Biological processes, properties, and characteristics of the whole organism in human, animal, microorganisms, and plants, and of the biosphere.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Comprehensive, methodical analysis of complex biological systems by monitoring responses to perturbations of biological processes. Large scale, computerized collection and analysis of the data are used to develop and test models of biological systems.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
Treatment of diseases with biological materials or biological response modifiers, such as the use of GENES; CELLS; TISSUES; organs; SERUM; VACCINES; and humoral agents.
An idiopathic vascular disorder characterized by bilateral Raynaud phenomenon, the abrupt onset of digital paleness or CYANOSIS in response to cold exposure or stress.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Warfare involving the use of living organisms or their products as disease etiologic agents against people, animals, or plants.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.

The molluscicidal activity of the latex of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii on Melanoides tuberculata (Thiaridae), a snail associated with habitats of Biomphalaria glabrata (Planorbidae). (1/15)

The use of the latex of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii was considered as an effective control method for Biomphalaria glabrata in Sumidouro, Rio de Janeiro. However, the appearance and expansion of the snail Melanoides tuberculata since August 1997, with the concomitant reduction of the population of B. glabrata suggest that competitive exclusion might be taking place. Depending on the susceptibility of the thiarid to the E. splendens toxin, the natural control that is occurring could be interrupted by the employment of the latex if the planorbid were less susceptible to the toxin. The aim of this study is to investigate the molluscicidal activity of the latex on M. tuberculata. We used 420 M. tuberculata, from Sumidouro. Fourteen different latex concentrations were tested using World Health Organization general methodology. Probit analysis was used for LD90 and LD50 determination. The LD50 was 3.57 mg/l and LD90 was 6.22 mg/l. At the highest concentration (10 mg/l) there was no survival. No significant differences among replicas (chi2 = 8.31; gl = 13; p > 0.05) were found. The LD90 dose for M. tuberculata was 13.8 times greater than that for B. glabrata, so that the molluscicide in the presence of the thiarid may have a synergic effect on reduction of Biomphalaria populations.  (+info)

Coevolutionary networks: a novel approach to understanding the relationships of humans with the infectious agents. (2/15)

Human organism is interpenetrated by the world of microorganisms, from the conception until the death. This interpenetration involves different levels of interactions between the partners including trophic exchanges, bi-directional cell signaling and gene activation, besides genetic and epigenetic phenomena, and tends towards mutual adaptation and coevolution. Since these processes are critical for the survival of individuals and species, they rely on the existence of a complex organization of adaptive systems aiming at two apparently conflicting purposes: the maintenance of the internal coherence of each partner, and a mutually advantageous coexistence and progressive adaptation between them. Humans possess three adaptive systems: the nervous, the endocrine and the immune system, each internally organized into subsystems functionally connected by intraconnections, to maintain the internal coherence of the system. The three adaptive systems aim at the maintenance of the internal coherence of the organism and are functionally linked by interconnections, in such way that what happens to one is immediately sensed by the others. The different communities of infectious agents that live within the organism are also organized into functional networks. The members of each community are linked by intraconnections, represented by the mutual trophic, metabolic and other influences, while the different infectious communities affect each other through interconnections. Furthermore, by means of its adaptive systems, the organism influences and is influenced by the microbial communities through the existence of transconnections. It is proposed that these highly complex and dynamic networks, involving gene exchange and epigenetic phenomena, represent major coevolutionary forces for humans and microorganisms.  (+info)

Dewetting and hydrophobic interaction in physical and biological systems. (3/15)


The challenge of lipid rafts. (4/15)


Sphingolipidomics: a valuable tool for understanding the roles of sphingolipids in biology and disease. (5/15)


Kinetic modeling of biological systems. (6/15)


The cattle genome reveals its secrets. (7/15)


Exploratory research on bioactive natural products with a focus on biological phenomena. (8/15)

The discovery of new basic compounds holds the key for advancing material sciences. We have focused on the identification and characterization of natural key compounds that control biologically and physiologically intriguing phenomena. The discovery of new bioactive molecules, facilitated by a deeper understanding of nature, should advance our knowledge of biological processes and lead to new strategies to treat disease. The structure and function of natural compounds are sometimes unexpectedly original. Based on our past experience and results, we have carried out research to find new directions for compound exploration by directly learning from dynamic biological phenomena in the field, and have succeeded in creating a new research field in biological molecular sciences.  (+info)

Biological phenomena refer to the observable events and processes that occur within living organisms and their interactions with the environment. These phenomena can be categorized into various levels, including molecular, cellular, organismal, and ecological. Examples of biological phenomena include cell division, metabolism, growth, reproduction, behavior, and evolution. They are the result of the complex interplay between genetic factors, environmental influences, and the interactions among different levels of biological organization. Understanding these phenomena is a key goal of biology and is crucial for advancing our knowledge of health and disease.

Biological models, also known as physiological models or organismal models, are simplified representations of biological systems, processes, or mechanisms that are used to understand and explain the underlying principles and relationships. These models can be theoretical (conceptual or mathematical) or physical (such as anatomical models, cell cultures, or animal models). They are widely used in biomedical research to study various phenomena, including disease pathophysiology, drug action, and therapeutic interventions.

Examples of biological models include:

1. Mathematical models: These use mathematical equations and formulas to describe complex biological systems or processes, such as population dynamics, metabolic pathways, or gene regulation networks. They can help predict the behavior of these systems under different conditions and test hypotheses about their underlying mechanisms.
2. Cell cultures: These are collections of cells grown in a controlled environment, typically in a laboratory dish or flask. They can be used to study cellular processes, such as signal transduction, gene expression, or metabolism, and to test the effects of drugs or other treatments on these processes.
3. Animal models: These are living organisms, usually vertebrates like mice, rats, or non-human primates, that are used to study various aspects of human biology and disease. They can provide valuable insights into the pathophysiology of diseases, the mechanisms of drug action, and the safety and efficacy of new therapies.
4. Anatomical models: These are physical representations of biological structures or systems, such as plastic models of organs or tissues, that can be used for educational purposes or to plan surgical procedures. They can also serve as a basis for developing more sophisticated models, such as computer simulations or 3D-printed replicas.

Overall, biological models play a crucial role in advancing our understanding of biology and medicine, helping to identify new targets for therapeutic intervention, develop novel drugs and treatments, and improve human health.

Systems Biology is a multidisciplinary approach to studying biological systems that involves the integration of various scientific disciplines such as biology, mathematics, physics, computer science, and engineering. It aims to understand how biological components, including genes, proteins, metabolites, cells, and organs, interact with each other within the context of the whole system. This approach emphasizes the emergent properties of biological systems that cannot be explained by studying individual components alone. Systems biology often involves the use of computational models to simulate and predict the behavior of complex biological systems and to design experiments for testing hypotheses about their functioning. The ultimate goal of systems biology is to develop a more comprehensive understanding of how biological systems function, with applications in fields such as medicine, agriculture, and bioengineering.

An algorithm is not a medical term, but rather a concept from computer science and mathematics. In the context of medicine, algorithms are often used to describe step-by-step procedures for diagnosing or managing medical conditions. These procedures typically involve a series of rules or decision points that help healthcare professionals make informed decisions about patient care.

For example, an algorithm for diagnosing a particular type of heart disease might involve taking a patient's medical history, performing a physical exam, ordering certain diagnostic tests, and interpreting the results in a specific way. By following this algorithm, healthcare professionals can ensure that they are using a consistent and evidence-based approach to making a diagnosis.

Algorithms can also be used to guide treatment decisions. For instance, an algorithm for managing diabetes might involve setting target blood sugar levels, recommending certain medications or lifestyle changes based on the patient's individual needs, and monitoring the patient's response to treatment over time.

Overall, algorithms are valuable tools in medicine because they help standardize clinical decision-making and ensure that patients receive high-quality care based on the latest scientific evidence.

Computational biology is a branch of biology that uses mathematical and computational methods to study biological data, models, and processes. It involves the development and application of algorithms, statistical models, and computational approaches to analyze and interpret large-scale molecular and phenotypic data from genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and other high-throughput technologies. The goal is to gain insights into biological systems and processes, develop predictive models, and inform experimental design and hypothesis testing in the life sciences. Computational biology encompasses a wide range of disciplines, including bioinformatics, systems biology, computational genomics, network biology, and mathematical modeling of biological systems.

A computer simulation is a process that involves creating a model of a real-world system or phenomenon on a computer and then using that model to run experiments and make predictions about how the system will behave under different conditions. In the medical field, computer simulations are used for a variety of purposes, including:

1. Training and education: Computer simulations can be used to create realistic virtual environments where medical students and professionals can practice their skills and learn new procedures without risk to actual patients. For example, surgeons may use simulation software to practice complex surgical techniques before performing them on real patients.
2. Research and development: Computer simulations can help medical researchers study the behavior of biological systems at a level of detail that would be difficult or impossible to achieve through experimental methods alone. By creating detailed models of cells, tissues, organs, or even entire organisms, researchers can use simulation software to explore how these systems function and how they respond to different stimuli.
3. Drug discovery and development: Computer simulations are an essential tool in modern drug discovery and development. By modeling the behavior of drugs at a molecular level, researchers can predict how they will interact with their targets in the body and identify potential side effects or toxicities. This information can help guide the design of new drugs and reduce the need for expensive and time-consuming clinical trials.
4. Personalized medicine: Computer simulations can be used to create personalized models of individual patients based on their unique genetic, physiological, and environmental characteristics. These models can then be used to predict how a patient will respond to different treatments and identify the most effective therapy for their specific condition.

Overall, computer simulations are a powerful tool in modern medicine, enabling researchers and clinicians to study complex systems and make predictions about how they will behave under a wide range of conditions. By providing insights into the behavior of biological systems at a level of detail that would be difficult or impossible to achieve through experimental methods alone, computer simulations are helping to advance our understanding of human health and disease.

Gene expression profiling is a laboratory technique used to measure the activity (expression) of thousands of genes at once. This technique allows researchers and clinicians to identify which genes are turned on or off in a particular cell, tissue, or organism under specific conditions, such as during health, disease, development, or in response to various treatments.

The process typically involves isolating RNA from the cells or tissues of interest, converting it into complementary DNA (cDNA), and then using microarray or high-throughput sequencing technologies to determine which genes are expressed and at what levels. The resulting data can be used to identify patterns of gene expression that are associated with specific biological states or processes, providing valuable insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms of diseases and potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

In recent years, gene expression profiling has become an essential tool in various fields, including cancer research, drug discovery, and personalized medicine, where it is used to identify biomarkers of disease, predict patient outcomes, and guide treatment decisions.

I am not aware of a widely accepted medical definition for the term "software," as it is more commonly used in the context of computer science and technology. Software refers to programs, data, and instructions that are used by computers to perform various tasks. It does not have direct relevance to medical fields such as anatomy, physiology, or clinical practice. If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to try to help with those instead!

Genetic models are theoretical frameworks used in genetics to describe and explain the inheritance patterns and genetic architecture of traits, diseases, or phenomena. These models are based on mathematical equations and statistical methods that incorporate information about gene frequencies, modes of inheritance, and the effects of environmental factors. They can be used to predict the probability of certain genetic outcomes, to understand the genetic basis of complex traits, and to inform medical management and treatment decisions.

There are several types of genetic models, including:

1. Mendelian models: These models describe the inheritance patterns of simple genetic traits that follow Mendel's laws of segregation and independent assortment. Examples include autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, and X-linked inheritance.
2. Complex trait models: These models describe the inheritance patterns of complex traits that are influenced by multiple genes and environmental factors. Examples include heart disease, diabetes, and cancer.
3. Population genetics models: These models describe the distribution and frequency of genetic variants within populations over time. They can be used to study evolutionary processes, such as natural selection and genetic drift.
4. Quantitative genetics models: These models describe the relationship between genetic variation and phenotypic variation in continuous traits, such as height or IQ. They can be used to estimate heritability and to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that contribute to trait variation.
5. Statistical genetics models: These models use statistical methods to analyze genetic data and infer the presence of genetic associations or linkage. They can be used to identify genetic risk factors for diseases or traits.

Overall, genetic models are essential tools in genetics research and medical genetics, as they allow researchers to make predictions about genetic outcomes, test hypotheses about the genetic basis of traits and diseases, and develop strategies for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment.

Gene Regulatory Networks (GRNs) are complex systems of molecular interactions that regulate the expression of genes within an organism. These networks consist of various types of regulatory elements, including transcription factors, enhancers, promoters, and silencers, which work together to control when, where, and to what extent a gene is expressed.

In GRNs, transcription factors bind to specific DNA sequences in the regulatory regions of target genes, either activating or repressing their transcription into messenger RNA (mRNA). This process is influenced by various intracellular and extracellular signals that modulate the activity of transcription factors, allowing for precise regulation of gene expression in response to changing environmental conditions.

The structure and behavior of GRNs can be represented as a network of nodes (genes) and edges (regulatory interactions), with the strength and directionality of these interactions determined by the specific molecular mechanisms involved. Understanding the organization and dynamics of GRNs is crucial for elucidating the underlying causes of various biological processes, including development, differentiation, homeostasis, and disease.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Biological evolution is the change in the genetic composition of populations of organisms over time, from one generation to the next. It is a process that results in descendants differing genetically from their ancestors. Biological evolution can be driven by several mechanisms, including natural selection, genetic drift, gene flow, and mutation. These processes can lead to changes in the frequency of alleles (variants of a gene) within populations, resulting in the development of new species and the extinction of others over long periods of time. Biological evolution provides a unifying explanation for the diversity of life on Earth and is supported by extensive evidence from many different fields of science, including genetics, paleontology, comparative anatomy, and biogeography.

Genomics is the scientific study of genes and their functions. It involves the sequencing and analysis of an organism's genome, which is its complete set of DNA, including all of its genes. Genomics also includes the study of how genes interact with each other and with the environment. This field of study can provide important insights into the genetic basis of diseases and can lead to the development of new diagnostic tools and treatments.

Signal transduction is the process by which a cell converts an extracellular signal, such as a hormone or neurotransmitter, into an intracellular response. This involves a series of molecular events that transmit the signal from the cell surface to the interior of the cell, ultimately resulting in changes in gene expression, protein activity, or metabolism.

The process typically begins with the binding of the extracellular signal to a receptor located on the cell membrane. This binding event activates the receptor, which then triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling molecules, such as second messengers, protein kinases, and ion channels. These molecules amplify and propagate the signal, ultimately leading to the activation or inhibition of specific cellular responses.

Signal transduction pathways are highly regulated and can be modulated by various factors, including other signaling molecules, post-translational modifications, and feedback mechanisms. Dysregulation of these pathways has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

A phenotype is the physical or biochemical expression of an organism's genes, or the observable traits and characteristics resulting from the interaction of its genetic constitution (genotype) with environmental factors. These characteristics can include appearance, development, behavior, and resistance to disease, among others. Phenotypes can vary widely, even among individuals with identical genotypes, due to differences in environmental influences, gene expression, and genetic interactions.

Proteins are complex, large molecules that play critical roles in the body's functions. They are made up of amino acids, which are organic compounds that are the building blocks of proteins. Proteins are required for the structure, function, and regulation of the body's tissues and organs. They are essential for the growth, repair, and maintenance of body tissues, and they play a crucial role in many biological processes, including metabolism, immune response, and cellular signaling. Proteins can be classified into different types based on their structure and function, such as enzymes, hormones, antibodies, and structural proteins. They are found in various foods, especially animal-derived products like meat, dairy, and eggs, as well as plant-based sources like beans, nuts, and grains.

Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis is a type of microarray analysis that allows for the simultaneous measurement of the expression levels of thousands of genes in a single sample. In this technique, oligonucleotides (short DNA sequences) are attached to a solid support, such as a glass slide, in a specific pattern. These oligonucleotides are designed to be complementary to specific target mRNA sequences from the sample being analyzed.

During the analysis, labeled RNA or cDNA from the sample is hybridized to the oligonucleotide array. The level of hybridization is then measured and used to determine the relative abundance of each target sequence in the sample. This information can be used to identify differences in gene expression between samples, which can help researchers understand the underlying biological processes involved in various diseases or developmental stages.

It's important to note that this technique requires specialized equipment and bioinformatics tools for data analysis, as well as careful experimental design and validation to ensure accurate and reproducible results.

'Gene expression regulation' refers to the processes that control whether, when, and where a particular gene is expressed, meaning the production of a specific protein or functional RNA encoded by that gene. This complex mechanism can be influenced by various factors such as transcription factors, chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation, non-coding RNAs, and post-transcriptional modifications, among others. Proper regulation of gene expression is crucial for normal cellular function, development, and maintaining homeostasis in living organisms. Dysregulation of gene expression can lead to various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Reproducibility of results in a medical context refers to the ability to obtain consistent and comparable findings when a particular experiment or study is repeated, either by the same researcher or by different researchers, following the same experimental protocol. It is an essential principle in scientific research that helps to ensure the validity and reliability of research findings.

In medical research, reproducibility of results is crucial for establishing the effectiveness and safety of new treatments, interventions, or diagnostic tools. It involves conducting well-designed studies with adequate sample sizes, appropriate statistical analyses, and transparent reporting of methods and findings to allow other researchers to replicate the study and confirm or refute the results.

The lack of reproducibility in medical research has become a significant concern in recent years, as several high-profile studies have failed to produce consistent findings when replicated by other researchers. This has led to increased scrutiny of research practices and a call for greater transparency, rigor, and standardization in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

According to the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), biological products are "products that are made from or contain a living organism or its derivatives, such as vaccines, blood and blood components, cells, genes, tissues, and proteins." These products can be composed of sugars, proteins, nucleic acids, or complex combinations of these substances, and they can come from many sources, including humans, animals, microorganisms, or plants.

Biological products are often used to diagnose, prevent, or treat a wide range of medical conditions, and they can be administered in various ways, such as through injection, inhalation, or topical application. Because biological products are derived from living organisms, their manufacturing processes can be complex and must be tightly controlled to ensure the safety, purity, and potency of the final product.

It's important to note that biological products are not the same as drugs, which are chemically synthesized compounds. While drugs are designed to interact with specific targets in the body, such as enzymes or receptors, biological products can have more complex and varied mechanisms of action, making them potentially more difficult to characterize and regulate.

A biological assay is a method used in biology and biochemistry to measure the concentration or potency of a substance (like a drug, hormone, or enzyme) by observing its effect on living cells or tissues. This type of assay can be performed using various techniques such as:

1. Cell-based assays: These involve measuring changes in cell behavior, growth, or viability after exposure to the substance being tested. Examples include proliferation assays, apoptosis assays, and cytotoxicity assays.
2. Protein-based assays: These focus on measuring the interaction between the substance and specific proteins, such as enzymes or receptors. Examples include enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), radioimmunoassays (RIAs), and pull-down assays.
3. Genetic-based assays: These involve analyzing the effects of the substance on gene expression, DNA structure, or protein synthesis. Examples include quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays, reporter gene assays, and northern blotting.

Biological assays are essential tools in research, drug development, and diagnostic applications to understand biological processes and evaluate the potential therapeutic efficacy or toxicity of various substances.

Biological therapy, also known as biotherapy or immunotherapy, is a type of medical treatment that uses biological agents (such as substances derived from living organisms or laboratory-made versions of these substances) to identify and modify specific targets in the body to treat diseases, including cancer. These therapies can work by boosting the body's natural defenses to fight illness, interfering with the growth and spread of abnormal cells, or replacing absent or faulty proteins in the body. Examples of biological therapies include monoclonal antibodies, cytokines, and vaccines.

Raynaud's disease, also known as Raynaud's phenomenon or syndrome, is a condition that affects the blood vessels, particularly in the fingers and toes. It is characterized by episodes of vasospasm (constriction) of the small digital arteries and arterioles, which can be triggered by cold temperatures or emotional stress. This results in reduced blood flow to the affected areas, causing them to become pale or white and then cyanotic (blue) due to the accumulation of deoxygenated blood. As the episode resolves, the affected areas may turn red as blood flow returns, sometimes accompanied by pain, numbness, or tingling sensations.

Raynaud's disease can be primary, meaning it occurs without an underlying medical condition, or secondary, which is associated with connective tissue disorders, autoimmune diseases, or other health issues such as carpal tunnel syndrome, vibration tool usage, or smoking. Primary Raynaud's is more common and tends to be less severe than secondary Raynaud's.

Treatment for Raynaud's disease typically involves avoiding triggers, keeping the body warm, and using medications to help dilate blood vessels and improve circulation. In some cases, lifestyle modifications and smoking cessation may also be recommended to manage symptoms and prevent progression of the condition.

A biological marker, often referred to as a biomarker, is a measurable indicator that reflects the presence or severity of a disease state, or a response to a therapeutic intervention. Biomarkers can be found in various materials such as blood, tissues, or bodily fluids, and they can take many forms, including molecular, histologic, radiographic, or physiological measurements.

In the context of medical research and clinical practice, biomarkers are used for a variety of purposes, such as:

1. Diagnosis: Biomarkers can help diagnose a disease by indicating the presence or absence of a particular condition. For example, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a biomarker used to detect prostate cancer.
2. Monitoring: Biomarkers can be used to monitor the progression or regression of a disease over time. For instance, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels are monitored in diabetes patients to assess long-term blood glucose control.
3. Predicting: Biomarkers can help predict the likelihood of developing a particular disease or the risk of a negative outcome. For example, the presence of certain genetic mutations can indicate an increased risk for breast cancer.
4. Response to treatment: Biomarkers can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a specific treatment by measuring changes in the biomarker levels before and after the intervention. This is particularly useful in personalized medicine, where treatments are tailored to individual patients based on their unique biomarker profiles.

It's important to note that for a biomarker to be considered clinically valid and useful, it must undergo rigorous validation through well-designed studies, including demonstrating sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, and clinical relevance.

Biological warfare, also known as germ warfare, is the use of biological agents or toxins with the intent to cause disease or death in humans, animals, or plants. These agents can be spread through the air, water, or food and can include bacteria, viruses, fungi, or toxic substances produced by living organisms. The purpose of using these agents is typically to cause widespread illness, fear, and disruption. Biological warfare is considered a weapon of mass destruction and is illegal under international law.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

... in Biological Systems (Second ed.). Prentice Hall. p. 888. ISBN 978-0-13-156988-1. Plawsky, Joel L. (April ... An important principle in the study of transport phenomena is analogy between phenomena. There are some notable similarities in ... "transport phenomena". Another example is in biomedical engineering, where some transport phenomena of interest are ... "Some Classical Transport Phenomena Problems with Solutions - Fluid Mechanics". "Some Classical Transport Phenomena Problems ...
Driesch, H. (1924). "The Biological Setting of Psychical Phenomena". The Quest 15 (July): 433-456. Driesch, H. (1925). The ... From 1891 Driesch worked in Naples at the Marine Biological Station, where until 1901 he continued to experiment and seek a ... He became interested in parapsychology and published on such phenomena as telepathy, clairvoyance, and telekinesis. His concept ...
Braid's quote is at p. 512 of Braid, J., "Electro-Biological Phenomena Physiologically and Psychologically Considered, by James ... Ormond McGill, The New Encyclopedia of Stage Hypnosis, 1996: 24 Braid, J. (1851). Electro-Biological Phenomena, etc., p. 530. ... phenomena; he never used it to treat anyone at any time (in public or private). Braid always maintained that he had gone to ... details some of the phenomena that Stone's audience might have expected to have displayed to them. Persons in a perfectly ...
Braid, J., "Electro-Biological Phenomena Physiologically and Psychologically Considered, by James Braid, M.R.C.S. Edinburgh, &c ... Braid" (p. 148) The published version is: Carpenter (1852). Braid, Electro-Biological Phenomena, etc., p. 530. ideo, 'idea', ' ... those phenomena]. [Braid] considered that the mental phenomena were only rendered possible by previous physical changes; and, ... Braid investigated the phenomenon of "table-turning" and clearly confirmed Michael Faraday's conclusion that the phenomenon was ...
Biophysics - study of physics of biological phenomena. Biopsychology - application of the science of biology to the study of ... Chronobiology - study of biological rhythms. Chrysology - study of precious metals. Ciselure - art of chasing metal. Classical ... Biometrics - study of biological measurement for security purposes. Bionomics - study of organisms interacting in their ... Biotribology - study of friction, wear and lubrication of biological systems. Botany - study of plants. Bromatology - study of ...
Braid, Electro-Biological Phenomena, etc., p. 530. Braid, J. "Magic, Mesmerism, Hypnotism, etc., Historically and ... Braid, J., "The Power of the Mind over the Body: An Experimental Inquiry into the nature and cause of the Phenomena attributed ... As he later wrote, Inasmuch as patients can throw themselves into the nervous sleep, and manifest all the usual phenomena of ... Hypnosis, which at the end of the 19th century had become a popular phenomenon, in particular due to Charcot's public hypnotism ...
"Book Review: Transport Phenomena in Biological Systems" (PDF). Annals of Biomedical Engineering. Retrieved 14 March 2014.[ ... Truskey, George; Yuan F; Katz D (2009). Transport Phenomena in Biological Systems (Second ed.). Prentice Hall. p. 888. ISBN 978 ... George Alexander Truskey is an American biomedical engineer noted for his research on transport phenomena in biological systems ... a biomedical engineering textbook entitled Transport Phenomena in Biological Systems, over 6 book chapters, and over 180 ...
Mathematical biology the mathematical modeling of biological phenomena. Mathematical chemistry the mathematical modeling of ... It has many applications in physical, biological and social systems. Group-character theory the part of character theory ... Quantum geometry the generalization of concepts of geometry used to describe the physical phenomena of quantum physics ... chemical phenomena. Mathematical economics the application of mathematical methods to represent theories and analyze problems ...
Theoretical Biology - the mathematical modeling of biological phenomena. Zoology - study of animals, including classification, ... Biological economics - an interdisciplinary field in which the interaction of human biology and economics is studied. ... Biophysics - study of biological processes through the methods traditionally used in the physical sciences. Biomechanics - the ... Subbranches include: Arthropodology - biological discipline concerned with the study of arthropods, a phylum of animals that ...
It stresses mathematics and biological factors in psychological phenomena. It can provide a foundation for clinical psychology ...
Evolutionarily significant biological phenomena, Ray-finned fish, Fish anatomy). ...
3-11 (1977)[1] Truskey, G. A., Yuan, F, Katz, D. F. (2004). Transport Phenomena in Biological Systems Prentice Hall, pp. 7. ... What is the explanation for this phenomenon? A large Reynolds number indicates that viscous forces are not important at large ... Bird, R. Byron; Stewart, Warren E.; Lightfoot, Edwin N. (2006). Transport Phenomena. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-11539-8 ...
Arp, R. (2008). "Life and the homeostatic organization view of biological phenomena". Cosmos and History: The Journal of ... He calls this position the homeostatic organization view of biological phenomena. With Alexander Rosenberg, Arp has edited ... Concerning biological function, Arp has put forward a middle position between the two viable accounts of function today-namely ... The Infectious Disease Ontology is one of the ontologies in the Open Biological and Biomedical Ontologies Foundry, also known ...
Measurement of biological phenomena by radiotracers is always direct. In contrast, many life science fluorescence applications ... Radioactivity is generally used in life sciences for highly sensitive and direct measurements of biological phenomena, and for ... Molecular imaging is the biomedical field that employs radiotracers to visualize and quantify biological processes using ... The primary disadvantage of fluorescence versus radiotracers is a significant biological problem: chemically tagging a molecule ...
Ostracism: A Social and Biological Phenomenon. (ISBN 0-317-55376-3). Masters, ... The Sense of Justice: Biological Foundations of Law. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications (ISBN 0-8039-4398-9). Masters, Roger D ... JSTOR 2827464 Masters, Roger D. (1983), The Biological Nature of the State. World Politics, Vol. 35, No. 2 (Jan.), pp. 161-193 ...
The "Clocks" Timing Biological Rhythms: Recent discoveries suggest that the mysterious biological clock phenomenon results from ... The Biological Clock Phenomenon: Exogenous Timing Hypothesis. J. interdiscipl. Cycle Res., Vol. 14, number 2, pp. 137·162. Webb ... F. A. Brown Jr.· The Biological Clock Phenomenon: Exogenous Timing Hypothesis. J. interdiscipl. Cycle Res., 1983,Vol. 14, ... 1908-1983) was a leading mid-20th century researcher of biological rhythms. He was a professor of biological sciences at ...
His main interests revolve around philosophy of biology including integration of biological phenomena, theory of the genetic ... Lenartowicz, P. Philosophy of Biological Phenomena (in Polish), WAM, Cracow, 1985. Lenartowicz, P. Theory of cognition (Polish ... In his dissertation Phenotype-Genotype Dichotomy published in 1975, he described irreducibility of certain biological phenomena ... working on theory of biological phenomena, in 1986. In 1999 he became a full professor. Lenartowicz participated in seminars in ...
One such phenomenon is known as biological altruism. This is a situation in which an organism appears to act in a way that ... The focus on individual payoff can result in a phenomenon known as Tragedy of the Commons, where resources are used to a ... In biology, game theory has been used as a model to understand many different phenomena. It was first used to explain the ... Evolutionary game theory includes both biological as well as cultural evolution and also models of individual learning (for ...
Daisuke Uemura (2010). "Exploratory research on bioactive natural products with a focus on biological phenomena". Proceedings ... Journal of Biological Chemistry. 269 (43): 26734-26738. PMID 7929407. Y. Zhang; J. Abe; A. Siddiq; H. Nakagawa; S. Honda; T. ... A Medical and Biological Handbook. UNSW Press. p. 322. ISBN 9780868402796. Scott A. Gallagher. "Echinoderm Envenomation ... Publications of the Seto Marine Biological Laboratory. 7 (1): 165-172. doi:10.5134/174596. T. Uehara; M. Shingaki; K. Taira; Y ...
Drosophila melanogaster is one of the favorite organisms for studying biological phenomena. The border cells of the Drosophila ...
Pedley has pioneered the application of fluid mechanics to understanding biological phenomena. His best-known work includes the ...
As such, it makes sense to approach cognition like other biological phenomena. This means first assuming a meaningful degree of ... a natural biological phenomenon - regardless of how the engineering of artificial intelligence proceeds. ... that cognition is a biological function similar to other biological functions-such as respiration, nutrient circulation, waste ... However, the biological details of such basic cognition have neither been delineated for a great many species nor sufficiently ...
From simplified physical interactions to complex biological phenomena". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Proteins and ... A temperature-related phenomenon arises due to the small number of atoms that are used in MD simulations. For example, consider ... In physics, MD is used to examine the dynamics of atomic-level phenomena that cannot be observed directly, such as thin-film ... First MD simulation of a biological process was published in 1976. Its simulation published in Nature paved the way for ...
In biological materials, the phenomenon is known as biospeckle. In a static environment, changes in speckle can also be used as ... We see the origin of this phenomenon if we model our reflectivity function as an array of scatterers. Because of the finite ... When the speckle pattern changes in time, due to changes in the illuminated surface, the phenomenon is known as dynamic speckle ... Several different methods are used to eliminate speckle, based upon different mathematical models of the phenomenon. One method ...
ISBN 978-0-19-513015-7. Gruter, M; Masters, R (1986). "Ostracism as a social and biological phenomenon: An introduction". ... In this regard, Williams suggests that this phenomenon is likely due to differences in the paradigm used in the study, as when ... Karen Horney was the first theorist to discuss the phenomenon of rejection sensitivity. She suggested that it is a component of ... DeWall and Baumeister's research suggests that individuals experience a reduction in pain after rejection, a phenomenon they ...
Quantum biology - application of quantum mechanics to biological phenomenon. Chemical physics - the branch of physics that ... Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns and principles that relate these phenomena. These patterns ... A biological science - one that studies the role of physical processes in living organisms. 'See Outline of biophysics.' ... History of quantum physics - history of the branch of physics dealing with physical phenomena where the action is on the order ...
In this sense, they provide an interesting chemical model of nonequilibrium biological phenomena; as such, mathematical models ... The discovery of the phenomenon is credited to Boris Belousov. In 1951, while trying to find the non-organic analog to the ... Shanks, Niall (2001-01-01). "Modeling Biological Systems: The Belousov-Zhabotinsky Reaction". Foundations of Chemistry. 3 (1): ... and simulations of the BZ reactions themselves are of theoretical interest, showing phenomenon as noise-induced order. An ...
Biophysics is a multidisciplinary study utilizing systems from physics to study biological phenomena. Its scope ranges from a ...
Truskey, George; Fan, Yuan; Katz, David (2009), Transport phenomena in biological systems, ISBN 978-0131569881 Wei, James; ...
The widespread phenomena of intentional introduction has also been described as biological globalization. Positive ... Archaeophyte Adventitious plant Biological dispersal Biological hazard Colonisation (biology) Directed panspermia Genetic ... The process of human-caused introduction is distinguished from biological colonization, in which species spread to new areas ... Other species have been introduced as biological control agents to control invasive species. This involves the purposeful ...
  • Transport phenomena is the study of transfers. (
  • In Biological Engineering, there are faculty studying the exclusion or passage of molecules through mucus barriers and other transport phenomena-related projects. (
  • In engineering, physics, and chemistry, the study of transport phenomena concerns the exchange of mass, energy, charge, momentum and angular momentum between observed and studied systems. (
  • Mass, momentum, and heat transport all share a very similar mathematical framework, and the parallels between them are exploited in the study of transport phenomena to draw deep mathematical connections that often provide very useful tools in the analysis of one field that are directly derived from the others. (
  • Transport phenomena are ubiquitous throughout the engineering disciplines. (
  • Transport phenomena encompass all agents of physical change in the universe. (
  • However, the scope here is limited to the relationship of transport phenomena to artificial engineered systems. (
  • In physics, transport phenomena are all irreversible processes of statistical nature stemming from the random continuous motion of molecules, mostly observed in fluids. (
  • Every aspect of transport phenomena is grounded in two primary concepts : the conservation laws, and the constitutive equations. (
  • The conservation laws, which in the context of transport phenomena are formulated as continuity equations, describe how the quantity being studied must be conserved. (
  • These equations also demonstrate the deep connection between transport phenomena and thermodynamics, a connection that explains why transport phenomena are irreversible. (
  • Transport phenomena have wide application. (
  • Another example is in biomedical engineering, where some transport phenomena of interest are thermoregulation, perfusion, and microfluidics. (
  • In chemical engineering, transport phenomena are studied in reactor design, analysis of molecular or diffusive transport mechanisms, and metallurgy. (
  • An important principle in the study of transport phenomena is analogy between phenomena. (
  • In this paper, the transport phenomena of synaptic electric impulses are considered. (
  • Biological phenomena are complex processes with nonlinear dynamics that cannot be perfectly described by a mathematical model due to several challenges such as the scarcity of biological data. (
  • instead, it will produce images from all points in the sample simultaneously, enabling a more quantitative study of dynamic biological and chemical processes. (
  • In The Compatibility of Evolution and Design , theologian E. V. Rope Kojonen constructs a powerful argument that not only are evolution and design compatible, but that evolutionary processes (and biological data) strongly point to design. (
  • Master's Degree (or equivalent) obtained with top grades in any branch of computer, engineering, mathematical or natural science that has relevance (to be justified in the application) for studying Active Phenomena in Biology. (
  • Philosophical Biology in Aristotle's Parts of Animals Aristotle's Philosophy and Biology: The Biological Phenomena %22&body=%0AI%20found%20an%20article%20you%20might%20be%20interested%20in. (
  • Moreover, applications of such models arise in several biophysical phenomena in different fields such as, for instance, biology, medicine and electronics, where, by means of nanoscale memristor networks, scientists seek to reproduce the behavior of biological synapses. (
  • Keren Yizhak majored in computational biology at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and is currently a PhD student at the School of Computer Science at Tel-Aviv University, where she uses computational techniques to study biological phenomena, focusing on the metabolic changes that occur in cells during cancer and ageing. (
  • Given all the variables and the noisy nature of biology, the fact that we still manage to identify targets that have a true biological meaning is always very exciting and rewarding. (
  • The last decade, the biological and biomedical scientific landscape has seen the increase in use and applications of omics technologies. (
  • Some of the most common examples of transport analysis in engineering are seen in the fields of process, chemical, biological, and mechanical engineering, but the subject is a fundamental component of the curriculum in all disciplines involved in any way with fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and mass transfer. (
  • The projects discussed above provide fundamental tools for investigating biological phenomena. (
  • The aim of the course is to enable the participants to acquire in-depth physicochemical knowledge in the field of surface and colloid chemistry from a molecular perspective and a quantitative understanding of selected fundamental colloidal and interfacial phenomena. (
  • Almost all of these physical phenomena ultimately involve systems seeking their lowest energy state in keeping with the principle of minimum energy. (
  • Because humans learn the physical world through a gradual sensory familiarization, these immersive visualizations enable gaining familiarity with biological systems not realizable in the physical world (e.g., allosteric regulatory networks within a protein or biomolecular pathways inside a cell). (
  • Many physical and biological phenomena are difficult to reproduce," said Nakagawa. (
  • The combination of topological properties and magnetic order can lead to new quantum states and exotic physical phenomena. (
  • Useful perspective on the relation between biological and physical description of phenomena. (
  • In this work, a model-free fuzzy intervention strategy (that does not require a mathematical model of the biological phenomenon) is proposed to guide the target variables of biological systems to their desired values. (
  • The course instructors noted that students often have difficulty in making sense of different models of biological systems or phenomena. (
  • We considered how this rubric could be relevant for different biological systems in the course, including DNA replication models and protein structure and function. (
  • Omics** in algae: paving the way for a systems biological understanding of algal stress phenomena? (
  • To illustrate the use and especially the future needs of algal omics in a systems biological context, a case study is presented in which a freshwater alga was subjected to heavy metal stress and toxicity endpoints were monitored on different levels of biological organization. (
  • Lessons learned from coherent phenomena in biological photosynthetic systems may be useful to improve energy- and charge-transport in disordered materials. (
  • Key themes comprise the self-association of amphiphilic molecules, polymers in colloidal systems, phase equilibria in solutions, interfacial phenomena, and electrostatic interactions between molecules and surfaces with applications in colloidal stability. (
  • Provide an analysis of the extent to which addiction to psychoactive drugs is a biological versus a psychological phenomenon. (
  • Mental distress associated with long COVID is a complex phenomenon that has biological, psychological, and social components, said Anna Dickerman, MD , a psychiatrist with New York-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medicine and associate professor of clinical psychiatry at Weill Cornell Medical College. (
  • This means that biological underpinnings caused by long COVID affect brain chemistry and give rise to psychological changes, putting a patient at higher risk for depression and anxiety, she said. (
  • A biopsychosocial approach explores the dynamic, multidirectional interactions between biological phenomena, psychological factors, and social contexts, and can be a tool for both deeper understanding of the social determinants of health and advancing health equity. (
  • Complex interactions confound any unitary approach to social phenomena, not just biological ones. (
  • Single-particle tracking in hyperspectral images and methods for interpreting single particle tracking data provide a new platform for investigating dynamic protein interactions that will offer insights into biological questions. (
  • Mathematical modeling and analysis has shown the ability to decipher complex biological phenomena. (
  • The purpose of this workshop is to provide an opportunity for fluid dynamists, ecologists, and evolutionary biologists to talk closely with each other and to work together in the language of mathematics for deepening our understanding of complex biological dynamics. (
  • In this discussion, we will review the basics of biological ferroelectricity, elucidate its molecular mechanism, and discuss its possible physiological significance and pathological implications. (
  • This work explores a new understanding of informational phenomena based on the molecular organization of life. (
  • Thus, the new knowledge gained on the functionality and "existential flow" of the phenotypic molecular elements (basically the production and degradation of constituent enzymes and proteins-the transient proteome of the cell), which is intimately coupled with the intrinsic dynamics of the "DNA world" and with the communicational events stemming from the cell environment, could represent a microcosm for the whole in-formation phenomena. (
  • The "fluorescence lifetime microscopy" technique leverages this phenomenon-which is independent of experimental conditions-to accurately quantify fluorescent molecules and changes in their environment. (
  • Ferroelectricity, a phenomenon where a spontaneous polarization in a solid can be switched by an external electric field, has recently been discovered in blood vessel walls by our group using nanoscale piezoresponse force microscopy. (
  • Abstract Most biological phenomena commonly involve with mechanics. (
  • How easy is it to clearly distinguish between what some might describe as "merely" biological and the more philosophical, speculative discussions? (
  • We are working in that direction, following new experimental set up, and new scientific challenges.More precisely, we aim at building a theoretical framework to describe propagation of biological waves, and patterns of adaptation of populations, either in a stationary or in a changing environment. (
  • The biological world itself provides notable grounds for belief in a purposeful Creator, and evolutionary theory does not defeat these grounds. (
  • He takes evolutionary theory as a given and argues that, even so, biological phenomena still provide notable evidence of design. (
  • This tendency to mate within the tribe is a factor of first-rate biological and sociological importance, serving as it does to maintain racial boundaries. (
  • According to the Lévy walk foraging hypothesis, evolution through natural selection can explain why Lévy walks are widespread in biological movements. (
  • But biological data run contrary to this claim, which poses a problem for Kojonen's design argument (and, as such, his attempt to harmonize design with evolution). (
  • For those worried about so-called natural evil, there is a way to join evolution with a biological design argument that actually adds credibility to evolution-based theodicies, rather than raising additional hurdles for them. (
  • We formulate the theoretical shape changing process of 4D printing resulted from (I) the biological growth or swelling, (II) the change of temperature, and (III) the effect of electric field on piezoelectric material of the 3D printing product. (
  • The laboratory classes introduce central experimental techniques in surface and colloid chemistry and are designed to, together with the computer exercises, illustrate central phenomena treated in the theoretical component. (
  • An important objective of modeling biological phenomena is to develop therapeutic intervention strategies to move an undesirable state of a diseased network towards a more desirable one. (
  • The objective of this project is to visualize complex multi-dimensional relationships of biological phenomena using a Virtual Reality (VR) application and a commodity Head-Mounted-Display (HMD). (
  • Knowledge of separate algal subsystems has gradually become available, but the challenge remains to integrate data obtained from these subsystems and from different levels of biological organization. (
  • The unification of all biological databases would be hugely beneficial. (
  • Moreover, I will discuss how these movement patterns affect macro-level phenomena such as ecosystems to understand biological Lévy walks comprehensively. (
  • There is also, in this biological approach to informational phenomena, a compelling need for the development of a new communication theory of non-conservative nature. (
  • A perennial question in discussions about biological origins is whether or not intelligent design is compatible with evolutionary theory. (
  • Evolutionary theory, properly understood, is both scientifically correct and compatible with a certain type of biological design argument. (
  • The Atlas provides a virtual biological laboratory where researchers can edit the model tissue to introduce their own data and hypotheses. (
  • Keren Yizhak uses computational techniques to study biological phenomena. (
  • The proposed fuzzy intervention strategy is applied to two biological models: a glycolytic-glycogenolytic pathway model and a purine metabolism pathway model. (
  • Being competent at understanding how to use models to explain biological phenomena was seen as an opportunity to strengthen students' understanding of the content in the course, and a way to engage them in a core practice of science. (
  • We tried to break down using models to explain biological phenomena into smaller components to facilitate feedback and design. (
  • I develop computational methods that help us to integrate large amounts of detailed biological data collected from cells with this model. (
  • Limitations of the msd include the use of correlated information in trajectory sampling, incomplete usage of all data points in single particle trajectories due to particle blinking or other phenomena, and variability in single-molecule localization errors. (
  • I believe that developing new and creative ways for analyzing and modelling the enormous amounts of biological data that are being generated is of great importance. (
  • As it is related to translation efficiency, this phenomenon implicates important biological sense. (
  • 2001). 'Ester-linked Glycopeptides as Tools for Studies of Biological Phenomena', Croatica Chemica Acta , 74(4), str. (
  • Horvat Š, Jerić I, Varga-Defterdarović L, Roščić M, Horvat J. Ester-linked Glycopeptides as Tools for Studies of Biological Phenomena. (
  • The technology "holds great promise for studying a diverse range of previously unexplored complex ultrafast phenomena", said Keiichi Nakagawa, a research fellow at the University of Tokyo, who worked to develop the camera. (