Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Tetrahydroisoquinolinol alkaloids in both dextro and levo forms, originally found in SALSOLA plants.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Neoplasms composed of tissues of the OVARY or the TESTIS, not neoplasms located in the ovaries or testes. Gonadal tissues include GERM CELLS, cells from the sex cord, and gonadal stromal cells.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Carcinogenic substances that are found in the environment.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.
A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The conic organs which usually give outlet to milk from the mammary glands.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
A peptide hormone that lowers calcium concentration in the blood. In humans, it is released by thyroid cells and acts to decrease the formation and absorptive activity of osteoclasts. Its role in regulating plasma calcium is much greater in children and in certain diseases than in normal adults.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
A soft, grayish metal with poisonous salts; atomic number 82, atomic weight 207.19, symbol Pb. (Dorland, 28th)
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Microtubule-associated proteins that are mainly expressed in neurons. Tau proteins constitute several isoforms and play an important role in the assembly of tubulin monomers into microtubules and in maintaining the cytoskeleton and axonal transport. Aggregation of specific sets of tau proteins in filamentous inclusions is the common feature of intraneuronal and glial fibrillar lesions (NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; NEUROPIL THREADS) in numerous neurodegenerative disorders (ALZHEIMER DISEASE; TAUOPATHIES).
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Preliminary cancer therapy (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone/endocrine therapy, immunotherapy, hyperthermia, etc.) that precedes a necessary second modality of treatment.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
An iron-binding beta1-globulin that is synthesized in the LIVER and secreted into the blood. It plays a central role in the transport of IRON throughout the circulation. A variety of transferrin isoforms exist in humans, including some that are considered markers for specific disease states.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Treatment of diseases with biological materials or biological response modifiers, such as the use of GENES; CELLS; TISSUES; organs; SERUM; VACCINES; and humoral agents.
A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.
The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.
Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.
A syndrome characterized by progressive life-threatening RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY in the absence of known LUNG DISEASES, usually following a systemic insult such as surgery or major TRAUMA.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Warfare involving the use of living organisms or their products as disease etiologic agents against people, animals, or plants.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Biological activities and function of the whole organism in human, animal, microorgansims, and plants, and of the biosphere.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Materials used as reference points for imaging studies.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
Comprehensive, methodical analysis of complex biological systems by monitoring responses to perturbations of biological processes. Large scale, computerized collection and analysis of the data are used to develop and test models of biological systems.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The physiological mechanisms that govern the rhythmic occurrence of certain biochemical, physiological, and behavioral phenomena.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.
One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The ratio of radiation dosages required to produce identical change based on a formula comparing other types of radiation with that of gamma or roentgen rays.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.

Thyroid hormone effects on Krox-24 transcription in the post-natal mouse brain are developmentally regulated but are not correlated with mitosis. (1/39254)

Krox-24 (NGFI-A, Egr-1) is an immediate-early gene encoding a zinc finger transcription factor. As Krox-24 is expressed in brain areas showing post-natal neurogenesis during a thyroid hormone (T3)-sensitive period, we followed T3 effects on Krox-24 expression in newborn mice. We analysed whether regulation was associated with changes in mitotic activity in the subventricular zone and the cerebellum. In vivo T3-dependent Krox-24 transcription was studied by polyethylenimine-based gene transfer. T3 increased transcription from the Krox-24 promoter in both areas studied at post-natal day 2, but was without effect at day 6. An intact thyroid hormone response element (TRE) in the Krox-24 promoter was necessary for these inductions. These stage-dependent effects were also seen in endogenous Krox-24 mRNA levels: activation at day 2 and no effect at day 6. Moreover, similar results were obtained by examining beta-galactosidase expression in heterozygous mice in which one allele of the Krox-24 gene was disrupted with an inframe Lac-Z insertion. However, bromodeoxyuridine incorporation showed mitosis to continue through to day 6. We conclude first, that T3 activates Krox-24 transcription during early post-natal mitosis but that this effect is extinguished as development proceeds and second, loss of T3-dependent Krox-24 expression is not correlated with loss of mitotic activity.  (+info)

Serum triglyceride: a possible risk factor for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. (2/39254)

BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine the relationship between ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and serum concentrations of lipids and apolipoproteins. METHODS: A cohort of 21 520 men, aged 35-64 years, was recruited from men attending the British United Provident Association (BUPA) clinic in London for a routine medical examination in 1975-1982. Smoking habits, weight, height and blood pressure were recorded at entry. Lipids and apolipoproteins were measured in stored serum samples from the 30 men who subsequently died of ruptured AAA and 150 matched controls. RESULTS: Triglyceride was strongly related to risk of ruptured AAA. In univariate analyses the risk in men on the 90th centile of the distribution relative to the risk in men on the 10th (RO10-90) was 12 (95% confidence interval [CI] : 3.8-37) for triglyceride, 5.5 (95% CI: 1.8-17) for apolipoprotein B (apoB) (the protein component of low density lipoprotein [LDL]), 0.15 (95% CI : 0.04-0.56) for apo A1 (the protein component of high density lipoprotein [HDL]), 3.7 (95% CI: 1.4-9.4) for body mass index and 3.0 (95% CI: 1.1-8.5) for systolic blood pressure. Lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) was not a significant risk factor (RO10-90 = 1.6, 95% CI: 0.6-3.0). In multivariate analysis triglyceride retained its strong association. CONCLUSION: Triglyceride appears to be a strong risk factor for ruptured AAA, although further studies are required to clarify this. If this and other associations are cause and effect, then changing the distribution of risk factors in the population (by many people stopping smoking and adopting a lower saturated fat diet and by lowering blood pressure) could achieve an important reduction in mortality from ruptured AAA.  (+info)

Constitutional, biochemical and lifestyle correlates of fibrinogen and factor VII activity in Polish urban and rural populations. (3/39254)

BACKGROUND: Fibrinogen and factor VII activity are known to be related to atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease, but population differences in clotting factors and modifiable characteristics that influence their levels have not been widely explored. METHODS: This paper examines correlates of plasma fibrinogen concentration and factor VII activity in 2443 men and women aged 35-64 in random samples selected from the residents in two districts in urban Warsaw (618 men and 651 women) and from rural Tarnobrzeg Province (556 men and 618 women) screened in 1987-1988, and assesses which characteristics might explain urban-rural differences. Fibrinogen and factor VII activity were determined using coagulation methods. RESULTS: Fibrinogen was 12.9 mg/dl higher in men and 14.1 mg/dl higher in women in Tarnobrzeg compared to Warsaw. Factor VII activity was higher in Warsaw (9.2% in men and 15.3% in women). After adjustment for selected characteristics, fibrinogen was higher in smokers compared to non-smokers by 28 mg/dl in men and 22 mg/dl in women. In women, a 15 mg/dl increase in HDL-cholesterol was associated with a 10 mg/dl decrease in fibrinogen (P < 0.01). After adjustment for other variables, a higher factor VII activity in Warsaw remained significant (a difference of 9.4% in men and 14.8% in women). Lower fibrinogen in Warsaw remained significant only in women (15.4 mg/dl difference). CONCLUSIONS: The study confirmed that sex, age, BMI, smoking and blood lipids are related to clotting factors. However, with the exception of gender differences and smoking, associations between clotting factors and other variables were small and of questionable practical importance.  (+info)

Hepatitis B--are surgeons putting patients at risk? (4/39254)

The 1993 Department of Health guidelines permit a surgeon who is hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive but e-antigen (HBeAg) negative to perform exposure prone procedures, unless demonstrated to have infected patients. However, there is increasing evidence of transmission of hepatitis B to patients from health care workers in this supposedly low infectivity category. The Occupational Physician must decide whether existing guidelines represent an adequate risk assessment and indeed whether this is an acceptable risk for patients. If an NHS Trust continues to follow these guidelines it may be in breach of its duty of care to patients. Yet refusing to allow such carriers to operate without testing for additional serological markers may be unlawful discrimination. Further research is clearly needed as well as an urgent review of the guidelines.  (+info)

Measurement of serum TSH in the investigation of patients presenting with thyroid enlargement. (5/39254)

In otherwise euthyroid patients presenting with thyroid enlargement, reduction in serum thyrotrophin (TSH) concentrations measured in a sensitive assay may be a marker of thyroid autonomy and may therefore indicate a benign underlying pathology. We investigated prospectively a cohort of 467 subjects presenting consecutively to our thyroid clinic with nodular or diffuse enlargement of the thyroid. Subjects were divided into those with normal (0.4-5.5 mU/l), low but detectable (0.1-0.39 mU/l) or undetectable (< 0.1 mU/l) serum TSH concentrations. The final pathological diagnosis was defined by fine-needle aspiration cytology and clinical follow-up of at least 2 years or by fine-needle aspiration cytology and histology following surgical treatment. Serum TSH concentrations below normal were found in 75 patients (16.1%), those with low serum TSH results having higher mean free T4 concentrations, were older and were more likely to be female. In those with undetectable serum TSH, no patient had a diagnosis of thyroid neoplasia and in those with low but detectable TSH, thyroid neoplasms were diagnosed in two patients (3.4%). In those with normal serum TSH, 12.0% had a final diagnosis of thyroid neoplasm (p = 0.013). Overall, thyroid malignancy was found in one patient (1.3%) of those with a serum TSH measurement below the normal range and 6.9% of those with normal serum TSH (p < 0.06). Reduction in serum TSH at presentation may identify a group which requires less intensive investigation and follow-up than those without biochemical evidence of thyroid autonomy.  (+info)

Endocrine biomarkers of early fetal loss in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) following exposure to dioxin. (6/39254)

This study examines the endocrine alterations associated with early fetal loss (EFL) induced by an environmental toxin, TCDD (2,3,7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin), in the cynomolgus macaque, a well-documented reproductive/developmental model for humans. Females were administered single doses of 1, 2, and 4 microgram/kg TCDD (n = 4 per dose group) on gestational day (GD) 12. Urinary estrogen metabolites (estrone conjugates) were monitored to establish the day of ovulation, and serum hormones (estradiol, progesterone, chorionic gonadotropin, relaxin) were measured to assess ovarian and placental endocrine status before and after treatment. EFL occurred between GDs 22 and 32 in 10 of the 12 animals treated with TCDD. The primary endocrine alterations associated with TCDD treatment were significant decreases in serum estradiol and bioactive chorionic gonadotropin concentrations (p < 0.02). Less pronounced decreases in serum progesterone (p = 0.10) and relaxin (p < 0.08) also followed TCDD treatment. In contrast, immunoreactive chorionic gonadotropin concentrations were not reduced by TCDD exposure at any level, indicating that TCDD targets specific components of the chorionic gonadotropin synthesis machinery within the trophoblast to alter the functional capacity of the hormone. These data demonstrate the value of endocrine biomarkers in identifying a toxic exposure to primate pregnancy many days before direct signs of reproductive toxicity were apparent. The increased EFL that occurred after exposure to TCDD might reflect a toxic response initially mediated via endocrine imbalance, leading to placental insufficiency, compromised embryonic circulation, and subsequent EFL.  (+info)

Oesophageal epithelial innervation in health and reflux oesophagitis. (7/39254)

BACKGROUND: The response of the oesophagus to refluxed gastric contents is likely to depend on intact neural mechanisms in the oesophageal mucosa. The epithelial innervation has not been systematically evaluated in health or reflux disease. AIMS: To study oesophageal epithelial innervation in controls, and also inflamed and non-inflamed mucosa in patients with reflux oesophagitis and healed oesophagitis. PATIENTS: Ten controls, nine patients with reflux oesophagitis, and five patients with healed oesophagitis. METHODS: Oesophageal epithelial biopsy specimens were obtained at endoscopy. The distribution of the neuronal marker protein gene product 9.5 (PGP), and the neuropeptides calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP), neuropeptide Y (NPY), substance P (SP), and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) were investigated by immunohistochemistry. Density of innervation was assessed by the proportion of papillae in each oesophageal epithelial biopsy specimen containing immunoreactive fibres (found in the subepithelium and epithelial papillae, but not penetrating the epithelium). RESULTS: The proportion of papillae positive for PGP immunoreactive nerve fibres was significantly increased in inflamed tissue when compared with controls, and non-inflamed and healed tissue. There was also a significant increase in VIP immunoreactive fibres within epithelial papillae. Other neuropeptides showed no proportional changes in inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: Epithelial biopsy specimens can be used to assess innervation in the oesophagus. The innervation of the oesophageal mucosa is not altered in non-inflamed tissue of patients with oesophagitis but alters in response to inflammation, where there is a selective increase (about three- to fourfold) in VIP containing nerves.  (+info)

Elevated carboxy terminal cross linked telopeptide of type I collagen in alcoholic cirrhosis: relation to liver and kidney function and bone metabolism. (8/39254)

BACKGROUND: The carboxy terminal cross linked telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) has been put forward as a marker of bone resorption. Patients with alcoholic liver disease may have osteodystrophy. AIMS: To assess circulating and regional concentrations of ICTP in relation to liver dysfunction, bone metabolism, and fibrosis. METHODS: In 15 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and 20 controls, hepatic venous, renal venous, and femoral arterial concentrations of ICTP, and bone mass and metabolism were measured. RESULTS: Circulating ICTP was higher in patients with cirrhosis than in controls. No overall significant hepatic disposal or production was found in the patient or control groups but slightly increased production was found in a subset of patients with advanced disease. Significant renal extraction was observed in the controls, whereas only a borderline significant extraction was observed in the patients. Measurements of bone mass and metabolism indicated only a mild degree of osteodystrophy in the patients with cirrhosis. ICTP correlated significantly in the cirrhotic patients with hepatic and renal dysfunction and fibrosis, but not with measurements of bone mass or metabolism. CONCLUSIONS: ICTP is highly elevated in patients with cirrhosis, with no detectable hepatic net production or disposal. No relation between ICTP and markers of bone metabolism was identified, but there was a relation to indicators of liver dysfunction and fibrosis. As the cirrhotic patients conceivably only had mild osteopenia, the elevated ICTP in cirrhosis may therefore primarily reflect liver failure and hepatic fibrosis.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Remote Blood Biomarkers of Longitudinal Cognitive Outcomes in a Population Study. AU - Rajan, Kumar B.. AU - Aggarwal, Neelum T.. AU - McAninch, Elizabeth A.. AU - Weuve, Jennifer. AU - Barnes, Lisa L.. AU - Wilson, Robert S.. AU - DeCarli, Charles. AU - Evans, Denis A.. PY - 2020. Y1 - 2020. N2 - Objective: The longitudinal association of the blood biomarkers total tau (t-tau), neurofilament light (Nf-L), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) with common sporadic Alzheimer disease (AD) and cognitive decline is not established. Methods: Using a single molecule array technology, ultrasensitive immunoassays for serum concentrations of t-tau, Nf-L, and GFAP were measured in a population sample of 1,327 participants (60% African Americans and women) who had a clinical evaluation for AD, had completed in-home cognitive assessments, and had undergone 1.5T structural magnetic resonance imaging. Results: Higher concentrations of serum biomarkers were associated with the development ...
Using published dairy cattle liver transcriptomics dataset along with novel blood biomarkers of liver function, metabolism, and inflammation we have attempted an integrative systems biology approach applying the classical functional enrichment analysis using DAVID, a newly-developed Dynamic Impact Approach (DIA), and an upstream gene network analysis using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). Transcriptome data was generated from experiments evaluating the impact of prepartal plane of energy intake [overfed (OF) or restricted (RE)] on liver of dairy cows during the peripartal period. Blood biomarkers uncovered that RE vs. OF led to greater prepartal liver distress accompanied by a low-grade inflammation and larger proteolysis (i.e., higher haptoglobin, bilirubin, and creatinine). Post-partum the greater bilirubinaemia and lipid accumulation in OF vs. RE indicated a large degree of liver distress. The re-analysis of microarray data revealed that expression of ,4,000 genes was affected by diet x ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Buccal Cell Cytokeratin 14 Correlates with Multiple Blood Biomarkers of Alzheimers Disease Risk. AU - Leifert, Wayne R.. AU - Nguyen, Tori. AU - Rembach, Alan. AU - Martins, Ralph. AU - Rainey-Smith, Stephanie. AU - Masters, Colin L.. AU - Ames, David. AU - Rowe, Christopher C.. AU - Macaulay, S. Lance. AU - François, Maxime. AU - Fenech, Michael F.. AU - The AIBL Research Group. PY - 2015/9/9. Y1 - 2015/9/9. N2 - Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) may reflect early stages of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimers disease (AD). Our hypothesis was that cytokeratin 14 (CK14) expression could be used with blood-based biomarkers such as homocysteine, vitamin B12, and folate to identify individuals with MCI or AD from the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) flagship study of aging. Buccal cells from 54 individuals were analyzed by a newly developed method that is rapid, automated, and quantitative for buccal cell CK14 expression levels. CK14 was negatively ...
Researchers at the University of Glasgows Institute of Health and Wellbeing have announced they have found people with genetic risk of Alzheimers disease exhibiting clear differences in certain biomarkers.. It supports a link between a major genetic risk factor and blood cholesterol levels. The risk factor APOE e4, which is present in a quarter of the population and triples the risk of. dementia, could possibly be the key to future early diagnosis and treatment. The 2% of the. population with a double copy have a 15 times higher risk of developing the disease.. The team investigated associations between common blood biomarkers and apolipoprotein E (APOE), a known genetic risk factor for Alzheimers disease, to improve understanding of disease mechanisms and risk. The study reviewed anonymised data from nearly 400,000 White European participants of the UK Biobank, a public health database, including lifestyle data in their analysis to account for the impact of environmental factors. Using a ...
Hip fracture represents a substantial acute inflammatory trauma, which may constitute a significant insult to the degenerating brain. Research suggests that an injury of this kind can affect memory and thinking in the future but it is unclear whether, and how, inflammatory trauma injures the brain. The impact of Acute SystematiC inflammation upon cerebRospinal fluId and blood BiomarkErs of brain inflammation and injury in Dementia: a study in acute hip fracture patients (ASCRIBED) explores this relationship, to understand the effect of inflammation on the progression of dementia. This protocol describes a multi-centre sample collection observational study. The study utilises the unique opportunity provided by hip fracture operations undertaken via spinal anaesthesia to collect cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood, to investigate the impact of acute brain inflammation caused by hip fracture on the exacerbation of dementia. We will recruit 200 hip fracture patients with a diagnosis or evidence of dementia;
The ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) study recruited a population-based cohort of 15,792 persons between 45 and 64 years of age in 1987-1989, from Forsyth County, NC, and Jackson, MS. In the ARIC study cohort, the investigators measured multiple blood biomarkers of inflammation, hemostasis, thrombin generation, cardiac dysfunction, and vascular stiffness, and identified incident AAAs during follow-up using hospital discharge codes. The authors performed multivariate modeling to obtain hazard ratios of incident clinical AAA in relation to biomarker quartiles by use of Cox proportional hazards regression.. ...
This trial will investigate the effiects of nintedanib [OFEV; Boehringer Ingelheim] on chnages in specific blood biomarkers that can predict course of
The pathogenesis of HIV infection is highly complex and involves numerous actors of the immune system. On the one hand, our immunity has a predominant role in limiting HIV replication and the depletion of its targets, but on the other hand, the persistent infection established by the virus is associated with chronic immune activation and inflammation, potentially resulting in the progressive exhaustion of the host immune resources, and in the onset of non-AIDS-defining comorbidities. The thorough study of HIV pathogenesis is increasingly more challenging. New knowledge together with technological advances offers the possibility to monitor a constellation of cellular immune markers. Here, we discuss the relevance of studying these markers in order to assess the efficacy to control HIV, the inflammatory response to HIV infection, and the alteration and exhaustion of the immune compartments. Monitoring these cellular immune markers is important to reach a deeper understanding of HIV pathogenesis ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Correction to: Amyloid-β misfolding as a plasma biomarker indicates risk for future clinical Alzheimers disease in individuals with subjective cognitive decline (Alzheimers Research & Therapy, (2020), 12, 1, (169), 10.1186/s13195-020-00738-8). T2 - Amyloid-β misfolding as a plasma biomarker indicates risk for future clinical Alzheimers disease in individuals with subjective cognitive decline (Alzheimers Research & Therapy, (2020), 12, 1, (169), 10.1186/s13195-020-00738-8). AU - Stockmann, Julia. AU - Verberk, Inge M. W.. AU - Timmesfeld, Nina. AU - Denz, Robin. AU - Budde, Brian. AU - Lange-Leifhelm, Julia. AU - Scheltens, Philip. AU - van der Flier, Wiesje M.. AU - Nabers, Andreas. AU - Teunissen, Charlotte E.. AU - Gerwert, Klaus. PY - 2021/12/1. Y1 - 2021/12/1. N2 - Following publication of the original article [1], the authors noticed that the published figures have errors which was occurred during processing of the figures in production team. 1) fonts are shifted ...
In this post-hoc analysis of a subcohort of a large, multicenter prospective cohort study of cardiac surgery patients without creatinine-based acute kidney injury, we did not find evidence of association between either pre- or postoperative biomarker levels and age or sex. However, there were significant differences in biomarker levels associated with urine dipstick findings, including proteinuria, hematuria, leukocyte esterase and nitrites.. All biomarkers were mildly correlated with hematuria, indicating that blood might interfere with biomarker levels or their measurement even in the absence of overt kidney injury evidenced by creatinine rise. Preexisting substances in the urine interfering with assays for novel analytes has been previously described. [10]. We found evidence that proteinuria is associated with all four biomarkers both pre- and post-operatively. Dipstick proteinuria is a marker of preexisting kidney damage and is associated with both the incidence and outcomes of acute kidney ...
Cardiac markers are biomarkers measured to evaluate heart function. They are often discussed in the context of myocardial infarction, but other conditions can lead to an elevation in cardiac marker level. Most of the early markers identified were enzymes, and as a result, the term cardiac enzymes is sometimes used. However, not all of the markers currently used are enzymes. For example, in formal usage, troponin would not be listed as a cardiac enzyme. Measuring cardiac biomarkers can be a step toward making a diagnosis for a condition. Whereas cardiac imaging often confirms a diagnosis, simpler and less expensive cardiac biomarker measurements can advise a physician whether more complicated or invasive procedures are warranted. In many cases medical societies advise doctors to make biomarker measurements an initial testing strategy especially for patients at low risk of cardiac death. Many acute cardiac marker IVD products are targeted at nontraditional markets, e.g., the hospital ER instead ...
The results of this study show that changes in numbers of synovial sublining macrophages correlate with clinical improvement independently of the therapeutic strategy. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that the change in the numbers of sublining macrophages may be used to explain clinical outcome. Of importance, the data indicate that the change in the number of sublining macrophages could be used as a sensitive biomarker to predict possible efficacy of a new antirheumatic treatment.. Previous work suggested an association between the number of synovial macrophages and joint destruction in RA.14 Moreover, analysis of the synovial cell infiltrate demonstrated a positive correlation between scores for local disease activity and the number of macrophages as well as expression of macrophage derived cytokines (tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) and interleukin (IL) 6) in rheumatoid ST, suggesting that macrophage numbers are associated with clinical signs of inflammation.2 In keeping with this ...
SirYus technology enables sensitive and reproducible tests for cancer screening by combining several biomarkers to establish an appropriate diagnosis.. Considerable efforts have been devoted to search specific markers with relatiely few results. In fact, from 1261 proteins identified as potentially discriminatory in human cancers, only nine have received final approval from the FDA as biomarkers of tumors.. Many opinion leaders now believe that the pursuit of individual biomarkers will be vain, and that several biomarkers are needed to properly identify cancers in screening protocols.. SirYus multiplex technology brings new solutions to this complex challenge. Simultaneous testings of several biomarkers can largely improve screening sensitivity and specificity.. ...
In clinical practice, biomarkers can be used to identify risk and susceptibility, diagnose a disease, assess disease severity or progression, classify patients, guide treatment, and predict prognosis. In drug development and the pharmaceutical industry, biomarkers can be used to predict toxicity, safety, or efficacy of a drug. Biomarkers can be categorized as target, mechanism and clinical to indicate if a drug hits its intended target, alters any mechanisms and if it is effective in vivo. Biomarkers can be also classified into three types: type 0 - natural history markers, type 1 - biological or drug activity markers, and type 2 - surrogate markers. Type 0 biomarkers measure the natural history of a disease and should correlate over time with known clinical indicators. They can be characterized in phase 0 clinical trials. Symptoms over the full range of a disease and most prognosis markers are type 0 biomarkers. In most cases, type 1 biomarkers are the markers that capture the effects of a ...
With demographic shifts toward older populations, the number of people with dementia is steadily increasing. Alzheimers disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia, and no curative treatment is available. The current best strategy is to delay disease progression and to practice early intervention to reduce the number of patients that ultimately develop AD. Therefore, promising novel biomarkers for early diagnosis are urgently required. To identify blood-based biomarkers for early diagnosis of AD, we performed RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis of 610 blood samples, representing 271 patients with AD, 91 cognitively normal (CN) adults, and 248 subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We first estimated cell-type proportions among AD, MCI, and CN samples from the bulk RNA-seq data using CIBERSORT and then examined the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between AD and CN samples. To gain further insight into the biological functions of the DEGs, we performed gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA
CSDE is offering a hands-on workshop in biomarker methods that provide quick on-site measurements in non-clinical settings without the need to transport samples back to a lab. Well practice proper technique for minimally invasive measures like height, weight, body composition, and blood pressure, and the use of simple tools for biomarker testing with blood collected from a finger prick. A brief lecture component will cover costs, logistics, human subjects implications, and strengths and limitations of this approach to biomarker data collection. Please email Ellie Brindle ([email protected]) to register.. ...
Dive into the research topics of An analysis of available biomarker data for targeting cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 (CDK4/6) in breast cancer. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Attempts to find a lone biomarker for Alzheimers disease - whether its in blood, spinal fluid, or the brain - have largely failed. The Texas Alzheimers Research Consortium project conducted a longitudinal case-control study, using stored blood samples to develop an algorithm that separates patients with Alzheimers disease from controls. The biomarker assays looked at hundreds of proteins, including thrombopoietin, TNF-alpha, creatine kinase, and various interleukins. The his team focused on a large array of blood-based proteins, since assay technology has now made it possible to evaluate large amounts of data. Screening for these biomarkers and factoring in age, sex, education, and APOE status led to a sensitivity of 0.94 and a specificity of 0.84, as reported by Sid OBryant, PhD, of Texas Tech University, in Lubbock, Texas, and colleagues in the Archives of Neurology. They also saw that many of the proteins with the highest importance were inflammatory in nature, which suggests that the ...
Background: Metabolic alterations correlate with adverse outcomes in type 2 diabetes. Dietary modification serves as an integral part in its treatment.. Objective: We examined the relationships among dietary patterns, dietary biomarkers, and metabolic indicators in type 2 diabetes (n = 871).. Design: Diabetic patients (n = 871) who provided complete clinical and dietary data in both 2008 and 2009 were selected from a cohort participating in a diabetic control study in Taiwan. Dietary data were obtained using a short, semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires, and dietary pattern identified by factor analysis. Multiple linear regressions were used to analyze the association between dietary biomarkers (ferritin, folate, and erythrocyte n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids [n-3 PUFAs]) and metabolic control upon adjusting for confounders.. Results: Three dietary patterns (high-fat meat, traditional Chinese food-snack, and fish-vegetable) were identified. Ferritin correlated positively with high-fat ...
In this study, biomarker response after supplementation with oral and intramuscular vitamin B12 will be compared in a randomized clinical trial. Electronic compliance monitoring will be used to control for non compliance as a possible confounder in oral treatment. Additionally subjective acceptance in terms of presumed preferences will be compared with oral vs. intramuscular supplementation of vitamin B12 in the view of the patient ...
A diagnostic study of 136 premature infants found that a protein involved in managing harmful bacteria in the human intestine is a reliable biomarker for the noninvasive detection of necrotizing enterocolitis.
Purdue University researchers have found a method of identifying biological markers in small amounts of blood that they believe could be used to detect a myriad of diseases, infections and different medical conditions at early stages.
Hypothesis: The association of excess weight with an adverse cardiometabolic profile in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) is unclear. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that increasing BMI and adiposity indicators in youth with T1D are adversely associated with glycemic control and cardiovascular biomarkers.. Methods: Subjects were youth participants of a family-based randomized controlled dietary intervention (N=136, age=12.3±2.5y, baseline A1c=8.1±1.1%). Glycemic control (A1c and 1,5-Anhydroglucitol, 1,5-Ag), body mass index (BMI, from measured height and weight), serum lipids (total cholesterol, TC; HDL-cholesterol, HDL-C; LDL-cholesterol, LDL-C; triglycerides, TG), inflammation (c-reactive protein, CRP), oxidative stress (8-iso-prostaglandin F2alpha, 8-iso-PGF2α), adiponectin and blood pressure (systolic, SBP; diastolic, DBP) were assessed at baseline and every 6 months for 18 months. Total and truncal lean, fat-free mass and percent fat (%fat) were measured by Dual ...
Nivolumab response rate is 40% in metastatic melanoma. Few studies have evaluated pre-treatment biomarkers predictive of response. The aim of this study was to identify potential peripheral blood biomarkers associated with survival in patients with advanced melanoma treated with nivolumab. All advanced melanoma cases treated with anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (anti-PD1) over a 3-year period in our department were identified. For each case, 9 potential blood biomarkers were identified. Bivariate and multivariate analyses, adjusted for the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) classification stage, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level and failure to respond to first-line therapy, were used to test the association between biomarkers and overall survival (primary outcome) or progression-free survival (secondary outcome ...
Using machine learning tools to analyze hundreds of proteins, UT Southwestern researchers have identified a group of biomarkers in blood that could lead to an earlier diagnosis of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and, in turn, more effective therapies sooner.
Biomarkers in the bloodstream could provide a rapid assessment of therapeutic intervention in ischemic stroke and allow patient stratification Researc
Treatment-emergent depression is a common complication in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection undergoing antiviral combination therapy
Non-invasive biomarkers in NASH are beginning to show where and how they can upstage liver biopsies, with the first impact appearing in patient recruitment.
ESMO) 2016 Congress. The presentation included interim efficacy and safety outcomes, as well as initial findings from the companys ongoing biomarker analysis of samples collected during the study. The SUNRISE Phase III trial was discontinued earlier this year based on a pre-specified interim analysis although patient treatment and follow-up in the study were allowed to continue. The pre-planned biomarker analysis has been taking place as patient follow-up has continued and available results were evaluated as part of the recent top-line data analysis. The study protocol pre-specified the collection of thousands of patient samples for exploratory analyses over a wide range of possible biomarkers, including pre-treatment levels of beta-2 glycoprotein-1 (β2GP1). Data presented at ESMO demonstrated that patients with pre-treatment β2GP1 levels between 200 and 240 (representing approximately 30% of randomized patients) achieved a statistically significant, 5.5-month improvement (13.2 months vs. 7.7 ...
Our literature search identified 93 studies evaluating an overall of 70 different blood markers for CRC, including long discussed ones like carcinoembryonic antigen and carbohydrate antigens, as well as newly introduced ones like proteins identified through MS analysis. A broad timeframe with first studies from 1979 (75) to 2006 (49, 73, 74, 77, 81, 89-91, 102) was covered. The majority of studies evaluated protein markers, but in recent years, an interesting number of studies also evaluated genetic and epigenetic markers.. Overall, a broad range of sensitivity and specificity was reported for the various markers. A direct comparison of results from different studies is complicated due to the diverse populations used (different age, origin, normal, or diseased controls), the diverse number of markers evaluated (single versus combined markers) and use of different cutoff points for the same marker (M2-PK and CEA). Furthermore, the majority of markers were evaluated in only one study, especially ...
Eglinton, Geoffrey (2004): Lipid biomarkers at station CD47_0206S#16. PANGAEA,, In: Lowry, Roy K; Machin, P (2016): Compilation of the results of EU-project BOFS. PANGAEA,
Alzheimer disease biomarker testing in cerebrospinal fluid : a method to harmonize assay platforms in the absence of an absolute reference standard ...
Researchers with eyes peeled toward prodromal Alzheimers disease probably see this diagram in their sleep-the one where the fields five most validated markers trace their poignant path from normal cognition to fully developed AD. Two research groups proposed this theoretical model some years ago (see Perrin et al., 2009; Jack et al., 2010). But is it true? At least in its broad strokes, the answer seems to be yes, according to early data pouring in from biomarker studies in autosomal-dominant AD. By and large, brain amyloid, brain metabolism, atrophy, and functional connectivity data from independent analyses of the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network (DIAN) and the Alzheimers Prevention Initiative (API) jibe with each other and confirm the sequence of preclinical biomarker changes proposed for late-onset AD. This article highlights DIAN and API neuroimaging results reported 14-19 July 2012 at the Alzheimers Association International Conference (AAIC) in Vancouver, Canada.. DIAN and API ...
Serological and proteomic biomarkers can help clinicians diagnose rheumatic diseases earlier and assess disease activity more accurately. These markers have been incorporated into the recently revised classification criteria of several diseases to enable early diagnosis and timely initiation of treatment. Furthermore, they also facilitate more accurate subclassification and more focused monitoring for the detection of certain disease manifestations, such as lung and renal involvement. These biomarkers can also make the assessment of disease activity and treatment response more reliable. Simultaneously, several new serological and proteomic biomarkers have become available in the routine clinical setting-for example, a protein biomarker panel for rheumatoid arthritis and a myositis antibody panel for dermatomyositis and polymyositis. This review will focus on commercially available antibody and proteomic biomarkers in rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis ...
Serum cytokeratin-18 is a non-invasive biomarker for evaluating disease severity in patients with liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Dynamic changes in calprotectin and its correlation with traditional markers of oxidative stress in patients with acute ischemic stroke. by Antonios Chatzopoulos et al.
Biomarker classification depends on its context of use, which in turn defines the extent to which the biomarker must be validated. In terms of requirements for validation, the holy grail of biomarker application is one that can serve as a surrogate endpoint in a clinical trial. A surrogate endpoint is a laboratory (or physical) measurement that is used in a clinical trial as a substitute for a clinical endpoint (e.g., survival or functional endpoint). Therefore, a surrogate endpoint must accurately predict the effect of therapeutic intervention. Guidance for Industry: Pharmacogenomic Data Submissions. The use of companion diagnostics to drive molecularly targeted drug development also requires that the diagnostic be clinically validated through the FDAs PMA or 510(K) process. In both of these instances the biomarker must be analytically validated (inclusive of the test platform, reagents, etc.).. The subtle differences between biomarkers, diagnostics, surrogate endpoints and companion ...
This study has been designed to evaluate a new oral test for therapeutic monitoring of HIV/AIDS patients that are receiving the combination Anti-Retroviral Therapy (cART). The test will measure saliva-based Stress Response Profiling(SRP) biomarkers using laboratory assays. Results of the test will show if HIV/AIDS patients successfully responded to cART. Preliminary studies showed that SRP biomarkers were strongly increased in cART-unresponsive AIDS patients. However, the diagnostic accuracy of the oral test, patients will be recruited to donate saliva: AIDS patients responsive or unresponsive to cART, and controls (acute or early HIV patients, and HIV-negative patients with hepatitis).. The saliva samples will be used to measure SRP biomarker concentrations. Results will show whether the biomarker measurements provide accurate and specific diagnostics for ART response. ...
Below is a brief summary of dates of CSF biomarker analyses run as batches of samples using the Luminex xMAP platform and Innogenetics INNO-BIA AlzBio3? immunoassay reagents. Normalization of CSF biomarker data between results of 2007 and 2008 have been obtained using a statistical approach, resulting in a procedure to maintain lot-to-lot consistency within clinical studies. In addition, during the further review of the pTau181p data a subset of CSF samples required quaranteening all pTau181p data from the late 2008 batch run. The normalization applies to all t-tau, A?1-42 and pTau181p results, with the exception of the subset of pTau181p results that require a special correction procedure that is in the process of being completed. That specific subset of data will be uploaded in the near future.. Batch runs of ADNI CSF samples ...
This paper addresses the problem of classifying cells expressing different biomarkers. A deep learning based method that can automatically localize and count the cells expressing each of the different biomarkers is proposed. To classify the cells, a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) was employed. Images of Immunohistochemistry (IHC) stained slides that contain these cells were digitally scanned. The images were taken from digital scans of IHC stained cervical tissues, acquired for a clinical trial. More than 4,500 RGB images of cells were used to train the CNN. To evaluate our method, the cells were first manually labeled based on the expressing biomarkers. Then we performed the classification on 156 randomly selected images of cells that were not used in training the CNN. The accuracy of the classification was 92% in this preliminary data set. The results have shown that this method has a good potential in developing an automatic method for immunohistochemical analysis ...
Cancer biomarkers are the measurable molecular changes to either cancerous or normal tissues of patients. Although the term biomarker most commonly refers to altered expression of certain gene products or abnormal DNA configurations, changes to cellular processes such as energy metabolism and DNA damage response can also be used as biomarkers in a broader sense. Cancer biomarkers have multiple implications in cancer intervention. A reliable biomarker can be used for cancer diagnosis, risk and prognosis assessments, and for the surveillance of treatment effectiveness. More importantly, some, but not all, biomarkers can be exploited as therapeutic targets. This is because some biomarkers may be simply messengers that do not directly contribute to the tumor growth and are thus not ideal therapeutic targets. Only the driver or conspirator biomarkers that directly contribute to tumor growth may be targeted for therapy. Therefore, effort in the development of targeted therapies must not simply ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Level of dietary energy and 2,4-thiazolidinedione alter molecular and systemic biomarkers of inflammation and liver function in Holstein cows. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Normally distributed continuous variables were compared with the Student t test and skewed-distributed with the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Categorical variables were compared with the chi-square test. The prognostic value of the biomarkers was assessed by investigating the relationship between mortality and biomarkers in 2 sets of Cox proportional-hazards analyses: univariate analyses of single biomarkers and multivariate analysis including all biomarkers (multimarker). The univariate analyses were used to determine cutoff values for the biomarkers. These cutoff values were based on the quartiles of the individual biomarker levels. When hazard did not differ significantly between adjacent quartiles, as indicated by the p value from the Cox model, these were merged.. A multivariate model initially was developed incorporating the 5 biomarkers. Biomarkers with p < 0.05 by the Wald test were identified by backward selection. From the final model, a simplified score was obtained by putting weights to ...
Learn about the veterinary topic of Other Serum Biochemical Measures in Hepatic Disease in Small Animals. Find specific details on this topic and related topics from the Merck Vet Manual.
Press Release issued Jul 8, 2014: Biomarkers also known as biological markers are characteristics that are measured in order to assess and predict biological condition of the body and thus help physicians in clinical decision making. Some major diseases which are diagnosed by using biomarkers include diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular and central nervous system diseases. Biomarkers play critical role in identifying and accurate diagnosis of these diseases at early stage and provide better treatment option. Imaging biomarkers can be classified as diagnostic biomarkers, monitoring biomarkers and predictive biomarkers. Diagnostic biomarkers are helpful in predicting a patients exact clinical outcome. Monitoring biomarkers provides clinical outcome of a patient after intake of a particular drug while predictive biomarkers help in predicting if a specific drug is likely to change clinical outcome of a patient.
The dependence of tumor growth and metastasis on blood vessels makes tumor angiogenesis a rational target for therapy. Strategies have been pursued to inhibit neovascularization and to destroy existing tumor vessels, or both. These include direct targeting of endothelial cells, and indirect targeting by inhibiting the release of proangiogenic growth factors by cancer or stromal cells. Many patients benefit from antiangiogenic therapies; thus, development of noninvasive biomarkers of disease response and relapse is a crucial objective to aid in their management. A number of non-invasive tools are described with their potential benefits and limitations. We review currently available candidate biomarkers of anti-angiogenic agent effect. Including these markers into clinical trials may provide insight into appropriate dosing for desired biological effects, appropriate timing of additional therapy, and prediction of individual response. This has important consequences for the clinical use of angiogenesis
The objective of the project is to validate a serum biomarker signature for the early diagnosis (yes/no diagnosis) of pancreatic cancer...
The Applied Biosystems TaqMan Advanced Serum/Plasma 96-Well Plates, Standard, provide the convenience of pre-spotted TaqMan Advanced miRNA assays in a 96-well standard plate format. This product contains a set of 2 plates for profiling of up to 188 unique miRNAs in serum/plasma samples, and includes
In [11], we first proposed an efficient algorithm, AMFES (Adaptive Multiple FEatues Selection), to select important biomarkers for cancers. Based on that initial success, this paper reports the extension of previous results on the datasets provided by Maes et al. in an attempt to discover important biomarkers for AD from the blood-based samples [12]. Unlike traditional statistical analyses, AMFES is an SVM-based methodology, which can select a much smaller subset of important biomarkers. In addition, AMFES applies an adaptive method which enables selection of a globally optimal subset of important biomarkers compared to SVM-RFE. AMFES is particularly useful for differentiating noisy biomarkers from the relevant ones when interferences between biomarkers exist. Our results are supported by a high ROC/AUC (Receiver Operating Characteristic/Area Under Curve) value when we apply a cross-validation verification. Thus, AMFES should play an important role in the classification framework of ...
BACKGROUND: In patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), the ability of single and multiple biomarker monitoring to predict adverse outcomes has not been well established. This study determined the prognostic value of multiple biomarkers for all-cause death over 2 years in 399 ESRD patients.. METHODS: The risk of all-cause death was determined by use of multiple biomarkers based on concentrations for a reference population (normal) and cutoffs based on tertile distributions in the ESRD group. Biomarkers studied included N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP; Dade Behring and Roche assays), and cardiac troponin T (cTnT; Roche) and I (cTnI; Dade Behring and Beckman Coulter assays). Relative risks of death were estimated and survival curves computed.. RESULTS: A total of 101 deaths occurred during 594 patient-years of follow-up. Increased NT-proBNP concentrations were not predictive of death on the basis of the normal cutoffs. However, ...
Background Linifanib is a potent and selective VEGF and PDGF receptor inhibitor that has activity in unselected, advanced NSCLC patients (pts) both as monotherapy in the relapsed setting and with carboplatin (C) and paclitaxel (P) in the first-line setting. A baseline plasma biomarker signature identifying NSCLC pts most sensitive to linifanib is needed.. Methods An exploratory retrospective analysis of 4 randomized clinical trials (linifanib or other treatments: ABT-510 [thrombospondin mimetic], pemetrexed +/- ABT-751 [tubulin inhibitor], docetaxel +/- ABT-751) in relapsed NSCLC was conducted. Evaluable baseline plasma samples were obtained from 116 pts who received linifanib and 125 pts on other treatments. A signature combining established tumor markers (carcinoembryonic antigen [CEA] and fragments of cytokeratin 19 [CYFRA 21-1]) was derived using a sequential BATTing approach. The signature was then tested across a randomized trial of CP + placebo, linifanib 7.5 mg, or linifanib 12.5 mg in ...
1 Industry Overview. 1.1 Definition and Specifications of Molecular Biomarkers for Cancer Detection and Management. 1.2 Classification of Molecular Biomarkers for Cancer Detection and Management. 1.3 Applications of Molecular Biomarkers for Cancer Detection and Management. 1.4 Industry Chain Structure of Molecular Biomarkers for Cancer Detection and Management. 1.5 Industry Overview and Major Regions Status of Molecular Biomarkers for Cancer Detection and Management. 1.5.2 Global Major Regions Status of Molecular Biomarkers for Cancer Detection and Management. 1.6 Industry Policy Analysis of Molecular Biomarkers for Cancer Detection and Management. 1.7 Industry News Analysis of Molecular Biomarkers for Cancer Detection and Management. 2 Manufacturing Cost Structure Analysis of Molecular Biomarkers for Cancer Detection and Management. 2.1 Raw Material Suppliers and Price Analysis of Molecular Biomarkers for Cancer Detection and Management. 2.2 Equipment Suppliers and Price Analysis of Molecular ...
Our data indicate first that among a panel of 10 biomarkers, plasma Nt-proBNP level predicts future fatal and nonfatal cardiac events and adds significantly to the information obtained from determination of traditional risk factors in individuals with existing CVD. Second, although various inflammatory biomarkers and microalbuminuria were individually significantly related to future cardiovascular risk, they added very little additional prognostic information to the traditional markers. Third, the present data illustrate that models that include simple and readily available risk factors do not gain accuracy by the inclusion of any inflammatory biomarker for prediction of cardiovascular events in this setting of preexisting disease.. An increasing number of biomarkers have been proposed to identify patients at high risk for future cardiovascular events in the setting of primary3-6,19 and secondary7-9,20 prevention, as well as acute coronary syndrome.10,21-25 From a clinical perspective, the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Clinical utility of NT-proBNP, a new biomarker of cardiac function and heart failure. AU - Ishii, Junichi. PY - 2008/4. Y1 - 2008/4. N2 - Recently, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), a new biomarker of cardiac function and heart failure, has become available as a clinical laboratory test in Japan. Its diagnostic and prognostic utility appears to be equivalent to BNP in the clinical setting; however, there are some biologic differences between NT-proBNP and BNP. Unlike BNP, NT-proBNP is not degraded in the circulation, and is stable even in serum. It has a longer half-life of approximately 1 to 2 hours, leading to higher circulating levels and slower fluctuations than BNP. Both of these biomarkers are influenced by renal function, but the effect is greater for NT-proBNP. Recently, NT-proBNP has become an important diagnostic tool for assessing patients who present acutely with dyspnea, and provides important prognostic information in both acute and chronic ...
Urine samples were collected between 2002 and 2006 among 287 pregnant women from Eden and Pélagie cohorts, from which phthalates and phenols metabolites levels were assayed. We applied a 2-step standardization method based on regression residuals. First, the influence of sampling conditions (including sampling hour, duration of storage before freezing) and of creatinine levels on biomarker concentrations were characterized using adjusted linear regression models. In the second step, the model estimates were used to remove the variability in biomarker concentrations due to sampling conditions and to standardize concentrations as if all samples had been collected under the same conditions (e.g., same hour of urine collection ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cerebrospinal fluid and plasma biomarker trajectories with increasing amyloid deposition in Alzheimers disease. AU - Palmqvist, Sebastian. AU - Insel, Philip S.. AU - Stomrud, Erik. AU - Janelidze, Shorena. AU - Zetterberg, Henrik. AU - Brix, Britta. AU - Eichenlaub, Udo. AU - Dage, Jeffrey L.. AU - Chai, Xiyun. AU - Blennow, Kaj. AU - Mattsson, Niklas. AU - Hansson, Oskar. PY - 2019/12/1. Y1 - 2019/12/1. N2 - Failures in Alzheimers disease (AD) drug trials highlight the need to further explore disease mechanisms and alterations of biomarkers during the development of AD. Using cross-sectional data from 377 participants in the BioFINDER study, we examined seven cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and six plasma biomarkers in relation to β-amyloid (Aβ) PET uptake to understand their evolution during AD. In CSF, Aβ42 changed first, closely followed by Aβ42/Aβ40, phosphorylated-tau (P-tau), and total-tau (T-tau). CSF neurogranin, YKL-40, and neurofilament light increased after the ...
Different classes of cardiovascular biomarkers are thought to provide information concerning different pathophysiological mechanisms.16 Because anthracycline therapy is associated with both cardiomyocyte injury, loss of cardiac contractile function, inflammation, and development of diffuse fibrosis,17 we selected biomarkers that are believed to reflect these processes in our study.. Cardiac troponins are markers of cardiomyocyte injury and are associated with risk for cardiovascular death and heart failure.18 Moreover, the use of high‐sensitivity assays for cTnI and cTnT also permits detection and monitoring of low‐grade, chronic myocardial injury.19 BNP and NT‐proBNP are associated with cardiac function and provide strong prognostic information across the spectrum of cardiovascular disease.20, 21, 22 CRP is a prototypical inflammatory biomarker that has been associated with the incidence of cardiovascular disease and death, both in the general population, in patients with coronary artery ...
The high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), mediator of atherosclerotic disease, is known to be a sensitive predictor of coronary heart disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).. Aims: To evaluate the relationship of hs-CRP levels to metabolic syndrome (MS) and albuminuria in T2DM.. Methods: Four hundred and eighty-eight T2DM subjects were recruited. Patients with hs-CRP ≥10 mg/l, creatinine ≥1.4 mg/dl, chronic inflammatory and cardiovascular diseases, smokers or on antiplatelet therapy were excluded. In all the 178 subjects (65.2±10.7 years, 71 men and 107 women) enrolled, we measured hs-CRP, waist circumference (WC), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-Ch), triglycerides (TGs), and 24 h. Albumin excretion (ALB-e). The MS was defined according to the IDF criteria. Student s t-test was used to compare the means, and the Mann Whitney U test to analyze the relationship between hs-CRP levels and the presence of ...
Our Canary Club High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hs-CRP) blood-spot test provides an accurate assessment of the amount of inflammation in the body to provide physicians with more diagnostic clues regarding a persons cardio metabolic risk.. People who have hs-CRP levels in the high end of the normal range have a 1.5 to 4 times greater risk of having a heart attack as those in the low end of the normal range.. Measurement of hs-CRP does not reflect where in the body the inflammation is, however. It may reflect inflammation detected in cells in the fatty deposits of arterial walls, or it may reflect inflammation from any part of the body. However, when hs-CRP is tested in combination with other cardio metabolic markers, physicians can find valuable clues regarding a persons risk for type 2 diabetes, heart attack, and stroke.. Symptoms of irregular hs-CRP levels:. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Relation of Soft Plaque and Elevated Preprocedural High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein Levels to Incidence of In-Stent Restenosis After Successful Coronary Artery Stenting. AU - Hong, Young Joon. AU - Jeong, Myung Ho. AU - Lim, Sang Yeob. AU - Lee, Sang Rok. AU - Hong, Seo Na. AU - Kim, Kye Hun. AU - Sohn, Il Suk. AU - Park, Hyung Wook. AU - Kim, Ju Han. AU - Kim, Weon. AU - Ahn, Youngkeun. AU - Cho, Jeong Gwan. AU - Park, Jong Chun. AU - Kang, Jung Chaee. PY - 2006/8/1. Y1 - 2006/8/1. N2 - Although various predictors relating to in-stent restenosis (ISR) have been demonstrated, the relation between the parameters of intravascular ultrasound and inflammatory markers and ISR has not been reported. This study included 120 patients who underwent stent implantation for angiographically significant stenosis. Patients were divided into a soft plaque group (n = 50) and a nonsoft plaque group (n = 70). All patients underwent angiographic and intravascular ultrasound follow-up at 6 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Progress of research in osteoarthritis. The evaluation of osteoarthritis with biological markers. AU - Morita, Mitsuhiro. AU - Yamada, Harumoto. AU - Date, Hideki. AU - Yoshimura, Noriko. PY - 2009/11. Y1 - 2009/11. N2 - It is socially required to establish the correlation of some specific biomarkers and the clinical stage of osteoarthritis (OA). This study is to evaluate the usefulness of serum or urine biomarkers in OA in the large population cohort study of Japan. There are many reports to evaluate the usefulness of biological markers in OA, and the similar clinical results are supported in this study. The further follow-up study would be wished to be done.. AB - It is socially required to establish the correlation of some specific biomarkers and the clinical stage of osteoarthritis (OA). This study is to evaluate the usefulness of serum or urine biomarkers in OA in the large population cohort study of Japan. There are many reports to evaluate the usefulness of biological ...
1] Foerch C., Montaner J., Furie K.L., Ning M.M. and Lo E.H., Invited Article: Searching for oracles? Blood biomarkers in acute stroke, Neurology 73(5), 393-399 (2009). [2] Whiteley W., Tseng M.C. and Sandercock P., Blood biomarkers in the diagnosis of ischemic stroke: a systematic review, Stroke 39(10), 2902-2909 (2008). [3] Whiteley W., Chong W.L., Sengupta A. and Sandercock P., Blood markers for the prognosis of ischemic stroke: a systematic review, Stroke 40(5), 380-389 (2009). [4] Carlborg C. F., Gylfason K. B., Kaźmierczak A., Dortu F., Banuls M. J., Kresbach G. M., Sohlström H., Moh T., Vivien L., Popplewell J., Ronan G., Barrios C.A., Stemme G. and van der Wijngaart W., A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex assays in labs-on-chip, Lab on Chip 10 , 281- 290 (2010). [5] Sinclair W., Schmid J.H., Waldron P., Poitras D., Janz S., Mischki T., Lopinski G., Densmore A., Xu D.-X., Lapointe J. and Delâge A., Silicon photonic evanescent field ...
Background: Plaque rupture, acute ischemia, and necrosis in acute coronary syndromes are accompanied by concurrent pro-and anti-inflammatory cascades. Whether STEMI clinical prediction models can be improved with the addition of baseline inflammatory biomarkers remains unknown. Methods: In an APEX-AMI trial substudy, 772 patients had a panel of 9 inflammatory serum biomarkers, high sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP), and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) measured at baseline after randomization. Baseline biomarkers were incorporated into a clinical prediction model for a composite of 90-day death, shock, or heart failure. Incremental prognostic value was assessed using Net Reclassification Improvement (NRI) and Integrated Discrimination Improvement (IDI). Results: Individually, several biomarkers were independent predictors of clinical outcome: hsCRP (hazard ratio [HR] 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.21; p=0.007, per doubling), NT-proBNP (HR 1.14; 95% CI, ...
Diabetic kidney disease is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease in developed and developing countries. Microalbuminuria is the gold standard for detection and prediction of diabetic kidney disease and cardiovascular risk disease in clinical practice. However, microalbuminuria has several limitations, such as lower sensitive, larger variability. It is urgent to explore higher sensitivity and specificity for earlier detection of diabetic kidney disease and more accurate prediction of the progression to end stage renal disease. We reviewed some new and important urinary biomarkers, such as: transferrin, immunoglobulin G, immunoglobulin M, Cystanic C, podocytes, type IV collagen, 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro-2-deoxyguanosine, ceruloplasmin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and so on. We need good quality, long-term, large longitudinal trials to validate published biomarkers and find new biomarkers, considering biomarkers reviewed here are from small cross-sectional studies.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a highly progressive and debilitating neurodegenerative disease, which usually leads to the death of affected individuals within a few years after the onset of symptoms. ALS is currently incurable and very little is known about its pathophysiology. Finding validated biomarkers will help us to advance our understanding of ALS etiology and find better strategies for early diagnosis and management of the disease. The main aim of the present systematic review is to evaluate the concentration of 11 frequently reported biomarkers for ALS in peripheral blood and CSF of patients diagnosed with ALS compared with controls. This systematic review protocol has been established according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocol (PRISMA-P) 2015 guideline. We will include all types of observational studies with human subjects that investigated the concentrations of intended biomarkers (amyloid beta (Aβ-42), tau and phosphorylated tau (p
Purdue University researchers have found a method of identifying biological markers in small amounts of blood that they believe could be used to detect a myriad of diseases, infections and different medical conditions at early stages.. Jeffrey Rhoads, a professor in Purdues School of Mechanical Engineering; George Chiu, a professor in Purdues School of Mechanical Engineering, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, and Department of Psychological Sciences; and Eric Nauman, a professor in the School of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Basic Medical Sciences and the Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, are part of a team of researchers that has created microelectromechanical resonators, or small vibrating sensors, that can detect these biomarkers using just a drop or two of blood. The plate-style resonant sensors allows sensitive, inexpensive detection of biomarkers that can signify disease, illness or trauma.. The goal here is to find the disease so early that you can treat it ...
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system. Only a few biomarkers are available in MS clinical practice, such as cerebrospinal fluid oligoclonal band
BLOOD MARKER FOR RENAL CANCER - The present invention provides a blood marker for renal cancer, more specifically, a blood marker that can be practically used for clinical diagnosis of renal cancer. The present invention also provides a blood marker that can be practically used for follow-up after treatment such as surgery and during treatment such as medication for renal cancer. A blood marker for renal cancer selected from the group consisting of Galectin-1, Galectin-3, and α-enolase. Galectin-1 and/or Galectin-3 as a blood marker for renal cancer for use in an examination performed before diagnostic imaging. α-Enolase as a blood marker for renal cancer for use in monitoring during and/or after treatment for renal cancer ...
Even though the post-operative outcome varies greatly among patients with nodal positive colon cancer (UICC stage III), personalized prediction of systemic disease recurrence is currently insufficient. We investigated in a retrospective setting whether genetic and immunological biomarkers can be applied for stratification of distant metastasis occurrence risk. Eighty four patients with complete resection (R0) of stage III colon cancer from two clinical centres were analysed for genetic biomarkers: microsatellite instability, oncogenic mutations in KRAS exon2 and BRAF exon15, expression of osteopontin and the metastasis-associated genes SASH1 and MACC1. Tumor-infiltrating CD3 and CD8 positive T-cells were quantified by immunocytochemistry. Results were correlated with outcome and response to 5-FU based adjuvant chemotherapy, using Coxs proportional hazard models and integrative two-step cluster analysis. Distant metastasis risk was significantly correlated with oncogenic KRAS mutations (p = 0.015),
We previously showed that IDH1 mRNA and protein expression are elevated in tumor tissues compared with matched normal tissues (10). This suggests that IDH1 plasma level might be a useful biomarker for the diagnosis of patients with NSCLCs. We have 2 hypotheses for the elevated levels of IDH1 in blood, which are currently being investigated: IDH1 may be secreted extracellularly under exceptional circumstances or released into the blood by cell damage and cell death. In addition, plasma IDH1 levels were positively correlated with T stage in patients with NSCLCs, strongly suggesting that IDH1 might be a useful diagnostic biomarker.. In this report, we showed that the plasma IDH1 level was significantly elevated in 976 patients with NSCLCs compared with 479 healthy controls. We also tested 3 existing clinical biomarkers, CEA, CA125, and Cyfra21-1, in all the samples and compared their diagnostic efficacy to that of IDH1. Then, we established the AUCs for biomarker panels and determined the ...
We are excited to present the first of our 2021 webinar series. Dr Robert Mohney, Head of Clinical and Translational Science at Owlstone Medical, will be presenting Discovery and Clinical Investigation of Non-Invasive Biomarkers using Breath Biopsy® at 1pm EST / 10am PST on January 27th.. Dr Mohney will introduce a series of case studies, showcasing the applications of breath analysis and the potential for its use in clinical practice. This webinar is for anyone interested in learning about Breath Biopsy and its capabilities for early detection of disease and precision medicine. The presentation will be followed by a live Q&A session.. Watch On Demand. Contact us. ...
IBBL recently supported the Department of Oncology (DONC) of the Luxembourg Institute of Health in advancing lung cancer diagnostics.
Mediators of Inflammation is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research and review articles on all types of inflammatory mediators, including cytokines, histamine, bradykinin, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, PAF, biological response modifiers and the family of cell adhesion-promoting molecules.
Background: The relationship between age-related frailty and the underlying processes that drive changes in health is currently unclear. Considered individually, most blood biomarkers show only weak relationships with frailty and ageing. Here, we examined whether a biomarker-based frailty index (FI-B) allowed examination of their collective effect in predicting mortality compared with individual biomarkers, a clinical deficits frailty index (FI-CD), and the Fried frailty phenotype.Methods: We analyzed baseline data and up to 7-year mortality in the Newcastle 85+ Study (n = 845; mean age 85.5). The FI-B combined 40 biomarkers of cellular ageing, inflammation, haematology, and immunosenescence. The Kaplan-Meier estimator was used to stratify participants into FI-B risk strata. Stability of the risk estimates for the FI-B was assessed using iterative, random subsampling of the 40 FI-B items. Predictive validity was tested using Cox proportional hazards analysis and discriminative ability by the ...
Plasma microRNAs (miRNAs) are promising non-invasive biomarkers for colorectal cancer (CRC) prognosis. However, the published studies to date have yielded conflicting and inconsistent results for specific plasma miRNAs.. We have conducted a study using robust assays to assess a panel of nine miRNAs for CRC prognosis and early detection of recurrence. Plasma samples from 144 patients in a prospective CRC cohort study were collected at diagnosis, 6, 12, and 24 months after diagnosis. miRNAs were assayed by Taqman qRT-PCR to generate miRNA normalised copy numbers.. Preoperative high plasma miRNA levels were associated with increased recurrence risk for miR-200b (HR [95% CI]=2.04 [1.00, 4.16], P=0.05), miR-203 (HR=4.2 [1.48, 11.93], P=0.007), miR-29a (HR=2.61 [1.34,5.07], P=0.005), and miR-31 (HR=4.03 [1.76, 9.24], P=0.001). Both plasma miR-31 (AUC: 0.717) and miR-29a (AUC: 0.703) could discriminate recurrence from these patients without recurrence. In addition, high levels of miR-31 during ...
UNLABELLED: Obesity and associated metabolic disorders have been implicated in liver carcinogenesis; however, there are little data on the role of obesity-related biomarkers on liver cancer risk. We studied prospectively the association of inflammatory and metabolic biomarkers with risks of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), intrahepatic bile duct (IBD), and gallbladder and biliary tract cancers outside of the liver (GBTC) in a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Over an average of 7.7 years, 296 participants developed HCC (n=125), GBTC (n=137), or IBD (n=34). Using risk-set sampling, controls were selected in a 2:1 ratio and matched for recruitment center, age, sex, fasting status, and time of blood collection. Baseline serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-peptide, total high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin, leptin, fetuin-a, and glutamatdehydrogenase (GLDH) were measured, and incidence rate ratios (IRRs
A Bayesian network model was developed to integrate diverse types of data to conduct an exposure-dose-response assessment for benzene-induced acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The network approach was used to evaluate and compare individual biomarkers and quantitatively link the biomarkers along the exposure-disease continuum. The network was used to perform the biomarker-based dose-response analysis,
Title : Cardiovascular Clinical Trialists (CVCT) Forum - Paris 2012 : Journal editors viewpointsSpeaker: John JARCHO, Boston, USA, NEJMDiscussant: Rita REDBERG, San Francisco, USA, Arch Intern MedAbstract : Biomarker studies have proliferated widely, but the actual impact of most such studies on the practice of medicine is modest. One major underlying problem is a lack of clarity (on the part of both investigators and readers) about what biomarker data can be expected to contribute. In many cases, studies merely demonstrate a statistical association between a putative biomarker and a clinical correlate, but the implications of this association are not made explicit. In some cases, there is an expectation that a new biomarker, if found to correlate with disease, will reveal previously unsuspected or unproven aspects of disease pathogenesis; but scientific discovery is achieved by an association study alone. Novel biomarkers may occasionally improve diagnosis, as with high-sensitivity troponin assays, or
Humans have had control over fire for at least the last 1 million years (Berna and others, 2012, PNAS, 109, 20, E1215-E1220). This control is relative, however, as human ignitions can accidentally cause wildfires such as the 2016 Nederland, Colorado fire that started from an improperly doused campfire. In areas that are not naturally fire-prone, biomass burning residue in lake cores is sometimes used as an indicator of the presence of humans in an area. New techniques using specific biomarkers can determine if and when humans lived in a region, and if the presence of humans coincides with increased fire activity.. However, specific biomarkers can help determine the timing and interpretation of climatic and anthropogenic events. For example, changing climate conditions coupled with deforestation, enforced agriculture and/or pastoralism, and the introduction of European diseases may have influenced the ability of residents to continue living in the mountains of northern New Mexico. Fecal sterols ...
SIGNIFICANCE. Oxidative stress is considered to be an important component of various diseases. A vast number of methods have been developed and used in virtually all diseases to measure the extent and nature of oxidative stress, ranging from oxidation of DNA to proteins, lipids, and free amino acids. Recent Advances: An increased understanding of the biology behind diseases and redox biology has led to more specific and sensitive tools to measure oxidative stress markers, which are very diverse and sometimes very low in abundance.. CRITICAL ISSUES. The literature is very heterogeneous. It is often difficult to draw general conclusions on the significance of oxidative stress biomarkers, as only in a limited proportion of diseases have a range of different biomarkers been used, and different biomarkers have been used to study different diseases. In addition, biomarkers are often measured using nonspecific methods, while specific methodologies are often too sophisticated or laborious for routine ...
The analysis of human serum for different biomarkers holds promise for the early detection, diagnosis and treatment of a variety of diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, arthritis and multiple types of cancer. Serum biomarkers can be used as indicators of the state of disease progression or simply as indicators for the functioning of normal biological processes within the human body. Ultimately, these biomarkers can monitor the progress of therapy [1,2]. For routine analysis of only one or a few analytes, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) remains the workhorse method for protein analysis in basic research and clinical diagnostics. Owing to increasing efforts in recent years in biomarker discovery [3,4], many high-quality antibodies with high specificity and affinity are becoming available to these markers and to entire proteomes [5-8] for basic research, early detection of cancer and other medical diagnostics [9,10].. Mass spectrometry has emerged as a powerful tool for comprehensive ...
We performed a validation study of 17 preselected plasma protein markers with reported high evidence for the prediction of eGFR decline in patients with type 2 diabetes and incident or early-stage CKD. We showed in an univariable analysis that 9 of the markers had significantly different concentration levels between patients with stable eGFR and fast progression of eGFR decline and that 14 biomarkers significantly contributed to the prediction of eGFR levels. However, most of the predictive ability was attributable to the association with baseline GFR. In the multivariable analysis of eGFR decline over time, only five markers (KIM1, FGF23, NTproBNP, HGF, and MMP1) remained significant but exhibited only a modest predictive power on top of clinical covariates. Furthermore, if the longitudinal analysis was adjusted for baseline eGFR, none of the biomarkers were able to contribute a relevant portion of explained variability, suggesting that baseline eGFR is the key variable in prediction of renal ...
About Cardiac Biomarker. A cardiac biomarker is defined as a measurable substance that is an indicator used in the diagnosis and risk stratification related to cardiovascular disease (CVDs) such as acute coronary syndrome (ACS), coronary syndromes, myocardial infarction (MI), and heart failure. Some of the cardiac biomarkers include creatine kinase (CK) MB, troponins (cTnI and cTnT), BNP, NT-proBNP, GFAP, H-FABP, LDH isoenzymes, D-dimer, IMA, MPO, myoglobin, and sCD40L. Cardiac biomarker assays help medical professionals to understand and differentiate between myocardial infarction and angina, which assists in the diagnosis and treatment of CVDs. The abnormal concentration of these biomarkers will act as significant predictors of an adverse cardiovascular condition. Cardiac point of care (POC) testing offers reliable measurement of cardiac biomarkers and provides results within one hour of testing. In addition to saving time, some cardiac POC tests have been modified to improve the accuracy of ...
Using a prospective cohort study of 2,910 Danish women with invasive breast cancer, we have demonstrated that elevated CRP levels at the time of diagnosis of breast cancer were associated with reduced overall and disease-free survival and with increased risk of death from breast cancer. These are novel observations.. Mechanistically, three components might explain the observed association between elevated CRP levels and poor breast cancer prognosis. First, tumour cell behavior: plasma CRP levels may reflect the aggressiveness of the tumour, that is, plasma CRP levels might sum up some prognostic information of well-known tumour characteristics, such as tumour stage and grade. In the present study, elevated CRP levels were indeed associated with larger tumour size, presence of distant metastases, and lower tumour grade (although CRP was not linearly associated with tumour grade), and these prognostic factors were associated with poor prognosis. Second, adjacent inflammation: plasma CRP levels ...
Cancer-associated blood biomarkers exist in exceedingly low concentrations within complex mixtures of high-abundance proteins such as albumin and immunoglobulins. Moreover, biomarkers in the blood may be subjected to degradation during transportation and storage. Such degradation is a significant source of bias for cancer biomarker measurement and discovery. We have created N-isopropylacrylamide porous sieving core shell smart nanoparticles containing an internal affinity bait to perform three independent functions within minutes, in one step, in solution (serum or plasma): a) molecular size sieving with complete separation from high abundance residence proteins such as albumin and immunoglobulin, b) affinity capture of all solution phase target molecules, and c) complete protection of harvested proteins from enzymatic degradation. The captured analytes can be readily electroeluted for analysis. In our preliminary studies we have manufactured large quantities of uniform porous nanoparticles ...
Inflammatory factors have been associated with increased risk for several cancers; several reviews over the past 10 years describe such associations (1-4). However, past epidemiologic investigations of inflammation and cancer risk have typically been small, utilized varied analysis platforms, and included a narrow range of analytes. For instance, epidemiologic studies of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (5-10), colorectal (11-13), gastric (14, 15), endometrial (16), ovarian (17-21), and lung cancer (22-24) examined a select number of inflammatory markers in various cohorts. Markers evaluated, however, have varied between studies, making interpretation of results difficult. Consequently, the precise molecular markers and pathways involved in carcinogenesis remain unclear.. Multiplex technologies have now been developed to measure larger numbers of inflammatory protein markers using small volumes of serum, plasma, and other specimens (25-31). This has created an opportunity for systematic, large-scale ...
BACKGROUND: There is limited information regarding the role of biomarker levels at predicting mortality in patients with the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. The purpose of this study is to determine the differences in serum biomarker levels in adults with COVID-19 who survived hospitalization from those who did not. METHODS: A comprehensive search was completed on PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane libraries to identify studies of interest. Endpoints of interest were blood counts, hepatic function test, acute phase reactants, cytokines and cardiac biomarkers. RESULTS: A total of 10 studies with 1584 patients were included in the pooled analyses. Biomarkers that were noted to be significantly higher in those who died from coronavirus disease included: white blood cell count, neutrophil count, C-reactive protein, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, ferritin, D-dimer, interleukin-6, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, prothrombin time, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine
Evans, M.D., Cooke, M.S., Olinski, R., Gackowski, D., Rozalski, R., Siomek, A., Loft, S., Rossner, Jr. P., Sram, R., Henriksen, T., Poulsen, H.E., Weimann, A., Barbieri, A., Sabatini, L., Violante, F., Kino, S., Ochi, T., Sakai, K., Takeuchi, M., Kasai, H., Meerman, J.H.N., Halliwell, B., Jenner, A.M., Wang, H., Cerda, C., Saez, G., Haghdoost, S., Svoboda, P., Hu, C.-W., Chao, M.-R., Peng, K.-Y., Shih, W.-C., Wu, K.-Y., Orhan, H., Istanbullu, N.S., Mistry, V., Farmer, P.B., Sandhu, J., Singh, R., Cortez, C., Su, Y., Santella, R.M., Lambert, P., Smith, R. (2010). Toward consensus in the analysis of urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2′- deoxyguanosine as a noninvasive biomarker of oxidative stress. FASEB Journal 24 (4) : 1249-1260. [email protected] Repository. ...
Results After adjustment for covariates, statistically significant linear associations with walking duration were observed for WBC, hsTnT, Cr and CysC. CRP quartiles 1 and 2 showed no significant difference followed by a significant inverse dose-response relationship. A similar pattern, but less pronounced, was seen for N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide. Mean differences between the first two quartiles of CRP and its fourth quartile were 17 min. Between categories 1 (more beneficial) and 4 of WBC, hsTnT, Cr and CysC the differences were 15, 12, 23 and 20 min, respectively.. ...
Purpose: Circulating hormone concentrations are associated with breast cancer risk, with well-established associations for postmenopausal women. Biomarkers may represent minimally invasive measures to improve risk prediction models.. Experimental Design: We evaluated improvements in discrimination gained by adding serum biomarker concentrations to risk estimates derived from risk prediction models developed by Gail and colleagues and Pfeiffer and colleagues using a nested case-control study within the EPIC cohort, including 1,217 breast cancer cases and 1,976 matched controls. Participants were pre- or postmenopausal at blood collection. Circulating sex steroids, prolactin, insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I, IGF-binding protein 3, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were evaluated using backward elimination separately in women pre- and postmenopausal at blood collection. Improvement in discrimination was evaluated as the change in concordance statistic (C-statistic) from a modified Gail or ...
Provides device manufacturers and FDA staff with updated recommendations concerning 510(k) submissions for various types of assays for C Reactive Protein (CRP).
Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a major public health problem with advanced and recurrent disease being a management challenge due to the lack of efficacy of currently available monitoring tools. Carcinoembryonic antigen is used as a marker for recurrent disease but has limited sensitivity. Early sensitive markers of disease severity and recurrence are required. The aim of this thesis was to identify potential metabolic biomarkers of CRC patients using Metabonomics based on proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy. The breadth of 1H NMR metabonomics exploring different aspects of CRC pathogenesis was investigated. A global approach profiling a large number of metabolites was undertaken in cell line and chemoprevention studies with subsequent targeted profiling experiments using human polypoid tissue samples. The studies primarily exhibited changes in choline and lipids to be associated with CRC. Although these metabolites are well reported, this thesis presents contemporary ...
We found separated clustering in multivariate analysis (OPLS-DA) between AMI group and control group, and database search was done to find out proper metabolites to distinguish acute MI disease. As a result, several lipids and amino acid were identified as biomarker candidates. Several biomarkers such as LysoPC(18:2), LysoPC(18:1), MG(18:0(9Z)/0:0/0:0) were shown similar intensity change in each CVD disease groups, and this finding might help to find sensitive CVD diagnostic marker ...
hree renal biomarkers, acute kidney injury (AKI), albuminuria, and low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), considered separately or together, can predict adverse outcomes in diabetes
Past vegetation assemblages, preserved in peat layers, are one of the key proxies when reconstructing historical peatland dynamics. Northern peatlands can be divided into two main types: fens and bogs. Compared with bog peat, the fen peat is usually more decomposed because of different eco-hydrological conditions and effective humification processes. A high level of decomposition hampers reliable identification of plant remains and constrains palaeoecological approaches. Biogeochemical studies on bog plants and bog peat have shown that plant group-specific biomarkers can be applied to identify fossil plants or plant groups from peat, given the identification of plant group-specific markers in living fen plants. In this study, we applied plant macrofossil, biomarkers and multivariate statistical analyses to two mid-boreal peat sequences to investigate whether biomarkers can be applied to distinguish fen and bog environments and whether plant-specific biomarkers can be identified from fen peat. ...
Biological markers. Level lower than expected. 50% ALL. Level of drug metabolite in urine. Level lower than expected. 42% ... Jump to navigation Jump to search This article is about following medical advice. For the physiological term, see Compliance ( ...
A bio-marker, or biological marker is a measurable indicator of some biological state or condition. Biomarkers are often ... The term "biological marker" was introduced in 1950s.[24][25] *In 1987, biological markers were defined as "indicators ... "Biological markers in environmental health research. Committee on Biological Markers of the National Research Council". ... McCarthy JF, Shugart LR (2018-01-18). "Biological Markers of Environmental Contamination". Biomarkers of Environmental ...
"Scientific challenges in developing biological markers for autism". Open Access Autism. 1 (1): 7. doi:10.13172/2052-7810-1-1- ... Jump to navigation Jump to search This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk ... In 1990, Hewitson graduated with honors in Biology from the University of Essex.[5] She earned her PhD in Biological Sciences ... Schatten G, Hewitson L, Simerly C, Sutovsky P and Huszar G. (1998) Cell and Molecular Biological Challenges of ICSI: A.R.T. ...
Rousseau, Jean-Charles; Delmas, Pierre D (June 2007). "Biological markers in osteoarthritis". Nature Clinical Practice ... Part 1: Markers of collagen degradation and synthesis". The Veterinary Journal. 185 (1): 36-42. doi:10.1016/j.tvjl.2010.04.011 ...
International Journal of Biological Markers. 17 (1): 5-23. doi:10.1177/172460080201700102. PMID 11936587. Lacroix, M; Leclercq ... detection and markers of disseminated breast cancer cells" Free access to "Disseminated tumor cells: detection, markers and ... Lacroix, M; Zammatteo N; Remacle J; Leclercq G. (2002). "A low-density DNA microarray for analysis of markers in breast cancer ... Lacroix., M (2006). "Significance, detection and markers of disseminated breast cancer cells". Endocrine-Related Cancer. 13 (4 ...
VOLKMAN, J. K. (1986). "Acyclic isoprenoids as biological markers". Biological Markers in the Sedimentary Record.: 1817-1828. ... Baker, E.W.; Louda, J.W. (1986). "Porphyrins in the geological record". In Johns, R.B. (ed.). Biological Markers in the ... Phytene is also found as the functional group phytyl in many organic molecules of biological importance such as chlorophyll, ... an aromatic compound believed to be markers of salinity. Therefore, this decrease in Pr/Ph should indicate an increase in ...
The International Journal of Biological Markers. 15 (2): 139-46. doi:10.1177/172460080001500203. PMID 10883887. Pagaduan JV, ... Ekman P, Lewenhaupt A (1991). "Serum tumour markers in human prostatic carcinoma. The value of a marker panel for prognostic ... As this tumor marker reacts to the activity of the tumor rather than to the tumor mass it gives a very early indication of the ... Xiang Y, Zeng H, Liu X, Zhou H, Luo L, Duan C, Luo X, Yan H (2013). "Thymidine kinase 1 as a diagnostic tumor marker is of ...
The International Journal of Biological Markers. 13 (4): 179-87. doi:10.1177/172460089801300402. PMID 10228898. S2CID 46589946 ... CA-125 has found application as a tumor marker or biomarker that may be elevated in the blood of some patients with specific ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 279 (10): 9190-8. doi:10.1074/jbc.M312372200. PMID 14676194. Gubbels JA, Belisle J, Onda M ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 (29): 27371-5. doi:10.1074/jbc.M103554200. PMID 11369781. Yin BW, Dnistrian A, Lloyd ...
A single center experience". The International Journal of Biological Markers. 33 (1): 55-61. doi:10.5301/ijbm.5000305. ISSN ... Since then, Pro-GRP has been used as a tumor marker for patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) in limited and extended ... "Pro-gastrin-releasing peptide (PROGRP) as a specific tumor marker in patients with small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC)". Lung ... THE JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY. You, Benoit; Mercier, Frédéric; Assenat, Eric; Langlois-Jacques, Carole; Glehen, Olivier; ...
"Urinary Cell-Free DNA as a Potential Tumor Marker for Bladder Cancer". The International Journal of Biological Markers. 22 (4 ... For ucfDNA, cancer markers can be generally divided into two groups: urological cancer marker and non-urological cancer marker ... Many tumour markers in ucfDNA have been researched to monitor cancer progression, therapeutic response, and prognosis. Cancer ... Different levels and genetic markers in ucfDNA can be the indicators of the types and stages of cancer. The level of variants ...
The International Journal of Biological Markers. 9 (1): 29-32. doi:10.1177/172460089400900106. ISSN 0393-6155. PMID 7519651. ... Tumor markers including alphafetoprotein (AFP), Beta Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG), Carcinoembionic Antigen (CEA), CA 125 ...
The International Journal of Biological Markers. 22 (2): 114-23. doi:10.1177/172460080702200205. PMID 17549667. S2CID 208043955 ... Research in Biological Diversity. 74 (6): 313-21. doi:10.1111/j.1432-0436.2006.00074.x. PMID 16831200. Park ET, Oh HK, Gum JR, ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (9): 7021-8. doi:10.1074/jbc.M108417200. PMID 11748221. S2CID 39560486. Brown NL, ...
243-. ISBN 978-3-540-32786-8. W.J. van Venrooij; Ravinder N. Maini (6 December 2012). Manual of Biological Markers of Disease. ... The size marker is often pipetted into the first or last pocket of a gel. For separation, the denatured samples are loaded onto ... An overloading of the gel with a soluble protein creates a semicircular band of this protein (e. g. in the marker lane of the ... A low contrast (as in the marker lane of the image) between bands within a lane indicates either the presence of many proteins ...
The International Journal of Biological Markers. 25 (3): 136-40. doi:10.1177/172460081002500303. PMID 20677166. S2CID 208044673 ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 279 (7): 5708-15. doi:10.1074/jbc.M307608200. PMID 14627710. van der Weyden L, Rust AG, ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 289 (10): 6775-90. doi:10.1074/jbc.M113.499210. PMC 3945339. PMID 24394418. Ji H, Ehrlich ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (42): 40043-54. doi:10.1074/jbc.M205494200. PMID 12171923. Kawaida R, Ohtsuka T, ...
Manual of Biological Markers of Disease. Springer Netherlands. pp. 25-36. doi:10.1007/978-94-011-1670-1_3. ISBN 978-94-011-1670 ...
The International Journal of Biological Markers. 15 (2): 139-46. doi:10.1177/172460080001500203. PMID 10883887. S2CID 25940455 ... tumor markers). Such tumor markers are, for instance, CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen) and AFP (alpha fetoprotein). The genes for ... Wu J, Mao Y, He L, Wang N, Wu C, He Q, Skog S (2000). "A new cell proliferating marker: cytosolic thymidine kinase as compared ... A re-emergence of the disease either by accident or as a result of biological warfare would meet an unprotected population and ...
"Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 363 (1491): 557-572. doi:10.1098/rstb.2007.2170. ISSN ... Marker types[edit]. The majority of MAS work in the present era uses DNA-based markers.[5] However, the first markers that ... Most MAS uses screenable markers rather than selectable markers. Gene vs marker[edit]. The gene of interest directly causes ... Jump to navigation Jump to search This article includes a list of general references, but it remains largely unverified because ...
The International Journal of Biological Markers. 22 (2): 114-23. PMID 17549667.. الوسيط ,CitationClass=. تم تجاهله (مساعدة). ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (9): 7021-8. doi:10.1074/jbc.M108417200. PMID 11748221.. الوسيط ,CitationClass=. تم ... Research in Biological Diversity. 74 (6): 313-21. doi:10.1111/j.1432-0436.2006.00074.x. PMID 16831200.. الوسيط ,CitationClass= ...
The International Journal of Biological Markers. 9 (1): 29-32. ISSN 0393-6155. PMID 7519651.. ... Tumor markers, TNM staging, CT scans, MRI. Cancer survival has improved due to three main components including improved ... Tumor markers including alphafetoprotein (AFP),[47] Beta Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG),[47] Carcinoembionic Antigen (CEA), ...
Are genes good markers of biological traits? 175-193. In Biological Surveys. National Research Council Committee on Advances in ... Collecting and Utilizing Biological Indicators and Genetic Information in Social Science Surveys. Weinstein, M., Vaupel, J. W. ...
Mackenzie, Andrew Stewart (1981). Applications of biological marker compounds to subsurface geological processes (PhD thesis). ... Mackenzie, Andrew Stewart (1984). Applications of Biological Markers in Petroleum Geochemistry. London: Academic Press. ISBN ...
... a biological database of orthologous mammalian markers. The rbp3 evolutionary marker can be found, together with the ... The rbp3 gene is commonly used in animals as a nuclear DNA phylogenetic marker. The exon 1 has first been used in a pioneer ... Gene structure and primary structure". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 264 (14): 8200-6. PMID 2542268. Si JS, Borst DE, ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 265 (7): 3648-53. PMID 2303470. Albini A, Toffenetti J, Zhu Z, Chader GJ, Noonan DM (Sep ...
Taioli, Emanuela; Bonassi, Stefano (2003-01-01). "Pooled analysis of epidemiological studies involving biological markers". ...
Rechenberg DK, Galicia JC, Peters OA (2016-11-29). "Biological Markers for Pulpal Inflammation: A Systematic Review". PLOS ONE ...
"Biological Markers for Pulpal Inflammation: A Systematic Review". PLOS ONE. 11 (11): e0167289. Bibcode:2016PLoSO..1167289R. doi ... Michael A Henry, et al, Unmyelinated nerve fibers in the human dental pulp express markers for myelinated fibers and show ... Other peptides include cGRP, galanin, somatostatin, and neurokinin A-B. The biological effects of SP are expressed by the ...
A range of hopanoids are found in petroleum reservoirs, where they are used as biological markers.[2] Hopanoids are not ... Biological role[edit]. Hopanoids modify plasma membrane properties, like fluidity and formation of liquid ordered domains, ...
Zoladz PR, Diamond DM (June 2013). "Current status on behavioral and biological markers of PTSD: a search for clarity in a ... Jump to navigation Jump to search "PTSD" redirects here. For other uses, see PTSD (disambiguation). ... and familial stressors increase risk for PTSD as well as risk for biological markers of risk for PTSD after a traumatic event ... "Biological Psychiatry. 66 (12): 1075-82. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2009.06.026. PMC 2787650. PMID 19748076.. ...
"Neurofilament light chain as a biological marker for multiple sclerosis: a meta-analysis study". Neuropsychiatric Disease and ... Biological process. • negative regulation of neuron apoptotic process. • retrograde axonal transport. • intermediate filament ... NF heavy and light chain levels have potential use as a marker of neural degeneration in ALS, but are not specific for the ... The very rapid neurodegeneration of prion disease results in strong signals from surrogate protein markers in the blood that ...
In addition, a thoughtful choice of biological marker can be used as a signal to expect a whole host of ecological changes. The ... For that matter, they are not completely without biological markers. There has been considerable progress in studying and ... For example, there are a number of good potential markers in the rise and decline of "Christmas tree" stromatolites, in the ebb ... the use of a chronometric system is that there is insufficient biological activity or geochemical change to find useful markers ...
Therefore, more studies are needed in order to confirm the validity of sAPP as a biological marker for AD. Researchers at ... Recent studies primarily focus on use of an autoantibody, not only for biological markers but for future treatment. However, ... "Biological markers of amyloid β-related mechanisms in Alzheimer's disease". Experimental Neurology. 223 (2): 334-46. doi: ... Although the biological function of APP are not known, it has been hypothesized that APP may play a role during ...
Jump to navigation Jump to search This article may be too technical for most readers to understand. Please help improve it to ... Biological neurons are connected to each other in a complex, recurrent fashion. These connections are, unlike most artificial ... Main article: Biological neuron models. Even single neurons have complex biophysical characteristics and can perform ... Hence there is a drive to produce simplified neuron models that can retain significant biological fidelity at a low ...
Jump to navigation Jump to search This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk ... especially in biological sciences, is undesirable. But he insisted that "any further guidance must come from the Supreme Court ... where development of useful new diagnostic and therapeutic methods is driven by investigation of complex biological systems. I ...
... limitations when the Fish and Wildlife service express a potential adverse effect on a particular species based on a biological ... and provided consumers protection but did not address the growing issue of potential environmental damage and biological health ...
"List of Biological Agents for Export Control" *↑ 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 Kuhn JH, Becker S, Ebihara H, Geisbert TW, Johnson KM, ... Jump to navigation Jump to search Familia Filoviridae Classificatio viri Grex: Grex V ((-)ssRNA) ...
Series B, Biological Sciences. May 2001, 356 (1409): 617-23. PMC 1088449. PMID 11375065. doi:10.1098/rstb.2001.0845.. ... cell-surface marker),可以用以分离、鉴定不同亚群的T细胞[1]。 ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. December 2015, 290 (51): 30204-11. PMC 4683245. PMID 26468291. doi:10.1074/jbc.R115.685990 ...
Biological process. • anterior/posterior pattern specification. • multicellular organism development. • anterior/posterior axis ... Jump to navigation Jump to search HOXD8. Identifiers. Aliases. HOXD8, HOX4, HOX4E, HOX5.4, homeobox D8. ...
Selected biological properties of endogenous estrogens in rats Estrogen. ER RBA (%). Uterine weight (%). Uterotrophy. LH levels ... Jump to navigation Jump to search 4-Hydroxyestrone Names IUPAC name (8R,9S,13S,14S)-3,4-Dihydroxy-13-methyl-7,8,9,11,12,14,15, ...
Jump to navigation Jump to search Nyasasaurus parringtoni. Temporal range: Middle Triassic, 243 mya ...
Jump to navigation Jump to search Professor Michael (Mike) Archer AM, FAA, FRSN (born 1945, Sydney, New South Wales) is an ... He is a Professor at the School of Biological, Earth & Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales. His previous ... Professor Michael Archer, School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales. Retrieved ...
Jump to navigation Jump to search "Eat" redirects here. For other uses of "eat", or "EAT" as an abbreviation or acronym, see ... Those species that seek pest insects are considered beneficial 'biological control agents' and their presence encouraged in ... biological pest control programmes.[45] Combined, insectivorous birds eat 400-500 million metric tons of arthropods annually.[ ...
Walter Pagel (1967). William Harvey's Biological Ideas: Selected Aspects and Historical Background. Karger Publishers. p. 340. ... Jump to navigation Jump to search British mathematician and astrologer. For the academic, see Robert L. Flood. ...
Jump to navigation Jump to search A natural interconnection of food chains ... Linkages connect to nodes in a food web, which are aggregates of biological taxa called trophic species. Trophic species are ... biological, physical, and social interactions that affect, sustain, or are modified by living organisms, including humans".[77] ...
Jump to navigation Jump to search U.S. service academy. United States Merchant Marine Academy. ...
"Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research = Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Medicas e Biologicas. 39 (8): 1065-70. ... Jump to navigation Jump to search Indinavir. Clinical data. Trade names. Crixivan. ...
... that has a biological or psychological effect on a patient may also have potential to possess dangerous biological or ... Jump to navigation Jump to search Form of non-scientific healing. Alternative medicine. ... Alternative medicine describes any practice that aims to achieve the healing effects of medicine, but which lacks biological ... The Biological Basis for Mind Body Interactions. Progress in Brain Research. Volume 122. pp. 393-412. doi:10.1016/S0079-6123(08 ...
They run with rabbit-like jumps.[citation needed] In the groin of each leg is an inguinal gland used for scent marking;[18] ... "Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 265 (1398): 793. doi:10.1098/rspb.1998.0362. PMC 1689037 . PMID ...
Gurib-Fakim, A.; Subratty, H.; Narod, F.; Govinden-Soulange, J.; Mahomoodally, F.. «Biological activity from indigenous ... A genetic diversity study of endangered Psiadia species endemic from Mauritius Island using PCR markers». Biochemical ... Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin. doi:10.1248/bpb.27.1814. ... Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin. doi:10.1248/bpb.27.216. ...
... university professor and editor of the Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research. ... Jump to navigation Jump to search Lewis Joel Greene. Born. (1934-08-10) August 10, 1934 (age 84). New York City ...
Biological Sciences. 279 (1730): 1017. doi:10.1098/rspb.2011.1496.. ...
2007) Man and the Biological World. Read Books. ISBN 1406733040. URL Mae gan Gomin Wikimedia. gyfryngau sy'n berthnasol i: ... Jump to navigation Jump to search Pysen Dosbarthiad gwyddonol Teyrnas: Plantae Ddim wedi'i restru: Angiosbermau ...
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Jump to navigation Jump to search ಈ ಲೇಖನ ಅಥವಾ ವಿಭಾಗವನ್ನು ಮಾರ್ಗದರ್ಶಿ ವಿನ್ಯಾಸ ಮತ್ತು ಕೈಪಿಡಿಯ ಶೈಲಿ ಪುಟಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಸೂಚಿಸಿರುವಂತೆ ವಿಕೀಕರಣ ( ... ೨೫.೦ ೨೫.೧ Cavalier-Smith, T. (1998). "A revised six-kingdom system of life". Biological Reviews. 73 (03): 203-66. doi:10.1111/j ... Mayr, E. (1982) The Growth of Biological Thought. Belknap P. of Harvard U.P, Cambridge (Mass.) ...
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Watch Video: Biological Marker Predicts Susceptibility To Common Cold]. Lawrence LeBlond for - Your Universe ... Now, researchers may be able to predict which people will become infected by viruses based on certain biological markers found ... The researchers, led by Carnegie Mellon´s Sheldon Cohen, found that these biological markers in the immune system can predict ... "telomere length is a relatively consistent marker across the life span and that it can start predicting disease susceptibility ...
The RMs are added to biological samples to ... one or more organisms of interest are used as reference markers ... The invention generally relates to reference markers (RMs) for biological samples, particularly biological samples that contain ... It is therefore an object of this invention to provide reference markers for use in biological samples that do not overlap with ... A kit for authenticating or tracking a biological sample of a human or other species, comprising: one or more reference markers ...
A team of researchers led by faculty at the University of Georgia has identified a number of biological markers that make it ... Researchers identify key biological markers for psychotic disorders. University of Georgia. Journal. American Journal of ... A team of researchers led by faculty at the University of Georgia has identified a number of biological markers that make it ... key-biological-markers-psychotic-disorders-1215/. Related Journal Article. http://dx.. doi.. org/. 10.. 1176/. appi.. ajp. ...
Markers of biological stress and mucosal immunity during a week leading to competition in adolescent swimmers. *Papadopoulos E ... Papadopoulos, E., Muir, C., Russell, C., Timmons, B. W., Falk, B., & Klentrou, P. (2014). Markers of biological stress and ...
Scientists Identify Biological Markers That Could Indicate Poor Breast Cancer Prognosis. by Sam Savage ... "Investigating the effect that reductions in these markers, through medications or lifestyle changes, can have on breast cancer ...
But now, researchers from Northwestern University have found a biological marker that could indicate when a person is ... but the biological mechanisms have never been truly understood. ... Biological marker for dyslexia discovered by researchers. By ... But now, researchers from Northwestern University in Evanston, Ill., have found a biological marker that could indicate when a ... "Our biological approach is one that captures the response of the nervous system to sound," Kraus told "If you put ...
Biological markers for combat posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are being found more and more. Learn about combat PTSD and ... Tags: biological markers for PTSD posttraumatic stress disorder and biological markers APA Reference. Croft, H. (2015, June 26 ... What Would Biological Markers for Combat PTSD Mean for Those in the Military?. If the science were complete, its hard to say ... Biological markers may be differences in the brain, in the way the brain works and in other components of the body such as ...
... markers with hormonal activity, and other markers. In spite of intensive researches, the optimal biological marker is still not ... Currently, the optimal marker is still unknown. An ideal biological marker has the following characteristics: high sensitivity ... "biological marker", and "stroke" and the names of the markers. Based on their structure and function, four groups of biomarkers ... can be differentiated: markers of inflammation, markers of fibrosis, markers with hormonal activity, and other markers. ...
NIOSH-Publication; NIOSH-Grant; Grants-other; Organic-solvents; Solvent-vapors; Urinalysis; Air-quality-monitoring; Biological- ... one reason being the difficulty of collecting and assaying biological specimens from large numbers of exposed persons. Another ...
Biological marker. Definition. A biochemical feature or facet that can be used to measure the progress of disease or the ...
The aim of this review is to suggest innovative and promising sarcopenia markers investigating the link between skeletal muscle ... The aim of this review is to suggest innovative and promising sarcopenia markers investigating the link between skeletal muscle ... explore the molecular and cellular mechanisms regulating muscular homeostasis and concur at profiling the sarcopenia biological ... The Biological Foundations of Sarcopenia: Established and Promising Markers. Martina Casati1*, Andrea Saul Costa2, Daniele ...
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Application of Biological Markers to Carcinogen Testing by Harry A. Milman available in Hardcover on, also read ... Tumor markers.. Subject:. Health and Medicine-Medical Specialties. Subject:. Biological assay. Subject:. Carcinogenicity ...
Priority for appointment/reappointment as a Tutor-Marker is in accordance with Article XV of the Collective Agreement with the ... Home / Opportunities in Biology at SFU / Teaching Assistant/Tutor-Marker Appointment Priorities ...
Researchers Find a Biological Marker For Dyslexia In Kids. By Alexandra Sifferlin Feb. 20, 2013 ... "Understanding the biological mechanisms of reading puts us in a better position to both understand how normal reading works and ... In the latest study, researchers from Northwestern University identified a biological process that could be responsible for the ...
Biological markers. Conceptualization. Etiology. Genetic factors. Language. Metabolism. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality ... Biological markers for alcoholism: A vulnerability model conceptualization. Nebraska Symposium on Motivation, 34:207 --256. ... Biological markers for alcoholism: A vulnerability model conceptualization ... bibliography/1980-1989/1986/hill_biological_1986 Shirley Y Hill, Stuart R Steinhauer, and ...
Exosomes and Markers in Biological Fluids Registration. Need help? Contact us by email or call us on +44 (0)1787 275645. ...
... Erika Avila-Tang,. 1 Wael K Al-Delaimy,2 David L Ashley,3 Neal Benowitz,4 ... Keywords: Secondhand smoke exposure, questionnaires, biological markers, environmental exposure, validation, surveillance and ... A review of the use of saliva cotinine as a marker of tobacco smoke exposure. Prev Med 1990;19:190-7 [PubMed] ... The selection of a particular biomarker of SHSe and the analytic biological medium depends on the scientific or public health ...
Use of surrogate markers of biological agents in air and settled dust samples to evaluate a water-damaged hospital.. ... These results suggest that air and floor dust measurements of marker compounds may be better indicators of current health risk ... Biological-agents; Dusts; Dust-sampling; Dust-particles; Health-care-facilities; Respiratory-system-disorders; Fungi; Bacteria ... Detection and quantification of nonculture-based microbiological markers and/or agents of disease may be useful methods to ...
Evaluation of Chemotherapy Influence on Clinical and Biological Markers of Ovarian Reserve (IROCHIM). This study has been ... Evaluation of Chemotherapy Influence on Clinical and Biological Markers of Ovarian Reserve.. ... to evaluate the clinical and biological markers of ovarian reserve. The follow-up will last 24 months for each patients with a ... on clinical and biological markers of ovarian reserve, for young patients, with normal reproductive functions. ...
This ACE project will examine biological differences in early neurodevelopment in sibling pairs where either one or both ... The goal is to determine the biological and genetic markers that are linked with functional brain connectivity and severity of ... This ACE project will examine biological differences in early neurodevelopment in sibling pairs where either one or both ...
Mutagen sensitivity: a biological marker of cancer susceptibility.. T C Hsu, M R Spitz and S P Schantz ... Mutagen sensitivity: a biological marker of cancer susceptibility. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... We intend to continue our exploration of the bleomycin assay as a biological marker for the development of environmentally ... The preventive implications of precise and valid markers for carcinogen sensitivity are obvious. We are aware of the need for ...
Dietary Flaxseed Alters Tumor Biological Markers in Postmenopausal Breast Cancer. Lilian U. Thompson, Jian Min Chen, Tong Li, ... Dietary Flaxseed Alters Tumor Biological Markers in Postmenopausal Breast Cancer. Lilian U. Thompson, Jian Min Chen, Tong Li, ... Dietary Flaxseed Alters Tumor Biological Markers in Postmenopausal Breast Cancer. Lilian U. Thompson, Jian Min Chen, Tong Li, ... Dietary Flaxseed Alters Tumor Biological Markers in Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a ...
A team of researchers led by faculty at the University of Georgia has identified a number of biological markers that make it ... A team of researchers led by faculty at the University of Georgia has identified a number of biological markers that make it ... Researchers identify key biological markers for psychotic disorders. by James Hataway, University of Georgia ... Citation: Researchers identify key biological markers for psychotic disorders (2015, December 8) retrieved 17 February 2020 ...
Allostatic load as a marker of cumulative biological risk: MacArthur studies of successful aging. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2001; ... Allostatic load and subsequent all-cause mortality: which biological markers drive the relationship? Findings from a UK birth ... Biological systems predictive of the risk of death from all causes. We examined the impact of the 4 sub-scores representing ... Early life and Childhood Risk Factors variables that were likely to be social or biological confounders were selected from a ...
Patterns of spread in biological invasions dominated by long-distance jump dispersal: Insights from Argentine ants. Andrew V. ... 2 A and B). The two models of jump dispersal provide a range of estimates of annual jump-dispersal distances based on the ... Patterns of spread in biological invasions dominated by long-distance jump dispersal: Insights from Argentine ants ... Patterns of spread in biological invasions dominated by long-distance jump dispersal: Insights from Argentine ants ...
By the means of measuring the function ability of its physiological systems, it is possible to evaluate the biological age and ... The actual level of the true aging of an organism is characterized by its biological age. ... Biological Markers. Blood Pressure / physiology*. Body Mass Index*. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Paraplegia / physiopathology*. ... Inclusion of the biological age screening among the basic health precautions should offer yet another viewpoint on how to ...
Researchers in Nottingham have discovered a new biological indicator which could help to track the progress of Parkinsons ... We have been trying to find a biological marker for Parkinsons for many years and the reason is that we need a tool to measure ... A new biological tear drop indicator could help to track the progress of Parkinsons disease. ... A new biological tear drop indicator could help to track the progress of Parkinsons disease. ...
Extensive research has identified stereotypic behavioral and biological abnormalities in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD ... Current status on behavioral and biological markers of PTSD: a search for clarity in a conflicting literature Neurosci Biobehav ... Extensive research has identified stereotypic behavioral and biological abnormalities in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD ... with extensive findings which are inconsistent with the stereotypic behavioral and biological profile of the PTSD patient. A ...
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  • Based on their structure and function, we differentiated four groups of biomarkers: markers of inflammation, markers of fibrosis, markers with hormonal activity, and other markers. (
  • The authors note that while biomarkers have certain theoretical advantages over environmental measurements for epidemiologic studies, very few relevant applications have been published, one reason being the difficulty of collecting and assaying biological specimens from large numbers of exposed persons. (
  • Tau biomarkers are implemented in clinical trials to reflect biological activity, mechanisms of action of compounds, support enrichment of target populations, provide endpoints for proof-of-concept and confirmatory trials on disease modification. (
  • Discussions with regulatory authorities gain momentum defining the role of tau biomarkers for trial designs and how they may be further qualified for surrogate marker status. (
  • The term biomarkers or biological markers generally refers to proteins measured in the circulation (blood), whose concentration indicates some normal or pathological state or condition. (
  • This manuscript summarises the scientific evidence on the use of biomarkers to measure SHSe, analytical methods, biological matrices and their interpretation. (
  • Thus, the overarching aim of this study was to explore several biomarkers (within two realms-biological and behavioural) that may be used at different time-points as the disease progresses. (
  • The behavioural markers study investigated biomarkers in patients with established PD-a stage when cognition may become involved. (
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  • James Baurley: There are many definitions of biological markers, also known as biomarkers, and not all of them agree. (
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  • Scientists at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies may have found one explanation for the puzzling variety in brain organization and function: mobile elements, pieces of DNA that can jump from one place in the genome to another, randomly changing the genetic information in single brain cells. (
  • The Salk Institute for Biological Studies in La Jolla, California, is an independent nonprofit organization dedicated to fundamental discoveries in the life sciences, the improvement of human health and the training of future generations of researchers. (
  • Researchers in Nottingham have discovered a new biological indicator which could help to track the progress of Parkinson's disease using powerful MRI scanners. (
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  • This symposium presents findings on the genetic and environmental influences to the following markers of biological age: self-rated health, the frailty index, the epigenetic clock and telomere length. (
  • This demographic shift allows for geriatric research on predictive clinical and biological markers of outcomes related to frailty, re-hospitalization and mortality. (
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  • Now, researchers may be able to predict which people will become infected by viruses based on certain biological markers found in their chromosomes . (
  • The researchers, led by Carnegie Mellon´s Sheldon Cohen, found that these biological markers in the immune system can predict our ability to fight off infections such as the common cold . (
  • Athens, Ga. - A team of researchers led by faculty at the University of Georgia has identified a number of biological markers that make it possible to classify mental disorders with greater precision. (
  • In addition to finding more accurate ways of categorizing disease types, the researchers hope that this project may inspire a renewed interest in psychiatric drug development, which has been stymied recently by a lack of clear biological targets. (
  • But now, researchers from Northwestern University in Evanston, Ill., have found a biological marker that could indicate when a person is struggling with reading comprehension. (
  • In the latest study, researchers from Northwestern University identified a biological process that could be responsible for the compromised reading. (
  • Add this to the list of spidey senses: Harvard researchers have shown that jumping spiders can distinguish between animate and inanimate objects - an ability previously detected only in humans and other vertebrates. (
  • The researchers chose jumping spiders to test biological motion cues because the animals, with eight eyes, are among the most visually adept of all arthropods. (
  • As the researchers observed how the spiders reacted, they noted that the animals responded to the different point-light displays by pivoting and facing them directly, which indicated that the spiders were able to recognize biological motion. (
  • The researchers initially thought they would turn more toward the displays simulating another spider and possible danger, but the behavior made sense in the context of jumping spiders and how their secondary sets of eyes work to decode information. (
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  • In conclusion, the results of this thesis indicate that blood telomere length has potential to act as an independent prognostic marker in malignancy. (
  • In a separate group of five blood donors, a remarkable drop in telomere length was detected in one donor over a 6--?month period, whereas the other donors exhibited only small fluctuations in telomere length.In conclusion, the results of this thesis indicate that blood telomere length has potential to act as an independent prognostic marker in malignancy. (
  • Inflammatory markers, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), have been associated with both the malignant transformation of epithelial cells and tumor progression, thus linking low-grade inflammation with a higher risk of cancer and recurrence in the survival phase. (
  • Prospective validation of a risk score based on biological markers for predicting progression free survival in Binet stage A chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients: results of the multicenter O-CLL1-GISL study. (
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  • Understanding the biological mechanisms of reading puts us in a better position to both understand how normal reading works and to ameliorate it where it goes awry," study author Nina Kraus, a professor of neurobiology, physiology and communication at Northwestern University said in a statement. (
  • Specialization is ubiquitous in biological systems and its manifold mechanisms are active research topics. (
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  • We intend to continue our exploration of the bleomycin assay as a biological marker for the development of environmentally induced cancers. (
  • This assay may prove to be a useful intermediate biological marker for identifying subjects at increased risk of cancer. (
  • For this, we propose to measure blood and urinary markers of formation and bone resorption before consumption, then 45 and 90 days after daily consumption of 10 g of hydrolyzed collagen. (
  • We have been trying to find a biological marker for Parkinson's for many years and the reason is that we need a tool to measure change in the disease in clinical trials in a very sensitive way. (
  • An alternative option is the identification of biological markers that are specific for atrial fibrillation and can be used to predict arrhythmia. (
  • In this review, the major scientific challenges associated with the identification of biological markers for autism are described. (
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  • Determination of tumor markers has not been very successful due to the low sensitivity and specificity of the techniques used and the requirement of large volumes of biological samples or the use of invasive methods for collecting them. (
  • The serum tumor markers arise, as a useful tool to obtain information about the disease progress and constitute as a scientific challenge to improve its applicability in early diagnosis, prognosis, monitoring of the disease and evaluation of therapeutic efficacy. (
  • In addition, in the study among adults, the relationship of these exposures with several tumor markers (prostate-specific antigen, carcinoembryonic antigen, and p53) was tested. (
  • The goal is to determine the biological and genetic markers that are linked with functional brain connectivity and severity of autism symptoms. (
  • The use of genetic markers clearly enhances the power and precision of epidemiological research. (
  • In this paper, the definitions, criteria, pathologies, subtypes and genetic markers for the most common age-related major NCD subtypes are summarized. (
  • Use of surrogate markers of biological agents in air and settled dust samples to evaluate a water-damaged hospital. (
  • The research team recruited more than 700 patients with psychosis and some of their first-degree relatives--a parent, sibling or child--as well as a control group of healthy individuals to see if they could identify brain-based diagnostic markers to differentiate these conditions. (
  • The objective is to evaluate the influence of chemotherapy, either for auto-immune disease, either for carcinologic disease, on clinical and biological markers of ovarian reserve, for young patients, with normal reproductive functions. (
  • The study will enrol patients between 18 and 35 years, treated with neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy for systemic lupus erythematosus (Group 1), breast cancer (Group 2) or Hodgkin disease (Group 3)to evaluate the clinical and biological markers of ovarian reserve. (
  • The selection of patients for tumor-specific therapies using molecular/biological properties of the patient's tumor has been a long tradition in breast cancer (e.g., estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER-2/ neu ) but has not been widely accepted in lung cancer therapy selection ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • Discussion: This study aims at collecting precise clinical data, comprehensive geriatric assessment, risk factors, and biological data from acute care patients. (
  • Eight markers were evaluated in plasma EVs from CRC patients and healthy controls. (
  • A risk score based on three biological features (CD38, ZAP-70, and IGHV mutational status) was previously developed to predict progression-free survival (PFS) in untreated Binet A CLL patients. (
  • Biological markers (CD38, ZAP-70, and IGHV mutational status) and gene expression profiles (GEP) of leukemic cells from CLL patients included in a prospective multicenter observational study (O-CLL1-GISL protocol, ID:NCT00917549) were used to assess the value and reproducibility of this score. (
  • To date, 468 Binet A patients were classified as low- (0 positive marker), intermediate- (1 positive marker), or high-risk (2 or 3 positive markers) using the progression risk score. (
  • In the biological markers trials, biofluid samples (i.e., cerebrospinal fluid 'CSF' and plasma) were obtained from 11 patients with PD. (
  • Data from ongoing studies are considered essential to improve assessment of existing markers and to identify those for early follow-up of treated patients. (
  • Starting from the studies collected from the literature, it is very interesting to define the relationship of periodontal disease and osteoporosis following a series of markers of bone resorption in patients diagnosed with periodontal disease. (
  • Jumping genes with ORF0 are basically protein factories with wheels, and over the eons evolution has been driving the bus. (
  • One of these biological markers is C-reactive protein (CRP).Aim. (
  • Measurements included were biological salivary markers (IL-6 and C-reactive protein [CRP]), self-completed questionnaires (the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30, the user version of the Mobile Application Rating Scale [uMARS] and an ad hoc clinical and sociodemographic questionnaire) and physical objective measures (accelerometry, weight and height). (
  • Cohen, the Robert E. Doherty Professor of Psychology in CMU's Dietrich College of Humanities and Social Sciences, suggests that "telomere length is a relatively consistent marker across the life span and that it can start predicting disease susceptibility in young adulthood. (
  • In this review we are going to present some of the best known bone markers of resorption and bone formation, determined from blood and / or urine samples. (
  • But if we can identify a biological mechanism that contributes to disease, then we may reinvigorate drug development, and that's what we're trying to provide. (
  • Detection and quantification of nonculture-based microbiological markers and/or agents of disease may be useful methods to assess microbial contamination and to more accurately evaluate microbial exposures in the indoor environment for exposure-response studies. (
  • Determination of pathogenic proteins-mostly in Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples has been proposed as a disease biological marker that can be used for diagnosis and follow up. (
  • Here we review 23 articles on the HD prodrome, all of which related cognition to a biological marker of disease burden (i.e., genetic load, neuroimaging). (
  • These findings indicate that cognitive signs can be reliably detected in the HD prodrome when comparing cognition to additional disease markers, however, there continues to be significant variability on cognitive findings among large and methodologically rigorous studies. (
  • On the other hand, the reshuffling of an existing ORF0 sequence during a jump could result in a disease-causing mutation. (
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  • An understanding of biological variation of markers is essential to interpretation of changes in response to disease events. (
  • Data on biological variation should be generated early in the evolution of new diagnostic and disease monitoring tests ( 19 ). (
  • More particularly, it relates to methods for mining broad data sets of biological measurements to identify subsets of measurements that are predictive of clinical endpoints such as clinical classifications (e.g., disease conditions or responses to drug therapy) or continuous clinical response variables (e.g., degree of disease progression). (
  • The aim of the study is to develop biological markers which would measure the underlying disease process and help to assess whether new treatments work. (
  • If the research team is successful in identifying these markers then they will have new diagnostic tools to assess the progression of the disease. (
  • Different therapeutic strategies have shown efficacy in the modification of these and other biological parameters, but with contradictory results. (
  • An optical-mechanical sensor of our own design fixed the clicker trigger moment to have synchronized the biomechanical and electrophysiological parameters of the shooting process - and thereby identify and track by the relevant dominant markers the shooting process phases. (
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  • VEGF and CD133 mRNAs comprise a unique CRC signature in EVs that has the potential to act as a novel, non-invasive, and accurate biomarker that would improve the current diagnostic platform for CRC, while also serving to strengthen the value of EV mRNA as diagnostic markers for myriad of diseases. (
  • Therefore, new diagnostic markers identified via liquid biopsy with high sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy are needed for improved early diagnosis of CRC, and subsequently improved clinical outcomes. (
  • These results suggest that air and floor dust measurements of marker compounds may be better indicators of current health risk in a water-damaged environment than chair dust measurements or measurements of culturable fungi or bacteria in air or settled dust. (
  • A series of articles were developed to summarise what is known about self-reported, environmental and biological SHSe measurements. (
  • A biological marker identification method identifies biological markers within broad sets of biological data containing many more measurements than observations. (
  • Biological and psychosocial data were collected. (
  • The relationship between environmental monitoring and biological markers in exposure assessment. (
  • The biological variation of several relative lipid quantities, calculated as the ratios between the concentrations of various serum lipids and apolipoproteins, has been estimated over a one-year period. (
  • Biological variation of two serum markers for preeclampsia prediction. (
  • But while this technology is being refined and improved, medical experts are still searching for biological markers that can detect brain injuries in athletes now, and recent findings suggest they may exist in the blood. (
  • Our findings add some evidence of a biological embodiment in response to stress which ultimately affects mortality. (
  • We have reviewed primary research in this area, noting that factors involved in the susceptibility and expression of PTSD symptoms are more complex and heterogeneous than is commonly stated, with extensive findings which are inconsistent with the stereotypic behavioral and biological profile of the PTSD patient. (
  • The findings, also reported in Cell, suggested that jumping genes played a role in the evolutionary split between humans and other primates. (
  • Contemporary biological markers of exposure to fluoride. (
  • Although bone contains 99% of the body burden of fluoride, attention has focused on the bone surface as a potential marker of contemporary fluoride exposure. (
  • At present, there are insufficient data to establish a normal range of fluoride concentrations in ductal saliva as a basis for recommending saliva as a marker of fluoride exposure. (
  • Sweat and human milk are unsuitable as markers of fluoride exposure. (
  • The objective of this study was to establish a comprehensive biological monitoring approach for elemental/inorganic Se exposure at workplaces and to evaluate its potential effects in men. (
  • Biological fluid assessment represents a safer, cheaper and less invasive method compared to contrast imaging studies to predict NCD appearance. (
  • These biological markers are measured in objective ways and this is a major improvement as doctors would not have to solely rely on soldiers' self-reported symptoms after the fact, as we do today. (
  • Transposable L1 elements, or "jumping genes" as they are often called, make up 17 percent of our genomic DNA but very little is known about them. (
  • This diversity arises from a new component of itinerant sections of genetic code known as jumping genes. (
  • In a paper published October 22, 2015 in Cell , Salk scientists report finding human and chimp DNA peppered with sequences of genetic code they've dubbed ORF0, which spreads throughout the genome on jumping genes. (
  • This discovery shows that jumping genes are an even more important source of variation in the primate genome than we thought, whether you're looking at the level of different species, different people or even the different cells within an individual's body," says Rusty Gage , senior author of the paper and a professor in Salk's Laboratory of Genetics . (
  • With the sequencing of the human genome, it became clear that jumping genes-mobile genetic elements first discovered in maize by Barbara McClintock in the early 1950s-were also present and highly active during human evolution. (
  • The evolutionary importance of jumping genes was highlighted by the results of another recent study by Gage and collaborators at Stanford. (
  • In the more recent study that uncovered ORF0, Gage and his colleagues focused on a class of jumping genes known as LINE-1 elements, which make up about 17 percent of the human genome. (
  • These elements contain all the necessary genetic machinery for moving themselves and other classes of jumping genes, unaided, to elsewhere in the genome. (
  • Here, a self-specialization mechanism is identified as a possible biological role of jumping genes, in particular LINE-1 retrotransposition. (
  • The mechanism involves competition within a gene set in which a subset of genes cooperating in particular biological processes. (
  • This reshapes the cell genome toward self-specializing of those biological processes that are carried out with a high number of LINE-1 containing genes. (
  • The Canadian Laboratory Initiative for Pediatric Reference Intervals (CALIPER) program is aimed at establishing the influence of age, sex, ethnicity, and body mass index on biochemical markers and developing a comprehensive database of pediatric reference intervals using an a posteriori approach. (
  • Despite their value in guiding modeling efforts, there are few data documenting large-scale patterns of invasion for species that spread primarily via jump-dispersal or that spread by multiple processes. (
  • Although clearly adaptive, the way in which specialization of cells is realized remains incompletely understood as it requires the reshaping of a cell's genome to favor particular biological processes in the competition on a cell's functional capacity. (
  • The biomarker is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biological processes or pharmacological responses to therapeutic interventions. (
  • Bone seen as tissue is an extremely dynamic biological system, comprising a series of tightly regulated and synergistic anabolic and catabolic processes that lead to a metabolic homeostasis corresponding to skeletal structures. (
  • According to lead author of the study Nina Kraus, Hugh Knowles Professor of Neurobiology, Physiology and Communication at Northwestern, the biological underpinnings all revolve around the brain and a seemingly unrelated action - a person's hearing ability. (
  • Study of Change in Biological Markers of Bone Metabolism Following Consumption of Hydrolyzed Collagen for 3 Months in Healthy, Non-osteoporotic, Menopausal Women. (
  • The study from the Harvard team is believed to be the first demonstration of biological motion recognition in an invertebrate, raising crucial questions about both the evolutionary history of the ability and complex visual processing in non-vertebrates. (
  • The aim of this study is to investigate recreational drug use and user characteristics among people visiting licensed premises, for example, nightclubs and bars, by using self-reports and biological markers. (
  • The ability to modify/visualize biological surfaces, and then study the modified cell/virion in a range of in vitro and in vivo environments is essential to gaining further insight into the function of specific molecules or the entire entity. (
  • Aim: We aimed to compare incidence estimates obtained from two different biological markers of recent infection in a cross-sectional study to inform monitoring approaches for HCV elimination strategies. (
  • The selection of a particular biomarker of SHSe and the analytic biological medium depends on the scientific or public health question of interest, study design and setting, subjects, and funding. (
  • This study examines the expression of intestinal differentiation markers in this type of breast carcinoma. (
  • But preliminary research from a new Stanford study offers further evidence that it is a physical ailment with biological causes and not a psychological condition - and suggests an approach that may help detect it. (
  • I curated this 2015 Georgia human study only for its use of two methods of estimating biological age. (
  • One of the methods was originated by a coauthor of The degree of epigenetic DNA methylation may be used as a proxy to measure biological age study. (
  • The Flanders Environment and Health Survey (FLEHS) is a large-scale biomonitoring study conducted in Flanders from 2002 to 2006 and assigned by the Flemish Government ( ). (
  • Markers of biological age have recently proven to be strong mortality predictors independent of other risk factors. (
  • Taken together, these studies identify some of the factors contributing to biological aging and ultimately help to select the ideal targets for future preventive measures. (
  • The two markers had similar distributions of risk and demographic factors. (
  • Pathophysiology of Rett syndrome-Can CSF phenyethylamine be a possible biological marker? (
  • A biological marker that could predict autism risk, assist in early diagnosis or even identify potential therapeutic targets would have great clinical utility. (
  • Biological markers for combat posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are being found more and more today, so anyone that says it's "all in your head" really needs to give theirs a shake. (
  • What we know today is that there are significant, biological differences between those who suffer from combat PTSD and those who don't. (
  • These biological markers for combat PTSD may allow clinicians in the future to easily and correctly diagnose veterans with PTSD and even predict who is likely to get combat PTSD if they enter a combat zone. (
  • What Would Biological Markers for Combat PTSD Mean for Those in the Military? (
  • Extensive research has identified stereotypic behavioral and biological abnormalities in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), such as heightened autonomic activity, an exaggerated startle response, reduced basal cortisol levels and cognitive impairments. (
  • Cortisol, heart rate, and blood pressure as early markers of PTSD risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis. (
  • Specifically, we interrogate the hypothesis of a cumulative biological risk (allostatic load) reflecting 4 physiological systems potentially predicting future risk of death (N = 132). (
  • Employing a computational functional genomics approach, we demonstrate the biological plausibility in functional genomic datasets of potentially chronifying situations and interpret our results in relation to a biological mechanism of self-specialization of complex systems in response to a persistent challenge as met in chronifying traits. (
  • Despite recent progress in the development of potentially improved drugs, there is no consensus among different research groups on the lack of therapeutic response markers to evaluate efficacy of newly proposed drugs early after treatment. (
  • There are apparently no strategies in which telemedicine, and specifically mobile health (mHealth), are used as a means to potentially cause biological changes. (
  • This article summarizes the results of studies using clinical or biological features to predict benefit from EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). (
  • Today we can use those tools, and even improve them to make them more powerful, enabling us to essentially reverse-engineer biological pathways based on the data. (
  • In other words, we don't believe that even those with a high biological risk should be denied the opportunity to serve their country if they so choose but this information could make the type of service they offer less harmful to them in the long run. (
  • A rich supply of data from a high-risk group in a high-risk setting, including biological measures, self-reports and in-depth qualitative data. (
  • Now knowing the biological underpinnings of dyslexia and reading impairment, Kraus hopes this technology can one day be used by teachers and scientists to better understand how the reading process develops in a child's brain - and to ultimately help them become better readers if they start to fall behind. (
  • Biological markers may be differences in the brain, in the way the brain works and in other components of the body such as those that can be measured in blood tests. (
  • The aim of this review is to suggest innovative and promising sarcopenia markers investigating the link between skeletal muscle and brain. (
  • Apart from their activity in testis and ovaries, jumping L1 elements are not only unique to the adult brain but appear to happen also during early stages of the development of nerve cells. (
  • Several authors, using biological marker, geological and micropaleontological methods in the shales and coquinas of the Lagoa Feia Formation, suggest that the first marine incursions occurred during the Early Barremian through the topographic volcanic barrier of the Sao Paulo Ridge. (
  • Self-termination of the mechanism is achieved by allowing LINE-1 to also occasionally jump into the coding region of itself, thus destroying the information about competitor destruction by successively decreasing the number of LINE-1 until the mechanism ceases. (
  • Mutagen sensitivity: a biological marker of cancer susceptibility. (
  • The preventive implications of precise and valid markers for carcinogen sensitivity are obvious. (
  • The diagnostic value of each marker, individually or in combination, was then determined using recessive operating characteristics analyses and the Mann-Whitney U test. (
  • Demographic characteristics, two biological variables (A1C and non-HDL cholesterol), and four behavioral management measures (kilocalories, calories of saturated fat, number of fruit and vegetable servings, and minutes of physical activity) were assessed. (
  • It is the EEG spectral characteristics and radiocarpal joint movement coordinates on Z/ Y axes that dominate in the biomechanical markers of Period I. (
  • The frequency and distances of jump-dispersal events are thought to be stochastic, difficult to determine, and therefore have rarely been quantified (refs. (
  • Interleukin (IL)-18 ( 9 ) and, more recently, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 2 (TIMP-2) have also been proposed as early markers of AKI ( 10 ). (
  • Results showed the potential for such data to provide the basis for a standardized approach to the measurement of cleaning effectiveness, based on detection and quantification of pollutant loads of biological origin, across critical surfaces in school building environments. (
  • The RMs are added to biological samples to "tag" and subsequently identify the samples as authentic and to distinguish tagged samples from samples obtained without said markers, for example, in forensic, medical, legal and other applications. (
  • Herein, we aimed to identify efficient CRC mRNA markers in a non-invasive manner using CRC-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs). (
  • We found that sub-micron particles and markers of microbiological agents, but not culturable microbiological agents, were significantly positively associated with the building that had both historical water damage and higher prevalence of reported respiratory symptoms. (
  • Using a specialized treadmill system and point-light display animation, the scientists found that the spiders can recognize the visual movements of living organisms, or biological motion. (
  • On this poster we present our results on the diversity found in wine flor biofilm from this winery using nuclear microsatellite markers and mitochondrial RFLP. (
  • While research in this field has greatly increased in recent years, progress has been limited and no biological markers for autism have been found to be universal. (
  • Eight mRNA markers (MYC, VEGF, CDX2, CD133, CEA, CK19, EpCAM, and CD24) were found to be more abundant in EVs derived from cancer cell lines compared to control cell lines. (
  • However, we found no statistically significant difference in any of the three markers (Table 1 ). (
  • In this review, we give a summary of the recent advances in the research of arrhythmia markers. (
  • Mandi: An India Institute of Technology Mandi Research Team has shown using fluorescent nanodots how water is distributed inside biological cells. (
  • In particular, its use as marker of biological age to be applied across multiple research fields will be discussed. (
  • Such a systemic research approach makes it possible to objectively profile the key process timing and phasing elements by a variety of biological markers. (
  • This ACE project will examine biological differences in early neurodevelopment in sibling pairs where either one or both siblings are diagnosed with ASD. (
  • We only looked at one L1 element with a marker gene and can only say that motility is likely significantly more for endogenous L1 elements," he adds. (
  • We examined studies that have presented data on the association between atrial fibrillation and biological markers. (
  • During this period, we will collect pre and post treatment clinical data,and biological data and ultrasonographic data such as antral follicle count which is a marker of ovarian follicle reserve.These data were not observed in current practice. (
  • In this interview with James Baurley , data scientist, and co-founder of BioRealm, we discuss how biological markers, especially genetic biological markers, may be used in clinical trials, and a few of the computational and statistical issues and limitations. (
  • The present invention relates generally to analysis of biological data. (