attenuated virus or their product that can activate the immune system to produce antibodies against them. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • The five types of viral vaccines are live whole viral vaccine, killed whole viral vaccine, subunit vaccine (purified or recombinant viral antigen), anti-idiotype antibodies, and DNA vaccine. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • Considering that all immunoglobulin isotypes may be present in biological samples from newborns and their mothers, this study aimed to evaluate the ability to diagnose recent toxoplasmosis by using colostrum, as an alternative noninvasive way to obtain biological samples, as well as to determine correlation rates between antibodies from serum samples to detect IgG, IgM and IgA isotypes against T. gondii . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, this study demonstrates that T. gondii- specific IgG, IgM and IgA antibodies in serum and colostrum samples from puerperal women may be detected with a significant correlation, suggesting that colostrum may also be used as an alternative biological sample to efficiently diagnose recent human toxoplasmosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Considering high prevalence of toxoplasmosis, and the importance to characterize the disease in its early stage, the present study was conducted to detect the correlation of IgG, IgM and IgA antibodies with T. gondii in paired samples of serum and colostrum, and to evaluate the ability to diagnose this disease by using colostrum, as an alternative noninvasive way to obtain biological samples. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The result of these small, but very targeted changes, was that the protective immune "antibodies" that the flu vaccine elicited were slightly different than what people needed to mount the most effective immune response to the virus. (disabled-world.com)
  • Access to novel agents and approved drugs: One of the major challenges facing rapid progress in this field is that numerous pharmaceutical and biotech companies each have their own immunotherapeutic agents in the form of antibodies, immune cells, and vaccines in preclinical and clinical studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Requirements for diphtheria toxoid, pertussis vaccine, tetanus toxoid and combined vaccines : requirements for Biological Substances Nos. (who.int)
  • Each 0.5 mL dose of this vaccine contains ≥4 units of the Bordetella pertussis protective antigen, ≤15 Lf (≥14 international units) of diphtheria toxoid, ≤2.5 Lf (≥9 international units) of tetanus toxoid, 40 DU of inactivated poliovirus type 1, 8 DU of inactivated poliovirus type 2, and 32 DU of inactivated poliovirus type 3. (fiercepharma.com)
  • In an antidrug vaccine, the antigen consists of the target drug linked to a large carrier protein such as tetanus toxoid or cholera toxin. (drugabuse.gov)
  • Annexed to the report are extensive sections on the standardization of interferons and amendments to WHO requirements No. 8-10 for diphtheria toxoid, pertussis vaccine, tetanus toxoid, and combined vaccines. (who.int)
  • The four primary types of vaccines are live attenuated vaccines, inactivated vaccines, conjugate vaccines, and toxoid vaccines. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • Severe allergic reaction (e.g., anaphylaxis) after a previous dose of any diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, or pertussis-containing vaccine, or any component of DAPTACEL. (nih.gov)
  • If Guillain-Barré syndrome occurred within 6 weeks of receipt of a prior vaccine containing tetanus toxoid, the risk for Guillain-Barré syndrome may be increased following DAPTACEL. (nih.gov)
  • Biological therapy is also called immunotherapy, biological response modifier therapy, or biotherapy. (vidanthealth.com)
  • Biological therapy (also called immunotherapy, biological response modifier therapy, or biotherapy) uses the body's immune system to fight cancer. (nyhq.org)
  • PAIRimmune is a CRO specialised in immunology evaluation for vaccine and immunotherapy development. (drugdevelopment-technology.com)
  • The initial step in creating a vaccine for tumor immunotherapy is to choose the target antigen. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our findings indicate that combined immunological and biological modality called 'bio-immunotherapy' is an effective approach for treatment of cancer. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Cancer vaccines, regarded by some as a controversial subject, are particularly important when discussing future strategies with cancer immunotherapy treatments. (roche.com)
  • QUILT is designed to leverage patients' immune systems, such as dendritic cell, T cell (lymphocyte) and natural killer cell (NK cell) therapies, and testing a variety of treatments including novel combinations of vaccines, cell-based immunotherapy, metronomic (regularly administered) chemotherapy, low dose radiotherapy and immunomodulators, as well as check point inhibitors, in patients who have undergone next generation whole genome, transcriptome and quantitative proteomic analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The combined inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDAC) and the proteins of the bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) family have recently shown therapeutic efficacy against melanoma, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, testicular, and lymphoma cancers in murine studies. (jimmunol.org)
  • The combined inhibition of two classes of epigenetic regulators, histone deacetylases (HDACs) and bromodomain and extraterminal proteins (BET), has recently shown therapeutic efficacy against multiple cancer types, including pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, testicular, lymphoma, and melanoma ( 1 - 4 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • CSIRO is testing the COVID-19 vaccine candidates for efficacy, but also evaluating the best way to give the vaccine for better protection, including an intra-muscular injection and innovative approaches like a nasal spray. (www.csiro.au)
  • Vaccine research has been collapsed into months, while drug-makers have committed to producing vaccine doses "at risk", even as scientists complete late-phase trials to test the vaccine for its safety and efficacy. (thehindubusinessline.com)
  • Meanwhile, a few other vaccine candidates continue with advanced stages of human trials (Phase 3) where the vaccine candidate is tested for safety and efficacy on thousands of people. (thehindubusinessline.com)
  • Here, using this coculture system and a panel of whole-cell vaccines with varied efficacy, we developed a comprehensive approach to understand correlates of protection. (asm.org)
  • Biological therapies are designed to boost the immune system, either directly or indirectly. (vidanthealth.com)
  • Biological therapies can be used alone to treat cancer. (vidanthealth.com)
  • There are many different types of biological therapies used in cancer treatment. (vidanthealth.com)
  • The insights gained through HII will pave the way for artificial intelligence -powered models that allow researchers to virtually test potential vaccines, and predict what vaccines and therapies might work best across populations. (harvard.edu)
  • RATIONALE: Biological therapies use different ways to stimulate the immune system and stop cancer cells from growing. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A primary area of research in Dr. Knox's laboratory is the study of novel therapies (targeted therapies, radiosensitizers, radioprotectors, and biological response modifiers) for the treatment of solid tumors, with a particular focus on prostate cancer, breast cancer and melanoma, using small animal tumor models. (stanford.edu)
  • We are witnessing a new era of immune-mediated cancer therapies and vaccine development. (mdpi.com)
  • But in that gloom, if there is a silver lining, it is in how countries and companies are throwing their might behind efforts to bring out therapies and vaccines to tackle the novel coronavirus. (thehindubusinessline.com)
  • Determine the potential effect of future treatments, including emergence of resistance to vaccines or therapies by the virus. (sanger.ac.uk)
  • Biologics, also known as biological drugs or biologic agents, are tests, preventives, and therapies that were developed and are manufactured through biological processes using human, animal or microorganism sources. (verywell.com)
  • Other familiar tests and therapies are biological, too. (verywell.com)
  • An immune system is a system of biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease by identifying and killing pathogens and tumor cells. (absoluteastronomy.com)
  • Combining interleukin-2 with interleukin-12 may kill more tumor cells. (bioportfolio.com)
  • RATIONALE: Vaccines may make the body build an immune response to kill tumor cells. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A major focus of both her laboratory and clinical research is the use of radiation as a component of in situ tumor vaccine strategies. (stanford.edu)
  • The use of naked plasmid DNA as vaccine to elicit the immune system against disease provides a variety of practical benefits for large-scale vaccine production that are not as easily manageable with other forms of vaccines including recombinant protein or whole tumor cells [ 9 , 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Recent discoveries in the many biological roles of chemokines in tumor immunology allow their exploitation in enhancing recruitment of antigen presenting cells (APCs) and effector cells to appropriate anatomical sites. (mdpi.com)
  • Commenting on the approval, GSK Vaccines vice president Leonard Friedland said, "MenHibrix gives healthcare providers the option of combining Hib immunization with meningococcal C and Y immunization without increasing the number of shots for infants and toddlers. (medindia.net)
  • Exposure to thimerosal in vaccines and immunoglobulin preparations was determined from electronic immunization registries, medical charts, and parent interviews. (aappublications.org)
  • Although it has been more than 90 years since the implementation of immunization with the Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine, Mycobacterium tuberculosis is as much of a public health threat today as ever ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • This is one of the key factors that encourages immunization programs in the U.S. Europe is expected to be the second largest market for viral vaccines during the forecast period, due to rise in prevalence of infectious diseases, government initiatives, and focused product development. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • DAPTACEL is a vaccine indicated for active immunization against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis as a five dose series in infants and children 6 weeks through 6 years of age (prior to 7 th birthday). (nih.gov)
  • We need many vaccine candidates to get over the finishing line. (afr.com)
  • Despite these statistics little attention has been paid to developing vaccine candidates that specifically protect the FGT. (frontiersin.org)
  • There is no doubt that EHVA will contribute to the HIV vaccine field with the development of two novel vaccine candidates that will be moved into clinical development (testing in humans),' said Prof. Lévy. (medicalxpress.com)
  • We have started pre-clinical trials for two vaccine candidates. (www.csiro.au)
  • In consultation with the World Health Organisation, CEPI has identified vaccine candidates from The University of Oxford (UK) and Inovio Pharmaceuticals Inc. (US) to undergo the first pre-clinical trials at CSIRO, with further candidates likely to follow. (www.csiro.au)
  • The latest milestone builds on CSIRO's growing work to tackle COVID-19, which has included scaling up other potential vaccine candidates at its biologics production facility in Melbourne. (www.csiro.au)
  • We have been studying SARS CoV-2 since January and getting ready to test the first vaccine candidates as soon as they are available," Professor Drew said. (www.csiro.au)
  • A host of repurposed medicines (or existing drugs being evaluated in a new role against the virus) is being prescribed for "emergency use" and 167 vaccine candidates to deal with the virus are in the pipeline. (thehindubusinessline.com)
  • Among them are vaccine candidates from Moderna Inc (US), Oxford University-AstraZeneca combine (UK) and CanSino and Sinovac (China). (thehindubusinessline.com)
  • The lack of understanding of the protective mechanisms needed for the successful control of M. tuberculosis impedes the design and testing of next-generation novel vaccine candidates ( 2 - 4 ). (asm.org)
  • An immunogen is able to induce an immune response, whereas an antigen is able to combine with the products of an immune response once they are made. (absoluteastronomy.com)
  • We present a randomized phase II clinical trial designed to determine if a poxviral vaccine encoding prostate-specific antigen (PSA) can induce a PSA-specific T-cell response when combined with radiotherapy in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The Human Immunomics Initiative (HII) will bring together Harvard Chan School experts in epidemiology, causal inference, immunology, and computational and systems biology with the resources and expertise of the Human Vaccines Project, a global, nonprofit, human immunology-based clinical research consortium. (harvard.edu)
  • Given the biological differences between the immunology of the FGT and other mucosal compartments, a mucosal vaccine specifically targeting the FGT would seem to be the best way to protect women against the spread of HIV. (frontiersin.org)
  • Part one provide a basic background with respect to immunology and general vaccine classification. (springer.com)
  • He is known globally for his work in vaccines and immunology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immune response to the hepatitis B antigen in the RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine, and co-administration with pneumococcal conjugate and rotavirus vaccines in African children: a randomized controlled trial. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine (Mosquirix) reduces the incidence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria and is intended for routine administration to infants in Sub-Saharan Africa. (bioportfolio.com)
  • To describe the safety profile after each and all doses of the study vaccine administered as a 3-dose infant primary series in HIV-exposed infected and in HIV-exposed uninfected infants. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Age-appropriate compliance and completion of up to five doses of pertussis vaccine in US children. (bioportfolio.com)
  • According to the CDC's COVID Vaccine Tracker , the latest statistics on how many doses of each COVID shot have been injected into the population is as follows. (healthimpactnews.com)
  • WHO's chief scientist Soumya Swaminathan has said that Covax will need 18 billion dollars for 2 billion doses of a vaccine by the end 2021. (thehindubusinessline.com)
  • 3,000 doses of vaccine - 600 mL of diluent. (drugs.com)
  • The team is also working on new adjuvants, substances added to the vaccine to stimulate the body's immune response. (medicalxpress.com)
  • This knowledge, combined with advances in gene therapy and virology, allows researchers to employ chemokines as potential vaccine adjuvants. (mdpi.com)
  • This review will focus on recent murine and human studies that use chemokines as therapeutic anti-cancer vaccine adjuvants. (mdpi.com)
  • Rappuoli led Chiron Corporation's development of adjuvanted influenza vaccines, MENJUGATE(R) conjugate vaccine against meningococcal-C disease and the first recombinant bacterial vaccine against pertussis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The field was galvanised by the recent creation of a synthetic microorganism ( Mycoplasma mycoides JCVI-syn1.0)at the J Craig Venter Institute in the US that demonstrated the potential for this field to produce drug and vaccine delivery systems based upon synthetic life. (ucc.ie)
  • Overall, CFP32 is an attractive target for drug and vaccine design as well as new diagnostic strategies. (asm.org)
  • To describe the safety profile of a booster dose of DTaP-HB-PRP~T or Tritanrix-HepB/Hib™ when administered concomitantly with OPV in each vaccine group. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Vaccines may be live attenuated, killed or toxoids. (medindia.net)
  • sanofi pasteur, Swiftwater, Pennsylvania) to adolescents aged 11--18 years during the same visit if both vaccines are indicated and available. (cdc.gov)
  • Daiichi Sankyo Group, Japan Vaccine and Sanofi Pasteur, the vaccines division of Sanofi Group, are committed to contributing to protection of the health of people in Japan by bringing innovative vaccines with high medical needs and by promoting the importance of preventative medicine. (fiercepharma.com)
  • To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Sanofi Pasteur Inc., at 1-800-822-2463 (1-800-VACCINE) or VAERS at 1-800-822-7967 and http://vaers.hhs.gov. (nih.gov)
  • The CDC announced this week that deaths reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), a U.S. Government funded database that tracks injuries and deaths caused by vaccines, following experimental COVID injections, have now reached 3,486 deaths since December of 2020, when the Pfizer and Moderna mRNA COVID shots were given emergency use authorization (EUA) by the FDA. (healthimpactnews.com)
  • To get a perspective on the magnitude of deaths following COVID shots that are being reported to the CDC, there were only 3,445 deaths reported to the CDC following all vaccines from 1/1/2005 through 11/30/2020, the 15-year period prior to the FDA issuing emergency use authorizations for experimental COVID injections in December of 2020. (healthimpactnews.com)
  • CSIRO successfully established a biological model in February 2020, the first in the world to confirm ferrets react to SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19). (www.csiro.au)
  • Cancer Breakthroughs 2020, is a coalition with the goal of finding vaccine-based immunotherapies against cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nonspecific immunomodulating agents are biological therapy drugs that stimulate the immune system in a general way. (vidanthealth.com)
  • Boston, MA-The Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health and the Human Vaccines Project announce the Human Immunomics Initiative, a joint project that aims to revolutionize the understanding of the human immune system and accelerate the creation of effective vaccines, diagnostics, and treatments. (harvard.edu)
  • The complexity of the human immune system has confounded efforts to prevent and control diseases in aging populations, and this collaboration will marry expansive data collection through clinical research with new technologies and cutting-edge science to catalyze new approaches to fighting major global diseases," says Wayne C. Koff, president and CEO of the Human Vaccines Project. (harvard.edu)
  • To be able to develop effective and safe vaccines, detailed knowledge on the drivers of our immune system is crucial. (dtu.dk)
  • The company said that the vaccine will prevent diseases caused by Neisseria meningitidis serogroups C and Y and Haemophilus influenzae type b. (medindia.net)
  • The DoD requires new vaccines to protect against 15 or more biowarfare and endemic diseases. (nap.edu)
  • By comparison, vaccines licensed for use in the United States protect against about 20 diseases, and Merck & Co., Inc. manufactures nine licensed vaccines. (nap.edu)
  • Novel recombinant toxins are already proposed in the treatment of some diseases, as well as new vaccines. (elsevier.com)
  • We are seeing this acutely now with COVID-19, which is mostly spread by younger people, but which older people die from at much higher rates," notes Jaap Goudsmit, adjunct professor of epidemiology and infectious diseases at Harvard Chan School and chief scientific officer of the Human Vaccines Project. (harvard.edu)
  • Cheap and effective vaccines protecting from these two viruses would significantly lower the rate of childhood mortality caused by infectious diseases. (dtu.dk)
  • Mutations in the gene for the interleukin common gamma chain have been associated with X-LINKED COMBINED IMMUNODEFICIENCY DISEASES. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Japan Vaccine Co., Ltd. started its operations on July 2, 2012, a joint venture company equally owned by GlaxoSmithKline K.K. and Daiichi Sankyo Co., Ltd. As a company specialized in providing vaccines to prevent infectious diseases and thereby meeting social needs, Japan Vaccine is operating with a mission of 'contributing to the establishment of preventive measures against communicable diseases through collaborations with diverse stakeholders. (fiercepharma.com)
  • Due to their rapid and widespread development, DNA vaccines have entered into a variety of human clinical trials for vaccines against various diseases including cancer. (hindawi.com)
  • Vaccines that prevent occurrence of a disease are called prophylactic vaccines and in some cases, treat diseases are called therapeutic vaccines. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • VACV strain IOC (VACV-IOC) was the seed strain of the smallpox vaccine manufactured by the major vaccine producer in Brazil during the smallpox eradication program. (asm.org)
  • Our data strongly support the hypothesis that CTGV-like viruses represent feral VACV that evolved in parallel with VACV-IOC after splitting from a most recent common ancestor, probably an ancient smallpox vaccine strain related to horsepox virus. (asm.org)
  • This comprehensive volume compiles the concepts essential for the understanding of the pharmaceutical science and technology associated with the delivery of subunit vaccines. (springer.com)
  • Finally, the fourth part concerns pharmaceutical analysis and quality control of subunit vaccines. (springer.com)
  • Subunit vaccines (purified or recombinant viral antigen) are created by exposing viral particle in bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cell (an alternative application of recombinant DNA technology for production of hybrid virus vaccines). (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • Medical diplomacy is fast becoming a potent aspect of international relations - and in this regard the first safe and effective vaccine would be the holy grail of national assets for the country that can claim it as theirs,' says Helen Ramscar, a fellow at British think tank RUSI. (afr.com)
  • And perhaps the most important factor of all is that a safe and effective vaccine has been deployed . (psmag.com)
  • Squalene - may have been used in anthrax vaccines and was used in some H1N1 (swine flu) vaccines. (google.com)
  • Basically, vaccine production is going forward, in case the new H1N1 strain returns to the northern hemisphere in the fall. (virology.ws)
  • Obviously keeping the new H1N1 vaccine separate provides flexibility in deciding whether or not to deploy it. (virology.ws)
  • This season's vaccine contains protection against three flu strains: H3N2, influenza B and H1N1. (scoop.it)
  • Because there's often more than one type of influenza virus circulating each season, influenza vaccines are designed to target three or four of the influenza viruses that are most likely to circulate during the season: two influenza A types (H1N1 and H3N2) and one (trivalent formulation) or two (quadrivalent formulation) types of influenza B. (disabled-world.com)
  • Exposure to thimerosal, a mercury-containing preservative that is used in vaccines and immunoglobulin preparations, has been hypothesized to be associated with increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). (aappublications.org)
  • Since it generally takes several months for influenza vaccines to be produced, flu strains for the next season need to be selected months in advance to ensure we're prepared with enough supply when flu season hits. (disabled-world.com)
  • Participants will receive a booster dose of the vaccine they had received in the primary series, and a concomitant dose of OPV Study AL203 (NCT00343889). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • MenHibrix is a combination of GSK's meningococcal and Hib vaccines and is administered in a four-dose series at 2, 4, 6 and 12 through 15 months of age. (medindia.net)
  • They will be enrolled in 2 groups and will receive primary vaccinations with Sanofi Pasteur's DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T combined vaccine at 6, 10 and 14 weeks of age and a booster dose at approximately 15 to 18 months of age will receive a booster dose of the Sanofi Pasteur's DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T combined vaccine. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Phase III, open, mono-center study in 177 infants who received a dose of Hep B vaccine at birth or within 1 month after birth. (bioportfolio.com)
  • However a DTaP, HiB, and Prevnar vaccine dose contains 1.475mg. (google.com)
  • The vaccines were given with local granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and low-dose systemic interleukin-2. (aacrjournals.org)
  • There is one main Covid-19 recombinant protein vaccine called RBD-S which prevent respiratory syndrome caused due to this virus. (prlog.org)
  • A vaccine against schistosomiasis, a disease caused by parasitic worms that afflicts more than 200 million people worldwide, has been successfully tested by Brazilian researchers. (medindia.net)
  • We are confident that within three years Brazil will be able to distribute the first vaccine against parasites, and help combat schistosomiasis, a disease that strikes the poorest because it is spread by unsanitary conditions. (medindia.net)
  • The DoD needs to consolidate and integrate its vaccine research, development, and acquisition programs for biowarfare defense and endemic disease protection. (nap.edu)
  • Biological weapons are any man made weapon caused to disperse viruses, bacteria, or toxins derived from living organisms to cause death or disease within humans. (wikihow.com)
  • Should a pandemic of any kind flare up, the World Health Organization (WHO), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and other governmental and non-governmental organizations will provide information on the spread of the disease, as well as updates on vaccines or other medications, tips for keeping yourself safe, and travel advisories. (wikihow.com)
  • Therefore, good vaccines should be as specific as possible and target the precise cells required to battle the disease in question to avoid a more general and unpleasant immune response. (dtu.dk)
  • In this case, examining behavioral responses to tumors in non-human animals is particularly useful, because the rats have no awareness of the disease, and thus their behavioral changes were likely the result of purely biological factors," said senior study author Brian Prendergast, associate professor of psychology at the University of Chicago. (bio-medicine.org)
  • These new findings open up possible new pathways to vaccine development against this bacterium, which the Centers for Disease Control and Preventions says accounts for over 10,000 deaths annually, mostly among hospital patients. (eurekalert.org)
  • For an antidrug vaccine to be effective, the antibody response to it must be substantially greater than that typically produced by an infectious-disease vaccine. (drugabuse.gov)
  • The antidrug vaccines we are developing stimulate production of 100 to 1,000 times more antibody than is produced with a typical vaccine against an infectious disease. (drugabuse.gov)
  • To prepare for disease outbreaks, last year CSIRO partnered with the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI), a global group that aims to derail epidemics by speeding up the development of vaccines. (www.csiro.au)
  • This, combined with our data science and manufacturing capability in our biological production facility, means we were well prepared to help Australia in One Health with disease identification, prevention and management, to deliver the real world solutions that our nation expects from science. (www.csiro.au)
  • The goal of this clinical research study is to find the best dosing schedule of a combined treatment of PEG Intron® (pegylated Interferon-alfa 2b) plus a peptide vaccine (gp100) that may help improve immune response in patients that had Stage II or Stage III melanoma and are free of the disease. (mdanderson.org)
  • Yet, vaccine-preventable disease still kills millions. (springer.com)
  • While it is clear that the BCG vaccine has shortcomings, the exact nature of its failure to fully protect adult populations against pulmonary disease still remains a mystery. (asm.org)
  • A vaccine is usually made from a weakened or killed form of the disease causing microorganism. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • Rise in prevalence of several infectious and non-infectious disease, and technological advancements are projected to drive the global viral vaccines market during the forecast period. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • The project investigated the combined distribution, frequency and PV status of two important genes, hpuAB and hmbR, in disease (n=221) and carriage (n=305) isolates. (bl.uk)
  • To select the influenza virus strains for inclusion in each season's flu vaccine, the FDA, World Health Organization (WHO), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and other partners review data collected on the circulating strains of influenza from around the world to identify those strains that are most likely to cause the most illness during the U.S. flu season. (disabled-world.com)
  • Rappuoli is actively involved in the research and development of further vaccines against meningococcal disease and avian and pandemic influenza. (wikipedia.org)
  • This Phase 3b study is being conducted for the purpose of registration of the GSK208136 vaccine in Korea. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Evidence that DNA vaccines are well tolerated and have an excellent safety profile proved to be of advantage as many clinical trials combines the first phase with the second, saving both time and money. (hindawi.com)
  • Anti-tumour effects of a xenogeneic fibroblast activation protein-based whole cell tumour vaccine in murine tumour models. (medworm.com)
  • The autologous cancer vaccine supplemented with bio-modulation might fulfil requirements for effective tumour therapy. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The autologous tumour vaccine is formed in the same way as our bodily organs, via natural peptide bonding by a special technique, first devised at the Pasteur Institute in 1967. (environmental-expert.com)
  • By combining two or more drugs that act in a complementary fashion, one stands a better chance of generating the kind of immune response needed to fight different tumour types, and by tailoring the combinations we should be able to treat people more effectively. (roche.com)
  • New strains of the virus require new vaccines, and these can take months or years to develop and even longer to produce and distribute on a large scale. (wikihow.com)
  • While the current vaccine won't protect you from every flu or any other "new" strains of the virus, it can help you stay healthy (by protecting you some flu virus strains), which may in turn help your body to fight the virus better if you do become infected. (wikihow.com)
  • The FDA has a key role in selecting the strains to be included in seasonal flu vaccines. (disabled-world.com)
  • In part, this was because the vaccine was not as effective against one of the predominant circulating strains of influenza. (disabled-world.com)
  • This isn't the first time that the vaccine strains have deviated in some important ways from the influenza strain that ends up circulating during the flu season. (disabled-world.com)
  • Biological response modifiers (BRMs) change the way the body's defenses interact with cancer cells. (vidanthealth.com)
  • They are also made in the laboratory and given to cancer patients in biological therapy. (vidanthealth.com)
  • Increased IL-6 production and the differential expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic genes following RMD+IBET151 treatment are likely contributors to the enhanced cancer vaccine responses. (jimmunol.org)
  • You will find here the perfect combination of top professionals who were educated abroad and international standards of quality combined with lower costs.There are more than 200 types of cancer affecting different parts of the body and correspon. (placidway.com)
  • Here is a list of the most trustworthy Biological Hormone Therapy clinics in York, United States that are considered the best in the cancer treatment field. (placidway.com)
  • Here is a list of the most trustworthy Biological Hormone Therapy clinics in Thousand Oaks, United States that are considered the best in the cancer treatment field. (placidway.com)
  • Are you looking for Lung Cancer treatment with CimaVax Vaccine? (placidway.com)
  • This vaccine regimen can be safely given in patients undergoing radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer, with the majority of patients generating a PSA-specific cellular immune response to vaccine. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Thus, given the number of patients who develop prostate cancer, undergo definitive therapy, and then develop biochemical failure, it is reasonable to evaluate whether other systemic approaches may be combined with definitive local therapy to elicit a clinical effect. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Some representative DNA cancer vaccine studies are also discussed. (hindawi.com)
  • Is there a future for cancer vaccines? (roche.com)
  • Through this agreement, MD Anderson will become a long-term partner and collaborator of the NCTM, increasing the ability of researchers from its laboratories to quickly provide important new cancer vaccines and treatments, including vaccines targeted to specific people. (mdanderson.org)
  • For a cancer vaccine to be successful, it must stimulate a potent immune response specific for the target antigen. (aacrjournals.org)
  • FDA Regulation: Novel approaches for the adaptive combination of novel agents in this new paradigm where the combined multi-agents serve as a systems biological approach to the treatment of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • RMD+IBET151 treatment significantly increased the frequency of vaccine-elicited IFN-γ + splenic CD8 + T cells and conferred superior therapeutic and prophylactic protection against B16-OVA melanoma. (jimmunol.org)
  • Combined HDAC and BET inhibition resulted in greater vaccine-elicited CD8 + T cell responses and enhanced therapeutic and prophylactic protection against B16-OVA melanoma. (jimmunol.org)
  • Synthetic biology is an emerging field that combines engineering principles with biology to create useful biological systems with biotechnological or therapeutic applications. (ucc.ie)
  • Dr, Gahan will describe work carried out within the School of Pharmacy, School of Microbiology and Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre that uses controlled engineering of microorganisms to investigate applications in therapeutic drug delivery, vaccine delivery and gastrointestinal metabolism. (ucc.ie)
  • In terms of type of vaccine, the global market can be bifurcated into preventive and therapeutic. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • In May, the chancellors of The University of Texas and Texas A&M Systems signed an agreement to combine resources in creating the National Center for Therapeutic Manufacturing (NCTM), a state-of-the-art biological pharmaceutical manufacturing facility, being constructed on the A&M campus. (mdanderson.org)
  • Q: May I ask you if you feel that the CDC is procrastinating on whether to ask vaccine manufacturers to switch over from the seasonal strain to a swine flu vaccine instead? (virology.ws)
  • Rapid identification and differentiation of the vaccine strain Rac H from EHV 1 field isolates using a non-radioactive DNA probe. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • The vaccine was 67% effective against influenza B in adults over 65 but only 9% effective against H3N2, the most prevalent strain this season, the CDC found. (scoop.it)
  • That circulating strain of influenza was contained in the vaccine. (disabled-world.com)
  • The problem was that the "seed" influenza strain that was used to produce the vaccines had changed in some subtle but meaningful ways. (disabled-world.com)
  • It's now believed that part of the reason that the vaccine was not as protective is that the flu strain used to manufacture the vaccine mutated very subtly during the development process. (disabled-world.com)
  • Both clones had low virulence in infected mice and induced a protective immune response against a lethal infection comparable to the response of the licensed vaccine ACAM2000 and the parental strain VACV-IOC. (asm.org)
  • Representative Director and President, Fabrice Baschiera (hereinafter 'Sanofi')) announced that they will launch 'Squarekids® subcutaneous injection syringe', a tetravalent combination vaccine (DPT-IPV) for the prevention of diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus and poliomyelitis (polio) on December 9, 2015. (fiercepharma.com)
  • This product is a combination vaccine containing DPT vaccine of Kitasato Daiichi Sankyo Vaccine and inactivated polio vaccine (Salk vaccine) of Sanofi filled in prefilled syringes, which is the first tetravalent DTP-IPV combination vaccine in Japan that contains Salk inactivated polio vaccine. (fiercepharma.com)
  • The vaccine against Tetanus can prevent the infection. (medindia.net)
  • In past Chemical or Biological pandemics, many victims succumbed to secondary pneumonia infection. (wikihow.com)
  • How can we design better vaccines to prevent HIV infection in women? (frontiersin.org)
  • Effective protection of women against HIV-1 infection may require a vaccine specifically targeting mucosal immune responses in the female genital tract (FGT). (frontiersin.org)
  • to prevent infection, so it seems likely that a mucosal strategy such as a vaccine or microbicide, eliciting both systemic and mucosal immune responses, will be most effective in preventing acquisition. (frontiersin.org)
  • Various factors, both biological and social, may contribute to the high rates of HIV infection in young women. (frontiersin.org)
  • The researchers emphasized that combining antibiotic treatment with a protective antigen vaccine, and starting the treatment no longer than twenty-four hours after infection, left all animals fully protected even after the end of treatment. (homelandsecuritynewswire.com)
  • His team next plans to analyze the biological mechanisms by which LUK-PV and LUK-ED target, attach and destroy white and red blood cells, making their host more vulnerable to infection. (eurekalert.org)
  • Researchers have quickly progressed to studying the course of infection in the animals - a crucial step in understanding if a vaccine will work. (www.csiro.au)
  • As with many outbreaks, the misery of a given infection is defined as much by the structural inequalities brought on by war and poverty as it is by a microbe's biological characteristics. (psmag.com)
  • Even if we had a proven effective vaccine tomorrow, which is very unlikely, it would be difficult to overcome these barriers to access and affordability. (afr.com)
  • Professor Yves Lévy, chief executive of Inserm, the French National Institute of Health and Medical Research, and Professor Guiseppe Pantaleo from the University of Lausanne, Switzerland, are scientific co-coordinators of the European HIV Vaccine Alliance (EHVA), a five-year project to foster the development of an effective vaccine. (medicalxpress.com)
  • He leads the European AIDS Vaccine Initiative (EAVI2020), a five-year project which is also aiming to accelerate the search for an effective HIV vaccine. (medicalxpress.com)
  • If we can make a vaccine that reproduces that response, then it would be globally effective,' Prof. Shattock said. (medicalxpress.com)
  • It is clear from the results obtained in clinical trials that such DNA vaccines require much improvement in antigen expression and delivery methods to make them sufficiently effective in the clinic. (hindawi.com)
  • Primary Objective: To explore the biological optimal dosing schedule of PEG Intron, when combined with melanoma peptide gp100 vaccine, and defined as the most effective in eliciting T-lymphocyte immune response to the melanoma peptide, while it is safe with acceptable toxicity. (mdanderson.org)
  • It is an effort like never before, with the entire process of trials being fast-tracked for the production of an effective vaccine, if indeed there is one, in the fastest possible timeline. (thehindubusinessline.com)
  • The FDA, along with its partners across the Department of Health and Human Services, has been working throughout the year to prepare the development of a safe, effective flu vaccine for the season. (disabled-world.com)
  • A preliminary analysis of the vaccine in DRC indicates it has been more than 97 percent effective . (psmag.com)
  • In part two, it presents representative types of vaccine delivery systems individually with focus on the physicochemical properties of the systems and their significance for the immune response they stimulate. (springer.com)
  • Yet the development of vaccines remains largely trapped in the past, a hostage to the methodology of Pasteur. (springer.com)
  • In this short introduction, we set the scene for this renaissance, and explore how the combination of computational and experimental techniques promise so much for the future development of vaccines and the science of vaccinology. (springer.com)
  • We haven't even begun to scratch the surface of how to add a vaccine to our coronavirus prevention toolkit. (afr.com)
  • This could massively speed up vaccine and drug development, and lower costs spent on testing and trials. (harvard.edu)
  • Current trials are attempting to build on the backbone of docetaxel by combining it with novel biological agents. (wiley.com)
  • This emphasises true biological differences between the three grades of CIN, which revisits the concept of combining CIN2 with CIN3 or with CIN1 in histological classification or used as a common endpoint, e.g., in HPV vaccine trials. (unboundmedicine.com)