Biological Psychiatry: An interdisciplinary science concerned with studies of the biological bases of behavior - biochemical, genetic, physiological, and neurological - and applying these to the understanding and treatment of mental illness.Psychopharmacology: The study of the effects of drugs on mental and behavioral activity.Psychiatry: The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders.Neuropharmacology: The branch of pharmacology dealing especially with the action of drugs upon various parts of the nervous system.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Neuropsychiatry: A subfield of psychiatry that emphasizes the somatic substructure on which mental operations and emotions are based, and the functional or organic disturbances of the central nervous system that give rise to, contribute to, or are associated with mental and emotional disorders. (From Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 8th ed.)Neurosciences: The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Psychoanalysis: The separation or resolution of the psyche into its constituent elements. The term has two separate meanings: 1. a procedure devised by Sigmund Freud, for investigating mental processes by means of free association, dream interpretation and interpretation of resistance and transference manifestations; and 2. a theory of psychology developed by Freud from his clinical experience with hysterical patients. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996).Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)DNA Methylation: Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.Stereotyped Behavior: Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.CpG Islands: Areas of increased density of the dinucleotide sequence cytosine--phosphate diester--guanine. They form stretches of DNA several hundred to several thousand base pairs long. In humans there are about 45,000 CpG islands, mostly found at the 5' ends of genes. They are unmethylated except for those on the inactive X chromosome and some associated with imprinted genes.Child Development Disorders, Pervasive: Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Epigenesis, Genetic: A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.Gastric Dilatation: Abnormal distention of the STOMACH due to accumulation of gastric contents that may reach 10 to 15 liters. Gastric dilatation may be the result of GASTRIC OUTLET OBSTRUCTION; ILEUS; GASTROPARESIS; or denervation.Depressive Disorder, Major: Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.Systems Biology: Comprehensive, methodical analysis of complex biological systems by monitoring responses to perturbations of biological processes. Large scale, computerized collection and analysis of the data are used to develop and test models of biological systems.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Behavioral Sciences: Disciplines concerned with the study of human and animal behavior.Textbooks as Topic: Books used in the study of a subject that contain a systematic presentation of the principles and vocabulary of a subject.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Adolescent Psychiatry: The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders in individuals 13-18 years.Child Psychiatry: The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders in children.VirginiaBathing Beaches: Beaches, both natural and man-made, used for bathing and other activities.Bibliography as Topic: Discussion of lists of works, documents or other publications, usually with some relationship between them, e.g., by a given author, on a given subject, or published in a given place, and differing from a catalog in that its contents are restricted to holdings of a single collection, library, or group of libraries. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Bibliography of Medicine: A list of works, documents, and other publications on medical subjects and topics of interest to the field of medicine.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Foundations: Organizations established by endowments with provision for future maintenance.Ectromelia: Gross hypo- or aplasia of one or more long bones of one or more limbs. The concept includes amelia, hemimelia, phocomelia, and sirenomelia.Bacteriology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of bacteria, and BACTERIAL INFECTIONS.Nobel PrizeSeasonal Affective Disorder: A syndrome characterized by depressions that recur annually at the same time each year, usually during the winter months. Other symptoms include anxiety, irritability, decreased energy, increased appetite (carbohydrate cravings), increased duration of sleep, and weight gain. SAD (seasonal affective disorder) can be treated by daily exposure to bright artificial lights (PHOTOTHERAPY), during the season of recurrence.Phototherapy: Treatment of disease by exposure to light, especially by variously concentrated light rays or specific wavelengths.Color Therapy: A form of phototherapy using color to influence health and to treat various physical or mental disorders. The color rays may be in the visible or invisible spectrum and can be administered through colored lights or applied mentally through suggestion.Intense Pulsed Light Therapy: Treatment of the skin with flashlamps of prescribed wavelengths, fluence, and pulse durations which target specific chromophores to induce photothermolysis at specific locations in the skin such as at the HAIR FOLLICLE or SPIDER VEINS.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Melatonin: A biogenic amine that is found in animals and plants. In mammals, melatonin is produced by the PINEAL GLAND. Its secretion increases in darkness and decreases during exposure to light. Melatonin is implicated in the regulation of SLEEP, mood, and REPRODUCTION. Melatonin is also an effective antioxidant.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.

The biological basis of behavioral symptoms in dementia. (1/20)

This article describes the pathophysiology of dementia and differentiates between cognitive and noncognitive symptoms that characterize this devastating illness. Relationships between brain anatomic and neurochemical systems and behavioral symptoms of dementia are discussed. An overview of the etiologies and neuro-pathologies of dementia are presented as they relate to impairments in memory and intellectual abilities, personality changes, and behavioral symptoms. Recent genetic and molecular discoveries that have advanced our understanding of this complex spectrum of disorders and their treatment(s) are also highlighted.  (+info)

Neuropsychiatry of frontal lobe dysfunction in violent and criminal behaviour: a critical review. (2/20)

OBJECTIVES: To establish the link between frontal lobe dysfunction and violent and criminal behaviour, based on a review of relevant literature. METHODS: Articles relating evidence of frontal lobe dysfunction with violence or crime were collected through a MEDLINE search using the keyword "frontal lobe" combined with the terms "aggression," "violence," "crime," "antisocial personality disorder," "psychopathy," "impulse control disorders", and "episodic dyscontrol." Reference lists were then searched for additional articles. RESULTS: High rates of neuropsychiatric abnormalities reported in persons with violent and criminal behaviour suggest an association between aggressive dyscontrol and brain injury, especially involving the frontal lobes. The studies reviewed support an association between frontal lobe dysfunction and increased aggressive and antisocial behaviour. Focal orbitofrontal injury is specifically associated with increased aggression. Deficits in frontal executive function may increase the likelihood of future aggression, but no study has reliably demonstrated a characteristic pattern of frontal network dysfunction predictive of violent crime. CONCLUSIONS: Clinically significant focal frontal lobe dysfunction is associated with aggressive dyscontrol, but the increased risk of violence seems less than is widely presumed. Evidence is strongest for an association between focal prefrontal damage and an impulsive subtype of aggressive behaviour.  (+info)

Ethical issues of cost effectiveness analysis and guideline setting in mental health care. (3/20)

This article discusses ethical issues which are raised as a result of the introduction of economic evidence in mental health care in order to rationalise clinical practice. Cost effectiveness studies and guidelines based on such studies are often seen as impartial, neutral instruments which try to reduce the influence of non-scientific factors. However, such rationalising instruments often hide normative assumptions about the goals of treatment, the selection of treatments, the role of the patient, and the just distribution of scarce resources. These issues are dealt with in the context of increased control over clinical practice by third parties. In particular, health insurers have a great interest in economic evidence in clinical care settings in order to control access to and quality of (mental) health care. The authors conclude that guideline setting and cost effectiveness analysis may be seen as important instruments for making choices in health care, including mental health care, but that such an approach should always go hand in hand with a social and political debate about the goals of medicine and (mental) health care. This article is partly based on the results of a research project on the normative aspects of guideline setting in psychiatry and cardiology which was conducted under the guidance of the Royal Dutch Medical Association.  (+info)

A proposal to classify happiness as a psychiatric disorder. (4/20)

It is proposed that happiness be classified as a psychiatric disorder and be included in future editions of the major diagnostic manuals under the new name: major affective disorder, pleasant type. In a review of the relevant literature it is shown that happiness is statistically abnormal, consists of a discrete cluster of symptoms, is associated with a range of cognitive abnormalities, and probably reflects the abnormal functioning of the central nervous system. One possible objection to this proposal remains--that happiness is not negatively valued. However, this objection is dismissed as scientifically irrelevant.  (+info)

The dimensional approach to clinical psychopharmacology: a polysemous concept. (5/20)

The last decade has seen significant progress in the development and specific clinical application of selective psychotropes. The dimensional approach to clinical psychopharmacology views the behavioral targets of psychotropes as phenomena existing on a continuum and as components, in varying degrees, of most psychopathologies. The modern concept of dimension has been used in different contexts. In psychology it has a mathematical sense, whereas in biological psychiatry it is associated more with biological function. This paper reviews these two concepts and the recent models attempting to merge them into one. The heuristic value of the dimensional approach, as well as some of its pitfalls and new avenues of research, are discussed.  (+info)

The use of standardized patients for mock oral board exams in neurology: a pilot study. (6/20)

BACKGROUND: Mock oral board exams, fashioned after the live patient hour of the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology exam, are commonly part of resident assessment during residency training. Exams using real patients selected from clinics or hospitals are not standardized and do not allow comparisons of resident performance across the residency program. We sought to create a standardized patient mock oral board exam that would allow comparison of residents' clinical performance. METHODS: Three cases were created and then used for this mock oral boards exercise utilizing trained standardized patients. Residents from the University of Cincinnati and Indiana University participated in the exam. Residents were scored by attending physician examiners who directly observed the encounter with the standardized patient. The standardized patient also assessed each resident. A post-test survey was administered to ascertain participant's satisfaction with the examination process. RESULTS: Resident scores were grouped within one standard deviation of the mean, with the exception of one resident who was also subjectively felt to "fail" the exam. In exams with two faculty "evaluators", scores were highly correlated. The survey showed satisfaction with the examination process in general. CONCLUSION: Standardized patients can be used for mock oral boards in the live patient format. Our initial experience with this examination process was positive. Further testing is needed to determine if this examination format is more reliable and valid than traditional methods of assessing resident competency.  (+info)

Karoly Schaffer and his school: the birth of biological psychiatry in Hungary, 1890-1940. (7/20)

In the first third of the twentieth century, neuropathology seemed to offer the key to unlock the causes of psychiatric illness. Among the top centers devoted to the microscopic anatomy of the brain was that of Karoly Schaffer in Budapest. Schaffer, a pioneer in the histopathology of Tay-Sachs-Schaffer disease, was also a charismatic teacher, bringing forth a school of investigators in psychopathology. Among them was Laszlo Meduna, who originated convulsive therapy. Despite the importance of the Schaffer school, it is almost unknown outside of Hungary, largely the result of the introduction of neurophysiological, neurochemical and molecular genetic methods that distracted attention away from histopathological contributions in psychiatry after the Second World War. The microscopic study of the brain and its diseases seemed increasingly less important. The present biographical account of Karoly Schaffer and his school seeks to bring this important story in the early history of biological psychiatry to a wider audience and explain why it has since been forgotten.  (+info)

Pharmacogenomics: the promise of personalized medicine for CNS disorders. (8/20)


  • Dr. Pine served as the chair of the Psychopharmacologic Drug Advisory Committee for the Food and Drug Administration, chair of the Child and Adolescent Disorders Work Group for the DSM-5 Task Force, and president of the Society of Biological Psychiatry. (
  • While there is some overlap between biological psychiatry and neurology, the latter generally focuses on disorders where gross or visible pathology of the nervous system is apparent, such as epilepsy, cerebral palsy, encephalitis, neuritis, Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis. (
  • Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry is a peer-reviewed academic journal publishing review articles and original research reports pertaining to neuropsychopharmacology and biological psychiatry . (
  • The research will also be published in the journal Biological Psychiatry . (
  • Biological psychiatry is a branch of psychiatry where the focus is chiefly on researching and understanding the biological basis of major mental disorders such as unipolar and bipolar affective (mood) disorders, schizophrenia and organic mental disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. (
  • On a research level, it includes all possible biological bases of behavior - biochemical, genetic, physiological, neurological and anatomical. (
  • A major research finding in the field of Biological Psychiatry is that symptom-based categories of mental disorders map poorly onto dysfunctions in brain circuits or neurobiological pathways. (
  • Gene function and serotonin levels may also be contributing factors in BPD, according to research findings also presented at the ISSPD Congress by Larry Siever, MD, Professor of Psychiatry and Director of the Special Evaluation Program for Mood and Personality Disorders at Mount Sinai School of Medicine. (
  • The findings, by Harold W. Koenigsberg, MD, Professor of Psychiatry at Mount Sinai School of Medicine, were presented at the 11th International Congress of the International Society for the Study of Personality Disorders (ISSPD), held August 21 - 23 at The Mount Sinai Medical Center in New York. (
  • A subgroup of affected individuals (patients of the outpatients clinic of the Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry) are longitudinally observed regarding the stability of omics markers, vital parameters and symptom severity. (
  • Today exciting new biomedical insights take us all far past dreams and fantasies into a broad, complex landscape with many turns - into a remarkably complex, at times amazing, biological brain reality. (
  • The history of the field extends back to the ancient Greek physician Hippocrates, but the phrase biological psychiatry was first used in peer-reviewed scientific literature in 1953. (
  • Biological psychiatry and other approaches to mental illness are not mutually exclusive, but may simply attempt to deal with the phenomena at different levels of explanation. (
  • Schematic representation of the ongoing interactions between biological risk factors, exogenous environmental stressors and critical limbic-cortical circuits responsible for maintaining normal responses to ongoing emotionally salient stimuli. (
  • Mission Statement Today measurable biological mind realities, new data, as it did in Galileo's time, change archaic perceptions based upon labels and outward appearances. (
  • Moreover, the subgroup of patients from the outpatient clinic of the Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry is followed-up at study days 14, 28 and 56 as well as 4 and 12 months after baseline for changes in a subset of parameters (omics, vital parameters and selected psychometric measures). (
  • Professor Detlev Ploog On March 19-21, 1989, a symposium entitled "Integrative Biological Psychiatry" was held at the Ringberg Castle (Bavaria) to honor the scientific work of Detlev Ploog, who retired at that time from his position as the Director of the Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry in Munich. (
  • Biological Psychiatry is also the first-ranked psychiatry journal according to Google Scholar (July 2020). (
  • On a research level, it includes all possible biological bases of behavior - biochemical, genetic, physiological, neurological and anatomical. (
  • dynamic psychiatry psychiatry based on the study of the mental mechanisms and emotional processes that govern and motivate human behavior, rather than observable behavioral phenomena. (
  • social psychiatry that concerned with the cultural and social factors that engender, precipitate, intensify, or prolong maladaptive patterns of behavior and complicate treatment. (
  • Health and Behavior: The Interplay of Biological, Behavioral, and Societal Influences. (
  • Several sociodemographic, health, health behavior, and biological factors were investigated in respect to their associations to categorized (low and high) and continuous (linear regression) life satisfaction burden score (higher values indicating dissatisfaction). (
  • The study by Drs. Michael Poulter and Hymie Anisman and colleagues in the October 15th issue of Biological Psychiatry illustrates one exciting new example in this area of research, an epigenetic study of depression/suicide. (
  • Depression affects both men and women, but more women than men are likely to be diagnosed with depression in any given year.1 Efforts to explain this difference are ongoing, as researchers explore certain factors (biological, social, etc.) that are unique to women. (
  • Researchers have now explored ketamine's effects on suicidality in patients with treatment-resistant depression, and are publishing their results in the September 1st issue of Biological Psychiatry. (
  • This T32 Institutional Training grant, now named The Stuart T. Hauser Research Training Program in Biological and Social Psychiatry, is entering its 33rd year of a very successful post-doctoral training program for MDs, PhDs, and MD/PhDs. (
  • The rationale for this program is quite clear - to train the most diverse and outstanding young investigators, and to equip them with the tools and knowledge needed to succeed in developing their own research careers in the area of biological and/or social psychiatry so as to understand, treat, and ultimately prevent and possibly cure mental illness. (
  • The best online source to find information on general psychiatry is the official encyclopedia site. (
  • This systematic review aimed to summarize evidence for biological subtypes of MDD from data-driven studies. (
  • An international task force of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) developed these practice guidelines after a systematic review of the available evidence pertaining to the treatment of opioid dependence. (
  • Thus, the current study supports the importance of paradigm shift toward biotype-based diagnosis, instead of phenotype, for future precision psychiatry. (
  • At the moment there are some models that are contributing to precision psychiatry through the concept of staging. (
  • We included studies that identified (1) data-driven subtypes of MDD based on biological variables, or (2) data-driven subtypes based on clinical features (e.g., symptom patterns) and validated these with biological variables post-hoc. (
  • Additional appeal of the biological approach comes from the apparent authority it provides for many practising psychiatrists in the clinical team. (
  • among those conferences the continuation of the Association's clinical paintings is guaranteed throughout the actions of its distinctiveness sections, every one overlaying an enormous box of psychiatry. (
  • hence, the VII international Congress of Psychiatry, held in Vienna from July eleven to sixteen, 1983, was once composed of 2 kinds of clinical occasions - these established via the organization and people left to the initiative of the members. (
  • Clinical manual of emergency psychiatry / edited by Michelle B. Riba, Divy Ravindranath, Gerald Scott Winder. (
  • 1995 - 1999: Clinical Lecturer in Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, University of Newcastle upon Tyne. (
  • A new study published in Biological Psychiatry failed to find that CNVs were associated broadly with risk for bipolar disorder. (
  • The growing number of neuroscientists adopting the biological approach to neuropsychiatric diseases has resulted in a fast expanding body of knowledge regarding brain function and pathology. (
  • Biological psychiatry and other approaches to mental illness are not mutually exclusive, but may simply attempt to deal with the phenomena at different levels of explanation. (
  • Since then, the biological genie has escaped the confines of the mental institution and taken up residence amidst the population at large. (
  • Psychiatry is a branch of medicine that deals with the mental health of patients. (
  • In fact one of the top priorities at NIMH, and one of our own, is to """"""""develop new and use existing physiological and computational models to understand the biological functions of genes, gene products, cells, and brain circuits in normal and abnormal mental function. (
  • Mental health is interconnected with somatic health and can manifest itself in biological processes. (
  • In this article we systematically review prospective or genetic studies of biological predictors of response to clozapine. (
  • For all studies except genetic-studies, inclusion required that biological variables were measured before clozapine initiation. (
  • This assumes that problems in living, or perceived failures in social adjustment, are due to biological and/or genetic defects. (
  • The chapters in the present volume represent a documentation of this integrative view on psychiatry, and we, who worked together with Detlev Ploog as his university colleagues at the Ludwig Maximilians University (H. H. ), the Technical University of Munich (H. L. ) and as his successor at the Max Planck Institute (F. H. ) wish him, also after his retirement, continued scientific success, with many additional contributions to modern psychiatry. (