A ketose sugar that is commonly used in the commercial synthesis of ASCORBIC ACID.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Treatment of diseases with biological materials or biological response modifiers, such as the use of GENES; CELLS; TISSUES; organs; SERUM; VACCINES; and humoral agents.

Extra-vesicular binding of noradrenaline and guanethidine in the adrenergic neurones of the rat heart: a proposed site of action of adrenergic neurone blocking agents. (1/7411)

1 The binding and efflux characteristics of [14C]-guanethidine and [3H]-noradrenaline were studied in heart slices from rats which were pretreated with reserpine and nialamide. 2 Binding of both compounds occurred at extra-vesicular sites within the adrenergic neurone. After a brief period of rapid washout, the efflux of [14C]-guanethidine and [3H]-noradrenaline proceeded at a steady rate. The efflux of both compounds appeared to occur from a single intraneuronal compartment. 3 (+)-Amphetamine accelerated the efflux of [14C]-noradrenaline; this effect was inhibited by desipramine. 4 Unlabelled guanethidine and amantadine also increased the efflux of labelled compounds. Cocaine in high concentrations increased slightly the efflux of [14C]-guanethidine but not that of [3H]-noradrenaline. 5 Heart slices labelled with [3H]-noradrenaline became refractory to successive exposures to releasing agents although an appreciable amount of labelled compound was still present in in these slices. 6 It is suggested that [14C]-guanethidine and [3H]-noradrenaline are bound at a common extravesicular site within the adrenergic neurone. Binding of guanethidine to the extra-vesicular site may be relevant to its pharmacological action, i.e., the blockade of adrenergic transmission.  (+info)

Denitrifying Pseudomonas aeruginosa: some parameters of growth and active transport. (2/7411)

Optimal cell yield of Pseudomonas aeruginosa grown under denitrifying conditions was obtained with 100 mM nitrate as the terminal electron acceptor, irrespective of the medium used. Nitrite as the terminal electron acceptor supported poor denitrifying growth when concentrations of less than 15 mM, but not higher, were used, apparently owing to toxicity exerted by nitrite. Nitrite accumulated in the medium during early exponential phase when nitrate was the terminal electron acceptor and then decreased to extinction before midexponential phase. The maximal rate of glucose and gluconate transport was supported by 1 mM nitrate or nitrite as the terminal electron acceptor under anaerobic conditions. The transport rate was greater with nitrate than with nitrite as the terminal electron acceptor, but the greatest transport rate was observed under aerobic conditions with oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor. When P. aeruginosa was inoculated into a denitrifying environment, nitrate reductase was detected after 3 h of incubation, nitrite reductase was detected after another 4 h of incubation, and maximal nitrate and nitrite reductase activities peaked together during midexponential phase. The latter coincided with maximal glucose transport activity.  (+info)

Lung fluid transport in aquaporin-1 and aquaporin-4 knockout mice. (3/7411)

The mammalian lung expresses water channel aquaporin-1 (AQP1) in microvascular endothelia and aquaporin-4 (AQP4) in airway epithelia. To test whether these water channels facilitate fluid movement between airspace, interstitial, and capillary compartments, we measured passive and active fluid transport in AQP1 and AQP4 knockout mice. Airspace-capillary osmotic water permeability (Pf) was measured in isolated perfused lungs by a pleural surface fluorescence method. Pf was remarkably reduced in AQP1 (-/-) mice (measured in cm/s x 0.001, SE, n = 5-10: 17 +/- 2 [+/+]; 6.6 +/- 0.6 AQP1 [+/-]; 1.7 +/- 0.3 AQP1 [-/-]; 12 +/- 1 AQP4 [-/-]). Microvascular endothelial water permeability, measured by a related pleural surface fluorescence method in which the airspace was filled with inert perfluorocarbon, was reduced more than 10-fold in AQP1 (-/-) vs. (+/+) mice. Hydrostatically induced lung interstitial and alveolar edema was measured by a gravimetric method and by direct measurement of extravascular lung water. Both approaches indicated a more than twofold reduction in lung water accumulation in AQP1 (-/-) vs. (+/+) mice in response to a 5- to 10-cm H2O increase in pulmonary artery pressure for five minutes. Active, near-isosmolar alveolar fluid absorption (Jv) was measured in in situ perfused lungs using 125I-albumin as an airspace fluid volume marker. Jv (measured in percent fluid uptake at 30 min, n = 5) in (+/+) mice was 6.0 +/- 0.6 (37 degrees C), increased to 16 +/- 1 by beta-agonists, and inhibited to less than 2.0 by amiloride, ouabain, or cooling to 23 degrees C. Jv (with isoproterenol) was not affected by aquaporin deletion (18.9 +/- 2.2 [+/+]; 16.4 +/- 1.5 AQP1 [-/-]; 16.3 +/- 1.7 AQP4 [-/-]). These results indicate that osmotically driven water transport across microvessels in adult lung occurs by a transcellular route through AQP1 water channels and that the microvascular endothelium is a significant barrier for airspace-capillary osmotic water transport. AQP1 facilitates hydrostatically driven lung edema but is not required for active near-isosmolar absorption of alveolar fluid.  (+info)

Tyrosine kinase inhibitors and immunosuppressants perturb the myo-inositol but not the betaine cotransporter in isotonic and hypertonic MDCK cells. (4/7411)

BACKGROUND: The sodium/myo-inositol cotransporter (SMIT) and the betaine cotransporter (BGT1) are essential for the accumulation of myo-inositol and betaine, and hence cell survival in a hypertonic environment. The underlying molecular mechanism involves an increase in transcription of the SMIT and BGT1 genes through binding of a trans-acting factor to enhancer elements in the 5' flanking region of both genes, resulting in increased mRNA abundance and increased activity of the cotransporters. Current evidence regarding transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation indicates that both cotransporters are regulated in parallel. METHODS: To investigate the signal transduction of hypertonic stress, we examined the effect of tyrosine kinase inhibitors and immunosuppressants on the hypertonicity-induced activity of the two cotransporters in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. RESULTS: None of the agents studied affected BGT1 activity in isotonic or hypertonic conditions. Treatment of MDCK cells with genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, increased SMIT activity in hypertonic but not isotonic conditions. The stimulation of SMIT by genistein was accompanied by a parallel increase in mRNA abundance. In contrast, treating cells with tyrphostin A23, another tyrosine kinase inhibitor, or cyclosporine A, an immunosuppressant, inhibited SMIT activity in hypertonic cells. FK506, another immunosuppressant, increased SMIT activity, but only in isotonic conditions. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide the first evidence of divergent regulatory pathways modulating SMIT and BGT activity.  (+info)

Active transport of calcium across the isolated midgut of Hyalophora cecropia. (5/7411)

1. The net flux of 45Ca from lumen to blood side across the isolated and short-circuited Cecropia midgut was 1-9 +/- 0-2 muequiv. cm-2h-1 in 8 mM Ca and the flux ratio was as high as 56 to 1. 2. The calcium influx was depressed by anoxia; 73% after 30 min. 3. The kinetics of Ca transport were anomalous; the apparent Km varied with Ca concentration from less than 0-2 to greater than 5-6 mM Ca and the apparent Vmax varied from less than 1-3 to greater than 3-3 muequiv. cm-2h-1. 4. The calcium influx showed a delay before the tracer steady state was attained, indicating the existence in the transport route of a calcium pool equivalent to 5-7 muequiv/g. wet weight of midgut tissue. 5 High calcium (16 mM) depressed the short-circuit current and potassium transport from blood to lumen side across the midgut. 6. Calcium depressed magnesium transport, from lumen to blood side across the midgut, and magnesium depressed the calcium transport. 7. Ca transport by the midgut does not regulate the Ca level in the haemolymph in vivo; it merely aids the diffusion of calcium down its electrochemical gradient. However, Ca transport may assist the uptake of the nutrients from the midgut contents.  (+info)

A monoclonal antibody to the COOH-terminal acidic portion of Ran inhibits both the recycling of Ran and nuclear protein import in living cells. (6/7411)

A small GTPase Ran is a key regulator for active nuclear transport. In immunoblotting analysis, a monoclonal antibody against recombinant human Ran, designated ARAN1, was found to recognize an epitope in the COOH-terminal domain of Ran. In a solution binding assay, ARAN1 recognized Ran when complexed with importin beta, transportin, and CAS, but not the Ran-GTP or the Ran-GDP alone, indicating that the COOH-terminal domain of Ran is exposed via its interaction with importin beta-related proteins. In addition, ARAN1 suppressed the binding of RanBP1 to the Ran-importin beta complex. When injected into the nucleus of BHK cells, ARAN1 was rapidly exported to the cytoplasm, indicating that the Ran-importin beta-related protein complex is exported as a complex from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in living cells. Moreover, ARAN1, when injected into the cultured cells induces the accumulation of endogenous Ran in the cytoplasm and prevents the nuclear import of SV-40 T-antigen nuclear localization signal substrates. From these findings, we propose that the binding of RanBP1 to the Ran-importin beta complex is required for the dissociation of the complex in the cytoplasm and that the released Ran is recycled to the nucleus, which is essential for the nuclear protein transport.  (+info)

Genetic evidence for ATP-dependent endoplasmic reticulum-to-Golgi apparatus trafficking of ceramide for sphingomyelin synthesis in Chinese hamster ovary cells. (7/7411)

LY-A strain is a Chinese hamster ovary cell mutant resistant to sphingomyelin (SM)-directed cytolysin and has a defect in de novo SM synthesis. Metabolic labeling experiments with radioactive serine, sphingosine, and choline showed that LY-A cells were defective in synthesis of SM from these precursors, but not syntheses of ceramide (Cer), glycosphingolipids, or phosphatidylcholine, indicating a specific defect in the conversion of Cer to SM in LY-A cells. In vitro experiments showed that the specific defect of SM formation in LY-A cells was not due to alterations in enzymatic activities responsible for SM synthesis or degradation. When cells were treated with brefeldin A, which causes fusion of the Golgi apparatus with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), de novo SM synthesis in LY-A cells was restored to the wild-type level. Pulse-chase experiments with a fluorescent Cer analogue, N-(4,4-difluoro-5,7-dimethyl-4-bora-3a, 4a-diaza-s-indacene-3-pentanoyl)-D-erythro-sphingosine (C5-DMB-Cer), revealed that in wild-type cells C5-DMB-Cer was redistributed from intracellular membranes to the Golgi apparatus in an intracellular ATP-dependent manner, and that LY-A cells were defective in the energy-dependent redistribution of C5-DMB-Cer. Under ATP-depleted conditions, conversion of C5-DMB-Cer to C5-DMB-SM and of [3H]sphingosine to [3H]SM in wild-type cells decreased to the levels in LY-A cells, which were not affected by ATP depletion. ER-to-Golgi apparatus trafficking of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored or membrane-spanning proteins in LY-A cells appeared to be normal. These results indicate that the predominant pathway of ER-to-Golgi apparatus trafficking of Cer for de novo SM synthesis is ATP dependent and that this pathway is almost completely impaired in LY-A cells. In addition, the specific defect of SM synthesis in LY-A cells suggests different pathways of Cer transport for glycosphingolipids versus SM synthesis.  (+info)

Kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of lipid translocation in biological membranes. (8/7411)

A theoretical analysis of the lipid translocation in cellular bilayer membranes is presented. We focus on an integrative model of active and passive transport processes determining the asymmetrical distribution of the major lipid components between the monolayers. The active translocation of the aminophospholipids phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine is mathematically described by kinetic equations resulting from a realistic ATP-dependent transport mechanism. Concerning the passive transport of the aminophospholipids as well as of phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin, and cholesterol, two different approaches are used. The first treatment makes use of thermodynamic flux-force relationships. Relevant forces are transversal concentration differences of the lipids as well as differences in the mechanical states of the monolayers due to lateral compressions. Both forces, originating primarily from the operation of an aminophospholipid translocase, are expressed as functions of the lipid compositions of the two monolayers. In the case of mechanical forces, lipid-specific parameters such as different molecular surface areas and compression force constants are taken into account. Using invariance principles, it is shown how the phenomenological coefficients depend on the total lipid amounts. In a second approach, passive transport is analyzed in terms of kinetic mechanisms of carrier-mediated translocation, where mechanical effects are incorporated into the translocation rate constants. The thermodynamic as well as the kinetic approach are applied to simulate the time-dependent redistribution of the lipid components in human red blood cells. In the thermodynamic model the steady-state asymmetrical lipid distribution of erythrocyte membranes is simulated well under certain parameter restrictions: 1) the time scales of uncoupled passive transbilayer movement must be different among the lipid species; 2) positive cross-couplings of the passive lipid fluxes are needed, which, however, may be chosen lipid-unspecifically. A comparison of the thermodynamic and the kinetic approaches reveals that antiport mechanisms for passive lipid movements may be excluded. Simulations with kinetic symport mechanisms are in qualitative agreement with experimental data but show discrepancies in the asymmetrical distribution for sphingomyelin.  (+info)

Sorbose is not a medical term itself, but it is a chemical compound that has been used in the field of medicine and biochemistry. Sorbose is a sugar alcohol, also known as a polyol, which is a type of carbohydrate. It is a stereoisomer of mannitol and D-glucose, and it can be found in some fruits and fermented products.

In medicine, sorbose has been used as a sweetening agent and a pharmaceutical excipient, which is an inactive substance that serves as a vehicle or medium for a drug. It has also been studied for its potential use in the treatment of various medical conditions, such as diabetes and obesity, due to its low caloric content and slow absorption rate.

However, it's important to note that sorbose is not widely used in modern medicine, and its therapeutic benefits have not been fully established through clinical trials. Therefore, it should not be considered a standard treatment for any medical condition without further research and medical supervision.

Biological transport refers to the movement of molecules, ions, or solutes across biological membranes or through cells in living organisms. This process is essential for maintaining homeostasis, regulating cellular functions, and enabling communication between cells. There are two main types of biological transport: passive transport and active transport.

Passive transport does not require the input of energy and includes:

1. Diffusion: The random movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration until equilibrium is reached.
2. Osmosis: The diffusion of solvent molecules (usually water) across a semi-permeable membrane from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration.
3. Facilitated diffusion: The assisted passage of polar or charged substances through protein channels or carriers in the cell membrane, which increases the rate of diffusion without consuming energy.

Active transport requires the input of energy (in the form of ATP) and includes:

1. Primary active transport: The direct use of ATP to move molecules against their concentration gradient, often driven by specific transport proteins called pumps.
2. Secondary active transport: The coupling of the movement of one substance down its electrochemical gradient with the uphill transport of another substance, mediated by a shared transport protein. This process is also known as co-transport or counter-transport.

Biological transport, active is the process by which cells use energy to move materials across their membranes from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration. This type of transport is facilitated by specialized proteins called transporters or pumps that are located in the cell membrane. These proteins undergo conformational changes to physically carry the molecules through the lipid bilayer of the membrane, often against their concentration gradient.

Active transport requires energy because it works against the natural tendency of molecules to move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration, a process known as diffusion. Cells obtain this energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate), which is produced through cellular respiration.

Examples of active transport include the uptake of glucose and amino acids into cells, as well as the secretion of hormones and neurotransmitters. The sodium-potassium pump, which helps maintain resting membrane potential in nerve and muscle cells, is a classic example of an active transporter.

Axonal transport is the controlled movement of materials and organelles within axons, which are the nerve fibers of neurons (nerve cells). This intracellular transport system is essential for maintaining the structural and functional integrity of axons, particularly in neurons with long axonal processes. There are two types of axonal transport: anterograde transport, which moves materials from the cell body toward the synaptic terminals, and retrograde transport, which transports materials from the synaptic terminals back to the cell body. Anterograde transport is typically slower than retrograde transport and can be divided into fast and slow components based on velocity. Fast anterograde transport moves vesicles containing neurotransmitters and their receptors, as well as mitochondria and other organelles, at speeds of up to 400 mm/day. Slow anterograde transport moves cytoskeletal elements, proteins, and RNA at speeds of 1-10 mm/day. Retrograde transport is primarily responsible for recycling membrane components, removing damaged organelles, and transmitting signals from the axon terminal to the cell body. Dysfunctions in axonal transport have been implicated in various neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

Ion transport refers to the active or passive movement of ions, such as sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), chloride (Cl-), and calcium (Ca2+) ions, across cell membranes. This process is essential for various physiological functions, including nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and maintenance of resting membrane potential.

Ion transport can occur through several mechanisms, including:

1. Diffusion: the passive movement of ions down their concentration gradient, from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
2. Facilitated diffusion: the passive movement of ions through specialized channels or transporters in the cell membrane.
3. Active transport: the energy-dependent movement of ions against their concentration gradient, requiring the use of ATP. This process is often mediated by ion pumps, such as the sodium-potassium pump (Na+/K+-ATPase).
4. Co-transport or symport: the coupled transport of two or more different ions or molecules in the same direction, often driven by an electrochemical gradient.
5. Counter-transport or antiport: the coupled transport of two or more different ions or molecules in opposite directions, also often driven by an electrochemical gradient.

Abnormalities in ion transport can lead to various medical conditions, such as cystic fibrosis (which involves defective chloride channel function), hypertension (which may be related to altered sodium transport), and certain forms of heart disease (which can result from abnormal calcium handling).

Membrane transport proteins are specialized biological molecules, specifically integral membrane proteins, that facilitate the movement of various substances across the lipid bilayer of cell membranes. They are responsible for the selective and regulated transport of ions, sugars, amino acids, nucleotides, and other molecules into and out of cells, as well as within different cellular compartments. These proteins can be categorized into two main types: channels and carriers (or pumps). Channels provide a passive transport mechanism, allowing ions or small molecules to move down their electrochemical gradient, while carriers actively transport substances against their concentration gradient, requiring energy usually in the form of ATP. Membrane transport proteins play a crucial role in maintaining cell homeostasis, signaling processes, and many other physiological functions.

Protein transport, in the context of cellular biology, refers to the process by which proteins are actively moved from one location to another within or between cells. This is a crucial mechanism for maintaining proper cell function and regulation.

Intracellular protein transport involves the movement of proteins within a single cell. Proteins can be transported across membranes (such as the nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, or plasma membrane) via specialized transport systems like vesicles and transport channels.

Intercellular protein transport refers to the movement of proteins from one cell to another, often facilitated by exocytosis (release of proteins in vesicles) and endocytosis (uptake of extracellular substances via membrane-bound vesicles). This is essential for communication between cells, immune response, and other physiological processes.

It's important to note that any disruption in protein transport can lead to various diseases, including neurological disorders, cancer, and metabolic conditions.

Biological models, also known as physiological models or organismal models, are simplified representations of biological systems, processes, or mechanisms that are used to understand and explain the underlying principles and relationships. These models can be theoretical (conceptual or mathematical) or physical (such as anatomical models, cell cultures, or animal models). They are widely used in biomedical research to study various phenomena, including disease pathophysiology, drug action, and therapeutic interventions.

Examples of biological models include:

1. Mathematical models: These use mathematical equations and formulas to describe complex biological systems or processes, such as population dynamics, metabolic pathways, or gene regulation networks. They can help predict the behavior of these systems under different conditions and test hypotheses about their underlying mechanisms.
2. Cell cultures: These are collections of cells grown in a controlled environment, typically in a laboratory dish or flask. They can be used to study cellular processes, such as signal transduction, gene expression, or metabolism, and to test the effects of drugs or other treatments on these processes.
3. Animal models: These are living organisms, usually vertebrates like mice, rats, or non-human primates, that are used to study various aspects of human biology and disease. They can provide valuable insights into the pathophysiology of diseases, the mechanisms of drug action, and the safety and efficacy of new therapies.
4. Anatomical models: These are physical representations of biological structures or systems, such as plastic models of organs or tissues, that can be used for educational purposes or to plan surgical procedures. They can also serve as a basis for developing more sophisticated models, such as computer simulations or 3D-printed replicas.

Overall, biological models play a crucial role in advancing our understanding of biology and medicine, helping to identify new targets for therapeutic intervention, develop novel drugs and treatments, and improve human health.

Monosaccharide transport proteins are a type of membrane transport protein that facilitate the passive or active transport of monosaccharides, such as glucose, fructose, and galactose, across cell membranes. These proteins play a crucial role in the absorption, distribution, and metabolism of carbohydrates in the body.

There are two main types of monosaccharide transport proteins: facilitated diffusion transporters and active transporters. Facilitated diffusion transporters, also known as glucose transporters (GLUTs), passively transport monosaccharides down their concentration gradient without the need for energy. In contrast, active transporters, such as the sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT), use energy in the form of ATP to actively transport monosaccharides against their concentration gradient.

Monosaccharide transport proteins are found in various tissues throughout the body, including the intestines, kidneys, liver, and brain. They play a critical role in maintaining glucose homeostasis by regulating the uptake and release of glucose into and out of cells. Dysfunction of these transporters has been implicated in several diseases, such as diabetes, cancer, and neurological disorders.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

The Electron Transport Chain (ETC) is a series of complexes in the inner mitochondrial membrane that are involved in the process of cellular respiration. It is the final pathway for electrons derived from the oxidation of nutrients such as glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids to be transferred to molecular oxygen. This transfer of electrons drives the generation of a proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane, which is then used by ATP synthase to produce ATP, the main energy currency of the cell.

The electron transport chain consists of four complexes (I-IV) and two mobile electron carriers (ubiquinone and cytochrome c). Electrons from NADH and FADH2 are transferred to Complex I and Complex II respectively, which then pass them along to ubiquinone. Ubiquinone then transfers the electrons to Complex III, which passes them on to cytochrome c. Finally, cytochrome c transfers the electrons to Complex IV, where they combine with oxygen and protons to form water.

The transfer of electrons through the ETC is accompanied by the pumping of protons from the mitochondrial matrix to the intermembrane space, creating a proton gradient. The flow of protons back across the inner membrane through ATP synthase drives the synthesis of ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate.

Overall, the electron transport chain is a crucial process for generating energy in the form of ATP in the cell, and it plays a key role in many metabolic pathways.

Carrier proteins, also known as transport proteins, are a type of protein that facilitates the movement of molecules across cell membranes. They are responsible for the selective and active transport of ions, sugars, amino acids, and other molecules from one side of the membrane to the other, against their concentration gradient. This process requires energy, usually in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate).

Carrier proteins have a specific binding site for the molecule they transport, and undergo conformational changes upon binding, which allows them to move the molecule across the membrane. Once the molecule has been transported, the carrier protein returns to its original conformation, ready to bind and transport another molecule.

Carrier proteins play a crucial role in maintaining the balance of ions and other molecules inside and outside of cells, and are essential for many physiological processes, including nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and nutrient uptake.

A cell membrane, also known as the plasma membrane, is a thin semi-permeable phospholipid bilayer that surrounds all cells in animals, plants, and microorganisms. It functions as a barrier to control the movement of substances in and out of the cell, allowing necessary molecules such as nutrients, oxygen, and signaling molecules to enter while keeping out harmful substances and waste products. The cell membrane is composed mainly of phospholipids, which have hydrophilic (water-loving) heads and hydrophobic (water-fearing) tails. This unique structure allows the membrane to be flexible and fluid, yet selectively permeable. Additionally, various proteins are embedded in the membrane that serve as channels, pumps, receptors, and enzymes, contributing to the cell's overall functionality and communication with its environment.

Sodium is an essential mineral and electrolyte that is necessary for human health. In a medical context, sodium is often discussed in terms of its concentration in the blood, as measured by serum sodium levels. The normal range for serum sodium is typically between 135 and 145 milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L).

Sodium plays a number of important roles in the body, including:

* Regulating fluid balance: Sodium helps to regulate the amount of water in and around your cells, which is important for maintaining normal blood pressure and preventing dehydration.
* Facilitating nerve impulse transmission: Sodium is involved in the generation and transmission of electrical signals in the nervous system, which is necessary for proper muscle function and coordination.
* Assisting with muscle contraction: Sodium helps to regulate muscle contractions by interacting with other minerals such as calcium and potassium.

Low sodium levels (hyponatremia) can cause symptoms such as confusion, seizures, and coma, while high sodium levels (hypernatremia) can lead to symptoms such as weakness, muscle cramps, and seizures. Both conditions require medical treatment to correct.

Transport vesicles are membrane-bound sacs or containers within cells that are responsible for the intracellular transport of proteins, lipids, and other cargo. These vesicles form when a portion of a donor membrane buds off, enclosing the cargo inside. There are different types of transport vesicles, including:

1. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) vesicles: These vesicles form from the ER and transport proteins to the Golgi apparatus for further processing.
2. Golgi-derived vesicles: After proteins have been processed in the Golgi, they are packaged into transport vesicles that can deliver them to their final destinations within the cell or to the plasma membrane for secretion.
3. Endocytic vesicles: These vesicles form when a portion of the plasma membrane invaginates and pinches off, engulfing extracellular material or fluid. Examples include clathrin-coated vesicles and caveolae.
4. Lysosomal vesicles: These vesicles transport materials to lysosomes for degradation.
5. Secretory vesicles: These vesicles store proteins and other molecules that will be secreted from the cell. When stimulated, these vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane, releasing their contents to the extracellular space.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

According to the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), biological products are "products that are made from or contain a living organism or its derivatives, such as vaccines, blood and blood components, cells, genes, tissues, and proteins." These products can be composed of sugars, proteins, nucleic acids, or complex combinations of these substances, and they can come from many sources, including humans, animals, microorganisms, or plants.

Biological products are often used to diagnose, prevent, or treat a wide range of medical conditions, and they can be administered in various ways, such as through injection, inhalation, or topical application. Because biological products are derived from living organisms, their manufacturing processes can be complex and must be tightly controlled to ensure the safety, purity, and potency of the final product.

It's important to note that biological products are not the same as drugs, which are chemically synthesized compounds. While drugs are designed to interact with specific targets in the body, such as enzymes or receptors, biological products can have more complex and varied mechanisms of action, making them potentially more difficult to characterize and regulate.

Anion transport proteins are specialized membrane transport proteins that facilitate the movement of negatively charged ions, known as anions, across biological membranes. These proteins play a crucial role in maintaining ionic balance and regulating various physiological processes within the body.

There are several types of anion transport proteins, including:

1. Cl-/HCO3- exchangers (also known as anion exchangers or band 3 proteins): These transporters facilitate the exchange of chloride (Cl-) and bicarbonate (HCO3-) ions across the membrane. They are widely expressed in various tissues, including the red blood cells, gastrointestinal tract, and kidneys, where they help regulate pH, fluid balance, and electrolyte homeostasis.
2. Sulfate permeases: These transporters facilitate the movement of sulfate ions (SO42-) across membranes. They are primarily found in the epithelial cells of the kidneys, intestines, and choroid plexus, where they play a role in sulfur metabolism and absorption.
3. Cl- channels: These proteins form ion channels that allow chloride ions to pass through the membrane. They are involved in various physiological processes, such as neuronal excitability, transepithelial fluid transport, and cell volume regulation.
4. Cation-chloride cotransporters: These transporters move both cations (positively charged ions) and chloride anions together across the membrane. They are involved in regulating neuronal excitability, cell volume, and ionic balance in various tissues.

Dysfunction of anion transport proteins has been implicated in several diseases, such as cystic fibrosis (due to mutations in the CFTR Cl- channel), distal renal tubular acidosis (due to defects in Cl-/HCO3- exchangers), and some forms of epilepsy (due to abnormalities in cation-chloride cotransporters).

Cation transport proteins are a type of membrane protein that facilitate the movement of cations (positively charged ions) across biological membranes. These proteins play a crucial role in maintaining ion balance and electrical excitability within cells, as well as in various physiological processes such as nutrient uptake, waste elimination, and signal transduction.

There are several types of cation transport proteins, including:

1. Ion channels: These are specialized protein structures that form a pore or channel through the membrane, allowing ions to pass through rapidly and selectively. They can be either voltage-gated or ligand-gated, meaning they open in response to changes in electrical potential or binding of specific molecules, respectively.

2. Ion pumps: These are active transport proteins that use energy from ATP hydrolysis to move ions against their electrochemical gradient, effectively pumping them from one side of the membrane to the other. Examples include the sodium-potassium pump (Na+/K+-ATPase) and calcium pumps (Ca2+ ATPase).

3. Ion exchangers: These are antiporter proteins that facilitate the exchange of one ion for another across the membrane, maintaining electroneutrality. For example, the sodium-proton exchanger (NHE) moves a proton into the cell in exchange for a sodium ion being moved out.

4. Symporters: These are cotransporter proteins that move two or more ions together in the same direction, often coupled with the transport of a solute molecule. An example is the sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT), which facilitates glucose uptake into cells by coupling its movement with that of sodium ions.

Collectively, cation transport proteins help maintain ion homeostasis and contribute to various cellular functions, including electrical signaling, enzyme regulation, and metabolic processes. Dysfunction in these proteins can lead to a range of diseases, such as neurological disorders, cardiovascular disease, and kidney dysfunction.

Glucose is a simple monosaccharide (or single sugar) that serves as the primary source of energy for living organisms. It's a fundamental molecule in biology, often referred to as "dextrose" or "grape sugar." Glucose has the molecular formula C6H12O6 and is vital to the functioning of cells, especially those in the brain and nervous system.

In the body, glucose is derived from the digestion of carbohydrates in food, and it's transported around the body via the bloodstream to cells where it can be used for energy. Cells convert glucose into a usable form through a process called cellular respiration, which involves a series of metabolic reactions that generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP)—the main currency of energy in cells.

Glucose is also stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen, a polysaccharide (multiple sugar) that can be broken down back into glucose when needed for energy between meals or during physical activity. Maintaining appropriate blood glucose levels is crucial for overall health, and imbalances can lead to conditions such as diabetes mellitus.

The Golgi apparatus, also known as the Golgi complex or simply the Golgi, is a membrane-bound organelle found in the cytoplasm of most eukaryotic cells. It plays a crucial role in the processing, sorting, and packaging of proteins and lipids for transport to their final destinations within the cell or for secretion outside the cell.

The Golgi apparatus consists of a series of flattened, disc-shaped sacs called cisternae, which are stacked together in a parallel arrangement. These stacks are often interconnected by tubular structures called tubules or vesicles. The Golgi apparatus has two main faces: the cis face, which is closest to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and receives proteins and lipids directly from the ER; and the trans face, which is responsible for sorting and dispatching these molecules to their final destinations.

The Golgi apparatus performs several essential functions in the cell:

1. Protein processing: After proteins are synthesized in the ER, they are transported to the cis face of the Golgi apparatus, where they undergo various post-translational modifications, such as glycosylation (the addition of sugar molecules) and sulfation. These modifications help determine the protein's final structure, function, and targeting.
2. Lipid modification: The Golgi apparatus also modifies lipids by adding or removing different functional groups, which can influence their properties and localization within the cell.
3. Protein sorting and packaging: Once proteins and lipids have been processed, they are sorted and packaged into vesicles at the trans face of the Golgi apparatus. These vesicles then transport their cargo to various destinations, such as lysosomes, plasma membrane, or extracellular space.
4. Intracellular transport: The Golgi apparatus serves as a central hub for intracellular trafficking, coordinating the movement of vesicles and other transport carriers between different organelles and cellular compartments.
5. Cell-cell communication: Some proteins that are processed and packaged in the Golgi apparatus are destined for secretion, playing crucial roles in cell-cell communication and maintaining tissue homeostasis.

In summary, the Golgi apparatus is a vital organelle involved in various cellular processes, including post-translational modification, sorting, packaging, and intracellular transport of proteins and lipids. Its proper functioning is essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis and overall organismal health.

Hydrogen-ion concentration, also known as pH, is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. It is defined as the negative logarithm (to the base 10) of the hydrogen ion activity in a solution. The standard unit of measurement is the pH unit. A pH of 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, and greater than 7 is basic.

In medical terms, hydrogen-ion concentration is important for maintaining homeostasis within the body. For example, in the stomach, a high hydrogen-ion concentration (low pH) is necessary for the digestion of food. However, in other parts of the body such as blood, a high hydrogen-ion concentration can be harmful and lead to acidosis. Conversely, a low hydrogen-ion concentration (high pH) in the blood can lead to alkalosis. Both acidosis and alkalosis can have serious consequences on various organ systems if not corrected.

Vesicular transport proteins are specialized proteins that play a crucial role in the intracellular trafficking and transportation of various biomolecules, such as proteins and lipids, within eukaryotic cells. These proteins facilitate the formation, movement, and fusion of membrane-bound vesicles, which are small, spherical structures that carry cargo between different cellular compartments or organelles.

There are several types of vesicular transport proteins involved in this process:

1. Coat Proteins (COPs): These proteins form a coat around the vesicle membrane and help shape it into its spherical form during the budding process. They also participate in selecting and sorting cargo for transportation. Two main types of COPs exist: COPI, which is involved in transport between the Golgi apparatus and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and COPII, which mediates transport from the ER to the Golgi apparatus.

2. SNARE Proteins: These proteins are responsible for the specific recognition and docking of vesicles with their target membranes. They form complexes that bring the vesicle and target membranes close together, allowing for fusion and the release of cargo into the target organelle. There are two types of SNARE proteins: v-SNAREs (vesicle SNAREs) and t-SNAREs (target SNAREs), which interact to form a stable complex during membrane fusion.

3. Rab GTPases: These proteins act as molecular switches that regulate the recruitment of coat proteins, motor proteins, and SNAREs during vesicle transport. They cycle between an active GTP-bound state and an inactive GDP-bound state, controlling the various stages of vesicular trafficking, such as budding, transport, tethering, and fusion.

4. Tethering Proteins: These proteins help to bridge the gap between vesicles and their target membranes before SNARE-mediated fusion occurs. They play a role in ensuring specificity during vesicle docking and may also contribute to regulating the timing of membrane fusion events.

5. Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor Attachment Protein Receptors (SNAREs): These proteins are involved in intracellular transport, particularly in the trafficking of vesicles between organelles. They consist of a family of coiled-coil domain-containing proteins that form complexes to mediate membrane fusion events.

Overall, these various classes of proteins work together to ensure the specificity and efficiency of vesicular transport in eukaryotic cells. Dysregulation or mutation of these proteins can lead to various diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders and cancer.

Membrane proteins are a type of protein that are embedded in the lipid bilayer of biological membranes, such as the plasma membrane of cells or the inner membrane of mitochondria. These proteins play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including:

1. Cell-cell recognition and signaling
2. Transport of molecules across the membrane (selective permeability)
3. Enzymatic reactions at the membrane surface
4. Energy transduction and conversion
5. Mechanosensation and signal transduction

Membrane proteins can be classified into two main categories: integral membrane proteins, which are permanently associated with the lipid bilayer, and peripheral membrane proteins, which are temporarily or loosely attached to the membrane surface. Integral membrane proteins can further be divided into three subcategories based on their topology:

1. Transmembrane proteins, which span the entire width of the lipid bilayer with one or more alpha-helices or beta-barrels.
2. Lipid-anchored proteins, which are covalently attached to lipids in the membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor or other lipid modifications.
3. Monotopic proteins, which are partially embedded in the membrane and have one or more domains exposed to either side of the bilayer.

Membrane proteins are essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis and are targets for various therapeutic interventions, including drug development and gene therapy. However, their structural complexity and hydrophobicity make them challenging to study using traditional biochemical methods, requiring specialized techniques such as X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM).

Amino acid transport systems refer to the various membrane transport proteins that are responsible for the active or passive translocation of amino acids across cell membranes in the body. These transport systems play a crucial role in maintaining amino acid homeostasis within cells and regulating their availability for protein synthesis, neurotransmission, and other physiological processes.

There are several distinct amino acid transport systems, each with its own specificity for particular types of amino acids or related molecules. These systems can be classified based on their energy requirements, substrate specificity, and membrane localization. Some of the major amino acid transport systems include:

1. System A - This is a sodium-dependent transport system that primarily transports small, neutral amino acids such as alanine, serine, and proline. It has several subtypes (ASC, A, and AN) with different substrate affinities and kinetic properties.
2. System L - This is a sodium-independent transport system that transports large, neutral amino acids such as leucine, isoleucine, valine, phenylalanine, and tryptophan. It has several subtypes (L1, L2, and y+L) with different substrate specificities and transport mechanisms.
3. System B0 - This is a sodium-dependent transport system that transports both neutral and basic amino acids such as arginine, lysine, and ornithine. It has several subtypes (B0,+, B0-, and b0,+) with different substrate affinities and kinetic properties.
4. System y+ - This is a sodium-independent transport system that transports primarily basic amino acids such as arginine, lysine, and ornithine. It has several subtypes (y+L, y+, b0,+) with different substrate specificities and transport mechanisms.
5. System X-AG - This is a sodium-independent antiporter system that exchanges glutamate and aspartate for neutral amino acids such as cystine, serine, and threonine. It plays an essential role in maintaining redox homeostasis by regulating the intracellular levels of cysteine, a precursor of glutathione.

These transport systems are critical for maintaining cellular homeostasis and regulating various physiological processes such as protein synthesis, neurotransmission, and immune function. Dysregulation of these transport systems has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying these transport systems is essential for developing novel therapeutic strategies to treat these conditions.

A biological assay is a method used in biology and biochemistry to measure the concentration or potency of a substance (like a drug, hormone, or enzyme) by observing its effect on living cells or tissues. This type of assay can be performed using various techniques such as:

1. Cell-based assays: These involve measuring changes in cell behavior, growth, or viability after exposure to the substance being tested. Examples include proliferation assays, apoptosis assays, and cytotoxicity assays.
2. Protein-based assays: These focus on measuring the interaction between the substance and specific proteins, such as enzymes or receptors. Examples include enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), radioimmunoassays (RIAs), and pull-down assays.
3. Genetic-based assays: These involve analyzing the effects of the substance on gene expression, DNA structure, or protein synthesis. Examples include quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays, reporter gene assays, and northern blotting.

Biological assays are essential tools in research, drug development, and diagnostic applications to understand biological processes and evaluate the potential therapeutic efficacy or toxicity of various substances.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Chlorides are simple inorganic ions consisting of a single chlorine atom bonded to a single charged hydrogen ion (H+). Chloride is the most abundant anion (negatively charged ion) in the extracellular fluid in the human body. The normal range for chloride concentration in the blood is typically between 96-106 milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L).

Chlorides play a crucial role in maintaining electrical neutrality, acid-base balance, and osmotic pressure in the body. They are also essential for various physiological processes such as nerve impulse transmission, maintenance of membrane potentials, and digestion (as hydrochloric acid in the stomach).

Chloride levels can be affected by several factors, including diet, hydration status, kidney function, and certain medical conditions. Increased or decreased chloride levels can indicate various disorders, such as dehydration, kidney disease, Addison's disease, or diabetes insipidus. Therefore, monitoring chloride levels is essential for assessing a person's overall health and diagnosing potential medical issues.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Protein binding, in the context of medical and biological sciences, refers to the interaction between a protein and another molecule (known as the ligand) that results in a stable complex. This process is often reversible and can be influenced by various factors such as pH, temperature, and concentration of the involved molecules.

In clinical chemistry, protein binding is particularly important when it comes to drugs, as many of them bind to proteins (especially albumin) in the bloodstream. The degree of protein binding can affect a drug's distribution, metabolism, and excretion, which in turn influence its therapeutic effectiveness and potential side effects.

Protein-bound drugs may be less available for interaction with their target tissues, as only the unbound or "free" fraction of the drug is active. Therefore, understanding protein binding can help optimize dosing regimens and minimize adverse reactions.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

Biological therapy, also known as biotherapy or immunotherapy, is a type of medical treatment that uses biological agents (such as substances derived from living organisms or laboratory-made versions of these substances) to identify and modify specific targets in the body to treat diseases, including cancer. These therapies can work by boosting the body's natural defenses to fight illness, interfering with the growth and spread of abnormal cells, or replacing absent or faulty proteins in the body. Examples of biological therapies include monoclonal antibodies, cytokines, and vaccines.

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Rosenberg, T (1948). "On accumulation and active transport in biological systems. I. Thermodynamic considerations". Acta Chem. ... There are two forms of active transport, primary active transport and secondary active transport. In primary active transport, ... Active transport requires cellular energy to achieve this movement. There are two types of active transport: primary active ... Primary active transport, also called direct active transport, directly uses metabolic energy to transport molecules across a ...
"Large vertical migrations of Pyrosoma atlanticum play an important role in active carbon transport". Journal of Geophysical ... Biological Bulletin. Marine Biological Laboratory. 179 (3): 340-350. doi:10.2307/1542326. JSTOR 1542326. PMID 29314963. Huxley ...
Skou, JC (9 April 1962). "Preparation from mammalian brain and kidney of the enzyme system involved in active transport of Na ... Journal of Biological Chemistry. 281 (2): e2. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258(19)47575-3. Retrieved 29 May 2018 - via www.jbc.org. Post ... "Membrane adenosine triphosphatase as a participant in the active transport of sodium and potassium in the human erythrocyte". ... However, in his paper he was wary of identifying the enzyme with the active ion movement, so he left out the term "sodium- ...
Active transport Transport phenomena "5.2 Passive Transport - Biology 2e , OpenStax". openstax.org. Retrieved 2020-12-06. "5.2A ... Simple diffusion and osmosis are both forms of passive transport and require none of the cell's ATP energy. A biological ... Active transport of protons by H+ ATPases alters membrane potential allowing for facilitated passive transport of particular ... Instead of using cellular energy, like active transport, passive transport relies on the second law of thermodynamics to drive ...
Kondo T, Yoshida K, Urata Y, Goto S, Gasa S, Taniguchi N (Sep 1993). "gamma-Glutamylcysteine synthetase and active transport of ... Demonstration and quantification of enzyme-ligand complexes". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 253 (8): 2615-23. doi: ... glutathione S-conjugate are responsive to heat shock in K562 erythroid cells". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 268 (27): ...
"Active PIKfyve associates with and promotes the membrane attachment of the late endosome-to-trans-Golgi network transport ... Effect of insulin". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 274 (31): 21589-97. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.31.21589. PMID 10419465. ... Novel Sac phosphatase joins the ArPIKfyve-PIKfyve complex". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 282 (33): 23878-91. doi: ... February 2008). "A selective PIKfyve inhibitor blocks PtdIns(3,5)P(2) production and disrupts endomembrane transport and ...
Stein WD, Lieb WR, Karlish SJ, Eilam Y. A model for active transport of sodium and potassium ions as mediated by a tetrameric ... Intra-protein interactions across a fluid membrane as a model for biological transport. The Journal of general physiology 1969 ... The kinetic equations of membrane transport were developed by Stein, together with William Lieb, and published in "Transport ... Stein investigated the kinetic mechanism of active Na and K ion transport, confirming the basic alternating access model of ...
They are second only to hemoglobin in biological popularity of use in oxygen transport. On oxygenation the two copper(I) atoms ... The active site is located in a hydrophobic pocket. This is important as without it the iron(II) would be irreversibly oxidized ... The active site nickel geometry cycles from square planar Ni(II), with thiolate (Cys2 and Cys6) and backbone nitrogen (His1 and ... The active site contains an iron ion coordinated by the sulfur atoms of four cysteine residues forming an almost regular ...
Lasch reveals he wants the biological attack to occur; the visiting Americans will transport the virus back home and force the ... Hunter meets with Racine and welcomes her back to active duty. Noomi Rapace as Alice Racine, a CIA interrogation officer ... The CIA and MI5 learn that radical imam Yazid Khaleel plans a biological attack on an American target on British soil in ... US Government to take the threat of biological warfare seriously. After shooting Wilson, Racine and Lasch engage in a brief ...
The effectiveness of bioelectrocatalysts generally depends on the ease of electron transport between the active site of the ... Microbial fuel cells are another way that biological systems can be leveraged for electrocatalytic applications. Microbial- ... MOFs provide potential active sites at both metal centers and organic ligand sites. They can also be functionalized, or ... The real active sites of MOFs during electrocatalysis need to be analyzed comprehensively. Hydrogen and oxygen can be combined ...
Recycling of ascorbate via active transport of DHA into cells, followed by reduction and reuse, mitigates the inability of ... The lifetime of the stabilized species is commonly said to be about 6 minutes under biological conditions. Destruction results ... transport Vitamin C (in its oxidized form, DHA) in most cells, where recycling back to ascorbate generates the necessary enzyme ... Journal of Biological Chemistry. 270 (21): 12584-12592. doi:10.1074/jbc.270.21.12584. PMID 7759506. Lee, Y. C.; Huang, H. Y.; ...
A direct mechanism of action involves homodimerization of the receptor, translocation via active transport into the nucleus, ... The biological response depends on the cell type.[citation needed] In the absence of activated GR, other transcription factors ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 274 (5): 3182-3188. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.5.3182. PMID 9915858. Chang CJ, Chen YL, Lee SC ( ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 272 (42): 26659-26664. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.42.26659. PMID 9334248. de Castro M, Elliot S, ...
Arsenic toxicity Arsenite-transporting ATPase Solute carrier family Active transport ATP-binding cassette transporter Hasgekar ... Biological Trace Element Research. 111 (1-3): 167-183. doi:10.1385/BTER:111:1:167. ISSN 0163-4984. PMID 16943604. S2CID ... which can participate in both secondary transport or primary active transport. Based on operon analyses, Arc3 homologues may ... In the latter case ATP hydrolysis again energizes transport. ... ArsB can function as a secondary carrier or as a primary active ...
Reid's work in the early 1900s on active transport across biological membranes was not fully appreciated until the 1950s. Reid ... This pioneer in studies on epithelial transport was in many ways far ahead of his contemporaries in the field, yet his work was ... Reid EW (1901). "Transport of fluid by certain epithelia". The Journal of Physiology. 26 (6): 436-444. doi:10.1113/jphysiol. ... From 1887 to 1905 Reid at St Mary's and Dundee was an active research worker on subjects dealing with physical and electrical ...
... s can be neutral or charged, and particle transport can be active or passive. The latter can be facilitated by pressure ... Membranes can be generally classified into synthetic membranes and biological membranes. Biological membranes include cell ... The loss of RO performance can result from irreversible organic and/or inorganic fouling and chemical degradation of the active ... Converting RO membranes by chemical treatment with different oxidizing solutions are aimed at removing the active layer of the ...
Transport of ions such as K+ and Na+ across membranes or other biological interfaces is vital to many cell processes; SECM has ... Electric potential is manipulated through the UME tip in a bulk solution containing a redox-active couple (e.g. Fe2+/Fe3+). ... been employed in studying transport of redox active species across cell membranes. In feedback mode, the transfer of molecules ... Examples include corrosion studies where a redox mediator may act to inhibit or enhance the rate of corrosion, and biological ...
The amino acids or sugars released by these extracellular enzymes are then pumped into cells by active transport proteins. ... Carbohydrates are the most abundant biological molecules, and fill numerous roles, such as the storage and transport of energy ... Proteins are also important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, active transport across membranes, and the cell ... "Mammalian zinc transport, trafficking, and signals". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 281 (34): 24085-9. doi:10.1074/jbc. ...
Steinberg, Deborah; Goldthwait, Sarah; Hansell, Dennis (2002). "Zooplankton vertical migration and the active transport of ... Biogeochemical cycle - Chemical transfer pathway between Earth's biological and non-biological parts Climate change mitigation ... Riverine transport, being the main connective channel of these pools, will act to transport net primary productivity (primarily ... The biological pump is not so much the result of a single process, but rather the sum of a number of processes each of which ...
There are two types of active transport: primary active transport that uses ATP, and secondary active transport that uses an ... "Handbook Biological Wastewater Treatment - Design of Activated Sludge Systems". Retrieved 19 March 2016. "Aerobic Waste ... active transport In cellular biology, the movement of molecules across a membrane from a region of their lower concentration to ... Active transport requires cellular energy to achieve this movement. ...
The energy is utilized to conduct biosynthesis, facilitate movement, and regulate active transport inside of the cell.: 571 ... 570 The currency of energy in a biological cell is adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which stores its energy in the ... For instance, the electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation all take place in the mitochondrial membrane.: 73, 74 ... One such pathway is oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) within the electron transport chain (ETC). Various inhibitors can ...
A number of enzymes are membrane bound and often mass transport through the membrane is active rather than passive as in ... In biological systems, membranes fulfill a number of essential functions. The compartmentalization of biological cells is ... allowing the cell to keep up gradients for example by using active transport of protons or water. The use of a natural membrane ... The transport mechanism of hydrogen inside palladium membranes follows a solution/diffusion mechanism: hydrogen molecule is ...
Free radical accumulation occurs due to increased electron transport uncoupling at the active site of endothelial nitric oxide ... It acts as a relaxant of smooth muscle and as a vasodilator and is also active in the brain, where it increases the response of ... Hydrogen sulfide is produced in small amounts by some cells of the mammalian body and has a number of biological signaling ...
... or by active transport, requiring the cell to expend energy in transporting it. The membrane also maintains the cell potential ... The cell employs a number of transport mechanisms that involve biological membranes: 1. Passive osmosis and diffusion: Some ... Endocytosis requires energy and is thus a form of active transport. 4. Exocytosis: Just as material can be brought into the ... with specific membrane proteins accounts for the selective permeability of the membrane and passive and active transport ...
These monomers are then absorbed into the mycelium by facilitated diffusion and active transport. Mycelia are vital in ... This biological degradation is a process known as bioremediation. Mycelial mats have been suggested as having potential as ... The first approach cultivates mycelium and its substrate in forms, after which it is dried in ovens and then transported and ... First, the hyphae secrete enzymes onto or into the food source, which break down biological polymers into smaller units such as ...
The proteins may assist in the movement of substances by facilitated diffusion (i.e., passive transport) or active transport. ... across a biological membrane. Carrier proteins are integral membrane proteins; that is, they exist within and span the membrane ... acid transport protein, cation transport protein, or anion transport protein) is a protein that serves the function of moving ... Transport proteins are vital to the growth and life of all living things. There are several different kinds of transport ...
... giving cell membranes a biological identity. They also use endogenous active transport where transferrin, an iron binding ... An example of enzyme inhibition is given by binding of a-chymotrypsin (ChT), an enzyme with a largely cationic active site. ... This allows for maximum efficacy of the active drug. Also, the use of nanoparticles results in the attraction of proteins to ... Biological processes can be controlled through transcription regulation, gene regulation, and enzyme inhibition processes that ...
As an active transport mechanism, exocytosis requires the use of energy to transport material. Exocytosis and its counterpart, ... Hydrogen sulfide is produced in small amounts by some cells of the human body and has a number of biological signaling ... Signaling molecules can be synthesized from various biosynthetic pathways and released through passive or active transports, or ... neurotransmitters can also be released via reverse transport through membrane transport proteins.[citation needed] Autocrine ...
Biological Carbon Pump Assessment using the Transport Matric Method and Global Nutrient Distributions (BATMAN) - C M Moore - ... Active Living * Advanced Fibre Applications * Advanced Laser Laboratory * Advanced Project Management Research Centre ... Biological Carbon Pump Assessment using the Transport Matric Method and Global Nutrient Distributions (BATMAN) - C M Moore - ... Carbon storage in reactive rock systems: determining the coupling of geo-chemo-mechanical processes in reactive transport ...
... a primary receptor of bacterial active transport and chemotaxis". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 266 (8): 5202-19. doi: ... Kellermann O, Szmelcman S (August 1974). "Active transport of maltose in Escherichia coli K12. Involvement of a "periplasmic" ... All the gene involved in the transport of maltose/maltodextrin, including malE, are clustered in the malB region of E. coli and ... I. Transport of maltose". Journal of Molecular Biology. 194 (4): 663-73. doi:10.1016/0022-2836(87)90243-9. PMID 2821264. ...
... that the excised pigmented rabbit conjunctiva is a tight barrier capable of active Cl- transport. The transepithelial potential ... Biological Transport, Active * Cell Membrane Permeability / drug effects * Chloride Channels / metabolism * Chlorides / ... Active chloride transport in the pigmented rabbit conjunctiva Curr Eye Res. 1993 Dec;12(12):1041-8. doi: 10.3109/ ... that the excised pigmented rabbit conjunctiva is a tight barrier capable of active Cl- transport. The transepithelial potential ...
Biological Transport, Active * Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions * Manganese / chemistry* * Manganese / metabolism * ... and mutagenesis studies show that they are essential for manganese transport. Modeling suggests that access to these titratable ...
is_active_in COPII-coated ER to Golgi transport vesicle IBA Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor. more info ... is_active_in endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi intermediate compartment IBA Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor. more info ... is_active_in endoplasmic reticulum membrane IBA Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor. more info ... involved_in endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi vesicle-mediated transport IBA Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor. more ...
Neurons transport subcellular cargo along axons and neurites through a stochastic interplay of active and passive transport. ... We found that tension in neurons modulates active transport of vesicles by increasing the probability of active motion, ... To this end, we investigate the active and passive transport of vesicles in Aplysia neurons while changing neurite tension via ... We show that mechanical tension modulates active transport processes in neurons and that external forces can couple to internal ...
Active Transport - movement of molecules against a concentration gradient. *Secretion - ATP is needed to form lysosomes to ... Biological Molecules Glossary. *monomer - a single subunit making up a long chain of identical repeating unity, called a ... Active site puts stresses on the substrate, causing bonds to brake. *Reaction is catalysed, causing the product(s) to be ... lock and key model - the theory stating that the enzymes active site is rigid and never changes shape ...
Chapter 2 describes modified ZnO nanoparticles as electron transport layer to improve the performance and stability of organic ... Chapter 4 describes morphological studies of non-fullerene acceptor-based organic photovoltaic active layers by X-ray ... nuclear magnetic resonance to understand the morphology degradation of non-fullerene acceptor-based organic photovoltaic active ... Biological and Chemical Physics , Materials Chemistry , Organic Chemistry , Polymer and Organic Materials , Polymer Chemistry ...
Title: Connecting cooperative transport by ants with the physics of active swimmers ... Biological Physics Authors and titles for physics.bio-ph in Jan 2023. [ total of 85 entries: 1-25 , 26-50 , 51-75 , 76-85 ]. [ ... Title: In situ Biological Particle Analyzer based on Digital Inline Holography Authors: Delaney Sanborn, Ruichen He, Lei Feng, ... Subjects: Biological Physics (physics.bio-ph); Soft Condensed Matter (cond-mat.soft); Statistical Mechanics (cond-mat.stat-mech ...
... experience and global infrastructure needed to handle and transport your sensitive pharma products. ... are Healthcare QMS and GDP-certified and we can transport your sensitive products all over the world using both active ... Modes of transport. Get more information about our modes of transport focusing on air, sea, road and rail ... Finally, road transport with temperature-controlled trucks can be used for the first or final leg of the journey to ensure the ...
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Liu NN, Uppuluri P, Broggi A, et al. (2018) Intersection of phosphate transport, oxidative ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Robinett NG, Culbertson EM, Peterson RL, et al. (2018) Exploiting the vulnerable active ... The transcriptionally active state of eukaryotic ribosomal RNA genes). Dean H. Hamer. post-doc. 1990. National Cancer Institute ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Besold AN, Gilston BA, Radin JN, et al. (2017) The role of calprotectin in withholding ...
... experience and global infrastructure needed to handle and transport your sensitive pharma products. ... are Healthcare QMS and GDP-certified and we can transport your sensitive products all over the world using both active ... Modes of transport. Get more information about our modes of transport focusing on air, sea, road and rail ... Finally, road transport with temperature-controlled trucks can be used for the first or final leg of the journey to ensure the ...
... structure and properties of biological membranes; three classes of membrane proteins; membrane transport ... Enzymes: thermodynamics of catalysis, types and mechanisms of enzymes, substrate binding, active site, specificity and rate of ... To provide grounding in the basic principles of Biochemistry for students in Biological Sciences. To provide a description of ... Proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, lipids and biological membranes will be understood. The mode of action of enzymes and ...
... kinetics of nonequilibrium open biological systems, metabolic networks, biological transport processes, large-scale biochemical ... More physicists should be encouraged to become active in research and development in the growing application fields of ... Today, there is a growing demand for quantitative and computational skills in biological research and the commercialization of ... This is particularly inopportune at a time when the needs for quantitative thinking about biological systems are exploding. ...
Can an enzyme have more than 2 active site?. Answer. Button navigates to signup page. •. 1 comment. Comment on Joelles post " ... A biological catalyst (usually a protein). Substrate. The reactant molecule that an enzyme works on. ... Other enzymes have more then one of the same active site and they can bind multiples of the same substrate.. Hope that helps! ... The part of the enzyme where the substrate binds is called the active site. Here, the enzyme changes shape slightly, fitting ...
In contrast, steroids are transported through milk and meat to humans where they may exert biological activity. Furthermore, ... This review evaluates the potential for environmental transport and bioavailability of the active chemical to humans. Recent ... there is no evidence that the protein persists in the environment nor that it is active in humans. ... environmental matrices such as raw water and dust may also allow for the environmental transport and bioavailability of ...
Due to its insolubility in water and octanol active or passive transport through biological membranes is unlikely. As the ... As this effect was observed only after bypassing the biological membranes, it supports the hypothesis that the substance is not ...
Active transport of particulate organic carbon and nitrogen by vertically migrating zooplankton in the Sargasso Sea ... 1Department of Biological Sciences, University of Southern California, 3616 Trousdale Parkway, AHF 301, Los Angeles,California ... Mean active POC (PON) flux at BATS was 0.94 mgC m-2 d-1 (0.18 mgN m-2 d-1) and the maximum was 5.27 mgC m-2 d-1 (1.02 mgN m-2 d ... which we included in our estimates of active POC/PON export. We applied the mean weight-specific active POC/PON export rate for ...
Scientific method in which biological problems are solved is termed as biological method. Biological Method Lecture Notes PDF ... Study Biological Method Lecture Notes PDF with College Biology Definition: ... What is Active Transport?. According to a scientific research, a considerable heights of water in plants is called "cohesion- ... Biological Method Definition:. *. Scientific method in which biological problems are solved is termed as biological method.. ...
Effects of very small amounts of highly active biological substances on plant growth. Biological Agriculture and Horticulture, ... Rapid transport to shoots - Kononova, M.M. (1966). Soil organic matter. Elmsford, NY: Pergamon 31. Immune system - Syltic, P.W ... Transport metal ions - Schnitzer, M., & Khan, S.U. (1972). Humic substances in the environment New York: Decker. 49. Acidity of ... Enhance and transport nutrients - Prakash, A. (1971). Fertility of the Sea, 2, 351-368. 68. Make water wetter - Rashid, M.A. ( ...
Characteristics of individual transport pathways, including their geometry, physico-chemical properties and dynamics are ... CAVER 3.0 paves the way for the study of important biochemical phenomena in the area of molecular transport, molecular ... CAVER is a software tool widely used for the identification and characterization of transport pathways in static macromolecular ... Tunnels and channels facilitate the transport of small molecules, ions and water solvent in a large variety of proteins. ...
Commensal microbiota is involved in stressor-induced immunomodulation, but other biological effects are not yet known. Here we ... Moreover, iron transport was also altered in both organisms in the presence of cortisol (Sup. Fig 3). These results are in ... 1). Among them, one species, Leptotrichia goodfellowii, was substantially more active (Fig. 1b). Species belonging to the ... a Over-represented functional activities in the presence of cortisol summarized as GO terms related to biological processes. b ...
... developing mathematical models of thin film and interfacial flows with application to biological fluids, micro-fluidics devices ... devising novel computational methods to simulate fluid transport phenomena; and improving the current understanding of polymer ...
... active site dynamics, redox active enzymes and mechanisms of electron transport. Photoactive enzymes and mechanisms of ... Biological Sciences), Vincenzo De Luca (Biological Sciences),Travis Dudding (Chemistry), Deborah Inglis (Biological Sciences), ... Biological Sciences) Participating Graduate Faculty Professors Fiona F. Hunter (Biological Sciences), A. Joffre Mercier ( ... Biological Sciences), Alan Castle (Biological Sciences) Graduate Program Director Ping Liang [email protected] Director, Centre ...
They function as a skeleton to give cells their shape and enable many biological processes such as cell to cell communication ... and protein transport within cells. Microtubules were first observed in the sea-urchin egg in 1928 (Runnbtrc-M, ... Microtubules also enable many biological processes, such as protein transport within cells and cell to cell communication. ... Microtubule filaments composed of tubulins are now known to play an active role in chromosome separation. These microtubules ...
Eddies are crucial to the transport of heat, momentum, trace chemicals, biological communities, the oxygen, and nutrients ... relating to life in the sea [2]. They are also active in air-sea interaction, both through response to weather and in shaping ... M. P. Seki, J. J. Polovina, R. E. Brainard, R. R. Bidigare, C. L. Leonard, and D. G. Foley, "Biological enhancement at cyclonic ... It is the region of monsoon and its biological production is affected by the physical processes altering the vertical flux of ...
Validation of Finite Element Framework for Passive and Active Membrane Transport in Deformable Multiphasic Models of Biological ... Mechanical engineeringBiomedical engineeringFinite element methodBiological transportCell physiologyBiomechanics 46. ... 9. A Novel Design of a Cable-driven Active Leg Exoskeleton (C-ALEX) and Gait Training with Human Subjects Jin, Xin 2018 Theses ... Design of Wheelchair Robot for Active Postural Support (WRAPS) for Users with Trunk Impairments Ophaswongse, Chawin 2021 Theses ...
2012) Active transport of the calcium pump: Introduction of the temperature difference as a driving force. Norwegian University ... 2013) Describing transport across complex biological interfaces. The European Physical Journal Special Topics Academic article ... 2021) The energy conversion in active transport of ions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States ... 2021) The energy conversion in active transport of ions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States ...
  • Various inhibitors including ouabain (a Na+/K(+)-ATPase inhibitor), amiloride (a Na+ transport blocker), N-phenylanthranilic acid (a chloride transport inhibitor), bumetanide (an inhibitor of Na(+)-(K+)-Cl- cotransport process), and BaCl2 (a K+ channel blocker) were used on the mucosal and serosal sides of the tissue mounted in Ussing chambers to determine the involvement of the respective ion transport processes in the observed short-circuit current across the conjunctiva. (nih.gov)
  • We show that mechanical tension modulates active transport processes in neurons and that external forces can couple to internal (subcellular) forces and change the overall transport dynamics. (nature.com)
  • More physicists should be encouraged to become active in research and development in the growing application fields of biophysics including molecular genetics, biomedical imaging, tissue generation and regeneration, drug development, prosthetics, neural and brain function, kinetics of nonequilibrium open biological systems, metabolic networks, biological transport processes, large-scale biochemical networks and stochastic processes in biochemical systems to name a few. (aps.org)
  • Chemical Biotechnology involves the use of the tools and techniques of chemistry to understand and manipulate biological processes. (brocku.ca)
  • They function as a skeleton to give cells their shape and enable many biological processes such as cell to cell communication and protein transport within cells. (databasefootball.com)
  • Microtubules also enable many biological processes, such as protein transport within cells and cell to cell communication. (databasefootball.com)
  • Based on this research, you might understand how important microtubules are for normal biological processes. (databasefootball.com)
  • However, the eddies role in the biological and biogeochemical processes remain enigmatic, partially because of the challenges of in situ eddy measurements due to the spontaneity in eddy generation and present technological limitations [ 21 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • It is a promising approach for understanding the oceanic biological and physical processes and for monitoring ocean waters [ 22 - 24 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • It's a necessary component in hundreds of metabolic processes, serving as a cofactor for more than 600 biological reactions. (purebulk.com)
  • Metals are required in many different biological systems and processes, and also find application in a whole host of drugs and medical diagnostic agents. (exeter.ac.uk)
  • You will learn how organisms use metals in key life processes, such as respiration and electron transfer, how they transport and store metals and understand how we can use our knowledge of bonding and reactivity to design therapeutic and diagnostic agents at the cutting edge of medicine. (exeter.ac.uk)
  • Transition metals in biological processes, their role in electron transfer reactions, active site structures and catalytic mechanisms. (exeter.ac.uk)
  • Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts strongly prefers significant contributions whose results can be generalised to other systems, especially studies that characterise chemical processes (e.g. chemical and (micro)biological transformations and transport) as well as those that address contaminant impacts on ecosystems and human health. (rsc.org)
  • Due to its insolubility in water and octanol active or passive transport through biological membranes is unlikely. (europa.eu)
  • As this effect was observed only after bypassing the biological membranes, it supports the hypothesis that the substance is not taken up after ingestion. (europa.eu)
  • It is a complex regulatory and transport system involving many proteins and protein complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Effective intracellular transport of proteins and organelles is critical in cells and is especially important for ensuring proper neuron functionality. (nature.com)
  • In neurons, most proteins are synthesized in the cell body and must be transported through thin structures over long distances where normal diffusion is insufficient. (nature.com)
  • For instance, preassembled units of synaptic proteins are transported in vesicles to synapses to provide building blocks for the active zone, which is necessary for rapid fusion of synaptic vesicles 7 . (nature.com)
  • Tunnels and channels facilitate the transport of small molecules, ions and water solvent in a large variety of proteins. (plos.org)
  • Characteristics of individual transport pathways, including their geometry, physico-chemical properties and dynamics are instrumental for understanding of structure-function relationships of these proteins, for the design of new inhibitors and construction of improved biocatalysts. (plos.org)
  • Transport pathways play an essential role in the functioning of a large number of proteins. (plos.org)
  • Predicted to be involved in endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi vesicle-mediated transport. (nih.gov)
  • Active commuting by bicycle is associated with a substantial decrease in the risk of death from all causes, cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD), compared with non-active commuting by car or public transport, according to a study published in April 2017 The BMJ . (thirdage.com)
  • 2018 ) Intersection of phosphate transport, oxidative stress and TOR signalling in Candida albicans virulence. (academictree.org)
  • Besides many tiny cavities, this empty internal spa`ce may form cavities of specific functions, as well as tunnels and channels (or pores), representing potential transport pathways for small molecules, ions and water molecules [1] . (plos.org)
  • In this research, the team developed a new SERS method for active capture of target molecules in small gaps between multiple layers that were naturally smaller than 3 nm, which was based on their previous research on the SERS method for automatic capture of target molecules in single-layer nanofilm hotspots. (news-medical.net)
  • The results opened up new methods for the active transport of target molecules to optimal hotspots and were expected to enable ultra-sensitive detection or monitoring of biological systems in the direction of material transformation, cell behavior or chemical kinetic process studies. (news-medical.net)
  • This makes transporting vaccines around the world a complex undertaking and is why many rural areas around the world have very poor access to vaccinations. (springwise.com)
  • Now, however, researchers may have found a way to transport vaccines safely at higher temperatures. (springwise.com)
  • Our goal is to make the transportation of vaccines and other life-saving biological materials more efficient and cost-effective, while also reducing the carbon footprint of this critical supply chain. (springwise.com)
  • Springwise has spotted other ideas aiming to protect the efficacy of vaccines, including transporting them as a microneedle patch , and using sugar to protect vaccines from heat. (springwise.com)
  • At approximately 8:20 a.m. Tuesday, April 6, 2021, the Frederick Police Department responded to the 8400 Block of Progress Drive for reports of an active shooter. (cityoffrederick.com)
  • As an example, if a synaptic protein is synthesized in the cell body, it may need to be transported the entire length of the axon (which could be over 1 meter in a human) to reach its functional target. (nature.com)
  • however, there is no evidence that the protein persists in the environment nor that it is active in humans. (cdc.gov)
  • Fluoride exposure also significantly elevated the protein expressions of cytochrome c and active caspase-3. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Neurons transport subcellular cargo along axons and neurites through a stochastic interplay of active and passive transport. (nature.com)
  • To this end, we investigate the active and passive transport of vesicles in Aplysia neurons while changing neurite tension via applied strain and quantify the resulting dynamics. (nature.com)
  • Cargo transport in cells is mediated by a stochastic interplay of passive diffusion and active transport 2 . (nature.com)
  • Fig. 1a,b shows a representative image and a schematic of a vesicle switching between active transport along a microtubule and passive diffusion in the subcellular space. (nature.com)
  • Vesicles switch stochastically between active and passive transport states. (nature.com)
  • Vesicles alternate between active transport along microtubules and passive brownian-like motion. (nature.com)
  • This example clearly shows the vesicle switching between active and passive behavior. (nature.com)
  • The inset shows the slope of the average MSD for active (green) and passive (red) vesicle motion for the trajectory shown. (nature.com)
  • d,e) Plots of the x and y position as a function of time show that particle behavior is passive (red) most of the time and that when vesicles undergo active motion (green) they are moving over larger distances. (nature.com)
  • Our warehousing facilities are Healthcare QMS and GDP-certified and we can transport your sensitive products all over the world using both active containers and passive packaging. (dsv.com)
  • This passive flux exceeded active POC flux by ~10-fold. (int-res.com)
  • A. Passive Transport. (mcqser.com)
  • This chapter presents the development of the latest version of HYDROGEOCHEM a multidimensional numerical model of coupled fluid flow, thermal transport, hydrologic transport, and biogeochemical kinetic/equilibrium reactions in saturated/unsaturated media. (benthamscience.com)
  • It iteratively solves the Richards equation for fluid flow, the thermal transport equation for temperature fields, and reactive biogeochemical transport equations for concentration distributions. (benthamscience.com)
  • Chapter 2 describes modified ZnO nanoparticles as electron transport layer to improve the performance and stability of organic solar cells. (umass.edu)
  • Electron transport and cytochromes. (exeter.ac.uk)
  • To provide grounding in the basic principles of Biochemistry for students in Biological Sciences. (manchester.ac.uk)
  • Successful completion of an Honours Bachelor's degree, or equivalent, normally with an average of not less than 78%, or the equivalent grade point average in major courses in an undergraduate program in biotechnology, chemistry, or the biological sciences (composed of but not limited to biochemistry, biology, genetics, or microbiology). (brocku.ca)
  • Students with undergraduate degrees in chemistry or the biological sciences will be exposed to the breadth of biotechnology through mandatory participation in the seminar program and will have the opportunity to focus on selected areas of biotechnology in other graduate courses. (brocku.ca)
  • Normally, only one of these three additional half-credit courses may be taken from among 5(alpha)00 or 4(alpha)00 level courses offered by the Departments of Biological Sciences, Chemistry or Physics, which are not cross-listed with the Biotechnology program. (brocku.ca)
  • Successful completion of an appropriate Master's degree in Biotechnology, Biophysics, Chemistry or the Biological Sciences (composed of but not limited to Biochemistry, Biology, Genetics or Microbiology). (brocku.ca)
  • Plants use intricate systems for growth, development, transport and metabolism to cope with adverse environmental conditions, but also have considerable capacity to adapt genetically to both biotic and abiotic factors. (lu.se)
  • The part of the enzyme where the substrate binds is called the active site . (khanacademy.org)
  • A substrate entering the active site of the enzyme. (khanacademy.org)
  • Investigating the mechanisms of neuronal transport is critical in understanding neuronal function. (nature.com)
  • An understanding of the mechanisms that underlie these features is of fundamental importance for all biological disciplines. (lu.se)
  • Mechanical tension is critical in maintaining proper function in neurons, but its role in transport is not well understood. (nature.com)
  • We found that tension in neurons modulates active transport of vesicles by increasing the probability of active motion, effective diffusivity and induces a retrograde bias. (nature.com)
  • CAVER 3.0 paves the way for the study of important biochemical phenomena in the area of molecular transport, molecular recognition and enzymatic catalysis. (plos.org)
  • Gene biotechnology involves the use of DNA technology, bioinformatics and microbiological techniques to study biological phenomena. (brocku.ca)
  • Another area of research is transport phenomena in manufacturing and materials processing, which includes investigations of rapid solidification of molten metals and shape-controlled deposition of organic materials. (ucsb.edu)
  • Oxazolidinone antibiotics are active against many Gram-positive bacteria, but are only weakly active against Gram-negative pathogens. (rsc.org)
  • ATP can only become biologically active by binding to a magnesium ion. (purebulk.com)
  • Before the 20th century, biological warfare took three main forms: (1) deliberate poisoning of food and water with infectious or toxic material, (2) use of microorganisms or toxins in some form of weapon system, and (3) use of biologically inoculated fabrics. (medscape.com)
  • Active behavior resembles directed motion where the mean squared displacement is proportional to the square of time (MSD ∝ V 2 τ 2 ). (nature.com)
  • 2018 ) Exploiting the vulnerable active site of a copper-only superoxide dismutase to disrupt fungal pathogenesis. (academictree.org)
  • and (3) Exploiting standing acoustic waves to transport rigid particles. (cam.ac.uk)
  • nanoparticles in biological tissue for medical appplications, and more. (dissertation.com)
  • We find that despite its broad metal-recognition profile, MntBC-A imports only manganese, whereas zinc can function as a high-affinity inhibitor of MntBC-A. Computational analysis shows that the transmembrane metal permeation pathway is lined with six titratable residues that can coordinate the positively charged metal, and mutagenesis studies show that they are essential for manganese transport. (nih.gov)
  • Eddies are crucial to the transport of heat, momentum, trace chemicals, biological communities, the oxygen, and nutrients relating to life in the sea [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Oxygen transport and storage. (exeter.ac.uk)
  • This is particularly inopportune at a time when the needs for quantitative thinking about biological systems are exploding. (aps.org)
  • These types of systems are present in many active areas of research in the nanotechnology sphere. (dissertation.com)
  • In this thesis I outline an approach to solving light transport in nanomaterial systems based on the Monte-Carlo method. (dissertation.com)
  • Bioinorganic Chemistry - Topics covered will include: Metal management in biological systems. (exeter.ac.uk)
  • The potential spectrum of bioterrorism ranges from hoaxes and actual use of agents by individuals or groups against others, to state-sponsored terrorism that employs biological warfare (BW) agents and delivery systems that can produce mass casualties. (medscape.com)
  • The properties of water in biological systems have been studied for well over a century by a wide range of physical techniques, but progress has been slow and erratic. (lu.se)
  • The properties of water in biological systems have been are discussed, we emphasize magnetic-relaxation tech- studied for well over a century by a wide range of physical niques and, in particular, MRD. (lu.se)
  • Active transport is directed motion along cytoskeletal structures that is driven by molecular motors 4 . (nature.com)
  • CAVER is a software tool widely used for the identification and characterization of transport pathways in static macromolecular structures. (plos.org)
  • Studies on implementation of drag-reducing fluids in industrial applications such as HVAC or fluid transport are conducted through laboratory and large-scale field tests. (ucsb.edu)
  • The German-American physician Anton Dilger established a secret biological laboratory in Chevy Chase, Maryland, with the intent to grow the causative agents of anthrax and glanders. (medscape.com)
  • Additionally, the semitransparency of biological tissue between 700 and 1000 nm makes such light sources appealing for a broad class of biomedical applications, particularly imaging and sensing. (europa.eu)
  • Fulvic Acid can now freely, without restriction of these unwanted salt acids, transport nutrients into our cells , as it was made to do. (optimallyorganic.com)
  • All the gene involved in the transport of maltose/maltodextrin, including malE, are clustered in the malB region of E. coli and organized in two divergent operons: malE-malF-malG and malK-lamB. (wikipedia.org)
  • Study Biological Method lecture notes PDF with college biology definitions and explanation to study "What is Biological Method? (techleens.com)
  • Study biological method definitions with college biology terms to review biology course for online degree programs. (techleens.com)
  • Only transport insufficient physical activity (OR=2.24, 95% CI=1.01-4.98) and being in the age group from 30 to 59 years (OR=8.79, 95% CI=3.41-22.64) maintained statistical significance. (bvsalud.org)
  • When the vaccine is ready to be administered, the silica cage cracks open and falls away, leaving the active ingredient in its pure and fully functional form. (springwise.com)
  • Whichever method or methods of transport you choose for your products, you can be sure that they are handled in full compliance with regulations and the required temperature - even during breaks in the journey. (dsv.com)
  • If you need to transport your goods by sea while maintaining the exact temperature conditions your products require, we can offer cold chain transport that reduces both cost and carbon footprint. (dsv.com)
  • Finally, road transport with temperature-controlled trucks can be used for the first or final leg of the journey to ensure the cold chain is maintained from pick-up to delivery. (dsv.com)
  • The technology uses inert silica to encapsulate the active ingredients with a protective 'cage', which keeps the biological material protected from any variations in outside temperature or humidity. (springwise.com)
  • I mplementing TDG accident prevention, preparedness and response measures focusing on transport companies, first responders and security services based on best available practices and harmonised across the Sahel region. (fiiapp.org)
  • Microtubule filaments composed of tubulins are now known to play an active role in chromosome separation. (databasefootball.com)
  • Magnesium supports muscle, immune, and nerve function and plays a distinctive role in energy transport. (purebulk.com)
  • The added value of this European Union Initiative is to promote a holistic view of the risks and threats of Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Risks that are sufficiently addressed separately despite numerous commonalities and to make available to participants an international resource of authorities and experts who meet regularly. (fiiapp.org)
  • Biological methods helps in studying living things including experiments and different approaches and tools for biological research. (techleens.com)
  • In this work, we describe a number of efficient and locally conservative methods for subsurface flow and reactive transport that have been or are currently being implemented in the IPARS (Integrated Parallel and Accurate Reservoir Simulator). (benthamscience.com)
  • This review evaluates the potential for environmental transport and bioavailability of the active chemical to humans. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition, the activities addressed the transport of biological samples and included specific training on how to respond to accidents involving hazardous biological and chemical materials . (fiiapp.org)
  • In 2010, the European Union launched the Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) Risk Mitigation Centres of Excellence . (fiiapp.org)
  • E stablishing a comprehensive legal framework tailored to each country, including local training for security advisors, carriers and drivers, with a focus on chemical and biological materials. (fiiapp.org)
  • This was the first multilateral agreement that extended prohibition of chemical agents to biological agents. (medscape.com)
  • Council Directive 80/1107/EEC, as amended by Council Directive 88/642/EEC, on the protection of workers from the risks related to exposure to chemical, physical and biological agents at work, introduced into EU legislation the objective of establishing occupational exposure limits (OELs) agreed by Member States. (cdc.gov)
  • For the optimisation of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells FAU investigated the concept of ternary and quaternary polymer/fullerene blends for the active layer of bulk heterojunction solar cells. (europa.eu)
  • On the more fundamental side, we are investigating non-Newtonian fluid mechanics and heat transfer, with experimental investigations of the characteristics of complex fluids such as surfactant solutions or polymer solutions, especially turbulent flow of drag-reducing fluids and issues of active control of convective heat transfer. (ucsb.edu)
  • So researchers at the University of Glasgow set out to investigate the association between active commuting and incident CVD, cancer, and all cause mortality. (thirdage.com)
  • The teachers are active researchers and you will gain insight in plant research on the molecular, cell, physiological and ecological level. (lu.se)
  • Today, there is a growing demand for quantitative and computational skills in biological research and the commercialization of that research. (aps.org)
  • According to scientific research the biological method has participated to the advancement in medicine, ecology, technology etc. (techleens.com)
  • There are various steps involved in conducting biological analysis like, developing research question, observation, forming hypotheses, recording data and conclusion. (techleens.com)
  • The location of the initial shooting is a warehouse rented by Naval Medical Research Center, Biological Defense Research Directorate to store research supplies and equipment. (cityoffrederick.com)
  • During World War II, the Japanese operated a secret biological warfare research facility in Manchuria and carried out human experiments on Chinese prisoners. (medscape.com)
  • Subsequent analysis show that EVs transfer their functionally active receptors to target cells, making them prone to an otherwise unresponsive state. (lu.se)
  • We measured the gut passage time (GPT) of common migrant species at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site, using the gut fluorescence method, to determine whether GPT is slow enough to allow active export of POC and PON to depth. (int-res.com)
  • Biological method also ensures the quality of data for public use. (techleens.com)
  • Once Optimally Organic Fulvic Ionic Minerals X200™ comes into contact with a cell, they both balance and energize that cell's life and biological properties . (optimallyorganic.com)
  • Infiltration versus metastasis is one of the most characteristic biological properties of tumors [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Inspired by the biological world, the engineering community been very active in designing and implementing synthetic swimming strategies. (cam.ac.uk)
  • During World War I, the Germans developed anthrax, glanders, cholera, and a wheat fungus for use as biological weapons. (medscape.com)
  • The following is a joint statement between Frederick Police Department, Fort Detrick and the Federal Bureau of Investigations Baltimore Field Office regarding an active shooter incident that occurred in Frederick Tuesday. (cityoffrederick.com)
  • Scientific method in which biological problems are solved is termed as biological method. (techleens.com)
  • With our own warehouses and air charter network , as well as an extensive network of ocean and road transport providers , we are able to have full control of cold chain logistics - from origin to destination. (dsv.com)
  • Serious' effects are those that evoke failure in a biological system and can lead to morbidity or mortality (e.g., acute respiratory distress or death). (cdc.gov)