A ketose sugar that is commonly used in the commercial synthesis of ASCORBIC ACID.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Treatment of diseases with biological materials or biological response modifiers, such as the use of GENES; CELLS; TISSUES; organs; SERUM; VACCINES; and humoral agents.
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
Bacteriophage and type species in the genus Tectivirus, family TECTIVIRIDAE. They are specific for Gram-negative bacteria.
A family of lipid-containing bacteriophages with double capsids which infect both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. It has one genus, Tectivirus.
Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from skin lesions, blood, inflammatory exudates, and the upper respiratory tract of humans. It is a group A hemolytic Streptococcus that can cause SCARLET FEVER and RHEUMATIC FEVER.
Application of principles and practices of engineering science to biomedical research and health care.
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.

Extra-vesicular binding of noradrenaline and guanethidine in the adrenergic neurones of the rat heart: a proposed site of action of adrenergic neurone blocking agents. (1/7411)

1 The binding and efflux characteristics of [14C]-guanethidine and [3H]-noradrenaline were studied in heart slices from rats which were pretreated with reserpine and nialamide. 2 Binding of both compounds occurred at extra-vesicular sites within the adrenergic neurone. After a brief period of rapid washout, the efflux of [14C]-guanethidine and [3H]-noradrenaline proceeded at a steady rate. The efflux of both compounds appeared to occur from a single intraneuronal compartment. 3 (+)-Amphetamine accelerated the efflux of [14C]-noradrenaline; this effect was inhibited by desipramine. 4 Unlabelled guanethidine and amantadine also increased the efflux of labelled compounds. Cocaine in high concentrations increased slightly the efflux of [14C]-guanethidine but not that of [3H]-noradrenaline. 5 Heart slices labelled with [3H]-noradrenaline became refractory to successive exposures to releasing agents although an appreciable amount of labelled compound was still present in in these slices. 6 It is suggested that [14C]-guanethidine and [3H]-noradrenaline are bound at a common extravesicular site within the adrenergic neurone. Binding of guanethidine to the extra-vesicular site may be relevant to its pharmacological action, i.e., the blockade of adrenergic transmission.  (+info)

Denitrifying Pseudomonas aeruginosa: some parameters of growth and active transport. (2/7411)

Optimal cell yield of Pseudomonas aeruginosa grown under denitrifying conditions was obtained with 100 mM nitrate as the terminal electron acceptor, irrespective of the medium used. Nitrite as the terminal electron acceptor supported poor denitrifying growth when concentrations of less than 15 mM, but not higher, were used, apparently owing to toxicity exerted by nitrite. Nitrite accumulated in the medium during early exponential phase when nitrate was the terminal electron acceptor and then decreased to extinction before midexponential phase. The maximal rate of glucose and gluconate transport was supported by 1 mM nitrate or nitrite as the terminal electron acceptor under anaerobic conditions. The transport rate was greater with nitrate than with nitrite as the terminal electron acceptor, but the greatest transport rate was observed under aerobic conditions with oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor. When P. aeruginosa was inoculated into a denitrifying environment, nitrate reductase was detected after 3 h of incubation, nitrite reductase was detected after another 4 h of incubation, and maximal nitrate and nitrite reductase activities peaked together during midexponential phase. The latter coincided with maximal glucose transport activity.  (+info)

Lung fluid transport in aquaporin-1 and aquaporin-4 knockout mice. (3/7411)

The mammalian lung expresses water channel aquaporin-1 (AQP1) in microvascular endothelia and aquaporin-4 (AQP4) in airway epithelia. To test whether these water channels facilitate fluid movement between airspace, interstitial, and capillary compartments, we measured passive and active fluid transport in AQP1 and AQP4 knockout mice. Airspace-capillary osmotic water permeability (Pf) was measured in isolated perfused lungs by a pleural surface fluorescence method. Pf was remarkably reduced in AQP1 (-/-) mice (measured in cm/s x 0.001, SE, n = 5-10: 17 +/- 2 [+/+]; 6.6 +/- 0.6 AQP1 [+/-]; 1.7 +/- 0.3 AQP1 [-/-]; 12 +/- 1 AQP4 [-/-]). Microvascular endothelial water permeability, measured by a related pleural surface fluorescence method in which the airspace was filled with inert perfluorocarbon, was reduced more than 10-fold in AQP1 (-/-) vs. (+/+) mice. Hydrostatically induced lung interstitial and alveolar edema was measured by a gravimetric method and by direct measurement of extravascular lung water. Both approaches indicated a more than twofold reduction in lung water accumulation in AQP1 (-/-) vs. (+/+) mice in response to a 5- to 10-cm H2O increase in pulmonary artery pressure for five minutes. Active, near-isosmolar alveolar fluid absorption (Jv) was measured in in situ perfused lungs using 125I-albumin as an airspace fluid volume marker. Jv (measured in percent fluid uptake at 30 min, n = 5) in (+/+) mice was 6.0 +/- 0.6 (37 degrees C), increased to 16 +/- 1 by beta-agonists, and inhibited to less than 2.0 by amiloride, ouabain, or cooling to 23 degrees C. Jv (with isoproterenol) was not affected by aquaporin deletion (18.9 +/- 2.2 [+/+]; 16.4 +/- 1.5 AQP1 [-/-]; 16.3 +/- 1.7 AQP4 [-/-]). These results indicate that osmotically driven water transport across microvessels in adult lung occurs by a transcellular route through AQP1 water channels and that the microvascular endothelium is a significant barrier for airspace-capillary osmotic water transport. AQP1 facilitates hydrostatically driven lung edema but is not required for active near-isosmolar absorption of alveolar fluid.  (+info)

Tyrosine kinase inhibitors and immunosuppressants perturb the myo-inositol but not the betaine cotransporter in isotonic and hypertonic MDCK cells. (4/7411)

BACKGROUND: The sodium/myo-inositol cotransporter (SMIT) and the betaine cotransporter (BGT1) are essential for the accumulation of myo-inositol and betaine, and hence cell survival in a hypertonic environment. The underlying molecular mechanism involves an increase in transcription of the SMIT and BGT1 genes through binding of a trans-acting factor to enhancer elements in the 5' flanking region of both genes, resulting in increased mRNA abundance and increased activity of the cotransporters. Current evidence regarding transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation indicates that both cotransporters are regulated in parallel. METHODS: To investigate the signal transduction of hypertonic stress, we examined the effect of tyrosine kinase inhibitors and immunosuppressants on the hypertonicity-induced activity of the two cotransporters in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. RESULTS: None of the agents studied affected BGT1 activity in isotonic or hypertonic conditions. Treatment of MDCK cells with genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, increased SMIT activity in hypertonic but not isotonic conditions. The stimulation of SMIT by genistein was accompanied by a parallel increase in mRNA abundance. In contrast, treating cells with tyrphostin A23, another tyrosine kinase inhibitor, or cyclosporine A, an immunosuppressant, inhibited SMIT activity in hypertonic cells. FK506, another immunosuppressant, increased SMIT activity, but only in isotonic conditions. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide the first evidence of divergent regulatory pathways modulating SMIT and BGT activity.  (+info)

Active transport of calcium across the isolated midgut of Hyalophora cecropia. (5/7411)

1. The net flux of 45Ca from lumen to blood side across the isolated and short-circuited Cecropia midgut was 1-9 +/- 0-2 muequiv. cm-2h-1 in 8 mM Ca and the flux ratio was as high as 56 to 1. 2. The calcium influx was depressed by anoxia; 73% after 30 min. 3. The kinetics of Ca transport were anomalous; the apparent Km varied with Ca concentration from less than 0-2 to greater than 5-6 mM Ca and the apparent Vmax varied from less than 1-3 to greater than 3-3 muequiv. cm-2h-1. 4. The calcium influx showed a delay before the tracer steady state was attained, indicating the existence in the transport route of a calcium pool equivalent to 5-7 muequiv/g. wet weight of midgut tissue. 5 High calcium (16 mM) depressed the short-circuit current and potassium transport from blood to lumen side across the midgut. 6. Calcium depressed magnesium transport, from lumen to blood side across the midgut, and magnesium depressed the calcium transport. 7. Ca transport by the midgut does not regulate the Ca level in the haemolymph in vivo; it merely aids the diffusion of calcium down its electrochemical gradient. However, Ca transport may assist the uptake of the nutrients from the midgut contents.  (+info)

A monoclonal antibody to the COOH-terminal acidic portion of Ran inhibits both the recycling of Ran and nuclear protein import in living cells. (6/7411)

A small GTPase Ran is a key regulator for active nuclear transport. In immunoblotting analysis, a monoclonal antibody against recombinant human Ran, designated ARAN1, was found to recognize an epitope in the COOH-terminal domain of Ran. In a solution binding assay, ARAN1 recognized Ran when complexed with importin beta, transportin, and CAS, but not the Ran-GTP or the Ran-GDP alone, indicating that the COOH-terminal domain of Ran is exposed via its interaction with importin beta-related proteins. In addition, ARAN1 suppressed the binding of RanBP1 to the Ran-importin beta complex. When injected into the nucleus of BHK cells, ARAN1 was rapidly exported to the cytoplasm, indicating that the Ran-importin beta-related protein complex is exported as a complex from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in living cells. Moreover, ARAN1, when injected into the cultured cells induces the accumulation of endogenous Ran in the cytoplasm and prevents the nuclear import of SV-40 T-antigen nuclear localization signal substrates. From these findings, we propose that the binding of RanBP1 to the Ran-importin beta complex is required for the dissociation of the complex in the cytoplasm and that the released Ran is recycled to the nucleus, which is essential for the nuclear protein transport.  (+info)

Genetic evidence for ATP-dependent endoplasmic reticulum-to-Golgi apparatus trafficking of ceramide for sphingomyelin synthesis in Chinese hamster ovary cells. (7/7411)

LY-A strain is a Chinese hamster ovary cell mutant resistant to sphingomyelin (SM)-directed cytolysin and has a defect in de novo SM synthesis. Metabolic labeling experiments with radioactive serine, sphingosine, and choline showed that LY-A cells were defective in synthesis of SM from these precursors, but not syntheses of ceramide (Cer), glycosphingolipids, or phosphatidylcholine, indicating a specific defect in the conversion of Cer to SM in LY-A cells. In vitro experiments showed that the specific defect of SM formation in LY-A cells was not due to alterations in enzymatic activities responsible for SM synthesis or degradation. When cells were treated with brefeldin A, which causes fusion of the Golgi apparatus with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), de novo SM synthesis in LY-A cells was restored to the wild-type level. Pulse-chase experiments with a fluorescent Cer analogue, N-(4,4-difluoro-5,7-dimethyl-4-bora-3a, 4a-diaza-s-indacene-3-pentanoyl)-D-erythro-sphingosine (C5-DMB-Cer), revealed that in wild-type cells C5-DMB-Cer was redistributed from intracellular membranes to the Golgi apparatus in an intracellular ATP-dependent manner, and that LY-A cells were defective in the energy-dependent redistribution of C5-DMB-Cer. Under ATP-depleted conditions, conversion of C5-DMB-Cer to C5-DMB-SM and of [3H]sphingosine to [3H]SM in wild-type cells decreased to the levels in LY-A cells, which were not affected by ATP depletion. ER-to-Golgi apparatus trafficking of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored or membrane-spanning proteins in LY-A cells appeared to be normal. These results indicate that the predominant pathway of ER-to-Golgi apparatus trafficking of Cer for de novo SM synthesis is ATP dependent and that this pathway is almost completely impaired in LY-A cells. In addition, the specific defect of SM synthesis in LY-A cells suggests different pathways of Cer transport for glycosphingolipids versus SM synthesis.  (+info)

Kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of lipid translocation in biological membranes. (8/7411)

A theoretical analysis of the lipid translocation in cellular bilayer membranes is presented. We focus on an integrative model of active and passive transport processes determining the asymmetrical distribution of the major lipid components between the monolayers. The active translocation of the aminophospholipids phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine is mathematically described by kinetic equations resulting from a realistic ATP-dependent transport mechanism. Concerning the passive transport of the aminophospholipids as well as of phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin, and cholesterol, two different approaches are used. The first treatment makes use of thermodynamic flux-force relationships. Relevant forces are transversal concentration differences of the lipids as well as differences in the mechanical states of the monolayers due to lateral compressions. Both forces, originating primarily from the operation of an aminophospholipid translocase, are expressed as functions of the lipid compositions of the two monolayers. In the case of mechanical forces, lipid-specific parameters such as different molecular surface areas and compression force constants are taken into account. Using invariance principles, it is shown how the phenomenological coefficients depend on the total lipid amounts. In a second approach, passive transport is analyzed in terms of kinetic mechanisms of carrier-mediated translocation, where mechanical effects are incorporated into the translocation rate constants. The thermodynamic as well as the kinetic approach are applied to simulate the time-dependent redistribution of the lipid components in human red blood cells. In the thermodynamic model the steady-state asymmetrical lipid distribution of erythrocyte membranes is simulated well under certain parameter restrictions: 1) the time scales of uncoupled passive transbilayer movement must be different among the lipid species; 2) positive cross-couplings of the passive lipid fluxes are needed, which, however, may be chosen lipid-unspecifically. A comparison of the thermodynamic and the kinetic approaches reveals that antiport mechanisms for passive lipid movements may be excluded. Simulations with kinetic symport mechanisms are in qualitative agreement with experimental data but show discrepancies in the asymmetrical distribution for sphingomyelin.  (+info)

Specialized transmembrane proteins recognize the substance and allow it to move across the membrane when it otherwise would not, either because the phospholipid bilayer of the membrane is impermeable to the substance moved or because the substance is moved against the direction of its concentration gradient.[7] There are two forms of active transport, primary active transport and secondary active transport. In primary active transport, the proteins involved are pumps that normally use chemical energy in the form of ATP. Secondary active transport, however, makes use of potential energy, which is usually derived through exploitation of an electrochemical gradient. The energy created from one ion moving down its electrochemical gradient is used to power the transport of another ion moving against its electrochemical gradient.[8] This involves pore-forming proteins that form channels across the cell membrane. The difference between passive transport and active transport is that the active transport ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Light-beating spectrum of erythrocytes. AU - Bargeron, C. B.. AU - McCally, R. L.. AU - Cannon, S. M.. AU - Hart, R. W.. PY - 1973. Y1 - 1973. N2 - In a previous report, we described a shifted spectral component in the light-beating spectrum of erythrocyte ghosts, and presented evidence suggesting that this component was related to the membrane active transport mechanism. Here, we describe the results of further studies which show that the shifted component does not derive from the active transport mechanism. Rahter, the shifted component is caused by convection in our cuvette, and appears in the homodyne spectrum because the light scattered from the incident beam mixes with that scattered from the beam which is reflected from the face where the beam exits from the cuvette.. AB - In a previous report, we described a shifted spectral component in the light-beating spectrum of erythrocyte ghosts, and presented evidence suggesting that this component was related to the membrane ...
In vivo, the weakly basic, lipophilic drug chloroquine (CQ) accumulates in the kidney to concentrations more than a thousand-fold greater than those in plasma. To study the cellular pharmacokinetics of chloroquine in cells derived from the distal tubule, Madin-Darby canine kidney cells were incubated with CQ under various conditions. CQ progressively accumulated without exhibiting steady-state behavior. Experiments failed to yield evidence that known active transport mechanisms mediated CQ uptake at the plasma membrane. CQ induced a phospholipidosis-like phenotype, characterized by the appearance of numerous multivesicular and multilamellar bodies (MLBs/MVBs) within the lumen of expanded cytoplasmic vesicles. Other induced phenotypic changes including changes in the volume and pH of acidic organelles were measured, and the integrated effects of all these changes were computationally modeled to establish their impact on intracellular CQ mass accumulation. Based on the passive transport behavior ...
This disclosure includes a device comprising a controlled release membrane comprising an electroactive polymer as well as methods of use thereof. In some particular embodiments, the electroactive polymer membrane is utilized in an active agent delivery device comprising a passive or active transport mechanism, including iontophoresis. In certain aspects, an iontophoresis device may be used which includes an active electrode assembly having an active agent solution holding portion; and a non-active electrode assembly. In certain aspects, the electroactive polymer membrane may be cycled from neutral state to charged state, thereby facilitating the administration of the active agent or pharmaceutical drug.
Active Transport. Features, Types, Carrier Proteins, Significance of Active Transport. Primary active transport. Secondary active transport.
The reabsorption of calcium in the proximal convoluted tubule parallels that of sodium and water. Proximal tubular calcium reabsorption is thought to occur mainly by passive diffusion and solvent drag. This is based on the observation that the ratio of calcium in the proximal tubule fluid to that in the glomerular filtrate is 1:1.2. The passive paracellular pathways account for approximately 80% of calcium reabsorption in this segment of the nephron. A small but significant component of active calcium transport is observed in the proximal tubules. The active transport of calcium proceeds in a two-step process, with calcium entry from the tubular fluid across the apical membrane and exit though the basolateral membrane. This active transport is generally considered to constitute 10%-15% of total proximal tubule calcium reabsorption and it is mainly regulated by parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin (7).. No reabsorption of calcium occurs within the thin segment of the loop of Henle (Figure ...
IntroductionOuabain (G-Strophanthin) inhibits the activity of Na-K activated adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase) in in vitro and in vivo systems.1-3 The active tra
Supplement In biology, transport refers to the act or the means by which a molecule or ion is moved across the cell membrane or via the bloodstream. There are two types of transport in this regard: (1) passive transport and (2) active transport. Passive transport is a kind of transport by which ions or molecules move along a concentration gradient, which means movement from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. Examples of passive transport include diffusion, filtration, and osmosis. Active transport is a kind of transport wherein ions or molecules move against a concentration gradient, which means movement in the direction opposite that of diffusion - or -movement from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration. This type of transport requires expenditure of energy and the assistance of proteins (i.e. carrier protein). ...
The exact mechanisms by which bacterial toxins produce their effects are still poorly understood. One method of study has been to examine the effect of toxins on normal cellular processes such as the active transport of sodium and oxidative metabolism.. Active sodium transport can be studied in isolated epithelial membrane systems such as frog skin, urinary bladder of the toad, and segments of mammalian and amphibian intestine. A naturally occurring electrical potential difference is present between the two sides of such epithelially lined tissues. If electric current is passed through the tissue from an external battery so that the potential ...
Measuring and controlling current consumption and output current of a charge pump by measuring a first current coming into the charge pump; and measuring a second current coming into a driver for at least one of the one or more stages of the charge pump. A control loop may one or more parameters of the charge pump and/or a load connected to the charge pump, such as by adjusting one or more of: a supply voltage; a stages voltage; the stages frequency and/or duty-cycle; and the number of stages, or by decreasing the current consumption by adjusting a load connected to the output of the charge pump pipe. The first and second currents may be compared with first and second reference currents. A load connected to the charge pump may comprise non-volatile memory cells, and the charge pump may be implemented on a same integrated circuit chip as the memory cells.
Active transport is the process of transferring substances into, out of, and between cells, using energy. In some cases, the movement of substances
Active transport (walking, bicycling, etc.) has been found to be inversely related to obesity in Europe, North America, and Australia. 在欧洲,北美和澳大利亚,已发现主动运输(步行,骑自行车等)与肥胖成反比。 ...
Question: Discuss various aspects of membrane transport: passive, facilitated types and active transport. This needs to be very detailed so I can get a full understanding of it. Thank.
By the end of this section, you will be able to: Understand how electrochemical gradients affect ions Describe endocytosis, including phagocytosis, pi
LAeroport de Reus (aeroport més proper) es troba a nomès 35 Km de Falset. Aquest aeroport rep vols de diferents capitals europees. Actualment, més d 1.000.000 de clients fan servir les seves instal.lacions i realitzen més de 3000 vols cada any ( la majoria internacionals).. Vols: RYANAIR (ryanair.com). ...
The ability to maintain internal ion homeostasis in freshwater or saltwater has enabled euryhaline fishes to colonize a wide range of aquatic habitats. However, the energetic cost of this osmoregulation is high because it involves active transport mechanisms that pump ions against electrochemical gradients, often occurring at the gill epithelia-water interface. For euryhaline populations presently occupying stable environmental salinities, will relaxed selection on hypo- or hyperosmoregulation result in a loss of that capacity, or alternatively, can these fish still acclimate to a wide range of salinities? My research seeks to answer this question in a Pacific northwest lineage of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) consisting of distinct anadromous and lake ecotypes, which descended from an extant marine ancestor following the glacial retreat ca. 10,000 years ago. I raised embryos from each group at a common salinity and later transferred juveniles into either freshwater (,0.5 ppt) ...
The ability to maintain internal ion homeostasis in freshwater or saltwater has enabled euryhaline fishes to colonize a wide range of aquatic habitats. However, the energetic cost of this osmoregulation is high because it involves active transport mechanisms that pump ions against electrochemical gradients, often occurring at the gill epithelia-water interface. For euryhaline populations presently occupying stable environmental salinities, will relaxed selection on hypo- or hyperosmoregulation result in a loss of that capacity, or alternatively, can these fish still acclimate to a wide range of salinities? My research seeks to answer this question in a Pacific northwest lineage of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) consisting of distinct anadromous and lake ecotypes, which descended from an extant marine ancestor following the glacial retreat ca. 10,000 years ago. I raised embryos from each group at a common salinity and later transferred juveniles into either freshwater (,0.5 ppt) ...
The mechanism of the interaction between propranolol and lidocaine is thought to be due to propranolol-induced decreased hepatic blood flow causing decreased elimination of lidocaine! So, provigil köpa when a n! · Des cas dhypertriglycéridémie ont été rapportés (voir rubrique Effets indésirables Effets indésirables)? [WITNESS:] At that t? Cioè, non si tratta di unerezione costante per diverse ore. ( buy reglan thin 1995) Location and characteristics of the transfer region of Bacteriodes conjugative transposon and regulation of transfer genes! Die Einnahme von Viagra ohne Rezept kann bei gleichzeitiger Behandlung mit Nitraten den blutdrucksenkenden Effekt potenzieren? Prostatic capillary endothelial cells lack secretory and active transport mechanisms, and they form tight intracellular junctions, preventing the passive diffusion of small molecules through intercellular gaps! When problems arise or allegations are raised regarding misconduct, mother-liquor duralast battery price the ...
0009]The first sheet formed organ preferably is adapted so the dissolution can be studied with an optical detector. The barrier layer is either a physicochemical or a biological barrier adapted to resemble or mimic a natural membrane of epithelial cells in the lungs. In one aspect, the barrier is a gel which is isotonic with the perfusion fluid and adapted to receive the particles. In one embodiment, the gel is a polycarbohydrate gel which comprises dispersed phospholipids. In another embodiment, the gel comprises a dispersed phospholipid which is further provided with an interface comprising monolayers (such as ten layers) of phospholipid or suitable amphiphilic lipids in order to mimic the surfactant layer on top of the mucous lining layer of the lungs. In another aspect to provide a biological barrier, monolayers of epithelial cells are cultured on the membrane in the gel layer to mimic a living pulmonary epithelium and to provide means for studying even active transport mechanisms in the ...
The effects of anoxia on water and solute transport across excised roots of young maize plants (Zea mays L. cv. Tanker) grown hydroponically have been stud
Active transport quiz MCQs, biology multiple choice questions, quiz question on active transport, auxin, gibberellins, abscisic acid, infectious, non-infectious diseases, molecular biology, biochemistry, general cell theory, cell division with answers.
Looking for active transport? Find out information about active transport. The pumping of ions or other substances across a cell membrane against an osmotic gradient, that is, from a lower to a higher concentration Explanation of active transport
Whats the difference between Active Transport and Passive Transport? Active and passive transport are biological processes that move oxygen, water and nutrients into cells and remove waste products. Active transport requires chemical energy because it is the movement of biochemicals from areas of lower concentration to are...
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TERM 2002: Paving the way for EU enlargement - Indicators of transport and environment integration. The report examines progress made in the transport sector in implementing the principle, adopted by EU leaders at their Cardiff summit in 1998, of integrating environmental concerns into other policy areas.. Based on a set of key indicators of progress - or lack of it - the report finds that transport trends in both the EU and accession countries are moving away from, not closer to, the main environmental objectives of EU policies on transport and sustainable development.. These call for breaking the close link between economic growth and transport expansion, as well as stabilising the modal split - the market shares of the different transport modes - at 1998 levels by 2010, then shifting traffic from the roads back to rail and inland waterways.. The report shows, for instance, that in the EU and accession countries energy consumption by transport and the associated emissions of greenhouse gases ...
TERM 2002: Paving the way for EU enlargement - Indicators of transport and environment integration. The report examines progress made in the transport sector in implementing the principle, adopted by EU leaders at their Cardiff summit in 1998, of integrating environmental concerns into other policy areas.. Based on a set of key indicators of progress - or lack of it - the report finds that transport trends in both the EU and accession countries are moving away from, not closer to, the main environmental objectives of EU policies on transport and sustainable development.. These call for breaking the close link between economic growth and transport expansion, as well as stabilising the modal split - the market shares of the different transport modes - at 1998 levels by 2010, then shifting traffic from the roads back to rail and inland waterways.. The report shows, for instance, that in the EU and accession countries energy consumption by transport and the associated emissions of greenhouse gases ...
Trafficking of postsynaptic receptors is a means of regulating synaptic function in the dendrites, yet the details of delivery processes are not well explored. In this study, we present two general pathways for receptor transport to synaptic sites in the dendrite. Six of the seven GPCRs examined notably preferred passive diffusion from the cell body to the dendrite branches. This energy efficient transport via the plasma membrane is likely shared by most postsynaptic GPCRs. An alternate pathway, as seen with 5-HT1B, retains receptors in transport vesicles. At the cost of expending energy on active transport, 5-HT1B is maintained as a readily accessible source of mobile receptors for rapid exocytotic recruitment to the membrane throughout the dendrites. Though unique among the receptors included in our study, this active trafficking pathway may be used by yet unexamined receptors.. Previous postsynaptic GPCR studies describing intracellular trafficking are mostly limited to receptor recycling or ...
View Notes - Transport across cell membranes from BIO 101 at Rhode Island. Active Transport Requires energy Movement against concentration gradient Involves membrane proteins ATP is energy used for
Potassium (K+) plays a number of important roles in plant growth and development. Over the past few years, molecular approaches associated with electrophysiological analyses have greatly advanced our understanding of K+ transport in plants. A large number of genes encoding K+ transport systems have …
If you like to read any topics about biology, you have to check out Facts about Active Transport. Have you ever heard about active transport before? This term
The disposition of atorvastatin, cerivastatin, and indomethacin, established substrates of rat hepatic basolateral uptake transporters, has been evaluated in suspended rat hepatocytes. Cell and media concentration-time data were simultaneously fitted to a model incorporating active uptake, permeation, binding, and metabolism. Use of the model to estimate the ratio of intracellular to extracellular steady-state free drug concentrations demonstrated the strong influence of active uptake on the kinetics of atorvastatin (18:1) and cerivastatin (8:1), in comparison with indomethacin (3.5:1). Indomethacin, however, was shown to have a higher uptake clearance (599 ± 101 μl/min/106 cells) than atorvastatin (375 ± 45 μl/min/106 cells) and cerivastatin (413 ± 47 μl/min/106 cells). The high passive permeability of indomethacin (237 ± 63 μl/min/106 cells) clearly negated the effect of the active transport on the overall disposition. An analogous physiological model was constructed that allowed ...
Active Transport vs Passive Transport As minute as they are, cells in the body carry some very important processes deep within. These processes are all vital to
CP001791.PE313 Location/Qualifiers FT CDS 334440..335279 FT /codon_start=1 FT /transl_table=11 FT /locus_tag=Bsel_0325 FT /product=binding-protein-dependent transport systems inner FT membrane component FT /note=PFAM: binding-protein-dependent transport systems FT inner membrane component; KEGG: rfr:Rfer_1101 FT binding-protein-dependent transport systems inner membrane FT component FT /db_xref=EnsemblGenomes-Gn:Bsel_0325 FT /db_xref=EnsemblGenomes-Tr:ADH97865 FT /db_xref=GOA:D6XWM3 FT /db_xref=InterPro:IPR000515 FT /db_xref=InterPro:IPR035906 FT /db_xref=UniProtKB/TrEMBL:D6XWM3 FT /inference=protein motif:PFAM:PF00528 FT /protein_id=ADH97865.1 FT /translation=MKSEKQKTLISKILLYIGLSIVSLASLFPFYWMFVMATNSNEMIN FT RTPPVMVPGDRLVDNFQNVLNSIPFFQTMLNSLIAATSITLGVLLLTSIAGFAFAKLEF FT PARNILFFFILGTMMIPPQLGLIPTYFIITELGWLSDLRAVIVPGLMNAFGIFWMRQYV FT ASAVPDEIIEAARIDGCSNFRIYWNIVVPVILPAFATLGIIVFMFVWGDYLWPLVVLQD FT QSSQTIQVALRSLMDDRSRDYGMILSGTFWATVPLVVVFLFFNKLFIRSIADGAVKS MKSEKQKTLI SKILLYIGLS ...
Diffusion, Facilitated Diffusion & Active Transport: Movement across the Cell Membrane, Facilitated diffusion | Membranes and transport | Biology | Khan Academy, Facilitated Transport, Cell Transport, Passive Transport: Diffusion, Facilitated Diffusion & Osmosis (Difference)
Introduction. Road Canals Railways Word Count: 2,575 Contents Page Page 1 - Title Page Page 2 - Contents Page Page 3 - Introduction Page 4-5 - Road Page 6-7 - Canal Page 8-9 - Railway Page 10 - Conclusion Page 11 - Evaluation Page 12 - Bibliography Introduction This term the class 9M have been studying the subject of transport between 1750 and 1900. Now we have to do a project on transport during that period, in particular looking at roads, canals and railways. In this project I will be finding out four main things: * What transport was like before 1750 ? * Why did it need improving ? * How did each type of transport improve ? * How did this help the Industrial Revolution ? Hopefully this project will help you learn more about transport in the past and I hope you enjoy it. Below is a timeline diagram of the transportation between 1750 and 1900 just as a guide ! Road(1700) The need for better roads The increase in population, improvements in farming and growth of industry at the time increased ...
Article The contribution of transport to air quality - TERM 2012: Transport indicators tracking progress towards environmental targets in Europe. The Transport and Environment Reporting Mechanism (TERM) began as part of a project dating from 1998 tha...
Session deals with fundamental research in heat, mass, momentum, and charge transport. It is offered each year and accepts a broad range of papers in any area related to transport phenomena.. ...
Paragonix Technologies, Inc., Announces Clinical Use of the Paragonix SherpaPak™ Cardiac Transport System in World-renowned Transplant Centers
Facilitated Diffusion Allows diffusion of large, membrane insoluble compounds such as sugars (glucose) and amino acids Does not require energy (passive
(PRWEB) October 20, 2006 -- Evolving lifestyles and changes in standards of living are putting increased pressures on our transport system, particularly in
Direct carrier transport measurements were performed for different InGaAsP/InGaAlAs MQW test structures. Shallow InGaAlAs barrier QW showed faster carrier transport. Semi-insulating regrown FP lasers with InGaAlAs barrier QW showed improved high temperature operation, modal gain, differential modal gain and chirp.. ...
The Land Transport Management Bill is the toolbox, but it needs more tools in it to do the job, United Future transport spokesman Larry Baldock said today.
The Campaign for Better Transport has reacted to the report into the VW emissions scandal published by the House of Commons Transport Select Committee. The
The anomalous reactive transport considered here is the migration of contaminants through strongly sorbing permeable media without significant retardation. It has been observed in the case of heavy me
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Lewis, S. A.; Diamond, J. M. (1975). "Active sodium transport by mammalian urinary bladder". Nature. 253 (5494): 747-748. doi: ... Pidot, A. L.; Diamond, J. M. (1964). "Streaming Potentials in a Biological Membrane". Nature. 201 (4920): 701-702. doi:10.1038/ ... Karasov, W. H.; Pond Rs, 3.; Solberg, D. H.; Diamond, J. M. (1983). "Regulation of proline and glucose transport in mouse ... Diamond, J. M.; Tormey, J. M. (1966). "Role of long extracellular channels in fluid transport across epithelia". Nature. 210 ( ...
... a primary receptor of bacterial active transport and chemotaxis". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 266 (8): 5202-19. doi: ... Kellermann O, Szmelcman S (August 1974). "Active transport of maltose in Escherichia coli K12. Involvement of a "periplasmic" ... All the gene involved in the transport of maltose/maltodextrin, including malE, are clustered in the malB region of E. coli and ... I. Transport of maltose". Journal of Molecular Biology. 194 (4): 663-73. doi:10.1016/0022-2836(87)90243-9. PMID 2821264. ...
"Active transport of acetylcholine by the human vesicular acetylcholine transporter". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 271 ( ... Acetylcholine transport utilizes a proton gradient established by a vacuolar ATPase. PET imaging of the VAChT may provide ... VAChT is able to transport ACh into vesicles by relying on an exchange between protons (H+) that were previously pumped into ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 286 (7): 5836-45. doi:10.1074/jbc.M110.147611. PMC 3037696. PMID 21163949. Lau JK, Brown ...
Skou, JC (9 April 1962). "Preparation from mammalian brain and kidney of the enzyme system involved in active transport of Na ... Journal of Biological Chemistry. 281 (2): e2. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258(19)47575-3. Retrieved 29 May 2018 - via www.jbc.org. Post ... "Membrane adenosine triphosphatase as a participant in the active transport of sodium and potassium in the human erythrocyte". ... However, in his paper he was wary of identifying the enzyme with the active ion movement, so he left out the term "sodium- ...
Kondo T, Yoshida K, Urata Y, Goto S, Gasa S, Taniguchi N (Sep 1993). "gamma-Glutamylcysteine synthetase and active transport of ... Demonstration and quantification of enzyme-ligand complexes". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 253 (8): 2615-23. doi: ... glutathione S-conjugate are responsive to heat shock in K562 erythroid cells". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 268 (27): ...
491-528 Steinberg, Deborah; Sarah Goldthwait; Dennis Hansell (2002). "Zooplankton vertical migration and the active transport ... The biological pump is not so much the result of a single process, but rather the sum of a number of processes each of which ... The fast or biological cycle can complete within years, moving carbon from atmosphere to biosphere, then back to the atmosphere ... The marine biological pump sequesters a small but significant fraction of the absorbed CO2 as organic carbon in marine ...
... s can be neutral or charged, and particle transport can be active or passive. The latter can be facilitated by pressure ... Biological membranes include cell membranes (outer coverings of cells or organelles that allow passage of certain constituents ... However, their overwhelming success in biological systems is not matched by their application. The main reasons for this are: ... Fouling can take place through several physicochemical and biological mechanisms which are related to the increased deposition ...
"Active PIKfyve associates with and promotes the membrane attachment of the late endosome-to-trans-Golgi network transport ... Effect of insulin". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 274 (31): 21589-97. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.31.21589. PMID 10419465. ... Novel Sac phosphatase joins the ArPIKfyve-PIKfyve complex". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 282 (33): 23878-91. doi: ... February 2008). "A selective PIKfyve inhibitor blocks PtdIns(3,5)P(2) production and disrupts endomembrane transport and ...
"Large Vertical Migrations of Pyrosoma atlanticum Play an Important Role in Active Carbon Transport". Journal of Geophysical ... Biological Bulletin. Marine Biological Laboratory. 179 (3): 340-350. doi:10.2307/1542326. JSTOR 1542326. PMID 29314963. Huxley ...
Stein WD, Lieb WR, Karlish SJ, Eilam Y. A model for active transport of sodium and potassium ions as mediated by a tetrameric ... Intra-protein interactions across a fluid membrane as a model for biological transport. The Journal of general physiology 1969 ... The kinetic equations of membrane transport were developed by Stein, together with William Lieb, and published in "Transport ... Stein investigated the kinetic mechanism of active Na and K ion transport, confirming the basic alternating access model of ...
They are second only to hemoglobin in biological popularity of use in oxygen transport. On oxygenation the two copper(I) atoms ... The active site is located in a hydrophobic pocket. This is important as without it the iron(II) would be irreversibly oxidized ... The active site nickel geometry cycles from square planar Ni(II), with thiolate (Cys2 and Cys6) and backbone nitrogen (His1 and ... The active site contains an iron ion coordinated by the sulfur atoms of four cysteine residues forming an almost regular ...
Lasch reveals he wants the biological attack to occur; the visiting Americans will transport the virus back home and force the ... Hunter meets with Racine and welcomes her back to active duty. Noomi Rapace as Alice Racine, a CIA interrogation officer ... The CIA and MI5 learn that radical imam Yazid Khaleel plans a biological attack on an American target on British soil in ... US Government to take the threat of biological warfare seriously. After shooting Wilson, Racine and Lasch engage in a brief ...
A direct mechanism of action involves homodimerization of the receptor, translocation via active transport into the nucleus, ... The biological response depends on the cell type. In the absence of activated GR, other transcription factors such as NF-κB or ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 274 (38): 26713-9. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.38.26713. PMID 10480874. Préfontaine GG, Lemieux ME ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (50): 48020-7. doi:10.1074/jbc.M209741200. PMID 12361945. Nissen RM, Yamamoto KR ( ...
The effectiveness of bioelectrocatalysts generally depends on the ease of electron transport between the active site of the ... Microbial fuel cells are another way that biological systems can be leveraged for electrocatalytic applications. Microbial- ... MOFs provide potential active sites at both metal centers and organic ligand sites. They can also be functionalized, or ... The real active sites of MOFs during electrocatalysis need to be analyzed comprehensively. Hydrogen and oxygen can be combined ...
Recycling of ascorbate via active transport of DHA into cells, followed by reduction and reuse, mitigates the inability of ... The lifetime of the stabilized species is commonly said to be about 6 minutes under biological conditions. Destruction results ... transport Vitamin C (in its oxidized form, DHA) in most cells, where recycling back to ascorbate generates the necessary enzyme ... Journal of Biological Chemistry. 270 (21): 12584-12592. doi:10.1074/jbc.270.21.12584. PMID 7759506. Lee, Y. C.; Huang, H. Y.; ...
Thiem B (2003). "Rubus chamaemorus L. - a boreal plant rich in biologically active metabolites: a review" (PDF). Biological ... Since 1970 in Norway, while it has been illegal to pick unripe cloudberries, transporting ripe cloudberries from the harvest ... Resvoll, T. R. (1929). "Rubus chamaemorus L. A morphological - biological study". Nytt Magasin for Naturvidenskapene. 67: 55- ... but only local residents may transport them from that location and only ripe berries may be picked. ...
Arsenic toxicity Arsenite-transporting ATPase Solute carrier family Active transport ATP-binding cassette transporter Hasgekar ... Biological Trace Element Research. 111 (1-3): 167-183. doi:10.1385/BTER:111:1:167. ISSN 0163-4984. PMID 16943604. S2CID ... which can participate in both secondary transport or primary active transport. Based on operon analyses, Arc3 homologues may ... In the latter case ATP hydrolysis again energizes transport. ... ArsB can function as a secondary carrier or as a primary active ...
Reid's work in the early 1900s on active transport across biological membranes was not fully appreciated until the 1950s. Reid ... This pioneer in studies on epithelial transport was in many ways far ahead of his contemporaries in the field, yet his work was ... Reid EW (1901). "Transport of fluid by certain epithelia". The Journal of Physiology. 26 (6): 436-444. doi:10.1113/jphysiol. ... From 1887 to 1905 Reid at St Mary's and Dundee was an active research worker on subjects dealing with physical and electrical ...
Transport of ions such as K+ and Na+ across membranes or other biological interfaces is vital to many cell processes; SECM has ... Electric potential is manipulated through the UME tip in a bulk solution containing a redox-active couple (e.g. Fe2+/Fe3+). ... been employed in studying transport of redox active species across cell membranes. In feedback mode, the transfer of molecules ... Examples include corrosion studies where a redox mediator may act to inhibit or enhance the rate of corrosion, and biological ...
The energy is utilized to conduct biosynthesis, facilitate movement, and regulate active transport inside of the cell. Examples ... The currency of energy in a biological cell is adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which stores its energy in the phosphoanhydride ... For instance, the, electron transport chain, and oxidative phosphorylation all take place in the mitochondrial membrane. In ... pathways and biological processes MetaCyc: A database of experimentally elucidated metabolic pathways (2,200+ pathways from ...
A number of enzymes are membrane bound and often mass transport through the membrane is active rather than passive as in ... In biological systems, membranes fulfill a number of essential functions. The compartmentalization of biological cells is ... allowing the cell to keep up gradients for example by using active transport of protons or water. The use of a natural membrane ... The transport mechanism of hydrogen inside palladium membranes follows a solution/diffusion mechanism: hydrogen molecule is ...
There are two types of active transport: primary active transport that uses ATP, and secondary active transport that uses an ... "Handbook Biological Wastewater Treatment - Design of Activated Sludge Systems". Retrieved 19 March 2016. "Aerobic Waste ... Active transport - In cellular biology, active transport is the movement of molecules across a membrane from a region of their ... Active transport requires cellular energy to achieve this movement. ...
Endocytosis requires energy and is thus a form of active transport. 4. Exocytosis: Just as material can be brought into the ... The cell employs a number of transport mechanisms that involve biological membranes: 1. Passive osmosis and diffusion: Some ... "active", requiring the cell to expend energy in transporting it. The membrane also maintains the cell potential. The cell ... with specific membrane proteins accounts for the selective permeability of the membrane and passive and active transport ...
These monomers are then absorbed into the mycelium by facilitated diffusion and active transport. Mycelia are vital in ... This biological degradation is a process known as bioremediation. Mycelial mats have been suggested (see Paul Stamets) as ... First, the hyphae secrete enzymes onto or into the food source, which break down biological polymers into smaller units such as ... having potential as biological filters, removing chemicals and microorganisms from soil and water. The use of fungal mycelium ...
In biological processes, the direction an ion moves by diffusion or active transport across a membrane is determined by the ... Two different mechanisms can transport the ions across the membrane: active or passive transport. An example of active ... three Na+ are transported outside and two K+ are transported inside the cell. This makes the inside of the cell more negative ... In the electron transport chain, complex I (CI) catalyzes the reduction of ubiquinone (UQ) to ubiquinol (UQH2) by the transfer ...
... giving cell membranes a biological identity. They also use endogenous active transport where transferrin, an iron binding ... An example of enzyme inhibition is given by binding of a-chymotrypsin (ChT), an enzyme with a largely cationic active site. ... This allows for maximum efficacy of the active drug. Also, the use of nanoparticles results in the attraction of proteins to ... Biological processes can be controlled through transcription regulation, gene regulation, and enzyme inhibition processes that ...
A large number of physical, chemical and biological processes are simultaneously active and mutually influence each other. ... The heat transport equation in CHAIN_2D considered transport due to conduction and advection with flowing water. The solute ... The solute transport equations assume advective-dispersive transport in the liquid phase, and diffusion in the gaseous phase. ... for simulating carbon dioxide transport as well as the multi-component transport of major ions. The UNSATCHEM major ion module ...
The Reduced Folate Carrier (RFC) Family (TC# 2.A.48) is a group of transport proteins that is part of the major facilitator ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 280 (43): 36206-36213. doi:10.1074/jbc.M507295200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 16115875. Zhao, R ... "Impact of the reduced folate carrier on the accumulation of active thiamin metabolites in murine leukemia cells". The Journal ... The large cytoplasmic loop between TMSs 6 and 7 is required for stability and efficient transport. Proteins of the RFC family ...
... including active matter and transport in living cells. The other principal current area of Granick's research concerns Janus ... This progressed to later studies showing how biological membranes interact with their environments. More recently, Granick and ... His research interests range from the study of active matter to the chemistry and physics of visualized macromolecules, ...
Active transport is the uptake by cells of ions or molecules against a concentration gradient; this requires an energy source, ... Two important types of these relationship are with bacteria such as rhizobia, that carry out biological nitrogen fixation, in ... Nitrogen is transported via the xylem from the roots to the leaf canopy as nitrate ions, or in an organic form, such as amino ... Nutrient ions are transported to the center of the root, the stele, in order for the nutrients to reach the conducting tissues ...
... the astral influences on the macrocosmal Spirit could be transported to the microcosmal Spirit in the blood by the active ... Walter Pagel (1967). William Harvey's Biological Ideas: Selected Aspects and Historical Background. Karger Publishers. p. 340. ... The divine light (the second of Fludd's primary principles) was the "active agent" responsible for creation. This informed the ...
About 1/3 enter the military as active duty Commissioned Officers. Of those going on active duty, most enter the Navy as Naval ... Transport portal. *Vice Admiral Emory S. Land, USN. Instrumental in overseeing founding of Academy ... Many graduates in the U.S. Naval Reserve, now known as the Navy Reserve, have been called to active duty to serve supporting ... Graduates who choose military service must serve at least five years in the active duty force of their respective service. ...
It is active and regulates (adjusts) what comes in and what goes out of the cell. The movement of substances across the ... These proteins mainly transport chemicals and information across the membrane.[3]. The membrane contains many proteins. The ... biological membrane that separates the interior of a cell from its outside environment ... membrane can be either passive, occurring without the input of cellular energy, or active, requiring energy. ...
A Vital Legacy: Biological and Environmental Research in the Atomic Age, U.S. Department of Energy, The Office of Biological ... If the biologically active tracer molecule chosen for PET is fludeoxyglucose (FDG), an analogue of glucose, the concentrations ... which has a half-life of 110 minutes and can be transported a reasonable distance before use, or to rubidium-82 (used as ... There is a waiting period while the active molecule becomes concentrated in tissues of interest; then the subject is placed in ...
... it needs to be transported to areas of active growth such as the plant shoots and roots. Vascular plants transport sucrose in a ... "Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 276 (1654): 121-127. doi:10.1098/rspb.2008.0858. PMC 2614250. PMID ... while major veins are responsible for its transport outside of the leaf. At the same time water is being transported in the ... The phloem and xylem are parallel to each other, but the transport of materials is usually in opposite directions. Within the ...
Series B, Biological Sciences. 365 (1541): 729-48. doi:10.1098/rstb.2009.0103. PMC 2817223. PMID 20124341.. ... 4.2 Phosphorylation, chaperones, and transport. *4.3 The translocon on the outer chloroplast membrane (TOC) *4.3.1 Toc34 and 33 ... This is important because it prevents chloroplast proteins from assuming their active form and carrying out their chloroplast ... Phosphorylation, chaperones, and transportEdit. After a chloroplast polypeptide is synthesized on a ribosome in the cytosol, ...
They are sessile (nonmobile) suspension feeders, and have four nektonic (active swimming) larval stages. Around 70 barnacle ... The degree of disarticluation of fossils suggests the distance they have been transported, and since many species have narrow ... The Biological Bulletin. 211 (3): 248-262. doi:10.2307/4134547. JSTOR 4134547. PMID 17179384.. ...
The ancient Romans also had a complex system of aqueducts,[52] which were used to transport water across long distances.[52] ... Considering a more generic perspective of technology as ethology of active environmental conditioning and control, we can also ... including the possibility of the permanent alteration of our biological nature. These concerns are shared by other philosophers ... The rise in technology has led to skyscrapers and broad urban areas whose inhabitants rely on motors to transport them and ...
"Progress in Clinical and Biological Research. 337 (7070): 301-7. doi:10.1136/bmj.313.7070.1450. PMC 2352989. PMID 8973234.. ... However, after two years in effect the ban did not affect the number of active smokers in Poland. According to a 2012 poll by ... Smoking is banned aboard aircraft, on the subway and all kinds of public transport. From 15 November 2013 on, smoking at ... From December 1993, in Peru, it became illegal to smoke in any public enclosed places and any public transport vehicles ( ...
Rafinesque was one of the first to use the term "evolution" in the context of biological speciation.[30] ... what were thought to be his remains were transported to Transylvania University and reinterred in a tomb under a stone ... Botanists active in North America. *Fellows of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences ... Örstan, Aydin (2014). "Two early nineteenth-century uses of the term "evolution" to denote biological speciation". Archives of ...
Gigi II was another grey whale calf that was captured in the Ojo de Liebre Lagoon, and was transported to SeaWorld.[140] The ... Bears are known to use sit-and-wait tactics as well as active stalking and pursuit of prey on ice or water. Whales lessen the ... Sonar interferes with the basic biological functions of whales-such as feeding and mating-by impacting their ability to ... This functions as an upward biological pump, reversing an earlier presumption that whales accelerate the loss of nutrients to ...
Biological Reviews. 78 (2): 251-345. doi:10.1017/S1464793102006103. PMID 12803423.. *^ a b Sahney, S., Benton, M.J. & Falcon- ... Energetic studies on some reptiles have shown active capacities equal to or greater than similar sized warm-blooded animals.[82 ... As amniotes, reptile eggs are surrounded by membranes for protection and transport, which adapt them to reproduction on dry ... "Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 274 (1610): 635-640. doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3763. PMC 2197205. PMID ...
Unlike GABAA receptor agonists, GABAA PAMs do not bind at the same active site as the γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) ... See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • GABA receptor modulators • GABA metabolism/transport modulators ... function because the flexible side chains in these analogues do not have the conformations required for high biological ... When the active group in position 7 is made more lipophilic and the electronic charge is increased the receptor affinity ...
Most, if not all, of the authors in the JSAC edition were also active in the MPEG-1 Audio committee. ... Grammar-based codes like this can compress highly repetitive input extremely effectively, for instance, a biological data ... A survey on data compression methods for biological sequences. Information 7(4):(2016): 56 ...
TransportEdit. Until recently, it was thought that the sole important retinoid delivery pathway to tissues involved retinol ... as conversion from carotenoids to the active form of vitamin A is regulated by the body to maintain an optimum level of the ... "The biological activity of retinotaurine". The Journal of Nutrition. 112 (8): 1626-30. PMID 7097369 ... "The multifaceted nature of retinoid transport and metabolism". Hepatobiliary Surgery and Nutrition. 3 (3): 126-39. doi:10.3978 ...
L-glutamate transport. • brain morphogenesis. • Notch signaling pathway. • negative regulation of protein phosphorylation. • ... Biological process. • negative regulation of neuron apoptotic process. • somitogenesis. • positive regulation of protein ... "Photoactivated gamma-secretase inhibitors directed to the active site covalently label presenilin 1". Nature. 405 (6787): 689- ... choline transport. • positive regulation of apoptotic process. • Notch receptor processing. • negative regulation of protein ...
The active site is a region on an enzyme which a particular protein or substrate can bind to. The active site will only allow ... "Journal of Biological Chemistry. 146: 85-93.. *^ Berg, Jeremy M.; Tymoczko, John L.; Stryer, Lubert (2002). "Appendix: Vmax and ... "STUDIES ON THE MECHANISM OF HYDROGEN TRANSPORT IN ANIMAL TISSUES". The Journal of General Physiology. 26 (4): 391-404. ISSN ... Biological Examples[edit]. After an accidental ingestion of a contaminated opioid drug desmethylprodine, the neurotoxic effect ...
"The biological role of strontium". Retrieved 2010-10-06.. *^ Gottschlich, Michele M. (2001). The Science and Practice of ... Suggested function from deprivation effects or active metabolic handling, but no clearly-identified biochemical function in ... then transporting the acquired nutrients to local ecosystems.[56][57] ... Red meat, dairy foods, fish, poultry, bread, rice, oats.[19][20] In biological contexts, usually seen as phosphate[21] ...
Instead, the Army rushed it to Vietnam, the Brigade departing on 15 July 1966 via transport ships and arriving on 14 August ... Active Duty. Since 2001, the 196th Infantry Brigade has trained more than 10,000 Soldiers that deployed to support combat ... Biological, Radiological, Nuclear and High Explosive (CBRNE) Enhanced Force Package (CERFP). ...
Biological process. • calcium ion transport into cytosol. • regulation of insulin secretion. • regulation of cardiac muscle ... transmembrane transport. • calcium ion transport. • regulation of ventricular cardiac muscle cell action potential. • embryonic ... regulation of ion transmembrane transport. • ion transport. • calcium-mediated signaling using extracellular calcium source. • ... calcium ion transmembrane transport. • camera-type eye development. • cardiac conduction. • calcium ion import. ...
Open to all youth worldwide active in stopping climate change. Official language ... Convention on Biological Diversity (1992). *ICPD Programme of Action (1994). *Earth Charter ...
Combining a pharmaceutically active cation with a pharmaceutically active anion leads to a Dual Active ionic liquid in which ... Ionic Liquids Biological Effects Database, free database on toxicology and ecotoxicology of ionic liquids ... Water is a common impurity in ionic liquids as it can be absorbed from the atmosphere and influences the transport properties ... Ionic Liquid Salt Forms of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients: A Position Paper". Pharmaceutical Research. 27 (4): 521-526. doi: ...
... dye solutions, typically 15% active, are commonly used as an aid to leak detection during hydrostatic testing of ... have been tailored for various chemical and biological applications where higher photostability, different spectral ... "Fluorescein Transport Assay to Assess Bulk Flow of Molecules Through the Hypocotyl in Arabidopsis thaliana". Bio-Protocol. 8 ... Additional biologically active molecules (such as antibodies) may also be attached to fluorescein, allowing biologists to ...
Biological process. • lipid metabolism. • fatty acid metabolic process. • metabolism. • cardiolipin acyl-chain remodeling. • ... Electron transport chain. *Fatty acid synthetase complex. *Glycine decarboxylase complex. *Mitochondrial trifunctional protein ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (45): 44894-903. doi:10.1074/jbc.m307782200. PMID 12933794.. ...
Active transport and Passive transport - Movement of molecules into and out of cells. ... Knowing the components of cells and how cells work is fundamental to all biological sciences; it is also essential for research ...
"for their discoveries relating to the هورمونs of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects"[۴۹] ... for "their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells"[۸۱] ... "for his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active ... "for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of آران‌ای and دی‌ان‌ای"[۵۳] ...
Occupational medicine is the branch of clinical medicine most active in the field of occupational health. Occupational health ... Work hazards can be classified as the following: physical work hazards, chemical work hazards, biological work hazards, ... whereas say in the transport field fitness to work may be a more important concern. Modern employment patterns demand ... active in the multi-disciplinary practice of occupational health, as well as with management, trade unions र staff ...
The main compounds responsible for the biological activity of skullcap are flavonoids.[9] Baicalein, one of the important ... See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • GABA receptor modulators • GABA metabolism/transport modulators ... Other active constituents include baicalin, apigenin, oroxylin A, scutellarein, and skullcapflavone.[17] ... Huang, Yu; Tsang, Suk-Ying; Yao, Xiaoqiang; Chen, Zhen-Yu (2005). "Biological Properties of Baicalein in Cardiovascular System ...
Series B, Biological Sciences. 357 (1422): 737-47. doi:10.1098/rstb.2002.1091. PMC 1692983. PMID 12079669.. ... leaving just one live active pair of leaves as the old pair withers ... "The role of auxin transport in plant patterning mechanisms". PLOS Biology. 6 (12): e323. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060323. PMC ... Snow, M.; Snow, R. (1934). "The interpretation of Phyllotaxis". Biological Reviews. 9 (1): 132-137. doi:10.1111/j.1469-185X. ...
"The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 274 (29): 20693-703. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.29.20693. PMID 10400703.. ... Neurotrophins are proteins that help to stimulate and control neurogenesis, BDNF being one of the most active.[16][17][18] Mice ... Yoshii A, Constantine-Paton M (June 2007). "BDNF induces transport of PSD-95 to dendrites through PI3K-AKT signaling after NMDA ... "The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry. 14 (8): 583-89. doi:10.3109/15622975.2011.616533. PMC 3288597. PMID 22047184.. ...
An Honours or MPhil project would undertake a thorough analysis of both the Turing mechanism and the recent active transport ( ... Indeed, over the past several years, active transport mechanisms - distinct from the Turing mechanism - have been shown to play ... An MPhil project would also develop a novel mathematical model of the active transport mechanism recently discovered in ... However, it is now becoming evident that the Turing model does not always capture biological reality. ...
Biological transport, active explanation free. What is Biological transport, active? Meaning of Biological transport, active ... Looking for online definition of Biological transport, active in the Medical Dictionary? ... active transport. (redirected from Biological transport, active). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia. active ... Biological transport, active , definition of Biological transport, active by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary. ...
2. Graphically represent simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion and active transport. 3. Regurgitate how biological systems ... 2. Graphically represent simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion and active transport. 3. Regurgitate how biological systems ... 4. Simple diffusion through the membrane. 5. Facilitated diffusion. 6. Active transport. II. You will have learned the material ... Do the same for facilitated diffusion and active transport (use the range of O degrees to 80 degrees C.). 2. What determines ...
This is an historical archive of the activities of the MRC Anatomical Neuropharmacology Unit (MRC ANU) that operated at the University of Oxford from 1985 until March 2015. The MRC ANU established a reputation for world-leading research on the brain, for training new generations of scientists, and for engaging the general public in neuroscience. The successes of the MRC ANU are now built upon at the MRC Brain Network Dynamics Unit at the University of Oxford.. ...
"Biological Transport, Active" by people in this website by year, and whether "Biological Transport, Active" was a major or ... "Biological Transport, Active" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Biological Transport, Active" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Biological Transport, Active". ...
EPJ E publishes papers describing advances in the understanding of physical aspects of Soft Matter and Biological Systems. The ... Active fluids. Granular Materials. Packing and elasticity. Dynamics, dissipation and flow behavior, slurries. Transport and ... Dynamics and self-organization in biological systems Collective motions. Biological Networks. Genetic and protein networks ... Transport and trafficking Fluctuations and noise, nonequilibrium processes Multicellular Systems. Tissues and organs ...
Sodium and potassium transport in red blood cells.In: Electrolytes in Biological Systems. A.M. Shanes, editor. p. 123. Waverly ... Linkage of sodium- and potassium-active transport in human erythrocytes.In: Active Transport and Secretion. R. Brown and J.F. ... The active transport of Na by red blood cell ghosts.J. Gen. Physiol. 45:837Google Scholar ... The connexion between active cation transport and metabolism in erythrocytes.Biochem. J. 97:214Google Scholar ...
Biological membranes: Ussings definition of active transport made possible an understanding, at the cellular level, of the way ... Other articles where Active transport is discussed: biophysics: ... Active transport. cell physiology. THIS IS A DIRECTORY PAGE. ... In biophysics: Biological membranes. Ussings definition of active transport made possible an understanding, at the cellular ... In poison: Transport of chemicals through a cell membrane. Active transport systems move chemicals essential to cellular ...
DNA transport in Streptococcus pneumoniae was studied using donor molecules labelled either at the 3 or at the 5 end, on one ... Biological Transport, Active * DNA, Bacterial / genetics* * DNA, Bacterial / metabolism * Models, Genetic * Streptococcus ... DNA transport in Streptococcus pneumoniae was studied using donor molecules labelled either at the 3 or at the 5 end, on one ...
Biological Transport, Active * Cell Cycle Proteins / genetics * Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism* * Cyclic AMP / metabolism ... The Cdc25 protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required for normal glucose transport Microbiology (Reading). 1996 Jul;142 ( ... Because the cdc25-1 mutant is not impaired in its cAMP metabolism, it is concluded that this effect on glucose transport is ... regulates glucose transport. Continuous culture studies and glucose uptake experiments showed that the cdc25-1 and the cdc25-5 ...
This is something known as active transport. The organisms are playing a more active role in moving organic matter down to ... active transport may occur on a seasonal basis as well. Without vertical migration the biological pump wouldnt be nearly as ... The biological pump is accompanied by a physico-chemical counterpart known as the solubility pump. This pump transports ... These three pumps are: (1) the solubility pump, (2) the carbonate pump, and (3) the biological pump. The total active pool of ...
... photosynthetic electron transport and phosphorylation. [Achim Trebst; Mordhay Avron; R S Alberte; et al] ... Nature of the Active Center.- G. Stability.- H. Biological Function.- I. Immunological Studies.- J. Homology in the Primary ... Noncyclic Electron Transport.- IV. Cyclic Electron Transport.- V. Pseudocyclic Electron Transport.- VI. Regulation of Electron ... Ion Transport and the Mechanism of Uncoupling in Chloroplasts.- F. ATP-Induced Proton Transport.- G. Proton Transport in ...
Active transport. Biological mass transfer coefficients. Steady and unsteady state. Flux-force relationships. (Credit not ... Transport Phenomena in Living Systems (4). This course describes the movement of heat and chemical mass in biological systems. ... Survey of current biological database with respect to above; implementation of database focused on a biological topic. ... Systems Biology and Bioengineering I: Biological Components (4). Components of biological systems, their biochemical properties ...
This second Volume in the series on Membrane Transport in Biology contains a group of essays on transport across single ... biological membranes separating the inside and outside of cells or organelles. W ... Active Cation Transport in Human Red Cells B. Sarkadi, D. C. Tosteson ... second Volume in the series on Membrane Transport in Biology contains a group of essays on transport across single biological ...
Absorption • Algorithms • Animals • Arterioles • Biological Clocks • Biological Transport, Active • Blood Pressure • Blood ... Layton, AT; Layton, HE, A computational model of epithelial solute and water transport along a human nephron., Plos ... Ion Transport • Kidney • Kidney Concentrating Ability • Kidney Diseases • Kidney Glomerulus • Kidney Medulla • Kidney Tubules ... Biological • Models, Statistical • Models, Theoretical • Muscle, Smooth, Vascular • Nephrons • Nonlinear Dynamics • Osmolar ...
Biological TransportBiological Transport, Active • Blood Pressure • Blood Vessels • Body Water • Calcium • Calcium Channels ... Membrane Transport Proteins • Mice • Microvessels • Models, Animal • Models, Biological • Models, Statistical • Models, ... Modeling Solute Transport and Urine Concentrating Mechanism in the Rat Kidney, National Institutes of Health, 2010/08-2016/07. ... Modeling Solute Transport and Urine Concentrating Mechanism in the Rat Kidney, National Institutes of Health, 2010/08-2015/07. ...
Biological Process. GO:0008272 sulfate transport GO:0055085 transmembrane transport Molecular Function. GO:0008271 secondary ... Some transport their substrate(s) with high affinities, while others transport it or them with relatively low affinities [PMID ... active sulfate transmembrane transporter activity Cellular Component. GO:0016020 membrane Contributing signatures. Signatures ...
ACTIVE TRANSPORT AND SECRETION. IX. FIBROUS PROTEINS AND THEIR BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE. The Journal of Experimental Botany is ... Citations are available only to our active members.. Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and ... Citations are available only to our active members.. Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and ... Note: Full functionality is available only to our active members. Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page. ...
... and other therapeutically or medicinally active agents. See, for example, G. OODMAN & G. ILMANS T. HE P. HARMACOLOGICAL B. ... Multi-component biological transport systems. 2003-12-11. Waugh et al.. 20030220480. Cell-permeable peptide inhibitors of the ... Multi-component biological transport systems. 2004-11-04. Waugh et al.. 20040192754. Methods for treating idiopathic ... Method for enhancing transport across biological membranes. 2002-09-19. Rothbard et al.. ...
... mathematics describing active and passive cellular transport; emphasis on numerical solution techniques for heat and mass flow ... 4352 Transport Phenomena in Biological Engineering (3) F Prereq.: BE 2352; credit or registration in CE 2200 and ME 3333. ... 7352 Advanced Transport Phenomena in Biological Engineering (3) V Prereq.: BE 4352. Transient heat and mass transfer in ... 7361 Biological Reactor Systems for Agricultural Waste Treatment (3) V Prereq.: BE 4341. Design of biological reactor systems ...
Biological Transport, Active. Calcium Channel Blockers / metabolism, pharmacology*. Cell Line. Cell Survival / drug effects. ... 3H]Nitrendipine was found not to be transported by BCRP. However, the transport of [3H]dipyridamole by BCRP was observed in ... Transport studies were performed using radiolabeled compounds. RESULTS: Dipyridamole, nicardipine, nitrendipine, and nimodipine ... both HEK and Madin-Darby canine kidney cells stably expressing the transporter, and this transport was completely abolished by ...
ATP-dependent canalicular transport systems (also termed export pumps) for bile salts, amphiphilic anionic conjugates, ... Biological Transport, Active. Carrier Proteins / metabolism. Cholestasis / etiology, genetics, physiopathology*. Cholesterol / ... Anion Transport Proteins. Bicarbonates / metabolism. Bile Acids and Salts / metabolism. Bile Canaliculi / physiopathology*. ... 0/Anion Transport Proteins; 0/Bicarbonates; 0/Bile Acids and Salts; 0/Carrier Proteins; 0/P-Glycoprotein; 0/Phospholipids; 56- ...
What is active transport? This is an active process which uses ATP. A carrier protein, the protein changes shape and this moves ... 1. It transports molecules that are two large to be transported using carrier proteins. 2. Endocytosis is entering the cell. 3. ... 1. It transports molecules that are two large to be transported using carrier proteins. 2. Exocytosis is leaving the cell. 3. ... Study Biological Membranes flashcards from Daniel Porter ... Flashcards in Biological Membranes Deck (23) Loading flashcards ...
Technical Interests: Transport phenomena; clean energy; PEM fuel cells. Educational Interests: Integrated Curriculum; active ... Technical Interests: Computational fluid dynamics and transport modeling in biological systems.. Educational Interests: Student ... Educational Interests: Active learning for large classrooms; increasing women in STEM fields; using technology to promote ... Educational Interests: Active learning; cyber-learning.. Office: 535 Cobleigh Hall. Phone: (406) 994-5988. Email: [email protected] ...
Lewis, S. A.; Diamond, J. M. (1975). "Active sodium transport by mammalian urinary bladder". Nature. 253 (5494): 747-748. doi: ... Pidot, A. L.; Diamond, J. M. (1964). "Streaming Potentials in a Biological Membrane". Nature. 201 (4920): 701-702. doi:10.1038/ ... Karasov, W. H.; Pond Rs, 3.; Solberg, D. H.; Diamond, J. M. (1983). "Regulation of proline and glucose transport in mouse ... Diamond, J. M.; Tormey, J. M. (1966). "Role of long extracellular channels in fluid transport across epithelia". Nature. 210 ( ...
Purchase The Transfer of Calcium and Strontium Across Biological Membranes - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN ... Vitamin D and the Active Transport of Calcium by the Small Intestine Vitamin D and the Absorption of Calcium and Strontium In ... The Biophysical Nature of Biological Membranes. General Aspects of Ion Transport (Abstract). The Biological Implications of ... and deals first with some of the properties of biological membranes, the general aspects of ion transport, and chelation of ...
Does not transport Leu, Phe, Trp or Tyr. ... GO - Biological processi. *monocarboxylic acid transport Source ... Very active and specific thyroid hormone transporter. Stimulates cellular uptake of thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), ... Very active and specific thyroid hormone transporter. Stimulates cellular uptake of thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), ... Biological process. Symport, Transport. Enzyme and pathway databases. Reactome - a knowledgebase of biological pathways and ...
A general model of active transport is proposed, based on the flexoelectric membrane properties, with regard to liquid ... Flexoelectric Model for Active Transport. In: Vassileva-Popova J.G. (eds) Physical and Chemical Bases of Biological Information ... Dipole Moment Liquid Crystal Active Transport External Electric Field Transmembrane Potential These keywords were added by ... In view of such mechanism a natural explanation may be given for a number of active transport features: curved membrane sectors ...
Make a list of chemicals used in transporting biological molecules. There are an extremely large number of chemicals that are ... biologically active. Each chemical operates on unique pathways to accomplish a specific job within an organism.[8] X ... Preparing for the Biological Sciences Section * {"smallUrl":"https:\/\/www.wikihow.com\/images\/thumb\/4\/44\/Study-for-the- ... Examine cellular structure and function. The MCAT covers a wide array of biological topics. Be able to describe how individual ...
Living cells exist in a perpetually active biological state. All cells require energy to conduct the activities necessary to ... Molecular Transport. Each cell is surrounded by a membrane that delineates its boundaries and acts as a gatekeeper, controlling ... This molecular transport serves the essential role of maintaining a healthy internal environment so the cell can survive and ... However, the transport of many important molecules depends on energy-utilizing cell membrane pumps. For example, sodium and ...
  • Such transport typically occurs in cell membranes, which are thought to contain carriers which move molecules from one side of the membrane to the other. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A process by which particles (e.g. ions, molecules) are transported across cell membranes, against, in almost all instances, the concentration gradient. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 3. Regurgitate how biological systems move materials across membranes. (coursehero.com)
  • frequently occurs by way of active transport within cell membranes, an excess of one nutrient (A) may inhibit absorption of a second nutrient (B), if they share the same absorption pathway. (britannica.com)
  • This second Volume in the series on Membrane Transport in Biology contains a group of essays on transport across single biological membranes separating the inside and outside of cells or organelles. (springer.com)
  • Four chapters describe transport of different types of molecules and ions across the plasma membranes of mammalian red cells. (springer.com)
  • Two essays concern the excitable membranes of nerve and muscle cells while the remaining four chapters treat transport across several types of intracellular membranes. (springer.com)
  • As a result of investigations in many laboratories over the past four decades, our picture of the water permea- bility of the red cell membranes is rather detailed when compared to the water permeability of other biological membranes. (springer.com)
  • The Transfer of Calcium and Strontium Across Biological Membranes represents the proceedings of a Conference on The Transfer of Calcium and Strontium Across Biological Membranes, held in Cornell University, Ithaca, New York on May 13-16, 1962. (elsevier.com)
  • This book is organized into seven sections encompassing 22 chapters, and deals first with some of the properties of biological membranes, the general aspects of ion transport, and chelation of divalent cations. (elsevier.com)
  • Andrea McCaffery HEFC Biological Science The Structure and biological functions of cell membranes Cells are the fundamental units of life, because a cell is the simplest unit capable of independent existence. (markedbyteachers.com)
  • Biological membranes maintain the spatial organisation of life. (markedbyteachers.com)
  • Intestinal Absorption of Metal Ions, Trace Elements, and Radionuclides focuses on the transport of metal ions across biological membranes. (elsevier.com)
  • and detection and implications of active salt transport across biological membranes. (elsevier.com)
  • The selection is a recommendable source of data for readers interested in the transport of metal ions across biological membranes. (elsevier.com)
  • In particular, the transport of molecules and small ions through biological membranes will be studied. (purdue.edu)
  • Principles of mass transport and electrical signal generation for biological membranes, cells, and tissues. (mit.edu)
  • Cell membranes are critical to transporting particles for organelles of the cell. (bartleby.com)
  • Membranes can be neutral or charged, and particles transport can be active or passive. (phys.org)
  • Membranes can be generally classified into three groups: inorganic, polymeric or biological membranes. (phys.org)
  • What type of transport of drugs across biological membranes is influenced by protein binding? (flashcardmachine.com)
  • proton pump a system for transporting protons across cell membranes, often exchanging them for other positively charged ions. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We applied SPT to study the diffusion of membrane transport proteins in cell plasma membranes in which individual proteins are labeled with quantum dots at engineered extracellular epitopes. (spie.org)
  • They are lipid soluble and able to transport metal cations across cell membranes. (hindawi.com)
  • Riekhof WR, Wu WI, Jones JL, Nikrad M, Chan MM, Loewen CJ, Voelker DR. An assembly of proteins and lipid domains regulates transport of phosphatidylserine to phosphatidylserine decarboxylase 2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Although the picture is far from complete, experimental evidence now exists that decreased or even absent expression of canalicular transport proteins may explain impaired transport function resulting in hyperbilirubinemia and cholestasis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • With the increasing availability of molecular probes for these transport systems in humans, new information on the molecular regulation of canalicular transport proteins in human cholestatic liver diseases is beginning to emerge and should bring new insights into their pathophysiology and treatment. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 1. It transports molecules that are two large to be transported using carrier proteins. (brainscape.com)
  • The chloride channel (CLC) family of Cl − transport proteins includes both Cl − channels and proton-coupled Cl − exchange transporters ( Zifarelli & Pusch 2007 ). (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • ABCC subfamily) are members of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of transport proteins and act as cellular efflux transporters of a wide variety of substrates, in particular glutathione, glucuronide and sulphate conjugates of diverse compounds. (eawag.ch)
  • For these cell lines little is known on the cellular active transport mechanisms that control the amount of a compound entering the cell, such as the MXR (multixenobiotic resistance) system mediated by ATP binding cassette (ABC) transport proteins. (eawag.ch)
  • The proteins then enter more vesicles, to be transported around the cell. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • In general, fluid mechanics is an enabling science that describes dynamics over a wide spectrum of scales, ranging from the global scales of climate dynamics to the transport of suspended proteins through nano-pores. (brown.edu)
  • The transport proteins that move solutes against a concentration gradient are called carrier proteins. (wikibooks.org)
  • On the other hand, channel proteins are involved in passive transport. (wikibooks.org)
  • Successful functioning of biological systems depends on efficient cellular transport supported by several classes of active biological molecules known as motor proteins. (pnas.org)
  • Motor proteins are active enzymatic molecules that support important cellular processes by transforming chemical energy into mechanical work. (pnas.org)
  • Motor proteins or biological molecular motors are active enzymatic molecules that help control the internal organization of cells by driving the movements of vesicles and organelles along cytoskeletal filaments ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • [6] Thus, metalloproteins have many different functions in cells , such as storage and transport of proteins, enzymes and signal transduction proteins, or infectious diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specialized trans-membrane proteins recognize the substance and allows it access [ 1 ] (or, in the case of secondary transport, expend energy on forcing it) to cross the membrane when it otherwise would not, either because it is one to which the phospholipid bilayer of the membrane is impermeable or because it is moved in the direction of the concentration gradient. (academic.ru)
  • The last case, known as primary active transport, and the proteins involved in it as pumps, normally uses the chemical energy of ATP. (academic.ru)
  • The other cases, which usually derive their energy through exploitation of an electrochemical gradient, are known as secondary active transport and involve pore-forming proteins that form channels through the cell membrane. (academic.ru)
  • These proteins have receptors that bind to specific molecules (e.g., glucose ) and thus transport them into the cell. (academic.ru)
  • An example of primary active transport using light energy are the proteins involved in photosynthesis that use the energy of photons to create a proton gradient across the thylakoid membrane and also to create reduction power in the form of NADPH. (academic.ru)
  • 6. What are the two types of transport proteins? (ostatic.com)
  • The biological significance of regulated diffusion of membrane transport proteins is a subject of active investigation. (spie.org)
  • Nearly all cellular functions rely on the active transport of various cargoes, including proteins and organelles, inside the cell. (osc.edu)
  • The biological pump is not so much the result of a single process, but rather the sum of a number of processes each of which can influence biological pumping. (wikipedia.org)
  • I develop multiscale numerical methods---multi-implicit Picard integral deferred correction methods---for the integration of partial differential equations arising in physical systems with dynamics that involve two or more processes with widely-differing characteristic time scales (e.g., combustion, transport of air pollutants, etc. (duke.edu)
  • with in these there are different processes for example, in passive process there are diffusion , facilitated diffusion and osmosis and in the active process there is molecule and particle. (bartleby.com)
  • diffusion is one of the passive transport processes. (bartleby.com)
  • Enzymes are catalysts active in biological processes. (nobelprize.org)
  • These different diffusion processes correspond to distinct biological scenarios. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • This goes far beyond what has been seen as traditional fluid dynamics in the past and involves a broad scientific knowledge of biological and physio-chemical processes. (brown.edu)
  • The main activity of the fluids group is the theoretical description and numerical simulation of complex fluids, self-organization in active suspensions and biological processes relating to blood flow in the arterial tree, brain aneurysms, diseases of blood cells and bacterial locomotion. (brown.edu)
  • Diseases are biological processes, and molecular imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) is sensitive to and informative of these processes. (pnas.org)
  • At this time, there is an intense exploration to determine patterns of gene expression that encode for normal biological processes such as replication, migration, signal transduction of cell communication, and many other functions cells perform. (pnas.org)
  • Normal biological processes and their failure in disease are the targets of PET. (pnas.org)
  • These findings provide the first demonstration of cytoskeletal-based active transport of SMN in neuronal processes and the function of exon-7 in cytoplasmic localization. (jneurosci.org)
  • An alternative view of SMN function is that it is an essential component of RNP complexes that are actively transported in neuronal processes. (jneurosci.org)
  • These immunocytochemical studies suggest the possibility that SMN may be actively transported into neuronal processes. (jneurosci.org)
  • Students will first be exposed to stochastic processes that are used to describe cargo transport along microtubules and computational methods to simulate these processes. (osc.edu)
  • Knowing the dynamics of such mechanisms and of chemical processes in cells is decisive to understand important biological aspects such as cell motion and the development of cell tissues. (ptb.de)
  • Thus, understanding the biophysics of these new transport systems allows us to better describe transport processes in various epithelial cell and tissue types. (mayo.edu)
  • Because the cdc25-1 mutant is not impaired in its cAMP metabolism, it is concluded that this effect on glucose transport is independent of cAMP levels. (nih.gov)
  • Its function is to transport substances in and out of the cell, and between organisms. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • AbstractAstrocytes release biologically active substances that cause inflammation in neurodegenerative diseases. (medworm.com)
  • Another important aspect of personalised medicine is to guarantee occupational safety, because it must be reliably ensured that workers cannot come into contact with these highly active substances during the filling and packaging process. (packagingeurope.com)
  • Antiport and symport are associated with secondary active transport , meaning that one of the two substances are transported in the direction of their concentration gradient utilizing the energy derived from the transport of the second substance (mostly Na+, K+ or H+) down its concentration gradient. (academic.ru)
  • Polyether ionophores represent a large group of natural, biologically active substances produced by Streptomyces spp . (hindawi.com)
  • The process differs from passive transport , simple diffusion , and osmosis in that it requires the expenditure of metabolic energy. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Countergradient diffusion can also take place in a passive transport process, the energy is then supplied by another species diffusing in the direction of its gradient. (springer.com)
  • The filtration and the diffusion of ethanol across the membrane are forms of passive transport because no cellular energy is required. (duke.edu)
  • Definition of active and passive transport and relating it to real-life examples. (bu.edu)
  • Active transport uses energy, unlike passive transport , which does not use any type of energy. (academic.ru)
  • 11) Two types of passive transport. (ostatic.com)
  • 2. Graphically represent simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion and active transport. (coursehero.com)
  • Do the same for facilitated diffusion and active transport (use the range of O degrees to 80 degrees C.). 2. (coursehero.com)
  • This is an individual study investigating the process of diffusion, osmosis and active transport. (bartleby.com)
  • To understand and make sense of the cells of your body, you need to know about the process of diffusion, osmosis and active transport. (bartleby.com)
  • Diffusion against a concentration gradient is often observed in biological systems. (springer.com)
  • The biological membrane structure allows small, uncharged molecules like ethanol, CO2 and H2O to pass directly through the membrane by the process of diffusion . (duke.edu)
  • 1) Diffusion across a biological membrane. (ostatic.com)
  • 4) Diffusion with the help of a transport protein. (ostatic.com)
  • There is another, very different, form of transport that takes place within the cell membrane and that is bulk transport, where larger particles need to enter or leave the cell. (markedbyteachers.com)
  • Sinking particles transport organic carbon produced in the surface ocean to the ocean interior, leading to net storage of atmospheric CO 2 in the deep ocean. (frontiersin.org)
  • Active targeting after systemic administration can be achieved by modification of the particles' surface with targeting entities. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Molecular alterations of canalicular transport systems in experimental models of cholestasis: possible functional correlations. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Recent cloning of several canalicular transport systems now facilitates studies on their molecular regulation in cholestasis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This article gives an overview on molecular alterations of canalicular transport systems in experimental models of cholestasis and discusses the potential implications of these changes for the pathophysiology of cholestasis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This molecular transport serves the essential role of maintaining a healthy internal environment so the cell can survive and perform its specialized functions. (livestrong.com)
  • Molecular transport also allows specialized cells that produce important chemicals -- such as hormones -- to release them so they can be utilized elsewhere in the body. (livestrong.com)
  • In addition, they can be used as molecular target- or transport devices of other biological active components. (europa.eu)
  • Kinesin motors are molecular motors that walk along microtubules to transport cellular cargo. (aps.org)
  • This clean mechanistic split within a single protein family-a circumstance unprecedented in membrane biology-presents to the biochemist a fascinating question: how can two very different ion-transport mechanisms, electrodiffusion through a watery pore versus coordinated movement of substrates via conformational cycling, be supported by a common molecular architecture? (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • As a result, physical, biological and medical sciences are working together to identify fundamental errors of disease and develop molecular corrections for them. (pnas.org)
  • I am chairing the track on Molecular, Biological and Multi-Scale Communications. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Mechanisms of hepatic transport of cyclosporin A: an explanation for its cholestatic action? (biomedsearch.com)
  • Explain mechanisms that permit organisms to maintain biological balance between their internal and external environments. (explorelearning.com)
  • Understand the basic mechanisms by which biological molecules and water are transported within a living organism. (bu.edu)
  • Biophysicists and cell biologists have taken an interest for some time now in how spatial structures form spontaneously in cells and tissues and which physical, chemical and biological mechanisms are decisive for this process. (ptb.de)
  • Acute interactions between intestinal sugar and calcium transport in vitro. (ucdenver.edu)
  • BCRP transports dipyridamole and is inhibited by calcium channel blockers. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A section describes the biological transfer and movement of calcium and strontium across kidney, mammary gland, nerve, and muscle. (elsevier.com)
  • A membrane transport modulator that is able to regulate intracellular calcium levels. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • of energy, it is called active transport (see cell: The plasma membrane). (britannica.com)
  • ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY I WORKSHEET I Plasma Membrane and Cellular Transport Structure of the Plasma Membrane 1. (bartleby.com)
  • Therefore, it was deduced that a protein existed on the plasma membrane which actively pumped the two ions against their biological gradients. (wikibooks.org)
  • Only then did he realise that this enzyme might have something to do with the active movement of sodium and potassium across the plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this paper it is reported that the Cdc25 protein, in addition to its stimulatory role in the RAS/adenylate cyclase pathway, regulates glucose transport. (nih.gov)
  • Because the Cdc25 protein is localized at the membrane, these results indicate that Cdc25 is directly involved in glucose transport and may be in direct contact with the glucose transporters. (nih.gov)
  • p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge. (uniprot.org)
  • Synthesis and fabrication of surface-active microparticles using membrane emulsion technique and rapid conjugation of model protein via strain-promoted azide-alkyne click chemistry in physiological conditions. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Figure 1: A motor protein transport a big organelle along a microtubule inside a cell. (osc.edu)
  • Although a sodium-dependent transporter for vitamin C exists, it is present mainly in specialized cells, whereas the glucose transporters , the most notable being GLUT1 , transport Vitamin C (in its oxidized form, DHA) [3] in most cells, where recycling back to ascorbate generates the necessary enzyme cofactor and intracellular antioxidant, (see Transport to mitochondria). (wikipedia.org)
  • Vitamin C does not pass from the bloodstream into the brain , although the brain is one of the organs that have the greatest concentration of vitamin C. Instead, DHA is transported through the blood-brain barrier via GLUT1 transporters , and then converted back to ascorbate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Secondary active transporters make use of one or more aspects of the membrane electrochemical gradient to specifically move ions and nutrients into and out of cellular compartments. (mayo.edu)
  • If the process uses chemical energy, such as from adenosine triphosphate (ATP), it is termed primary active transport . (academic.ru)
  • The present invention relates to devices for collecting and transporting biological specimens. (google.com)
  • More particularly, the invention relates to devices containing active electrodes especially adapted for electrophoretic transport of nucleic acids, their hybridization and analysis. (google.co.uk)
  • The discovery of unidirectional, ATP-dependent canalicular transport systems (also termed "export pumps") for bile salts, amphiphilic anionic conjugates, lipophilic cations, and phospholipids has opened new opportunities for understanding biliary physiology and the pathophysiology of cholestasis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • However, the transport of [3H]dipyridamole by BCRP was observed in both HEK and Madin-Darby canine kidney cells stably expressing the transporter, and this transport was completely abolished by fumitremorgin C, a known BCRP inhibitor. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Very active and specific thyroid hormone transporter. (uniprot.org)
  • Most of the enzymes that perform this type of transport are transmembrane ATPases. (academic.ru)
  • Linkage of active cation transport to ATP utilization. (springer.com)
  • Research conducted by the Crunch Group focuses on the development of stochastic multiscale methods for physical and biological applications, specifically numerical algorithms, visualization methods and parallel software for continuum and atomistic simulations in biophysics, fluid and solid mechanics, biomedical modeling and related applications. (brown.edu)
  • Preparing for the MCAT requires examinees to be familiar with biological, physical, and behavioral sciences, as well as research methods and reasoning skills related to the scientific disciplines. (wikihow.com)
  • Methods for collecting and transporting microbiological specimens and for recovering detectable antigen are also described. (google.com)
  • 27, 1995, entitled "Apparatus and Methods for Active Programmable Matrix Devices," now U.S. Pat. (google.co.uk)
  • entitled "Apparatus and Methods for Active Biological Sample Preparation. (google.co.uk)
  • This invention relates to methods of manufacture and devices useful in performing active biological operations. (google.co.uk)
  • Active transport operates against gradients of chemical concentration, electrical charge or electrochemical state. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In: Vassileva-Popova J.G. (eds) Physical and Chemical Bases of Biological Information Transfer. (springer.com)
  • ATP molecules capture the chemical energy from food, which the cells then use to power their biological functions. (livestrong.com)
  • aims to bring together leading academic scientists, researchers and research scholars to exchange and share their experiences and research results on all aspects of Biological and Chemical Systems Engineering. (waset.org)
  • Also, high quality research contributions describing original and unpublished results of conceptual, constructive, empirical, experimental, or theoretical work in all areas of Biological and Chemical Systems Engineering are cordially invited for presentation at the conference. (waset.org)
  • ICBCSE 2022 has teamed up with the Special Journal Issue on Biological and Chemical Systems Engineering . (waset.org)
  • Active media and cell motility are investigated in project area C with special emphasis on their chemical regulation. (tu-berlin.de)
  • The shelters have been integrated with an active system to protect soldiers from CBRNE (chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and explosives) hazards. (cnbc.com)
  • Children remain potential victims of chemical or biological terrorism. (aappublications.org)
  • In April 2000, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Committee on Environmental Health and Committee on Infectious Diseases published the technical report "Chemical-Biological Terrorism and Its Impact on Children. (aappublications.org)
  • Since publication of the 2000 technical report, many additional acts of chemical and biological terrorism have occurred, including the release of anthrax spores through the US postal system, intentional food contamination by toxic chemicals in Grand Rapids, Michigan, and Fresno, California, and the identification of ricin-laden letters in a post office in South Carolina. (aappublications.org)
  • The continuing occurrence of chemical and biological terrorism makes clear the ongoing need to improve public health and health care system preparedness in all respects, including the detection of covert events, establishment of comprehensive response protocols for children, and implementation of plans for rapid resource mobilization. (aappublications.org)
  • 7 However, there remains a need for pediatricians to be knowledgeable about the chemical and biological weapons that could be used against a population that includes children. (aappublications.org)
  • Moreover, many new principles in the care of children after chemical and biological terrorism have been developed. (aappublications.org)
  • This policy statement replaces the 2000 policy statement, with an added focus on systems issues that are key in minimizing morbidity and mortality to children after their exposure to a chemical or biological weapon. (aappublications.org)
  • Representative examples for active fluids are bacterial suspensions, chemical/optical driven colloids or moving cells. (ptb.de)
  • Functional significance in active transport. (uci.edu)
  • The course is designed to help integrate new biology students into the Department of Biological Sciences, to help them adjust to university life, and to assist them in developing academic and intellectual survival skills using the medium of introductory Biology courses. (purdue.edu)
  • In addition to the specific topics covered, an important objective of this course will be to connect what is covered to both current and historical research endeavors, to prepare Biology majors for further study in the curriculum of the Department of Biological Sciences. (purdue.edu)
  • Active transport systems move chemicals essential to cellular functions through the membrane into the cell. (britannica.com)
  • Dynamic models for the concentrating mechanism involve large systems of coupled hyperbolic PDEs that describe tubular convection and epithelial transport. (duke.edu)
  • My main research interest is the application of mathematics to biological systems, specifically, mathematical modeling of renal physiology. (duke.edu)
  • In addition, ATP-independent canalicular transport systems for glutathione and bicarbonate contribute to (bile acid-independent) bile formation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Computational fluid dynamics and transport modeling in biological systems. (montana.edu)
  • Membrane transport systems cannot do this type of job, but the cell membrane itself can. (markedbyteachers.com)
  • The treatment of these specific systems is accompanied by more conceptual investigations that concentrate on the coupled electronic transport in random networks and on how the nonequilibrium alters the behavior of quantum systems near criticality. (tu-berlin.de)
  • Energy transformation in biological systems. (worldcat.org)
  • I thought you might be interested in this item at http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/1525519 Title: Energy transformation in biological systems. (worldcat.org)
  • Symposium on Energy Transformation in Biological Systems (1974 : London, England). (worldcat.org)
  • Proceedings of the Symposium on Energy Transformation in Biological Systems, held at the Ciba Foundation, London, July 2-4, 1974. (worldcat.org)
  • HATs represent several of the classic mammalian amino acid transport systems (e.g. (semanticscholar.org)
  • For human transport systems, see active transportation. (academic.ru)
  • The most prominent advantage of nanoscaled drug carriers over conventional drug delivery systems is the option to improve selective delivery of drugs to the site of action, so-called drug targeting which can be classified into the active and passive targeting approaches. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Investigations of active fluids give at a better insight into non-equilibrium systems and may have the potential for novel applications. (ptb.de)
  • Ionic homeostasis is key to normal function of most biological systems. (mayo.edu)
  • laboratory demonstration of biological engineering analysis. (lsu.edu)
  • In addition to managing an active research laboratory, Dr. Ganesan maintains an active clinical practice focusing on patients with pigmentary disorders and skin cancer, although he also sees general dermatology patients. (uci.edu)
  • After the sample has been collected on a swab it is transported to a microbiology laboratory where any organisms present are identified. (google.com)
  • This volume offers a comprehensive history of the Mount Desert Island Biological Laboratory (MDIBL), one of the major marine laboratories in the United States and a leader in using marine organisms to study fundamental physiological concepts. (the-aps.org)
  • Membrane Transport in Red Cells, J.C. Ellory and V.L. Lew, editors, P. 1. (springer.com)
  • Ussing's definition of active transport made possible an understanding, at the cellular level, of the way in which ions and water are pumped into and out of living cells in order to regulate the ionic composition and water balance in cells, organs, and organisms. (britannica.com)
  • The transport of water between the inside and outside of cells and organelles is important for the function of these structures. (springer.com)
  • Living cells exist in a perpetually active biological state. (livestrong.com)
  • Watson and Crick's elucidation of DNA in 1958 initiated a time in which biological and physical scientists would strive to unravel the genetic code and its regulated expression that is the basis of development and maintenance of phenotypic function of all cells of an organism. (pnas.org)
  • Recycling of ascorbate via active transport of DHA into cells, followed by reduction and reuse, mitigates the inability of humans to synthesize it from glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Active transport is a good example of a process for which cells require energy. (academic.ru)
  • Examples of active tranport include the uptake of glucose in the intestines in humans and the uptake of mineral ions into root hair cells of plants. (academic.ru)
  • Active transport enables these cells to take up salts from this dilute solution against the direction of the concentration gradient. (academic.ru)
  • Disruptions of intracellular transport in nerve cells can cause local swelling of the axon, similar to a traffic jam that we see in real life, leading to nerve cell degeneration in severe situations. (osc.edu)
  • 3. a mechanism or structure that mediates active transport of ions or molecules across a biological membrane. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Active intracellular transport can overcome this difficulty so that motion is faster and direct specific. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Microtubules are long, dynamic polymers that serve as highway tracks for intracellular transport (Figure 1). (osc.edu)
  • The clip during 3'40'' and 3'57'' illustrates microtubule-based intracellular transport. (osc.edu)
  • This article is about transport in cellular biology. (academic.ru)
  • and 2) prepare students for the broad area of bioengineering, incorporating both biology-focused biological engineering and medicine-focused biomedical engineering. (mcgill.ca)
  • They are then transported from the ER to the golgi apparatus in vesicles. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • They offer excellent prospects for interfacing biological recognition events with electronic signal transduction and for designing a new generation of bioelectronic devices exhibiting novel functions. (mdpi.com)
  • Once this carbon is fixed into soft or hard tissue, the organisms either stay in the euphotic zone to be recycled as part of the regenerative nutrient cycle or once they die, continue to the second phase of the biological pump and begin to sink to the ocean floor. (wikipedia.org)
  • A microbiological culture collection and transport device maintains viable organisms for periods of time longer than possible with existing sampling devices. (google.com)
  • in active transport, movement takes place against an electrochemical gradient. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Secondary active transport involves the use of an electrochemical gradient . (academic.ru)
  • The biological pump, also known as the marine carbon pump, is, in its simplest form, the ocean's biologically driven sequestration of carbon from the atmosphere and land runoff to the ocean interior and seafloor sediments. (wikipedia.org)
  • The biological pump can be divided into three distinct phases, the first of which is the production of fixed carbon by planktonic phototrophs in the euphotic (sunlit) surface region of the ocean. (wikipedia.org)
  • The biological pump is responsible for transforming dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) into organic biomass and pumping it in particulate or dissolved form into the deep ocean. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first step in the biological pump is the synthesis of both organic and inorganic carbon compounds by phytoplankton in the uppermost, sunlit layers of the ocean. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sodium/potassium pump is active transport because there is coupled transport where one molecule's transfer is dependent on the other molecule's transfer. (wikibooks.org)
  • sodium pump ( sodium-potassium pump ) the mechanism of active transport driven by the energy generated by Na + ,K + -ATP ase , by which sodium (Na + ) is extruded from a cell and potassium (K + ) is brought in, so as to maintain the low concentration of sodium and the high concentration of potassium within the cell with respect to the surrounding medium. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The action of the sodium-potassium pump is an example of primary active transport. (academic.ru)
  • Examples of active transport include the transportation of sodium out of the cell and potassium into the cell by the sodium-potassium pump. (academic.ru)
  • However, in his paper he was wary of identifying the enzyme with the active ion movement, so he left out the term "sodium-potassium pump" from the title of his paper. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since active transport requires energy, it uses ATP or it couples to molecules moving down the concentration gradient. (wikibooks.org)
  • if it is against the concentration gradient, this requires energy, and is known as active transport . (duke.edu)
  • Active transport is the movement of a substance against its concentration gradient (from low to high concentration). (academic.ru)
  • An example of primary active transport using Redox energy is the mitochondrial electron transport chain that uses the reduction energy of NADH to move protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane against their concentration gradient. (academic.ru)
  • In particular, nanomaterials such as noble metal nanoparticles (Au, Pt), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), magnetic nanoparticles, quantum dots and metal oxide nanoparticles have been actively investigated for their applications in DNA biosensors, which have become a new interdisciplinary frontier between biological detection and material science. (mdpi.com)
  • He also explained how iron atoms in many enzymes have an important function in transporting electrons. (nobelprize.org)
  • Active transport of ions by ATPases (pumps) maintains ionic gradients and aid ion channels in "setting" the membrane potential. (mayo.edu)
  • Figure 1.5 - The biological membrane is a lipid bilayer. (duke.edu)
  • Journal of Biological Chemistry 272(28):17615 -22. (uci.edu)
  • Journal of Biological Chemistry. (uci.edu)
  • endoplasmic reticulum, and the nucleus ('Cellular Transport,' 2009). (bartleby.com)
  • The IMT is a well-established forum for discussion of non-equilibrium transport phenomena. (springer.com)
  • Biological Transport, Active" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (ucdenver.edu)
  • Describe relationships between structure and function at biological levels of organization. (explorelearning.com)
  • Identify and describe the cell structures involved in transport of materials into, out of, and throughout a cell. (explorelearning.com)
  • This example of active transport is antiport because molecules are being moved in opposite directions. (wikibooks.org)
  • The aim of this project is to elucidate the mechanism of active transport from the structural standpoint. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Physical Aspects of Light Harvesting, Electron Transport and Electrochemical Potential Generation in Photosynthesis of Green Plants. (worldcat.org)
  • One of the aspects explored by the special show in Hall 9 is how packaging can help with the correct dosage, application and use of active ingredients (compliance). (packagingeurope.com)
  • This second edition offers an expanded and updated history of the field of fetal and neonatal development, allowing readers to gain a comprehensive understanding of the biological aspects that contribute to the wellbeing or pathophysiology of newborns. (the-aps.org)
  • Sodium-Potassium Pumps are an example of active transport. (wikibooks.org)
  • Eventually he managed to discover that ATPase was most active when exposed to the right combination of sodium, potassium and magnesium ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • 4) the development of a dynamic epithelial transport model of the proximal tubule and the incorporation of that model into a TGF framework. (duke.edu)