Biological activities and function of the whole organism in human, animal, microorgansims, and plants, and of the biosphere.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.
Comprehensive, methodical analysis of complex biological systems by monitoring responses to perturbations of biological processes. Large scale, computerized collection and analysis of the data are used to develop and test models of biological systems.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Graphs representing sets of measurable, non-covalent physical contacts with specific PROTEINS in living organisms or in cells.
The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.
The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
Sets of structured vocabularies used for describing and categorizing genes, and gene products by their molecular function, involvement in biological processes, and cellular location. These vocabularies and their associations to genes and gene products (Gene Ontology annotations) are generated and curated by the Gene Ontology Consortium.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Treatment of diseases with biological materials or biological response modifiers, such as the use of GENES; CELLS; TISSUES; organs; SERUM; VACCINES; and humoral agents.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Cellular functions, mechanisms, and activities.
Use of sophisticated analysis tools to sort through, organize, examine, and combine large sets of information.
Warfare involving the use of living organisms or their products as disease etiologic agents against people, animals, or plants.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
The simultaneous analysis, on a microchip, of multiple samples or targets arranged in an array format.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The physiological mechanisms that govern the rhythmic occurrence of certain biochemical, physiological, and behavioral phenomena.
The use of molecularly targeted imaging probes to localize and/or monitor biochemical and cellular processes via various imaging modalities that include RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING; ULTRASONOGRAPHY; MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; FLUORESCENCE IMAGING; and MICROSCOPY.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A specified list of terms with a fixed and unalterable meaning, and from which a selection is made when CATALOGING; ABSTRACTING AND INDEXING; or searching BOOKS; JOURNALS AS TOPIC; and other documents. The control is intended to avoid the scattering of related subjects under different headings (SUBJECT HEADINGS). The list may be altered or extended only by the publisher or issuing agency. (From Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed, p163)
The fundamental, structural, and functional units or subunits of living organisms. They are composed of CYTOPLASM containing various ORGANELLES and a CELL MEMBRANE boundary.
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A definite pathologic process with a characteristic set of signs and symptoms. It may affect the whole body or any of its parts, and its etiology, pathology, and prognosis may be known or unknown.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.
The functions and properties of living organisms, including both the physical and chemical factors and processes, supporting life in single- or multi-cell organisms from their origin through the progression of life.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Cellular processes, properties, and characteristics.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Techniques of nucleotide sequence analysis that increase the range, complexity, sensitivity, and accuracy of results by greatly increasing the scale of operations and thus the number of nucleotides, and the number of copies of each nucleotide sequenced. The sequencing may be done by analysis of the synthesis or ligation products, hybridization to preexisting sequences, etc.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.
The process of finding chemicals for potential therapeutic use.
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The procedures involved in combining separately developed modules, components, or subsystems so that they work together as a complete system. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The complete gene complement contained in a set of chromosomes in a fungus.
Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
The study of existing genetic knowledge, and the generation of new genetic data, to understand and thus avoid DRUG TOXICITY and adverse effects from toxic substances from the environment.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
A genus of aerobic, gram-negative, motile, slightly curved, rod-shaped bacteria. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Protein modules with conserved ligand-binding surfaces which mediate specific interaction functions in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and the specific BINDING SITES of their cognate protein LIGANDS.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
In INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, machine-sensing or identification of visible patterns (shapes, forms, and configurations). (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Rapid methods of measuring the effects of an agent in a biological or chemical assay. The assay usually involves some form of automation or a way to conduct multiple assays at the same time using sample arrays.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Ligand-binding assays that measure protein-protein, protein-small molecule, or protein-nucleic acid interactions using a very large set of capturing molecules, i.e., those attached separately on a solid support, to measure the presence or interaction of target molecules in the sample.
Specific languages used to prepare computer programs.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Computer processing of a language with rules that reflect and describe current usage rather than prescribed usage.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.

Platelet microparticle-associated protein disulfide isomerase promotes platelet aggregation and inactivates insulin. (1/64)

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Hemoglobin precipitation by polyethylene glycols leads to underestimation of membrane pore sizes. (2/64)

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A role for candidate tumor-suppressor gene TCEAL7 in the regulation of c-Myc activity, cyclin D1 levels and cellular transformation. (3/64)

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Estrogen regulation of proteins in the rat ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus. (4/64)

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Copper regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 activity. (5/64)

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Regulation of hepatic cytochrome P450 expression in mice with intestinal or systemic infections of citrobacter rodentium. (6/64)

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Mechanism-based modeling of nutritional and leptin influences on growth in normal and type 2 diabetic rats. (7/64)

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Regulation of plasma fructose and mortality in mice by the aldose reductase inhibitor lidorestat. (8/64)

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Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is one of the most lethal cancer, mainly attributing to its high tendency to metastasis. Mounting evidence has demonstrated that genes and microRNAs (miRNAs) are related to human cancer onset and progression including invasion and metastasis.An eligible gene dataset and an eligible miRNA dataset were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database based our screening criteria. Differentially expressed genes (DE-genes) or DE-miRNAs for each dataset obtained by the R software package. The potential target genes of the top 10 DE-miRNAs were predicted by multiple databases. For annotation, visualization and integrated discovery, Metascape 3.0 was introduced to perform enrichment analysis for the DE-genes and the predicted target genes of the selected top 10 DE-miRNAs, including Pathway and Process Enrichment Analysis or protein-protein interaction enrichment analysis. The intersection of predicted target genes and DE-genes was taken as the final DE-genes. ...
Red flag symptoms in patients with tingling, how a good history can help identify the cause, possible investigations and when to refer.
Tceal1 - mouse gene knockout kit via CRISPR, 1 kit. |dl||dt|Kit Component:|/dt||dd|- |strong|KN317305G1|/strong|, Tceal1 gRNA vector 1 in |a href=http://www.origene.com/CRISPR-CAS9/Detail.
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TCEAL1 Human Recombinant fused with an 8 amino acid His tag at C-terminus produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated, polypeptide chain containing 167 aa.
Scientists have developed a fluorescent probe technology that can be switched on and off in the aqueous environment of cells to monitor biological processes.
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Published in: Premières Journées JCSEE1 - Chimie, soleil, énergie et environnement, Saint-Avold, France, 3-4 févr. 2000, p. 10 ...
More than 70 per cent of eligible Rotorua voters had their say in the second flag referendum - and the majority voted to keep the current flag.
To create your own collections, you must have a Mozilla Add-ons account.. Create an Add-ons Account or log in to your current account ...
Complete information for TCEAL8P1 gene (Pseudogene), Transcription Elongation Factor A Like 8 Pseudogene 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Biological processes are the processes vital for a living organism to live, and that shape its capacities for interacting with its environment. Biological processes are made up of many chemical reactions or other events that are involved in the persistence and transformation of life forms.[1] Metabolism and homeostasis are examples. Regulation of biological processes occurs when any process is modulated in its frequency, rate or extent. Biological processes are regulated by many means; examples include the control of gene expression, protein modification or interaction with a protein or substrate molecule. ...
Gene ontology biological process terms.Direction of the impact of GO Biological process terms with the largest difference in the overall direction of the impact
Biology and Behaviour What behavioural and biological processes are occurring when faced with a danger such as seen in the previous slide?
Pie chart summary of biological processes in the Chamaeleo chamaeleone transcriptome. The chart was assembled using Blast2GO. Notably, certain contigs (genes) c
Atlanta, GA (PRWEB) October 05, 2017 -- The Flag Company, Inc. has experienced an inordinate spike in flag replacement sales. The phenomenon is due to the
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flag of Italy: Vertically striped green-white-red national flag. Its width-to-length ratio is 2 to 3. A rich history of flags and coats of arms has existed in Italy since at least the 1200s,...
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Following is a list of 37 articles related to GQs published last August, roughly classified as follows: (B). GQ-Biology: 8 articles (NT). GQ-Nano & Technology: 7 articles (R). GQ-Recognition. 12 articles (SD). GQ-Structure & Dynamics: 9 articles (S). GQ-Supramolecular: 3 articles ______________________________________________________________________ (B). GQ-Biology: Studies aimed at the discovery of GQs in living organisms and the elucidation of their role in biological processes. (putative…
Welcome to the Department of Biochemistry. We use the latest technologies and experimental systems to address the molecular, cellular, and genetic mechanisms of biological processes, including many that relate to human disease ...
The following pages link to Guidelines for new Biological Processes: View (previous 50 , next 50) (20 , 50 , 100 , 250 , 500) ...
Process Development Services Our Process Development (PD) Department provides extensive mammalian and microbial pharmaceutical R&D service offerings
STS Canada is an engineering group specialized in filtration and separation processes for the mining, metallurgical, energy and infrastructure industries.
Groups of homologous genes may be associated by their proximity and co-directionality in a number of phylogenetically diverse genomes. A reasonable hypothesis is that these genes act in a related biological process. When none of the genes in such a syntenic grouping have a characterized biological process they may still be used to create a Genome Property and will be children of this category ...
Definition: Capable of the biological process in which new individuals are produced by either a single cell or a group of cells, in the absence of any sexual process ...
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Plasmid Flag FoxO3 from Dr. Joan Massagues lab contains the insert FoxO3 and is published in Cell. 2004 Apr 16. 117(2):211-23. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
Biological processes, properties, and characteristics of the whole organism in human, animal, microorganisms, and plants, and of the biosphere. . ...
Biosimulation refers to a process involving simulation of biological processes with the help of computer sided mathematical models. Biosimulation is an int
Getting pregnant is much more than a biological process - once you know what actually has to happen for an egg to get fertilised you will understand why conception is often referred to as a
Inflammation is an ordinary biological process that takes place in our body to cure and repair our body cells. Inflammation[…]. Read more ...
日本語: ポーランドの国旗は、白(#ffffff)と赤(#dc143c)の横二色旗。中世期の年代記によると建国者レヒが、夕日を背景に飛ぶ白鷲を見て旗にしたとされる。しかし、19世紀の独立運動の中では、白は共和国の尊厳を、赤は自由を表すものと意味が変わり、現在に至っている ...
With most of my business travel over, I can now start back to posting. And Im behind! Mike and I visited Elephant Delicatessen in Portland about 2 months ago and I have to say its shaping up to be a favorite. I love the small food stations, that can accommodate whatever my taste may be for the day. Brick oven pizza, soothing soups, unique and classic sandwiches, pasta, coffee and yes....even cocktails! Place your order directly with the chef at each respective station then keep an eye out to pick it up. Not only is the food great, but the store is an epicureans dream to browse.The wine selection, the cases of prepared food & the deli case are screaming come see ...
Indirect evidence suggests that estrogen is involved in the etiology of breast cancer. Estrogen is also thought to modulate nitric oxide (NO) in human breast tumor tissue via regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Objectives of this study were to determine whether estradiol (E2) affects iNOS expression level in breast cancer cells and to study the effect of various concentrations of E2 on cell proliferation. Immunocytochemical technique was employed to assess iNOS expression level. Proliferation of parent and 10-6 M tamoxifen resistant cells (T47D/TAMR-6) were assessed by MTT assay in the presence of E2. Addition of E2 (10-12 to 10-8 M) increases the expression of iNOS in parent cells, but not T47D/TAMR-6, Further increase in concentrations of E2 (10-8 to 10-4 M) again decreases the expression of iNOS in parent cells, but increase that of the T47D/TAMR-6 cells. Expression of iNOS in parent cells in a medium containing 1% serum (low serum) is less than the cells grown in a medium
Reactome:REACT_100463, Reactome:REACT_104378, Reactome:REACT_106986, Reactome:REACT_107353, Reactome:REACT_107808, Reactome:REACT_110691, Reactome:REACT_34638, Reactome:REACT_6946, Reactome:REACT_77304, Reactome:REACT_78116, Reactome:REACT_87183, Reactome:REACT_88148, Reactome:REACT_90436, Reactome:REACT_92149, Reactome:REACT_92596, Reactome:REACT_93357, Reactome:REACT_95391, Reactome:REACT_98332, Reactome:REACT_99471, Reactome:REACT_99529, Wikipedia:Methylation ...
The T47D/S2 Cell line is the control cell line for the tamoxifen resistant T47D/TR-1 and T47D/TR-2 lines. Antiestrogen resistance is
The nectarine, like the peach has an aromatic, sweet and tangy, juicy, soft melting flesh.. Two major types are available based on flesh colour - yellow and white.. The white flesh type is very sweet and the yellow flesh has a more tangy flavour due to its higher acid sugar ration.. Local nectarines are available from October through to April.. In Western Australia the growing regions are the Coral Coast, South West and Perth & Surrounds.. ...
for generations, the United States flag was an ever-evolving symbol that reflected the growth of the nation. When Texas became part of the United States in 1845, a 28th star was added to the flag. The 28-star flag became official on July 4, 1846.
An Integrated Bioinformatics Approach Identifies Elevated Cyclin E2 Expression and E2F Activity as Distinct Features of Tamoxifen Resistant Breast Tumors. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
I find it interesting that people get upset when someone burns an American flag in protest when there is flagrant abuse of the flag in this country every day. We all should have learned in second grade that there are rules that govern the use of the American flag: It must not fly in the rain or touch the ground or fly at night unless it is lit or worn as clothing. And when it is old and tattered, it must not be flown. It is to be burned, respectfully.
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We welcome your input and comments. Please use this form to recommend updates to the information in ZFIN. We appreciate as much detail as possible and references as appropriate. We will review your comments promptly ...
Two‐photon microscopy is a powerful method for visualizing biological processes as they occur in their native environment in real time
I have namechanged because I know if anyone recognised my usual name I would be told to take a break from men (first red flag and yes you would be ri
PENN S TATE Hypotheses and Events An hypothesis about a biological process is a statement about relationships within a biological system. Protein P induces transcription of gene X We define an event as a relationship between two biological entities, which we call agents.
Baker, S., Singleton, G. R. and Smith, Robert H. (2006) The nature of the beast: using biological processes in vertebrate pest managment. In: Key Topics in Conservation Biology. Blackwell, London, UK, pp. 173-185. ISBN 9781405122498 Metadata only available from this repository ...
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This upstream platform connects an expression system with top equipment and process control for rapid development and scale-up of robust, high-titer processes.
Alvaro Aguilar, 31 August 2001. The picture sent by Olivier makes it obvious that, unlike Álvaro Aguilar says, this is a flag. It may not be pretty, official, registered in the works of famous vexillologists, great or small - but it is obviously a flag: a piece of cloth hoisted on pole and meaning something. Álvaro calls it not a flag but just a logo in banner form; well, banner is a trickier word than flag. While it is surely a flag, it might be or not a banner ...
False flag operations are covert operations designed to deceive the public in such a way that the operations appear as though they are being carried out by other entities ...
This course deals with a more advanced treatment of the biochemical mechanisms that underlie biological processes. Emphasis will be given to the experimental methods used to unravel how these processes fit into the ...
Each Biology Store focuses on a disease, biological process, or pathway allowing you to source products specifically targeted at a defined research area.
Each Biology Store focuses on a disease, biological process, or pathway allowing you to source products specifically targeted at a defined research area.
... has no living processes. Damage or changes made to the visible hair shaft cannot be repaired by a biological process, though ... Hair coloring is the process of adding pigment to or removing pigment from the hair shaft. Hair coloring processes may be ... This process, which uses chemicals to alter the structure of the hair, can damage the cuticle or internal structure of the hair ... After the hair processing, the cuticle may not fully close, which results in coarse hair or an accelerated loss of pigment. ...
Comparison to biological processes[edit]. A possible limitation[according to whom?] of many evolutionary algorithms is their ... "Proceedings of the 2016 International Conference on Global Trends in Signal Processing, Information Computing and Communication ... An EA uses mechanisms inspired by biological evolution, such as reproduction, mutation, recombination, and selection. Candidate ... In nature, the fertilized egg cell undergoes a complex process known as embryogenesis to become a mature phenotype. This ...
Zotin AI (2010). "Thermodynamic Bases of Biological Processes". Cambridge Univ. Press.. *^ Kozlowski J, Konarzewski M (2004). " ... Rau AR (September 2002). "Biological scaling and physics". J. Biosci. 27 (5): 475-8. doi:10.1007/BF02705043. PMID 12381870.. ... Kleiber's law, as many other biological allometric laws, is a consequence of the physics and/or geometry of animal circulatory ... Because the law concerned the capture, use, and loss of energy by a biological system, the system's metabolic rate was, at ...
Plant Biological and Molecular Processes; Plant Diseases; Plant Genetic Resources, Genomics, and Genetic Improvement; Quality ...
Interpersonal and Biological Processes. 64 (4): 319-345. doi:10.1521/psyc.64.4.319.18602. PMID 11822210.. ... Foucault has argued that this process can generally arise when a minority perspective is at odds with dominant social norms and ... Romme, Marius A.J.; Morris, Mervyn (October 2013). "The recovery process with hearing voices: accepting as well as exploring ... Romme, Marius A.J.; Morris, Mervyn (October 2013). "The recovery process with hearing voices: accepting as well as exploring ...
Interpersonal and Biological Processes. 73 (2): 158-172. doi:10.1521/psyc.2010.73.2.158.. ...
Interpersonal and Biological Processes. 73 (2): 158-72. doi:10.1521/psyc.2010.73.2.158. PMID 20557227.. ... biological, or developmental processes underlying mental functioning."[13] The final draft of ICD-11 contains a very similar ... The process by which conditions and difficulties come to be defined and treated as medical conditions and problems, and thus ... Biological psychiatry follows a biomedical model where many mental disorders are conceptualized as disorders of brain circuits ...
Isotopic evidence or patterns that require biological processes.. *Chemistry: Chemical features that require biological ... Organic matter: Organics formed by biological processes.. *Minerals: Minerals or biomineral-phases whose composition and/or ... Life processes may produce a range of biosignatures such as nucleic acids, lipids, proteins, amino acids, kerogen-like material ... Rather, it will be distinctive patterns present in any organic compounds showing a process of selection.[13] For example, ...
Biological process. • anterior/posterior pattern specification. • multicellular organism development. • anterior/posterior axis ...
Biological process. • multicellular organism development. • intramembranous ossification. • regulation of transcription, DNA- ...
Biological process. • gamma-aminobutyric acid signaling pathway. • chloride transmembrane transport. • ion transport. • ...
Biological process. • lipid transport. • positive regulation of sequestering of triglyceride. • triglyceride homeostasis. • ... lipid metabolic process. • very-low-density lipoprotein particle assembly. • very-low-density lipoprotein particle clearance. ...
Biological process. • negative regulation of neuron apoptotic process. • somitogenesis. • positive regulation of protein ... cellular protein metabolic process. • neurogenesis. • intracellular signal transduction. • protein processing. • protein ... amyloid precursor protein catabolic process. • apoptotic process. • activation of MAPKK activity. • thymus development. • ... positive regulation of apoptotic process. • Notch receptor processing. • negative regulation of protein ubiquitination involved ...
Biological process. • regulation of protein phosphorylation. • strand invasion. • mitotic recombination-dependent replication ... Series B, Biological Sciences. 359 (1441): 87-93. doi:10.1098/rstb.2003.1368. PMC 1693300 . PMID 15065660.. ... DNA metabolic process. • telomere organization. • positive regulation of DNA ligation. • cellular response to alkaloid. • ... replication fork processing. • cellular response to ionizing radiation. • cellular response to cisplatin. • chromosome ...
Biological process. • calcium ion transport into cytosol. • regulation of insulin secretion. • regulation of cardiac muscle ... Evidence for alternative splicing of the transcripts of three non-allelic genes". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 265 (33 ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 270 (18): 10540-3. doi:10.1074/jbc.270.18.10540. PMID 7737988.. ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 272 (6): 3560-6. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.6.3560. PMID 9013606.. ...
Biological process. • sensory perception of smell. • signal transduction. • response to stimulus. • detection of chemical ... Gregory SG, Barlow KF, McLay KE (2006). "The DNA sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1". Nature. 441 (7091 ...
Biological process. • lipid metabolism. • fatty acid metabolic process. • metabolism. • cardiolipin acyl-chain remodeling. • ... 2003). "Exploring proteomes and analyzing protein processing by mass spectrometric identification of sorted N-terminal peptides ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (45): 44894-903. doi:10.1074/jbc.m307782200. PMID 12933794.. ...
Biological process. • G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • T cell differentiation in thymus. • chorionic trophoblast ... apoptotic process involved in morphogenesis. • regulation of chorionic trophoblast cell proliferation. • regulation of ...
Biological process. • regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • transcription, DNA-templated. • negative regulation of ...
Biological process. • positive regulation of protein kinase activity. • regulation of cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine ...
Biological process. • vacuolar sequestering. • cardiac muscle contraction. • muscle cell cellular homeostasis. • neuromuscular ... maltose metabolic process. • glycogenolysis. • sucrose metabolic process. • histogenesis. • glycogen metabolic process. • ... neuromuscular process controlling balance. • regulation of the force of heart contraction. • diaphragm contraction. • heart ... Characterization of the catalytic site". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 266 (21): 13507-12. PMID 1856189.. ...
Biological process. • brain-derived neurotrophic factor receptor signaling pathway. • negative regulation of neuron apoptotic ... "The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 274 (29): 20693-703. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.29.20693. PMID 10400703.. ... "The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry. 14 (8): 583-89. doi:10.3109/15622975.2011.616533. PMC 3288597. PMID 22047184.. ... "The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 (1): 693-99. doi:10.1074/jbc.M008085200. PMID 11024032.. ...
Biological process. • muscle organ development. • skeletal muscle tissue development. • actin cytoskeleton organization. • ...
Biological process. • cellular defense response. • myeloid cell differentiation. • negative regulation of myeloid cell ... GO:0022415 viral process. • signal transduction. • immune system process. • viral entry into host cell. • negative regulation ...
Biological process. • cell adhesion. • cell-matrix adhesion. • cell migration. • protein homotrimerization. Sources:Amigo / ...
Biological process. • apoptotic signaling pathway. • cellular response to mechanical stimulus. • response to lipopolysaccharide ... positive regulation of TRAIL biosynthetic process. • positive regulation of apoptotic process. • tumor necrosis factor-mediated ... positive regulation of tumor necrosis factor biosynthetic process. • signal transduction. • negative regulation of cell ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 272 (4): 2042-5. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.4.2042. PMID 8999898.. ...
Biological process. • phosphorylation. • response to testosterone. • positive regulation of fibroblast proliferation. • ... regulation of lipid biosynthetic process. • regulation of lipid catabolic process. • adipose tissue development. • cellular ... positive regulation of apoptotic process. • regulation of gene expression. • cell cycle. • positive regulation of G2/M ...
Biological process. • regulation of protein phosphorylation. • positive regulation of protein phosphorylation. • positive ... receptor biosynthetic process. • activation of MAPK activity. • immune response. • leukocyte tethering or rolling. • positive ... glucose metabolic process. • animal organ morphogenesis. • apoptotic signaling pathway. • negative regulation of alkaline ... endothelial cell apoptotic process. • positive regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. • negative regulation ...
Biological process. • defense response. • Fc-gamma receptor signaling pathway involved in phagocytosis. • protein complex ... regulation of T cell antigen processing and presentation. • immune response. • epidermis development. • actin polymerization or ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 275 (11): 7854-61. doi:10.1074/jbc.275.11.7854. PMID 10713100.. ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 271 (42): 26291-5. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.42.26291. PMID 8824280.. ...
Biological process. • ion transport. • synaptic transmission, glycinergic. • chloride transport. • neuropeptide signaling ...
... is to dissect how biological systems carry out these complex computations efficiently and potentially replicate these processes ... Sensory processing[edit]. Early models of sensory processing understood within a theoretical framework are credited to Horace ... Biological neurons are connected to each other in a complex, recurrent fashion. These connections are, unlike most artificial ... Main article: Biological neuron models. Even single neurons have complex biophysical characteristics and can perform ...
The court reasoned that, "[f]or process claims that encompass natural phenomen[a], the process steps . . . must be new and ... especially in biological sciences, is undesirable. But he insisted that "any further guidance must come from the Supreme Court ... "The claimed method is a new process of detecting cffDNA by devising a novel sample source from which to extract it, namely, ... where development of useful new diagnostic and therapeutic methods is driven by investigation of complex biological systems. I ...
... assessed the process of collecting maintenance fees, and decided on a review process for approving the pesticides. The ... limitations when the Fish and Wildlife service express a potential adverse effect on a particular species based on a biological ... Depending on the category of pesticide, the review process can take several years. After a pesticide is registered with the EPA ... The EPA has different review processes for three categories of pesticides: antimicrobials, biopesticides, and conventional ...
Learning to eat is a messy process for children, and children often do not master neatness or eating etiquette until they are 5 ... Those species that seek pest insects are considered beneficial 'biological control agents' and their presence encouraged in ... They can therefore tolerate either a slower collection process (carnivores that feed on larger vertebrates) or a slower ... complex digestive process of an herbivore. Larger animals, on the other hand, generate more heat and less of this heat is lost ...
About eighty to ninety percent of the energy is expended for the organism's life processes or is lost as heat or waste. Only ... Linkages connect to nodes in a food web, which are aggregates of biological taxa called trophic species. Trophic species are ... The energy ingested is utilized for metabolic processes and transformed into biomass. The energy flow continues on its path if ... This energy flow diagram illustrates how energy is lost as it fuels the metabolic process that transform the energy and ...
"Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research = Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Medicas e Biologicas. 39 (8): 1065-70. ... They were the ones who started the process of research and development into protease inhibitors and its relation to the virus. ...
... that has a biological or psychological effect on a patient may also have potential to possess dangerous biological or ... Alternative medicine may lead to a false understanding of the body and of the process of science.[169][178] Steven Novella, a ... Alternative medicine describes any practice that aims to achieve the healing effects of medicine, but which lacks biological ... The Biological Basis for Mind Body Interactions. Progress in Brain Research. Volume 122. pp. 393-412. doi:10.1016/S0079-6123(08 ...
... in biological researchEdit. MicrocentrifugesEdit. Microcentrifuges are used to process small volumes of ... Fractionation processEdit. General method of fractionation: Cell sample is stored in a suspension which is: *Buffered - neutral ... In the chemical and food industries, special centrifuges can process a continuous stream of particle-laden liquid. ... Ultracentrifugation makes use of high centrifugal force for studying properties of biological particles. Compared to ...
Resulting information can be used to build biological models, design experiments, or get up to speed in an area of research. ... "Ingenuity Systems and FDA Enter 3-Year, $6 Million Collaboration to Enhance Regulatory Review Process" (Press release). ... All QIAGEN Silicon Valley use the Ingenuity Knowledge Base, which contains biological and chemical interactions and functional ... to analyze complex biological systems. QIAGEN Silicon Valley's first product, IPA, was introduced in 2003, and is used to help ...
Spatial processes and management of marine populations (PDF). University of Alaska Sea Grant College Program Report. pp. 327- ... Biological Sciences. 279 (1730): 1017. doi:10.1098/rspb.2011.1496.. ...
Biological process. • progesterone biosynthetic process. • female gamete generation. • positive regulation of bone resorption. ... peptide hormone processing. • positive regulation of gene expression. • cell-cell signaling. • hormone-mediated signaling ... 2002). "Assessment of the in vitro and in vivo biological activities of the human follicle-stimulating isohormones". Mol. Cell ... 2002). "Assessment of the in vitro and in vivo biological activities of the human follicle-stimulating isohormones". Mol. Cell ...
A Vital Legacy: Biological and Environmental Research in the Atomic Age, U.S. Department of Energy, The Office of Biological ... One of the disadvantages of PET scanners is their operating cost.[3] A similar imaging process to PET is single-photon emission ... Thus, the specific processes that can be probed with PET are virtually limitless, and radiotracers for new target molecules and ... Time-of-flight PET makes use of very fast gamma-ray detectors and data processing system which can more precisely decide the ...
Despite the importance of numerous psychosocial factors, at its core, drug addiction involves a biological process: the ability ... An associative process may contribute to addiction, for environmental stimuli associated with drug taking may increase craving ... Sensitization is a non-associative learning process in which repeated administration of a stimulus results in the progressive ... This process may increase the risk for relapse in addicts attempting to quit.[12] ...
"Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 276 (1654): 121-127. doi:10.1098/rspb.2008.0858. PMC 2614250. PMID ... Some of the smallest veins (veinlets) may have their endings in the areoles, a process known as areolation.[26] These minor ... The sugars are then stored as starch, further processed by chemical synthesis into more complex organic molecules such as ... Rutishauser, R.; Sattler, R. (1997). "Expression of shoot processes in leaf development of Polemonium caeruleum". Botanische ...
May 2002). "Hemorrhagic fever viruses as biological weapons: medical and public health management". Journal of the American ... This processing appears to allow the virus to bind to cellular proteins enabling it to fuse with internal cellular membranes ... It has the potential to be weaponised for use in biological warfare,[226][227] and was investigated by Biopreparat for such use ... process and the naming of the virus did not occur until some months later in Zaire.[151] ...
Certain brainwave frequencies are associated with general psychological processes. EEGs are used to measure the brain waves. ... Neural network (biological). *Detection theory. *Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring. *Neurochip. *Neurodegeneration. ...
"Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes. 105 (1): 98-121. doi:10.1016/j.obhdp.2007.05.002. PMC 2702783 . PMID ...
"Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 77 (2): 193-200. doi:10.1046/j.1095-8312.2002.00096.x. ISSN 0024-4066.. ... Over time, a continuum of hybrids ranging between almost typical examples of either species develop; the speciation process is ... a process known as acoustic conspecific identification.[37] In addition, females hiss if the nest or offspring are threatened ... "Indigenous gray ducks, Anas superciliosa, and introduced mallards, A. platyrhynchos, in New Zealand: processes and outcome of ...
... though some other scholars interpret them as either simple doodling or as the result of natural processes. ... "Cooking as a biological trait" (PDF). Comp Biochem Physiol a Mol Integr Physiol. 136 (1): 35-46. doi:10.1016/S1095-6433(03) ... "Thirty thousand-year-old evidence of plant food processing". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 107 (44): 18815-9. doi:10.1073/pnas. ...
A common application of the law is the analytic hierarchy process. Further progress was made by Georg Rasch (1960), who ... Examples of these classifications include gender, nationality, ethnicity, language, genre, style, biological species, and form. ...
Series B, Biological Sciences. 365 (1541): 729-48. doi:10.1098/rstb.2009.0103. PMC 2817223. PMID 20124341.. ... Over time, many parts of the chloroplast genome were transferred to the nuclear genome of the host,[4][7][26] a process called ... Hundreds of different PPR proteins from the nuclear genome are involved in the RNA editing process. These proteins consist of ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 271 (11): 6545-54. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.11.6545. PMID 8626459.. ...
For his work on the quantitative treatment of biological problems. 1900. Ernst Haeckel. For his long-continued and highly ... and of his contribution to understanding how genetic processes specify spatial information. ... This means evolution, population biology, organismal biology and biological diversity. It was first awarded in 1890. It comes ... characterised by the application of sophisticated mathematical analysis but focussed on developing biological understanding ...
Unique among biological processes, SP release (and expression of its NK1 Receptor (through autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine- ... "The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 288 (7): 4878-90. doi:10.1074/jbc.M112.422410. PMC 3576092 . PMID 23275336.. ... The above processes are part and parcel to tissue integrity and repair. Substance P has been known to stimulate cell growth in ... SP amplifies or excites most cellular processes.[15][16]. Substance P is a key first responder to most noxious/extreme stimuli ...
The use of tools by early humans was partly a process of discovery and of evolution. Early humans evolved from a species of ... including the possibility of the permanent alteration of our biological nature. These concerns are shared by other philosophers ... Many technological processes produce unwanted by-products known as pollution and deplete natural resources to the detriment of ... Technology can be the knowledge of techniques, processes, and the like, or it can be embedded in machines to allow for ...
Russo J, Russo I (1987). "Biological and molecular bases of mammary carcinogenesis". Laboratory Investigation 57 (2): 112-37. ... Abortion would interrupt this process, leaving in the gland undifferentiated structures like those observed in the rat mammary ...
As the stereocentre in such oxazolines is adjacent to the coordinating N-atom, it can influence the selectivity of processes ... "Poly(2-oxazolines) in biological and biomedical application contexts". Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews. 59 (15): 1504-1520. doi ...
Advanced Biological Treatment Processes in the Handbook of Environmental Engineering series provides critical insight into ... and emerging biological processes. Volume 9: Advanced Biological Treatment Processes and its sister book - Volume 8: Biological ... Advanced Biological Treatment Processes gives readers a cutting-edge illustration of the theory and practice of biological ... Biological treatment processes Filtration Flotation bioreactors biosolids environment wste management Editors and affiliations ...
... the shaping of an organism by embryological processes of differentiation of cells, tissues, and organs and the development of ... The whole process is called morphogenesis (Greek morphē. , "shape" or "form"; genesis. , "origin" or "production"). The process ... pattern, comprise the processes called morphogenesis. The processes of morphogenesis are relatively simple mechanical acts: (1 ... biological development: Morphogenesis. …regarded as growth or not? As was pointed out earlier, morphogenesis refers to all ...
... a fluorescent probe technology that can be switched on and off in the aqueous environment of cells to monitor biological ... Underwater Light Show Highlights Biological Processes * Scientists have developed a fluorescent probe technology that can be ... switched on and off in the aqueous environment of cells to monitor biological processes. The technology, devised by a team at ... "Our fluorescent switches can be operated in water, efficiently offering the opportunity to image biological samples with ...
PET Imaging Is Sensitive to the Biological Processes of Disease.. Because disease is a biological process, molecular imaging ... Determine whether the drug properly modified the biological process of disease or restored a normal process affected by disease ... Normal biological processes and their failure in disease are the targets of PET. An overview is provided with examples to ... Disease is a biological process in which molecular errors have occurred that cause normal well regulated function of cells to ...
... In this seminar, we will discuss some of the main themes ... Disciplines with similar materials as 7.342 Systems Biology: Stochastic Processes and Biological Robustness. ... are tailored for students with an interest in using primary research literature to discuss and learn about current biological ...
Background Understanding the dynamical behaviour of biological systems is challenged by their large number of components and ... aBoolean Process Map, bDynamical Process Map between times \(t^{1}_{14,4}\) and \(t^{1}_{14,5}\), c3-D Process Map for the ... The method, called Principal Process Analysis (PPA), determines the contribution of each biological process to the output of ... SM4, from \(t_{3}^{r}=12.5\) h to \(t_{4}^{r}=20\) h, which neglects 42% of processes. The processes include the processes ...
... Short wave infrared quantum dots provide real-time whole body, ... By engineering the dots to bind to specific tissues of interest, researchers can use them to study biological processes in real ... The system allows us to view biological processes in living, moving animals with great clarity and detail." The work is ... Newswise - Fluorescent quantum dots are valuable tools used to tag and image biological processes in live animals. However, ...
These goals are achieved by modeling and systematically analyzing industrial processes. Process engineering research at ... Process engineering is the branch of chemical engineering that addresses the design, synthesis and operation of chemical or ... Chemical engineers develop new processes or modify existing ones in order to optimize facilities; reduce costs or maximize ... Professor of Chemical and Biological Engineering. A407 Engineering Quad 609-258-5416 [email protected] ...
In cells, information is being processed and propagated at various levels, from the gene regulatory network to chemical ... Living beings require constant information processing for survival. ... This book covers the latest findings on how information is processed in various biological processes, ranging from information ... An overview is presented of the state-of-the-art in information processing in biological systems and the opinion of current ...
9780470578452 Our cheapest price for Electrochemical Processes in Biological Systems is $62.55. Free shipping on all orders ... Electrochemical Processes in Biological Systems. by Gorton, Lo; Lewenstam, Andrzej; Wieckowski, Andrzej *ISBN13: 9780470578452 ... This book discusses the ion fluxes and electron transfer processes in biological membranes and artificial bio-films. It ... Chapters include: ion transfer and ion channels in biological membranes in health and pathology; artificial membranes and films ...
The presentation centers on the fundamental drivers for these processes with an additional exposition of the essential ... contribution of inorganic chemistry techniques to the molecular characterization of these biological processes. ... Majumder, E. and Wall, J. (2017) Uranium Bio-Transformations: Chemical or Biological Processes?. Open Journal of Inorganic ... Uranium is not considered an essential metal for biological processes, but has become an essential part of lifestyle in the ...
Results for biological treatment processes equipment from leading brands. Compare and contact a supplier in Alaska on ... Biological Treatment Processes equipment in Alaska In Alaska Available in Alaska Near Alaska ...
Illuminating Biological Processes and Structures Through (Bio)chemical Detection. Learn more about how biological processes and ... How Do You View? Illuminating Biological Processes and Structures Through (Bio)chemical Detection ... biological processes and structures. As we approach the 345th anniversary of van Leeuwenhoeks first publication, lets take a ... Bio-Rad Launches CHT Ceramic Hydroxyapatite XT Media and Nuvia HP-Q Resin for Process Protein Purification. Bio-Rad Launches ...
This book collects the latest information on biological processes in ... Biological Processes in Soil Phosphorus Cycling. Editors: Bünemann, Else K., Oberson, Astrid, Frossard, Emmanuel (Eds.) ... This book collects the existing, up-to-date information on biological processes in soil P cycling, which to date have remained ... The section on processes deals with mycorrhizal symbioses, microbial P solubilization, soil macrofauna, phosphatase enzymes and ...
The method includes the steps of obtaining a container having a biological fluid therein, providing a first signal and ... communicating with an automated control arrangement to establish flow of at least a portion of the biological fluid along a ... A method for automatically processing a biological fluid is disclosed. ... to introduce gas into a biological fluid processing system or to separate gas from the biological fluid being processed. ...
Technical Process Summary 2 / Updated Vendor Table Assignment. In your Technical Process Summary 2 assignment you should ... The Technical Process Summary 2 assignment should contain the following information:. * Include a list of critical process ... Technical Process Summary 2 - Updated Vendor Table Assignment Rubric. You must earn an 90% or better to continue in the ... Keep your audience in mind (the judges) when writing your Technical Process Assignments. You need to be as detailed and ...
E Bonucci] -- This book follows a precursor volume devoted to biological calci?cation, - sued by the CRC Press, Boca Raton ( ... Several basic aspects of the calci?cation process were analyzed in it ... ... normal and pathological processes in the early stages. [ ... cation process in biological tissues. Now, almost 15 years ... schema:name "Biological calcification : normal and pathological processes in the early stages"@en ;. schema:productID " ...
Biological and social influences on cognitive control processes dependent on prefrontal cortex.. Diamond A1. ... Biological and social influences on cognitive control processes dependent on prefrontal cortex ... Biological and social influences on cognitive control processes dependent on prefrontal cortex ... Biological and social influences on cognitive control processes dependent on prefrontal cortex ...
Active MPK-1 controls seven different biological processes during germ-line development, ranging from cell-biological processes ... S1), and in all cases more than one gene product contributes to the execution of each biological process (Fig. 3A and Dataset ... Interestingly, we could not assign any one class of proteins to a specific biological process (Fig. 3A). Instead, we find that ... To determine whether the 161 candidates function in vivo to govern any of the seven MPK-1-dependent biological process(es) in ...
A laboratory study of the Cannibal process was undertaken to determine if the Cannibal system would generate less sludge ... It was found that the Cannibal process generated 60% less solids than the conventional activated sludge system, without any ...
... a biological fluid processing assembly, and an automated control arrangement coupled to at least one of the pressure ... differential generator and the biological fluid processing assembly. The automated system may include a porous medium, such as ... An automated system for processing biological fluid includes a pressure differential generator, ... 9. An automated biological fluid processing system comprising:. a biological fluid processing assembly including:. a first ...
Integrated Physicochemical and Biological Treatment Process for Fluoride and Phosphorus Removal from Fertilizer Plant ... The resulting low- fluoride and phosphorus effluent was then treated with the enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) ... process to monitor the simultaneous removal of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus. Phosphorus removal included a two-stage ...
... *Download PDF Copy ... The research by a team at Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research reports on a natural biological process by which yeast ... "It has huge implications for our understanding of the protein folding process in amyloid-related conditions." This research ... would be an example of environment guiding the evolutionary process. "This is speculation that hasnt been demonstrated yet," ...
Regulation of biological processes occurs when any process is modulated in its frequency, rate or extent. Biological processes ... Biological processes are those processes that are vital for an organism to live, and that shape its capacities for interacting ... Biological processes are made of many chemical reactions or other events that are involved in the persistence and ... the processes by which an organism has an observable effect on another organism of the same or different species. Also: ...
In the process of reading the assigned publications, you will learn how to analyze papers to extract key points and to examine ... The main objectives of this course are to introduce students to the primary scientific literature and the process of finding/ ... Finally, we will study how researchers in the field of synthetic biology are using such new knowledge about biological networks ... Robustness is a property of many natural biological networks whereby the behavior of the network is insensitive to variations ...
... Azadeh Asadi and ... was investigated by various photo-induced oxidation processes such as UV/H2O2 and UV/TiO2 as well as biological processes and ... It was observed that UV/H2O2/TiO2 process did not have any advantages over each of the other processes alone. The ... Finally, the effects of the photocatalytic pretreatment of aqueous MTBE on its subsequent biological treatment were studied. It ...
In this paper, we intend to discuss data from this and other laboratories that highlight the biological processes which prepare ... In this paper, we intend to discuss data from this and other laboratories that highlight the biological processes which prepare ... Biological Processes that Prepare Mammalian Spermatozoa to Interact with an Egg and Fertilize It. ... In this section, we have attempted to highlight the biological processes thought to be important in sperm function and ...
... Author(s). Said, Maya Rida ... at different levels of ab-straction the information processing in biological cells in order to understand the algorithms ... An example of how to emulate one of these algorithms in other signal processing contexts is also presented. At a high modeling ... The prospects of using cell biology as a metaphor for signal processing are also consid-ered in a preliminary way by presenting ...
Living cells process information in an extraordinarily efficient manner. The underlying biological processes and mechanisms ... Our goal is to achieve an understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying biological information processes ... Collective Phenomena in Biological Systems. We investigate phenomena resulting from simultaneous interactions between many ... This allows us to uncover key mechanisms in, for example, the processing of plastics or the folding of proteins. ...
... covers emerging areas in fluid flow and heat transfer relevant to ... Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow in Biological Processes (2015) and Transport in Biological Media (2013).. Kuznetsov, Andrey ... Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow in Biological Processes covers emerging areas in fluid flow and heat transfer relevant to ... Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow in Biological Processes is an indispensable reference for professors, graduate students, ...
  • These signaling molecules are involved in many processes including cell differentiation and survival, excitability, synaptic activity, fertilization, migration and regeneration. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the matter of passive diffusion, we investigate fundamental processes of biological development that are governed by multiple signaling molecules that create non-uniform concentration profiles known as morphogen gradients. (rice.edu)
  • It is widely believed that the establishment of morphogen gradients is a result of complex processes that involve diffusion and degradation of locally produced signaling molecules. (rice.edu)
  • As a result, many cellular processes remain too small or fast to observe. (eurekalert.org)
  • At a low level of modeling, the thesis introduces a new framework for modeling cellular signal processing based on interacting Markov chains. (mit.edu)
  • Our goal is to achieve an understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying biological information processes and contribute to the development of a revolutionary novel information technology based on the principles of biological information processing. (kfa-juelich.de)
  • We study the atomic structure of macromolecules involved in crucial cellular processes and the interactions between them. (kfa-juelich.de)
  • A process is provided for isolating and purifying biologically active RNA from a biological sources containing RNA, DNA and other cellular materials. (google.ca)
  • To understand how populations of cells respond to environmental change and process information, many laboratories modulate the environment while imaging cellular responses using time-lapse microscopy. (hfsp.org)
  • Key chemical concepts such as bonding and structure (e.g. chirality) will be used to highlight the function of biological building blocks (lipids, carbohydrates, amino acids and the nitrogen bases) of large cellular molecules like proteins, DNA and RNA. (edu.au)
  • Biological systems, ranging from the molecular to the cellular to the organism level, are distributed and in most cases operate without central control. (acm.org)
  • The next hurdle in moving towards the goal of understanding the cell at a systems level is to determine how these partitioned cellular processes work together to achieve the cell's objectives. (plos.org)
  • Oxidation is a double-edged sword for cellular processes and its role in normal physiology, cancer and aging remains only partially understood. (nih.gov)
  • In collaboration with his colleague Mark Russo, Ph.D., also of Bristol-Myers Squibb, Fronheiser will share his enthusiasm and knowledge about how to 'mine' images for deep and detailed information about cellular processes and structures. (slas.org)
  • The medical field of gerontology deals with examining the biological changes of aging, both passive and active, that occur at the molecular and cellular levels. (deliciousghost.com)
  • The Fuller lab is interested in how Vps13p and other proteins help localize protein processing enzymes to the cellular compartments where they function. (umich.edu)
  • GO depicts three complementary biological concepts including Biological Process (BP), Molecular Function (MF) and Cellular Component (CC). The hierarchical structure of GO is organized as a directed acyclic graph (DAG) by viewing an individual term as a node and its relations to parental terms (allowing for multiple parents) as directed edges. (supfam.org)
  • The book's expert panel of authors provides a look at a range of topics, including principles and kinetics of biological processes, vertical shaft bioreactors, upflow sludge blanket filtration, membrane bioreactors, column bioreactor, SBR, nitrification, denitrification, and emerging biological processes. (springer.com)
  • A laboratory study of the Cannibal process was undertaken to determine if the Cannibal system would generate less sludge compared with a conventional activated sludge system. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • It was found that the Cannibal process generated 60% less solids than the conventional activated sludge system, without any negative effect on the effluent quality or the settling characteristics of the activated sludge. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • However, compared to biological removal of phosphorus, chemical processes have higher operating costs, produce more sludge, and result in added chemicals in sludge (Metcalf and Eddy, 2003). (epa.gov)
  • The activated sludge process is a biological method of wastewater treatment that is performed by a variable and mixed community of microorganisms derive energy from carbonaceous organic matter in aerated wastewater for the production of new cells in a process known as synthesis, while simultaneously releasing energy through that contain lower energy, such as carbon dioxide and water, in a process called respiration. (aguamarket.com)
  • This consortium of microorganisms, the biological component of the process, in known collectively as activated sludge. (aguamarket.com)
  • The MLVSS is maintained as 2500 - 3000 mg/L. The overall goal of the activated-sludge process is to remove substances that have a demand for oxygen from the system. (aguamarket.com)
  • This is achieved by the Efficient desing of the Secondary clarifier and Sludge Re-circulation system We invite to be a part f our portal Aguamarket where we offer and sale ACTIVATED SLUDGE BIOLOGICAL PROCESS and others products to quote and buy our products for water and more, also found more information like products, news, tender etc. (aguamarket.com)
  • Biological treatment is defined as an aerobic activated-sludge process in the aeration system for treating sewage and industrial wastewater, using air to supply dissolved oxygen and a biological floc composed of organisms which are living bacteria. (watertechonline.com)
  • Ambient conditions, as well as wastewater conditions, entering activated sludge affect dissolved oxygen control processes in the aeration system. (watertechonline.com)
  • For instance, biochemical networks include processes controlling the intracellular level of metabolites, RNAs and proteins, which allow cells to live and grow. (springer.com)
  • A process either corresponds to a single biochemical reaction, for example protein phosphorylation, or encompasses many biochemical reactions like those involved in general cell functions (translation of proteins, transcription of RNAs. (springer.com)
  • This allows us to uncover key mechanisms in, for example, the processing of plastics or the folding of proteins. (kfa-juelich.de)
  • Our approach constitutes a promising new direction towards understanding the higher levels of organization of the cell as a system which should help current efforts to re-engineer ontologies and improve our ability to predict which proteins are involved in specific biological processes. (plos.org)
  • The recombinant proteins were purified from transgenic leaf material and characterized in terms of their N-glycan composition, dimerization and biological activity in in vitro assays. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Applying gene set enrichment analysis ideas to matched protein expression data from a panel of 1129 proteins and deep MALDI ® mass spectral data from a set of 49 human serum samples with lung cancer (n=45) or non-cancer (n=4), subsets of mass spectral features associated with selected biological functions were identified. (aacrjournals.org)
  • User-defined sets of proteins, protein families, annotation terms or taxonomic groups can be selected and compared, allowing for the analysis of distribution of biological processes and molecular activities over different taxonomic groups. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We describe GOTax, a platform for investigating and comparing proteins, protein families, their activities and biological roles over the taxonomic tree. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 2011) Combination of Activated Carbon Adsorption and Biological Processes in Drinking Water Treatment, in Activated Carbon for Water and Wastewater Treatment: Integration of Adsorption and Biological Treatment, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany. (wiley.com)
  • Nitrification and denitrification tests conducted with mixed liquor samples collected at a poultry processing wastewater treatment plant during warm (fall) and cold (winter) seasons confirmed reports that low temperature conditions are more detrimental to nitrification than to denitrification. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Many regions in the United States have excessive levels of ammonia in their drinking water sources (e.g., ground and surface waters) as a result of naturally occurring processes, agricultural and urban runoff, concentrated animal feeding operations, municipal wastewater treatment plants, and other sources. (epa.gov)
  • Volume 9: Advanced Biological Treatment Processes and its sister book - Volume 8: Biological Treatment Processes - are indispensable as both basic biological treatment textbooks and comprehensive reference books for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, designers of waste treatment systems, scientists, and researchers. (springer.com)
  • A gold-standard addition to The Humana Press series, Volume 9: Advanced Biological Treatment Processes gives readers a cutting-edge illustration of the theory and practice of biological abatement systems and their critical role in environmental issues today. (springer.com)
  • Morphogenesis , the shaping of an organism by embryological processes of differentiation of cells, tissues, and organs and the development of organ systems according to the genetic "blueprint" of the potential organism and environmental conditions. (britannica.com)
  • Understanding the dynamical behaviour of biological systems is challenged by their large number of components and interactions. (springer.com)
  • In conclusion, Principal Process Analysis is a simple-to-use method, which constitutes an additional and useful tool for analysing the complex dynamical behaviour of biological systems. (springer.com)
  • Mathematical modelling has been used for decades as an approach to understand the functioning of biological systems in terms of their internal processes and components. (springer.com)
  • An overview is presented of the state-of-the-art in information processing in biological systems and the opinion of current leaders in this research field on future research directions. (springer.com)
  • Be able to identify the major acidic and basic groups in biological systems, have an understanding of the relevance of their pK values and contribution to buffering. (aber.ac.uk)
  • Its main aim was that of giving readers access to a series of papers which, even though they discussed divergent aspects of biological calci?cations drawn from the study of systems as different as vertebrate skeletons and mollusks, in vitro cultures and unicellular organisms, ectopic calci?cation and urinary stones, provided elements permitting a coherent approach to a comprehensive view of the calci?cation process in biological tissues. (worldcat.org)
  • Now, almost 15 years after the publication of that book, a great variety of new data from a wide spectrum of biological organisms and systems has enriched our knowledge of the normal and pathological mechanisms which can lead to calci?cation. (worldcat.org)
  • The main objectives of this course are to introduce students to the primary scientific literature and the process of finding/reading research papers and to expose students to the new field of systems biology. (mit.edu)
  • The underlying biological processes and mechanisms involving detection, integration, and processing of external signals are fundamentally different from the principles governing current information technology systems. (kfa-juelich.de)
  • We investigate the connection between biological and electronic systems, among other things for the production of highly sensitive sensors. (kfa-juelich.de)
  • Buffer solutions are used in biological systems to keep pH at a nearly constant value. (alfa.com)
  • In biological systems an ideal buffer has the following characteristics: a pKa value between 6.0 and 8.0, high water solubility, nontoxic, limited effect on biochemical reactions, very low absorbance between 240nm and 700nm, enzymatic and hydrolytic stability, minimal changes due to temperature and concentration, limited effects due to ionic or salt composition of the solution, and limited interaction with mineral cations. (alfa.com)
  • This Fact Sheet was prepared to provide information on the types of biological nutrient removal technologies, nutrient removal efficiencies, and the associated costs for small and large municipal systems. (epa.gov)
  • Delayed processes are ubiquitous in biological systems and are often characterized by delay differential equations (DDEs) and their extension to include stochastic effects. (rice.edu)
  • These scaffold systems will have a range of applications but are particularly applicable to growth of retinal models, which will form platforms for computational modelling of brain signal processing, as well as learning and adaptation. (ntu.ac.uk)
  • Semantic mining is an essential part in knowledgebase and decision support systems where it enables the extraction of useful knowledge form available databases with the ultimate goal of supporting the decision making process. (igi-global.com)
  • In process systems engineering, decisions are made throughout plant / process / product life cycles. (igi-global.com)
  • POOM or plant/process object oriented modeling methodology is explained and used as a basis to implement semantic mining as applied on process systems engineering. (igi-global.com)
  • Case studies are illustrated for biological process engineering, in particular MoFlo systems focusing on process safety and operation design support. (igi-global.com)
  • These processes may interact with each other and may lead to self-organized structures, fluctuations, instabilities, and evolutionary systems. (indigo.ca)
  • This third edition updates and expands on the first and second editions by focusing on the general balance equations for coupled processes of physical, chemical, and biological systems. (indigo.ca)
  • The Process Separations Program in the Division of Chemical, Biological, Environmental, and Transport Systems (CBET) has, as of June 2017, eliminated target dates and will accept proposals for consideration at any time. (nsf.gov)
  • Only proposals submitted to the Process Separations Program in the Division of Chemical, Biological, Environmental, and Transport Systems (CBET) are affected by this change. (nsf.gov)
  • Such systems must solve information processing problems that are often very similar to problems faced by computational systems, including coordinated decision making, 29 leader election, 2 routing and navigation, 52 and more. (acm.org)
  • Over the last few years our ability to study and model biological systems has improved dramatically. (acm.org)
  • Using this data we can build models of information processing within and between cells and answer questions regarding the methods biological systems use to achieve their goals that were out of reach even a few years ago. (acm.org)
  • This data can also help us understand what computational problems are being solved by biological systems and how, which in turn can lead to specific algorithms that may also benefit computational systems. (acm.org)
  • The outcome of this research provides information presently lacking, supporting the continuous use of QACs as antimicrobial agents in poultry processing facilities, when and where needed, while avoiding any negative impacts on biological treatment systems and the environment. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Because these systems only measure dissolved oxygen in one location, additional dissolved-oxygen readings should be taken daily in biological reactors at various locations and depths to ensure that there are no dead spots. (watertechonline.com)
  • By comparison, little is known about interactions between higher order biological systems, such as biological pathways and processes. (plos.org)
  • The study of biological systems at different levels of organization is a rapidly emerging area of computational biology. (plos.org)
  • To better understand the redox changes that accompany protein cysteine residues in complex biological systems, new experimental approaches have been developed to identify and characterize specific thiol modifications and/or changes in their overall redox status. (nih.gov)
  • The processing of biological motion is a critical, everyday task performed with remarkable efficiency by human sensory systems. (epfl.ch)
  • Biological engineering systems are very broadly defined to include everything from the growth of microbes in bioreactors (a biotechnology application), to nitrates or other pollutants leaking into groundwater, to the design of chemical processes for food manufacturing. (worldcat.org)
  • This book provides a comprehensive, conceptual look at the use of transport phenomena in biological engineering systems. (worldcat.org)
  • The aging process is difficult to analyze because of the way that the bodys organ systems work together. (deliciousghost.com)
  • This Kat is grateful to his colleague Andrew Sharples , head of practice group EIP Life , for preparing this report of recent news from the European Patent Office about the patentability of products of essentially biological processes. (blogspot.com)
  • This decision did not go unnoticed by the powers of the EU, and in December 2015, the European Parliament adopted a resolution asking the European Commission to look into the patentability of products of essentially biological processes. (blogspot.com)
  • Nevertheless, the Commission has concluded that animals and plants derived from essentially biological processes should not be patentable. (blogspot.com)
  • Here the EBA conducted a lengthy and in-depth legal analysis leading to the conclusion that a narrow interpretation of Art 53(b) EPC was appropriate and as a result plants and animals derived from essentially biological processes were in principle patentable, even if they were inevitably derived from such processes. (blogspot.com)
  • The exclusion to patentability in the Biotech Directive is framed much like that in Article 53(b) EPC i.e. it expressly excludes from patentability essentially biological processes for the production of plants and animals but does not mention products derived from such processes. (blogspot.com)
  • The topis of chemical equilibria and reaction kinetics will be linked with a simple consideration of enzymes and their role in biological reactions. (aber.ac.uk)
  • The section on processes deals with mycorrhizal symbioses, microbial P solubilization, soil macrofauna, phosphatase enzymes and rhizosphere processes. (springer.com)
  • This proposal is focused on the S. cerevisiae peroxiredoxins and their role in peroxide decomposition, signal transduction, circadian clocks, and aging as model enzymes for the study and comprehension of these biological processes in living organisms, including humans. (intechopen.com)
  • Proteolytic processing by enzymes of the SPC/Kex2/furin family in yeast and metazoans with interest in structure-function relationships and discovery of human furin inhibitors as drug models for infectious, degenerative and neoplastic disease. (umich.edu)
  • In ecological networks, the processes can refer to events influencing the distribution and abundance of organisms, or to fluxes of energy and matter. (springer.com)
  • Any process specifically pertinent to the functioning of integrated living units: cells, tissues, organs, and organisms. (bioontology.org)
  • The scientific community is just starting to uncover the agents and mechanisms taking part in the molecular biology of different organisms as we identify their genes and gene products and the corresponding biological and molecular roles of these. (biomedcentral.com)
  • By engineering the dots to bind to specific tissues of interest, researchers can use them to study biological processes in real-time. (newswise.com)
  • The researchers call this "functionalization," which means making them useful for studying specific tissues and biological processes. (newswise.com)
  • The pH often plays an important role in a biological process and can affect internal and external environments of tissues and cells. (alfa.com)
  • At the end of June the EPO published a notice (see here ) stating from 1 July 2017 plants and animals exclusively obtained by means of an essentially biological process will no longer be patentable. (blogspot.com)
  • Note that, in addition to forming the root of the biological process ontology, this term is recommended for use for the annotation of gene products whose biological process is unknown. (bioontology.org)
  • When applied to the Gene Ontology, many of the resulting links connect processes that are distant from each other in the hierarchy, even though the connection makes eminent sense biologically. (plos.org)
  • In this aspect our method complements the link structure between processes inherent in the Gene Ontology, which by its very nature is species-independent. (plos.org)
  • At the heart of the methodology described in the paper are the concept of Linked Processes and the resultant new network of biological processes, the Process Linkage Network (PLN) , whose nodes correspond to biological process terms in the Gene Ontology (GO) database. (plos.org)
  • The biodegradation of methyl tert -butyl ether (MTBE) was evaluated using aerobic mixed culture with three different approaches, including ultimate biological oxygen demand ( BOD U ) assessment, nonacclimated, and acclimated mixed cultures. (hindawi.com)
  • These molecules were formed during aerobic biological process and control several intracellular mechanisms such as a range of signaling pathways, cell cycle, programmed cell death, circadian rhythm, aging, and lifespan extension. (intechopen.com)
  • These molecules are formed during several aerobic biological processes and, in adequate levels, are involved in a number of intracellular mechanisms, such as redox signaling pathways related to cell cycle progression, programmed cell death, circadian rhythm, aging, and lifespan extension [ 2 - 7 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • PET is an analytical imaging technology developed ( 1 - 5 ) to use compounds labeled with positron emitting radioisotopes as molecular probes to image and measure biochemical processes of mammalian biology in vivo (Fig. 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a model organism for biochemical and genetic studies, and several very important discoveries of fundamental biological processes have been conducted using this yeast as an experimental organism. (intechopen.com)
  • Sufficient wastewater (pre)treatment capacity is needed at poultry processing facilities to control effluent quality, e.g. biochemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, ammonia and phosphorus, according to Dr Spyros G. Pavlostathis and Malek G. Hajaya of the School of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta in a report of their latest study sponsored by the US Poultry & Egg Association. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • A method for automatically processing a biological fluid is disclosed. (google.com)
  • The method includes the steps of obtaining a container having a biological fluid therein, providing a first signal and communicating with an automated control arrangement to establish flow of at least a portion of the biological fluid. (google.com)
  • 3. The method of claim 1 wherein biological fluid in the container comprises at least a supernatant layer and a sediment layer, and the method includes establishing flow of at least a portion of the supernatant layer or the sediment layer through the leukocyte depletion medium. (google.com)
  • 10. The method of claim 1 including placing the container having biological fluid therein in an enclosed housing. (google.com)
  • 11. The method of claim 1 including passing a platelet-containing biological fluid through the leukocyte depletion porous medium. (google.com)
  • 18. The method of claim 13 wherein biological fluid in the container comprises at least a supernatant layer and a sediment layer, and the method includes establishing flow of at least a portion of the supernatant layer or the sediment layer through the leukocyte depletion medium. (google.com)
  • An automated system for processing biological fluid includes a pressure differential generator, a biological fluid processing assembly, and an automated control arrangement coupled to at least one of the pressure differential generator and the biological fluid processing assembly. (google.com)
  • an automated control arrangement coupled to the sensor to receive the signal from the sensor, and coupled to at least one of the pressure differential generator and the biological fluid processing assembly to control flow between the first container and the satellite container. (google.com)
  • 5. The process of claim 1, wherein the fluid introduced to the assembly is an enriched fluid. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 12. The process of claim 1, wherein after flux rolling of the biological target along the target-specific binding agent, the biological target is reintroduced to the fluid of the biological organism. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Transport processes are the physical phenomena associated with heat and mass transfer and fluid mechanics. (worldcat.org)
  • The Mitra device is based on Volumetrix Absorptive Microsampling (VAMS™) technology which allows accurate and reliable collection of 10 or 20 µl of blood (or other biological fluid) in seconds. (technologynetworks.com)
  • The resulting low- fluoride and phosphorus effluent was then treated with the enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process to monitor the simultaneous removal of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • At this time, there is an intense exploration to determine patterns of gene expression that encode for normal biological processes such as replication, migration, signal transduction of cell communication, and many other functions cells perform. (pnas.org)
  • The research by a team at Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research reports on a natural biological process by which yeast cells dismantle amyloid fibers. (news-medical.net)
  • Here, we present a method to integrate biological information with machine learning to increase the speed and accuracy of processing images of yeast cells. (hfsp.org)
  • Faculty in this area engage in a number of research topics including the unfolded protein response, the human blood clotting system, the structure and function of molecular chaperones, the heat shock response, protein misfolding in aging and disease, yeast pheromone processing, protein transport in the secretory pathway, protein targeting, organelle biogenesis, and protein design and engineering. (umich.edu)
  • The present study identified a large number of NURR1-responsive genes and demonstrated the potential importance of concentration-dependent NURR1 effects in the differential regulation of distinct NURR1 target genes and biological pathways. (frontiersin.org)
  • The majority of research in this field has focused on partitioning genes into biological pathways or processes [1] - [8] . (plos.org)
  • Biological Nutrient Removal Processes and Costs Nitrogen and phosphorus are the primary causes of cultural eutrophication (i.e., nutrient enrichment due to human activities) in surface waters. (epa.gov)
  • Description Biological nutrient removal (BNR) removes total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) from wastewater through the use of microorganisms under different environmental conditions in the treatment process (Metcalf and Eddy, 2003). (epa.gov)
  • This new photosynthesis-nutrient (PN) model was then investigated, validated and determined capable of predicting growth characteristics dependent on both nutrient and photosynthetic processes. (bl.uk)
  • The biological processes that primarily remove nitrogen are nitrification and denitrification (Jeyanayagam, 2005). (epa.gov)
  • Denitrification involves the biological reduction of nitrate to nitric oxide, nitrous oxide, and nitrogen gas (Metcalf and Eddy, 2003). (epa.gov)
  • New research at the Georgia Institute of Technology has added to understanding of biological nitrogen removal (BNR) in poultry processing facilities, particularly for system optimisation for resilience and efficiency. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • As discharge effluent limits are being established for total nitrogen, not just ammonia, nitrogen removal will become an even more pressing issue for poultry processing facilities, especially those with direct effluent discharge. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • The overall objective of this research project was to systematically assess the effect of conditions/parameters that can affect the efficiency of biological nitrogen removal (BNR) in poultry processing facilities by conducting targeted sampling in such facilities as well as long-term bench-scale testing. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • The same high nitrogen removal efficiency was retained when the system was operated at 10°C with BAC-amended poultry processing wastewater. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • As a result, physical, biological and medical sciences are working together to identify fundamental errors of disease and develop molecular corrections for them. (pnas.org)
  • The presentation centers on the fundamental drivers for these processes with an additional exposition of the essential contribution of inorganic chemistry techniques to the molecular characterization of these biological processes. (scirp.org)
  • This ability is fundamental to the process of evolution and is determined by the organism's heredity, diet, and external factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the case of active transport, we investigate the fundamental role of local interactions between molecular motors by analyzing a new class of totally asymmetric exclusion processes where interactions are accounted for in a thermodynamically consistent fashion. (rice.edu)
  • It includes three complementary biological concepts: Mode_of_Inheritance (MI), ONset_and_clinical_course (ON), and Phenotypic_Abnormality (PA). (supfam.org)
  • These alterations in gene expression can result from interactions with the environment, hereditary deficits, developmental errors, and aging processes. (pnas.org)
  • In cells, information is being processed and propagated at various levels, from the gene regulatory network to chemical pathways, to the interaction with the environment. (springer.com)
  • This book covers the latest findings on how information is processed in various biological processes, ranging from information processing and propagation in gene regulatory networks to information processing in natural language. (springer.com)
  • Finally, we will study how researchers in the field of synthetic biology are using such new knowledge about biological networks to create artificial gene networks capable of performing new functions. (mit.edu)
  • Although proliferation is the strongest parameter predicting clinical outcome in the ER+/HER2− subtype and the common denominator of most prognostic gene signatures, immune response and tumor invasion seem to be the main molecular processes associated with prognosis in the ER−/HER2− and HER2+ subgroups, respectively. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Although the signatures all address the same clinical question, it might be surprising that there is only little or no overlap between their gene lists, raising questions about their biological meaning. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Biological functions included acute response, complement system, and wound healing and the protein members of each function were assigned using the intersection of gene ontologies and the protein panel. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This thesis introduces systematic engineering principles to model, at different levels of ab-straction the information processing in biological cells in order to understand the algorithms implemented by the signaling pathways that perform the processing. (mit.edu)
  • The traditional approach to studying complex biological networks is based on the identification of interactions between internal components of signaling or metabolic pathways. (plos.org)
  • It provides an in-depth description of the processes at the interface between the membrane/film and substrate electrode. (ecampus.com)
  • Other approaches simplify the mathematical functions describing the molecular processes. (springer.com)
  • Robustness is a property of many natural biological networks whereby the behavior of the network is insensitive to variations in the numbers of inputs and the strengths of interactions. (mit.edu)
  • We propose a methodology for gleaning patterns of interactions between biological processes by analyzing protein-protein interactions, transcriptional co-expression and genetic interactions. (plos.org)
  • With the aim of helping to decipher this higher order connectivity we propose a new methodology for gleaning patterns of interaction between biological processes, manifested by a significantly enriched web of protein-protein interactions, transcriptional coordination or genetic interactions. (plos.org)
  • Reduction approaches have proven successful to significantly reduce model complexity, but they do not provide a mean to understand how the system dynamics emerges from the cascade of biological processes and regulatory mechanisms at work. (springer.com)
  • Several key developments were to bring the neuroscience of higher mental processes into focus again, with a particular emphasis on specificity in the underlying brain mechanisms. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Assuming that sequence-learning tasks provide a useful way to tap natural-language-processing mechanisms, we cross-modally combined serial reaction time and artificial-grammar learning paradigms to investigate the processing of multiple nested (A 1 A 2 A 3 B 3 B 2 B 1 ) and crossed dependencies (A 1 A 2 A 3 B 1 B 2 B 3 ), containing either three or two dependencies. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The natural-language phenomenon of recursion and its potential underlying processing mechanisms have attracted great interest from scholars of different fields, including psycholinguistics, biology, computer science and cognitive neuroscience. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Most research so far has focused on sequence-learning tasks, assuming that they share cognitive mechanisms with language processing. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • There are two basic mechanisms for biological transport: passive diffusion and motor-driven active transport. (rice.edu)
  • Our data suggest these effects do not arise through general shifts in visuo-spatial attention, but instead are a consequence of motion-sensitive, direction-tuned integration mechanisms that are, if not unique to biological visual motion, at least not common to all types of visual motion. (epfl.ch)
  • In this paper, the abatement of adsorbable halogenated organic compounds (AOX) from an industrial wastewater containing relatively high chloride concentrations by a combined chemical and biological oxidation is assessed. (environmental-expert.com)
  • While there is no one-size-fits-all analytical solution, we highlight the rationale, strengths, and limitations of each technology in order to effectively apply them to specific biological questions. (nih.gov)
  • Recently, information theoretical methods and other tools, developed in the context of engineering and natural sciences, have been applied to study diverse biological processes. (springer.com)
  • For Mirus Bio, "Programming the Genome" represents providing researchers with a set of molecular tools to study biological functions for biotechnological applications. (the-scientist.com)
  • We employ the combination of experiment, theory, and simulation to quantitatively study these information processes. (kfa-juelich.de)
  • In a groundbreaking new study from UC San Francisco, researchers have found that children affected with SPD have quantifiable differences in brain structure, for the first time showing a biological basis for the disease that sets it apart from other neurodevelopmental disorders. (ucsf.edu)
  • Space constraints here preclude a comprehensive review of how the current layout of the field has arisen for study of mental processes in the human brain. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In this study, a combined process was developed that included micro-electrolysis, Fenton oxidation and coagulation to treat oilfield fracturing wastewater. (environmental-expert.com)
  • This study proposes a new method showing that the addition of UV strongly enhanced the oxidation capacity of the Cu(II)/O2 process, which subsequently produced reactive oxidants using copper as a catalyst via the Fenton-like reactions of in situ generated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). (environmental-expert.com)
  • Developmental specification of adult stem cells and the study of how key biological processes differ in these cells between the embryonic and adult state. (dkfz.de)
  • The current study suggests telomere length is a biological indicator of that accelerated aging process. (healthcanal.com)
  • The study is the first to provide biological evidence that lifelong musical experience has an impact on the aging process. (nutritionreview.org)
  • The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to determine the neural responses to intentional biological actions in 22 siblings of children with autism and 22 matched controls. (nih.gov)
  • The chemical reactions of selected metabolic processes will also be covered. (edu.au)
  • Clearly, the complete oxidation of source water ammonia prior to or as part of the water treatment process would eliminate the potential negative impacts of nitrification on distribution system water quality. (epa.gov)
  • Bawendi and colleagues engineered three distinct types of SWIR quantum dots to demonstrate their use in studying different biological processes. (newswise.com)
  • Different patterns of mutations , known as " mutational signatures ," are generated by different biological processes such as aging, errors when copying or repairing DNA and DNA damage caused by environmental factors. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Scientists have developed a fluorescent probe technology that can be switched on and off in the aqueous environment of cells to monitor biological processes. (genengnews.com)
  • Watson and Crick's elucidation of DNA in 1958 initiated a time in which biological and physical scientists would strive to unravel the genetic code and its regulated expression that is the basis of development and maintenance of phenotypic function of all cells of an organism. (pnas.org)
  • And because these changes could then be passed on to subsequent generations of cells, this, the scientists note, would be an example of environment guiding the evolutionary process. (news-medical.net)
  • Mammalian fertilization, a species-specific event, is the net result of a highly orchestrated process by which two radically different looking cells, sperm and egg, interact and unite to form a zygote, a cell with somatic chromosome numbers. (hindawi.com)
  • Living cells process information in an extraordinarily efficient manner. (kfa-juelich.de)
  • Preferably, the selective binding process is applied to biological cells containing RNA of interest. (google.ca)
  • 7. A process as claimed in claims 1-4, wherein said biologically active RNA is isolated from biological cells as the source of said RNA. (google.ca)
  • This PhD project is related to the in-silico component of a large integrated effort to develop and exploit a controllable and fully observable platform of real biological retinal cells for computational modelling of biological visual processing. (ntu.ac.uk)
  • By studying the mutational signatures present in myeloma cells, the researchers identified the biological processes driving the mutational changes contributing to the development and evolution of myeloma. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Although the common cytogenetic abnormalities found in myeloma cells have been identified, the biological processes causing these mutations are not fully understood. (medicalxpress.com)
  • This process actually begins at birth, as certain cells begin to die. (deliciousghost.com)
  • This process can be modeled in vitro by directing the differentiation of pluripotent cell lines, such as embryonic stem (ES) cells or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), towards the formation of the hematopoietic lineages. (dkfz.de)
  • The in vitro specification of hematopoietic lineages from ES cells and patient-specific iPSCs closely mimics the process via which HSCs are generated during development, and holds enormous potential for disease modeling and for the eventual scalable production of differentiated cells for regenerative therapy. (dkfz.de)
  • One of the current focuses of the Experimental Hematology group is to better understand the important molecular and biological differences between hematopoietic specification in vitro and in vivo, and to attempt to apply this knowledge towards developing better methodologies for the generation of functional HSCs from ES cells and iPSCs. (dkfz.de)
  • Ammonia is a poultry processing wastewater component that requires a high degree of removal before the final disposal of the treated wastewater. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Have a basic understanding of the background physical chemistry to bioenergetics and electron transport processes in nature. (aber.ac.uk)
  • Natural phenomena consist of simultaneously occurring transport processes and chemical reactions. (indigo.ca)
  • Biological processes are those processes that are vital for an organism to live, and that shape its capacities for interacting with its environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • the processes by which an organism has an observable effect on another organism of the same or different species. (wikipedia.org)
  • An emerging concept, which is validated by several works using this organism, relies on the biological importance of oxidant species, specially the hydroperoxides. (intechopen.com)
  • A method was developed that allows the evaluation of complex biological processes from mass spectrometry of human serum samples. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A tool that measures the activity of a complex biological process could be useful in deciding when an intervention is needed (screening), or for monitoring the effects during therapy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The degradation of aqueous methyl tert -butyl ether (MTBE) at relatively high concentrations was investigated by various photo-induced oxidation processes such as UV/H 2 O 2 and UV/TiO 2 as well as biological processes and their combination. (hindawi.com)
  • Microbial acclimation to and degradation of BAC was responsible for the successful operation of the BNR system with the BAC-amended poultry processing wastewater. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Pavlostathis and Hajaya add that, given the benefits of using QACs as effective sanitation chemicals in poultry processing facilities, the effectiveness of biological processes for the degradation of QACs in order to avoid process upsets, especially for the nitrification step, should be further evaluated using alternative process configurations (e.g. sequential batch reactors, fixed-film reactors) in order to capture process variability across the entire poultry processing industry. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • This work is intended to optimize the experimental conditions for the maximum oxidative degradation of organic material by coagulation and the UV/H2O2/ferrioxalate complexes process. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The image shows areas of the brain that can be affected by sensory processing disorders. (ucsf.edu)
  • Sensory processing disorders (SPD) are more prevalent in children than autism and as common as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, yet the condition receives far less attention partly because it's never been recognized as a distinct disease. (ucsf.edu)
  • Sensory processing disorders affect 5 to 16 percent of school-aged children. (ucsf.edu)
  • If we can better understand these kids who are falling through the cracks, we will not only help a whole lot of families, but we will better understand sensory processing in general. (ucsf.edu)
  • While studies of lower-level sensory and motor processes have been fairly well integrated with underlying physiology for over a century, this was not always so for higher mental processes. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • These brain images, taken with DTI, show water diffusion within the white matter of children with sensory processing disorders. (healthcanal.com)
  • In naturalistic settings, however, it is often the case that biological motion is defined by input to more than one sensory modality. (epfl.ch)
  • Researchers and professionals from industry are seeking practical approaches to extract useful knowledge to support decisions throughout process / system life cycle. (igi-global.com)
  • Their existence has been suggested by generative linguists to be one of the major challenges for empirically based approaches to language [ 4 ], as they may point to the limits of human language processing. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • These goals are achieved by modeling and systematically analyzing industrial processes. (princeton.edu)
  • This chapter discusses practical methods for semantic mining using systematic knowledge representation as integrated with process modeling and domain knowledge. (igi-global.com)
  • 54(3) EPC was an exclusion of a process, and there was no basis for giving this Article a broader interpretation. (blogspot.com)
  • Finally, the effects of the photocatalytic pretreatment of aqueous MTBE on its subsequent biological treatment were studied. (hindawi.com)
  • Other aspects of physical chemistry will include energetics, binding of ligands and electrochemistry, again the relevance to biological processes emphasised and with examples drawn from biology. (aber.ac.uk)
  • This book discusses the ion fluxes and electron transfer processes in biological membranes and artificial bio-films. (ecampus.com)
  • Regulation of biological processes occurs when any process is modulated in its frequency, rate or extent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, understanding mechanism and regulation of protein folding, protein translocation and protein processing is an integral part of modern molecular and cell biology. (umich.edu)
  • We hope it helps us clarify high-speed biology that might otherwise be hidden or blurred by other microscopes so that we can better understand how biological processes work. (eurekalert.org)
  • There has been a long-standing interest in the basic biology of sperm-egg adhesion and fertilization process. (hindawi.com)
  • The prospects of using cell biology as a metaphor for signal processing are also consid-ered in a preliminary way by presenting a surface mapping algorithm based on bacterial chemotaxis. (mit.edu)
  • Volume 9: Advanced Biological Treatment Processes in the Handbook of Environmental Engineering series provides critical insight into pollution-abatement engineering. (springer.com)
  • It was observed that the rate of bioreaction was not enhanced and the photocatalytic pretreatment had adverse effects on its biological treatment so that the apparent rate constant decreased to 2.83 × 10 − 1 mg L -1 h -1 . (hindawi.com)
  • The configuration most appropriate for any particular system depends on the target effluent quality, operator experience, influent quality, and existing treatment processes, if retrofitting an existing facility. (epa.gov)
  • What are process controls for dissolved oxygen during biological treatment? (watertechonline.com)
  • Dissolved oxygen (DO) is defined in biological treatment as the relative measure of oxygen dissolved in wastewater available to sustain life, including living bacteria. (watertechonline.com)
  • Therefore controlling oxygen is required for secondary or biological treatment of wastewater. (watertechonline.com)
  • No etiologic agent(s) has been identified, and the processes that mediate formation of coronary artery aneurysms and abatement of fever following treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) remain poorly understood. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This module aims to give the students sufficient chemical knowledge to understand the principles that underlie biological processes at the molecular level. (aber.ac.uk)
  • This unit applies the core principles of chemistry, molecular structure and chemical reactivity to biological molecules. (edu.au)
  • Following the Broccoli and Tomato cases (G2/12 Tomatoes II and G3/12 Broccoli II, discussed on the IPKat here ), the Enlarged Board of the EPO ruled that even where an essentially biological process for the production of a plant or animal is not patentable, the resultant animal or plant may itself be patentable. (blogspot.com)
  • It contained process claims directed to methods for the production of Brassica oleracea with elevated levels of certain glucosinolates as well as product claims directed to certain Brassica and broccoli plants and to parts of such plants (edible portion, seed, inflorescence, plant cell). (epo.org)
  • The advantage of these SWIR-QDs is the ability to image physiological processes that occur too rapidly to be detected by common imaging methods such as MRI or PET. (newswise.com)
  • Although oxidative stress may disrupt biological function, oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions in a cell are often tightly regulated and play essential physiological roles. (nih.gov)
  • However, the Commission's Notice goes on to state that certain provisions of the Biotech Directive are only consistent if understood as excluding the products of essentially biological process from patentability. (blogspot.com)
  • The Department provides an assessment for the course to align itself with the ABET's Accreditation Process. (unl.edu)
  • When a piece of information from the environment say a biological messenger meets the outer envelope of the cell, calcium ions are released inside the cell. (nanowerk.com)
  • This work describes two activities designed to introduce students into the use of NMR spectroscopy for the analysis of biological fluids. (epfl.ch)