Genetics: The branch of science concerned with the means and consequences of transmission and generation of the components of biological inheritance. (Stedman, 26th ed)Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Genetics, Behavioral: The experimental study of the relationship between the genotype of an organism and its behavior. The scope includes the effects of genes on simple sensory processes to complex organization of the nervous system.Biological Products: Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.Molecular Biology: A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Biological Therapy: Treatment of diseases with biological materials or biological response modifiers, such as the use of GENES; CELLS; TISSUES; organs; SERUM; VACCINES; and humoral agents.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Genetic Testing: Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Genetic Counseling: An educational process that provides information and advice to individuals or families about a genetic condition that may affect them. The purpose is to help individuals make informed decisions about marriage, reproduction, and other health management issues based on information about the genetic disease, the available diagnostic tests, and management programs. Psychosocial support is usually offered.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Biological Warfare: Warfare involving the use of living organisms or their products as disease etiologic agents against people, animals, or plants.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Genome-Wide Association Study: An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Biological Processes: Biological activities and function of the whole organism in human, animal, microorgansims, and plants, and of the biosphere.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Genetic Research: Research into the cause, transmission, amelioration, elimination, or enhancement of inherited disorders and traits.Quantitative Trait Loci: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.Genetic Services: Organized services to provide diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of genetic disorders.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Systems Biology: Comprehensive, methodical analysis of complex biological systems by monitoring responses to perturbations of biological processes. Large scale, computerized collection and analysis of the data are used to develop and test models of biological systems.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Pest Control, Biological: Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.Genetic Techniques: Chromosomal, biochemical, intracellular, and other methods used in the study of genetics.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Genetic Diseases, Inborn: Diseases that are caused by genetic mutations present during embryo or fetal development, although they may be observed later in life. The mutations may be inherited from a parent's genome or they may be acquired in utero.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Eugenics: The attempt to improve the PHENOTYPES of future generations of the human population by fostering the reproduction of those with favorable phenotypes and GENOTYPES and hampering or preventing BREEDING by those with "undesirable" phenotypes and genotypes. The concept is largely discredited. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Gene Regulatory Networks: Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Biology: One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Genetic Loci: Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.Epistasis, Genetic: A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.Quantitative Trait, Heritable: A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Biological Clocks: The physiological mechanisms that govern the rhythmic occurrence of certain biochemical, physiological, and behavioral phenomena.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Inheritance Patterns: The different ways GENES and their ALLELES interact during the transmission of genetic traits that effect the outcome of GENE EXPRESSION.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Forensic Genetics: The application of genetic analyses and MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES to legal matters and crime analysis.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.Developmental Biology: The field of biology which deals with the process of the growth and differentiation of an organism.Genetic Association Studies: The analysis of a sequence such as a region of a chromosome, a haplotype, a gene, or an allele for its involvement in controlling the phenotype of a specific trait, metabolic pathway, or disease.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Pharmacogenetics: A branch of genetics which deals with the genetic variability in individual responses to drugs and drug metabolism (BIOTRANSFORMATION).Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Metabolic Networks and Pathways: Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Protein Interaction Mapping: Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Biological Specimen Banks: Facilities that collect, store, and distribute tissues, e.g., cell lines, microorganisms, blood, sperm, milk, breast tissue, for use by others. Other uses may include transplantation and comparison of diseased tissues in the identification of cancer.Gene-Environment Interaction: The combined effects of genotypes and environmental factors together on phenotypic characteristics.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Relative Biological Effectiveness: The ratio of radiation dosages required to produce identical change based on a formula comparing other types of radiation with that of gamma or roentgen rays.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Genetic Determinism: The theory that human CHARACTER and BEHAVIOR are shaped by the GENES that comprise the individual's GENOTYPE rather than by CULTURE; ENVIRONMENT; and individual choice.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Human Genome Project: A coordinated effort of researchers to map (CHROMOSOME MAPPING) and sequence (SEQUENCE ANALYSIS, DNA) the human GENOME.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Proteome: The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Transcriptome: The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.Linkage Disequilibrium: Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Molecular Sequence Annotation: The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Genetic Privacy: The protection of genetic information about an individual, family, or population group, from unauthorized disclosure.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Computer Graphics: The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.Drug Design: The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Adaptation, Biological: Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Genetics, Microbial: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic mechanisms and processes of microorganisms.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Biological Control Agents: Organisms, biological agents, or biologically-derived agents used strategically for their positive or adverse effect on the physiology and/or reproductive health of other organisms.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Heterozygote: An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.Disease: A definite pathologic process with a characteristic set of signs and symptoms. It may affect the whole body or any of its parts, and its etiology, pathology, and prognosis may be known or unknown.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Individualized Medicine: Therapeutic approach tailoring therapy for genetically defined subgroups of patients.Multifactorial Inheritance: A phenotypic outcome (physical characteristic or disease predisposition) that is determined by more than one gene. Polygenic refers to those determined by many genes, while oligogenic refers to those determined by a few genes.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Principal Component Analysis: Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.Gene Flow: The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Genetic Heterogeneity: The presence of apparently similar characters for which the genetic evidence indicates that different genes or different genetic mechanisms are involved in different pedigrees. In clinical settings genetic heterogeneity refers to the presence of a variety of genetic defects which cause the same disease, often due to mutations at different loci on the same gene, a finding common to many human diseases including ALZHEIMER DISEASE; CYSTIC FIBROSIS; LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE DEFICIENCY, FAMILIAL; and POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASES. (Rieger, et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Epigenesis, Genetic: A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.United StatesGenetic Phenomena: The processes, properties and biological objects that are involved in maintaining, expressing, and transmitting from one organism to another, genetically encoded traits.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Biological Warfare Agents: Living organisms or their toxic products that are used to cause disease or death of humans during WARFARE.MicroRNAs: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing: Techniques of nucleotide sequence analysis that increase the range, complexity, sensitivity, and accuracy of results by greatly increasing the scale of operations and thus the number of nucleotides, and the number of copies of each nucleotide sequenced. The sequencing may be done by analysis of the synthesis or ligation products, hybridization to preexisting sequences, etc.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Biological Psychiatry: An interdisciplinary science concerned with studies of the biological bases of behavior - biochemical, genetic, physiological, and neurological - and applying these to the understanding and treatment of mental illness.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Protein Interaction Maps: Graphs representing sets of measurable, non-covalent physical contacts with specific PROTEINS in living organisms or in cells.Systems Integration: The procedures involved in combining separately developed modules, components, or subsystems so that they work together as a complete system. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Collins F (1992). "Positional Cloning: Let's not call it reverse anymore". Nature Genetics. 1 (1): 3-6. doi:10.1038/ng0492-3. ... University of Alberta, Department of Biological Science. Retrieved October 16, 2011.. *^ ... Genetics researchEdit. At Yale, Collins worked under the direction of Sherman Weissman, and in 1984 the two published a paper ... Principles of Medical Genetics, 2nd Edition, with T.D. Gelehrter and D. Ginsburg (Williams & Wilkins, 1998) ...
A common reverse genetics technique is to reduce gene expression or modify splicing using Morpholino antisense technology. ... As a model biological system, the zebrafish possesses numerous advantages for scientists. Its genome has been fully sequenced, ... Another focus of zebrafish research is to understand how a gene called Hedgehog, a biological signal that underlies a number of ... Drug screens in zebrafish can be used to identify novel classes of compounds with biological effects, or to repurpose existing ...
Although GEEN has higher efficiency than many other methods in reverse genetics, it is still not highly efficient; in many ... A common approach in modern biological research is to modify the DNA sequence (genotype) of an organism (or a single cell) and ... This approach is called reverse genetics and its significance for modern biology lies in its relative simplicity. This method ... Among the key requirements of reverse genetic analysis is the ability to modify the DNA sequence of the target organism. This ...
Reverse genetics is usually followed as a functional genomics approach based on the dynamic of biological system that aims to ... "Reverse Genetics and High Throughput Sequencing Methodologies for Plant Functional Genomics". Current Genomics. 17 (6): 460-475 ... were characterized by this reverse genetics approach that drastically reduced levels of kaempferol. Transfer DNA binary system ...
Many genetic sequences are discovered in advance of other, less easily obtained, biological information. Reverse genetics ... Reverse Genetics Reverse Genetics: Building Flu Vaccines Piece by Piece From the National Center for Biotechnology Information ... Reverse genetics usually proceeds in the opposite direction of so-called forward genetic screens of classical genetics. In ... Reverse genetics is a method that is used to help understand the function of a gene by analyzing the phenotypic effects of ...
The David and Goliath of reverse genetics". Trends in Plant Science. 3 (6): 209. doi:10.1016/S1360-1385(98)01257-6. Reski, R.; ... Reski is one of the founding Principal Investigators (PI) of the Centre for Biological Signalling Studies (bioss) and of the ... using the technique of homologous recombination for creating knockout mosses by gene targeting in a reverse genetics approach. ... He was awarded his doctorate in Genetics in 1990 by the University of Hamburg and received his habilitation in General Botany ...
Another option is reverse genetics. This approach involves targeting a specific gene with a mutation and then observing what ... Due to these insecticidal properties the bacteria was used as an biological insecticide, commercially developed in 1938. The ... July 2010). "TAL Effector Nucleases Create Targeted DNA Double-strand Breaks". Genetics. 186 (2): 757-61. doi:10.1534/genetics. ... Processes that look at a phenotype and then try and identify the gene responsible for it are called forward genetics. The gene ...
By the late 1980s new advances in genetics such as recombinant DNA technology and reverse genetics allowed for the broader use ... scientists can better understand their biological processes and apply them to more complex organisms, such as humans. Due to ... The use of recombinant DNA is an example of a reverse genetics, where researchers create a mutant genotype and analyze the ... Ambrose, Victor (2011). Reverse Genetics. Pfeiffer, Barret D, et al. (2008) Tools for neuroanatomy and neurogenetics in ...
Using reverse genetics, the DNA of genes for the receptors of many neurotransmitters have been cloned and sequenced, and the ... Experiments designed to study biological mechanisms are utilized when exploring how aggression is influenced by genetics. ... BCM Genetics, 11:113. doi:10.1186/1471-2156-11-113 Cosgrove-Mather, Bootie (February 11, 2009). "Study: Abuse And Genetics = ... Though the link currently between genetics and aggression has turned to an aspect of genetics different from chromosomal ...
Two specific nucleic acid molecules, DNA and RNA, are used in biological systems to encode the genetic blueprint of living ... recessive recombinant DNA (rDNA) repressor restriction enzyme restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) reverse ... LOD score lyonization Contents: Top 0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z medical genetics meiosis Mendelian ... polymorphism polypeptide polyploidy population genetics positional cloning primer proband A term used in medical genetics and ...
ISBN 978-0-7167-3771-1. Reski R (June 1998). "Physcomitrella and Arabidopsis: the David and Goliath of reverse genetics". ... Knockout organisms are also used as screening tools in the development of drugs, to target specific biological processes or ...
Genetics is a major factor in determining the height of individuals, though it is far less influential in regard to differences ... However, more recently the reverse observation was made. The study authors suggest that the cause may be socio-economic in ... This gives insights into the biological mechanisms underlying how these 697 genetic variants affect overall height. These loci ... Height, like other phenotypic traits, is determined by a combination of genetics and environmental factors. A child's height ...
"The Chinese have made a vaccine based on reverse genetics made with H5N1 antigens, and they have been using it. There has been ... No distinctive change was found in their biological characteristics." While a World Health Organization official in China ... Using Reverse Genetics Influenza Research Database - Database of influenza genomic sequences and related information.. ...
"Genetics November 2009 no. 3 757-766. 183 (3): 757-766. doi:10.1534/genetics.109.109991. PMC 2778973 .. ... The description of a mode of biological inheritance consists of three main categories: 1. Number of involved loci *Monogenetic ... Modern development of genetics and heredity[edit]. Main articles: History of genetics and History of evolutionary thought ... Henig, Robin Marantz (2001). The Monk in the Garden : The Lost and Found Genius of Gregor Mendel, the Father of Genetics. ...
... he managed to talk Joseph Stalin in 1948 into banning population genetics and several other related fields of biological ... research; this decision was only reversed in the 1960s. Unlike some Western countries, most of the research work in the USSR ... "Science and Politics in the U.S.S.R.: The Genetics Debate". World Politics, Vol. 3, No. 4 (Jul., 1951), pp. 486-519 Loren ... In addition to that, the party continued declaring various new theories "pseudo-scientific". Genetics, pedology and ...
Reverse genetics is a powerful tool to study and characterize the previously unknown viral genes. Reverse genetics system is ... ICTV virus classification, unlike biological classification, begins with the order.) Its NCBI-assigned Taxonomy ID is 11287. ... Ammayappan, A; Kurath, G; Thompson, TM; Vakharia, VN (2011). "A reverse genetics system for the Great Lakes strain of viral ... Genetics researchers at the Lake Erie Research Center at the University of Toledo are developing a test that will speed ...
... , North Dakota State University A.M. Settles, Transposon Tagging and Reverse Genetics, University of Florida ... are amplified inside a biological cell by a tagging technique. Transposon tagging has been used with several species to isolate ...
Collins F (1992). "Positional Cloning: Let's not call it reverse anymore". Nature Genetics. 1 (1): 3-6. doi:10.1038/ng0492-3. ... University of Alberta, Department of Biological Science. Diakses tanggal October 16, 2011.. ... Principles of Medical Genetics, 2nd Edition, with T.D. Gelehrter and D. Ginsburg (Williams & Wilkins, 1998) ... Kemudian ia kembali ke Yale, di mana ia menjadi Fellow pada bagian Human Genetics di sekolah kedokteran dari tahun 1981 sampai ...
... includes classical genetics, reverse genetics, mutation detection and others) Genetic modification (includes transgenes, ... in June 2006 and the content includes both classical methods and cutting-edge techniques relevant to the study of biological ... transfection, transformation (genetics) and other gene delivery techniques) Genomics and proteomics (includes microarrays and ...
Subtract known rRNA contaminants (optional). Reverse transcribe RNA to cDNA using reverse transcriptase. Amplify in strand- ... Genetics. 15 (3): 205-13. doi:10.1038/nrg3645. PMID 24468696. Weiss RB, Atkins JF (December 2011). "Molecular biology. ... Series B, Biological Sciences. 372 (1716): 20160183. doi:10.1098/rstb.2016.0183. PMC 5311927 . PMID 28138069. Andreev DE, ... RNA-ribosome complexes Cycloheximide Nucleases Phenol/Chloroform Reverse transcriptase dNTPs Sequencing method-cDNA library. ...
Ricchetti M, Buc H (February 1993). "E. coli DNA polymerase I as a reverse transcriptase". The EMBO Journal. 12 (2): 387-96. ... Loeb LA, Monnat RJ (August 2008). "DNA polymerases and human disease". Nature Reviews Genetics. 9 (8): 594-604. doi:10.1038/ ... page needed] Lehman IR (September 2003). "Discovery of DNA polymerase". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (37): 34733-8 ... and this activity is probably of only limited biological significance. In order to determine whether Pol I was primarily used ...
Nature Reviews Genetics, doi:10.1038/s41576-018-0004-3 *^ Zhang B, Horvath S (2005) A General Framework for Weighted Gene Co- ... Horvath and his collaborator Kenneth Raj [23] proposed an epigenetic clock theory of aging which views biological aging as an ... the first genome-wide significant genetic loci associated with epigenetic aging rates in blood notably the telomerase reverse ... Genetics of aging[edit]. Horvath published the first article demonstrating that trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) is associated with ...
Reverse genetics also assist in the development of new flu vaccines. Palese is the author of multiple book chapters and more ... "uses molecular biological techniques to understand how viruses replicate and how they interact with cells to cause disease in ... "pioneered the field of reverse genetics for negative-strand RNA viruses". Furtherance of this technique has been used by Palese ...
... reverse genetics - RFLP - Rh blood group system - ribosome - RNA - RNA virus - Robert Koch - root - rough ER - RuBP - Rudolf ... biological membrane - biological organisation - biological psychology - biological tissues - biologist - biome - biomechanics ... biological dispersal - biological tissue - biology - biology basic topics - blastomere - blastula - blunt end - bromouracil - ... genetics) - chimera (genetics) - Chi square test - chlorophyll - chloroplast - chloroplast membrane - cholesterine - chromatid ...
Reverse genetics Reverse genetics determines the phenotype that results from a specifically engineered gene. In some organisms ... There are several different physicochemical and biological methods that can be used to transfer genes into human cells. The ... NCBI Molecular Techniques "Forward and Reverse Genetics" (PDF). Reference, Genetics Home. "What is gene therapy?". "Search of ... Human Molecular Genetics Learn Genetics Medem "Human Genome Project Information". Sites and databases related to genetics, ...
"Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 77 (2): 193-200. doi:10.1046/j.1095-8312.2002.00096.x. ISSN 0024-4066.. ... McCracken, Kevin G.; Johnson, William P.; Sheldon, Frederick H. (2001). "Molecular population genetics, phylogeography, and ... the speciation process is beginning to reverse itself.[102] This has created conservation concerns for relatives of the mallard ... Conservation Genetics. 5 (3): 395-403. doi:10.1023/B:COGE.0000031139.55389.b1. S2CID 24144598.. ...
An Indexed, Mapped Mutant Library Enables Reverse Genetics Studies of Biological Processes in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Xiaobo ... An Indexed, Mapped Mutant Library Enables Reverse Genetics Studies of Biological Processes in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii ... An Indexed, Mapped Mutant Library Enables Reverse Genetics Studies of Biological Processes in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii ... An Indexed, Mapped Mutant Library Enables Reverse Genetics Studies of Biological Processes in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii ...
An Indexed, Mapped Mutant Library Enables Reverse Genetics Studies of Biological Processes in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Xiaobo ... A) LC-MS was used to quantify different molecular species of TAG in the lcs2 mutant and complemented lines in three biological ... Elucidation of biological processes in plants has benefited enormously from the availability of large-scale mutant collections ... Next to each circle, the percentage abundance of that species in each biological replicate is shown relative to the average ...
Biological materials. * 2,500 pure Gateway entry clones (plasmid DNA and E. coli strain), each authenticated by sequence ... Plasmid resources for Arabidopsis reverse genetics via RNA interference. Plasmid resources for Arabidopsis reverse genetics via ... In recent years, RNA interference (RNAi) has become a method of choice for reverse genetics analyses in animals and plants. ... It will for the first time bring plant-related biological materials in BCCM. It is sure to attract international attention and ...
Physiological tests were performed in three biological replications. Etiolation test was performed according to the protocol by ... A Reverse-Genetics Mutational Analysis of the Barley HvDWARF Gene Results in Identification of a Series of Alleles and Mutants ... Mutational analysis of the HvDWARF gene with the "reverse genetics" approach allowed for its detailed functional analysis at ... Development of multiple alleles of the gene with application of the "reverse genetics" strategy, like TILLING, allows detailed ...
Development of a live attenuated dengue virus vaccine using reverse genetics. Viral Immunol. 2006 Spring. 19(1):10-32. [Medline ... What is a biological approach to reducing vector mosquitos and preventing dengue?. Updated: May 03, 2019 ... encoded search term (What is a biological approach to reducing vector mosquitos and preventing dengue?) and What is a ... If successful, this would provide a practical biological approach to dengue suppression. [87] ...
This multi-facetted synthesis of information includes post-genomic molecular technologies; forward and reverse genetics of ... Biological Systems. Biological Systems. Cellular and molecular biology techniques offer great power for understanding ... However, in the Biological Systems theme, these techniques are used, as part of a varied experimental palette, to integrate a ... Molecular Genetics, applying fundamental science to genetic variation and human disease, insect control for food security and ...
What are the three broad steps of reverse genetics (gene-driven mutagenesis)? ... 5 membered ribose ring has been replaced by 6 member morpholine ring, not degraded in biological systems and has low potential ... This operon reverses transcriptional repression from the tetR (tet repressor) by preventing binding of tetR to the operator. ... miRNAs not only mediate mRNA cleavage, but also regulate a variety of biological processes, from housekeeping to response to ...
Collins F (1992). "Positional Cloning: Lets not call it reverse anymore". Nature Genetics. 1 (1): 3-6. doi:10.1038/ng0492-3. ... University of Alberta, Department of Biological Science. Retrieved October 16, 2011.. *^ ... Genetics researchEdit. At Yale, Collins worked under the direction of Sherman Weissman, and in 1984 the two published a paper ... Principles of Medical Genetics, 2nd Edition, with T.D. Gelehrter and D. Ginsburg (Williams & Wilkins, 1998) ...
An Indexed, Mapped Mutant Library Enables Reverse Genetics Studies of Biological Processes in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.. * ... Current Genetics}, year={2011}, volume={57}, pages={151-168} }. *Mia Terashima, Michael Duerr Specht, Michael Hippler ...
Screening of genome wide forward and reverse genetics. *2. small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) ... Biological Target Identification. Biological target is a collective term for a macromolecule includes protein, genes, RNA and ... An ideal new drug molecule must have therapeutic effect in a defined pathway towards its biological target with minimal effects ... Generation of protein function modulators are the key process in the biological target identification. A good target must be ...
I enjoy applying the latest reverse genetics tools to address biological questions using model organisms. One current project ... Patti Erickson Associate Professor / Biological Sciences. Henson Science Hall (HS) 214 * p 410-677-5325 ...
The public availability of research facilities designed to expedite reverse genetics in Arabidopsis (Krysanet al. 1999) should ... Biological activities of genes reported here extend across a broad spectrum of protein functions and cellular compartments. ... 1999 Analysis of flanking sequences from dissociation insertion lines: a database for reverse genetics in Arabidopsis. Plant ... duplicate mutant alleles for many of these genes identified through a combination of forward and reverse genetics; distribution ...
Biological: Influenza A/Bethesda/MM2/H1N1 Challenge Reverse-genetics derived live A/California/04/2009/H1N1-like influenza ... This is a study of a reverse-engineered, Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) grade, antiviral-sensitive, influenza A/Bethesda/MM2 ... This is a study of a reverse-engineered, Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) grade, antiviral-sensitive, influenza A/Bethesda/MM2 ... The Primary Objective for this study is to evaluate the association of symptomatic Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain ...
Many genetic sequences are discovered in advance of other, less easily obtained, biological information. Reverse genetics ... Reverse Genetics Reverse Genetics: Building Flu Vaccines Piece by Piece From the National Center for Biotechnology Information ... Reverse genetics usually proceeds in the opposite direction of so-called forward genetic screens of classical genetics. In ... Reverse genetics is a method that is used to help understand the function of a gene by analyzing the phenotypic effects of ...
... contemporary avian H9N2 and pandemic H1N1/2009 viruses by reverse genetics to study their genetic compatibility and biological ... Generation of Reassortant Viruses by Reverse Genetics.. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) amplicons of the eight viral genes ... Reverse genetics provides a tool to predict the potential public health risk of novel influenza viruses. Using such an approach ... 26) used reverse genetics to generate 63 reassortant viruses derived from A/Thailand/16/04 (H5N1) and A/Wyoming/3/03 (H3N2) ...
Agricultural and Biological Sciences. 8. 29%. Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine. 4. 14%. ... Chapter 6 Coronavirus Reverse Genetics and Development of Vectors for Gene Expression ...
... of aggressive and docile strains of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus rescued from a plasmid-based reverse-genetics system. ... Genomic and biological characterization ... Genetics & Medicine*Bookshelf. *Database of Genotypes and ...
... was produced by reverse genetics in anticipation of the possible need to vaccinate humans. ... Webby RJ, Perez DR, Coleman JS, Guan Y, Knight JH, Govorkova EA, Responsiveness to a pandemic alert: use of reverse genetics ... Candidate vaccine reference reagent reassortant viruses were generated at the National Institute of Biological Standards and ... Reverse genetics approaches allow the rapid production of high-growth PR8 reassortant viruses by engineering a virus with a ...
An actomyosin-based machine powers parasite motility and is crucial for parasite migration across biological barriers, host ... Moreover, previous work using reverse genetics highlighted that gliding is powered by the myosin XIV, TgMyoA [4]. ... These parasites cross biological barriers and enter cells by an active process that depends on a unique form of gliding ... Formins constitute a large family of proteins involved in many biological processes including cell polarity, cell-cell contact ...
The approach will involve Arabidopsis reverse genetics and analysis of mutant and transgenic plants. Experience in general cell ... and molecular biological techniques, Arabidopsis genetics, light and electron microscopy, or glycobiology would be an advantage ...
Genetics and Birth Defects. 12/15/2017 Genetics and Birth Defects A genetic mutation in the biological evolution of animals ... In the clinical trial published two years ago, 11 people reversed their diabetes by drastically cutting their food intake to ... Home Metabolic Problems Diabetes TV special shows diet reverses Type 2 Diabetes ... Study reveals how a very low calorie diet can reverse type 2 diabetes ...
OrygenesDB: an interactive tool for rice reverse genetics http://orygenesdb.cirad.fr/ ... PHI base (Pathogen-Host Interaction database) offers molecular and biological information on genes involved in host-pathogen ... Nature Genetics 39: 561-565. Kang S, Lebrun MH, Farrall L and Valent B (2001) Gain of virulence caused by insertion of a Pot3 ... Fungal Genetics and Biology 44: 1035-1049. Bourett TM and Howard RJ (1990) In vitro development of penetration structures in ...
Genetics and Birth Defects. 12/15/2017 Genetics and Birth Defects A genetic mutation in the biological evolution of animals ... Home Blood, Heart and Circulation Study finds a decline in heart attacks over 20 years, but rising BMIs may reverse this in the ... Study finds a decline in heart attacks over 20 years, but rising BMIs may reverse this in the future. ... and even reverse, the decline in the incidence of heart attacks in the future. Therefore, the rising BMI in the UK and in other ...
A luciferase-based reverse genetics approach identifies new components involved in the regulation of rhythmic gene expression ... Three biological replicates were measured and frq expression was normalized using two reference genes: tbp (NCU04770) and suc ( ... In this study, by employing a candidate reverse genetics approach and a luciferase-based platform, we show that the ... Supplemental material is available online at www.genetics.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1534/genetics.116.191064/-/DC1. ...
Biological Evolution* * Cell Division / genetics * Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics* * Genes, Tumor Suppressor ... The origin of the cancer cell: oncogeny reverses phylogeny Biochem Cell Biol. Oct-Nov 1992;70(10-11):831-4. doi: 10.1139/o92- ...
  • Reverse genetics using the bovine leukemia virus (BLV) genome highlighted important functional domains of the envelope protein involved in the viral life cycle. (mdpi.com)
  • Here, we present a high-quality draft genome sequence from an inbred line of B. xylophilus , and use this to investigate the biological basis of its complex ecology which combines fungal feeding, plant parasitic and insect-associated stages. (plos.org)
  • We have sequenced the genome of B. xylophilus and used it as a resource to understand disease mechanisms and the biological basis of its complex ecology. (plos.org)
  • The bakers' yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a microorganism of major importance for bioindustries, and one of the favored model organisms for basic biological research, is the first eukaryote whose genome is entirely sequenced. (nih.gov)
  • Biological and chemical sciences have undergone an unprecedented transformation, reflected by the huge use of parallel and automated technologies in key fields such as genome sequencing, DNA chips, nanoscale functional biology or combinatorial chemistry. (springer.com)
  • In this Review, I highlight recent studies in model organisms that are relevant both to the challenge of accurately predicting phenotypic variation from individual genome sequences ('whole-genome reverse genetics') and for understanding why, in many cases, this may be impossible. (nih.gov)
  • The new study describes researchers' use of molecular biological methods to design and assemble the viral 'genome' completely in a test tube in a form that can be easily introduced and replicated in cultured cells. (flutrackers.com)
  • This approach, known as 'reverse genetics', allowed them to control the viral genome and identify a gene (called NSs) involved in protecting the virus against the immune response of infected animals. (flutrackers.com)
  • Over the past decade, the availability of whole genome sequences for several major model organisms has spurred the development of many powerful reverse genetics approaches and, as a consequence, brought about dramatic changes to the way gene functions are analyzed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An expanding repertoire of genetic technology, together with sequencing of the genome and biological conservation, place the mouse at the foremost position as a model to decipher mechanisms underlying biological and disease processes. (biologists.org)
  • Emerging innovative genetic strategies, such as somatic genetics, modifier screens and humanized mice, in combination with whole-genome mutagenesis will dramatically broaden the utility of the mouse. (biologists.org)
  • Genome editing is about to revolutionize biological research, medicine and agriculture. (umd.edu)
  • Working with collaborators, we are currently developing and testing multiple genome and epigenome editing tool systems to aid reverse genetics, accelerated breeding and metabolic engineering in important staple crops such as rice and wheat as well as energy crops such as Camelina and poplar. (umd.edu)
  • They also indicate that complementing reverse genetics with bioinformatical data mining of genome-wide expression data aids in inferring hypotheses on possible functions for members of a gene family. (biomedcentral.com)
  • With the power of modern genetics, scientists are developing ways of editing these genetic errors and reversing the course of many hard-to-treat diseases. (bbc.com)
  • The award to a scientist who studies the fruit fly is especially fitting given the fact that Mr. Procter was a graduate student in zoology at Columbia University, where he was inspired by Thomas Hunt Morgan, the Nobel-prizewinning scientist who founded modern genetics and established the fruit fly as a model for the study of human disease. (mdibl.org)
  • Dr. Losick, who joined the MDI Biological Laboratory in 2016, has established herself as a leader in research on the role of polyploidy in wound healing and aging. (mdibl.org)
  • The Primary Objective for this study is to evaluate the association of symptomatic Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR)-positive influenza virus infection post-challenge and pre-existing Hemagglutinin Inhibition Test (HAI) antibody titers. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Viral RNA was extracted by using a commercial lysis solution and resin kit and amplified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction with specific oligonucleotide primers. (cdc.gov)
  • Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) is a molecular technique that offers one of the most accurate and sensitive methods for diagnosis of AIV. (jove.com)
  • There are several different methods of reverse genetics: Site-directed mutagenesis is a sophisticated technique that can either change regulatory regions in the promoter of a gene or make subtle codon changes in the open reading frame to identify important amino residues for protein function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rapid development of forward genetics and large-scale mutagenesis techniques has facilitated the use of zebrafish in advancing our understanding of body patterning, neurogenesis, organ development, and many other areas. (nyu.edu)
  • In recent years, RNA interference (RNAi) has become a method of choice for reverse genetics analyses in animals and plants. (belspo.be)
  • The interface facilitates meta-data acquisition and long-term safe-storage, while the graphical user interface helps the definition of a hit list and the visualization of biological modules among the hits, through Gene Ontology and protein-protein interaction analyses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • High-throughput and high-content screening allow the identification of bioactive compounds in collections of molecules (chemical libraries), being effective on biological targets defined at various organisational scales, from proteins to cells to complete organisms. (springer.com)
  • Handling a large number of biological (genomic and post-genomic), chemical and experimental information, screening approaches cannot be envisaged without any electronic storage and mathematical treatment of the data. (springer.com)
  • Comparative genomic approaches are being used to investigate genetic differences that mediate important biological diversity as well as to define unique adaptations for parasitism in T. gondii and related parasites. (wustl.edu)
  • Our goals are to enhance the quality of the Agrikola resources, to ensure the durability of plasmids and bacterial strains it produced and to distribute them to the research community at large, under the strictest standards adopted by biological resource centers. (belspo.be)
  • Here, we present ScreenSifter, an open-source desktop application developed to facilitate storing, statistical analysis and rapid and intuitive biological data mining of RNAi screening datasets. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Molecular Genetics , applying fundamental science to genetic variation and human disease, insect control for food security and the engineering of genetic circuits for Synthetic Biology. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Systems Biology is now entering a mature phase in which the key issues are characterising uncertainty and stochastic effects in mathematical models of biological systems. (wiley.com)
  • Chemogenomics and Chemical Genetics" should therefore be helpful for students (from Bachelor's degree level), technological platform engineers, and researchers in biology, chemistry, bioinformatics, cheminformatics, both in biotech and academic laboratories. (springer.com)
  • Our integrated training program includes specialty areas such as plant and evolutionary biology and vertebrate developmental genetics. (nyu.edu)
  • Toxoplasma is equipped with both forward and reverse genetics, including efficient system for gene editing with CRISPR/Cas9, making it a model for studying both basic biology and pathogenesis. (wustl.edu)
  • A combination of molecular, cell biological, and genetic approaches are being used to investigate the importance of proteasome-mediated protein degradation in spermatogenesis, and to address the functional role of the testes-specific subunits in this process. (syr.edu)
  • Avian Flu vaccine development by Reverse Genetics techniques. (wikidoc.org)
  • Given the potentially unlimited number of laboratories outside the WHO Network that may request PIP Biological Materials, and the practical impossibility of WHO entering into arrangements with all of them, the solution proposed is to limit individual arrangements to influenza vaccine manufacturers. (who.int)
  • Led by Richard Webby, PhD and Daniel Perez, PhD, the St. Jude laboratory team successfully modified a technique called reverse genetics to permit them to develop the H5N1 vaccine so quickly. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Key to the quick success in developing the vaccine was the on-campus availability of Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) facilities, which are equivalent in quality to those used by pharmaceutical companies to make biological agents such as vaccines. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • La sélection et la mise au point de virus vacci- the first steps towards timely vaccine naux candidats représentent les premières production and do not imply a recom- étapes vers une production en temps utile des mendation for initiating manufacture. (who.int)
  • 2) the generation and evaluation of negative strand RNA virus vectors as potential vaccine candidates against different infectious diseases, including malaria and AIDS, and 3) the identification of the biological role of the non-structural protein NS1 of influenza virus during infection: the inhibition of the type I interferon (IFN) system. (mssm.edu)
  • Our annotation guidelines and our evaluation of Inter-Annotator Agreement (IAA) address biological issues such as: the specification of the biological concepts most relevant for studying cellular systems, how their basic functional roles can be fitted into a taxonomy of nominal classes and the terminological ambiguities that are likely to occur on microbial-related literature. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, I provide the first piece of cell biological evidence to suggest that the enigmatic EHM is formed via de novo synthesis rather than simple extension and differentiation of the host plasma membrane in the invaded host cell during the biogenesis of the fungal haustorium (Chapter 3). (umd.edu)
  • To investigate the tropism of aCFV, we used the geminiviral reverse genetic system and introduced a multimeric clone into the laboratory model plant Nicotiana benthamiana. (canterbury.ac.nz)
  • The Procter Fund was established at the MDI Biological Laboratory earlier this year by a member of William Procter's family in honor of his achievements in science and business. (mdibl.org)
  • Mr. Procter went on to become a prominent entomologist and the author of a "Biological Survey of the Mount Desert Region," an exhaustive, seven-part survey of the insect and marine fauna of Mount Desert Island that was launched in the 1920s at the MDI Biological Laboratory, where he served as a trustee and as president. (mdibl.org)
  • We provide corpora concerning the integrated cellular responses to nutrient starvation in the model-organism E. coli , in which a variety of metabolic and regulatory biological concepts with assorted functional roles is identified. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In general, functional analysis of gene family members by reverse genetics is often obscured by several issues, such as redundancy, subtle or difficult to detect phenotypes in mutants, or by decision problems regarding suitable biological and biochemical assays. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, the biological relevance of these interactions in vivo has been hampered by the absence of adequate animal models. (mdpi.com)
  • AIV strains are further classified as low or highly pathogenic on the basis of specific molecular determinants of the HA protein and the biological behavior of the virus in in-vitro and in-vivo tests. (cdc.gov)
  • These studies argue that only by combining genetic knowledge with in vivo measurements of biological states will it be possible to make accurate genetic predictions for individual humans. (nih.gov)
  • An updated nonpathogenic H5N1 reference virus, lacking the polybasic cleavage site in the hemagglutinin gene, was produced by reverse genetics in anticipation of the possible need to vaccinate humans. (cdc.gov)