Sorbose: A ketose sugar that is commonly used in the commercial synthesis of ASCORBIC ACID.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Axonal Transport: The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)Ion Transport: The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Monosaccharide Transport Proteins: A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Electron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Transport Vesicles: Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Biological Products: Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.Anion Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.Cation Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Vesicular Transport Proteins: A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Amino Acid Transport Systems: Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Biological Therapy: Treatment of diseases with biological materials or biological response modifiers, such as the use of GENES; CELLS; TISSUES; organs; SERUM; VACCINES; and humoral agents.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Dictionaries, ChemicalTerminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Biomedical Engineering: Application of principles and practices of engineering science to biomedical research and health care.Mathematics: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Kidney Tubules: Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Oncology Nursing: A nursing specialty concerned with the care provided to cancer patients. It includes aspects of family functioning through education of both patient and family.Feedback: A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.Schools, Health Occupations: Schools which offer training in the area of health.Convection: Transmission of energy or mass by a medium involving movement of the medium itself. The circulatory movement that occurs in a fluid at a nonuniform temperature owing to the variation of its density and the action of gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed; Webster, 10th ed)Arterioles: The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Physiology: The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.Nephrons: The functional units of the kidney, consisting of the glomerulus and the attached tubule.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.

Extra-vesicular binding of noradrenaline and guanethidine in the adrenergic neurones of the rat heart: a proposed site of action of adrenergic neurone blocking agents. (1/7411)

1 The binding and efflux characteristics of [14C]-guanethidine and [3H]-noradrenaline were studied in heart slices from rats which were pretreated with reserpine and nialamide. 2 Binding of both compounds occurred at extra-vesicular sites within the adrenergic neurone. After a brief period of rapid washout, the efflux of [14C]-guanethidine and [3H]-noradrenaline proceeded at a steady rate. The efflux of both compounds appeared to occur from a single intraneuronal compartment. 3 (+)-Amphetamine accelerated the efflux of [14C]-noradrenaline; this effect was inhibited by desipramine. 4 Unlabelled guanethidine and amantadine also increased the efflux of labelled compounds. Cocaine in high concentrations increased slightly the efflux of [14C]-guanethidine but not that of [3H]-noradrenaline. 5 Heart slices labelled with [3H]-noradrenaline became refractory to successive exposures to releasing agents although an appreciable amount of labelled compound was still present in in these slices. 6 It is suggested that [14C]-guanethidine and [3H]-noradrenaline are bound at a common extravesicular site within the adrenergic neurone. Binding of guanethidine to the extra-vesicular site may be relevant to its pharmacological action, i.e., the blockade of adrenergic transmission.  (+info)

Denitrifying Pseudomonas aeruginosa: some parameters of growth and active transport. (2/7411)

Optimal cell yield of Pseudomonas aeruginosa grown under denitrifying conditions was obtained with 100 mM nitrate as the terminal electron acceptor, irrespective of the medium used. Nitrite as the terminal electron acceptor supported poor denitrifying growth when concentrations of less than 15 mM, but not higher, were used, apparently owing to toxicity exerted by nitrite. Nitrite accumulated in the medium during early exponential phase when nitrate was the terminal electron acceptor and then decreased to extinction before midexponential phase. The maximal rate of glucose and gluconate transport was supported by 1 mM nitrate or nitrite as the terminal electron acceptor under anaerobic conditions. The transport rate was greater with nitrate than with nitrite as the terminal electron acceptor, but the greatest transport rate was observed under aerobic conditions with oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor. When P. aeruginosa was inoculated into a denitrifying environment, nitrate reductase was detected after 3 h of incubation, nitrite reductase was detected after another 4 h of incubation, and maximal nitrate and nitrite reductase activities peaked together during midexponential phase. The latter coincided with maximal glucose transport activity.  (+info)

Lung fluid transport in aquaporin-1 and aquaporin-4 knockout mice. (3/7411)

The mammalian lung expresses water channel aquaporin-1 (AQP1) in microvascular endothelia and aquaporin-4 (AQP4) in airway epithelia. To test whether these water channels facilitate fluid movement between airspace, interstitial, and capillary compartments, we measured passive and active fluid transport in AQP1 and AQP4 knockout mice. Airspace-capillary osmotic water permeability (Pf) was measured in isolated perfused lungs by a pleural surface fluorescence method. Pf was remarkably reduced in AQP1 (-/-) mice (measured in cm/s x 0.001, SE, n = 5-10: 17 +/- 2 [+/+]; 6.6 +/- 0.6 AQP1 [+/-]; 1.7 +/- 0.3 AQP1 [-/-]; 12 +/- 1 AQP4 [-/-]). Microvascular endothelial water permeability, measured by a related pleural surface fluorescence method in which the airspace was filled with inert perfluorocarbon, was reduced more than 10-fold in AQP1 (-/-) vs. (+/+) mice. Hydrostatically induced lung interstitial and alveolar edema was measured by a gravimetric method and by direct measurement of extravascular lung water. Both approaches indicated a more than twofold reduction in lung water accumulation in AQP1 (-/-) vs. (+/+) mice in response to a 5- to 10-cm H2O increase in pulmonary artery pressure for five minutes. Active, near-isosmolar alveolar fluid absorption (Jv) was measured in in situ perfused lungs using 125I-albumin as an airspace fluid volume marker. Jv (measured in percent fluid uptake at 30 min, n = 5) in (+/+) mice was 6.0 +/- 0.6 (37 degrees C), increased to 16 +/- 1 by beta-agonists, and inhibited to less than 2.0 by amiloride, ouabain, or cooling to 23 degrees C. Jv (with isoproterenol) was not affected by aquaporin deletion (18.9 +/- 2.2 [+/+]; 16.4 +/- 1.5 AQP1 [-/-]; 16.3 +/- 1.7 AQP4 [-/-]). These results indicate that osmotically driven water transport across microvessels in adult lung occurs by a transcellular route through AQP1 water channels and that the microvascular endothelium is a significant barrier for airspace-capillary osmotic water transport. AQP1 facilitates hydrostatically driven lung edema but is not required for active near-isosmolar absorption of alveolar fluid.  (+info)

Tyrosine kinase inhibitors and immunosuppressants perturb the myo-inositol but not the betaine cotransporter in isotonic and hypertonic MDCK cells. (4/7411)

BACKGROUND: The sodium/myo-inositol cotransporter (SMIT) and the betaine cotransporter (BGT1) are essential for the accumulation of myo-inositol and betaine, and hence cell survival in a hypertonic environment. The underlying molecular mechanism involves an increase in transcription of the SMIT and BGT1 genes through binding of a trans-acting factor to enhancer elements in the 5' flanking region of both genes, resulting in increased mRNA abundance and increased activity of the cotransporters. Current evidence regarding transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation indicates that both cotransporters are regulated in parallel. METHODS: To investigate the signal transduction of hypertonic stress, we examined the effect of tyrosine kinase inhibitors and immunosuppressants on the hypertonicity-induced activity of the two cotransporters in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. RESULTS: None of the agents studied affected BGT1 activity in isotonic or hypertonic conditions. Treatment of MDCK cells with genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, increased SMIT activity in hypertonic but not isotonic conditions. The stimulation of SMIT by genistein was accompanied by a parallel increase in mRNA abundance. In contrast, treating cells with tyrphostin A23, another tyrosine kinase inhibitor, or cyclosporine A, an immunosuppressant, inhibited SMIT activity in hypertonic cells. FK506, another immunosuppressant, increased SMIT activity, but only in isotonic conditions. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide the first evidence of divergent regulatory pathways modulating SMIT and BGT activity.  (+info)

Active transport of calcium across the isolated midgut of Hyalophora cecropia. (5/7411)

1. The net flux of 45Ca from lumen to blood side across the isolated and short-circuited Cecropia midgut was 1-9 +/- 0-2 muequiv. cm-2h-1 in 8 mM Ca and the flux ratio was as high as 56 to 1. 2. The calcium influx was depressed by anoxia; 73% after 30 min. 3. The kinetics of Ca transport were anomalous; the apparent Km varied with Ca concentration from less than 0-2 to greater than 5-6 mM Ca and the apparent Vmax varied from less than 1-3 to greater than 3-3 muequiv. cm-2h-1. 4. The calcium influx showed a delay before the tracer steady state was attained, indicating the existence in the transport route of a calcium pool equivalent to 5-7 muequiv/g. wet weight of midgut tissue. 5 High calcium (16 mM) depressed the short-circuit current and potassium transport from blood to lumen side across the midgut. 6. Calcium depressed magnesium transport, from lumen to blood side across the midgut, and magnesium depressed the calcium transport. 7. Ca transport by the midgut does not regulate the Ca level in the haemolymph in vivo; it merely aids the diffusion of calcium down its electrochemical gradient. However, Ca transport may assist the uptake of the nutrients from the midgut contents.  (+info)

A monoclonal antibody to the COOH-terminal acidic portion of Ran inhibits both the recycling of Ran and nuclear protein import in living cells. (6/7411)

A small GTPase Ran is a key regulator for active nuclear transport. In immunoblotting analysis, a monoclonal antibody against recombinant human Ran, designated ARAN1, was found to recognize an epitope in the COOH-terminal domain of Ran. In a solution binding assay, ARAN1 recognized Ran when complexed with importin beta, transportin, and CAS, but not the Ran-GTP or the Ran-GDP alone, indicating that the COOH-terminal domain of Ran is exposed via its interaction with importin beta-related proteins. In addition, ARAN1 suppressed the binding of RanBP1 to the Ran-importin beta complex. When injected into the nucleus of BHK cells, ARAN1 was rapidly exported to the cytoplasm, indicating that the Ran-importin beta-related protein complex is exported as a complex from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in living cells. Moreover, ARAN1, when injected into the cultured cells induces the accumulation of endogenous Ran in the cytoplasm and prevents the nuclear import of SV-40 T-antigen nuclear localization signal substrates. From these findings, we propose that the binding of RanBP1 to the Ran-importin beta complex is required for the dissociation of the complex in the cytoplasm and that the released Ran is recycled to the nucleus, which is essential for the nuclear protein transport.  (+info)

Genetic evidence for ATP-dependent endoplasmic reticulum-to-Golgi apparatus trafficking of ceramide for sphingomyelin synthesis in Chinese hamster ovary cells. (7/7411)

LY-A strain is a Chinese hamster ovary cell mutant resistant to sphingomyelin (SM)-directed cytolysin and has a defect in de novo SM synthesis. Metabolic labeling experiments with radioactive serine, sphingosine, and choline showed that LY-A cells were defective in synthesis of SM from these precursors, but not syntheses of ceramide (Cer), glycosphingolipids, or phosphatidylcholine, indicating a specific defect in the conversion of Cer to SM in LY-A cells. In vitro experiments showed that the specific defect of SM formation in LY-A cells was not due to alterations in enzymatic activities responsible for SM synthesis or degradation. When cells were treated with brefeldin A, which causes fusion of the Golgi apparatus with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), de novo SM synthesis in LY-A cells was restored to the wild-type level. Pulse-chase experiments with a fluorescent Cer analogue, N-(4,4-difluoro-5,7-dimethyl-4-bora-3a, 4a-diaza-s-indacene-3-pentanoyl)-D-erythro-sphingosine (C5-DMB-Cer), revealed that in wild-type cells C5-DMB-Cer was redistributed from intracellular membranes to the Golgi apparatus in an intracellular ATP-dependent manner, and that LY-A cells were defective in the energy-dependent redistribution of C5-DMB-Cer. Under ATP-depleted conditions, conversion of C5-DMB-Cer to C5-DMB-SM and of [3H]sphingosine to [3H]SM in wild-type cells decreased to the levels in LY-A cells, which were not affected by ATP depletion. ER-to-Golgi apparatus trafficking of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored or membrane-spanning proteins in LY-A cells appeared to be normal. These results indicate that the predominant pathway of ER-to-Golgi apparatus trafficking of Cer for de novo SM synthesis is ATP dependent and that this pathway is almost completely impaired in LY-A cells. In addition, the specific defect of SM synthesis in LY-A cells suggests different pathways of Cer transport for glycosphingolipids versus SM synthesis.  (+info)

Kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of lipid translocation in biological membranes. (8/7411)

A theoretical analysis of the lipid translocation in cellular bilayer membranes is presented. We focus on an integrative model of active and passive transport processes determining the asymmetrical distribution of the major lipid components between the monolayers. The active translocation of the aminophospholipids phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine is mathematically described by kinetic equations resulting from a realistic ATP-dependent transport mechanism. Concerning the passive transport of the aminophospholipids as well as of phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin, and cholesterol, two different approaches are used. The first treatment makes use of thermodynamic flux-force relationships. Relevant forces are transversal concentration differences of the lipids as well as differences in the mechanical states of the monolayers due to lateral compressions. Both forces, originating primarily from the operation of an aminophospholipid translocase, are expressed as functions of the lipid compositions of the two monolayers. In the case of mechanical forces, lipid-specific parameters such as different molecular surface areas and compression force constants are taken into account. Using invariance principles, it is shown how the phenomenological coefficients depend on the total lipid amounts. In a second approach, passive transport is analyzed in terms of kinetic mechanisms of carrier-mediated translocation, where mechanical effects are incorporated into the translocation rate constants. The thermodynamic as well as the kinetic approach are applied to simulate the time-dependent redistribution of the lipid components in human red blood cells. In the thermodynamic model the steady-state asymmetrical lipid distribution of erythrocyte membranes is simulated well under certain parameter restrictions: 1) the time scales of uncoupled passive transbilayer movement must be different among the lipid species; 2) positive cross-couplings of the passive lipid fluxes are needed, which, however, may be chosen lipid-unspecifically. A comparison of the thermodynamic and the kinetic approaches reveals that antiport mechanisms for passive lipid movements may be excluded. Simulations with kinetic symport mechanisms are in qualitative agreement with experimental data but show discrepancies in the asymmetrical distribution for sphingomyelin.  (+info)

Specialized transmembrane proteins recognize the substance and allow it to move across the membrane when it otherwise would not, either because the phospholipid bilayer of the membrane is impermeable to the substance moved or because the substance is moved against the direction of its concentration gradient.[7] There are two forms of active transport, primary active transport and secondary active transport. In primary active transport, the proteins involved are pumps that normally use chemical energy in the form of ATP. Secondary active transport, however, makes use of potential energy, which is usually derived through exploitation of an electrochemical gradient. The energy created from one ion moving down its electrochemical gradient is used to power the transport of another ion moving against its electrochemical gradient.[8] This involves pore-forming proteins that form channels across the cell membrane. The difference between passive transport and active transport is that the active transport ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Light-beating spectrum of erythrocytes. AU - Bargeron, C. B.. AU - McCally, R. L.. AU - Cannon, S. M.. AU - Hart, R. W.. PY - 1973. Y1 - 1973. N2 - In a previous report, we described a shifted spectral component in the light-beating spectrum of erythrocyte ghosts, and presented evidence suggesting that this component was related to the membrane active transport mechanism. Here, we describe the results of further studies which show that the shifted component does not derive from the active transport mechanism. Rahter, the shifted component is caused by convection in our cuvette, and appears in the homodyne spectrum because the light scattered from the incident beam mixes with that scattered from the beam which is reflected from the face where the beam exits from the cuvette.. AB - In a previous report, we described a shifted spectral component in the light-beating spectrum of erythrocyte ghosts, and presented evidence suggesting that this component was related to the membrane ...
This disclosure includes a device comprising a controlled release membrane comprising an electroactive polymer as well as methods of use thereof. In some particular embodiments, the electroactive polymer membrane is utilized in an active agent delivery device comprising a passive or active transport mechanism, including iontophoresis. In certain aspects, an iontophoresis device may be used which includes an active electrode assembly having an active agent solution holding portion; and a non-active electrode assembly. In certain aspects, the electroactive polymer membrane may be cycled from neutral state to charged state, thereby facilitating the administration of the active agent or pharmaceutical drug.
IntroductionOuabain (G-Strophanthin) inhibits the activity of Na-K activated adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase) in in vitro and in vivo systems.1-3 The active tra
Supplement In biology, transport refers to the act or the means by which a molecule or ion is moved across the cell membrane or via the bloodstream. There are two types of transport in this regard: (1) passive transport and (2) active transport. Passive transport is a kind of transport by which ions or molecules move along a concentration gradient, which means movement from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. Examples of passive transport include diffusion, filtration, and osmosis. Active transport is a kind of transport wherein ions or molecules move against a concentration gradient, which means movement in the direction opposite that of diffusion - or -movement from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration. This type of transport requires expenditure of energy and the assistance of proteins (i.e. carrier protein). ...
The exact mechanisms by which bacterial toxins produce their effects are still poorly understood. One method of study has been to examine the effect of toxins on normal cellular processes such as the active transport of sodium and oxidative metabolism.. Active sodium transport can be studied in isolated epithelial membrane systems such as frog skin, urinary bladder of the toad, and segments of mammalian and amphibian intestine. A naturally occurring electrical potential difference is present between the two sides of such epithelially lined tissues. If electric current is passed through the tissue from an external battery so that the potential ...
Measuring and controlling current consumption and output current of a charge pump by measuring a first current coming into the charge pump; and measuring a second current coming into a driver for at least one of the one or more stages of the charge pump. A control loop may one or more parameters of the charge pump and/or a load connected to the charge pump, such as by adjusting one or more of: a supply voltage; a stages voltage; the stages frequency and/or duty-cycle; and the number of stages, or by decreasing the current consumption by adjusting a load connected to the output of the charge pump pipe. The first and second currents may be compared with first and second reference currents. A load connected to the charge pump may comprise non-volatile memory cells, and the charge pump may be implemented on a same integrated circuit chip as the memory cells.
Active transport (walking, bicycling, etc.) has been found to be inversely related to obesity in Europe, North America, and Australia. 在欧洲,北美和澳大利亚,已发现主动运输(步行,骑自行车等)与肥胖成反比。 ...
Question: Discuss various aspects of membrane transport: passive, facilitated types and active transport. This needs to be very detailed so I can get a full understanding of it. Thank.
By the end of this section, you will be able to: Understand how electrochemical gradients affect ions Describe endocytosis, including phagocytosis, pi
LAeroport de Reus (aeroport més proper) es troba a nomès 35 Km de Falset. Aquest aeroport rep vols de diferents capitals europees. Actualment, més d 1.000.000 de clients fan servir les seves instal.lacions i realitzen més de 3000 vols cada any ( la majoria internacionals).. Vols: RYANAIR (ryanair.com). ...
The ability to maintain internal ion homeostasis in freshwater or saltwater has enabled euryhaline fishes to colonize a wide range of aquatic habitats. However, the energetic cost of this osmoregulation is high because it involves active transport mechanisms that pump ions against electrochemical gradients, often occurring at the gill epithelia-water interface. For euryhaline populations presently occupying stable environmental salinities, will relaxed selection on hypo- or hyperosmoregulation result in a loss of that capacity, or alternatively, can these fish still acclimate to a wide range of salinities? My research seeks to answer this question in a Pacific northwest lineage of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) consisting of distinct anadromous and lake ecotypes, which descended from an extant marine ancestor following the glacial retreat ca. 10,000 years ago. I raised embryos from each group at a common salinity and later transferred juveniles into either freshwater (,0.5 ppt) ...
The ability to maintain internal ion homeostasis in freshwater or saltwater has enabled euryhaline fishes to colonize a wide range of aquatic habitats. However, the energetic cost of this osmoregulation is high because it involves active transport mechanisms that pump ions against electrochemical gradients, often occurring at the gill epithelia-water interface. For euryhaline populations presently occupying stable environmental salinities, will relaxed selection on hypo- or hyperosmoregulation result in a loss of that capacity, or alternatively, can these fish still acclimate to a wide range of salinities? My research seeks to answer this question in a Pacific northwest lineage of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) consisting of distinct anadromous and lake ecotypes, which descended from an extant marine ancestor following the glacial retreat ca. 10,000 years ago. I raised embryos from each group at a common salinity and later transferred juveniles into either freshwater (,0.5 ppt) ...
The mechanism of the interaction between propranolol and lidocaine is thought to be due to propranolol-induced decreased hepatic blood flow causing decreased elimination of lidocaine! So, provigil köpa when a n! · Des cas dhypertriglycéridémie ont été rapportés (voir rubrique Effets indésirables Effets indésirables)? [WITNESS:] At that t? Cioè, non si tratta di unerezione costante per diverse ore. ( buy reglan thin 1995) Location and characteristics of the transfer region of Bacteriodes conjugative transposon and regulation of transfer genes! Die Einnahme von Viagra ohne Rezept kann bei gleichzeitiger Behandlung mit Nitraten den blutdrucksenkenden Effekt potenzieren? Prostatic capillary endothelial cells lack secretory and active transport mechanisms, and they form tight intracellular junctions, preventing the passive diffusion of small molecules through intercellular gaps! When problems arise or allegations are raised regarding misconduct, mother-liquor duralast battery price the ...
0009]The first sheet formed organ preferably is adapted so the dissolution can be studied with an optical detector. The barrier layer is either a physicochemical or a biological barrier adapted to resemble or mimic a natural membrane of epithelial cells in the lungs. In one aspect, the barrier is a gel which is isotonic with the perfusion fluid and adapted to receive the particles. In one embodiment, the gel is a polycarbohydrate gel which comprises dispersed phospholipids. In another embodiment, the gel comprises a dispersed phospholipid which is further provided with an interface comprising monolayers (such as ten layers) of phospholipid or suitable amphiphilic lipids in order to mimic the surfactant layer on top of the mucous lining layer of the lungs. In another aspect to provide a biological barrier, monolayers of epithelial cells are cultured on the membrane in the gel layer to mimic a living pulmonary epithelium and to provide means for studying even active transport mechanisms in the ...
The effects of anoxia on water and solute transport across excised roots of young maize plants (Zea mays L. cv. Tanker) grown hydroponically have been stud
Active transport quiz MCQs, biology multiple choice questions, quiz question on active transport, auxin, gibberellins, abscisic acid, infectious, non-infectious diseases, molecular biology, biochemistry, general cell theory, cell division with answers.
Looking for active transport? Find out information about active transport. The pumping of ions or other substances across a cell membrane against an osmotic gradient, that is, from a lower to a higher concentration Explanation of active transport
Whats the difference between Active Transport and Passive Transport? Active and passive transport are biological processes that move oxygen, water and nutrients into cells and remove waste products. Active transport requires chemical energy because it is the movement of biochemicals from areas of lower concentration to are...
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Trafficking of postsynaptic receptors is a means of regulating synaptic function in the dendrites, yet the details of delivery processes are not well explored. In this study, we present two general pathways for receptor transport to synaptic sites in the dendrite. Six of the seven GPCRs examined notably preferred passive diffusion from the cell body to the dendrite branches. This energy efficient transport via the plasma membrane is likely shared by most postsynaptic GPCRs. An alternate pathway, as seen with 5-HT1B, retains receptors in transport vesicles. At the cost of expending energy on active transport, 5-HT1B is maintained as a readily accessible source of mobile receptors for rapid exocytotic recruitment to the membrane throughout the dendrites. Though unique among the receptors included in our study, this active trafficking pathway may be used by yet unexamined receptors.. Previous postsynaptic GPCR studies describing intracellular trafficking are mostly limited to receptor recycling or ...
View Notes - Transport across cell membranes from BIO 101 at Rhode Island. Active Transport Requires energy Movement against concentration gradient Involves membrane proteins ATP is energy used for
Active Transport vs Passive Transport As minute as they are, cells in the body carry some very important processes deep within. These processes are all vital to
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Diffusion, Facilitated Diffusion & Active Transport: Movement across the Cell Membrane, Facilitated diffusion | Membranes and transport | Biology | Khan Academy, Facilitated Transport, Facilitated Diffusion - Passive Transport
Introduction. Road Canals Railways Word Count: 2,575 Contents Page Page 1 - Title Page Page 2 - Contents Page Page 3 - Introduction Page 4-5 - Road Page 6-7 - Canal Page 8-9 - Railway Page 10 - Conclusion Page 11 - Evaluation Page 12 - Bibliography Introduction This term the class 9M have been studying the subject of transport between 1750 and 1900. Now we have to do a project on transport during that period, in particular looking at roads, canals and railways. In this project I will be finding out four main things: * What transport was like before 1750 ? * Why did it need improving ? * How did each type of transport improve ? * How did this help the Industrial Revolution ? Hopefully this project will help you learn more about transport in the past and I hope you enjoy it. Below is a timeline diagram of the transportation between 1750 and 1900 just as a guide ! Road(1700) The need for better roads The increase in population, improvements in farming and growth of industry at the time increased ...
Article The contribution of transport to air quality - TERM 2012: Transport indicators tracking progress towards environmental targets in Europe. The Transport and Environment Reporting Mechanism (TERM) began as part of a project dating from 1998 tha...
Facilitated Diffusion Allows diffusion of large, membrane insoluble compounds such as sugars (glucose) and amino acids Does not require energy (passive
(PRWEB) October 20, 2006 -- Evolving lifestyles and changes in standards of living are putting increased pressures on our transport system, particularly in
Direct carrier transport measurements were performed for different InGaAsP/InGaAlAs MQW test structures. Shallow InGaAlAs barrier QW showed faster carrier transport. Semi-insulating regrown FP lasers with InGaAlAs barrier QW showed improved high temperature operation, modal gain, differential modal gain and chirp.. ...
The Land Transport Management Bill is the toolbox, but it needs more tools in it to do the job, United Future transport spokesman Larry Baldock said today.
The Campaign for Better Transport has reacted to the report into the VW emissions scandal published by the House of Commons Transport Select Committee. The
The anomalous reactive transport considered here is the migration of contaminants through strongly sorbing permeable media without significant retardation. It has been observed in the case of heavy me
Transport authorities will need to audit the data they use in order to understand what it says (and what it does not say) and how it can best be used. ...
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Siderophores (Greek: "iron carrier") are small, high-affinity iron-chelating compounds secreted by microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi and serving to transport iron across cell membranes. Siderophores are amongst the strongest soluble Fe3+ binding agents known. Iron is essential for almost all life for processes such as respiration and DNA synthesis. Despite being one of the most abundant elements in the Earths crust, the bioavailability of iron in many environments such as the soil or sea is limited by the very low solubility of the Fe3+ ion. This is the predominant state of iron in aqueous, non-acidic, oxygenated environments. It accumulates in common mineral phases such as iron oxides and hydroxides (the minerals that are responsible for red and yellow soil colours) hence cannot be readily used by organisms. Microbes release siderophores to scavenge iron from these mineral phases by formation of soluble Fe3+ complexes that can be taken up by active transport mechanisms. Many ...
1. From two lines of evidence, we conclude that the potassium transport gives rise directly to the midgut potential, i.e. that the active potassium transport mechanism is electrogenic.. 2. First, diffusion potentials of neither potassium, sodium, magnesium, calcium, nor chloride could give rise to the large midgut potential if values for tissue concentrations are accepted for their respective activities in the epithelium.. 3. Secondly, no externally added cation other than potassium is required to sustain either the potential or short circuit current, no specific anion is required, and no metabolic ion is known to be produced in sufficient amount to act as a counter ion for potassium in a non-electrogenic process.. 4. Changes in the concentration of potassium on the blood-side of the midgut always lead to changes in potential in the direction predicted by the Nernst equation. Moreover, a tenfold change in potassium concentration leads to the expected 59 mV. potential change provided that the ...
Looking for online definition of Calcium transport protein 1 in the Medical Dictionary? Calcium transport protein 1 explanation free. What is Calcium transport protein 1? Meaning of Calcium transport protein 1 medical term. What does Calcium transport protein 1 mean?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Potassium transport in normal and transformed mouse 3T3 cells. AU - Spaggiare, S.. AU - Wallach, M. J.. AU - Tupper, J. T.. PY - 1976. Y1 - 1976. N2 - The components of unidirectional K influx and efflux were investigated in the 3T3 cell and the SV40 transformed 3T3 cell in exponential and stationary growth phase. Over the cell densities used for transport experiments the 3T3 cell goes from exponential growth to density dependent inhibition of growth (4 x 104 to 4 x 105 cell cm-2) whereas the SV40 3T3 maintains exponential or near exponential growth (4 x 104 to 1 x 106 cell cm-2). In agreement with previous observations, volume per cell and mg protein per cell decrease with increasing cell density. Thus, transport measurements were expressed on a per volume basis. Total unidirectional K influx and effluxin the 3T3 cell is approximately double that of the SV40 3T3 cell at all cell densities investigated. Both cell types have similar volumes initially and show similar decreases ...
We present a numerical study of collisional transport in a tokamak pedestal in the presence of non-trace impurities, using the radially global delta-f neoclassical solver PERFECT [M. Landreman et al. 2014 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 56 045005]. It is known that in a tokamak core with non-trace impurities present the radial impurity flux opposes the bulk ion flux to provide an ambipolar particle transport, with the electron transport being negligibly small. However, in a sharp density pedestal with sub-sonic ion flows the electron transport can be comparable to the ion and impurity flows. Furthermore, the neoclassical particle transport is not intrinsically ambipolar, and the non-ambipolarity of the fluxes extends outside the pedestal region by the radial coupling of the perturbations. The neoclassical momentum transport, which is finite in the presence of ion orbit-width scale profile variations, is significantly enhanced when impurities are present in non-trace quantities, even if the total parallel
Just to extend the answer from @Amory slightly, I think that the terms active and passive transport are best kept for describing transmembrane movement of molecules. In the case of exocytosis the only transmembrane event is when a secreted protein is first inserted (usually cotranslationally) across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Im not aware of any evidence that this uses more energy than that already expended during polpeptide elongation by the ribosome. At that point the secreted protein is topologically extracytoplasmic, and everything else is achieved by rounds of vesicle formation and fusion of vesicles with target membranes. The same is true in reverse for endocytosis. Any molecule that is internalised in an endocytic vesicle is still extracytoplasmic unless some process specifically moves it across the membrane of the vesicle, or a downstream organelle such as the endosome. At that point whether the transport process was active or passive would depend upon the properties of the ...
Inwardly rectifying potassium transport are tetrameric channels that are found in kidney in the nephron. Kir 1.1 works as a homotetramer, however, Kir 4.1 and 5.1 work as heterotetramers. These channels transport K+ from cytosol to the lumen of the tubules.. ...
View Notes - Micro 01-28-08 from BIOL 357 at University of Louisville. Active Transport vs. Facilitated Diffusion: Both require help of transport proteins, but in active diffusion the cell must
Along with production of electricity, one of the major producers of carbon emissions is reliance on fossil-fuel powered transport. Every city in Australia should be taking steps which encourage alternatives to the use of single-occupant cars as the major means of travel. Much can be done to enhance opportunities to walk, cycle and use public transport. Diesel and petrol-powered public transport can be replaced by electric vehicles. This can be moved from being a matter of local choice to being a public policy. What plans do you have for Australia-wide transition to low-energy travel?. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A new approach to the study of ion transport processes by an in situ radiotracer method based on measuring intensity changes and energy spectrum alterations of β-radiation. AU - Németh, Z.. AU - Erdei, L.. AU - Kolics, A.. PY - 1995/3. Y1 - 1995/3. N2 - A new approach for the study of ion transport by an in situ radiotracer method is presented. The method is based upon the measurement of the intensity and energy spectrum change of β-radiation during the penetration of labeled species. The applicability of the radiotracer technique is detailed through the measurement of the transport of labeled chloride ions into a PERMAPLEX-A20 anion exchanger membrane. The proposed method is applicable to in situ monitoring of the motion of ions in the membrane (or adsorbent).. AB - A new approach for the study of ion transport by an in situ radiotracer method is presented. The method is based upon the measurement of the intensity and energy spectrum change of β-radiation during the ...
I am conducting my research project and currently stuck at a point where I need to find out about the proteins role in active transport of ion (Na & K) in molecular level detail. Need to know everything about this Na-K ion transport mechanism, Contribution of protein in transport, Why NA & K, How does protein allows certain molecules to pass through and stops others etc....abt proteins ...
When the shipment is packed and ready for transport, the transport buyer sends a Transport instruction to the supplier of transport services. The business document can be compared to an electronic waybill and contains information about the goods to be transported, for example the SSCC, for all pallets included in the shipment. The message is used as the basis for the invoice and contains details such as a reference to the booking (if a booking was made), other references, sender, recipient, payer and details of the goods. The supplier can confirm receipt of the Transport instruction with a Transport instruction response.. ...
Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase: An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.
Seven years ago, WA Freight transported just over 100,000 tonnes and managed its business with the help of an accounting software package and a specially written customised transport and logistics industry front-end. Business growth and time, however, were taking their toll on both systems.. Garth Parry, Finance Manager, WA Freight explains, "Wed been using the transport system for four or five years and the biggest issue we had was that every time there was an upgrade in the accounts package, we had to get the transport interface re-written so that everything flowed through to accounts correctly. This was frustrating because it meant we were always lagging with the accounts system. Often we found it wasnt worth carrying out the upgrade because of the interruption it would cause to our transport system.". In addition, the functionality offered by the transport module was falling behind when compared to solutions used by rest of the industry. "We knew it was time to move and upgrade the ...
Drug transport across cells and cell membranes in the human body is crucial for the pharmacological effect of drugs. Active transport governed by transport proteins plays an important role in this process. A vast number of transport proteins with a wide tissue distribution have been identified during the last 15 years. Several important examples of their role in drug disposition and drug-drug interactions have been described to date. Investigation of drug-drug interactions at the transport protein level are therefore of increasing interest to the academic, industrial and regulatory research communities.. The gene expression of transport proteins involved in drug transport was investigated in the jejunum, liver, kidney and colon to better understand their influence on the ADMET properties of drugs. In addition, the gene and protein expression of transport proteins in cell lines, widely used for predictions of drug transport and metabolism, was examined.. The substrate and inhibitor heterogeneity ...
Drug transport across cells and cell membranes in the human body is crucial for the pharmacological effect of drugs. Active transport governed by transport proteins plays an important role in this process. A vast number of transport proteins with a wide tissue distribution have been identified during the last 15 years. Several important examples of their role in drug disposition and drug-drug interactions have been described to date. Investigation of drug-drug interactions at the transport protein level are therefore of increasing interest to the academic, industrial and regulatory research communities.. The gene expression of transport proteins involved in drug transport was investigated in the jejunum, liver, kidney and colon to better understand their influence on the ADMET properties of drugs. In addition, the gene and protein expression of transport proteins in cell lines, widely used for predictions of drug transport and metabolism, was examined.. The substrate and inhibitor heterogeneity ...
Drug transport across cells and cell membranes in the human body is crucial for the pharmacological effect of drugs. Active transport governed by transport proteins plays an important role in this process. A vast number of transport proteins with a wide tissue distribution have been identified during the last 15 years. Several important examples of their role in drug disposition and drug-drug interactions have been described to date. Investigation of drug-drug interactions at the transport protein level are therefore of increasing interest to the academic, industrial and regulatory research communities.. The gene expression of transport proteins involved in drug transport was investigated in the jejunum, liver, kidney and colon to better understand their influence on the ADMET properties of drugs. In addition, the gene and protein expression of transport proteins in cell lines, widely used for predictions of drug transport and metabolism, was examined.. The substrate and inhibitor heterogeneity ...
Logistics hubs play an important role in transport processes between sender and recipients. Specific characteristics of logistics hubs cause differences in transport volumes. These transport differences cannot actually be taken up by the transport demand theory, as neither a general nor a node typological classification exists.
... Absence of charge over molecules (Uncharged/Neutral molecules) favours their transport by simple diffusion. Small neutral molecules are usually transported freely across plasma membranes by simple dif
British surgeons have broken new medical ground by connecting a battery-operated pump made by Deerfield-based Baxter Healthcare Corp. to the heart of a 62-year-old man, to test if the new device
Influence of crystalline Defects on Transport Properties of GaN Grown by Ammonia-Molecular Beam Epitaxy and Magnetron Sputter Epitaxy
Modes of Membrane Transport Transmembrane Transport movement of small substances through a cellular membrane (plasma, ER, mitochondrial..) ions, fatty acids, H 2 O, monosaccharides, steroids, amino acids
The passage of substances across the cell membrane occurs by three methods : (1) Passive transport : It is a mode of membrane ; transport which occurs without the expenditure of cell energy. Passive transport occurs by d…
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... is a key step of your quality process-the integrity of previous sampling phases and/or later analysis phases depends on it. (...)
When considering any major trip, whether it is a move or vacation, something that many people often forget to consider is auto transport. A car is often a necessity, especially in a new location, and car transport can be easily arranged ...
Physicochemical Kinetics and Transport at Biointerfaces von Wolfgang Köster und Buchbewertungen gibt es auf ReadRate.com. Bücher können hier direkt online erworben werden.
P. C. CALDWELL; Drugs and Transport Processes (Proceedings of a Symposium Organized by the Biological Council Coordinating Committee for Symposia on Drug Action). Biochem Soc Trans 1 August 1975; 3 (4): 562-563. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/bst0030562a. Download citation file:. ...
What Pumps Are You Using? - posted in Equipment: Which IV pumps are you guys flying with? I am currently working on getting some new pumps for my program and am curious as to see what everyone likes and doesnt like.
The rate at which molecules diffuse across the cell membrane is directly proportional to the concentration gradient. This applies to simple diffusion, which is governed by Ficks...
Transport Small, simple organisms living in water can obtain nutrients and eliminate wastes through diffusion. What about larger, more complex organisms?
The method that the bound material layer will be slumped. Either Smooth or Granular.. The smooth operation will quickly diffuse the material. This results in slower transport but ensures a smooth field useful for liquid-like transport mechanisms.. The granular operations moves the material in quantized chunks. This allows for faster transport, but will result in a chunky field, useful for boulder-like transport mechanisms.. ...
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I was wondering if ATP can get into a cell either by diffusion or actively transport. If by active transport, is there a chemical gate on the membrane. Please tell me the name of it and some details about it. Thanks ...
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Examples of facilitated diffusion are the passing of K+ ions through a membrane with an aid of a potassium transport protein and the passing of glucose and amino acids with the aid of proteins called...
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Europe needs sustainable finance policies – to make the right investments and send the right price signals – to decarbonise its transport sector.
New technologies do not exist in a vacuum. To succeed, new transport technology needs to match the ways we want to move around cities and be accommodated by laws and regulations.
Abstract The two-region hydraulic averaging model was used to analyze the problem of cuttings transport during horizontal well drilling. This model considers a two-phase two region system composed of a moving bed ( ω-region) and a stationary b
ST/SG/AC.10/C.3/2009/50 - (United Kingdom) Comments on ST/SG/AC.10/C.3/2009/15 and informal document INF.3 submitted at the thirty-fifth session. Suggested text for implementation of GHS criteria in Class 8 of the Model Regulations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods (Netherlands ...
ST/SG/AC.10/C.3/2009/50 - (United Kingdom) Comments on ST/SG/AC.10/C.3/2009/15 and informal document INF.3 submitted at the thirty-fifth session. Suggested text for implementation of GHS criteria in Class 8 of the Model Regulations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods (Netherlands ...
In the global economy, the transport and logistics sector is strongly influenced by the state of the economy, geopolitical developments and megatrends.
Some molecules like water fit easily through the openings in the cell membrane. They simply flow in and out, always moving from the side where there are more to the side where there are less of them, or down the concentration gradient from high concentration to low ...
Ideal for transporting biological and clinical samples, as well as instruments and products that you want to keep clean and dry under testing environmental conditions.. ...
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Controlled fires are beneficial for the generation of heat and power while uncontrolled fires, like fire incidents and wildfires, are detrimental and...
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This category is being discussed as part of a Categories for discussion process. As a result of this discussion, pages and files in this category may be recategorised (not deleted ...
MetabolismTransport and binding proteinsAmino acids, peptides and aminesLAO/AO transport system ATPase (TIGR00750; EC 2.7.-.-; HMM-score: 14.7) ...
When a cell has to endure lasting changes in its environment that require it to actively transport more molecules than normal through the cell membra...
Carino 09DK high-pressure pumps are specialized, highly accurate pistonpumps for the analytical and preparative applications and HPLC-technique,but also
To more clearly define the role of the transepithelial electrical potential difference (V m→s), potassium permeability, and sodium-potassium pump rate in transcellular potassium transport by isolated turtle colon, we measured transmural potassium fluxes under open-circuit conditions in the presence and absence of putative blockers of potassium transport: amiloride and barium. The results were consistent with the notion that V m→s is a major determinant of cellular potassium secretion, whereas active potassium absorption is insensitive to changes in V m→s. These observations suggest that coupling between colonic sodium absorption and potassium secretion in vivo could be due primarily to the effect of the lumen negative V m→s on transcellular secretory potassium flow. Amiloride-induced inhibition of potassium secretion appeared to be due to the reductions in V m→s and sodium-potassium pump rate that accompanied the inhibition of active sodium absorption.
The transport properties for phenylalanine and glucose in luminal-membrane vesicles from outer cortex (pars convoluta) and outer medulla (pars recta) of rabbit kidney were studied by a spectrophotometric method. Uptake of phenylalanine as well as of glucose by the two types of membrane vesicles was found to be Na+-dependent, electrogenic and stereospecific. Na+-dependent transport of L-phenylalanine by outer-cortical membrane vesicles could be accounted for by one transport system (KA congruent to 1.5 mM). By contrast, in the outer-medullary preparation, L-phenylalanine transport occurred via two transport systems, namely a high-affinity system with K1A congruent to 0.33 mM and a low-affinity system with K2A congruent to 7 mM respectively. Na+-dependent uptake of D-glucose by pars convoluta and pars recta membrane vesicles could be described by single, but different, transport systems, namely a low-affinity system with KA congruent to 3.5 mM and a high-affinity system with KA congruent to 0.30 ...
Other Course Information A. Objectives The overall objectives of this course are to introduce the students to the study of the medical sciences by both studying the subject matter as well as developing effective learning skills. The specific learning objectives are as follows: CASE 1 Anatomy: 1. Outline the common characteristics of synovial joints 2. Describe the normal composition of the synovial fluid 3. Explain the joints associated with the big toe 4. Describe the metatarsophalangeal joint of the big toe and associated movements 5. Trace the pathway from pain receptors of the thumb and big toe to the cerebral cortex Molecular Medicine: 1. Understand the metabolic pathways used for purine metabolism in man, and how that pathway is controlled. 2. Know the function of a key enzyme in the pathway that is a target for treatment. Physiology: 1. Differentiate among the following terms: diffusion, facilitated diffusion, secondary active transport and primary active transport. 2. Describe the ...
Synaptic transmission involves the regulated exocytotic release of neurotransmitter. Because most classical transmitters are synthesized in the cytoplasm, they require transport into the secretory compartment for exocytotic release, and synaptic vesicles exhibit multiple distinct transport activities (1, 2). All of these active transport processes depend on the proton electrochemical gradient (ΔμH+) across the vesicle membrane generated by the vacuolar H+-dependent adenosine triphosphatase (H+-ATPase) (3) and involve the exchange of lumenal protons for cytoplasmic transmitter. In particular, the transport of monoamines and acetylcholine (ACh) depends primarily on the chemical component (ΔpH) of ΔμH+(4, 5), whereas the transport of glutamate depends predominantly on the electrical component (ΔΨ) (6,7). Accumulation of the inhibitory transmitters γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glycine relies on both ΔpH and ΔΨ (8, 9). Consistent with the observed differences in mechanism, the vesicular ...
A compartmental model of toad bladder sodium content has been developed, whereby it is possible to measure the four unidirectional fluxes across the opposite faces of the transport compartment, as well as the amount of sodium in the compartment. 24Na is added to the mucosal medium of a short-circuited bladder mounted between halves of a chamber in which the fluid is stirred by rotating impellers. After a steady state is reached, nonradioactive medium is flushed through both sides of the chamber, collected, and counted. The data from each chamber are fitted to sums of exponentials and interpreted in terms of conventional compartmental analysis. Three exponentials are required, with half-times of 0.2, 2.2, and 14.0 min. It is shown that the first of these represents chamber washout, the second the transport pool, and the third a tissue compartment which is not involved in active sodium transport and which does not communicate with the transport pool. The second compartment contains 10.5 µEq of ...
RAVINDRA KUMAR, ERRAMPALLI MADHU and ANIL MAAN, Central Road Research Institute, India; SANJEEV SINHA, National Institute of Technology Patna, India Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determination of Combined Exposure Factor (CEF) of different transport related environmental pollutants by a...
The results of the present study that NaCl transport by in vitro rabbit gallbladder must be a consequence of a neutral coupled carrier-mediated mechanism that ultimately results in the active absorption of both ions; pure electrical coupling between the movements of Na and Cl can be excluded on the grounds of electrphysiologic considerations. Studies on the unidirectional influxes of Na and Cl have localized the site of this coupled mechanism to the mucosal membranes. Studies on the intracellular ion concentrations and the intracellular electrical potential are consistent with the notion that (a) the coupled NaCl influx process results in the movement of Cl from the mucosal solution into the cell against an apparent electrochemical potential difference; (b) the energy for the uphill movement of Cl is derived from the Na gradient across the mucosal membrane which is maintained by an active Na extrusion mechanism located at the basolateral membranes; and (c) Cl exit from the cell across the ...
Lewis, S. A.; Diamond, J. M. (1975). "Active sodium transport by mammalian urinary bladder". Nature. 253 (5494): 747-748. doi: ... Diamond, J. M.; Wright, E. M. (1969). "Biological Membranes: The Physical Basis of ION and Nonelectrolyte Selectivity". Annual ... Karasov, W. H.; Pond Rs, 3.; Solberg, D. H.; Diamond, J. M. (1983). "Regulation of proline and glucose transport in mouse ... Diamond, J. M.; Tormey, J. M. (1966). "Role of long extracellular channels in fluid transport across epithelia". Nature. 210 ( ...
"Active transport of acetylcholine by the human vesicular acetylcholine transporter". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 271 ( ... Acetylcholine transport utilizes a proton gradient established by a vacuolar ATPase. This gene is located within the first ... VAChT is able to transport ACh into vesicles by relying on an exchange between protons that were previously pumped into the ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 286 (7): 5836-45. doi:10.1074/jbc.M110.147611. PMC 3037696 . PMID 21163949. Lau JK, Brown ...
Kondo T, Yoshida K, Urata Y, Goto S, Gasa S, Taniguchi N (Sep 1993). "gamma-Glutamylcysteine synthetase and active transport of ... Demonstration and quantification of enzyme-ligand complexes". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 253 (8): 2615-23. PMID 24639 ... glutathione S-conjugate are responsive to heat shock in K562 erythroid cells". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 268 (27): ...
... s can be neutral or charged, and particle transport can be active or passive. The latter can be facilitated by pressure ... Biological membranes include cell membranes (outer coverings of cells or organelles that allow passage of certain constituents ... However, their overwhelming success in biological systems is not matched by their application. The main reasons for this are ... Fouling can take place through a number of physicochemical and biological mechanisms which are related to the increase ...
This is an active area of biological research that includes the study of the transformation of energy in living organisms and ... This hypothesis was rapidly tested, refined and extended [to] encompass the active transport of a diverse range of molecules ... Crane in 1961 was the first to formulate the cotransport concept to explain active transport [7]. Specifically, he proposed ... Cellular respiration Photosynthesis ATP synthase Active transport Myosin Exercise physiology Table of standard Gibbs free ...
They are second only to hemoglobin in biological popularity of use in oxygen transport. On oxygenation the two copper(I) atoms ... The active site is located in an hydrophobic pocket. This is important as without it the iron(II) would be irreversibly ... The active site nickel geometry cycles from square planar Ni(II), with thiolate (Cys2 and Cys6) and backbone nitrogen (His1 and ... The active site contains an iron ion coordinated by the sulfur atoms of four cysteine residues forming an almost regular ...
Recycling of ascorbate via active transport of DHA into cells, followed by reduction and reuse, mitigates the inability of ... The lifetime of the stabilized species is commonly said to be about 6 minutes under biological conditions. Destruction results ... transport Vitamin C (in its oxidized form, DHA) in most cells, where recycling back to ascorbate generates the necessary enzyme ... Journal of Biological Chemistry. 270 (21): 12584-12592. doi:10.1074/jbc.270.21.12584. PMID 7759506. Yi-Ching Lee; Hsun-Yi Huang ...
Arsenic toxicity Arsenite-transporting ATPase Solute carrier family Active transport ATP-binding cassette transporter Hasgekar ... Biological Trace Element Research. 111 (1-3): 167-183. doi:10.1385/BTER:111:1:167. ISSN 0163-4984. PMID 16943604. Yang, Hung- ... which can participate in both secondary transport or primary active transport. Based on operon analyses, Arc3 homologues may ... In the latter case ATP hydrolysis again energizes transport. ... ArsB can function as a secondary carrier or as a primary active ...
A direct mechanism of action involves homodimerization of the receptor, translocation via active transport into the nucleus, ... The biological response depends on the cell type. In the absence of activated GR, other transcription factors such as NF-κB or ...
Reid's work in the early 1900s on active transport across biological membranes was not fully appreciated until the 1950s. Reid ... This pioneer in studies on epithelial transport was in many ways far ahead of his contemporaries in the field, yet his work was ... Reid EW (1901). "Transport of fluid by certain epithelia". The Journal of Physiology. 26 (6): 436-444. doi:10.1113/jphysiol. ... From 1887 to 1905 Reid at St Mary's and Dundee was an active research worker on subjects dealing with physical and electrical ...
Major transport into the blood stream is driven by an electrochemical gradient, specifically through the transport proteins ... The sulfhydryl group (SH) of cysteine serves as a proton donor and is responsible for its biological activity. Cysteine is the ... Hicks LM, Cahoon RE, Bonner ER, Rivard RS, Sheffield J, Jez JM (August 2007). "Thiol-based regulation of redox-active glutamate ... Bannai S, Tateishi N (1986). "Role of membrane transport in metabolism and function of glutathione in mammals". The Journal of ...
Thiem B (2003). "Rubus chamaemorus L. - a boreal plant rich in biologically active metabolites: a review" (PDF). Biological ... Since 1970 in Norway, while it has been illegal to pick unripe cloudberries, transporting ripe cloudberries from the harvest ... Rubus chamaemorus L. A morphological - biological study. Nytt Magasin for Naturvidenskapene, 67: 55-129. Resvoll, T. R., 1925. ... but only local residents may transport them from that location and only ripe berries may be picked. ...
The energy is utilized to conduct biosynthesis, facilitate movement, and regulate active transport inside of the cell. Examples ... The currency of energy in a biological cell is adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which stores its energy in the phosphoanhydride ... For instance, the citric acid cycle, electron transport chain, and oxidative phosphorylation all take place in the ... pathways and biological processes MetaCyc: A database of experimentally elucidated metabolic pathways (2,200+ pathways from ...
"Preparation from mammalian brain and kidney of the enzyme system involved in active transport of Na ions and K ions" (PDF). ... "Journal of Biological Chemistry. 235: 1796-1802. PMID 14434402.. *^ Skou, JC (9 April 1962). " ... "Membrane adenosine triphosphatase as a participant in the active transport of sodium and potassium in the human erythrocyte". ... "Journal of Biological Chemistry. 281 (2): e2-e2. Retrieved 29 May 2018 - via www.jbc.org.. ...
These monomers are then absorbed into the mycelium by facilitated diffusion and active transport. Mycelium is vital in ... This biological degradation is a process known as bioremediation. Mycelial mats have been suggested (see Paul Stamets) as ... First, the hyphae secrete enzymes onto or into the food source, which break down biological polymers into smaller units such as ... having potential as biological filters, removing chemicals and microorganisms from soil and water. The use of fungal mycelium ...
In biological processes, the direction an ion moves by diffusion or active transport across a membrane is determined by the ... Two different mechanisms can transport the ions across the membrane: active or passive transport. An example of active ... three Na+ are transported outside and two K+ are transported inside the cell. This makes the inside of the cell more negative ... The total equation for the electron transport chain is: N A D H + 11 H + ( m a t r i x ) + 1 / 2 O 2 ⟶ N A D + + 10 H + ( I M S ...
... giving cell membranes a biological identity. They also use endogenous active transport where transferrin, an iron binding ... An example of enzyme inhibition is given by binding of a-chymotrypsin (ChT), an enzyme with a largely cationic active site. ... This allows for maximum efficacy of the active drug. Also, the use of nanoparticles results in the attraction of proteins to ... Biological processes can be controlled through transcription regulation, gene regulation, and enzyme inhibition processes that ...
A number of enzymes are membrane bound and often mass transport through the membrane is active rather than passive as in ... In biological systems membranes fulfil a number of essential functions. The compartmentalisation of biological cells is ... artificial membranes allowing the cell to keep up gradients for example by using active transport of protons or water. The use ... The mechanism of the transport is the separation of hydrogen into protons and electrons at the surface and recombination on the ...
... due to active transport or flow). In the case of random motion, trajectory analysis can provide a diffusion coefficient. Single ... Components of biological membranes diffuse in a viscous pseudo-two-dimensional environment. By labeling membrane component with ... Lipid bilayer Biological membrane Brownian motion Nanoparticle tracking analysis Saxton, M. J., Jacobson, K. Single-particle ... can be analyzed to identify modes of motion or heterogeneities in the motion such as obstacles or regions of fast transport (e. ...
A large number of physical, chemical and biological processes are simultaneously active and mutually influence each other. ... The heat transport equation in CHAIN_2D considered transport due to conduction and advection with flowing water. The solute ... The solute transport equations assume advective-dispersive transport in the liquid phase, and diffusion in the gaseous phase. ... for simulating carbon dioxide transport as well as the multi-component transport of major ions. The UNSATCHEM major ion module ...
The air-liquid surface established by Faraday waves is explored as a template to assemble biological entities for bottom-up ... In standard cell culture, diffusion is often the sole means of nutrient and metabolite transport. However, as a culture becomes ... June 2000). "Extensive neurite outgrowth and active synapse formation on self-assembling peptide scaffolds". Proc. Natl. Acad. ... The field of three-dimensional and highly accurate models of biological systems is pioneered by multiple projects and ...
... including active matter and transport in living cells. The other principal current area of Granick's research concerns Janus ... This progressed to later studies showing how biological membranes interact with their environments. More recently, Granick and ... His research interests range from the study of active matter to the chemistry and physics of visualized macromolecules, ...
Endocytosis requires energy and is thus a form of active transport. 4. Exocytosis: Just as material can be brought into the ... The cell employs a number of transport mechanisms that involve biological membranes: 1. Passive osmosis and diffusion: Some ... "active", requiring the cell to expend energy in transporting it. The membrane also maintains the cell potential. The cell ... with specific membrane proteins accounts for the selective permeability of the membrane and passive and active transport ...
"Metallothionein isoform 3 and proximal tubule vectorial active transport". Kidney International. 61 (2): 464-72. doi:10.1046/j. ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (35): 32353-9. doi:10.1074/jbc.M111263200. PMID 12058024. You HJ, Lee KJ, Jeong HG ( ... Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry. 7 (6): 611-6. doi:10.1007/s00775-002-0339-1. PMID 12072966. Dutta R, Sens DA, Somji ...
... biological transport (active transport, passive transport) networks, and gene assembly in unicellular organisms. Efforts to ... Transport networks refer to the separation and transport of substances mediated by lipid membranes. Some lipids can self- ... From the biological point of view, a plausible hypothesis about the "bioware" that implements the gene-assembly process was ... In biological organisms, morphogenesis (the development of well-defined shapes and functional structures) is achieved by the ...
... the astral influences on the macrocosmal Spirit could be transported to the microcosmal Spirit in the blood by the active ... Walter Pagel (1967). William Harvey's Biological Ideas: Selected Aspects and Historical Background. Karger Publishers. p. 340. ... The divine light (the second of Fludd's primary principles) was the "active agent" responsible for creation. This informed the ...
An Honours or MPhil project would undertake a thorough analysis of both the Turing mechanism and the recent active transport ( ... Indeed, over the past several years, active transport mechanisms - distinct from the Turing mechanism - have been shown to play ... An MPhil project would also develop a novel mathematical model of the active transport mechanism recently discovered in ... However, it is now becoming evident that the Turing model does not always capture biological reality. ...
Biological transport, active explanation free. What is Biological transport, active? Meaning of Biological transport, active ... Looking for online definition of Biological transport, active in the Medical Dictionary? ... active transport. (redirected from Biological transport, active). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia. active ... Biological transport, active , definition of Biological transport, active by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary. ...
2. Graphically represent simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion and active transport. 3. Regurgitate how biological systems ... 2. Graphically represent simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion and active transport. 3. Regurgitate how biological systems ... 4. Simple diffusion through the membrane. 5. Facilitated diffusion. 6. Active transport. II. You will have learned the material ... Do the same for facilitated diffusion and active transport (use the range of O degrees to 80 degrees C.). 2. What determines ...
This is an historical archive of the activities of the MRC Anatomical Neuropharmacology Unit (MRC ANU) that operated at the University of Oxford from 1985 until March 2015. The MRC ANU established a reputation for world-leading research on the brain, for training new generations of scientists, and for engaging the general public in neuroscience. The successes of the MRC ANU are now built upon at the MRC Brain Network Dynamics Unit at the University of Oxford.. ...
EPJ E publishes papers describing advances in the understanding of physical aspects of Soft Matter and Biological Systems. The ... Active fluids. Granular Materials. Packing and elasticity. Dynamics, dissipation and flow behavior, slurries. Transport and ... Dynamics and self-organization in biological systems Collective motions. Biological Networks. Genetic and protein networks ... Transport and trafficking Fluctuations and noise, nonequilibrium processes Multicellular Systems. Tissues and organs ...
Sodium and potassium transport in red blood cells.In: Electrolytes in Biological Systems. A.M. Shanes, editor. p. 123. Waverly ... Linkage of sodium- and potassium-active transport in human erythrocytes.In: Active Transport and Secretion. R. Brown and J.F. ... The active transport of Na by red blood cell ghosts.J. Gen. Physiol. 45:837Google Scholar ... The connexion between active cation transport and metabolism in erythrocytes.Biochem. J. 97:214Google Scholar ...
Biological membranes: Ussings definition of active transport made possible an understanding, at the cellular level, of the way ... Other articles where Active transport is discussed: biophysics: ... Active transport. cell physiology. THIS IS A DIRECTORY PAGE. ... In biophysics: Biological membranes. Ussings definition of active transport made possible an understanding, at the cellular ... In poison: Transport of chemicals through a cell membrane. Active transport systems move chemicals essential to cellular ...
... photosynthetic electron transport and phosphorylation. [Achim Trebst; Mordhay Avron; R S Alberte; et al] ... Nature of the Active Center.- G. Stability.- H. Biological Function.- I. Immunological Studies.- J. Homology in the Primary ... Noncyclic Electron Transport.- IV. Cyclic Electron Transport.- V. Pseudocyclic Electron Transport.- VI. Regulation of Electron ... Ion Transport and the Mechanism of Uncoupling in Chloroplasts.- F. ATP-Induced Proton Transport.- G. Proton Transport in ...
Active transport. Biological mass transfer coefficients. Steady and unsteady state. Flux-force relationships. (Credit not ... Transport Phenomena in Living Systems (4). This course describes the movement of heat and chemical mass in biological systems. ... Survey of current biological database with respect to above; implementation of database focused on a biological topic. ... Systems Biology and Bioengineering I: Biological Components (4). Components of biological systems, their biochemical properties ...
This second Volume in the series on Membrane Transport in Biology contains a group of essays on transport across single ... biological membranes separating the inside and outside of cells or organelles. W ... Active Cation Transport in Human Red Cells B. Sarkadi, D. C. Tosteson ... second Volume in the series on Membrane Transport in Biology contains a group of essays on transport across single biological ...
Biological TransportBiological Transport, Active • Blood Pressure • Blood Vessels • Body Water • Calcium • Calcium Channels ... Membrane Transport Proteins • Mice • Microvessels • Models, Animal • Models, Biological • Models, Statistical • Models, ... Modeling Solute Transport and Urine Concentrating Mechanism in the Rat Kidney, National Institutes of Health, 2010/08-2016/07. ... Modeling Solute Transport and Urine Concentrating Mechanism in the Rat Kidney, National Institutes of Health, 2010/08-2015/07. ...
Biological TransportBiological Transport, Active • Blood Pressure • Blood Vessels • Body Water • Calcium • Calcium Channels ... Membrane Transport Proteins • Mice • Microvessels • Models, Animal • Models, Biological • Models, Statistical • Models, ... Mathematical physiology. My main research interest is the application of mathematics to biological systems, specifically, ... Mathematical physiology. My main research interest is the application of mathematics to biological systems, specifically, ...
Biological TransportBiological Transport, Active • Blood Pressure • Blood Vessels • Body Water • Calcium • Calcium Channels ... Membrane Transport Proteins • Mice • Microvessels • Models, Animal • Models, Biological • Models, Statistical • Models, ... Modeling Solute Transport and Urine Concentrating Mechanism in the Rat Kidney, National Institutes of Health, 2010/08-2016/07. ... Mathematical physiology. My main research interest is the application of mathematics to biological systems, specifically, ...
Absorption • Algorithms • Animals • Arterioles • Biological Clocks • Biological Transport, Active • Blood Pressure • Blood ... Layton, AT; Layton, HE, A computational model of epithelial solute and water transport along a human nephron., Plos ... Ion Transport • Kidney • Kidney Concentrating Ability • Kidney Diseases • Kidney Glomerulus • Kidney Medulla • Kidney Tubules ... Biological • Models, Statistical • Models, Theoretical • Muscle, Smooth, Vascular • Nephrons • Nonlinear Dynamics • Osmolar ...
Absorption • Algorithms • Animals • Arterioles • Biological Clocks • Biological Transport, Active • Blood Pressure • Blood ... Modeling Solute Transport and Urine Concentrating Mechanism in the Rat Kidney, National Institutes of Health, 2010/08-2016/07. ... Nieves-González, A; Clausen, C; Layton, AT; Layton, HE; Moore, LC, Transport efficiency and workload distribution in a ... Ion Transport • Kidney • Kidney Concentrating Ability • Kidney Diseases • Kidney Glomerulus • Kidney Medulla • Kidney Tubules ...
Biological Process. GO:0008272 sulfate transport GO:0055085 transmembrane transport Molecular Function. GO:0008271 secondary ... Some transport their substrate(s) with high affinities, while others transport it or them with relatively low affinities [PMID ... active sulfate transmembrane transporter activity Cellular Component. GO:0016020 membrane Contributing signatures. Signatures ...
ACTIVE TRANSPORT AND SECRETION. IX. FIBROUS PROTEINS AND THEIR BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE. The Journal of Experimental Botany is ... Citations are available only to our active members.. Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and ... Citations are available only to our active members.. Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and ... Note: Full functionality is available only to our active members. Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page. ...
... and mobile transport receptors (or karyopherins, also known as importins/exportins) that bind and … ... Active Transport, Cell Nucleus* * Animals * Cytoplasm / metabolism * Models, Biological * Nuclear Envelope / metabolism* ... The dynamics of karyopherin-mediated nuclear transport Biochem Cell Biol. 2001;79(5):603-12. ... The mobility of these components challenges our conventional view of the NPC as the stationary phase of transport. These ...
Biological cell membranes regulate the transfer of matter and informa- tion between the intracellular and extracellular ... 1-4) focuses on mech- anisms of primary active chloride transport (i.e. photon or A TP-driven), while the second section (Chaps ... This volume contains a series of reviews that are concerned with how biological plasma membranes regulate the transport of ... ATP Colon Nucleotide bacteria base biochemistry biology biophysics ion transport membrane molecular biology molecular genetics ...
... and other therapeutically or medicinally active agents. See, for example, G. OODMAN & G. ILMANS T. HE P. HARMACOLOGICAL B. ... Multi-component biological transport systems. 2003-12-11. Waugh et al.. 20030220480. Cell-permeable peptide inhibitors of the ... Multi-component biological transport systems. 2004-11-04. Waugh et al.. 20040192754. Methods for treating idiopathic ... Method for enhancing transport across biological membranes. 2002-09-19. Rothbard et al.. ...
... mathematics describing active and passive cellular transport; emphasis on numerical solution techniques for heat and mass flow ... 4352 Transport Phenomena in Biological Engineering (3) F Prereq.: BE 2352; credit or registration in CE 2200 and ME 3333. ... 7352 Advanced Transport Phenomena in Biological Engineering (3) V Prereq.: BE 4352. Transient heat and mass transfer in ... 7361 Biological Reactor Systems for Agricultural Waste Treatment (3) V Prereq.: BE 4341. Design of biological reactor systems ...
Biological Transport, Active / drug effects * Carrier Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors * Carrier Proteins / genetics ...
Biological Transport, Active. Calcium Channel Blockers / metabolism, pharmacology*. Cell Line. Cell Survival / drug effects. ... 3H]Nitrendipine was found not to be transported by BCRP. However, the transport of [3H]dipyridamole by BCRP was observed in ... Transport studies were performed using radiolabeled compounds. RESULTS: Dipyridamole, nicardipine, nitrendipine, and nimodipine ... both HEK and Madin-Darby canine kidney cells stably expressing the transporter, and this transport was completely abolished by ...
ATP-dependent canalicular transport systems (also termed export pumps) for bile salts, amphiphilic anionic conjugates, ... Biological Transport, Active. Carrier Proteins / metabolism. Cholestasis / etiology, genetics, physiopathology*. Cholesterol / ... Anion Transport Proteins. Bicarbonates / metabolism. Bile Acids and Salts / metabolism. Bile Canaliculi / physiopathology*. ... 0/Anion Transport Proteins; 0/Bicarbonates; 0/Bile Acids and Salts; 0/Carrier Proteins; 0/P-Glycoprotein; 0/Phospholipids; 56- ...
The kinetics of methotrexate transport in L1210 cells are described. Data derived from the measurmenets of initial influx, the ... Biological Transport, Active. Kinetics. Leukemia L1210 / metabolism*. Mathematics. Methotrexate / metabolism*. Mice. Mice, ... Previous Document: Characteristics of changes in the intracellular potential associated with transport of neutral, diba.... ... The kinetics of methotrexate transport in L1210 cells are described. Data derived from the measurmenets of initial influx, the ...
  • Molecular alterations of canalicular transport systems in experimental models of cholestasis: possible functional correlations. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Recent cloning of several canalicular transport systems now facilitates studies on their molecular regulation in cholestasis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This article gives an overview on molecular alterations of canalicular transport systems in experimental models of cholestasis and discusses the potential implications of these changes for the pathophysiology of cholestasis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This molecular transport serves the essential role of maintaining a healthy internal environment so the cell can survive and perform its specialized functions. (livestrong.com)
  • Molecular transport also allows specialized cells that produce important chemicals -- such as hormones -- to release them so they can be utilized elsewhere in the body. (livestrong.com)
  • In addition, they can be used as molecular target- or transport devices of other biological active components. (europa.eu)
  • As a result, physical, biological and medical sciences are working together to identify fundamental errors of disease and develop molecular corrections for them. (pnas.org)
  • I am chairing the track on Molecular, Biological and Multi-Scale Communications. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • His laboratory became interested in many instances of molecular mobility measured at the single-molecule level, including active matter and transport in living cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • He and his colleagues then obtained an X-ray crystal structure of LacY, an essential step towards understanding the molecular mechanism, which has had important impact on the field of membrane transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacteriology - study of bacteria Mycology - study of fungi Virology - study of viruses Molecular biology - study of biology and biological functions at the molecular level, with some cross over from biochemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Structural biology - a branch of molecular biology, biochemistry, and biophysics concerned with the molecular structure of biological macromolecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two APC family members, LAT1 and LAT2 (TC #2.A.3.8.7), transport a neurotoxicant, the methylmercury-L-cysteine complex, by molecular mimicry. (wikipedia.org)
  • She previously was an Associate Professor of Ecology and Evolutionary biology at Brown University, an Associate Scientist at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, and the Associate Director of the MBL's Josephine Bay Paul Center for Comparative Molecular Biology and Evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a Ras GTPase, RalB functions as a molecular switch that becomes active when bound to GTP and inactive when bound to GDP. (wikipedia.org)
  • In standard molecular cloning experiments, the cloning of any DNA fragment essentially involves seven steps: (1) Choice of host organism and cloning vector, (2) Preparation of vector DNA, (3) Preparation of DNA to be cloned, (4) Creation of recombinant DNA, (5) Introduction of recombinant DNA into host organism, (6) Selection of organisms containing recombinant DNA, (7) Screening for clones with desired DNA inserts and biological properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • beta-Alanine uptake was found to be an active process catalyzed by the amino acid carrier CycA. (nih.gov)
  • In the presence of Gypsophylla saponin, carrier-mediated galactose transport was inhibited, although the uptake of the passively transported L-isomer of glucose increased. (nih.gov)
  • The uptake of the extracellular space marker, polyethylene glycol 4000, was also higher, indicating that the saponin inhibited active transport by increasing the general permeability of the enterocytes. (nih.gov)
  • The results indicate that some saponins readily increase the permeability of the small intestinal mucosal cells, thereby inhibiting active nutrient transport, and facilitating the uptake of materials to which the gut would normally be impermeable. (nih.gov)
  • An example of active transport in human physiology is the uptake of glucose in the intestines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mediates an active uptake of hexoses, probably by sugar/hydrogen symport. (uniprot.org)
  • Involved in the active cellular uptake of carnitine. (uniprot.org)
  • The transport of labelled lactic acid was accumulative and strongly sensitive to the effects of the protonophore carbonyl cyanide p-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone, consistent with the involvement of the proton-motive force in acid uptake, hence with the presence of a proton symport for lactate. (nih.gov)
  • The code simulated variably-saturated water flow in two-dimensional transport domains, implemented the van Genuchten soil hydraulic functions (van Genuchten, 1980) and modifications thereof, considered root water uptake by taking advantage of some of the features of the SWATRE model (Feddes et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Under planktonic conditions, one of the main mechanisms of azole resistance in C. albicans is through active efflux of these drugs mediated by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and major facilitators. (nih.gov)
  • Although a sodium-dependent transporter for vitamin C exists, it is present mainly in specialized cells, whereas the glucose transporters , the most notable being GLUT1 , transport Vitamin C (in its oxidized form, DHA) in most cells, where recycling back to ascorbate generates the necessary enzyme cofactor and intracellular antioxidant, (see Transport to mitochondria). (wikipedia.org)
  • Vitamin C does not pass from the bloodstream into the brain , although the brain is one of the organs that have the greatest concentration of vitamin C. Instead, DHA is transported through the blood-brain barrier via GLUT1 transporters , and then converted back to ascorbate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on operon analyses, Arc3 homologues may similarly function either as secondary carriers or as primary active transporters. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, many monoamine releasing agents cause monoamine neurotransmitter efflux (i.e., the release of monoamine neurotransmitters from neurons into the synaptic cleft via monoamine transporter-mediated release) by triggering reverse transport at vesicular monoamine transporters (specifically, VMAT1 and VMAT2) and other monoamine transporters that are located along the plasma membrane of neurons (specifically, DAT, NET, and SERT). (wikipedia.org)
  • The importance of valbenazine selectivity inhibiting VMAT2 over other monoamine transporters is that VMAT2 is mainly involved with the transport of dopamine, and to a much lesser extent other monoamines such as norepinephrine, serotonin, and histamine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The discovery of unidirectional, ATP-dependent canalicular transport systems (also termed "export pumps") for bile salts, amphiphilic anionic conjugates, lipophilic cations, and phospholipids has opened new opportunities for understanding biliary physiology and the pathophysiology of cholestasis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Also transports organic cations such as tetraethylammonium (TEA) without the involvement of sodium. (uniprot.org)
  • Acid pump antagonists (APAs) or potassium-competitive acid blockers (PCABs) are a third type of inhibitor that blocks acid secretion by binding to the K+ active site. (wikipedia.org)
  • The waves are the result of a regulated production and secretion of extracellular cAMP and a spontaneous biological oscillator that initiates the waves at centers of territories. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kv1.2 channel regulates neurotransmitter release associated with heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, immunological response and cell volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • He also explained how iron atoms in many enzymes have an important function in transporting electrons. (nobelprize.org)
  • The radical SAM superfamily enzymes contain site-differentiated, redox active [4Fe-4S] clusters coordinated to Cx 3 Cx 2 C or related motifs, which is in contrast to the Cx 2 Cx 2 C motif found in bacterial ferredoxins (Fd). (springer.com)
  • First, the hyphae secrete enzymes onto or into the food source, which break down biological polymers into smaller units such as monomers. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, extracellular enzymes present in the soil become active nearly instantaneously after any moisture pulse, while production in microbes and plants have lag times of various durations, and require pulse events of different sizes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Modern biological research has revealed strong evidence that the enzymes of the mitochondrial respiratory chain assemble into larger, supramolecular structures called respirasomes or supercomplexes, instead of the traditional fluid model of discrete enzymes dispersed in the inner mitochondrial membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the early 1990s, Rosenzweig has studied MMO enzymes in various biological systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • These enzymes differ from serineproteases in that they use a nucleophilic cysteine residue, rather than a serine, in their active site. (wikipedia.org)
  • aerobiology The study of organic particles, such as bacteria, fungal spores, very small insects, pollen grains and viruses, which are passively transported by the air. (wikipedia.org)
  • The [4Fe-4S]-maquettes of bacterial ferredoxin metalloproteins (Fd) have been used in the past to engineer redox active centers into artificial metalloenzymes. (springer.com)
  • We demonstrate that short Fd and radical SAM derived 7- to 9-mer peptides containing appropriate cysteine motifs function equally well in coordinating redox active [4Fe-4S] clusters. (springer.com)
  • During oxidative phosphorylation in cellular respiration, oxygen is reduced to water, thus closing the biological water-oxygen redox cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this way, ferredoxin acts as an electron transfer agent in biological redox reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • In: Vassileva-Popova J.G. (eds) Physical and Chemical Bases of Biological Information Transfer. (springer.com)
  • If the process uses chemical energy, such as from adenosine triphosphate (ATP), it is termed primary active transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • Active media and cell motility are investigated in project area C with special emphasis on their chemical regulation. (tu-berlin.de)
  • The shelters have been integrated with an active system to protect soldiers from CBRNE (chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and explosives) hazards. (cnbc.com)
  • active site The part of an enzyme or antibody where the chemical reaction occurs. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the following years, she made major advances in determining the enzyme's bioactivity and chemical constitution, including vast contributions to research on the metal-coordinated active site. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Sweden, Sellström has conducted research on biological and chemical weapons at the European CBRNE Center at Umeå University, and before that at the Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI) in Umeå. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biochemical characterization of individual karyopherins has led to the identification of many of their cargoes and to the elucidation of the mechanisms by which they mediate transport. (nih.gov)
  • Likewise, the characterization of numerous NPC-associated components, in combination with structural studies of NPCs, have begun to address the possible mechanisms that drive nucleocytoplasmic transport, and the role that different nucleoporins play in the transport process. (nih.gov)
  • Mechanisms of hepatic transport of cyclosporin A: an explanation for its cholestatic action? (biomedsearch.com)
  • These mechanisms of movement are known as carrier-mediated transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • These findings reveal mechanisms for recognition and transport of CuMbn. (wikipedia.org)
  • These biological "capacitors" can accept or discharge electrons, with the effect of a change in the oxidation state of the iron atoms between +2 and +3. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the standard modules of HYDRUS-1D can simulate the transport of solutes that are either fully independent or involved in the sequential first-order degradation chains, the two new modules can consider mutual interactions between multiple solutes, such as cation exchange and precipitation/dissolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, a channel can be open to both environments at the same time, allowing the solutes it transports to diffuse without interruption. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is a vast flow of fluid exchanging between ocean basins and crustal reservoirs and mediating transport of heat, solutes, genetic material, microorganisms, and viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vertebrate animals use hemoglobin in their blood to transport oxygen from their lungs to their tissues, but other animals use hemocyanin (molluscs and some arthropods) or hemerythrin (spiders and lobsters). (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrus is a suite of Windows-based modeling software that can be used for analysis of water flow, heat and solute transport in variably saturated porous media (e.g., soils). (wikipedia.org)
  • While Hermitian cubic finite element numerical schemes were used in SUMATRA and linear finite elements in WORM and the older HYDRUS code for solution of both the water flow and solute transport equations, SWMI used finite differences to solve the flow equation. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1992) considerably extended the capabilities of SWMII by including provisions for solute transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • Solute transport was described using the standard advection-dispersion equation that included linear sorption, first-order degradation in both the liquid and solid phases, and zero-order production in both phases. (wikipedia.org)
  • 4) the development of a dynamic epithelial transport model of the proximal tubule and the incorporation of that model into a TGF framework. (duke.edu)
  • This pioneer in studies on epithelial transport was in many ways far ahead of his contemporaries in the field, yet his work was not appreciated. (wikipedia.org)