A ketose sugar that is commonly used in the commercial synthesis of ASCORBIC ACID.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Treatment of diseases with biological materials or biological response modifiers, such as the use of GENES; CELLS; TISSUES; organs; SERUM; VACCINES; and humoral agents.

Membrane-tethered Drosophila Armadillo cannot transduce Wingless signal on its own. (1/29779)

Drosophila Armadillo and its vertebrate homolog beta-catenin are key effectors of Wingless/Wnt signaling. In the current model, Wingless/Wnt signal stabilizes Armadillo/beta-catenin, which then accumulates in nuclei and binds TCF/LEF family proteins, forming bipartite transcription factors which activate transcription of Wingless/Wnt responsive genes. This model was recently challenged. Overexpression in Xenopus of membrane-tethered beta-catenin or its paralog plakoglobin activates Wnt signaling, suggesting that nuclear localization of Armadillo/beta-catenin is not essential for signaling. Tethered plakoglobin or beta-catenin might signal on their own or might act indirectly by elevating levels of endogenous beta-catenin. We tested these hypotheses in Drosophila by removing endogenous Armadillo. We generated a series of mutant Armadillo proteins with altered intracellular localizations, and expressed these in wild-type and armadillo mutant backgrounds. We found that membrane-tethered Armadillo cannot signal on its own; however it can function in adherens junctions. We also created mutant forms of Armadillo carrying heterologous nuclear localization or nuclear export signals. Although these signals alter the subcellular localization of Arm when overexpressed in Xenopus, in Drosophila they have little effect on localization and only subtle effects on signaling. This supports a model in which Armadillo's nuclear localization is key for signaling, but in which Armadillo intracellular localization is controlled by the availability and affinity of its binding partners.  (+info)

Meiosis: MeiRNA hits the spot. (2/29779)

The protein Mei2 performs at least two functions required in fission yeast for the switch from mitotic to meiotic cell cycles. One of these functions also requires meiRNA. It appears that meiRNA targets Mei2 to the nucleus, where it can promote the first meiotic division.  (+info)

Lung fluid transport in aquaporin-1 and aquaporin-4 knockout mice. (3/29779)

The mammalian lung expresses water channel aquaporin-1 (AQP1) in microvascular endothelia and aquaporin-4 (AQP4) in airway epithelia. To test whether these water channels facilitate fluid movement between airspace, interstitial, and capillary compartments, we measured passive and active fluid transport in AQP1 and AQP4 knockout mice. Airspace-capillary osmotic water permeability (Pf) was measured in isolated perfused lungs by a pleural surface fluorescence method. Pf was remarkably reduced in AQP1 (-/-) mice (measured in cm/s x 0.001, SE, n = 5-10: 17 +/- 2 [+/+]; 6.6 +/- 0.6 AQP1 [+/-]; 1.7 +/- 0.3 AQP1 [-/-]; 12 +/- 1 AQP4 [-/-]). Microvascular endothelial water permeability, measured by a related pleural surface fluorescence method in which the airspace was filled with inert perfluorocarbon, was reduced more than 10-fold in AQP1 (-/-) vs. (+/+) mice. Hydrostatically induced lung interstitial and alveolar edema was measured by a gravimetric method and by direct measurement of extravascular lung water. Both approaches indicated a more than twofold reduction in lung water accumulation in AQP1 (-/-) vs. (+/+) mice in response to a 5- to 10-cm H2O increase in pulmonary artery pressure for five minutes. Active, near-isosmolar alveolar fluid absorption (Jv) was measured in in situ perfused lungs using 125I-albumin as an airspace fluid volume marker. Jv (measured in percent fluid uptake at 30 min, n = 5) in (+/+) mice was 6.0 +/- 0.6 (37 degrees C), increased to 16 +/- 1 by beta-agonists, and inhibited to less than 2.0 by amiloride, ouabain, or cooling to 23 degrees C. Jv (with isoproterenol) was not affected by aquaporin deletion (18.9 +/- 2.2 [+/+]; 16.4 +/- 1.5 AQP1 [-/-]; 16.3 +/- 1.7 AQP4 [-/-]). These results indicate that osmotically driven water transport across microvessels in adult lung occurs by a transcellular route through AQP1 water channels and that the microvascular endothelium is a significant barrier for airspace-capillary osmotic water transport. AQP1 facilitates hydrostatically driven lung edema but is not required for active near-isosmolar absorption of alveolar fluid.  (+info)

Plasma membrane recruitment of RalGDS is critical for Ras-dependent Ral activation. (4/29779)

In COS cells, Ral GDP dissociation stimulator (RalGDS)-induced Ral activation was stimulated by RasG12V or a Rap1/Ras chimera in which the N-terminal region of Rap1 was ligated to the C-terminal region of Ras but not by Rap1G12V or a Ras/Rap1 chimera in which the N-terminal region of Ras was ligated to the C-terminal region of Rap1, although RalGDS interacted with these small GTP-binding proteins. When RasG12V, Ral and the Rap1/Ras chimera were individually expressed in NIH3T3 cells, they localized to the plasma membrane. Rap1Q63E and the Ras/Rap1 chimera were detected in the perinuclear region. When RalGDS was expressed alone, it was abundant in the cytoplasm. When coexpressed with RasG12V or the Rap1/Ras chimera, RalGDS was detected at the plasma membrane, whereas when coexpressed with Rap1Q63E or the Ras/Rap1 chimera, RalGDS was observed in the perinuclear region. RalGDS which was targeted to the plasma membrane by the addition of Ras farnesylation site (RalGDS-CAAX) activated Ral in the absence of RasG12V. Although RalGDS did not stimulate the dissociation of GDP from Ral in the absence of the GTP-bound form of Ras in a reconstitution assay using the liposomes, RalGDS-CAAX could stimulate it without Ras. RasG12V activated Raf-1 when they were coexpressed in Sf9 cells, whereas RasG12V did not affect the RalGDS activity. These results indicate that Ras recruits RalGDS to the plasma membrane and that the translocated RalGDS induces the activation of Ral, but that Rap1 does not activate Ral due to distinct subcellular localization.  (+info)

A single membrane-embedded negative charge is critical for recognizing positively charged drugs by the Escherichia coli multidrug resistance protein MdfA. (5/29779)

The nature of the broad substrate specificity phenomenon, as manifested by multidrug resistance proteins, is not yet understood. In the Escherichia coli multidrug transporter, MdfA, the hydrophobicity profile and PhoA fusion analysis have so far identified only one membrane-embedded charged amino acid residue (E26). In order to determine whether this negatively charged residue may play a role in multidrug recognition, we evaluated the expression and function of MdfA constructs mutated at this position. Replacing E26 with the positively charged residue lysine abolished the multidrug resistance activity against positively charged drugs, but retained chloramphenicol efflux and resistance. In contrast, when the negative charge was preserved in a mutant with aspartate instead of E26, chloramphenicol recognition and transport were drastically inhibited; however, the mutant exhibited almost wild-type multidrug resistance activity against lipophilic cations. These results suggest that although the negative charge at position 26 is not essential for active transport, it dictates the multidrug resistance character of MdfA. We show that such a negative charge is also found in other drug resistance transporters, and its possible significance regarding multidrug resistance is discussed.  (+info)

Membrane deinsertion of SecA underlying proton motive force-dependent stimulation of protein translocation. (6/29779)

The proton motive force (PMF) renders protein translocation across the Escherichia coli membrane highly efficient, although the underlying mechanism has not been clarified. The membrane insertion and deinsertion of SecA coupled to ATP binding and hydrolysis, respectively, are thought to drive the translocation. We report here that PMF significantly decreases the level of membrane-inserted SecA. The prlA4 mutation of SecY, which causes efficient protein translocation in the absence of PMF, was found to reduce the membrane-inserted SecA irrespective of the presence or absence of PMF. The PMF-dependent decrease in the membrane-inserted SecA caused an increase in the amount of SecA released into the extra-membrane milieu, indicating that PMF deinserts SecA from the membrane. The PMF-dependent deinsertion reduced the amount of SecA required for maximal translocation activity. Neither ATP hydrolysis nor exchange with external SecA was required for the PMF-dependent deinsertion of SecA. These results indicate that the SecA deinsertion is a limiting step of protein translocation and is accelerated by PMF, efficient protein translocation thereby being caused in the presence of PMF.  (+info)

The Gab1 PH domain is required for localization of Gab1 at sites of cell-cell contact and epithelial morphogenesis downstream from the met receptor tyrosine kinase. (7/29779)

Stimulation of the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor tyrosine kinase, Met, induces mitogenesis, motility, invasion, and branching tubulogenesis of epithelial and endothelial cell lines in culture. We have previously shown that Gab1 is the major phosphorylated protein following stimulation of the Met receptor in epithelial cells that undergo a morphogenic program in response to HGF. Gab1 is a member of the family of IRS-1-like multisubstrate docking proteins and, like IRS-1, contains an amino-terminal pleckstrin homology domain, in addition to multiple tyrosine residues that are potential binding sites for proteins that contain SH2 or PTB domains. Following stimulation of epithelial cells with HGF, Gab1 associates with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and the tyrosine phosphatase SHP2. Met receptor mutants that are impaired in their association with Gab1 fail to induce branching tubulogenesis. Overexpression of Gab1 rescues the Met-dependent tubulogenic response in these cell lines. The ability of Gab1 to promote tubulogenesis is dependent on its pleckstrin homology domain. Whereas the wild-type Gab1 protein is localized to areas of cell-cell contact, a Gab1 protein lacking the pleckstrin homology domain is localized predominantly in the cytoplasm. Localization of Gab1 to areas of cell-cell contact is inhibited by LY294002, demonstrating that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity is required. These data show that Gab1 is an important mediator of branching tubulogenesis downstream from the Met receptor and identify phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and the Gab1 pleckstrin homology domain as crucial for subcellular localization of Gab1 and biological responses.  (+info)

Vascular endothelial growth factor activates nuclear factor of activated T cells in human endothelial cells: a role for tissue factor gene expression. (8/29779)

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent angiogenic inducer that stimulates the expression of tissue factor (TF), the major cellular initiator of blood coagulation. Here we show that signaling triggered by VEGF induced DNA-binding and transcriptional activities of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) and AP-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). VEGF also induced TF mRNA expression and gene promoter activation by a cyclosporin A (CsA)-sensitive mechanism. As in lymphoid cells, NFAT was dephosphorylated and translocated to the nucleus upon activation of HUVECs, and these processes were blocked by CsA. NFAT was involved in the VEGF-mediated TF promoter activation as evidenced by cotransfection experiments with a dominant negative version of NFAT and site-directed mutagenesis of a newly identified NFAT site within the TF promoter that overlaps with a previously identified kappaB-like site. Strikingly, this site bound exclusively NFAT not only from nuclear extracts of HUVECs activated by VEGF, a stimulus that failed to induce NF-kappaB-binding activity, but also from extracts of cells activated with phorbol esters and calcium ionophore, a combination of stimuli that triggered the simultaneous activation of NFAT and NF-kappaB. These results implicate NFAT in the regulation of endothelial genes by physiological means and shed light on the mechanisms that switch on the gene expression program induced by VEGF and those regulating TF gene expression.  (+info)

Sorbose is not a medical term itself, but it is a chemical compound that has been used in the field of medicine and biochemistry. Sorbose is a sugar alcohol, also known as a polyol, which is a type of carbohydrate. It is a stereoisomer of mannitol and D-glucose, and it can be found in some fruits and fermented products.

In medicine, sorbose has been used as a sweetening agent and a pharmaceutical excipient, which is an inactive substance that serves as a vehicle or medium for a drug. It has also been studied for its potential use in the treatment of various medical conditions, such as diabetes and obesity, due to its low caloric content and slow absorption rate.

However, it's important to note that sorbose is not widely used in modern medicine, and its therapeutic benefits have not been fully established through clinical trials. Therefore, it should not be considered a standard treatment for any medical condition without further research and medical supervision.

Biological transport refers to the movement of molecules, ions, or solutes across biological membranes or through cells in living organisms. This process is essential for maintaining homeostasis, regulating cellular functions, and enabling communication between cells. There are two main types of biological transport: passive transport and active transport.

Passive transport does not require the input of energy and includes:

1. Diffusion: The random movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration until equilibrium is reached.
2. Osmosis: The diffusion of solvent molecules (usually water) across a semi-permeable membrane from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration.
3. Facilitated diffusion: The assisted passage of polar or charged substances through protein channels or carriers in the cell membrane, which increases the rate of diffusion without consuming energy.

Active transport requires the input of energy (in the form of ATP) and includes:

1. Primary active transport: The direct use of ATP to move molecules against their concentration gradient, often driven by specific transport proteins called pumps.
2. Secondary active transport: The coupling of the movement of one substance down its electrochemical gradient with the uphill transport of another substance, mediated by a shared transport protein. This process is also known as co-transport or counter-transport.

Biological transport, active is the process by which cells use energy to move materials across their membranes from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration. This type of transport is facilitated by specialized proteins called transporters or pumps that are located in the cell membrane. These proteins undergo conformational changes to physically carry the molecules through the lipid bilayer of the membrane, often against their concentration gradient.

Active transport requires energy because it works against the natural tendency of molecules to move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration, a process known as diffusion. Cells obtain this energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate), which is produced through cellular respiration.

Examples of active transport include the uptake of glucose and amino acids into cells, as well as the secretion of hormones and neurotransmitters. The sodium-potassium pump, which helps maintain resting membrane potential in nerve and muscle cells, is a classic example of an active transporter.

Axonal transport is the controlled movement of materials and organelles within axons, which are the nerve fibers of neurons (nerve cells). This intracellular transport system is essential for maintaining the structural and functional integrity of axons, particularly in neurons with long axonal processes. There are two types of axonal transport: anterograde transport, which moves materials from the cell body toward the synaptic terminals, and retrograde transport, which transports materials from the synaptic terminals back to the cell body. Anterograde transport is typically slower than retrograde transport and can be divided into fast and slow components based on velocity. Fast anterograde transport moves vesicles containing neurotransmitters and their receptors, as well as mitochondria and other organelles, at speeds of up to 400 mm/day. Slow anterograde transport moves cytoskeletal elements, proteins, and RNA at speeds of 1-10 mm/day. Retrograde transport is primarily responsible for recycling membrane components, removing damaged organelles, and transmitting signals from the axon terminal to the cell body. Dysfunctions in axonal transport have been implicated in various neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

Ion transport refers to the active or passive movement of ions, such as sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), chloride (Cl-), and calcium (Ca2+) ions, across cell membranes. This process is essential for various physiological functions, including nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and maintenance of resting membrane potential.

Ion transport can occur through several mechanisms, including:

1. Diffusion: the passive movement of ions down their concentration gradient, from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
2. Facilitated diffusion: the passive movement of ions through specialized channels or transporters in the cell membrane.
3. Active transport: the energy-dependent movement of ions against their concentration gradient, requiring the use of ATP. This process is often mediated by ion pumps, such as the sodium-potassium pump (Na+/K+-ATPase).
4. Co-transport or symport: the coupled transport of two or more different ions or molecules in the same direction, often driven by an electrochemical gradient.
5. Counter-transport or antiport: the coupled transport of two or more different ions or molecules in opposite directions, also often driven by an electrochemical gradient.

Abnormalities in ion transport can lead to various medical conditions, such as cystic fibrosis (which involves defective chloride channel function), hypertension (which may be related to altered sodium transport), and certain forms of heart disease (which can result from abnormal calcium handling).

Membrane transport proteins are specialized biological molecules, specifically integral membrane proteins, that facilitate the movement of various substances across the lipid bilayer of cell membranes. They are responsible for the selective and regulated transport of ions, sugars, amino acids, nucleotides, and other molecules into and out of cells, as well as within different cellular compartments. These proteins can be categorized into two main types: channels and carriers (or pumps). Channels provide a passive transport mechanism, allowing ions or small molecules to move down their electrochemical gradient, while carriers actively transport substances against their concentration gradient, requiring energy usually in the form of ATP. Membrane transport proteins play a crucial role in maintaining cell homeostasis, signaling processes, and many other physiological functions.

Protein transport, in the context of cellular biology, refers to the process by which proteins are actively moved from one location to another within or between cells. This is a crucial mechanism for maintaining proper cell function and regulation.

Intracellular protein transport involves the movement of proteins within a single cell. Proteins can be transported across membranes (such as the nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, or plasma membrane) via specialized transport systems like vesicles and transport channels.

Intercellular protein transport refers to the movement of proteins from one cell to another, often facilitated by exocytosis (release of proteins in vesicles) and endocytosis (uptake of extracellular substances via membrane-bound vesicles). This is essential for communication between cells, immune response, and other physiological processes.

It's important to note that any disruption in protein transport can lead to various diseases, including neurological disorders, cancer, and metabolic conditions.

Biological models, also known as physiological models or organismal models, are simplified representations of biological systems, processes, or mechanisms that are used to understand and explain the underlying principles and relationships. These models can be theoretical (conceptual or mathematical) or physical (such as anatomical models, cell cultures, or animal models). They are widely used in biomedical research to study various phenomena, including disease pathophysiology, drug action, and therapeutic interventions.

Examples of biological models include:

1. Mathematical models: These use mathematical equations and formulas to describe complex biological systems or processes, such as population dynamics, metabolic pathways, or gene regulation networks. They can help predict the behavior of these systems under different conditions and test hypotheses about their underlying mechanisms.
2. Cell cultures: These are collections of cells grown in a controlled environment, typically in a laboratory dish or flask. They can be used to study cellular processes, such as signal transduction, gene expression, or metabolism, and to test the effects of drugs or other treatments on these processes.
3. Animal models: These are living organisms, usually vertebrates like mice, rats, or non-human primates, that are used to study various aspects of human biology and disease. They can provide valuable insights into the pathophysiology of diseases, the mechanisms of drug action, and the safety and efficacy of new therapies.
4. Anatomical models: These are physical representations of biological structures or systems, such as plastic models of organs or tissues, that can be used for educational purposes or to plan surgical procedures. They can also serve as a basis for developing more sophisticated models, such as computer simulations or 3D-printed replicas.

Overall, biological models play a crucial role in advancing our understanding of biology and medicine, helping to identify new targets for therapeutic intervention, develop novel drugs and treatments, and improve human health.

Monosaccharide transport proteins are a type of membrane transport protein that facilitate the passive or active transport of monosaccharides, such as glucose, fructose, and galactose, across cell membranes. These proteins play a crucial role in the absorption, distribution, and metabolism of carbohydrates in the body.

There are two main types of monosaccharide transport proteins: facilitated diffusion transporters and active transporters. Facilitated diffusion transporters, also known as glucose transporters (GLUTs), passively transport monosaccharides down their concentration gradient without the need for energy. In contrast, active transporters, such as the sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT), use energy in the form of ATP to actively transport monosaccharides against their concentration gradient.

Monosaccharide transport proteins are found in various tissues throughout the body, including the intestines, kidneys, liver, and brain. They play a critical role in maintaining glucose homeostasis by regulating the uptake and release of glucose into and out of cells. Dysfunction of these transporters has been implicated in several diseases, such as diabetes, cancer, and neurological disorders.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

The Electron Transport Chain (ETC) is a series of complexes in the inner mitochondrial membrane that are involved in the process of cellular respiration. It is the final pathway for electrons derived from the oxidation of nutrients such as glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids to be transferred to molecular oxygen. This transfer of electrons drives the generation of a proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane, which is then used by ATP synthase to produce ATP, the main energy currency of the cell.

The electron transport chain consists of four complexes (I-IV) and two mobile electron carriers (ubiquinone and cytochrome c). Electrons from NADH and FADH2 are transferred to Complex I and Complex II respectively, which then pass them along to ubiquinone. Ubiquinone then transfers the electrons to Complex III, which passes them on to cytochrome c. Finally, cytochrome c transfers the electrons to Complex IV, where they combine with oxygen and protons to form water.

The transfer of electrons through the ETC is accompanied by the pumping of protons from the mitochondrial matrix to the intermembrane space, creating a proton gradient. The flow of protons back across the inner membrane through ATP synthase drives the synthesis of ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate.

Overall, the electron transport chain is a crucial process for generating energy in the form of ATP in the cell, and it plays a key role in many metabolic pathways.

Carrier proteins, also known as transport proteins, are a type of protein that facilitates the movement of molecules across cell membranes. They are responsible for the selective and active transport of ions, sugars, amino acids, and other molecules from one side of the membrane to the other, against their concentration gradient. This process requires energy, usually in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate).

Carrier proteins have a specific binding site for the molecule they transport, and undergo conformational changes upon binding, which allows them to move the molecule across the membrane. Once the molecule has been transported, the carrier protein returns to its original conformation, ready to bind and transport another molecule.

Carrier proteins play a crucial role in maintaining the balance of ions and other molecules inside and outside of cells, and are essential for many physiological processes, including nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and nutrient uptake.

A cell membrane, also known as the plasma membrane, is a thin semi-permeable phospholipid bilayer that surrounds all cells in animals, plants, and microorganisms. It functions as a barrier to control the movement of substances in and out of the cell, allowing necessary molecules such as nutrients, oxygen, and signaling molecules to enter while keeping out harmful substances and waste products. The cell membrane is composed mainly of phospholipids, which have hydrophilic (water-loving) heads and hydrophobic (water-fearing) tails. This unique structure allows the membrane to be flexible and fluid, yet selectively permeable. Additionally, various proteins are embedded in the membrane that serve as channels, pumps, receptors, and enzymes, contributing to the cell's overall functionality and communication with its environment.

Sodium is an essential mineral and electrolyte that is necessary for human health. In a medical context, sodium is often discussed in terms of its concentration in the blood, as measured by serum sodium levels. The normal range for serum sodium is typically between 135 and 145 milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L).

Sodium plays a number of important roles in the body, including:

* Regulating fluid balance: Sodium helps to regulate the amount of water in and around your cells, which is important for maintaining normal blood pressure and preventing dehydration.
* Facilitating nerve impulse transmission: Sodium is involved in the generation and transmission of electrical signals in the nervous system, which is necessary for proper muscle function and coordination.
* Assisting with muscle contraction: Sodium helps to regulate muscle contractions by interacting with other minerals such as calcium and potassium.

Low sodium levels (hyponatremia) can cause symptoms such as confusion, seizures, and coma, while high sodium levels (hypernatremia) can lead to symptoms such as weakness, muscle cramps, and seizures. Both conditions require medical treatment to correct.

Transport vesicles are membrane-bound sacs or containers within cells that are responsible for the intracellular transport of proteins, lipids, and other cargo. These vesicles form when a portion of a donor membrane buds off, enclosing the cargo inside. There are different types of transport vesicles, including:

1. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) vesicles: These vesicles form from the ER and transport proteins to the Golgi apparatus for further processing.
2. Golgi-derived vesicles: After proteins have been processed in the Golgi, they are packaged into transport vesicles that can deliver them to their final destinations within the cell or to the plasma membrane for secretion.
3. Endocytic vesicles: These vesicles form when a portion of the plasma membrane invaginates and pinches off, engulfing extracellular material or fluid. Examples include clathrin-coated vesicles and caveolae.
4. Lysosomal vesicles: These vesicles transport materials to lysosomes for degradation.
5. Secretory vesicles: These vesicles store proteins and other molecules that will be secreted from the cell. When stimulated, these vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane, releasing their contents to the extracellular space.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

According to the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), biological products are "products that are made from or contain a living organism or its derivatives, such as vaccines, blood and blood components, cells, genes, tissues, and proteins." These products can be composed of sugars, proteins, nucleic acids, or complex combinations of these substances, and they can come from many sources, including humans, animals, microorganisms, or plants.

Biological products are often used to diagnose, prevent, or treat a wide range of medical conditions, and they can be administered in various ways, such as through injection, inhalation, or topical application. Because biological products are derived from living organisms, their manufacturing processes can be complex and must be tightly controlled to ensure the safety, purity, and potency of the final product.

It's important to note that biological products are not the same as drugs, which are chemically synthesized compounds. While drugs are designed to interact with specific targets in the body, such as enzymes or receptors, biological products can have more complex and varied mechanisms of action, making them potentially more difficult to characterize and regulate.

Anion transport proteins are specialized membrane transport proteins that facilitate the movement of negatively charged ions, known as anions, across biological membranes. These proteins play a crucial role in maintaining ionic balance and regulating various physiological processes within the body.

There are several types of anion transport proteins, including:

1. Cl-/HCO3- exchangers (also known as anion exchangers or band 3 proteins): These transporters facilitate the exchange of chloride (Cl-) and bicarbonate (HCO3-) ions across the membrane. They are widely expressed in various tissues, including the red blood cells, gastrointestinal tract, and kidneys, where they help regulate pH, fluid balance, and electrolyte homeostasis.
2. Sulfate permeases: These transporters facilitate the movement of sulfate ions (SO42-) across membranes. They are primarily found in the epithelial cells of the kidneys, intestines, and choroid plexus, where they play a role in sulfur metabolism and absorption.
3. Cl- channels: These proteins form ion channels that allow chloride ions to pass through the membrane. They are involved in various physiological processes, such as neuronal excitability, transepithelial fluid transport, and cell volume regulation.
4. Cation-chloride cotransporters: These transporters move both cations (positively charged ions) and chloride anions together across the membrane. They are involved in regulating neuronal excitability, cell volume, and ionic balance in various tissues.

Dysfunction of anion transport proteins has been implicated in several diseases, such as cystic fibrosis (due to mutations in the CFTR Cl- channel), distal renal tubular acidosis (due to defects in Cl-/HCO3- exchangers), and some forms of epilepsy (due to abnormalities in cation-chloride cotransporters).

Cation transport proteins are a type of membrane protein that facilitate the movement of cations (positively charged ions) across biological membranes. These proteins play a crucial role in maintaining ion balance and electrical excitability within cells, as well as in various physiological processes such as nutrient uptake, waste elimination, and signal transduction.

There are several types of cation transport proteins, including:

1. Ion channels: These are specialized protein structures that form a pore or channel through the membrane, allowing ions to pass through rapidly and selectively. They can be either voltage-gated or ligand-gated, meaning they open in response to changes in electrical potential or binding of specific molecules, respectively.

2. Ion pumps: These are active transport proteins that use energy from ATP hydrolysis to move ions against their electrochemical gradient, effectively pumping them from one side of the membrane to the other. Examples include the sodium-potassium pump (Na+/K+-ATPase) and calcium pumps (Ca2+ ATPase).

3. Ion exchangers: These are antiporter proteins that facilitate the exchange of one ion for another across the membrane, maintaining electroneutrality. For example, the sodium-proton exchanger (NHE) moves a proton into the cell in exchange for a sodium ion being moved out.

4. Symporters: These are cotransporter proteins that move two or more ions together in the same direction, often coupled with the transport of a solute molecule. An example is the sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT), which facilitates glucose uptake into cells by coupling its movement with that of sodium ions.

Collectively, cation transport proteins help maintain ion homeostasis and contribute to various cellular functions, including electrical signaling, enzyme regulation, and metabolic processes. Dysfunction in these proteins can lead to a range of diseases, such as neurological disorders, cardiovascular disease, and kidney dysfunction.

Glucose is a simple monosaccharide (or single sugar) that serves as the primary source of energy for living organisms. It's a fundamental molecule in biology, often referred to as "dextrose" or "grape sugar." Glucose has the molecular formula C6H12O6 and is vital to the functioning of cells, especially those in the brain and nervous system.

In the body, glucose is derived from the digestion of carbohydrates in food, and it's transported around the body via the bloodstream to cells where it can be used for energy. Cells convert glucose into a usable form through a process called cellular respiration, which involves a series of metabolic reactions that generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP)—the main currency of energy in cells.

Glucose is also stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen, a polysaccharide (multiple sugar) that can be broken down back into glucose when needed for energy between meals or during physical activity. Maintaining appropriate blood glucose levels is crucial for overall health, and imbalances can lead to conditions such as diabetes mellitus.

The Golgi apparatus, also known as the Golgi complex or simply the Golgi, is a membrane-bound organelle found in the cytoplasm of most eukaryotic cells. It plays a crucial role in the processing, sorting, and packaging of proteins and lipids for transport to their final destinations within the cell or for secretion outside the cell.

The Golgi apparatus consists of a series of flattened, disc-shaped sacs called cisternae, which are stacked together in a parallel arrangement. These stacks are often interconnected by tubular structures called tubules or vesicles. The Golgi apparatus has two main faces: the cis face, which is closest to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and receives proteins and lipids directly from the ER; and the trans face, which is responsible for sorting and dispatching these molecules to their final destinations.

The Golgi apparatus performs several essential functions in the cell:

1. Protein processing: After proteins are synthesized in the ER, they are transported to the cis face of the Golgi apparatus, where they undergo various post-translational modifications, such as glycosylation (the addition of sugar molecules) and sulfation. These modifications help determine the protein's final structure, function, and targeting.
2. Lipid modification: The Golgi apparatus also modifies lipids by adding or removing different functional groups, which can influence their properties and localization within the cell.
3. Protein sorting and packaging: Once proteins and lipids have been processed, they are sorted and packaged into vesicles at the trans face of the Golgi apparatus. These vesicles then transport their cargo to various destinations, such as lysosomes, plasma membrane, or extracellular space.
4. Intracellular transport: The Golgi apparatus serves as a central hub for intracellular trafficking, coordinating the movement of vesicles and other transport carriers between different organelles and cellular compartments.
5. Cell-cell communication: Some proteins that are processed and packaged in the Golgi apparatus are destined for secretion, playing crucial roles in cell-cell communication and maintaining tissue homeostasis.

In summary, the Golgi apparatus is a vital organelle involved in various cellular processes, including post-translational modification, sorting, packaging, and intracellular transport of proteins and lipids. Its proper functioning is essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis and overall organismal health.

Hydrogen-ion concentration, also known as pH, is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. It is defined as the negative logarithm (to the base 10) of the hydrogen ion activity in a solution. The standard unit of measurement is the pH unit. A pH of 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, and greater than 7 is basic.

In medical terms, hydrogen-ion concentration is important for maintaining homeostasis within the body. For example, in the stomach, a high hydrogen-ion concentration (low pH) is necessary for the digestion of food. However, in other parts of the body such as blood, a high hydrogen-ion concentration can be harmful and lead to acidosis. Conversely, a low hydrogen-ion concentration (high pH) in the blood can lead to alkalosis. Both acidosis and alkalosis can have serious consequences on various organ systems if not corrected.

Vesicular transport proteins are specialized proteins that play a crucial role in the intracellular trafficking and transportation of various biomolecules, such as proteins and lipids, within eukaryotic cells. These proteins facilitate the formation, movement, and fusion of membrane-bound vesicles, which are small, spherical structures that carry cargo between different cellular compartments or organelles.

There are several types of vesicular transport proteins involved in this process:

1. Coat Proteins (COPs): These proteins form a coat around the vesicle membrane and help shape it into its spherical form during the budding process. They also participate in selecting and sorting cargo for transportation. Two main types of COPs exist: COPI, which is involved in transport between the Golgi apparatus and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and COPII, which mediates transport from the ER to the Golgi apparatus.

2. SNARE Proteins: These proteins are responsible for the specific recognition and docking of vesicles with their target membranes. They form complexes that bring the vesicle and target membranes close together, allowing for fusion and the release of cargo into the target organelle. There are two types of SNARE proteins: v-SNAREs (vesicle SNAREs) and t-SNAREs (target SNAREs), which interact to form a stable complex during membrane fusion.

3. Rab GTPases: These proteins act as molecular switches that regulate the recruitment of coat proteins, motor proteins, and SNAREs during vesicle transport. They cycle between an active GTP-bound state and an inactive GDP-bound state, controlling the various stages of vesicular trafficking, such as budding, transport, tethering, and fusion.

4. Tethering Proteins: These proteins help to bridge the gap between vesicles and their target membranes before SNARE-mediated fusion occurs. They play a role in ensuring specificity during vesicle docking and may also contribute to regulating the timing of membrane fusion events.

5. Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor Attachment Protein Receptors (SNAREs): These proteins are involved in intracellular transport, particularly in the trafficking of vesicles between organelles. They consist of a family of coiled-coil domain-containing proteins that form complexes to mediate membrane fusion events.

Overall, these various classes of proteins work together to ensure the specificity and efficiency of vesicular transport in eukaryotic cells. Dysregulation or mutation of these proteins can lead to various diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders and cancer.

Membrane proteins are a type of protein that are embedded in the lipid bilayer of biological membranes, such as the plasma membrane of cells or the inner membrane of mitochondria. These proteins play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including:

1. Cell-cell recognition and signaling
2. Transport of molecules across the membrane (selective permeability)
3. Enzymatic reactions at the membrane surface
4. Energy transduction and conversion
5. Mechanosensation and signal transduction

Membrane proteins can be classified into two main categories: integral membrane proteins, which are permanently associated with the lipid bilayer, and peripheral membrane proteins, which are temporarily or loosely attached to the membrane surface. Integral membrane proteins can further be divided into three subcategories based on their topology:

1. Transmembrane proteins, which span the entire width of the lipid bilayer with one or more alpha-helices or beta-barrels.
2. Lipid-anchored proteins, which are covalently attached to lipids in the membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor or other lipid modifications.
3. Monotopic proteins, which are partially embedded in the membrane and have one or more domains exposed to either side of the bilayer.

Membrane proteins are essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis and are targets for various therapeutic interventions, including drug development and gene therapy. However, their structural complexity and hydrophobicity make them challenging to study using traditional biochemical methods, requiring specialized techniques such as X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM).

Amino acid transport systems refer to the various membrane transport proteins that are responsible for the active or passive translocation of amino acids across cell membranes in the body. These transport systems play a crucial role in maintaining amino acid homeostasis within cells and regulating their availability for protein synthesis, neurotransmission, and other physiological processes.

There are several distinct amino acid transport systems, each with its own specificity for particular types of amino acids or related molecules. These systems can be classified based on their energy requirements, substrate specificity, and membrane localization. Some of the major amino acid transport systems include:

1. System A - This is a sodium-dependent transport system that primarily transports small, neutral amino acids such as alanine, serine, and proline. It has several subtypes (ASC, A, and AN) with different substrate affinities and kinetic properties.
2. System L - This is a sodium-independent transport system that transports large, neutral amino acids such as leucine, isoleucine, valine, phenylalanine, and tryptophan. It has several subtypes (L1, L2, and y+L) with different substrate specificities and transport mechanisms.
3. System B0 - This is a sodium-dependent transport system that transports both neutral and basic amino acids such as arginine, lysine, and ornithine. It has several subtypes (B0,+, B0-, and b0,+) with different substrate affinities and kinetic properties.
4. System y+ - This is a sodium-independent transport system that transports primarily basic amino acids such as arginine, lysine, and ornithine. It has several subtypes (y+L, y+, b0,+) with different substrate specificities and transport mechanisms.
5. System X-AG - This is a sodium-independent antiporter system that exchanges glutamate and aspartate for neutral amino acids such as cystine, serine, and threonine. It plays an essential role in maintaining redox homeostasis by regulating the intracellular levels of cysteine, a precursor of glutathione.

These transport systems are critical for maintaining cellular homeostasis and regulating various physiological processes such as protein synthesis, neurotransmission, and immune function. Dysregulation of these transport systems has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying these transport systems is essential for developing novel therapeutic strategies to treat these conditions.

A biological assay is a method used in biology and biochemistry to measure the concentration or potency of a substance (like a drug, hormone, or enzyme) by observing its effect on living cells or tissues. This type of assay can be performed using various techniques such as:

1. Cell-based assays: These involve measuring changes in cell behavior, growth, or viability after exposure to the substance being tested. Examples include proliferation assays, apoptosis assays, and cytotoxicity assays.
2. Protein-based assays: These focus on measuring the interaction between the substance and specific proteins, such as enzymes or receptors. Examples include enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), radioimmunoassays (RIAs), and pull-down assays.
3. Genetic-based assays: These involve analyzing the effects of the substance on gene expression, DNA structure, or protein synthesis. Examples include quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays, reporter gene assays, and northern blotting.

Biological assays are essential tools in research, drug development, and diagnostic applications to understand biological processes and evaluate the potential therapeutic efficacy or toxicity of various substances.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Chlorides are simple inorganic ions consisting of a single chlorine atom bonded to a single charged hydrogen ion (H+). Chloride is the most abundant anion (negatively charged ion) in the extracellular fluid in the human body. The normal range for chloride concentration in the blood is typically between 96-106 milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L).

Chlorides play a crucial role in maintaining electrical neutrality, acid-base balance, and osmotic pressure in the body. They are also essential for various physiological processes such as nerve impulse transmission, maintenance of membrane potentials, and digestion (as hydrochloric acid in the stomach).

Chloride levels can be affected by several factors, including diet, hydration status, kidney function, and certain medical conditions. Increased or decreased chloride levels can indicate various disorders, such as dehydration, kidney disease, Addison's disease, or diabetes insipidus. Therefore, monitoring chloride levels is essential for assessing a person's overall health and diagnosing potential medical issues.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Protein binding, in the context of medical and biological sciences, refers to the interaction between a protein and another molecule (known as the ligand) that results in a stable complex. This process is often reversible and can be influenced by various factors such as pH, temperature, and concentration of the involved molecules.

In clinical chemistry, protein binding is particularly important when it comes to drugs, as many of them bind to proteins (especially albumin) in the bloodstream. The degree of protein binding can affect a drug's distribution, metabolism, and excretion, which in turn influence its therapeutic effectiveness and potential side effects.

Protein-bound drugs may be less available for interaction with their target tissues, as only the unbound or "free" fraction of the drug is active. Therefore, understanding protein binding can help optimize dosing regimens and minimize adverse reactions.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

Biological therapy, also known as biotherapy or immunotherapy, is a type of medical treatment that uses biological agents (such as substances derived from living organisms or laboratory-made versions of these substances) to identify and modify specific targets in the body to treat diseases, including cancer. These therapies can work by boosting the body's natural defenses to fight illness, interfering with the growth and spread of abnormal cells, or replacing absent or faulty proteins in the body. Examples of biological therapies include monoclonal antibodies, cytokines, and vaccines.

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... and extra-cellular electron transport by cyanobacteria". Biochemical Society Transactions. 40 (6): 1302-1307. doi:10.1042/ ... Biological photovoltaic devices are a type of biological electrochemical system, or microbial fuel cell, and are sometimes also ... biological photovoltaic systems which employ whole organisms have the advantage over non-biological fuel cells and photovoltaic ... Biological photovoltaic systems are defined by the type of light harvesting material that they employ, and the mode of electron ...
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Series B, Biological Sciences. 367 (1592): 1112-22. doi:10.1098/rstb.2011.0206. PMC 3297437. PMID 22411982. Geibel S, Procko E ... Hultgren SJ, Baker D, Waksman G (April 2013). "Structural and energetic basis of folded-protein transport by the FimD usher". ... and head of the Department of Biological Sciences at Birkbeck. Waksman's laboratory studies the structures and mechanisms of ...
Although the monoamine transport cycle has been resolved in considerable detail, kinetic knowledge on the molecular actions of ... For one, it helps us redefine what a biological individual is. We suggest that a human individual is now best described as a ... Scholze P, Nørregaard L, Singer EA, Freissmuth M, Gether U, Sitte HH (June 2002). "The role of zinc ions in reverse transport ... "Amphetamine: Biological activity". IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. ...
Neilands, J. B. (1995-11-10). "Siderophores: Structure and Function of Microbial Iron Transport Compounds". Journal of ... Biological Chemistry. 270 (45): 26723-26726. doi:10.1074/jbc.270.45.26723. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 7592901. Miethke, Marcus; ...
Redfield, Alfred C.; Coolidge, Thomas; Hurd, Archer L. (1926). "The Transport of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide by Some Bloods ... Containing Hemocyanin". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 69 (2): 475-509. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258(18)84563-X. ISSN 0021-9258. " ...
"Invasion risk posed by macroinvertebrates transported in ships' ballast tanks". Biological Invasions. Springer. 14 (9): 1843- ... Macro-invertebrates are transported by transoceanic and coastal vessels arriving in ports all over the world. Researchers from ... and procedures reduce the density and richness of biota effectively in ballast waters and thus reduce the risk of transporting ...
... presumably from the transported pathogens. In the 2000s, the academician, "A.S.", proposed a new biological warfare program, ... Boris Yeltsin admitted to an offensive biological weapons program as well as to the true nature of the Sverdlovsk biological ... 1998 Post-World War II Programs of Biological Weapons The Russian Biological Weapons Program: Vanished or Disappeared? by Dany ... the dismantlement of experimental technological lines for the production of biological agents and the closure of biological ...
Seed dispersal is the movement or transport of seeds away from the parent plant. Plants are limited by vegetative reproduction ... Biological dispersal refers to both the movement of individuals (animals, plants, fungi, bacteria, etc.) from their birth site ... Therefore, biological dispersal is critical to the stability of ecosystems. Few species are ever evenly or randomly distributed ... Biological dispersal may be contrasted with geodispersal, which is the mixing of previously isolated populations (or whole ...
Evidence of Significant Transport of Coral and Symbiont Cells". The Biological Bulletin. 194 (2): 178-86. doi:10.2307/1543048. ... The larvae often need a biological cue to induce settlement such as specific crustose coralline algae species or microbial ... The Biological Bulletin. 201 (3): 360-73. doi:10.2307/1543614. JSTOR 1543614. PMID 11751248. S2CID 7765487. Archived from the ...
Photon transport in biological tissue can be equivalently modeled numerically with Monte Carlo simulations or analytically by ... Thus, over one transport mean free path, the fractional change in current density is much less than unity. This property is ... Convert the pencil beam into an isotropic point source at a depth of one transport mean free path l {\displaystyle l} below ... radius from two isotropic point sources as determined by the diffusion theory solution to the RTE (blue). The transport mean ...
JoVE publishes peer-reviewed scientific video protocols to accelerate biological, medical, chemical and physical research. ... Diffusion-dependent Biological Processes. Diffusion plays an integral role in biological processes such as respiration, the ... Cooper, Geoffrey M. "Transport of Small Molecules." The Cell: A Molecular Approach. 2nd Edition, 2000. [Source] ... However, facilitated diffusion takes place when substances require the use of membrane-embedded transport proteins to traverse ...
... Creators. Dabiri, John O. Gharib, Morteza ... Animal phyla that require macro-scale fluid transport for functioning have repeatedly and often independently converged on the ...
Biological Carbon Pump Assessment using the Transport Matric Method and Global Nutrient Distributions (BATMAN) - C M Moore - ... Biological Carbon Pump Assessment using the Transport Matric Method and Global Nutrient Distributions (BATMAN) - C M Moore - ... Carbon storage in reactive rock systems: determining the coupling of geo-chemo-mechanical processes in reactive transport ... Will it stick? Exploring the role of turbulence and biological glues on ocean carbon storage ...
Transport Phenomena. Transport phenomena is the study of transfers. Typically, it refers to three thransfer studies: Heat ... there are faculty studying the exclusion or passage of molecules through mucus barriers and other transport phenomena-related ... Transfer, Mass Transfer, and Fluid Mechanics(Momentum Transfer). In Biological Engineering, ...
The fate, transport and bioaccumulation of SWCNT are essential information for risk assessment and making environmental ... detect SWCNT in biological tissues due to the low fluorescence in the near infrared region from biological samples. Two ... Liu, Xuehong (2017). Detection and Quantification of Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes in Environmental and Biological Samples for ... Detection and Quantification of Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes in Environmental and Biological Samples for Evaluation of Fate, ...
JoVE publishes peer-reviewed scientific video protocols to accelerate biological, medical, chemical and physical research. ... 34.13: Der durch Xylem und Transpiration betriebene Transport von Ressourcen. 30. 34.14: Regulation der Transpiration durch die ...
Mechanisms of membrane transport. Protein sorting and vesicular transport. Cytoskeleton. DNA and chromosome structure. DNA ... The Life Sciences (Biological and Agricultural) Major provides a strong foundation in the basic biological sciences. It will ... Major Life Sciences (Biological and Agricultural) (42 credits) Offered by: Natural Resource Sciences Degree: Bachelor of ... Emphasis will be on population studies based upon molecular biological methods. Terms: This course is not scheduled for the ...
Traffic / transport [i]. *. Zoology / agricultural and forest sciences [i]. *. interdisciplinary [i]. *. Select all ... Ronny Friedrich (Mannheim/DE)*: Calibration of 14C-dates using biological kinship.. 15.20 bis 16.00 Uhr - Kaffeepause.. 16.00 ... Mario Küßner (Weimar/DE)*: In the shadow of the princely grave - biological kinship in the Early Bronze Age cemetery of ... Eduardo Amorim (Northridge/US): Reconstructing biological kinship in Medieval Europe with ancient DNA.. 11.00 bis 11.15 Uhr. Dr ...
Biological weapons are characterized by low visibility, high potency, substantial accessibility, and relatively easy delivery. ... Biological weapons include any organism or toxin found in nature that can be used to incapacitate, kill, or otherwise impede an ... Air transport is contraindicated. Sedative and pain-relieving medications are helpful, but aspirin and other antiplatelet ... Historical Aspects of Biological Warfare Agents. Biological weapons include any organism or toxin found in nature that can be ...
All the latest science news about biological invasions from Phys.org ... Freshwater connectivity can transport environmental DNA through the landscape. A new paper published in the journal Proceedings ... New study reveals alarmingly massive economic costs of biological invasions to the European Union. Biological invasions are a ... Virginia Tech biological sciences postdoctoral researcher Traci DuBose wants to ensure no frogs or toads land below ...
Biological Reactor Systems Design. BE 4342. Sugar Process Engineering. BE 4352. Transport Phenomena in Biological Engineering. ... Department of Biological & Agricultural Engineering. 149 E. B. Doran Building. Baton Rouge, LA 70803. Telephone: 225-578-3153. ...
Structural biologist Agnieszka Kendrick joins Salk faculty to study cellular transport. August 8, 2023. LA JOLLA-The Salk ... a structural biologist who studies how cells recognize and transport cargo within the cell. ...
Physical, chemical, and biological factors that influence the persistence and movement of a contaminant within and across ... Determining Fate and Transport Processes. Fate and transport are interdependent processes. Fate is what eventually happens to ... Ways That Fate and Transport Mechanisms Can Influence Potential Exposure Points. Ways That Fate and Transport Mechanisms Can ... In addition, find out how chemical and site-specific factors may affect contaminant transport in this fate and transport ...
... stowaway on a transport vector; via an infrastructure corridor (without which spread would not be possible) or unaided from ... sults indicate that there areclear biological and economicfactors. thatincreasetheprobabilitythatexoticpetrept ... FIGURE3 Partialdependencyplotsshowingeffectsofbiologicalandeconomicfactorsonreleaseprobabilityforexoticpetre ... the biological invasion risk posed by the global wildlife trade:. Propagule pressure drives the introduction and ...
Transport Cooler for Biological Products(Passive Cooling) has multi-function handle with casters for easy transportation. ... Products Transport CoolerTransport Cooler for Biological Products(Passive Cooling) Product Name Product Features Specifications ... Incubator with Agitator Plasma Apheresis System Plasma Freezer Plasma Blast Freezer Spark Free Refrigerator/Freezer Transport ... Active Temperature Controlled RKN Container Biomedical Freezer Blood Bank Refrigerator Blood/Fluid Warming Cabinet Biological ...
From these data, we estimate each fire aerosolized an average of 7 ± 4 × 109 cells and 2 ± 1 × 108 biological INPs per m2 ... In this study we analyzed microbial cells and biological ice nucleating particles (INPs) in smoke emitted from eight prescribed ... and biological INPs (2.4 ± 0.91 × 103 INPs m−3 active at temperatures ≥ −15 °C), and these data significantly positively ... If intense wildland fires transport large quantities of biological INPs to cloud altitudes, these bioaerosols may contribute to ...
... jeudi 30 septembre 2021 11:03:09 Membre ... b]Transport competition and selectivity in a biomimetic nanofluidic system[/b] Biological pores are essential actors in cell ... Transport competition and selectivity in a biomimetic nanofluidic system Biological. Envoyé par fabien.montel ... In the case of pores involved in the transport of macromolecules such as the nuclear pore which regulates exchanges between the ...
In addition, the activities addressed the transport of biological samples and included specific training on how to respond to ... SecTrans-NAS organises the latest workshops and trainings for the transport of dangerous chemical and biological goods in ... The European SecTrans-Nas project for the safe transport of dangerous goods in North Africa and the Sahel (NAS), in whose ... Along these lines, the workshops also aimed to train those involved in the countrys transport chain in ADR. ...
Physiology of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Phenazine Production and Transport Sakhtah, Hassan 2016 Theses PhenazineMetabolites ... You searched for: Academic Unit Biological Sciences ✖ Remove constraint Academic Unit: Biological Sciences Subject Biology ✖ ... Elucidating the Biological Function of PWWP-Domain Containing Protein Complexes Reddy, Bharat 2013 Theses BiologyGenetics ... Heterogeneity and Context-Specificity in Biological Systems Litvin, Oren 2014 Theses BiologyBioinformaticsGenetics-Research ...
Directorate for Biological Sciences (BIO) *Division of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences (MCB) ... Division of Chemical, Bioengineering, Environmental and Transport Systems (CBET). *Division of Civil, Mechanical and ...
Mechanisms of Biological Resilience. The Mechanisms of Biological Resilience (MBR) research group in the Department of Biology ... Uncovering mechanistic links between emotional states, biological timing, sleep, and development of chronic diseases using ...
... a stratified dispersal model that considers long-distance road/rail transport. The second important factor contributing to the ... Biological data suggesting eutrophication of this tropical system were obtained, including a high rotifer abundance (11 species ... The potential distribution of tropical fish species in Eastern Europe-Gambusia holbrooki (introduced for biological control) ... The potential distribution of tropical fish species in Eastern Europe-Gambusia holbrooki (introduced for biological control) ...
Triple particle transport with both circumvention and obstacle trapping Manipulation of biological cells using optical tweezers ... Triple particle transport with multiple circumvention of obstacles ... Double particle transport in a crowded workspace ... Single particle transport by avoiding collisions with freely ...
Containment of Biological Hazards and Laboratory Safety Specimen Preparation Negative Staining Particle Enrichment ... Results from lesion exudates, collected as swab samples and placed in viral transport medium, are less useful. A change in ... Hospital preparedness for victims of chemical or biological terrorism. Am J Public Health. 2001;91:710-6. DOIPubMedGoogle ... A magic sword or a big itch: an historical look at the United States biological weapons programme. Med Confl Surviv. 1999;15: ...
BioFVM: an efficient, parallelized diffusive transport solver for 3-D biological simulations. Posted in 3D, BioFVM, diffusion, ... BioFVM: an efficient, parallelized diffusive transport solver for 3-D biological simulations. Bioinformatics, 2015.. DOI: ... BioFVM (stands for "Finite Volume Method for biological problems) is an open source package to solve for 3-D diffusion of ... Almost all biological simulations deal with this, many by using explicit finite differences (easy to code and accurate, but ...
All samples were transported to the laboratory of Gelmim for analysis within 24 h of sampling. ... Biological data is one of the most important parameters for evaluating the performance of the plant, especially if the final ... Hydro-biological characterization and efficiency of natural waste stabilization ponds in a desert climate (city of Assa, ... Aerobic biological treatment of a pharmaceutical wastewater: effect of temperature on COD removal and bacterial community ...
Biological & Other Purposes Binocular Head - Interpupillary Adjustable Four Objectives: 4x, 10x, 40x, 100x lenses 10x ... Biological & Other Purposes Binocular Head - Interpupillary Adjustable Four Objectives: 4x, 10x, 40x, 100x lenses 10x eyepieces ... Easy to Use; easy to transport. *Battery Option for field use - 6 Volts (Not included) ... The Celestron Labs CB1000CF Compound Binocular microscope offers all the essential features you need in a lab-ready Biological ...
... program is for students who are interested in using physical approaches to tackle biological problems. Students should speak ... and molecular transport and interactions. The physical properties and structure determination of biomolecules will be ... Biological Physics students will do a selected set of experiments. Prerequisite: PHYS 233; PHYS 285 or CHEM 260; both with a ... Biological Physics Major Bachelor of Science. This bachelor of science (BSc) program is for students who are interested in ...
... so elucidating their delivery and transport is imminent towards understanding cellular functions. Destinated targets (i.e. ... Microscopic description of gas permeation and delivery pathways in biological macromolecules. Author(s). Mahinthichaichan, ... Microscopic description of gas permeation and delivery pathways in biological macromolecules. Mahinthichaichan, Paween. ...
  • Transport phenomena is the study of transfers. (mit.edu)
  • In Biological Engineering, there are faculty studying the exclusion or passage of molecules through mucus barriers and other transport phenomena-related projects. (mit.edu)
  • CAVER 3.0 paves the way for the study of important biochemical phenomena in the area of molecular transport, molecular recognition and enzymatic catalysis. (plos.org)
  • Diffusion plays an integral role in biological processes such as respiration, the process by which organisms exchange gases with their environment. (jove.com)
  • Possible transport processes that can carry a contaminant away from its source. (cdc.gov)
  • Fate and transport are interdependent processes. (cdc.gov)
  • Microfluidic systems are well-suited for studying mixed biological communities for improving industrial processes of fermentation, biofuel production, and pharmaceutical production. (springer.com)
  • Physical and biological processes in the coastal ocean are inextricably linked. (hereon.de)
  • Tight control of pH is necessary for most biological processes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • On the atomic scale level, we can describe these photo-chemical reactions, through a multitude of elementary processes occurring on the ultrafast time scale (from sub femtosecond to picosecond) where the initial energy/light harvesting process is followed by energy conversion and transport processes. (lu.se)
  • Despite the ever-increasing need to understand these energy conversion and transport processes in many fields of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology, many challenges must be addressed due to the multiscale nature of the problem - from atomic to nanoscopic length and time scale. (lu.se)
  • Use this microscope for observing biological specimens, samples from nature, small parts, fabric samples, and many other possibilities. (khanscope.com)
  • The Life Sciences (Biological and Agricultural) Major provides a strong foundation in the basic biological sciences. (mcgill.ca)
  • Graduates with high academic achievement may go on to postgraduate studies in research, or professional programs in the biological, veterinary, medical, and health sciences fields. (mcgill.ca)
  • Virginia Tech biological sciences postdoctoral researcher Traci DuBose wants to ensure no frogs or toads land below conservationists' radar. (phys.org)
  • As a consequence, zoology pulls on all the disciplines covered across the School of Biological Sciences, from cell and molecular biology, developmental biology, parasitology, animal behaviour, population biology and ecology - all underpinned by evolutionary thinking. (ed.ac.uk)
  • Biological Sciences explores the study of living organisms, covering everything from the interactions of animals in their environment to how genes are expressed. (ed.ac.uk)
  • We offer 12 different biological sciences subject areas, including zoology. (ed.ac.uk)
  • However, if you are applying to our Biological Sciences programmes you should only select one programme within this subject area. (ed.ac.uk)
  • All Biological Sciences students study the same core courses in Year 1. (ed.ac.uk)
  • You will learn core laboratory techniques, and study modern biology subjects which span the breadth of the biological sciences subject areas. (ed.ac.uk)
  • In 2010, the European Union launched the Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) Risk Mitigation Centres of Excellence . (fiiapp.org)
  • The added value of this European Union Initiative is to promote a holistic view of the risks and threats of Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Risks that are sufficiently addressed separately despite numerous commonalities and to make available to participants an international resource of authorities and experts who meet regularly. (fiiapp.org)
  • While this guidance is generally focused on the initial response to potential biological threats, all personnel responding to such incidents must be aware of the potential for exposure to hazardous chemical and/or radiological materials in addition to biological hazards. (cdc.gov)
  • Any such letters/packages must also be evaluated by the HAZMAT unit for only a broad class of radiological and chemical threats prior to being released to law enforcement personnel for transport. (cdc.gov)
  • Binding, Transport and Storage of Metal Ions in Biological Cells, The Royal Society of Chemistry, 2014. (rsc.org)
  • Tunnels and channels facilitate the transport of small molecules, ions and water solvent in a large variety of proteins. (plos.org)
  • Besides many tiny cavities, this empty internal spa`ce may form cavities of specific functions, as well as tunnels and channels (or pores), representing potential transport pathways for small molecules, ions and water molecules [1] . (plos.org)
  • CAVER is a software tool widely used for the identification and characterization of transport pathways in static macromolecular structures. (plos.org)
  • The canonical function of aquaporin (AQP) water channels is to facilitate passive transport of water across cellular membranes making them essential in the regulation of body water homeostasis. (bvsalud.org)
  • Not every site requires a comprehensive fate and transport analysis to categorize exposure pathways. (cdc.gov)
  • Characteristics of individual transport pathways, including their geometry, physico-chemical properties and dynamics are instrumental for understanding of structure-function relationships of these proteins, for the design of new inhibitors and construction of improved biocatalysts. (plos.org)
  • Transport pathways play an essential role in the functioning of a large number of proteins. (plos.org)
  • The Mechanisms of Biological Resilience (MBR) research group in the Department of Biology studies the compensatory mechanisms which living organisms and ecosystems employ to mitigate external stress and alleviate their adverse effects. (tamu.edu)
  • As an in vitro method, the transcellular transport of 12 compounds across the monolayer of Caco-2- and MDR1-transfected cells was examined. (nih.gov)
  • These beneficial biological properties have been extensively studied in humans and animal models, both in vitro and in vivo . (hindawi.com)
  • Uncovering mechanistic links between emotional states, biological timing, sleep, and development of chronic diseases using interdisciplinary approaches. (tamu.edu)
  • Here we use a mechanistic model of the biological carbon pump to revisit the factors controlling the transfer efficiency of carbon from surface waters to the ocean interior and marine sediments. (nature.com)
  • Fig. 1: Schematic of the mechanistic model of the ocean biological carbon pump discussed in the text. (nature.com)
  • Here, we present the derivation of a model broadly applicable to tissue engineering applications, characterised by cell proliferation and extracellular matrix deposition in porous scaffolds used within tissue culture systems, which we use to study coupling between fluid flow, nutrient transport and microscale tissue growth. (ntu.ac.uk)
  • Overall, solutions to the diffusion equation for photon transport are more computationally efficient, but less accurate than Monte Carlo simulations. (wikipedia.org)
  • These assumptions lead to the diffusion theory (and diffusion equation) for photon transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fate, transport and bioaccumulation of SWCNT are essential information for risk assessment and making environmental regulations for nanomaterials. (duke.edu)
  • This section describes factors to consider when evaluating fate and transport of environmental contaminants, the second element of the exposure pathway evaluation. (cdc.gov)
  • Physical, chemical, and biological factors that influence the persistence and movement of a contaminant within and across environmental media, which can be important in determining whether opportunities for human exposure exist. (cdc.gov)
  • The extent to which you examine fate and transport issues depends on many factors, such as the availability of site-specific environmental data sets, the complexity of site issues, and community health concerns. (cdc.gov)
  • Health assessors often use their professional judgment when evaluating environmental fate and transport. (cdc.gov)
  • Despite the varied roles of bioaerosols in environmental health, biological dispersion, and the land-atmosphere system, their ecological sources and emission mechanisms remain poorly understood [ 13 ]. (nature.com)
  • however, a distinguishing feature of biological tissue is its ability to remodel continuously in response to local environmental cues. (ntu.ac.uk)
  • However, the impact of zooplankton on the biological carbon pump is still relatively minor when compared with environmental drivers. (nature.com)
  • European Environment Agency (2015): Evaluating 15 years of transport and environmental policy integration - TERM 2015: Transport indicators tracking progress towards environmental targets in Europe. (ecologic.eu)
  • Since 2000 the Transport and Environment Reporting Mechanism (TERM) has monitored the progress of the integration of environmental objectives into transport policy in the EU. (ecologic.eu)
  • The TERM 2015 report investigates key developments in the transport sector with regards to environment, identifying what has improved and what has been a barrier to the sector's environmental performance. (ecologic.eu)
  • These chemical species often act as substrates of enzymes and/or as ligands modulating biochemical cascades, so elucidating their delivery and transport is imminent towards understanding cellular functions. (illinois.edu)
  • The approach is guided by partitioning the network into biological relevant subsets and thus avoids the use of single species basis functions that are known to give inaccurate results for biological systems. (biorxiv.org)
  • The development and use of transport infrastructure can also increase pollution levels in surrounding habitats and serve as a vector for the spread of non-native and invasive species. (ecologic.eu)
  • We recommend courses in biological chemistry but optional courses can be from other academic areas across the University. (ed.ac.uk)
  • We demonstrate that a shift from bacterioplankton-dominated to more eukaryote-rich ecosystems is unlikely to have considerably impacted the efficiency of Earth's biological pump. (nature.com)
  • Photon transport in biological tissue can be equivalently modeled numerically with Monte Carlo simulations or analytically by the radiative transfer equation (RTE). However, the RTE is difficult to solve without introducing approximations. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this paper, we consider the derivation of macroscopic equations appropriate to describe the growth of biological tissue, employing a multiple-scale homogenisation method to accommodate explicitly the influence of the underlying microscale structure of the material, and its evolution, on the macroscale dynamics. (ntu.ac.uk)
  • As will be dis- cussed in more detail later, the chemical mass transport across gas, liquid/ tissue, and blood phases of the airways, as determined by these properties, was conceptualized in terms of the overall mass-transport coefficient ( K g) as a measure of the conductivity of a chemical across the three phases. (cdc.gov)
  • In- versely, when expressed as its reciprocal (1/ K g), K g is also a measure of the overall mass-transport resistance of the radial transport of the absorbing gas from the gas phase, through the liquid/tissue, and into blood. (cdc.gov)
  • In this study we analyzed microbial cells and biological ice nucleating particles (INPs) in smoke emitted from eight prescribed wildland fires in North Florida. (nature.com)
  • Fowler, S. W. & Knauer, G. A. Role of large particles in the transport of elements and organic compounds through the oceanic water column. (nature.com)
  • This pre-packaging approach provides a simple, one step process to initiate microfluidics in any setting for fungal studies, bacteria-fungal interactions, and other biological inquiries. (springer.com)
  • For this purpose, we in the "Physical-Biological Interactions" department use modern, multidisciplinary observation and modeling techniques as well as innovative data analyses tools. (hereon.de)
  • The potential spectrum of bioterrorism ranges from hoaxes and actual use of agents by individuals or groups against others, to state-sponsored terrorism that employs biological warfare (BW) agents and delivery systems that can produce mass casualties. (medscape.com)
  • While real biological systems often depend upon many diffusing things (lots of signaling factors for cell-cell communication, growth substrates, drugs, etc.), most solvers only scale well to simulating two or three. (mathcancer.org)
  • The results of which have the potential to resolve the underlying mechanisms of growth and transport in these complex branched living systems. (springer.com)
  • or use data science methods and tools to deduce information about biological systems. (nih.gov)
  • Of interest are development of computational and mathematical algorithms and tools, modeling techniques and approaches for understanding the complexity of biological systems, and utilization of big datasets and data science methods for model construction. (nih.gov)
  • Solving the chemical master equation is an indispensable tool in understanding the behavior of biological and chemical systems. (biorxiv.org)
  • Light is indisputably at the origin of life on earth, driving all photo-chemical reactions in atmosphere, biological systems, and "man-made" energy related materials. (lu.se)
  • The German-American physician Anton Dilger established a secret biological laboratory in Chevy Chase, Maryland, with the intent to grow the causative agents of anthrax and glanders. (medscape.com)
  • This is required by the laboratory in an effort to protect the staff members who will ultimately be opening the container and performing definitive biological testing and/or forensic examinations. (cdc.gov)
  • NHANES collected biological specimens (biospecimens) for laboratory analysis to provide detailed information about participants' health and nutritional status. (cdc.gov)
  • Although all compounds that stimulated ATP hydrolysis were significantly transported by P-gp, some compounds were transported by P-gp without significantly affecting ATP hydrolysis. (nih.gov)
  • The design and use of road, rail and waterborne transport infrastructure alters the quality and connectivity of habitats and can create physical barriers to the movement of plants and animals between habitat areas. (ecologic.eu)
  • Poor transport infrastructure in the city seems to favor transport physical activity levels as a necessity, in addition to age, which is commonly associated with overweight. (bvsalud.org)
  • The 1st International Electronic Conference on Biological Diversity, Ecology and Evolution (BDEE 2021), sponsored by the MDPI open access journal Diversity, will be held online from 15 to 31 March 2021. (mdpi.com)
  • Fig. 2: The impact of first-order changes to plankton ecology on the ocean biological carbon pump. (nature.com)
  • Biological invasions are a major threat to ecosystems, biodiversity, and human well-being, resulting in ecosystem degradation and causing economic costs in the multi-trillions of euros globally. (phys.org)
  • Ecologic Institute contributed to the TERM 2015 report with a chapter on transport and biodiversity. (ecologic.eu)
  • Transport can negatively affect biodiversity in a variety of ways. (ecologic.eu)
  • The TERM 2015 report analyses how the transport sector and its effect on the environment have evolved in Europe since 2000, with a contribution on transport and biodiversity by Ecologic Institute. (ecologic.eu)
  • Branched biological structures are evident across all taxonomic kingdoms and size scales. (springer.com)
  • Understanding the physical and molecular cues that initiate the formation and function of branching structures and resolve the underlying mechanisms of growth and transport in branched tissues will benefit relevant industries including those involved in fermentation, biofuel production, and health care. (springer.com)
  • Within melanocytes, the P protein may transport molecules into and out of structures called melanosomes (where melanin is produced). (medlineplus.gov)
  • A significant barrier to studying toxicity of SWCNT to animal models is the lack of in vivo techniques to track and quantify SWCNT for assessing their distribution, transport and bioaccumulation. (duke.edu)
  • You do not have to run a hydrology and bioaccumulation model to prove that fate and transport exists, nor do you have to step through every contaminant and physical property of PCBs to evaluate their fate and transport. (cdc.gov)
  • Biological pores are essential actors in cell function. (edpif.org)
  • This bachelor of science (BSc) program is for students who are interested in using physical approaches to tackle biological problems. (sfu.ca)
  • Household information on social assistance, as well as individual information such as speaking the indigenous language, years living in the city and also in the indigenous territory, income, work, schooling, marital status, leisure and transport physical activity level, and time watching television per week were retrieved. (bvsalud.org)
  • Only transport insufficient physical activity (OR=2.24, 95% CI=1.01-4.98) and being in the age group from 30 to 59 years (OR=8.79, 95% CI=3.41-22.64) maintained statistical significance. (bvsalud.org)
  • It addresses the molecular aspects of binding, transport and storage that ensure balanced levels of the essential elements. (rsc.org)
  • LA JOLLA-The Salk Institute welcomes Assistant Professor Agnieszka Kendrick, a structural biologist who studies how cells recognize and transport cargo within the cell. (salk.edu)
  • When compared to air sampled prior to ignition, samples of the air-smoke mixtures contained fivefold higher concentrations of microbial cells (6.7 ± 1.3 × 10 4 cells m −3 ) and biological INPs (2.4 ± 0.91 × 10 3 INPs m −3 active at temperatures ≥ −15 °C), and these data significantly positively correlated with PM 10 . (nature.com)
  • From these data, we estimate each fire aerosolized an average of 7 ± 4 × 10 9 cells and 2 ± 1 × 10 8 biological INPs per m 2 burned and conclude that emissions from wildland fire are sources of viable microbial aerosols to the atmosphere. (nature.com)
  • The objectives of this study were to determine if wildland fire smoke is an atmospheric source of viable microbes and biological INPs and estimate the scale of their emissions. (nature.com)
  • The biological pump-the transfer of atmospheric carbon dioxide to the ocean interior and marine sediments as organic carbon-plays a critical role in regulating the long-term carbon cycle, atmospheric composition and climate. (nature.com)
  • Fig. 3: The impact of ocean temperature and atmospheric oxygen abundance on the ocean biological carbon pump. (nature.com)
  • However, it is also well known that in a number of problems the ODE formulation is insufficient to describe important features of the biological system [ 48 , 25 , 36 , 38 ]. (biorxiv.org)
  • The fate and transport analysis is generally a qualitative exercise that does not require quantitative evaluations (modeling studies). (cdc.gov)
  • This process improves access to microfluidics for controlling biological microenvironments, and further enabling visual and quantitative analysis of fungal cultures. (springer.com)
  • Biostatistics areas of interest include development of advanced statistical techniques and methodologies for design of biological experiments, collection and analysis of the data from those experiments and interpretation of, and inference from, the results. (nih.gov)
  • This was the first multilateral agreement that extended prohibition of chemical agents to biological agents. (medscape.com)
  • In addition, the activities addressed the transport of biological samples and included specific training on how to respond to accidents involving hazardous biological and chemical materials . (fiiapp.org)
  • E stablishing a comprehensive legal framework tailored to each country, including local training for security advisors, carriers and drivers, with a focus on chemical and biological materials. (fiiapp.org)
  • If you determine that the nature and extent of contamination in all relevant media have been adequately characterized after reviewing pertinent studies, you might need little or no fate and transport evaluation. (cdc.gov)
  • When Is a Fate and Transport Evaluation Required? (cdc.gov)
  • To make progress in this arena, technical and logistical barriers must be overcome to more effectively deploy microfluidics in biological disciplines. (springer.com)
  • Fate and transport evaluations help you determine how likely it is that 1) contaminants have moved or will move beyond the source area, and 2) contamination could migrate and exposures could occur beyond the sampled areas. (cdc.gov)
  • But if you are not able to adequately characterize the fate and transport of contamination, you cannot rule out that contaminants traveled to relevant site-specific media. (cdc.gov)
  • These courses provide a broad base of biological knowledge as well as integrating fundamental computational, practical and analytical skills to help you prepare for your future. (ed.ac.uk)
  • Animal phyla that require macro-scale fluid transport for functioning have repeatedly and often independently converged on the use of jet flows. (caltech.edu)
  • Before the 20th century, biological warfare took three main forms: (1) deliberate poisoning of food and water with infectious or toxic material, (2) use of microorganisms or toxins in some form of weapon system, and (3) use of biologically inoculated fabrics. (medscape.com)
  • Despite its centrality in the Earth system, the response of the biological pump to biotic innovation and climatic fluctuations through most stages of Earth's history has been largely conjectural. (nature.com)
  • These limiting cases were developed from restricting consideration to specific prop- erties relying on an understanding of the generalized system based on mass transport theory. (cdc.gov)
  • This consensus, which aims to regulate the transport of dangerous goods by road, has been ratified by 52 countries that are committed to good safety and security practices in order to comply with international regulations. (fiiapp.org)
  • Fate and transport" refers to how the nature of contaminants might change (chemically, physically, or biologically) and where they go as they move through the environment. (cdc.gov)
  • Depending on your site, you might consider different types of information when evaluating fate and transport. (cdc.gov)
  • You can often obtain pertinent fate and transport information in site investigation reports. (cdc.gov)
  • All Superfund remedial investigation reports, for example, include contaminant- and media-specific fate and transport information. (cdc.gov)
  • When evaluating and interpreting fate and transport information, you might need to consult technical experts (e.g., hydrogeologists, air modelers), especially when more quantitative analyses are needed to characterize affected media. (cdc.gov)
  • Learn about key types of contaminant fate and transport information collected during the PHA process. (cdc.gov)
  • Learn more details about fate and transport . (cdc.gov)
  • Fig. 4: The strength of the biological carbon pump through geologic time. (nature.com)
  • This article presents the framework and the mass transport theory behind the RfC method. (cdc.gov)
  • During World War II, the Japanese operated a secret biological warfare research facility in Manchuria and carried out human experiments on Chinese prisoners. (medscape.com)