Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Ki-67 Antigen: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Receptors, Progesterone: Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Receptors, Estrogen: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.United StatesCohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Biological Factors: Endogenously-synthesized compounds that influence biological processes not otherwise classified under ENZYMES; HORMONES or HORMONE ANTAGONISTS.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Biological Products: Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Biological Therapy: Treatment of diseases with biological materials or biological response modifiers, such as the use of GENES; CELLS; TISSUES; organs; SERUM; VACCINES; and humoral agents.Biological Warfare: Warfare involving the use of living organisms or their products as disease etiologic agents against people, animals, or plants.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Biological Processes: Biological activities and function of the whole organism in human, animal, microorgansims, and plants, and of the biosphere.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Pest Control, Biological: Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Systems Biology: Comprehensive, methodical analysis of complex biological systems by monitoring responses to perturbations of biological processes. Large scale, computerized collection and analysis of the data are used to develop and test models of biological systems.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Biological Clocks: The physiological mechanisms that govern the rhythmic occurrence of certain biochemical, physiological, and behavioral phenomena.Gene Regulatory Networks: Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.Biology: One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Relative Biological Effectiveness: The ratio of radiation dosages required to produce identical change based on a formula comparing other types of radiation with that of gamma or roentgen rays.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Protein Interaction Mapping: Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Biological Control Agents: Organisms, biological agents, or biologically-derived agents used strategically for their positive or adverse effect on the physiology and/or reproductive health of other organisms.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Proteome: The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Metabolic Networks and Pathways: Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Biological Warfare Agents: Living organisms or their toxic products that are used to cause disease or death of humans during WARFARE.Drug Design: The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Biological Psychiatry: An interdisciplinary science concerned with studies of the biological bases of behavior - biochemical, genetic, physiological, and neurological - and applying these to the understanding and treatment of mental illness.Computer Graphics: The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Toxins, Biological: Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.Biological Phenomena: Biological processes, properties, and characteristics of the whole organism in human, animal, microorganisms, and plants, and of the biosphere.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Biological Specimen Banks: Facilities that collect, store, and distribute tissues, e.g., cell lines, microorganisms, blood, sperm, milk, breast tissue, for use by others. Other uses may include transplantation and comparison of diseased tissues in the identification of cancer.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Nanotechnology: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Protein Interaction Maps: Graphs representing sets of measurable, non-covalent physical contacts with specific PROTEINS in living organisms or in cells.Transcriptome: The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.Biological Dressings: Human or animal tissue used as temporary wound coverings.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Antirheumatic Agents: Drugs that are used to treat RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.MicroRNAs: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Cell Physiological Phenomena: Cellular processes, properties, and characteristics.Systems Integration: The procedures involved in combining separately developed modules, components, or subsystems so that they work together as a complete system. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Cells: The fundamental, structural, and functional units or subunits of living organisms. They are composed of CYTOPLASM containing various ORGANELLES and a CELL MEMBRANE boundary.Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Molecular Sequence Annotation: The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Synthetic Biology: A field of biological research combining engineering in the formulation, design, and building (synthesis) of novel biological structures, functions, and systems.Chemistry, Physical: The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.Nanostructures: Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Chromatography, Liquid: Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Biosensing Techniques: Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Artificial Intelligence: Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Body Fluids: Liquid components of living organisms.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Biomimetics: An interdisciplinary field in materials science, ENGINEERING, and BIOLOGY, studying the use of biological principles for synthesis or fabrication of BIOMIMETIC MATERIALS.Data Mining: Use of sophisticated analysis tools to sort through, organize, examine, and combine large sets of information.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Pattern Recognition, Automated: In INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, machine-sensing or identification of visible patterns (shapes, forms, and configurations). (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.

Charybdotoxin and apamin block EDHF in rat mesenteric artery if selectively applied to the endothelium. (1/1056)

In rat mesenteric artery, endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) is blocked by a combination of apamin and charybdotoxin (ChTX). The site of action of these toxins has not been established. We compared the effects of ChTX and apamin applied selectively to the endothelium and to the smooth muscle. In isometrically mounted arteries, ACh (0.01-10 micrometers), in the presence of indomethacin (2.8 microM) and Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (100 microM), concentration dependently relaxed phenylephrine (PE)-stimulated tone (EC50 50 nM; n = 10). Apamin (50 nM) and ChTX (50 nM) abolished this relaxation (n = 5). In pressurized arteries, ACh (10 microM), applied intraluminally in the presence of indomethacin (2.8 microM) and L-NAME (100 microM), dilated both PE-stimulated (0.3-0.5 microM; n = 5) and myogenic tone (n = 3). Apamin (50 nM ) and ChTX (50 nM) applied intraluminally abolished ACh-induced dilatations. Bath superperfusion of apamin and ChTX did not affect ACh-induced dilatations of either PE-stimulated (n = 5) or myogenic tone (n = 3). This is the first demonstration that ChTX and apamin act selectively on the endothelium to block EDHF-mediated relaxation.  (+info)

Endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization in resting and depolarized mammary and coronary arteries of guinea-pigs. (2/1056)

1. The membrane potential responses in guinea-pig coronary and mammary arteries attributable to endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin (PG) and hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF), and to exogenous NO and the prostacyclin analogue, iloprost, were compared at rest and when depolarized with the thromboxane analogue, U46619. 2. In the coronary artery, stimulation of the endothelium with acetylcholine (ACh) evoked hyperpolarization attributable to NO and a PG with similar pD2s at rest and in the presence of U46619. However, in depolarized tissues, the pD2 of the response attributed to EDHF required a 10 fold lower concentration of ACh compared with at rest. 3. In the mammary artery, lower concentrations of ACh were required to evoke NO- and EDHF-dependent hyperpolarizations in depolarized mammary artery compared with at rest, while PG-dependent hyperpolarization did not occur until the concentration of ACh was increased some 10 fold both at rest and in U46619. 4. The smooth muscle of the coronary artery of guinea-pigs was some 4 fold more sensitive to exogenous NO and iloprost than was the mammary artery. 5. In conclusion, the membrane potential response in arteries at rest, that is, in the absence of constrictor, may be extrapolated to events in the presence of constrictor when NO and PG are under study. However, the sensitivity to ACh and the magnitude of the hyperpolarization attributed to EDHF obtained in tissues at rest may underestimate these parameters in depolarized tissues.  (+info)

Effects of Aspergillus fumigatus culture filtrate on antifungal activity of human phagocytes in vitro. (3/1056)

BACKGROUND: Aspergillus fumigatus can colonise the airways and the lungs with localised underlying conditions and occasionally invade the surrounding lung tissues even in subjects without systemic predisposing factors, presumably by escaping the local host defences. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of A fumigatus culture filtrate (ACF) on the activities of human phagocytes--inhibition of germination of A fumigatus spores by alveolar macrophages (AMs) and hyphal damage by polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs)--which are the critical host defences against A fumigatus. METHODS: Spores were incubated with AMs at a ratio of 1:1 in a medium containing different concentrations of ACF for 10 hours at 37 degrees C. Spore germination was visualised with light microscopy and the inhibition rate was calculated. The percentage of hyphal damage caused by PMNs pretreated with various concentrations of ACF was measured by a colorimetric tetrazolium metabolic assay. RESULTS: The inhibition rate of spore germination by AMs cultured with medium alone (control) was 90 (0.8)% whereas that by AMs cultured with the medium containing 10% ACF was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced to 41.7 (4.6)%. ACF suppressed the inhibition of spore germination in a dose dependent manner without altering the phagocytosing activity against the spores. The percentage of hyphal damage caused by PMNs pretreated with medium-199 (control) was 78.1 (2.3)% compared with 65.3 (2.8)% when PMNs were pretreated with 50% ACF (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: A fumigatus releases biologically active substance(s) which suppress the inhibition of spore germination by AMs and also suppress PMN mediated hyphal damage, and thus may contribute to the pathogenicity of this fungus.  (+info)

Inhibition of the production of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor by cannabinoid receptor agonists. (4/1056)

1. The endogenous cannabinoid, anandamide, has been reported to induce an 'endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF)-like' relaxation in vitro. We therefore investigated the effects of cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonists; HU 210, delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC) and anandamide, and a CB1 antagonist/inverse agonist, SR 141716A, on nitric oxide (NO) and EDHF-mediated relaxation in precontracted rings of porcine coronary, rabbit carotid and mesenteric arteries. 2. In rings of mesenteric artery HU 210 and delta9-THC induced endothelium- and cyclo-oxygenase-independent relaxations which were sensitive to SR 141716A. Anandamide (0.03-30 microM) induced a slowly developing, endothelium-independent relaxation which was abolished by diclofenac and was therefore mediated by cyclo-oxygenase product(s). None of the CB1 agonists tested affected the tone of precontracted rings of rabbit carotid or porcine coronary artery. 3. In endothelium-intact segments, HU 210, delta9-THC and anandamide did not affect NO-mediated responses but under conditions of continuous NO synthase/cyclo-oxygenase blockade, significantly inhibited acetylcholine and bradykinin-induced relaxations which are attributed to the production of EDHF. The effects of HU 210 and delta9-THC were not observed when experiments were performed in the presence of SR 141716A suggesting the involvement of the CB1 receptor. 4. In a patch clamp bioassay of EDHF production, HU 210 decreased the EDHF-mediated hyperpolarization of detector smooth muscle cells when applied to the donor segment but was without effect on the membrane potential of detector cells. The inhibition of EDHF production was unrelated to alterations in Ca2+ -signalling or cytochrome P450 activity. 5. These results suggest that the activation of endothelial CB1 receptors appears to be negatively coupled to the production of EDHF.  (+info)

Proinflammatory mediators chronically downregulate the formation of the endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor in arteries via a nitric oxide/cyclic GMP-dependent mechanism. (5/1056)

BACKGROUND: Endothelium-dependent dilator responses mediated by NO and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) are altered in arteriosclerosis and sepsis. The possibility that proinflammatory mediators that stimulate the expression of inducible NO synthase (NOS II) affect the generation of EDHF was examined in isolated arteries. METHODS AND RESULTS: Under combined blockade of NOS and cyclooxygenase, EDHF-mediated relaxation elicited by several agonists was significantly attenuated in rabbit carotid and porcine coronary arteries exposed to cytokines and lipopolysaccharide. The blunted relaxation was coincident with NOS II expression and was prevented by inhibition of NOS II as well as of global protein synthesis. The NO donor CAS 1609 and 8-bromo-cGMP mimicked the proinflammatory mediator effect. In contrast, long-term blockade of endothelial NO generation increased the relaxation in carotid but not in coronary arteries. Proinflammatory mediators reduced the synthesis of EDHF assessed as hyperpolarization of vascular smooth muscle cells elicited by the effluent from bradykinin-stimulated coronary arteries. Proinflammatory mediators induced NOS II expression in cultured endothelial cells and decreased the expression of cytochrome P450 enzymes, which are the most probable candidates for the synthesis of EDHF. CONCLUSIONS: Proinflammatory mediators inhibit the formation of EDHF in isolated arteries. This impairment is coincident with NOS II expression in the arterial wall and seems to be mediated through the induced generation of NO, which downregulates the putative EDHF-forming enzyme. Thus, a decreased formation of EDHF may contribute to the endothelial dysfunction in arteriosclerosis and sepsis.  (+info)

A cytosolic factor is required for mitochondrial cytochrome c efflux during apoptosis. (6/1056)

Treatment of HL-60 cells with staurosporine (STS) induced mitochondrial cytochrome c efflux into the cytosol, which was followed by caspase-3 activation and apoptosis. Consistent with these observations, in vitro experiments demonstrated that, except for cytochrome c, the cytosol of HL-60 cells contained sufficient amounts of all factors required for caspase-3 activation. In contrast, treatment of HCW-2 cells (an apoptotic-resistant HL-60 subclone) with STS failed to induce significant amounts of mitochondrial cytochrome c efflux, caspase-3 activation, and apoptosis. In vitro assays strongly suggested that a lack of cytochrome c in the cytosol was the primary limiting factor for caspase-3 activation in HCW-2 cells. To explore the mechanism which regulates mitochondrial cytochrome c efflux, we developed an in vitro assay which showed that cytosolic extracts from STS-treated, but not untreated, HL-60 cells contained an activity, which we designated 'CIF' (cytochrome c-efflux inducing factor), which rapidly induced cytochrome c efflux from HL-60 mitochondria. In contrast, there was no detectable CIF activity in STS-treated HCW-2 cells although the mitochondria from HCW-2 cells were responsive to the CIF activity from STS-treated HL-60 cells. These experiments have identified a novel activity, CIF, which is required for cytochrome c efflux and they indicate that the absence of CIF is the biochemical explanation for the impaired ability of HCW-2 cells to activate caspase-3 and undergo apoptosis.  (+info)

Involvement of CB1 cannabinoid receptors in the EDHF-dependent vasorelaxation in rabbits. (7/1056)

1. It was recently suggested that an endogenous cannabinoid could represent an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF). The aim of the present study was to clarify whether CB1 cannabinoid receptors are involved in the nitric oxide (NO)- and prostanoid-independent vasodilation produced by acetylcholine in rabbits. 2. Pithed rabbits received indomethacin. Noradrenaline was infused to raise blood pressure, and vasodilation was elicited by bolus injections of acetylcholine. The NO-synthase inhibitor Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methylester inhibited the acetylcholine-evoked vasodilation by about 40%. The remaining vasodilation was unaffected by the CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist SR141716A, but was inhibited by the potassium channel blocker tetraethylammonium. In addition, the mixed CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55212-2 did not elicit vasodilation. 3. No CB1 cannabinoid receptors were involved in the prostanoid- and NO-independent vasodilation produced by acetylcholine. An exogenous cannabinoid also did not cause vasodilation. Therefore, it is unlikely that an endogenous cannabinoid serves as an EDHF acting at smooth muscle CB1 cannabinoid receptors in the rabbit.  (+info)

Relationship between NaF- and thapsigargin-induced endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization in rat mesenteric artery. (8/1056)

1. In isolated rat mesenteric artery with endothelium, NaF caused slowly developing hyperpolarization. The hyperpolarizing effect was unchanged in the presence of N(G)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG) and indomethacin, but was markedly reduced by high K+. In Ca2+ -free medium or in the presence of Ni2+, NaF failed to produce hyperpolarization. 2. NaF-induced hyperpolarization was substantially unaffected by deferoxamine, an Al3+ chelator, okadaic acid and calyculin A, phosphatase inhibitors, and preincubation with pertussis toxin, suggesting that neither the action of fluoroaluminates as a G protein activator nor inhibition of phosphatase activity contributes to the hyperpolarizing effect. 3. The selective inhibitors of the Ca2+ -pump ATPase of endoplasmic reticulum, thapsigargin and cyclopiazonic acid, elicited hyperpolarization, whose properties were very similar to those of NaF. When intracellular Ca2+ stores had been depleted with these inhibitors, NaF no longer generated hyperpolarization. 4. In Ca2+ -free medium, NaF (or thapsigargin) caused a transient increase in the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in cultured porcine aortic endothelial cells, and subsequent application of thapsigargin (or NaF) failed to increase [Ca2+]i. 5. In arterial rings precontracted with phenylephrine, NaF produced endothelium-dependent relaxation followed by sustained contraction even in the presence of L-NOARG and indomethacin. The relaxant response was abolished by high K+ or cyclopiazonic acid. 6. These results indicate that NaF causes endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization, thereby leading to smooth muscle relaxation of rat mesenteric artery. This action appears to be mediated by the promotion of Ca2+ influx into endothelial cells that can be triggered by the emptying of intracellular Ca2+ stores, as proposed for those of thapsigargin and cyclopiazonic acid.  (+info)

*Women's health

Biological factors[edit]. Women and men differ in their chromosomal makeup, protein gene products, genomic imprinting, gene ... All of these factors place them at higher risk.[11] In developing countries, cervical cancer accounts for 12% of cancer cases ... Biological differences vary all the way from phenotype to the cellular, and manifest unique risks for the development of ill ... Social and cultural factors[edit]. See also: Gender equality and Gender disparities in health ...

*Complications of pregnancy

Biological Risk Factors[edit]. Some common biological risk factors include: *Age of either parent *Adolescent parents * ... General risk factors[edit]. Factors increasing the risk (to either the pregnant individual, the fetus/es, or both) of pregnancy ... Environmental Risk Factors[edit]. Some common environmental risk factors include: *Exposure to environmental toxins in ... "Risk factors present before pregnancy". Merck Manual Home Health Handbook. Merck Sharp & Dohme. Archived from the original on ...

*Causes of transsexuality

Biological factors[edit]. Genetics[edit]. A 2008 study compared 112 male-to-female transsexuals (MtFs), both androphilic and ... The most studied factors are biological, especially brain structure differences in relation to biology and sexual orientation. ... "Biological Psychiatry. 65 (1): 93-6. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2008.08.033. PMC 3402034. PMID 18962445.. ... Environmental factors have also been proposed. Transgender brain studies, especially those on trans women who are sexually ...

*Social inhibition

Biological factors[edit]. Another possible explanation for increased social inhibition has to do with biological factors. A ... They will be highly critical of others much like they are to themselves.[9] Shyness is another factor that is a part of social ... One major factor that contributes to the increase of social inhibition is power. Reduced power is linked to an array of ... The factors that were found to be contributors to social inhibition were female gender, exposure to maternal stress during ...

*Kristine Stiles

Ann Holcomb, Biological Factors. Atlanta, Georgia: NEXUS Gallery, 1991. Exhibition catalogue includes statements by the artists ...

*Biological engineering

Human-Factors Engineering: application of engineering, physiology, and psychology to the optimization of the human-machine ... "MIT, Department of Biological Engineering". Retrieved 16 April 2015.. *^ "Utah State University, Department of Biological ... In general, biological engineers (or biomedical engineers) attempt to either mimic biological systems to create products or ... Biological engineering is a science-based discipline founded upon the biological sciences in the same way that chemical ...

*Oligosaccharide

Goochee CF (1992). "Bioprocess factors affecting glycoprotein oligosaccharide structure". Developments in Biological ...

*Health

Many factors contribute to mental health problems, including: *Biological factors, such as genes or brain chemistry ... Factors such as clean water and air, adequate housing, and safe communities and roads all have been found to contribute to good ... More specifically, key factors that have been found to influence whether people are healthy or unhealthy include the following: ... See also: Social determinants of health and Risk factor. Generally, the context in which an individual lives is of great ...

*Targeted therapy of lung cancer

Rossi A, Galetta D, Gridelli C (2009). "Biological prognostic and predictive factors in lung cancer". Oncology. 77 Suppl 1: 90- ... Inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)[13] *bevacizumab (Avastin)[14][unreliable medical source?] ... Inhibitors of Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) *tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI's):[9] *erlotinib (Tarceva)[10][ ... Riely GJ, Politi KA, Miller VA, Pao W (December 2006). "Update on epidermal growth factor receptor mutations in non-small cell ...

*Crime

They include socioeconomic, psychological, biological, and behavioral factors. Controversial topics include media violence ... The concept of the pater familias acted as a unifying factor in extended kin groups, and the later practice of wergild ... Religious sentiment often becomes a contributory factor of crime. In the 1819 anti-Jewish riots in Frankfurt, rioters attacked ...

*Plant physiology

Environmental physiologists also examine plant response to biological factors. This includes not only negative interactions, ... All biological pigments selectively absorb certain wavelengths of light while reflecting others. The light that is absorbed may ... Main article: Biological pigment. Among the most important molecules for plant function are the pigments. Plant pigments ... Secondly, plant physiology includes the study of biological and chemical processes of individual plant cells. Plant cells have ...

*Gender

Biological factors and views. See also: Sexual differentiation and Sexual differentiation in humans ... and other factors not limited to biological sex. In contrast to taxonomic approaches, some feminist philosophers have argued ... that link biological and behavioral differences. These extend from the exclusively biological "genetic" and "prenatal hormonal ... Anne Fausto-Sterling (1992) Myths of Gender: Biological Theories about Men and Women. New York: Basic Books. p. 8 ISBN 0-465- ...

*Emotional eating

Biological and environmental factorsEdit. Stress affect food preferences. Numerous studies - granted, many of them in animals ... These biological factors can interact with environmental elements to further trigger hyperphagia, namely the type of stressor ... Contributing factorsEdit. Negative affectEdit. Overall, high levels of the negative affect trait are related to emotional ... The biological stress response may also contribute to the development of emotional eating tendencies. In a crisis, ...

*Barnsley fern

These factors allow us to make the hybrid biological models.... ...we speculate that when a V -variable geometrical fractal ...

*Big Five personality traits

Biological and developmental factorsEdit. Temperament vs. personalityEdit. There are debates between researchers of temperament ... A larger number of factors may underlie these five factors. This has led to disputes about the "true" number of factors. Big ... In many studies, the five factors are not fully orthogonal to one another; that is, the five factors are not independent.[220][ ... Temperament interacts with social-cultural factors, but still cannot be controlled or easily changed by these factors.[76][77][ ...

*Tumor necrosis factor alpha

Biological process. • regulation of protein phosphorylation. • positive regulation of protein phosphorylation. • positive ... TNF, DIF, TNF-alpha, TNFA, TNFSF2, Tumour necrosis factor, TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor, TNLG1F, Tumor necrosis factor alpha. ... Tumor necrosis factor (TNF, tumor necrosis factor alpha, TNFα, cachexin, or cachectin) is a cell signaling protein (cytokine) ... reported another cytotoxic factor produced by macrophages and named it tumor necrosis factor (TNF).[14] Both factors were ...

*Regulation of genetic engineering

Vàzquez-Salat, Núria (2013). "Are good ideas enough? The impact of socio-economic and regulatory factors on GMO ... An International Journal Published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association. 38 (6): 473-483. ISSN 0278-6915. ... commercialisation". Biological Research. 46 (4): 317-322. doi:10.4067/S0716-97602013000400002. PMID 24510133.. ...

*Occupational hygiene

Health Hazards (Biological, Chemical and Physical hazards, Ergonomics and Human Factors);. *Working Environments (Mining, ... Biological hazards may stem from the potential for legionella exposure at work or the investigation of biological injury or ... The occupational hygienist may be involved with the assessment and control of physical, chemical, biological or environmental ... These hazards or stressors are typically divided into the categories biological, chemical, physical, ergonomic and psychosocial ...

*Transforming growth factor, beta 3

Biological process. • regulation of apoptotic process. • negative regulation of neuron apoptotic process. • positive regulation ... transforming growth factor beta receptor binding. • growth factor activity. • transforming growth factor beta binding. • type ... type III transforming growth factor beta receptor binding. • cytokine activity. • type I transforming growth factor beta ... TGFB3, ARVD, ARVD1, RNHF, TGF-beta3, Transforming growth factor, beta 3, LDS5, transforming growth factor beta 3. ...

*RAD51

Series B, Biological Sciences. 359 (1441): 87-93. doi:10.1098/rstb.2003.1368. PMC 1693300 . PMID 15065660.. ... Sigurdsson S, Van Komen S, Petukhova G, Sung P (Nov 2002). "Homologous DNA pairing by human recombination factors Rad51 and ... Biological process. • regulation of protein phosphorylation. • strand invasion. • mitotic recombination-dependent replication ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 274 (18): 12748-52. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.18.12748. PMID 10212258.. ...

*Diathesis-stress model

Diatheses are understood to include genetic, biological, physiological, cognitive, and personality-related factors.[7] Some ... Protective factors[edit]. Protective factors, while not an inherent component of the diathesis-stress model, are of importance ... A diathesis can take the form of genetic, psychological, biological, or situational factors.[1] A large range of differences ... which propose that multiple risk factors over the course of development interact with stressors and protective factors ...

*Hauling-out

food availability) and biological factors (ie. age). Weddell seals are high latitude Antarctic inhabitants, allowing them to ... These physiological factors are correlated with both the duration and frequency of haul-outs among walruses. Sea ice sites are ... Haul-out sites of Weddell seals are not necessarily geographically distinct from one another and vary due to physical factors ( ... industries such as the fishery), a factor that has been studied and shown to alter haul-out patterns. Human disturbances ...

*Michael Rutter

... biological and social, protective and risk factors; interactions of biological and social factors; stress; longitudinal as well ... The importance of these refinements of the maternal deprivation hypothesis was to reposition it as a "vulnerability factor" ...

*Health management system

Two factors affect their deployment. First, it is usually advantageous to deploy them on a precautionary basis. As a result, it ... The availability of these things will affect the cost benefits of the body deploying its own biological ones. This could, in ... Now, if you wonder about this choice of managerial terminology for talking about biological healing systems, I should say that ... The health management system factors in the presence of such external treatment and social support as one aspect of the ...

*Temperament Isolation Theory

Chavira, Michelle (2015). "Re-evaluating temperament: biological and psychological factors". American Journal of Behavioral ... Greeson, Sean; Hoalburrough, Janise (2014). "Temperament and workforce performance: factors, theories and findings". British ... "other factors that have the potential to affect how one socializes." The term isolation is also used to show that oppression is ...

*Computational neuroscience

Biological neurons are connected to each other in a complex, recurrent fashion. These connections are, unlike most artificial ... from growth factors to hormones that modulate and influence the growth and development of functional connections between ... Main article: Biological neuron models. Even single neurons have complex biophysical characteristics and can perform ... Hence there is a drive to produce simplified neuron models that can retain significant biological fidelity at a low ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The contribution of d-tubocurarine-sensitive and Apamin-sensitive K-channels to EDHF-mediated Relaxation of Mesenteric Arteries from eNOS-/- Mice. AU - Chen, Xiaoliang. AU - Li, Yang. AU - Hollenberg, Morley. AU - Triggle, Christopher. AU - Ding, Hong. PY - 2012/5. Y1 - 2012/5. N2 - The nature of the potassium channels involved in determining endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor-mediated relaxation was investigated in first-order small mesenteric arteries from male endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS-/-)-knockout and control (+/+) mice. Acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation of small mesenteric arteries of eNOS-/- was resistant to N-nitro-L-arginine and indomethacin and the guanylyl cyclase inhibitor, 1H-(1,2,4) oxadiazolo (4,3-a) quinoxalin-1-one. Apamin and the combination of apamin and iberiotoxin or apamin and charybdotoxin induced a transient endothelium-dependent contraction of small mesenteric arteries from both eNOS-/- and +/+ mice. ...
Based on current evidence, the term of endothelium-derived hyperpolarising factor should represent a mechanism rather than a specific factor. The mechanism(s) of endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization (i.e., EDHF-mediated relaxation) seems to be heterogeneous depending on several factors (e.g., size and vascular bed), surrounding environment (oxidative stress, hypercholesterolemia) and demand (compensatory). Different endothelial mediators or pathways involved in EDHF-mediated relaxation may also work simultaneously and/or substitute each other. It implies a reasonable physiological sense, although to some extent and when EDHF acts as backup mechanism for endothelium-dependent relaxation in the present of compromised NO contribution. Thus, alternatives for EDHF-typed responses (H2O2, K+ etc.) will provide a guarantee for compensation of endothelial function. However, once the involvement of a certain endothelium-derived vasodilator for a given vascular bed is confirmed, it is preferred that ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor(s). T2 - Species and tissue heterogeneity. AU - Triggle, C. R.. AU - Dong, H.. AU - Waldron, G. J.. AU - Cole, W. C.. PY - 1999/1/1. Y1 - 1999/1/1. N2 - 1. Endothelium-derivcd relaxing factor is almost universally considered to be synonymous with nitric oxide (NO); however, it is now well established that at least two other chemically distinct species (prostacyclin (PGI2) and a hyperpolarizing factor) may also contribute to endothelium-dependent relaxation. 2. Only relatively few studies have provided definitive evidence that an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF), which is neither NO nor PGI2, exists as a chemical mediator. 3. There is a lack of agreement as to the likely chemical identity of this putative factor. Some evidence suggests that EDHF may be a cytochrome P450-derived arachidonic acid product, possibly an epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET); conflict-ing evidence supports an endogenous cannabinoid as the mediator and ...
The work presented in this thesis describes the influence of the endothelium on smooth muscle cells, and how the structure of the internal elastic lamina (IEL) affects this relationship in mesenteric and saphenous arteries. This was enabled by the study of functional and confocal microscopy dye transfer experiments. Normotensive (WKY) and hypertensive (SHR) rats of 12 weeks and 6 months of age were used to assess the effect of hypertension and ageing on endothelial and smooth muscle cell communication. The endothelium-derived hyperpolarising factor (EDHF) response in mesenteric arteries was investigated using wire myography, and the involvement of myoendothelial gap junctions (MEGJs) was assessed using the putative gap junction inhibitor carbenoxolone. Carbenoxolone attenuated the EDHF response in the WKY, suggestive of the involvement of myoendothelial gap junctions in EDHF. In the saphenous artery, incubation with L-NAME and indomethacin abolished the relaxation to ACh, indicating that there ...
Background: Whether impaired endothelial function in hypercholesterolemia (HC) impacts on exercise-induced vasodilation, and whether the contribution of nitric oxide (NO) and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) to exercise vasodilation varies in comparison to healthy subjects is unknown. We hypothesized that there is a differential contribution of these two agonists to exercise-induced vasodilation.. Methods: In 26 healthy and 19 HC subjects, we measured forearm blood flow (FBF) using strain gauge plethysmography at rest, during handgrip exercise (performed at 15%, 30% and 45% of maximum grip strength) and after sodium nitroprusside (1.6 and 3.2 μg/min) infusion. Measurements were repeated after either NO blockade with L-NMMA, calcium-dependent potassium channel blockade with tetraethylammonium (TEA, inhibiting EDHF activity), and combined blockade.. Results: Exercise-induced vasodilation produced a stepwise increase in FBF in both groups (p,0.0001). At peak (45%) exercise, there ...
CYP 2C9 has previously been reported to generate 11,12-EET in coronary endothelial cells and plays a crucial role in EDHF-mediated hyperpolarization and relaxation. In the present study, we have demonstrated that, in both cultured and native porcine coronary endothelial cells, CYP 2C9 is also a physiologically relevant source of ROS. Overexpression of CYP 2C9 in coronary artery endothelial cells markedly increases 11,12- and 8,9-EET16 generation as well as that of ROS. The consequences of superoxide anion or hydrogen peroxide production by CYP 2C9 range from the impairment of NO-mediated relaxation to a chronic elevation in the activity of the redox-sensitive transcription factor NF-κB and the expression of VCAM-1.. Although accepted to play a role in the pathophysiology of hypertension, atherosclerosis, and heart failure, it is not generally appreciated that ROS, such as O2− and hydrogen peroxide, are intracellular signaling molecules that are involved in the regulation of vascular tone ...
The endothelium has emerged as an important regulator of vascular tone.1 2 3 Several soluble mediators released by the endothelium are involved in these vascular effects. These mediators include prostacyclin, EDRF or NO, and EDHF. The activity of EDHF may be distinguished from NO in that EDHF activity is blocked by inhibitors of Ca2+-activated K+ channels, such as TEA or charybdotoxin, or by high [K+]o but is not blocked by arginine analogues that inhibit NOS or glibenclamide, an inhibitor of ATP-sensitive K+ channels.9 14 17 18 Relaxations mediated by EDRF are blocked by arginine analogues. In small coronary arteries, methacholine causes endothelium-dependent relaxations and endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization of smooth muscle cells.5 14 15 16 17 18 These relaxations are blocked by TEA and high [K+]o. Thus, it has been proposed that methacholine stimulates coronary endothelial cells to release EDHF, which acts on coronary smooth muscle cells to open K+ channels, hyperpolarize the cell ...
The aim of this study was to characterise vasodilator responses in the perfused ciliary vascular bed of the bovine eye. When bovine eyes were perfused at a constant rate of 2.5 ml min-1, infusion of the powerful vasodilator, papaverine (150 muM), produced a very small reduction in perfusion pressure. Under the same conditions, the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, L- NAME (100 muM), had no effect but the inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase, ODQ (10 muM), produced a small vasoconstrictor response. These results indicate that there is a small component of intrinsic (myogenic) tone that may be suppressed by a basal release of nitric oxide. In the bovine eye, vasodilatation to acetylcholine or bradykinin was unaffected by L- NAME (100 muM), or the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, flurbiprofen (30 muM), but was significantly attenuated following treatment with a high concentration of KC1 (30 muM), or by damaging the endothelium with the detergent, CHAPS (0.3%, 2 min). Thus agonist-induced vasodilatation ...
Although we found that the vasoconstrictor response to l-NMMA was lower in blacks, we did not examine effects of other nonspecific vasoconstrictors to investigate whether this is a reflection of reduced sensitivity of the vascular smooth muscle to vasoconstrictors. However, the fact that the constrictor response to TEA was similar to whites suggests that the response to l-NMMA is specific for reduced NO bioavailability. The reduced sensitivity to exogenous NO (sodium nitroprusside) complicates the interpretation of the reduced dilator responses observed with acetylcholine and bradykinin in blacks. However, because basal NO and the contribution of NO during exercise is lower in blacks, it is likely that in addition to reduced sensitivity, there is also an endothelial defect in NO release in blacks.. l-NMMA and TEA are competitive inhibitors, and thus our results may underestimate the physiological contribution of both NO and K+Ca channels to vasodilation. Our investigation was conducted on a ...
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Arachidonic acid 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO) metabolites function as endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors in rabbit and human arteries. In rabbit arteries, LO metabolites mediate nitric-oxide and prostaglandin-independent relaxations to acetylcholine and AA. Previously, we characterized 11,12,15-trihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (11,12,15-THETA) as a major vasoactive 15-LO metabolite in rabbit arteries. 11,12,15-THETA requires a specific structure for vascular activity. 11(R),12(S),15(S)-THETA causes concentration-related relaxation whereas 11(R),12(R),15(S)-THETA is without activity. The specific structure requirement suggests a role for a receptor. Therefore, we examined the role of G proteins in 11(R),12(S),15(S)-THETA vascular activity. Western immunoblot verified protein expression of Gαs, Gαi and a Gαo in rabbit endothelial and smooth muscle cells. 11(R),12(S),15(S)-THETA increased GTPγ35S binding to rabbit arterial membranes 280±25% while 11(R),12(S),15(S)-THETA was without effect. In ...
Hypothesis - Rotigaptide will improve endothelial function in the context of endothelial dysfunction.. The lining of blood vessels (endothelium) can react to hormones in the blood stream causing the blood vessel muscle to relax (vasodilatation) and allow more blood to flow. The nitric oxide and prostacyclin pathways are well documented in this process. However, evidence points to the existence of a third powerful relaxant called endothelium derived hyperpolarising factor (EDHF) but its identity and mechanism of action have proved elusive. As well as causing blood vessels to relax and more blood to flow, EDHF may be involved in the endothelium signaling, triggering release of a specialised clot dissolving factor called tissue plasminogen activator (t PA). t PA is important to ensure small clots, which are constantly being formed in the circulation, are rapidly dissolved and do not grow large enough to cause heart attacks and strokes.. Evidence points towards the requirement for gap junctions in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Endothelial influences on cerebrovascular tone. AU - Andresen, Jon. AU - Shafi, Nadeem. AU - Bryan, Robert M.. PY - 2006/1/1. Y1 - 2006/1/1. N2 - The cerebrovascular endothelium exerts a profound influence on cerebral vessels and cerebral blood flow. This review summarizes current knowledge of various dilator and constrictor mechanisms intrinsic to the cerebrovascular endothelium. The endothelium contributes to the resting tone of cerebral arteries and arterioles by tonically releasing nitric oxide (NO • ). Dilations can occur by stimulated release of NO • , endothelium-derived hyperpolarization factor, or prostanoids. During pathological conditions, the dilator influence of the endothelium can turn to that of constriction by a variety of mechanisms, including decreased NO • bioavailability and release of endothelin-1. The endothelium may participate in neurovascular coupling by conducting local dilations to upstream arteries. Further study of the cerebrovascular ...
Piezo1 channels are newly discovered ion channels which have come to the fore as players in endothelial biology. They have a key role as sensors of shear stress, a frictional force which arises in vascular biology because of blood flow. Endothelial Piezo1 channels are critical in murine embryonic development, just after the heart starts to beat and drive blood into the nascent endothelial network. In contrast they are not critical at the adult stage but they are important for performance in whole body physical activity where they have a vascular bed-specific effect to cause mesenteric resistance artery vasoconstriction, achieved through opposition to the vasodilatory mechanism of endothelium-derived hyperpolarization ...
In WT mice, endothelium-dependent relaxations of small mesenteric arteries were mainly mediated by EDHF, whereas those of the aorta were mediated by NO, a finding that is consistent with our previous studies (2, 4, 14). Interestingly, EDHF-mediated relaxations were progressively reduced in accordance with the number of disrupted NOS genes in mesenteric arteries and were absent in n/i/eNOS−/− mice, indicating that EDHF-mediated relaxations are totally mediated by the endothelial NOSs system in mouse mesenteric arteries.. In this study, after the classical definition of EDHF (1-3), we evaluated EDHF-mediated responses in mouse mesenteric arteries in the presence of indomethacin and l-NNA. It is known that eNOS generates superoxide anions under normal conditions from reductase domain and only when uncoupled (e.g., BH4 and/or l-arginine depletion) from the oxidase domain, and that l-arginine analogues only inhibit the latter process (40). Indeed, we were able to demonstrate that endothelial ...
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To explore the effects of estrogen on arterial functions we examined endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF)- and NO-mediated responses in isolated mesenteric arteries of female rats 4 weeks after sham-operation (CON) ovariectomy (OVX) and OVX plus chronic estrogen treatment (OVX+E2). and hsp90) were unchanged but that of its negative regulator caveolin-1 was decreased. The levels of iNOS in mesenteric artery and aorta and plasma levels of NO metabolites and cholesterol were elevated. In OVX contraction of the Ondansetron HCl Ondansetron HCl artery by phenylephrine was reduced but augmented by nonspecific inhibitor of NOS to the comparable level as that in CON group. The contraction in OVX group unlike that in CON group was augmented Ondansetron HCl by specific iNOS inhibitor and the difference between contractions in the presence of nonspecific and specific inhibitor as an index of eNOS activity was increased. In OVX+E2 all these changes were recovered. In all groups EDHF-mediated ...
The intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel KCa3.1 (also known as KCNN4, IK1, or the Ga´rdos channel) plays an important role in the activation of T and B cells, mast cells, macrophages, and microglia by regulating membrane potential, cellular volume, and calcium signaling. KCa3.1 is further involved in the proliferation of dedifferentiated vascular smooth muscle cells and fibroblast and endothelium-derived hyperpolarization responses in the vascular endothelium. Accordingly, KCa3.1 inhibitors are therapeutically interesting as immunosuppressants and for the treatment of a wide range of fibroproliferative disorders, whereas KCa3.1 activators constitute a potential new class of endothelial function preserving antihypertensives. Here, we report the development of QPatch assays for both KCa3.1 inhibitors and activators. During assay optimization, the Ca2+ sensitivity of KCa3.1 was studied using varying intracellular Ca2+ concentrations. A free Ca2+ concentration of 1 lM was chosen to ...
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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor responses in the rat middle cerebral artery are blocked by inhibiting IKCa channels alone, contrasting with peripheral vessels where block of both IKCa and SKCa is required. As the contribution of IKCa and SKCa to endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization differs in peripheral arteries, depending on the level of arterial constriction, we investigated the possibility that SKCa might contribute to equivalent hyperpolarization in cerebral arteries under certain conditions. METHODS: Rat middle cerebral arteries (approximately 175 microm) were mounted in a wire myograph. The effect of KCa channel blockers on endothelium-dependent responses to the protease-activated receptor 2 agonist, SLIGRL (20 micromol/L), were then assessed as simultaneous changes in tension and membrane potential. These data were correlated with the distribution of arterial KCa channels revealed with immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: SLIGRL hyperpolarized and relaxed cerebral
5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-induced coronary artery responses have both vasoconstriction and vasorelaxation components. The vasoconstrictive effects of 5-HT have been well studied while the mechanism(s) of how 5-HT causes relaxation of coronary arteries has been less investigated. In isolated rat hearts, 5-HT-induced coronary flow increases are partially resistant to the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor Nω-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and are blocked by 5-HT7 receptor antagonists. In the present study, we investigated the role of 5-HT7 receptor in 5-HT-induced coronary flow increases in isolated rat hearts in the absence of L-NAME, and we also evaluated the involvement of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) in 5-HT-induced coronary flow increases in L-NAME-treated hearts with the inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism and the blockers of Ca2+-activated K+ channels. In isolated rat hearts, 5-HT and the 5-HT7 receptor agonist 5-carboxamidotryptamine induced coronary flow
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Many theories of neural processing focus quite rightly on computational and information processing concerns. While this is entirely sensible, the brain is not an abstract computational device, it generates heat, it is noisy, and requires a high energy-density diet to power it. Much of my work focuses on the role of such biophysical factors. In a series of studies which use simple neural networks/Bayesian models, I and colleagues have found that the remarkably simple notion of do work, whilst being energy efficient can explain multiple properties of the neural organisation of early sensory systems. 27/04/10 11:00 - 12:00. ANC Seminar: Michael Daw (Host: Mark van Rossum). "Coordinated development of feedforward inhibition in neonatal cortex". Early changes in the expression of neuronal chloride transporters result in a developmental switch at GABAergic synapses from depolarising transmission to the hyperpolarising transmission which is typical in the adult brain. Studies in a number of brain ...
The present invention relates to intercellular adhesion inhibitory factors produced by cytokine activated endothelial cells. These factors designated endothelial-derived IL-8 find use in the diagnosis and treatment of inflammation and in the protection of endothelial cells from neutrophil mediated damage.
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A series of agents were examined to determine whether responses to hyperosmolarity could involve a mediator known or postulated to exist in other organ systems or processes. Responses of vascular muscle to endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor are inhibited by the cytochrome P450 inhibitor proadifen (SKF525A; Eckman et al., 1998). This agent, however, did not antagonize responses to d-M or hyperosmolar NaCl, suggesting that arachidonic acid epoxides are not mediators of the response. Because histamine and leukotrienes are viewed to be important mediators in exercise-induced asthma, the effects of the H1-histamine receptor antagonist diphenhydramine and the CysLT1-receptor antagonist MK 571 were examined, even though there is little likelihood that these contractile substances would mediate relaxation. These blockers had no effect, suggesting that these substances do not serve as intermediaries of the response to hyperosmolar solution, at least in vitro.. Application of hyperosmolar solution ...
Tetrabutylammonium bisulfate for ion pair chromatography, LiChropur™, ≥99.0%; CAS Number: 32503-27-8; EC Number: 251-068-5; Synonym: Tetrabutylammonium hydrogen sulfate; Linear Formula: C16H37NO4S; find Supelco-86853 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar products & more at Sigma-Aldrich.
Effect of recombinant cytokines on leucocytes and physiological changes in bovine mammary glands during early involution.: We examined the effects of administer
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Angiopoietin-related protein 2 also known as angiopoietin-like protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ANGPTL2 gene. Angiopoietin-like protein 2 maintains tissue homeostasis by promoting adaptive inflammation and subsequent tissue reconstruction, whereas an excess of ANGPTL2 activation induced by prolonged stress promotes the breakdown of tissue homeostasis due to chronic inflammation, promoting the development of metabolic diseases. ANGPTL2 has a role also in angiogenesis, in tissue repair, in obesity, in atherosclerotic diseases and finally in cancerogenesis. Angiopoietins are members of the vascular endothelial growth factor family and the only known growth factors largely specific for vascular endothelium. Angiopoietin-1, angiopoietin-2, and angiopoietin-4 participate in the formation of blood vessels. ANGPTL2 protein is a secreted glycoprotein with homology to the angiopoietins and may exert a function on endothelial cells through autocrine or paracrine action. GRCh38: ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Elevated testosterone levels during rat pregnancy cause hypersensitivity to angiotensin II and attenuation of endothelium-dependent vasodilation in uterine arteries. AU - Chinnathambi, Vijayakumar. AU - Blesson, Chellakkan S.. AU - Vincent, Kathleen. AU - Saade, George. AU - Hankins, Gary. AU - Yallampalli, Chandra. AU - Sathishkumar, Kunju. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Elevated testosterone levels increase maternal blood pressure and decrease uterine blood flow in pregnancy, resulting in abnormal perinatal outcomes. We tested whether elevated testosterone alters uterine artery adaptations during pregnancy, and whether these alterations depend on endothelium-derived factors such as nitric oxide, endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor, and prostacyclin, or endothelium-independent mechanisms such as angiotensin II (Ang-II). Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with vehicle (n=20) or testosterone propionate (0.5 mg/kg per day from gestation day 15 to 19; n=20). Plasma ...
The idea of having the cooling exit duct co-axial with the exhaust outlet was very popular in the early 2000s, and the reason is that the flow of exhaust gases can be used the increase the mass-flow rate through the cooling system, a phenomenon sometimes referred to as aspiration. If you pull the flow out of the cooling system more quickly, you can get the same mass-flow rate for a smaller inlet area, and a smaller inlet provides aerodynamic benefits. This concept was studied by Parra and Kontis in their 2006 paper, Aerodynamic effectiveness of the flow of exhaust gases in a generic formula one car configuration, published in the The Aeronautical Journal ...
The idea of having the cooling exit duct co-axial with the exhaust outlet was very popular in the early 2000s, and the reason is that the flow of exhaust gases can be used the increase the mass-flow rate through the cooling system, a phenomenon sometimes referred to as aspiration. If you pull the flow out of the cooling system more quickly, you can get the same mass-flow rate for a smaller inlet area, and a smaller inlet provides aerodynamic benefits. This concept was studied by Parra and Kontis in their 2006 paper, Aerodynamic effectiveness of the flow of exhaust gases in a generic formula one car configuration, published in the The Aeronautical Journal ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of the inhibitory effect of vascular endothelium on agonist-induced vasoconstriction in rat mesenteric resistance arteries. AU - Jin, Xin. AU - Satoh-Otonashi, Yukiko. AU - Zamami, Yoshito. AU - Koyama, Toshihiro. AU - Sun, Pengyuan. AU - Kitamura, Yoshihisa. AU - Kawasaki, Hiromu. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. N2 - Vascular endothelium regulates vascular tone by releasing endothelium-derived vasoactive substances. We performed this study to characterize the inhibitory effect of the endothelium on vasoconstrictor stimuli in rat mesenteric vascular beds. Changes in perfusion pressure induced by continuous perfusion of Krebs solution containing methoxamine (α1-adrenoceptor agonist) or high KCl were measured over 180 min. In preparations with intact endothelium, methoxamine-induced vasoconstriction was time-dependently decreased to cause 60% - 80% reduction of the initial vasoconstriction level, while no reduction was observed in high-KCl-induced vasoconstriction. ...
In rat mesenteric arteries, the ability of ACh to evoke hyperpolarization of smooth muscle cells and consummate dilatation relies on an increase in endothelial cell cytosolic free [Ca2+] and activation of Ca2+-activated K+ channels (KCa). The time course of average and spatially organized rises in endothelial cell [Ca2+]i and concomitant effects on membrane potential were investigated in individual cells of pressurized arteries and isolated sheets of native cells stimulated with ACh. In both cases, ACh stimulated a sustained and oscillating rise in endothelial cell [Ca2+]i. Overall, the oscillations remained asynchronous between cells, yet occasionally localized intercellular coordination became evident. In pressurized arteries, repetitive waves of Ca2+ moved longitudinally across endothelial cells, and depended on Ca2+-store refilling. The rise in endothelial cell Ca2+ was associated with sustained hyperpolarization of endothelial cells in both preparations. This hyperpolarization was also evident when
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mechanisms of vasorelaxation induced by oleoylethanolamide in the rat small mesenteric artery. AU - Alsuleimani, Yousuf M.. AU - Hiley, C. Robin. PY - 2013/2/28. Y1 - 2013/2/28. N2 - The actions of the anandamide-like mono-unsaturated fatty acid oleoylethanolamide (OEA) were first linked to satiety and control of food intake and recently reported to relax resistance vessels. This study characterizes its vasorelaxant mechanisms. Vasorelaxation to OEA were assessed in third order branches of rat superior mesenteric artery using a wire myograph. The roles of the endothelium, KCa channels, perivascular sensory nerves, NO, cannabinoid receptors, and the phospholipase C (PLC)/inositol trisphosphate (InsP3) and RhoA/ROCK signalling pathways, were assessed. OEA caused concentration- and endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation (pEC50=6.7±0.1, Rmax=93.1±2. 5%). L-NAME greatly reduced the response (residual relaxation of only 24.6±12.8%). Capsaicin and pertussis toxin significantly reduced ...
Endothelium-independent vasodilation was increased in control rats by isoflurane pretreatment. Since sodium nitroprusside provides NO at the level of the vascular smooth muscle, this indicates that distal portions of the NO-3′5′cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway may be up-regulated. The etiology of this is unclear since isoflurane is thought to have either no effect or inhibit guanylate cyclase activity. 21,22 Endothelium-independent vasodilation was decreased by lipopolysaccharide but not altered by isoflurane pretreatment. It would be expected that if isoflurane pretreatment increases endothelium-dependent vasodilation in lipopolysaccharide rats, that endothelium-independent vasodilation would also be increased since endothelium-dependent vasodilation evaluates the entire NO-3′5′cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway. However, it is possible that alterations of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor or the cyclooxygenase pathway may be responsible for the increase in ...
1 Transmembrane potentials were recorded from isolated carotid arteries of the guinea-pig superfused with modified Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate solution. Smooth muscle cells were impaled with sharp intracellular microelectrodes. 2 Acetylcholine (1 μM) induced an endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization (14.3 ± 2.8 mV, n = 6) which was not affected (15.1 ± 1.1 mV, n = 35) by inhibitors of cyclo-oxygenase (indomethacin, 5 μM) and nitric oxide synthase (N(ω)nitro-L-arginine:L-NOARG, 100 μM). 3 The hyperpolarization produced by acetylcholine was abolished in the presence of elevated potassium (35 mM) in the superfusing physiological saline solution. 4 The acetylcholine-induced hyperpolarization was not affected by the inhibitors of cytochrome P450 mono-oxygenases, SKF525a (10 and 100 μM, 13.9 ± 2.2 and 15.3 ± 4.6 mV), metyrapone (100 μM, 13.1 ± 1.9 mV), clotrimazole (100 μM, 13.5 ± 2.7 mV), 17-octadecynoic acid (5 μM, 16.5 ± 1.9 mV), methoxsalen (10 μM, 15.3 ± 1.6 mV), the inhibitor of ...
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The major findings in newborn pigs are: (1) treatment with the astrocyte toxin, L-2αAAA, or the HO inhibitor, CrMP, block pial arteriolar dilation to ADP, but not to isoproterenol, bradykinin, or sodium nitroprusside; (2) ADP increases brain CO production and this increase is blocked by the astrocyte toxin or inhibition of HO; and (3) ADP increases CO production by astrocytes and, to a lesser extent, cerebral microvessels. These data, coupled with previous results showing CO dilates pial arterioles in vivo, suggest CO is an astrocyte-derived mediator of ADP-induced pial arteriolar dilation in piglets.. ADP can produce endothelium-dependent cerebral vasodilation,19 which may be mediated in part by NO and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor in adult rats.20,21,30 In endothelium-denuded control arteries from rat brain, ADP also produced dose-dependent relaxation, but this relaxation was lower than that found in intact control arteries.31 In adult rats, ADP-induced pial arteriolar dilation ...
How is intermediate-conductance K+ channel abbreviated? i-K+ stands for intermediate-conductance K+ channel. i-K+ is defined as intermediate-conductance K+ channel rarely.
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3,9-Dihydro-1H-purine-2,6-dione-13C15N2; 1H,3H,7H-Xanthine- 13C15N2; 1H-Purine-2,6-diol; 3,9-Dihydro-1H-purine-2,6-dione- 13C15N2; 9H-Purine-2,6(1H,3H)-dione-13C15N2; Isoxanthine-13C15N2; NSC 14664-13C15N2; Pseudoxanthine-13C15N2; Xanthic oxide-13C15N2 ...
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[ChEMBL Compound Description] ID:CHEMBL1078154, InChI_Key:VDZOOKBUILJEDG-UHFFFAOYSA-M, Tradenames:, Synonyms:Tetrabutylammonium Hydroxide
This study was aimed at evaluating the influence of 5637-conditioned medium (5637-CM) and human recombinant cytokines on both expression and function of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in TF-1, a GM-CSF/IL-3-dependent acute myeloid leukemia cell line which constitutively expresses functional P-gp. P-gp expression was measured by flow cytometry using MRK16 monoclonal antibody. P-gp function was measured by rhodamine 123 (Rh 123) efflux kinetics. When TF-1 cells were cultured with 5637-CM (50% v/v), both P-gp expression and P-gp efflux capacity were increased in a time-dependent manner with a 4-fold increase in P-gp expression level at day 6 whereas TF-1 cell differentiation status remained unchanged as assessed by morphological studies, phenotypical and cytochemistry analysis. Recombinant cytokines including GM-CSF, G-CSF, IL-1 beta, IL-6, stem cell factor, LIF, erythropoietin, and IL-3 had no effect on P-gp expression whereas TNF alpha induced dose- and time-dependent P-gp and mdr-1 gene overexpression. However,
In mammals, the endothelial isoform is the first signal generator within the control of vascular tone, insulin secretion, and airway tone, is linked to regulation of cardiac operate and angiogenesis (development of recent blood vessels). NO produced by eNOS has long been demonstrated for being a vasodilator identical to the endothelium-derived comforting element produced in reaction to shear from increased blood move in arteries ...

Mount Sinai Research Identifies Brain Mechanisms Associated with Borderline Personality Disorder - The Mount Sinai HospitalMount Sinai Research Identifies Brain Mechanisms Associated with Borderline Personality Disorder - The Mount Sinai Hospital

Only recently have researchers begun to identify underlying biological factors associated with the condition. ... The research will also be published in the journal Biological Psychiatry.. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ... The biological underpinnings of the disordered emotional control systems are central to borderline pathology. Studying which ... Gene function and serotonin levels may also be contributing factors in BPD, according to research findings also presented at ...
more infohttps://www.mountsinai.org/patient-care/service-areas/psychiatry/news/mount-sinai-research-identifies-brain-mechanisms-associated-with-borderline-personality-disorder

What Is Meant By Biological Factors? | Reference.comWhat Is Meant By Biological Factors? | Reference.com

... a biological factor is that which affects the behavior and function of an organism and includes any condition that has a ... Types of Biological Factors. Biological factors are considered the primary determinants of the way a human behaves and may play ... Link Between Biological Factors and Health. Because biological factors can play such a large part in human behavior, doctors, ... Examples of Biological Factors. A biological factor can determine how an individual behaves under different situations. Certain ...
more infohttps://www.reference.com/science/meant-biological-factors-2f79e4d534fa1e93

Biological Factors | CTDBiological Factors | CTD

Biological Agents , Biological Factor , Biologic Factor , Biologic Factors , Factor, Biologic , Factor, Biological , Factors, ... Biological Factors Equivalent Terms Agents, Biologic , Agents, Biological , Biologic Agents , ... Biologic , Factors, Biological Definition Endogenously-synthesized compounds that influence biological processes not otherwise ... 2002-2012 MDI Biological Laboratory. All rights reserved.. © 2012-2018 MDI Biological Laboratory & NC State University. All ...
more infohttp://ctd.mdibl.org/detail.go?type=chem&acc=D001685

Psychiatry and Biological Factors | Springer for Research & DevelopmentPsychiatry and Biological Factors | Springer for Research & Development

The main purpose of the volume Psychiatry and Biological Factors is to provide a comprehensive, state-of-the-art overview of ... The main purpose of the volume Psychiatry and Biological Factors is to provide a comprehensive, state-of-the-art overview of ... and recent data show that biological components appear as a major etiologic factor. In this respect it could be stressed that ... Diagnostic Criteria for Selection of Schizophrenic Patients in the Study of Biological Markers ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-1-4684-5811-4

Motivation and emotion/Book/2017/Biological factors in emotional reactivity - WikiversityMotivation and emotion/Book/2017/Biological factors in emotional reactivity - Wikiversity

Biological factors in emotional reactivity:. How do biological factors influence emotional reactivity? ... Motivation and emotion/Book/2017/Biological factors in emotional reactivity. From Wikiversity ... Biological predispositions are not set in stone. Hopefully, understanding the biological processes underlying emotional ... This chapter explores the biological causes and correlates of emotional reactivity, and their implications. Biological theories ...
more infohttps://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Motivation_and_emotion/Book/2017/Biological_factors_in_emotional_reactivity

Biological factors financial definition of Biological factorsBiological factors financial definition of Biological factors

What is Biological factors? Meaning of Biological factors as a finance term. What does Biological factors mean in finance? ... Definition of Biological factors in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... factor. (redirected from Biological factors). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Encyclopedia. Factor. A ... Biological factors financial definition of Biological factors https://financial-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Biological+ ...
more infohttps://financial-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Biological+factors

Women in Science: Biological Factors Should Not Be Ignored by Kingsley R. Browne :: SSRNWomen in Science: Biological Factors Should Not Be Ignored by Kingsley R. Browne :: SSRN

Women in Science: Biological Factors Should Not Be Ignored. Cardozo Womens Law Journal, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 509-528, 2005 ... Browne, Kingsley R., Women in Science: Biological Factors Should Not Be Ignored. Cardozo Womens Law Journal, Vol. 11, No. 3, ... An analysis that takes into account biological sex differences provides a richer and more plausible account of occupational ...
more infohttps://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=877664

Examining the Biological Factors That Affect Sleep Duration - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govExamining the Biological Factors That Affect Sleep Duration - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Examining the Biological Factors That Affect Sleep Duration. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... This study will examine people who regularly sleep for short or long amounts of time to understand the biological factors that ... A longer biological night in long sleepers than in short sleepers. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Jan;88(1):26-30. ... It is unknown whether there is a biological or genetic basis for the amount of sleep a person needs. This inpatient study will ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00607204

Effect of biological factors on successful measurements with skeletal- | TCRMEffect of biological factors on successful measurements with skeletal- | TCRM

Keywords: MRS, skeletal muscle, IMCL, EMCL, biological factor, FWHM ... Effect of biological factors on successful measurements with skeletal-muscle 1H-MRS Tomonori Isobe,1 Yoshikazu Okamoto,1 Yuji ... Effect of biological factors on successful measurements with skeletal-muscle 1H-MRS. ...
more infohttps://www.dovepress.com/effect-of-biological-factors-on-successful-measurements-with-skeletal--peer-reviewed-article-TCRM

Explain How Biological Factors May Affect One Cognitive... | Major TestsExplain How Biological Factors May Affect One Cognitive... | Major Tests

Explain how biological factors may affect one cognitive process Memory is essential to human beings. Its not only the brains ... Biological Factors of Human Relationships Essay example. Biological factors are something that contributes hugely to the ... Prepare: Gender and Biological Factors Essay. approach refers to theories that combine both biological and social explanations ... Explain how biological factors may affect one cognitive process. Memory is essential to human beings. Its not only the brains ...
more infohttps://www.majortests.com/essay/Explain-How-Biological-Factors-May-Affect-One-PKQWSUUQSS.html

Potential biological factor contributing to racial disparities in prostate cancerPotential biological factor contributing to racial disparities in prostate cancer

Researchers have uncovered a potential biological factor that may contribute to disparities in prostate cancer incidence and ... Potential biological factor contributing to racial disparities in prostate cancer. by American Association for Cancer Research ... Citation: Potential biological factor contributing to racial disparities in prostate cancer (2013, December 8) retrieved 16 ... Researchers have uncovered a potential biological factor that may contribute to disparities in prostate cancer incidence and ...
more infohttps://medicalxpress.com/news/2013-12-potential-biological-factor-contributing-racial.html

ERIC - Biological Factors in Mild Mental Retardation., Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 1983ERIC - Biological Factors in Mild Mental Retardation., Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 1983

... perinatal and infantile biological disturbances. Mildly retarded individuals of unrelated parentage, both idiopathic and ... perinatal and infantile biological disturbances. Mildly retarded individuals of unrelated parentage, both idiopathic and ...
more infohttps://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ306782

Carolina Investigations® for AP® Environmental Science: Quality of Natural Waters: Biological Factors Digital Teachers Manual ...Carolina Investigations® for AP® Environmental Science: Quality of Natural Waters: Biological Factors Digital Teacher's Manual ...

Biological Media & Supplies. Vast selection of ready to use biological media to meet diverse needs. In stock and ready to ship! ... Carolina Investigations® for AP® Environmental Science: Quality of Natural Waters: Biological Factors Digital Teachers Manual ... Carolina Investigations® for AP® Environmental Science: Quality of Natural Waters: Biological Factors ... Biological Factors teachers manual and student guide.. AP® is a trademark registered and/owned by the College Board®, which ...
more infohttps://www.carolina.com/ap-environmental-science-products/carolina-investigations-for-ap-environmental-science-quality-of-natural-waters-biological-factors-digital-teachers-manual/180710.pr

Biological Factors - Flashcards in BTEC National Health & Social CareBiological Factors - Flashcards in BTEC National Health & Social Care

Contributing factors - N----------, such as a deficiency in folate, which increases the risk of neural tube defect, ... Contributing factors - N----------, such as a deficiency in folate, which increases the risk of neural tube defect, ... Contributing factors - E------------, such as maternal exposure to pesticides, chemicals, radiation or alcohol or tobacco, ... Contributing factors - I---------, such as rubella, resulting in deafness and health problems. ...
more infohttps://getrevising.co.uk/revision-tests/biological-factors?game_type=flashcards

The Vulnerable Brain: Biological Factors in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Depression | Springer for Research & DevelopmentThe Vulnerable Brain: Biological Factors in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Depression | Springer for Research & Development

van Praag H.M. (1977) The Vulnerable Brain: Biological Factors in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Depression. In: Rakoff V.M., ... The Vulnerable Brain: Biological Factors in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Depression. ... Shields, J. Genetic factors in neurosis. In: Praag, H. M. van (Ed.), Research in Neurosis. Amsterdam: Erven Bohn, B.V., 1976. ... The complementary aspects in the relation between biological and psychodynamic psychiatry. Psychiatric Clinic, 2, 307-318, 1969 ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-349-03753-7_8

Hydrologic and Biological Factors Affecting Aquifer Clogging
During In-Situ Bioremediation |
  
  Research Project Database ...Hydrologic and Biological Factors Affecting Aquifer Clogging During In-Situ Bioremediation | Research Project Database ...

Hydrologic and Biological Factors Affecting Aquifer Clogging During In-Situ Bioremediation. EPA Grant Number: R825689C076. ... Title: Hydrologic and Biological Factors Affecting Aquifer Clogging During In-Situ Bioremediation. Investigators: McCarty, ... R825689C076 Hydrologic and Biological Factors Affecting Aquifer Clogging During In-Situ Bioremediation. R825689C077 Full-Scale ... and biological factors affecting bacterial attachment, growth, and hydraulic conductivity change in porous media, and (2) to ...
more infohttps://cfpub.epa.gov/ncer_abstracts/INDEX.cfm/fuseaction/display.abstractDetail/abstract/2055/report/0

Frontiers | The Footprints of Poly-Autoimmunity: Evidence for Common Biological Factors Involved in Multiple Sclerosis and...Frontiers | The Footprints of Poly-Autoimmunity: Evidence for Common Biological Factors Involved in Multiple Sclerosis and...

Although the biological implications of these data need to be further investigated, we have highlighted the relevance of ... Although the biological implications of these data need to be further investigated, we have highlighted the relevance of ... we sought to investigate mechanisms which may lead to the frequent coexistence of MS and HT by analyzing several factors ... we sought to investigate mechanisms which may lead to the frequent coexistence of MS and HT by analyzing several factors ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2018.00311/full

Oxaliplatin-based Chemotherapy in Advanced Neuroendocrine Tumors: Clinical Outcomes and Preliminary Correlation with Biological...Oxaliplatin-based Chemotherapy in Advanced Neuroendocrine Tumors: Clinical Outcomes and Preliminary Correlation with Biological...

Clinical Outcomes and Preliminary Correlation with Biological Factors Abstract #1421 ... The lacking of adequate predictive factors in the targeted hera makes challenging the early identification of non-responders ...
more infohttps://www.enets.org/oxaliplatin-based-chemotherapy-in-advanced-neuroendocrine-tumors-clinical-outcomes-and-preliminary-correlation-with-biological-factors.html

Biological factors associated with changes in personality in maltreated adolescent girlsBiological factors associated with changes in personality in maltreated adolescent girls

... By Eric W. Dolan January 19, 2020. ... personality level factors such as extraversion and neuroticism can serve as risk and resiliency factors for the development of ... Both love and desire are important factors in predicting sexual activity. By Eric W. Dolan February 22, 2020. ... The findings indicate that "personality at any given time can be influenced by the physiological factors that support the ways ...
more infohttps://www.psypost.org/2020/01/biological-factors-associated-with-changes-in-personality-in-maltreated-adolescent-girls-55287

Biological factors dont completely explain racial disparities for good prognosis breast cancer - UNC Lineberger...Biological factors don't completely explain racial disparities for 'good prognosis' breast cancer - UNC Lineberger...

The biological features of patients tumors partially explained a racial disparity for women with hormone receptor-positive, ... Home › News › Biological factors dont completely explain racial disparities for good prognosis breast cancer ... Biological factors dont completely explain racial disparities for good prognosis breast cancer ... HER2-negative breast cancer compared with white women cannot be completely explained by underlying biological factors, ...
more infohttp://unclineberger.org/news/biological-factors-dont-completely-explain

The relevance of biological factors in the development of drug abuse : report on a WHO workshop, Copenhagen, 22-23 February 1988The relevance of biological factors in the development of drug abuse : report on a WHO workshop, Copenhagen, 22-23 February 1988

The relevance of biological factors in the development of drug abuse : report on a WHO workshop, Copenhagen, 22-23 February ... 1988)‎. The relevance of biological factors in the development of drug abuse : report on a WHO workshop, Copenhagen, 22-23 ... World Health Organization; WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization (‎World Health Organization, 2015)‎ ... Expert Committee on Biological Standardization, Geneva, 24 to 28 October 2005  ...
more infohttps://extranet.who.int/iris/restricted/handle/10665/108015?locale-attribute=pt&

The relevance of biological factors in the development of drug abuse : report on a WHO workshop, Copenhagen, 22-23 February 1988The relevance of biological factors in the development of drug abuse : report on a WHO workshop, Copenhagen, 22-23 February 1988

The relevance of biological factors in the development of drug abuse : report on a WHO workshop, Copenhagen, 22-23 February ... 1988)‎. The relevance of biological factors in the development of drug abuse : report on a WHO workshop, Copenhagen, 22-23 ... World Health Organization; WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization (‎World Health Organization, 2015)‎ ... Expert Committee on Biological Standardization, Geneva, 24 to 28 October 2005  ...
more infohttps://extranet.who.int/iris/restricted/handle/10665/108015

Aspects of health-related quality of life : Associations with psychological and biological factors, and use as patient reported...Aspects of health-related quality of life : Associations with psychological and biological factors, and use as patient reported...

Aspects of health-related quality of life: Associations with psychological and biological factors, and use as patient reported ... Aspects of health-related quality of life: Associations with psychological and biological factors, and use as patient reported ... was found to relate to higher levels of inflammatory biological factors (C-reactive protein, Interleukin-6, and ... after adjustment for factors of known importance to HRQoL (age, sex, disease, lifestyle and psychological factors) (Paper II). ...
more infohttp://liu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:492046

Biological Factors Involved in Implant-Anchored Orthodontics and in Prosthetic-Implant Therapy: A Literature Review - Semantic...Biological Factors Involved in Implant-Anchored Orthodontics and in Prosthetic-Implant Therapy: A Literature Review - Semantic...

However, failures have necessitated ongoing investigation of potential risk factors. The aim of this overview was to conduct an ... Thorough assessment revealed the following as factors associated with dental implant rejection: (1) correlation of the volume ... Biological Factors Involved in Implant-Anchored Orthodontics and in Prosthetic-Implant Therapy: A Literature Review. @article{ ... Biological Factors Involved in Implant-Anchored Orthodontics and in Prosthetic-Implant Therapy: A Literature Review}, author={ ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Biological-Factors-Involved-in-Implant-Anchored-and-Antoszewska-Raftowicz-W%C3%B3jcik/4f6a10841b855a2905ac5e5a9e31330656b53021

IDEALS @ Illinois: The role of hydraulic, chemical, and biological factors in the decline of specific capacity in the western...IDEALS @ Illinois: The role of hydraulic, chemical, and biological factors in the decline of specific capacity in the western...

The role of hydraulic, chemical, and biological factors in the decline of specific capacity in the western Champaign well field ... The role of hydraulic, chemical, and biological factors in the decline of specific capacity in the western Champaign well field ... The role of hydraulic, chemical, and biological factors in the decline of specific capacity in the western Champaign well field ...
more infohttps://www.ideals.illinois.edu/handle/2142/43162
  • In the special case of science and engineering, there are issues of intrinsic aptitude, and particularly of the variability of aptitude, and that those considerations are reinforced by what are in fact lesser factors involving socialization and continuing discrimination. (scienceblogs.com)
  • The report includes detailed analysis of routine water quality and operating data, field testing observations, and special studies conducted over the course of the project to evaluate the variability of EBPR, factors influencing EBPR performance, and the relationship between EBPR and the presence of glycogen accumulating organisms. (werf.org)
  • For intertidal limpet shells subject to prying forces, truncation safety factor was found to increase with increased variability in shell strength, thus providing direct support for the theory. (sciencemag.org)
  • As defined by the Psychology Dictionary, a biological factor is that which affects the behavior and function of an organism and includes any condition that has a psychological effect on a living being. (reference.com)
  • Other biological factors include a person's gender, ethnic background, whether there are mental disorders present, and how each drug affects each person's unique biology. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • More than half (51.4%) of the respondents experienced sharps injuries, 62.1% were exposed to biological fluids, and 39.6% of the workers experienced both injury and exposure. (mdpi.com)
  • Exposure of healthy skin and eyes to biological fluids occurred in 63% and 20% of the cases, respectively. (mdpi.com)
  • More than half of the respondents experienced sharps injury or exposure to biological fluids during the study period. (mdpi.com)
  • Children (N=434) with nonsyndromic mental retardation were analysed for frequency of prenatal, perinatal and infantile biological disturbances. (ed.gov)
  • Neuroscientists, anthropologists, biologists, philosophers, and others explore the nature of responses to stress and trauma and factors that result in either long-term trauma responses or protection in the form of resilience. (hampshire.edu)
  • The fact that men outnumber women in the highest echelons of mathematics (as in science, technology and engineering) has always been controversial, particularly for the persistent notion that this disparity is down to an innate biological advantage. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Health care workers are attributed to the group at highest risk of biological factors, as they are daily exposed to fluids of the human body. (mdpi.com)
  • A third study of 1,200 women will explore how variables such as behavior, economic conditions, and barriers to health care, as well as biological factors (including infection with the sexually transmitted human papillomavirus, which may be a precursor to cervical cancer) may interact to contribute to cervical abnormalities. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Theory predicts that selection should increase the ratio of the performance of a biological structure or system to the requirements placed upon it (that is, its safety factor) as conditions become increasingly unpredictable. (sciencemag.org)
  • The paper details the structure of the biological culture system and establishes the DO control model based on the material balance formulate. (actapress.com)
  • By studying biological factors and finding the relationship between genetics, brain chemistry and anatomy and the development of mental illnesses, doctors and scientists are able not only to better understand the condition but to find more effective interventions. (reference.com)
  • Although a person isn't defined by biological factors, these conditions can have a major impact on his or her behavior. (reference.com)
  • This was a cross-sectional study to start a cohort in two University Hospitals of two countries - Brazil and Colombia - for assessing the prevalence of needlestick and sharps injuries (NSI), the level of compliance with standard precautions (SPs), and knowledge on blood borne pathogens and associated factors among health students and professionals, within the framework of the implementation of the NR-32 standard. (scielo.br)
  • Metacommunity studies using the deconstruction approach based on biological traits have received a great deal of attention in recent years as they often better describe characteristics of the species that reflect adaptations to a specific environment. (springer.com)
  • It is found at abnormally high levels on the surface of many types of cancer cells, so these cells may divide excessively in the presence of epidermal growth factor. (hindawi.com)
  • Biological factors are considered the primary determinants of the way a human behaves and may play a significant role in the development of mental illnesses. (reference.com)
  • Based on our observations, we propose that the biological roles of PIFs stem from their shared and distinct DNA binding targets and specific gene expression patterns. (nih.gov)
  • Biological theories of emotion propose a finite number of basic emotions based on neural substrates, innate universal expressions, and unique feeling-motivational states (Izard, 1992). (wikiversity.org)
  • Voiceover: So there are many factors that affect and regulate our intake of food, sex and drugs, but let's talk about two categories that regulate food sex and drugs. (khanacademy.org)
  • 1a FACTOR INPUT that is used in production (see NATURAL RESOURCES , LABOUR , CAPITAL ). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A gene necessary for pyrrolnitrin production by Pf-5 was identified as rpoS, which encodes the stationary-phase sigma factor sigma s. (pnas.org)
  • Other stationary-phase-specific phenotypes of Pf-5, such as the production of cyanide and extracellular protease(s) were expressed by the RpoS- mutant, suggesting that sigma s is only one of the sigma factors required for the transcription of genes in stationary-phase cells of P. fluorescens. (pnas.org)
  • There are hundreds of different biological factors influencing the way an individual behaves. (reference.com)
  • and physiological factors, such as irregularities in the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, which helps living organisms adapt to different types of stress. (reference.com)
  • and the hydrodynamic factor is the types of flow indicated by the Reynolds number and shear rate. (springer.com)
  • The dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in the culture solution plays an important role within the process of biological culture. (actapress.com)
  • This suggests that EGFR may serve as a biological marker to identify high-risk subgroups and guide prophylactic therapy. (hindawi.com)