Biological Processes: Biological activities and function of the whole organism in human, animal, microorgansims, and plants, and of the biosphere.Cholera Toxin: An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.T-2 Toxin: A potent mycotoxin produced in feedstuffs by several species of the genus FUSARIUM. It elicits a severe inflammatory reaction in animals and has teratogenic effects.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Tetanus Toxin: Protein synthesized by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI as a single chain of ~150 kDa with 35% sequence identity to BOTULINUM TOXIN that is cleaved to a light and a heavy chain that are linked by a single disulfide bond. Tetanolysin is the hemolytic and tetanospasmin is the neurotoxic principle. The toxin causes disruption of the inhibitory mechanisms of the CNS, thus permitting uncontrolled nervous activity, leading to fatal CONVULSIONS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Marine Toxins: Toxic or poisonous substances elaborated by marine flora or fauna. They include also specific, characterized poisons or toxins for which there is no more specific heading, like those from poisonous FISHES.Botulinum Toxins, Type A: A serotype of botulinum toxins that has specificity for cleavage of SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25.Biological Products: Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Gene Regulatory Networks: Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.Shiga Toxins: A class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by blocking the interaction of ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) with PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS. They include SHIGA TOXIN which is produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE and a variety of shiga-like toxins that are produced by pathologic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157.Shiga Toxin 2: A toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157. It shares 50-60% homology with SHIGA TOXIN and SHIGA TOXIN 1.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Biological Therapy: Treatment of diseases with biological materials or biological response modifiers, such as the use of GENES; CELLS; TISSUES; organs; SERUM; VACCINES; and humoral agents.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Systems Biology: Comprehensive, methodical analysis of complex biological systems by monitoring responses to perturbations of biological processes. Large scale, computerized collection and analysis of the data are used to develop and test models of biological systems.MicroRNAs: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Protein Interaction Mapping: Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.Shiga Toxin 1: A toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157. It is closely related to SHIGA TOXIN produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Biological Warfare: Warfare involving the use of living organisms or their products as disease etiologic agents against people, animals, or plants.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Pest Control, Biological: Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Enterotoxins: Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Adenylate Cyclase Toxin: One of the virulence factors produced by virulent BORDETELLA organisms. It is a bifunctional protein with both ADENYLYL CYCLASES and hemolysin components.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Proteome: The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.Transcriptome: The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Protein Interaction Maps: Graphs representing sets of measurable, non-covalent physical contacts with specific PROTEINS in living organisms or in cells.Molecular Sequence Annotation: The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Gene Ontology: Sets of structured vocabularies used for describing and categorizing genes, and gene products by their molecular function, involvement in biological processes, and cellular location. These vocabularies and their associations to genes and gene products (Gene Ontology annotations) are generated and curated by the Gene Ontology Consortium.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Antitoxins: Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.Metabolic Networks and Pathways: Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Biology: One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Hemolysin Proteins: Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Biological Clocks: The physiological mechanisms that govern the rhythmic occurrence of certain biochemical, physiological, and behavioral phenomena.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Mycotoxins: Toxic compounds produced by FUNGI.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Scorpion Venoms: Venoms from animals of the order Scorpionida of the class Arachnida. They contain neuro- and hemotoxins, enzymes, and various other factors that may release acetylcholine and catecholamines from nerve endings. Of the several protein toxins that have been characterized, most are immunogenic.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Cytotoxins: Substances that are toxic to cells; they may be involved in immunity or may be contained in venoms. These are distinguished from CYTOSTATIC AGENTS in degree of effect. Some of them are used as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS. The mechanism of action of many of these are as ALKYLATING AGENTS or MITOSIS MODULATORS.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Clostridium difficile: A common inhabitant of the colon flora in human infants and sometimes in adults. It produces a toxin that causes pseudomembranous enterocolitis (ENTEROCOLITIS, PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS) in patients receiving antibiotic therapy.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Computer Graphics: The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.Data Mining: Use of sophisticated analysis tools to sort through, organize, examine, and combine large sets of information.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Microarray Analysis: The simultaneous analysis, on a microchip, of multiple samples or targets arranged in an array format.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Cell Physiological Processes: Cellular functions, mechanisms, and activities.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Expressed Sequence Tags: Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Drug Design: The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Cells: The fundamental, structural, and functional units or subunits of living organisms. They are composed of CYTOPLASM containing various ORGANELLES and a CELL MEMBRANE boundary.Neuromuscular Agents: Drugs used for their actions on skeletal muscle. Included are agents that act directly on skeletal muscle, those that alter neuromuscular transmission (NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKING AGENTS), and drugs that act centrally as skeletal muscle relaxants (MUSCLE RELAXANTS, CENTRAL). Drugs used in the treatment of movement disorders are ANTI-DYSKINESIA AGENTS.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Ricin: A protein phytotoxin from the seeds of Ricinus communis, the castor oil plant. It agglutinates cells, is proteolytic, and causes lethal inflammation and hemorrhage if taken internally.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Scorpions: Arthropods of the order Scorpiones, of which 1500 to 2000 species have been described. The most common live in tropical or subtropical areas. They are nocturnal and feed principally on insects and other arthropods. They are large arachnids but do not attack man spontaneously. They have a venomous sting. Their medical significance varies considerably and is dependent on their habits and venom potency rather than on their size. At most, the sting is equivalent to that of a hornet but certain species possess a highly toxic venom potentially fatal to humans. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Smith, Insects and Other Arthropods of Medical Importance, 1973, p417; Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, p503)Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Neurotoxins: Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.Artificial Intelligence: Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.Molecular Imaging: The use of molecularly targeted imaging probes to localize and/or monitor biochemical and cellular processes via various imaging modalities that include RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING; ULTRASONOGRAPHY; MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; FLUORESCENCE IMAGING; and MICROSCOPY.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Nanotechnology: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.Vocabulary, Controlled: A specified list of terms with a fixed and unalterable meaning, and from which a selection is made when CATALOGING; ABSTRACTING AND INDEXING; or searching BOOKS; JOURNALS AS TOPIC; and other documents. The control is intended to avoid the scattering of related subjects under different headings (SUBJECT HEADINGS). The list may be altered or extended only by the publisher or issuing agency. (From Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed, p163)Chromatography, Liquid: Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Sequence Analysis, RNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Clostridium botulinum: A species of anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that produces proteins with characteristic neurotoxicity. It is the etiologic agent of BOTULISM in humans, wild fowl, HORSES; and CATTLE. Seven subtypes (sometimes called antigenic types, or strains) exist, each producing a different botulinum toxin (BOTULINUM TOXINS). The organism and its spores are widely distributed in nature.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Cell Physiological Phenomena: Cellular processes, properties, and characteristics.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Bacillus thuringiensis: A species of gram-positive bacteria which may be pathogenic for certain insects. It is used for the biological control of the Gypsy moth.Disease: A definite pathologic process with a characteristic set of signs and symptoms. It may affect the whole body or any of its parts, and its etiology, pathology, and prognosis may be known or unknown.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Bacillus anthracis: A species of bacteria that causes ANTHRAX in humans and animals.ADP Ribose Transferases: Enzymes that transfer the ADP-RIBOSE group of NAD or NADP to proteins or other small molecules. Transfer of ADP-ribose to water (i.e., hydrolysis) is catalyzed by the NADASES. The mono(ADP-ribose)transferases transfer a single ADP-ribose. POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES transfer multiple units of ADP-ribose to protein targets, building POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE in linear or branched chains.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Lethal Dose 50: The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.Spider Venoms: Venoms of arthropods of the order Araneida of the ARACHNIDA. The venoms usually contain several protein fractions, including ENZYMES, hemolytic, neurolytic, and other TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL.Mice, Inbred BALB CEndotoxins: Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.Systems Integration: The procedures involved in combining separately developed modules, components, or subsystems so that they work together as a complete system. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Mammals: Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.Relative Biological Effectiveness: The ratio of radiation dosages required to produce identical change based on a formula comparing other types of radiation with that of gamma or roentgen rays.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Secondly, plant physiology includes the study of biological and chemical processes of individual plant cells. Plant cells have ... They do this by producing toxins and foul-tasting or smelling chemicals. Other compounds defend plants against disease, permit ... All biological pigments selectively absorb certain wavelengths of light while reflecting others. The light that is absorbed may ... Main article: Biological pigment. Among the most important molecules for plant function are the pigments. Plant pigments ...
RNases play a critical role in many biological processes, including angiogenesis and self-incompatibility in flowering plants ( ... Many stress-response toxins of prokaryotic toxin-antitoxin systems have been shown to have RNase activity and homology. EC 3.1. ... EC number EC 3.1.13.5: RNase D is involved in the 3'-to-5' processing of pre-tRNAs. EC number 3.1.??: RNase T is the major ... Gerdes K, Christensen SK and Lobner-Olesen A (2005). "Prokaryotic toxin-antitoxin stress response loci". Nat. Rev. Microbiol. ( ...
Violation of safety regulations during the process of handling microbiological and other biological agents or toxins; Violation ... of waste is used in the production process). They are: Pavlodar Ash-Sludge Waste Processing Plant JSC and EMEKO JSC. The base ... The process of NEAP was an important stage, which was launched in the majority of the region's countries. It allowed a shift ... The process of "Environment for Europe", which started in 1991 with the adoption of the Program of Actions for Environment ...
Such nonliving biological toxicants are generally called toxins if produced by a microorganism, plant, or fungus, and venoms if ... Physical toxicants are substances that, due to their physical nature, interfere with biological processes. Examples include ... Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) Biological activity Biological warfare California Proposition 65 (1986 ... with both chemical and biological agents. The preclinical toxicity testing on various biological systems reveals the species-, ...
The carbon in the biological treatment process adsorbs recalcitrant compounds that are not readily biodegradable, thereby ... reducing the chemical oxygen demand of the wastewater and removing toxins. The carbon also acts as a "buffer" against the ... or pumped as a slurry to a wet air oxidation unit for further processing to regenerate the carbon and destroy the biological ... Powdered activated carbon is also used in the processing of drinking water at treatment facilities, primarily on a seasonal ...
... in the process increasing the biodiversity and biological biomass. Sustainable planting may also involve crop rotation provided ... The bacterial symbionts reproduce and release toxins, which then kill the host insect. Compared to pesticides as they have very ... Capinera, John L.; Epsky, Nancy D. (1992-01-01). "Potential for Biological Control of Soil Insects in the Caribbean Basin Using ... Capinera, John L.; Epsky, Nancy D. (1992-01-01). "Potential for Biological Control of Soil Insects in the Caribbean Basin Using ...
... confirmed this process of biological magnification, as contaminated soil acted "reservoirs" of TCDD Agent Orange toxin that ... The toxin assisted in the political and economic upheaval necessary to uproot over two million refugees from Vietnam as well as ... Law reviews have even called for a revision to the litigation process in the US due to the harmful implications regarding ... the 1925 Geneva Protocol and Geneva Weapons Conventions signed by all members of the UN ban use of chemical and biological ...
Activators of cholera toxin and critical components of intracellular vesicular transport processes". The Journal of Biological ... A functionally conserved family of GTP-binding proteins". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 266 (4): 2606-2614. PMID 1899243 ...
... to refer to software and robots inspired by biological processes, but these do not satisfy any biological definition of life. ... They were described as poisons or toxins at first, then as "infectious proteins", but with advances in microbiology it became ... Viroids are the first known representatives of a new biological realm of sub-viral pathogens. Viroid RNA does not code for any ... as very small biological organisms or very large biochemical molecules - and since the 1950s many scientists have thought of ...
This process is widely used in all known forms of life. Some such enzymes are integral membrane proteins (anchored within ... Transmembrane ATPases import many of the metabolites necessary for cell metabolism and export toxins, wastes, and solutes that ... biological membranes), and move solutes across the membrane, typically against their concentration gradient. These are called ... This process is considered active transport. For example, the blocking of the vesicular H+-ATPases would increase the pH inside ...
This process of biological encryption has come to be known as "biociphering". Additional available building blocks enable the ... These biociphering platforms have opened the door to new protein therapeutic configurations including antibody-toxin, antibody- ... Wang A, Nairn NW, Johnson RS, Tirrell DA, Grabstein K (January 2008). "Processing of N-terminal unnatural amino acids in ...
Also, many experts are skeptical of the biological feasibility of anoxybiosis, because any preservation of biological ... In vaccines, the process can produce a dry vaccine that reactivates once it is injected into the body. In theory, dry-vaccine ... Chemobiosis is the cryptobiotic response to high levels of environmental toxins. It has been observed in tardigrades.[11] ... Clegg, J. S. (2001). "Cryptobiosis - a peculiar state of biological organization". Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B. ...
Bioplastic - polymer structures based on processed biological materials rather than petrochemicals. Bioplastics are commonly ... Karin Michaels, Associate Professor at Harvard Medical School, suggests that toxins leaching from plastics might be related to ... PCR is easily processed and inexpensive. However, it cannot come into direct contact with food or pharmaceutical products. PCR ... The orienting process serves to improve gas and moisture barrier properties and impact strength. This material does not provide ...
In addition, ion channels are key components in a wide variety of biological processes that involve rapid changes in cells, ... Indeed, numerous toxins that organisms have evolved for shutting down the nervous systems of predators and prey (e.g., the ... They are involved in important physiological processes such as pacemaker activity in the heart, insulin release, and potassium ... Pethig R, Kell DB (August 1987). "The passive electrical properties of biological systems: their significance in physiology, ...
ABCB1 or MDR1 P-glycoprotein is also involved in other biological processes for which lipid transport is the main function. It ... It is expressed primarily in the blood brain barrier and liver and is thought to be involved in protecting cells from toxins. ... ATP binds to the A subunits and it is then hydrolyzed to power the alternation, but the exact process by which this happens is ... Encyclopedia of Biological Chemistry (Second ed.). London: Academic Press. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-378630-2.00224-3. ISBN 978-0- ...
... thereby coupling transport to ATP hydrolysis in a large number of biological processes. The cassette is duplicated in several ... In contrast, export systems are involved in the extrusion of noxious substances, the export of extracellular toxins and the ... which uses the hydrolysis of ATP to translocate a variety of compounds across biological membranes. ABC transporters are ...
... okadaic acid and other members of its family have shined light upon many biological processes both with respect to ... Okadaic acid, C44H68O13, is a toxin produced by several species of dinoflagellates, and is known to accumulate in both marine ... Research into the shellfish consumed in the affected regions showed that a fat soluble toxin was responsible for the 164 ... However, the unique function of okadaic acid upon cells maintained biological interest in the molecule. Okadaic acid has been ...
ADP-ribosylation of proteins is an important post-translational modification that occurs in a variety of biological processes, ... "The Toxin-Antitoxin System DarTG Catalyzes Reversible ADP-Ribosylation of DNA". Molecular Cell. 64 (6): 1109-1116. doi:10.1016/ ... ADP-ribosylation of DNA is relatively uncommon and has only been described for a small number of toxins that include pierisin, ... The Macro domain from the antitoxin DarG of the toxin-antitoxin system DarTG, both binds and removes the ADP-ribose ...
... biological toxins and allergens produced by these microorganisms, enzymes, and other chemicals. Sustainable Development portal ... It has been estimated that this process, including the building of processing plants and then refining of the growing and ... The most widely used and promising means of creating cellulosic ethanol is called the cellulolysis process. The process ... The process of growing the tree biomass is energy efficient compared with growing corn or sugar cane for ethanol. However, it ...
"Always chew your food: freshwater stingrays use mastication to process tough insect prey". Proceedings. Biological Sciences ... The toxins that have been confirmed to be within the venom are cystatins, peroxiredoxin, and galectin.[40] Galectin induces ... In humans, these toxins lead to increased blood flow in the superficial capillaries and cell death.[41] Despite the number of ... This process ensures the survival of their young until they learn how to camouflage themselves in the sand through burial[22] ...
Mobile weapons laboratories are bioreactors and other processing equipment to manufacture and process biological weapons that ... He said Iraq had as many as 18 mobile facilities for making anthrax and botulinum toxin. "They can produce enough dry, ... June 5, 2003 "We recently found two mobile biological weapons facilities which were capable of producing biological agents" ... We found biological laboratories. You remember when Colin Powell stood up in front of the world, and he said, Iraq has got ...
... a process referred to as total synthesis (especially when the process involves no steps mediated by biological agents). Not all ... Botulinum toxin (from Clostridium botulinum) and bleomycin (from Streptomyces verticillus) are two examples. Botulinum, the ... The process of isolating a natural product from its source can be costly in terms of committed time and material expense, and ... Through the process of glycolysis sugars are broken down into acetyl-CoA. In an ATP dependent enzymatically catalyzed reaction ...
"Always chew your food: freshwater stingrays use mastication to process tough insect prey". Proceedings. Biological Sciences ... The toxins that have been confirmed to be within the venom are cystatins, peroxiredoxin, and galectin.[34] Galectin induces ... In humans, these toxins lead to increased blood flow in the superficial capillaries and cell death.[35] Despite the number of ... cells and toxins that are within the stingray, there is little relative energy required to produce and store the venom. ...
Biological processes use microorganisms to decompose or adsorb OTA in contaminated commodities. Protozoa, bacteria, yeast, ... Toxins. 2 (5): 1111-1120. doi:10.3390/toxins2051111. PMC 3153233 . Raper, K.B.; Thom, C. (1949). A manual of the penicillia. ... Chemical procedures aim to eliminate this mycotoxin through processes such as ammoniation, ozonation and nixtamalization. ... chemical and biological procedures. Physical methods are used remove the contaminated grains through sorting and separation. ...
These are often of human origin, but pollution can also include unwanted biological processes such as toxic red tide, or acute ... Toxins are poisons produced by organisms in nature, and venoms are toxins injected by a bite or sting (this is exclusive to ... The fields of medicine (particularly veterinary) and zoology often distinguish a poison from a toxin, and from a venom. ... Some poisons are also toxins, which is any poison produced by animals, vegetables or bacterium, such as the bacterial proteins ...
Biological processes are the processes vital for a living organism to live, and that shape its capacities for interacting with its environment. Biological processes are made up of many chemical reactions or other events that are involved in the persistence and transformation of life forms.[1] Metabolism and homeostasis are examples. Regulation of biological processes occurs when any process is modulated in its frequency, rate or extent. Biological processes are regulated by many means; examples include the control of gene expression, protein modification or interaction with a protein or substrate molecule. ...
... acts by the following mechanism: First, the B subunit ring of the cholera toxin binds to GM1 gangliosides on the surface of target cells. The B subunit can also bind to cells lacking GM1. The toxin then most likely binds to other types of glycans, such as Lewis Y and Lewis X, attached to proteins instead of lipids.[7][8][9] Once bound, the entire toxin complex is endocytosed by the cell and the cholera toxin A1 (CTA1) chain is released by the reduction of a disulfide bridge. The endosome is moved to the Golgi apparatus, where the A1 protein is recognized by the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone, protein disulfide isomerase. The A1 chain is then unfolded and delivered to the membrane, where Ero1 triggers the release of the A1 protein by oxidation of protein disulfide isomerase complex.[10] As the A1 protein moves from the ER into the cytoplasm by the Sec61 channel, it refolds and avoids deactivation as a result of ubiquitination. CTA1 is then free to bind with a human partner protein ...
The AB5 toxins are six-component protein complexes secreted by certain pathogenic bacteria known to cause human diseases such as cholera, dysentery, and hemolytic-uremic syndrome. One component is known as the A subunit, and the remaining five components make up the B subunit. All of these toxins share a similar structure and mechanism for entering targeted host cells. The B subunit is responsible for binding to receptors to open up a pathway for the A subunit to enter the cell. The A subunit is then able to use its catalytic machinery to take over the host cell's regular functions. There are four main families of the AB5 toxin. These families are characterized by the sequence of their A subunit, as well as their catalytic ability. This family is also known as Ct or Ctx, and includes the heat-labile enterotoxin family, known as LT. Cholera toxin's discovery is credited by many to Dr. Sambhu Nath De. He conducted his research in Calcutta (now Kolkata) making his discovery in ...
... is the addition of one or more ADP-ribose moieties to a protein. It is a reversible post-translational modification that is involved in many cellular processes, including cell signaling, DNA repair, gene regulation and apoptosis. Improper ADP-ribosylation has been implicated in some forms of cancer. It is also the basis for the toxicity of bacterial compounds such as cholera toxin, diphtheria toxin, and others. The first suggestion of ADP-ribosylation surfaced during the early 1960s. At this time, Pierre Chambon and coworkers observed the incorporation of ATP into hen liver nuclei extract. After extensive studies on the acid insoluble fraction, several different research laboratories were able to identify ADP-ribose, derived from NAD+, as the incorporated group. Several years later, the enzymes responsible for this incorporation were identified and given the name poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Originally, this group was thought to be a linear sequence of ADP-ribose units ...
... is a three-protein exotoxin secreted by virulent strains of the bacterium, Bacillus anthracis-the causative agent of anthrax. The toxin was first discovered by Harry Smith in 1954. Anthrax toxin is composed of a cell-binding protein, known as protective antigen (PA), and two enzyme components, called edema factor (EF) and lethal factor (LF). These three protein components act together to impart their physiological effects. Assembled complexes containing the toxin components are endocytosed. In the endosome, the enzymatic components of the toxin translocate into the cytoplasm of a target cell. Once in the cytosol, the enzymatic components of the toxin disrupts various immune cell functions, namely cellular signaling and cell migration. The toxin may even induce cell lysis, as is observed for macrophage cells. Anthrax toxin allows the bacteria to evade the immune system, proliferate, and ultimately kill the host animal. Research on anthrax toxin also provides insight into the ...
... is the movement of material from one point to another, e.g. secreted chemical substance from a cell or gland. In contrast, excretion, is the removal of certain substances or waste products from a cell or organism. The classical mechanism of cell secretion is via secretory portals at the cell plasma membrane called porosomes. Porosomes are permanent cup-shaped lipoprotein structure at the cell plasma membrane, where secretory vesicles transiently dock and fuse to release intra-vesicular contents from the cell. Secretion in bacterial species means the transport or translocation of effector molecules for example: proteins, enzymes or toxins (such as cholera toxin in pathogenic bacteria for example Vibrio cholerae) from across the interior (cytoplasm or cytosol) of a bacterial cell to its exterior. Secretion is a very important mechanism in bacterial functioning and operation in their natural surrounding environment for adaptation and survival. Eukaryotic cells, including human cells, have ...
Outbreaks occur in cold and wet weather (in late summer, fall and winter). The outbreaks are often traced back to the presence of rodents in the breeding houses. These are thought to spread the disease from carcasses of dead birds (possibly from neighboring backyards), improperly disposed of. Once the disease is introduced to a flock, it will stay until culling. Chronic carriers can always lead to re-emerging of the disease in susceptible birds.... In wild birds, this disease is most commonly associated with wetlands. Blanchong et al.[9] determined that wetlands act as short term reservoirs, recording large amounts of the bacterium in the soil and water through the duration of the outbreak. Wetlands, however, are not long term reservoirs.. The disease presents in two very different forms: acute and chronic. Birds with chronic avian cholera, more common in domestic fowl, exhibit prolonged illness with more localized infections. Chronic infection has been demonstrated in snow geese, and these ...
Vibrio cholerae is a bacterium causing the disease cholera. It is part of the genus Vibrio, in the family Vibrionaceae. Like all Proteobacteria, it is gram negative. V. cholerae can respire aerobically if oxygen is present and can switch to anaerobic respiration if oxygen is not present (fermentation).. ...
... belong to the polymorphic toxin category of bacterial exotoxins. Rhs proteins are widespread and can be produced by both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Rhs toxins are very large proteins of usually more than 1,500 aminoacids with variable C-terminal toxic domains. Their toxic activity can either target eukaryotes or other bacteria. In their large N-terminal region, Rhs toxins comprise RHS/YD repeats in various number (PF05593) (RHS meaning Rearrangement Hot Spot) and another "RHS-repeats associated core" domain (PF03527). In contrast, their C-terminal regions are shorter and harbor highly variable C-terminal domains including many domains with a predicted nuclease activity. These toxins encompass Rhs toxins of insect pathogens with an activity against insects. This group also include Rhs toxins with an activity against human phagocytic cells that contribute to pathogenesis of Pseudomonas ...
Ak človek skonzumuje dostatočne veľkú dávku vibrií (cca 1 milión baktérií u inak zdravého dospelého; väčšina totiž neprežije nízke pH žalúdočnej šťavy), časť z nich prejde až do tenkého čreva a tu sa začne množiť. Vibrio cholerae produkuje enterotoxín choleragén, ktorý je príčinou vodnatých hnačiek - človek tak môže strácať až 25 litrov vody denne. Baktéria nepoškodzuje priamo črevnú stenu, ale svojim toxínom pôsobí na reguláciu chloridového kanála, známeho ako CFTR (z anglického "cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator"). Tento objav viedol k hypotéze, že nositelia génu pre cystickú fibrózu sú chránení pred ťažkými formami infekcie, pretože ich chloridový kanál má porušenú funkciu a nedochádza k tak rýchlej strate tekutín. Vysvetľovalo by to i štatisticky vyšší výskyt cystickej fibrózy v populáciách, ktoré boli v minulosti vystavené epidémiám cholery. Zatiaľ sa však tieto predpoklady nepodarilo ...
Ak človek skonzumuje dostatočne veľkú dávku vibrií (cca 1 milión baktérií u inak zdravého dospelého; väčšina totiž neprežije nízke pH žalúdočnej šťavy), časť z nich prejde až do tenkého čreva a tu sa začne množiť. Vibrio cholerae produkuje enterotoxín choleragén, ktorý je príčinou vodnatých hnačiek - človek tak môže strácať až 25 litrov vody denne. Baktéria nepoškodzuje priamo črevnú stenu, ale svojim toxínom pôsobí na reguláciu chloridového kanála, známeho ako CFTR (z anglického "cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator"). Tento objav viedol k hypotéze, že nositelia génu pre cystickú fibrózu sú chránení pred ťažkými formami infekcie, pretože ich chloridový kanál má porušenú funkciu a nedochádza k tak rýchlej strate tekutín. Vysvetľovalo by to i štatisticky vyšší výskyt cystickej fibrózy v populáciách, ktoré boli v minulosti vystavené epidémiám cholery. Zatiaľ sa však tieto predpoklady nepodarilo ...
Napetostni kalcijevi kanalčki so zapletene beljakovine, sestavljene iz 4 ali 5 različnih podenot, ki jih zapisujejo različni geni.[1] Poznane so naslednje podenote: α1, α2δ, β1-4 in γ.[6] Podenota α1 meri 190 do 250 kDa in je največja podenota in vsebuje poro za prehod ionov, senzorno mesto za napetost, aparat za odpiranje kanalčka ter vezavna mesta za sekundarne obveščevalce, zdravila in toksine. Znotrajcelična podenota β ter transmembranska podenota α2δ tvorita z disulfidno vezjo povezan kompleks, ki predstavlja sestavni del večine različnih tipov kalcijevih kanalčkov. Podenoto γ so opazili pri kalcijevih kanalčkih v celicah skeletne mišičnine; sorodne podenote pa se izražajo tudi v možganih in srčni mišičnini. Različne podenote sicer modulirajo lastnosti beljakovinskega kompleksa, ki predstavlja kalcijev kanalček, vendar pa na različne farmakološke in elektrofiziološke lastnosti napetostnih kanalčkov primarno vplivajo raznovrstni podtipi enote α1.[1] ...
From 1870, Sophus Lie's work put the theory of differential equations on a more satisfactory foundation. He showed that the integration theories of the older mathematicians can, by the introduction of what are now called Lie groups, be referred to a common source, and that ordinary differential equations that admit the same infinitesimal transformations present comparable difficulties of integration. He also emphasized the subject of transformations of contact. Lie's group theory of differential equations has been certified, namely: (1) that it unifies the many ad hoc methods known for solving differential equations, and (2) that it provides powerful new ways to find solutions. The theory has applications to both ordinary and partial differential equations.[18]. A general approach to solve DEs uses the symmetry property of differential equations, the continuous infinitesimal transformations of solutions to solutions (Lie theory). Continuous group theory, Lie algebras, and differential geometry ...
Intersessional process ; Multilateral diplomacy ; International security ; International relations ; Dual-use ; Bioterrorism ; ... The Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention 2001-2006 : an assessment of the intersessional process ... This thesis conducts an analysis of the Intersessional Process (ISP) of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC) ... Arms control ; Partial disarmament ; VEREX ; Ad Hoc Group ; Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention ; Intersessional process ; ...
Biological Process. GO:0009405 pathogenesis Molecular Function. None predicted.. Cellular Component. GO:0005576 extracellular ...
This toxin affects the activation mechanism of sodium channels of squid axon. It also competes with Cn2 in rat brain ... Beta toxins bind voltage-independently at site-4 of sodium channels (Nav) and shift the voltage of activation toward more ... toxin activity Source: UniProtKB-KW. Complete GO annotation on QuickGO .... GO - Biological processi. *defense response Source ... Ion channel impairing toxin, Neurotoxin, Toxin, Voltage-gated sodium channel impairing toxin. ...
GO - Biological processi. *pathogenesis Source: UniProtKBInferred from direct assayi*18699777 ... Ion channel impairing toxin, Neurotoxin, Potassium channel impairing toxin, Toxin, Voltage-gated potassium channel impairing ... processing_section target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>PTM / Processingi. Molecule processing. Feature key. Position(s). Description ... Scorpion potassium channel toxins. Nomenclature of scorpion potassium channel toxins and list of entries ...
Crystal Structures of Ricin Toxins Enzymatic Subunit (RTA) in Complex with Neutralizing and Non-Neutralizing Single-Chain ... Biological process: * not assigned Cellular component: * not assigned Sequence domains: * Occurring in:. *Ricin A chain. > ... Crystal Structures of Ricin Toxins Enzymatic Subunit (RTA) in Complex with Neutralizing and Non-Neutralizing Single-Chain ... Crystal structures of ricin toxins enzymatic subunit (RTA) in complex with neutralizing and non-neutralizing single-chain ...
1H-NMR-derived secondary structure and the overall fold of the potent anti-mammal and anti-insect toxin III from the scorpion ... Biological Process. Cellular Component. A LQQIII (1LQQ:A) * Ion Channel Inhibitor Activity ... Knottins (small inhibitors, toxins, lectins) Scorpion toxin-like Long-chain scorpion toxins alpha toxin Leiurus quinquestriatus ...
GO enrichment analysis of molecular function and biological process were performed as well as Interpro protein functional ... We found some similarities of the mosquito responses to Cry11Aa toxin with previously observed responses to other Cry toxins in ... In this work the changes in the transcriptome of 4th instar A. aegypti larvae exposed to Cry11Aa toxin for 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 h ... Up regulated processes include vesicular trafficking, small GTPase signaling, MAPK pathways, and lipid metabolism. In contrast ...
A toxin is a poison produced through biological processes. The nicotine found inside of tobacco leaves is a toxin; so is the ... The liver is the bodys main defense against toxins. (Image credit: Nerthuz Shutterstock). Built-in detox system. The main ... However, drinking a juice or undergoing an internal cleanse isnt going to help your body get rid of these toxins any faster or ... Detoxification in that context is "the process of allowing the body to rid itself of a drug while managing the symptoms of ...
Other aquatic toxins are the result of natural biological processes. Also, chemical contaminants that originate outside of park ... Mercury is an example of a toxin originating outside a park that can find its way into a park. Mercury exists naturally in some ...
Toxic component of a type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) system. An RNase (By similarity). Upon expression in M.smegmatis inhibits ... Biological process. Toxin-antitoxin system. Ligand. Magnesium, Metal-binding. Enzyme and pathway databases. BioCyc Collection ... processing_section target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>PTM / Processingi. Molecule processing. Feature key. Position(s). Description ... GO - Biological processi. *negative regulation of growth Source: MTBBASE ,p>Inferred from Mutant Phenotype,/p> ,p>Describes ...
Upon expression in M.smegmatis neutralizes the effect of cognate toxin VapC46. ... Antitoxin component of a type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) system. ... Biological process. Toxin-antitoxin system. Enzyme and pathway ... processing_section target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>PTM / Processingi. Molecule processing. Feature key. Position(s). Description ... toxin-antitoxin pair type II binding Source: GO_Central ,p>Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor,/p> ,p>A type of ...
Whats a Toxin?. A TOXIN is a poisonous substance produced within A living organism.. A toxin can target any biological process ... A toxin can target any of these things. Today, you are creating a toxin that will kill bacteria, but not humans. HOW?. Remember ... An antibiotic is a Toxin that kills bacteria, but not us.. Surviving a pathogen gives you immunity to it.. Scientists are ...
Secondly, plant physiology includes the study of biological and chemical processes of individual plant cells. Plant cells have ... They do this by producing toxins and foul-tasting or smelling chemicals. Other compounds defend plants against disease, permit ... All biological pigments selectively absorb certain wavelengths of light while reflecting others. The light that is absorbed may ... Main article: Biological pigment. Among the most important molecules for plant function are the pigments. Plant pigments ...
New light on blocking Shiga and ricin toxins-And on an iconic biological process. December 10, 2018 Min Dong, Ph.D., and his ... Theyve figured out how Clostridium difficiles most potent toxin gets into cells and zeroed in on the first new botulinum ... lab are world experts in toxins and how to combat them. ...
New light on blocking Shiga and ricin toxins-And on an iconic biological process. December 10, 2018 Min Dong, Ph.D., and his ... Theyve figured out how Clostridium difficiles most potent toxin gets into cells and zeroed in on the first new botulinum ... lab are world experts in toxins and how to combat them. ...
Upgrading your biological system to a FlooBed® MBBR is easier than you may think Does your biological process suffer from shock ... It also tolerates temperature variations and toxins in the feed water. This make is a perfect solution for Industrial ... Why choose the Hydroflux FlooBed® MBBR over conventional biological processes?. A Hydroflux FlooBed® MBBR is very easy to ... A FlooBed® MBBR is one of several types of aerobic biological wastewater treatment process that uses bacteria to consume ...
INVOLVED IN toxin transport; ASSOCIATED WITH Neurodevelopmental Disorders (ortholog); FOUND IN cytoplasm (ortholog); INTERACTS ... Biological Process. toxin transport (IMP). Cellular Component. cytoplasm (ISO). sarcoplasmic reticulum (IEA). ... Biological Process. Term. Qualifier. Evidence. With. Reference. Notes. Source. Original Reference(s). ... toxin transport IMP. 2290270. (MGI:MGI:5492256, PMID:23716698). MGI. MGI:MGI:5492256, PMID:23716698. ...
However, many toxins, such as urea and lactic acid, are produced through normal biological processes. Because of this, the body ... It involves a variety of enzymes and proteins to help filter out toxins and byproducts from the body. Advertising ... Detox is all the rage these days, with more and more people touting the benefits of removing "toxins" from the body. ...
Biological Process. [+]* toxin transport Annotations: * B0JZD5 (TrEMBL, spp.: X.tropicalis) Cellular Component ...
Keywords: Biological processes, Cell signaling, Diseases, Hormones, Ligands, Neurotransmitters. Sodium Channels Voltage-gated ... A variety of toxins and chemicals are known to either block or m.... Keywords: Analgesics, Atomic absorption spectroscopy, ...
Students will learn the fundamental biological processes including energetics, metabolism, protein structure and enzyme ... Students will also learn the biochemical roles of vitamins, enzyme cofactors, hormones, drugs, antibiotics, and toxins. The ... we stress the integration of metabolism and the various modes of regulation that are vital to biological processes and ... transmission of information within and between cells will be studied including signal transduction and the genetic processes of ...
... of concentration-dependent nurr1 effects in the differential regulation of distinct nurr1 target genes and biological pathways ... of concentration-dependent nurr1 effects in the differential regulation of distinct nurr1 target genes and biological pathways ... Biological processes related to antigen processing/presentation and immune response are very highly enriched in this cluster, ... Inflammatory mechanisms of neurodegeneration in toxin-based models of Parkinsons disease. Parkinsons Dis. 2011, 713517. ...
Like animals, plants host communities of microbes that influence a wide variety of their biological processes. ... tags: bacterial toxin x cell & molecular biology x developmental biology x microbiology x ... The Purdue University researcher is one of the first to examine the molecular processes that underlie infection by soil ...
... which regulates a variety of important biological processes in eukaryotes. In this study, we characterized a novel homolog of ... which regulates a variety of important biological processes in eukaryotes. In this study, we characterized a novel homolog of ... Article Processing Charges Pay an Invoice Open Access Policy Terms of Use Terms and Conditions Privacy Policy Contact MDPI Jobs ... Toxins 2017, 9, 232. AMA Style. Liang L, Liu Y, Yang K, Lin G, Xu Z, Lan H, Wang X, Wang S. The Putative Histone ...
Integrative understanding of biological processes mediated by transient macromolecular complexes; New technology for ... Presentation] Structural basis for the inhibition of voltage-dependent potassium (Kv) channels by gating modifier toxins2011. * ... Integrative understanding of biological processes mediated by transient macromolecul ar complexes; New technology for ... Integrative understanding of biological processes mediated by transient macromolecular complexes; New technology for ...
  • Cell-to-cell communication molecules such as cytokines play an extremely important role in mediating the process of inflammation. (springer.com)
  • Now researchers have discovered that the toxins that make snake and lizard venom deadly can evolve back into completely harmless molecules, raising the possibility that they could be developed into drugs. (earthsky.org)
  • Snake researchers were aware that venom toxins evolve from harmless molecules that do fairly mundane jobs elsewhere in the body. (earthsky.org)
  • In R&D conducted under the EU ML2 (MultiLayer MicroLab) project, Leti recently transferred a process to Germany's Fraunhofer Institute that functionalizes long spools (over 100 meters) of PMMA plastic sheets by grafting biological molecules onto the material. (minatec.org)
  • It is well suited for treating waste streams high in organic or biodegradable content and is often used to treat municipal sewage, wastewater generated by pulp and paper mills or food-related industries such as meat processing, and industrial waste streams containing carbon molecules. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The company s detection technologies allow industrial customers to identify the presence of adulterants, such as chemical toxins, biological pathogens and other contaminants that can compromise human or environmental safety, and/or financially impact efficiencies of production processes. (marketpublishers.com)
  • The most important transcriptional changes were observed after 9 or 12 h of toxin exposure. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An acute (≤7 days after symptom onset OR as soon as possible after a known exposure event) serum sample to test for anthrax lethal factor toxin. (cdc.gov)
  • Drinking water is of particular concern in the home, as our exposure to toxins is determined by what comes out of the tap. (luc.edu)
  • What seems to be necessary is a systemic ongoing approach to rid the body of the accumulated toxins from the past and to quickly rid the body of toxins from our ongoing exposure. (forresthealth.com)
  • Bredesen says other tests he administered revealed high concentrations of fungus and mold toxins in her system, which he interpreted as residual damage from exposure to mold that had festered in the basement of one of her previous residences. (discovermagazine.com)
  • Epidemiological and model organism studies have demonstrated that epigenetic modification can be induced via diverse environmental stimuli including stress, nutrient levels and toxin exposure. (bcgsc.ca)
  • Up regulated processes include vesicular trafficking, small GTPase signaling, MAPK pathways, and lipid metabolism. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The present study identified a large number of NURR1-responsive genes and demonstrated the potential importance of concentration-dependent NURR1 effects in the differential regulation of distinct NURR1 target genes and biological pathways. (frontiersin.org)
  • Many snake venom toxins target the same physiological pathways that doctors would like to target to treat a variety of medical conditions. (earthsky.org)
  • Prof P. Gopalakrishnakone is a world leader in the characterization of the structure and function of animal and plant toxins and chemical poisons, which contain highly specific and biologically active components. (springer.com)
  • An antibiotic is a Toxin that kills bacteria, but not us. (prezi.com)
  • A FlooBed® MBBR is one of several types of aerobic biological wastewater treatment process that uses bacteria to consume organic matter in the presence of oxygen. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The main difference between the FlooBed® MBBR and other conventional processes is that is uses small plastic carrier elements in the biological aeration vessel to provide a high surface area for bacteria to attach to and grow. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Infection by bacteria, fungi, or virus is always a possibility as is the presence of toxins and toxicants or even something as supposedly obvious as ectoparasites. (advancedaquarist.com)
  • The Repeat-in-Toxin (RTX) family is a group of virulence-associated exotoxins that are generated by Gram-negative bacteria and are noted for their ability to form pores on the membrane of host cells including leukocytes . (mdpi.com)
  • Advocates of detox therapies start with the premise that the body accumulates toxins that can cause cancer and other diseases. (livescience.com)
  • In addition, by studying the functional annotation of the disease genes, we can learn more about the biological mechanisms underlying human genetic diseases. (google.com)
  • If left unrepaired, these alterations can disrupt key biological processes, leading to serious diseases, including cancer. (harvard.edu)
  • Currently, Pizzorno's team has reviewed 26 toxins and toxin classes-including lead, mercury, BPA, and OCPs-100s of chemicals and POPs in some classes, 18 cancers, and 24 chronic diseases. (integrativepractitioner.com)
  • While the results are varied and complex, one sentiment is consistent across all toxins and diseases examined: toxin load more than doubles disease risk for exposed populations. (integrativepractitioner.com)
  • The quick and easy diffusion of ROS and their ability to react with multiple nonspecific components cells may lead to disturbances of many biological processes, which may result in the development of a number of diseases. (hindawi.com)
  • The ability to target anthrax toxin to tumors so that healthy tissue is spared depends on a unique property of the toxin, explained study leader Stephen Leppla, Ph.D., of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. (cancer.gov)
  • Through this intellectually paralyzing atmosphere, Dr. Biskind had the composure to argue what he thought was the most obvious explanation for the polio epidemic: Central nervous system diseases such as polio are actually the physiological and symptomatic manifestations of the ongoing government and industry sponsored inundation of the world's populace with central nervous system toxins. (whale.to)
  • Biological toxins are an important part of our world, a reality with which we need to cope, so in parallel with understanding their mechanisms of action and thereby improving our fundamental knowledge, there are successful efforts to utilize them as therapeutics against some debilitating human and animal diseases. (springer.com)
  • His research studies includes structure function studies (toxin detection, biosensors, antitoxins and neutralization factors), toxicogenomics and expression studies, antimicrobial peptides from venoms and toxins and PLA2 inhibitors as potential drug candidate for inflammatory diseases. (springer.com)
  • p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge. (uniprot.org)
  • GO enrichment analysis of molecular function and biological process were performed as well as Interpro protein functional domains and pBLAST analyses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Students will learn the fundamental biological processes including energetics, metabolism, protein structure and enzyme function. (umich.edu)
  • The perturbations can be genetic (such as a mutation in a gene that affects protein function) or environmental (such as a drug or a toxin). (google.com)
  • Fluorescens Anisotropi som værktøj til at studere protein-protein interaktioner Abril Gijsbers 1 , Takuya Nishigaki 2 , Nuria Sánchez-Puig 1 1 Departamento de Química de Biomacromoléculas, Instituto de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 2 Departamento de Genética del Desarrollo y Fisiología Molecular, Instituto de Biotecnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Protein interaktioner er kernen i en celles funktion. (jove.com)
  • We suggest therefore that alterations in isoform diversity or transcript expression levels within the major venom protein families are likely to be responsible for prey specificity, rather than differences in the representation of entire toxin families or the recruitment of novel toxin families, although the recruitment of lysosomal acid lipase as a response to vertebrate feeding cannot be excluded. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Unlike other bacterial toxins, anthrax toxin, which binds to receptors on the cell surface, must be snipped by protein-chewing enzymes called proteases before it can enter and kill a cell. (cancer.gov)
  • Here, we investigate how the effector molecule HC-toxin (HCT), a histone deacetylase inhibitor produced by the fungal pathogen Cochliobolus carbonum race 1, promotes virulence in maize through altering protein acetylation. (pnas.org)
  • The technology platform that has been built over the years under the Venom and Toxin Research Programme, coupled with its extensive library of protein and peptides, has enabled Prof Gopal and his team to complete the discovery process of lead candidates in time and to transfer valuable supplementary information to the next discovery steps involving profiling and optimization of lead candidates. (springer.com)
  • Click on each tab for a list of recommended biological specimens that may be submitted for anthrax diagnostic testing. (cdc.gov)
  • An acute plasma sample to test for anthrax lethal factor toxin. (cdc.gov)
  • Plasma is the preferred specimen for anthrax lethal factor toxin testing. (cdc.gov)
  • To be tested for culture and real-time PCR, as well as anthrax lethal factor toxin. (cdc.gov)
  • Armed with a greater understanding of the detailed structure and function of the deadly anthrax toxin, scientists have engineered components of the toxin as a potential therapy for solid cancers. (cancer.gov)
  • More than 10 years ago, Dr. Leppla and study co-author Thomas Bugge, Ph.D., of the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, an expert on cell-surface proteases, engineered modified forms of the anthrax toxin that require activation by specific cell-surface proteases, called MMPs and uPA, that are found at much higher levels in tumors than in normal tissues. (cancer.gov)
  • and second, rapidly growing endothelial cells in tumors are more dependent than normal endothelial cells on a specific type of intracellular enzyme that is targeted by the engineered anthrax toxin once it enters a cell. (cancer.gov)
  • Below are the list of possible Anthrax toxin receptor products. (mybiosource.com)
  • Toxins 2017 , 9 , 232. (mdpi.com)
  • In 2017, the estimated value of seafood processed in the U.S. was $11.9 billion, with edible products valued at $11 billion and industrial products at $903.1 million. (cdc.gov)
  • 1 In the U.S. during 2017, there was an annual average of 816 establishments and 35,579 workers in the seafood processing industry, with the Pacific region employing the most workers. (cdc.gov)
  • During 2011-2017, seafood processing workers had the highest injury/illness rate of any U.S. maritime workers at 6,670 injuries/illnesses per 100,000 workers. (cdc.gov)
  • Because bulk water interferes with reversible biological processes and enthalpy-entropy compensation occurs during H-bond formation, the mechanisms and the extent to which H-bonds contribute to molecular function are not well understood. (sciencemag.org)
  • This thesis conducts an analysis of the Intersessional Process (ISP) of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC) between 2001 and 2006. (bl.uk)
  • Respiratory symptoms among crab processing workers in Alaska: epidemiological and environmental assessment. (cdc.gov)
  • Validation with RT-qPCR showed large agreement with Cry11Aa intoxication since these changes were not observed with untreated larvae or larvae treated with non-toxic Cry11Aa mutants, indicating that a fully functional pore forming Cry toxin is required for the observed transcriptional responses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Toxic component of a type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) system. (uniprot.org)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention focuses on toxicity, population toxic load, and prevalence of substances in toxic waste sites when determining which toxins are the worst. (integrativepractitioner.com)
  • These come from the enormous toxic burgeon coming from the environment but also from our own biological processes. (forresthealth.com)
  • Additional projects have developed new designs of mobile toxin detection and collection instruments and a Bycatch-friendly Electronic Fishing Buoy. (mote.org)
  • A TOXIN is a poisonous substance produced within A living organism. (prezi.com)
  • One of Elledge's most pivotal discoveries is unraveling the process by which cells sense DNA damage and initiate self-repair, a critical fail-safe mechanism that safeguards both individual cells and the integrity and health of the entire organism. (harvard.edu)
  • This subsection can be displayed in different sections ('Function', 'PTM / Processing', 'Pathology and Biotech') according to its content. (uniprot.org)
  • p>Used to indicate a direct assay for the function, process or component indicated by the GO term. (uniprot.org)
  • Some advocates of liver cleansing argue that so-called liver cleansers help the liver function better to remove toxins. (livescience.com)
  • But when people talk about "toxins," they're likely referring to manmade chemicals as well. (livescience.com)
  • They do this by producing toxins and foul-tasting or smelling chemicals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Organic chemical contaminants, including synthetic and volatile organic chemicals, which are by-products of industrial processes and petroleum production, and may also come from gas stations, urban storm water runoff and septic systems. (luc.edu)
  • Toxins are produced in the body, during normal physiological functions such as breathing, digestion and metabolism, or due to drugs, pollution, smoking, alcohol and inhaling of harmful chemicals. (biogetica.com)
  • The aim is to reduce the chemicals ingested, increase the amount of antioxidants in the body, and thus eliminate toxins from the body. (biogetica.com)
  • δ -Toxins from various staphylococcal species [ 9 , 10 ] and the cyclolipopeptides from Bacillus subtilis are prominent examples [ 11 ] (see Figure 1 ). (hindawi.com)
  • Gas gangrene, or myonecrosis, is a form of gangrene and bacterial infection that produces toxins which lead to gas build up inside the tissues. (kenyon.edu)
  • Despite the intense effort that has been input into investigating the interaction between RTX toxins and host cells during bacterial infection, our understanding of how RTX toxins insert into host cell membranes, and in turn, how host cells respond to the challenge of these toxins remains very limited. (mdpi.com)
  • material on the use of toxins as tools in studying biological processes and material on subjects related to venom and antivenom problems. (elsevier.com)
  • But the researchers' discovery that there may be many harmless versions of venom toxins throughout a snake's body opens the door to a whole new era of drug discovery. (earthsky.org)
  • The comparison of Echis venom gland transcriptomes revealed substantial intrageneric venom variation in representations and cluster numbers of the most abundant venom toxin families. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The expression profiles of established toxin groups exhibit little obvious association with venom-related adaptations to diet described from this genus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • He has contributed significantly to the body of knowledge regarding the anatomy of snake venom glands and the development of drug candidates from animal toxins. (springer.com)
  • Prof Gopal pioneered the development of the NUS Venom and Toxin Research Programme, which has put NUS at the forefront of toxin research internationally. (springer.com)
  • We found some similarities of the mosquito responses to Cry11Aa toxin with previously observed responses to other Cry toxins in different insect orders and in nematodes suggesting a conserved response to pore forming toxins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 18. Metal Ion Sensor of Pore-Forming Toxin for Environmental Evaluation. (fishpond.co.nz)
  • Pore-forming toxins, however, can also contribute to the induction of inflammation and hence to the manifestation of sepsis. (hindawi.com)
  • Clearly, pore-forming toxins are not the sole factors that drive sepsis progression, but they often act in concert with other bacterial effectors, especially in the initial stages of neonatal sepsis manifestation. (hindawi.com)
  • Converting activated sludge processes or SBR's to a Hydroflux FlooBed® MBBR system can allow treatment of up to 50% more wastewater without incurring any significant additional space, improve the performance and fix poor sedimentation problems. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Functional Medicine focuses on understanding the fundamental physiological processes, the environmental inputs, and the genetic predispositions that influence health and disease so that interventions are focused on treating the cause of the problem, not just masking the symptoms. (hoffmancentre.com)
  • Also described are how they have been used to further our knowledge and what insights they have given us into evolutionary and physiological processes. (springer.com)
  • In most cases, it does not take into account the unique genetic makeup of each individual or factors such as environmental exposures to toxins and the aspects of today's lifestyle that have a direct influence on the rise in chronic disease in modern western society. (hoffmancentre.com)
  • Now, for the first time, neuroscientist and sleep researchers from Boston University have shown how this process works in humans. (nutritionreview.org)
  • Some researchers have wondered why the brain doesn't simply flush out these toxins all the time, but Lewis and her researchers have a good idea as to why this only occurs during deep sleep. (nutritionreview.org)
  • The researchers visualized the Hsf1 activation pattern in the developing cerebral cortex, a part of the brain that enables it to process information. (nih.gov)
  • When given in combination with two drugs that can block the production of antibodies against the toxin, the treatment greatly suppressed tumor growth in mouse models of lung cancer and melanoma, the researchers reported June 29 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences . (cancer.gov)
  • The Ocean Technology Research Program supports the Sarasota Operations - Coastal Ocean Observing Laboratory (SO-COOL) which accepts, houses and redistributes physical and biological data streams designed to facilitate the study and management of our local coastal environment by researchers and agency stewards. (mote.org)
  • However, drinking a juice or undergoing an internal cleanse isn't going to help your body get rid of these toxins any faster or more effectively, according to Dr. Michael Gershon, a professor of pathology and cell biology at Columbia University in New York. (livescience.com)
  • Marrink is involved in a project aimed at creating a synthetic cell and being able to simulate processes such as cell division would help its design. (rug.nl)
  • How would you like to have the responsibility to process somewhere around 100,000 chemical reactions per second in every cell of the 70 to 100 trillion cells of your body? (thecoachingpair.com)