A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Endogenously-synthesized compounds that influence biological processes not otherwise classified under ENZYMES; HORMONES or HORMONE ANTAGONISTS.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
Treatment of diseases with biological materials or biological response modifiers, such as the use of GENES; CELLS; TISSUES; organs; SERUM; VACCINES; and humoral agents.
Warfare involving the use of living organisms or their products as disease etiologic agents against people, animals, or plants.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Biological activities and function of the whole organism in human, animal, microorgansims, and plants, and of the biosphere.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Comprehensive, methodical analysis of complex biological systems by monitoring responses to perturbations of biological processes. Large scale, computerized collection and analysis of the data are used to develop and test models of biological systems.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The physiological mechanisms that govern the rhythmic occurrence of certain biochemical, physiological, and behavioral phenomena.
Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.
One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The ratio of radiation dosages required to produce identical change based on a formula comparing other types of radiation with that of gamma or roentgen rays.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Organisms, biological agents, or biologically-derived agents used strategically for their positive or adverse effect on the physiology and/or reproductive health of other organisms.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Living organisms or their toxic products that are used to cause disease or death of humans during WARFARE.
The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
An interdisciplinary science concerned with studies of the biological bases of behavior - biochemical, genetic, physiological, and neurological - and applying these to the understanding and treatment of mental illness.
The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.
Biological processes, properties, and characteristics of the whole organism in human, animal, microorganisms, and plants, and of the biosphere.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Facilities that collect, store, and distribute tissues, e.g., cell lines, microorganisms, blood, sperm, milk, breast tissue, for use by others. Other uses may include transplantation and comparison of diseased tissues in the identification of cancer.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Graphs representing sets of measurable, non-covalent physical contacts with specific PROTEINS in living organisms or in cells.
The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.
Human or animal tissue used as temporary wound coverings.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Drugs that are used to treat RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Cellular processes, properties, and characteristics.
The procedures involved in combining separately developed modules, components, or subsystems so that they work together as a complete system. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
The fundamental, structural, and functional units or subunits of living organisms. They are composed of CYTOPLASM containing various ORGANELLES and a CELL MEMBRANE boundary.
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A field of biological research combining engineering in the formulation, design, and building (synthesis) of novel biological structures, functions, and systems.
The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.
Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Liquid components of living organisms.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
An interdisciplinary field in materials science, ENGINEERING, and BIOLOGY, studying the use of biological principles for synthesis or fabrication of BIOMIMETIC MATERIALS.
Use of sophisticated analysis tools to sort through, organize, examine, and combine large sets of information.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
In INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, machine-sensing or identification of visible patterns (shapes, forms, and configurations). (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.

Charybdotoxin and apamin block EDHF in rat mesenteric artery if selectively applied to the endothelium. (1/1056)

In rat mesenteric artery, endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) is blocked by a combination of apamin and charybdotoxin (ChTX). The site of action of these toxins has not been established. We compared the effects of ChTX and apamin applied selectively to the endothelium and to the smooth muscle. In isometrically mounted arteries, ACh (0.01-10 micrometers), in the presence of indomethacin (2.8 microM) and Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (100 microM), concentration dependently relaxed phenylephrine (PE)-stimulated tone (EC50 50 nM; n = 10). Apamin (50 nM) and ChTX (50 nM) abolished this relaxation (n = 5). In pressurized arteries, ACh (10 microM), applied intraluminally in the presence of indomethacin (2.8 microM) and L-NAME (100 microM), dilated both PE-stimulated (0.3-0.5 microM; n = 5) and myogenic tone (n = 3). Apamin (50 nM ) and ChTX (50 nM) applied intraluminally abolished ACh-induced dilatations. Bath superperfusion of apamin and ChTX did not affect ACh-induced dilatations of either PE-stimulated (n = 5) or myogenic tone (n = 3). This is the first demonstration that ChTX and apamin act selectively on the endothelium to block EDHF-mediated relaxation.  (+info)

Endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization in resting and depolarized mammary and coronary arteries of guinea-pigs. (2/1056)

1. The membrane potential responses in guinea-pig coronary and mammary arteries attributable to endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin (PG) and hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF), and to exogenous NO and the prostacyclin analogue, iloprost, were compared at rest and when depolarized with the thromboxane analogue, U46619. 2. In the coronary artery, stimulation of the endothelium with acetylcholine (ACh) evoked hyperpolarization attributable to NO and a PG with similar pD2s at rest and in the presence of U46619. However, in depolarized tissues, the pD2 of the response attributed to EDHF required a 10 fold lower concentration of ACh compared with at rest. 3. In the mammary artery, lower concentrations of ACh were required to evoke NO- and EDHF-dependent hyperpolarizations in depolarized mammary artery compared with at rest, while PG-dependent hyperpolarization did not occur until the concentration of ACh was increased some 10 fold both at rest and in U46619. 4. The smooth muscle of the coronary artery of guinea-pigs was some 4 fold more sensitive to exogenous NO and iloprost than was the mammary artery. 5. In conclusion, the membrane potential response in arteries at rest, that is, in the absence of constrictor, may be extrapolated to events in the presence of constrictor when NO and PG are under study. However, the sensitivity to ACh and the magnitude of the hyperpolarization attributed to EDHF obtained in tissues at rest may underestimate these parameters in depolarized tissues.  (+info)

Effects of Aspergillus fumigatus culture filtrate on antifungal activity of human phagocytes in vitro. (3/1056)

BACKGROUND: Aspergillus fumigatus can colonise the airways and the lungs with localised underlying conditions and occasionally invade the surrounding lung tissues even in subjects without systemic predisposing factors, presumably by escaping the local host defences. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of A fumigatus culture filtrate (ACF) on the activities of human phagocytes--inhibition of germination of A fumigatus spores by alveolar macrophages (AMs) and hyphal damage by polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs)--which are the critical host defences against A fumigatus. METHODS: Spores were incubated with AMs at a ratio of 1:1 in a medium containing different concentrations of ACF for 10 hours at 37 degrees C. Spore germination was visualised with light microscopy and the inhibition rate was calculated. The percentage of hyphal damage caused by PMNs pretreated with various concentrations of ACF was measured by a colorimetric tetrazolium metabolic assay. RESULTS: The inhibition rate of spore germination by AMs cultured with medium alone (control) was 90 (0.8)% whereas that by AMs cultured with the medium containing 10% ACF was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced to 41.7 (4.6)%. ACF suppressed the inhibition of spore germination in a dose dependent manner without altering the phagocytosing activity against the spores. The percentage of hyphal damage caused by PMNs pretreated with medium-199 (control) was 78.1 (2.3)% compared with 65.3 (2.8)% when PMNs were pretreated with 50% ACF (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: A fumigatus releases biologically active substance(s) which suppress the inhibition of spore germination by AMs and also suppress PMN mediated hyphal damage, and thus may contribute to the pathogenicity of this fungus.  (+info)

Inhibition of the production of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor by cannabinoid receptor agonists. (4/1056)

1. The endogenous cannabinoid, anandamide, has been reported to induce an 'endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF)-like' relaxation in vitro. We therefore investigated the effects of cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonists; HU 210, delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC) and anandamide, and a CB1 antagonist/inverse agonist, SR 141716A, on nitric oxide (NO) and EDHF-mediated relaxation in precontracted rings of porcine coronary, rabbit carotid and mesenteric arteries. 2. In rings of mesenteric artery HU 210 and delta9-THC induced endothelium- and cyclo-oxygenase-independent relaxations which were sensitive to SR 141716A. Anandamide (0.03-30 microM) induced a slowly developing, endothelium-independent relaxation which was abolished by diclofenac and was therefore mediated by cyclo-oxygenase product(s). None of the CB1 agonists tested affected the tone of precontracted rings of rabbit carotid or porcine coronary artery. 3. In endothelium-intact segments, HU 210, delta9-THC and anandamide did not affect NO-mediated responses but under conditions of continuous NO synthase/cyclo-oxygenase blockade, significantly inhibited acetylcholine and bradykinin-induced relaxations which are attributed to the production of EDHF. The effects of HU 210 and delta9-THC were not observed when experiments were performed in the presence of SR 141716A suggesting the involvement of the CB1 receptor. 4. In a patch clamp bioassay of EDHF production, HU 210 decreased the EDHF-mediated hyperpolarization of detector smooth muscle cells when applied to the donor segment but was without effect on the membrane potential of detector cells. The inhibition of EDHF production was unrelated to alterations in Ca2+ -signalling or cytochrome P450 activity. 5. These results suggest that the activation of endothelial CB1 receptors appears to be negatively coupled to the production of EDHF.  (+info)

Proinflammatory mediators chronically downregulate the formation of the endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor in arteries via a nitric oxide/cyclic GMP-dependent mechanism. (5/1056)

BACKGROUND: Endothelium-dependent dilator responses mediated by NO and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) are altered in arteriosclerosis and sepsis. The possibility that proinflammatory mediators that stimulate the expression of inducible NO synthase (NOS II) affect the generation of EDHF was examined in isolated arteries. METHODS AND RESULTS: Under combined blockade of NOS and cyclooxygenase, EDHF-mediated relaxation elicited by several agonists was significantly attenuated in rabbit carotid and porcine coronary arteries exposed to cytokines and lipopolysaccharide. The blunted relaxation was coincident with NOS II expression and was prevented by inhibition of NOS II as well as of global protein synthesis. The NO donor CAS 1609 and 8-bromo-cGMP mimicked the proinflammatory mediator effect. In contrast, long-term blockade of endothelial NO generation increased the relaxation in carotid but not in coronary arteries. Proinflammatory mediators reduced the synthesis of EDHF assessed as hyperpolarization of vascular smooth muscle cells elicited by the effluent from bradykinin-stimulated coronary arteries. Proinflammatory mediators induced NOS II expression in cultured endothelial cells and decreased the expression of cytochrome P450 enzymes, which are the most probable candidates for the synthesis of EDHF. CONCLUSIONS: Proinflammatory mediators inhibit the formation of EDHF in isolated arteries. This impairment is coincident with NOS II expression in the arterial wall and seems to be mediated through the induced generation of NO, which downregulates the putative EDHF-forming enzyme. Thus, a decreased formation of EDHF may contribute to the endothelial dysfunction in arteriosclerosis and sepsis.  (+info)

A cytosolic factor is required for mitochondrial cytochrome c efflux during apoptosis. (6/1056)

Treatment of HL-60 cells with staurosporine (STS) induced mitochondrial cytochrome c efflux into the cytosol, which was followed by caspase-3 activation and apoptosis. Consistent with these observations, in vitro experiments demonstrated that, except for cytochrome c, the cytosol of HL-60 cells contained sufficient amounts of all factors required for caspase-3 activation. In contrast, treatment of HCW-2 cells (an apoptotic-resistant HL-60 subclone) with STS failed to induce significant amounts of mitochondrial cytochrome c efflux, caspase-3 activation, and apoptosis. In vitro assays strongly suggested that a lack of cytochrome c in the cytosol was the primary limiting factor for caspase-3 activation in HCW-2 cells. To explore the mechanism which regulates mitochondrial cytochrome c efflux, we developed an in vitro assay which showed that cytosolic extracts from STS-treated, but not untreated, HL-60 cells contained an activity, which we designated 'CIF' (cytochrome c-efflux inducing factor), which rapidly induced cytochrome c efflux from HL-60 mitochondria. In contrast, there was no detectable CIF activity in STS-treated HCW-2 cells although the mitochondria from HCW-2 cells were responsive to the CIF activity from STS-treated HL-60 cells. These experiments have identified a novel activity, CIF, which is required for cytochrome c efflux and they indicate that the absence of CIF is the biochemical explanation for the impaired ability of HCW-2 cells to activate caspase-3 and undergo apoptosis.  (+info)

Involvement of CB1 cannabinoid receptors in the EDHF-dependent vasorelaxation in rabbits. (7/1056)

1. It was recently suggested that an endogenous cannabinoid could represent an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF). The aim of the present study was to clarify whether CB1 cannabinoid receptors are involved in the nitric oxide (NO)- and prostanoid-independent vasodilation produced by acetylcholine in rabbits. 2. Pithed rabbits received indomethacin. Noradrenaline was infused to raise blood pressure, and vasodilation was elicited by bolus injections of acetylcholine. The NO-synthase inhibitor Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methylester inhibited the acetylcholine-evoked vasodilation by about 40%. The remaining vasodilation was unaffected by the CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist SR141716A, but was inhibited by the potassium channel blocker tetraethylammonium. In addition, the mixed CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55212-2 did not elicit vasodilation. 3. No CB1 cannabinoid receptors were involved in the prostanoid- and NO-independent vasodilation produced by acetylcholine. An exogenous cannabinoid also did not cause vasodilation. Therefore, it is unlikely that an endogenous cannabinoid serves as an EDHF acting at smooth muscle CB1 cannabinoid receptors in the rabbit.  (+info)

Relationship between NaF- and thapsigargin-induced endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization in rat mesenteric artery. (8/1056)

1. In isolated rat mesenteric artery with endothelium, NaF caused slowly developing hyperpolarization. The hyperpolarizing effect was unchanged in the presence of N(G)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG) and indomethacin, but was markedly reduced by high K+. In Ca2+ -free medium or in the presence of Ni2+, NaF failed to produce hyperpolarization. 2. NaF-induced hyperpolarization was substantially unaffected by deferoxamine, an Al3+ chelator, okadaic acid and calyculin A, phosphatase inhibitors, and preincubation with pertussis toxin, suggesting that neither the action of fluoroaluminates as a G protein activator nor inhibition of phosphatase activity contributes to the hyperpolarizing effect. 3. The selective inhibitors of the Ca2+ -pump ATPase of endoplasmic reticulum, thapsigargin and cyclopiazonic acid, elicited hyperpolarization, whose properties were very similar to those of NaF. When intracellular Ca2+ stores had been depleted with these inhibitors, NaF no longer generated hyperpolarization. 4. In Ca2+ -free medium, NaF (or thapsigargin) caused a transient increase in the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in cultured porcine aortic endothelial cells, and subsequent application of thapsigargin (or NaF) failed to increase [Ca2+]i. 5. In arterial rings precontracted with phenylephrine, NaF produced endothelium-dependent relaxation followed by sustained contraction even in the presence of L-NOARG and indomethacin. The relaxant response was abolished by high K+ or cyclopiazonic acid. 6. These results indicate that NaF causes endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization, thereby leading to smooth muscle relaxation of rat mesenteric artery. This action appears to be mediated by the promotion of Ca2+ influx into endothelial cells that can be triggered by the emptying of intracellular Ca2+ stores, as proposed for those of thapsigargin and cyclopiazonic acid.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - The contribution of d-tubocurarine-sensitive and Apamin-sensitive K-channels to EDHF-mediated Relaxation of Mesenteric Arteries from eNOS-/- Mice. AU - Chen, Xiaoliang. AU - Li, Yang. AU - Hollenberg, Morley. AU - Triggle, Christopher. AU - Ding, Hong. PY - 2012/5. Y1 - 2012/5. N2 - The nature of the potassium channels involved in determining endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor-mediated relaxation was investigated in first-order small mesenteric arteries from male endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS-/-)-knockout and control (+/+) mice. Acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation of small mesenteric arteries of eNOS-/- was resistant to N-nitro-L-arginine and indomethacin and the guanylyl cyclase inhibitor, 1H-(1,2,4) oxadiazolo (4,3-a) quinoxalin-1-one. Apamin and the combination of apamin and iberiotoxin or apamin and charybdotoxin induced a transient endothelium-dependent contraction of small mesenteric arteries from both eNOS-/- and +/+ mice. ...
Based on current evidence, the term of endothelium-derived hyperpolarising factor should represent a mechanism rather than a specific factor. The mechanism(s) of endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization (i.e., EDHF-mediated relaxation) seems to be heterogeneous depending on several factors (e.g., size and vascular bed), surrounding environment (oxidative stress, hypercholesterolemia) and demand (compensatory). Different endothelial mediators or pathways involved in EDHF-mediated relaxation may also work simultaneously and/or substitute each other. It implies a reasonable physiological sense, although to some extent and when EDHF acts as backup mechanism for endothelium-dependent relaxation in the present of compromised NO contribution. Thus, alternatives for EDHF-typed responses (H2O2, K+ etc.) will provide a guarantee for compensation of endothelial function. However, once the involvement of a certain endothelium-derived vasodilator for a given vascular bed is confirmed, it is preferred that ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor(s). T2 - Species and tissue heterogeneity. AU - Triggle, C. R.. AU - Dong, H.. AU - Waldron, G. J.. AU - Cole, W. C.. PY - 1999/1/1. Y1 - 1999/1/1. N2 - 1. Endothelium-derivcd relaxing factor is almost universally considered to be synonymous with nitric oxide (NO); however, it is now well established that at least two other chemically distinct species (prostacyclin (PGI2) and a hyperpolarizing factor) may also contribute to endothelium-dependent relaxation. 2. Only relatively few studies have provided definitive evidence that an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF), which is neither NO nor PGI2, exists as a chemical mediator. 3. There is a lack of agreement as to the likely chemical identity of this putative factor. Some evidence suggests that EDHF may be a cytochrome P450-derived arachidonic acid product, possibly an epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET); conflict-ing evidence supports an endogenous cannabinoid as the mediator and ...
The work presented in this thesis describes the influence of the endothelium on smooth muscle cells, and how the structure of the internal elastic lamina (IEL) affects this relationship in mesenteric and saphenous arteries. This was enabled by the study of functional and confocal microscopy dye transfer experiments. Normotensive (WKY) and hypertensive (SHR) rats of 12 weeks and 6 months of age were used to assess the effect of hypertension and ageing on endothelial and smooth muscle cell communication. The endothelium-derived hyperpolarising factor (EDHF) response in mesenteric arteries was investigated using wire myography, and the involvement of myoendothelial gap junctions (MEGJs) was assessed using the putative gap junction inhibitor carbenoxolone. Carbenoxolone attenuated the EDHF response in the WKY, suggestive of the involvement of myoendothelial gap junctions in EDHF. In the saphenous artery, incubation with L-NAME and indomethacin abolished the relaxation to ACh, indicating that there ...
Background: Whether impaired endothelial function in hypercholesterolemia (HC) impacts on exercise-induced vasodilation, and whether the contribution of nitric oxide (NO) and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) to exercise vasodilation varies in comparison to healthy subjects is unknown. We hypothesized that there is a differential contribution of these two agonists to exercise-induced vasodilation.. Methods: In 26 healthy and 19 HC subjects, we measured forearm blood flow (FBF) using strain gauge plethysmography at rest, during handgrip exercise (performed at 15%, 30% and 45% of maximum grip strength) and after sodium nitroprusside (1.6 and 3.2 μg/min) infusion. Measurements were repeated after either NO blockade with L-NMMA, calcium-dependent potassium channel blockade with tetraethylammonium (TEA, inhibiting EDHF activity), and combined blockade.. Results: Exercise-induced vasodilation produced a stepwise increase in FBF in both groups (p,0.0001). At peak (45%) exercise, there ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Blockade of IK Ca and SK Ca channels inhibits EDHF-mediated vasodilatation, but not endothelial cell calcium changes, in isolated rat mesenteric arteries. AU - McSherry, I N. AU - Garland, C J. AU - Dora, K A. PY - 2003. Y1 - 2003. M3 - Article. JO - ANZMS Meeting. JF - ANZMS Meeting. ER - ...
CYP 2C9 has previously been reported to generate 11,12-EET in coronary endothelial cells and plays a crucial role in EDHF-mediated hyperpolarization and relaxation. In the present study, we have demonstrated that, in both cultured and native porcine coronary endothelial cells, CYP 2C9 is also a physiologically relevant source of ROS. Overexpression of CYP 2C9 in coronary artery endothelial cells markedly increases 11,12- and 8,9-EET16 generation as well as that of ROS. The consequences of superoxide anion or hydrogen peroxide production by CYP 2C9 range from the impairment of NO-mediated relaxation to a chronic elevation in the activity of the redox-sensitive transcription factor NF-κB and the expression of VCAM-1.. Although accepted to play a role in the pathophysiology of hypertension, atherosclerosis, and heart failure, it is not generally appreciated that ROS, such as O2− and hydrogen peroxide, are intracellular signaling molecules that are involved in the regulation of vascular tone ...
The endothelium has emerged as an important regulator of vascular tone.1 2 3 Several soluble mediators released by the endothelium are involved in these vascular effects. These mediators include prostacyclin, EDRF or NO, and EDHF. The activity of EDHF may be distinguished from NO in that EDHF activity is blocked by inhibitors of Ca2+-activated K+ channels, such as TEA or charybdotoxin, or by high [K+]o but is not blocked by arginine analogues that inhibit NOS or glibenclamide, an inhibitor of ATP-sensitive K+ channels.9 14 17 18 Relaxations mediated by EDRF are blocked by arginine analogues. In small coronary arteries, methacholine causes endothelium-dependent relaxations and endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization of smooth muscle cells.5 14 15 16 17 18 These relaxations are blocked by TEA and high [K+]o. Thus, it has been proposed that methacholine stimulates coronary endothelial cells to release EDHF, which acts on coronary smooth muscle cells to open K+ channels, hyperpolarize the cell ...
The aim of this study was to characterise vasodilator responses in the perfused ciliary vascular bed of the bovine eye. When bovine eyes were perfused at a constant rate of 2.5 ml min-1, infusion of the powerful vasodilator, papaverine (150 muM), produced a very small reduction in perfusion pressure. Under the same conditions, the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, L- NAME (100 muM), had no effect but the inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase, ODQ (10 muM), produced a small vasoconstrictor response. These results indicate that there is a small component of intrinsic (myogenic) tone that may be suppressed by a basal release of nitric oxide. In the bovine eye, vasodilatation to acetylcholine or bradykinin was unaffected by L- NAME (100 muM), or the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, flurbiprofen (30 muM), but was significantly attenuated following treatment with a high concentration of KC1 (30 muM), or by damaging the endothelium with the detergent, CHAPS (0.3%, 2 min). Thus agonist-induced vasodilatation ...
Although we found that the vasoconstrictor response to l-NMMA was lower in blacks, we did not examine effects of other nonspecific vasoconstrictors to investigate whether this is a reflection of reduced sensitivity of the vascular smooth muscle to vasoconstrictors. However, the fact that the constrictor response to TEA was similar to whites suggests that the response to l-NMMA is specific for reduced NO bioavailability. The reduced sensitivity to exogenous NO (sodium nitroprusside) complicates the interpretation of the reduced dilator responses observed with acetylcholine and bradykinin in blacks. However, because basal NO and the contribution of NO during exercise is lower in blacks, it is likely that in addition to reduced sensitivity, there is also an endothelial defect in NO release in blacks.. l-NMMA and TEA are competitive inhibitors, and thus our results may underestimate the physiological contribution of both NO and K+Ca channels to vasodilation. Our investigation was conducted on a ...
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Arachidonic acid 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO) metabolites function as endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors in rabbit and human arteries. In rabbit arteries, LO metabolites mediate nitric-oxide and prostaglandin-independent relaxations to acetylcholine and AA. Previously, we characterized 11,12,15-trihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (11,12,15-THETA) as a major vasoactive 15-LO metabolite in rabbit arteries. 11,12,15-THETA requires a specific structure for vascular activity. 11(R),12(S),15(S)-THETA causes concentration-related relaxation whereas 11(R),12(R),15(S)-THETA is without activity. The specific structure requirement suggests a role for a receptor. Therefore, we examined the role of G proteins in 11(R),12(S),15(S)-THETA vascular activity. Western immunoblot verified protein expression of Gαs, Gαi and a Gαo in rabbit endothelial and smooth muscle cells. 11(R),12(S),15(S)-THETA increased GTPγ35S binding to rabbit arterial membranes 280±25% while 11(R),12(S),15(S)-THETA was without effect. In ...
Hypothesis - Rotigaptide will improve endothelial function in the context of endothelial dysfunction.. The lining of blood vessels (endothelium) can react to hormones in the blood stream causing the blood vessel muscle to relax (vasodilatation) and allow more blood to flow. The nitric oxide and prostacyclin pathways are well documented in this process. However, evidence points to the existence of a third powerful relaxant called endothelium derived hyperpolarising factor (EDHF) but its identity and mechanism of action have proved elusive. As well as causing blood vessels to relax and more blood to flow, EDHF may be involved in the endothelium signaling, triggering release of a specialised clot dissolving factor called tissue plasminogen activator (t PA). t PA is important to ensure small clots, which are constantly being formed in the circulation, are rapidly dissolved and do not grow large enough to cause heart attacks and strokes.. Evidence points towards the requirement for gap junctions in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Endothelial influences on cerebrovascular tone. AU - Andresen, Jon. AU - Shafi, Nadeem. AU - Bryan, Robert M.. PY - 2006/1/1. Y1 - 2006/1/1. N2 - The cerebrovascular endothelium exerts a profound influence on cerebral vessels and cerebral blood flow. This review summarizes current knowledge of various dilator and constrictor mechanisms intrinsic to the cerebrovascular endothelium. The endothelium contributes to the resting tone of cerebral arteries and arterioles by tonically releasing nitric oxide (NO • ). Dilations can occur by stimulated release of NO • , endothelium-derived hyperpolarization factor, or prostanoids. During pathological conditions, the dilator influence of the endothelium can turn to that of constriction by a variety of mechanisms, including decreased NO • bioavailability and release of endothelin-1. The endothelium may participate in neurovascular coupling by conducting local dilations to upstream arteries. Further study of the cerebrovascular ...
Piezo1 channels are newly discovered ion channels which have come to the fore as players in endothelial biology. They have a key role as sensors of shear stress, a frictional force which arises in vascular biology because of blood flow. Endothelial Piezo1 channels are critical in murine embryonic development, just after the heart starts to beat and drive blood into the nascent endothelial network. In contrast they are not critical at the adult stage but they are important for performance in whole body physical activity where they have a vascular bed-specific effect to cause mesenteric resistance artery vasoconstriction, achieved through opposition to the vasodilatory mechanism of endothelium-derived hyperpolarization ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor mediates bradykinin-stimulated tissue plasminogen activator release in humans. AU - Rahman, Ayaz M.. AU - Murrow, Jonathan R.. AU - Ozkor, Muhiddin A.. AU - Kavtaradze, Nino. AU - Lin, Ji. AU - De Staercke, Christine. AU - Hooper, W. Craig. AU - Manatunga, Amita. AU - Hayek, Salim. AU - Quyyumi, Arshed A.. PY - 2014/1/1. Y1 - 2014/1/1. N2 - Bradykinin (BK) stimulates tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) release from human endothelium. Although BK stimulates both nitric oxide and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) release, the role of EDHF in t-PA release remains unexplored. This study sought to determine the mechanisms of BK-stimulated t-PA release in the forearm vasculature of healthy human subjects. Methods: In 33 healthy subjects (age 40.3 ± 1.9 years), forearm blood flow (FBF) and t-PA release were measured at rest and after intra-arterial infusions of BK (400 ng/min) and sodium nitroprusside (3.2 mg/min). Measurements ...
In WT mice, endothelium-dependent relaxations of small mesenteric arteries were mainly mediated by EDHF, whereas those of the aorta were mediated by NO, a finding that is consistent with our previous studies (2, 4, 14). Interestingly, EDHF-mediated relaxations were progressively reduced in accordance with the number of disrupted NOS genes in mesenteric arteries and were absent in n/i/eNOS−/− mice, indicating that EDHF-mediated relaxations are totally mediated by the endothelial NOSs system in mouse mesenteric arteries.. In this study, after the classical definition of EDHF (1-3), we evaluated EDHF-mediated responses in mouse mesenteric arteries in the presence of indomethacin and l-NNA. It is known that eNOS generates superoxide anions under normal conditions from reductase domain and only when uncoupled (e.g., BH4 and/or l-arginine depletion) from the oxidase domain, and that l-arginine analogues only inhibit the latter process (40). Indeed, we were able to demonstrate that endothelial ...
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Synonyms: Angiopoietin-Like Protein 6, Angiopoietin-Related Protein 5, Angiopoietin-Related Growth Factor, Angiopoietin-Related Protein 6, AGF, ARP5.. ...
Angiopoietin-related protein 4 (406 aa, ~45 kDa) is encoded by the human ANGPTL4 gene. This protein plays a role in the modulation of signaling during hypoxic stress and angiogenesis.
To explore the effects of estrogen on arterial functions we examined endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF)- and NO-mediated responses in isolated mesenteric arteries of female rats 4 weeks after sham-operation (CON) ovariectomy (OVX) and OVX plus chronic estrogen treatment (OVX+E2). and hsp90) were unchanged but that of its negative regulator caveolin-1 was decreased. The levels of iNOS in mesenteric artery and aorta and plasma levels of NO metabolites and cholesterol were elevated. In OVX contraction of the Ondansetron HCl Ondansetron HCl artery by phenylephrine was reduced but augmented by nonspecific inhibitor of NOS to the comparable level as that in CON group. The contraction in OVX group unlike that in CON group was augmented Ondansetron HCl by specific iNOS inhibitor and the difference between contractions in the presence of nonspecific and specific inhibitor as an index of eNOS activity was increased. In OVX+E2 all these changes were recovered. In all groups EDHF-mediated ...
The intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel KCa3.1 (also known as KCNN4, IK1, or the Ga´rdos channel) plays an important role in the activation of T and B cells, mast cells, macrophages, and microglia by regulating membrane potential, cellular volume, and calcium signaling. KCa3.1 is further involved in the proliferation of dedifferentiated vascular smooth muscle cells and fibroblast and endothelium-derived hyperpolarization responses in the vascular endothelium. Accordingly, KCa3.1 inhibitors are therapeutically interesting as immunosuppressants and for the treatment of a wide range of fibroproliferative disorders, whereas KCa3.1 activators constitute a potential new class of endothelial function preserving antihypertensives. Here, we report the development of QPatch assays for both KCa3.1 inhibitors and activators. During assay optimization, the Ca2+ sensitivity of KCa3.1 was studied using varying intracellular Ca2+ concentrations. A free Ca2+ concentration of 1 lM was chosen to ...
Definition of endothelial-derived relaxant factor in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is endothelial-derived relaxant factor? Meaning of endothelial-derived relaxant factor as a legal term. What does endothelial-derived relaxant factor mean in law?
Looking for Endothelium-derived relaxing factor? Find out information about Endothelium-derived relaxing factor. in arithmetic, any number that divides a given number evenly, i.e., without any remainder. The factors of 12 are 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 12. Similarly in... Explanation of Endothelium-derived relaxing factor
Recombinant cytokines and growth factors for cell cultivation. Offered in different quality grades, with standardized research cytokines of highest quality. | Deutschland
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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor responses in the rat middle cerebral artery are blocked by inhibiting IKCa channels alone, contrasting with peripheral vessels where block of both IKCa and SKCa is required. As the contribution of IKCa and SKCa to endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization differs in peripheral arteries, depending on the level of arterial constriction, we investigated the possibility that SKCa might contribute to equivalent hyperpolarization in cerebral arteries under certain conditions. METHODS: Rat middle cerebral arteries (approximately 175 microm) were mounted in a wire myograph. The effect of KCa channel blockers on endothelium-dependent responses to the protease-activated receptor 2 agonist, SLIGRL (20 micromol/L), were then assessed as simultaneous changes in tension and membrane potential. These data were correlated with the distribution of arterial KCa channels revealed with immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: SLIGRL hyperpolarized and relaxed cerebral
5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-induced coronary artery responses have both vasoconstriction and vasorelaxation components. The vasoconstrictive effects of 5-HT have been well studied while the mechanism(s) of how 5-HT causes relaxation of coronary arteries has been less investigated. In isolated rat hearts, 5-HT-induced coronary flow increases are partially resistant to the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor Nω-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and are blocked by 5-HT7 receptor antagonists. In the present study, we investigated the role of 5-HT7 receptor in 5-HT-induced coronary flow increases in isolated rat hearts in the absence of L-NAME, and we also evaluated the involvement of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) in 5-HT-induced coronary flow increases in L-NAME-treated hearts with the inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism and the blockers of Ca2+-activated K+ channels. In isolated rat hearts, 5-HT and the 5-HT7 receptor agonist 5-carboxamidotryptamine induced coronary flow
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hepatic expression, synthesis and secretion of a novel fibrinogen/angiopoietin-related protein that prevents endothelial-cell apoptosis. AU - Kim, Injune. AU - Kim, Hwan Gyu. AU - Kim, Hyun. AU - Kim, Hong Hee. AU - Park, Sung Kwang. AU - Uhm, Chang Sub. AU - Lee, Zang Hee. AU - Koh, Gou Young. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2007 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2000/3/15. Y1 - 2000/3/15. N2 - Using degenerate PCR we isolated a cDNA encoding a novel 406- and 410-amino acid protein from human and mouse embryonic cDNAs and have designated it hepatic fibrinogen/angiopoietin-related protein (HFARP). The N-terminal and C-terminal portions of HFARP contain the characteristic coiled-coil domains and fibrinogen-like domains that are conserved in angiopoietins. In human and mouse tissues, HFARP mRNA is specifically expressed in the liver. HFARP mRNA and protein are mainly present in the hepatocytes. HFARP has a highly hydrophobic region at the N-terminus that is typical of a ...
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Many theories of neural processing focus quite rightly on computational and information processing concerns. While this is entirely sensible, the brain is not an abstract computational device, it generates heat, it is noisy, and requires a high energy-density diet to power it. Much of my work focuses on the role of such biophysical factors. In a series of studies which use simple neural networks/Bayesian models, I and colleagues have found that the remarkably simple notion of do work, whilst being energy efficient can explain multiple properties of the neural organisation of early sensory systems. 27/04/10 11:00 - 12:00. ANC Seminar: Michael Daw (Host: Mark van Rossum). Coordinated development of feedforward inhibition in neonatal cortex. Early changes in the expression of neuronal chloride transporters result in a developmental switch at GABAergic synapses from depolarising transmission to the hyperpolarising transmission which is typical in the adult brain. Studies in a number of brain ...
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The present invention relates to intercellular adhesion inhibitory factors produced by cytokine activated endothelial cells. These factors designated endothelial-derived IL-8 find use in the diagnosis and treatment of inflammation and in the protection of endothelial cells from neutrophil mediated damage.
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With INVIGATE you will find an expert for expression and purification of recombinant cytokines, chemokines and growth factors from different species. INVIGATE developes superior cell-based assay formats for the analysis of cytokine action.
A series of agents were examined to determine whether responses to hyperosmolarity could involve a mediator known or postulated to exist in other organ systems or processes. Responses of vascular muscle to endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor are inhibited by the cytochrome P450 inhibitor proadifen (SKF525A; Eckman et al., 1998). This agent, however, did not antagonize responses to d-M or hyperosmolar NaCl, suggesting that arachidonic acid epoxides are not mediators of the response. Because histamine and leukotrienes are viewed to be important mediators in exercise-induced asthma, the effects of the H1-histamine receptor antagonist diphenhydramine and the CysLT1-receptor antagonist MK 571 were examined, even though there is little likelihood that these contractile substances would mediate relaxation. These blockers had no effect, suggesting that these substances do not serve as intermediaries of the response to hyperosmolar solution, at least in vitro.. Application of hyperosmolar solution ...
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Richardson, Peter M and Iali, Wissam and Roy, Soumya S and Rayner, Peter J and Halse, Meghan E and Duckett, Simon B (2019) Rapid C-13 NMR hyperpolarization delivered from para-hydrogen enables the low concentration detection and quantification of sugars. In: CHEMICAL SCIENCE, 10 (45). pp. 10607-10619. Iali, Wissam and Roy, Soumya S and Tickner, Ben J and Ahwal, Fadi and Kennerley, Aneurin J and Duckett, Simon B (2019) Hyperpolarising Pyruvate through Signal Amplification by Reversible Exchange (SABRE). In: ANGEWANDTE CHEMIE-INTERNATIONAL EDITION, 58 (30). pp. 10271-10275. ...
Graded Potentials - occur in dendrites, cell bodies or axon terminals. Graded potential refers to the post synaptic electrical impulse. Called graded because their size or amplitude is directly proportional to the strength of the triggering event. i.e. a large stimulus leads to the generation of a strong graded response, and a small stimulus leads to the generation of a weak graded response. A depolarising graded potential is known as an excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP). A hyperpolarising graded potential is known as an inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP). If graded potentials reaching the axon hillock depolarise the membrane to the threshold voltage, an Action potential is initiated. ...
Tetrabutylammonium bisulfate for ion pair chromatography, LiChropur™, ≥99.0%; CAS Number: 32503-27-8; EC Number: 251-068-5; Synonym: Tetrabutylammonium hydrogen sulfate; Linear Formula: C16H37NO4S; find Supelco-86853 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar products & more at Sigma-Aldrich.
Effect of recombinant cytokines on leucocytes and physiological changes in bovine mammary glands during early involution.: We examined the effects of administer
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Angiopoietin-related protein 2 also known as angiopoietin-like protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ANGPTL2 gene. Angiopoietin-like protein 2 maintains tissue homeostasis by promoting adaptive inflammation and subsequent tissue reconstruction, whereas an excess of ANGPTL2 activation induced by prolonged stress promotes the breakdown of tissue homeostasis due to chronic inflammation, promoting the development of metabolic diseases. ANGPTL2 has a role also in angiogenesis, in tissue repair, in obesity, in atherosclerotic diseases and finally in cancerogenesis. Angiopoietins are members of the vascular endothelial growth factor family and the only known growth factors largely specific for vascular endothelium. Angiopoietin-1, angiopoietin-2, and angiopoietin-4 participate in the formation of blood vessels. ANGPTL2 protein is a secreted glycoprotein with homology to the angiopoietins and may exert a function on endothelial cells through autocrine or paracrine action. GRCh38: ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Elevated testosterone levels during rat pregnancy cause hypersensitivity to angiotensin II and attenuation of endothelium-dependent vasodilation in uterine arteries. AU - Chinnathambi, Vijayakumar. AU - Blesson, Chellakkan S.. AU - Vincent, Kathleen. AU - Saade, George. AU - Hankins, Gary. AU - Yallampalli, Chandra. AU - Sathishkumar, Kunju. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Elevated testosterone levels increase maternal blood pressure and decrease uterine blood flow in pregnancy, resulting in abnormal perinatal outcomes. We tested whether elevated testosterone alters uterine artery adaptations during pregnancy, and whether these alterations depend on endothelium-derived factors such as nitric oxide, endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor, and prostacyclin, or endothelium-independent mechanisms such as angiotensin II (Ang-II). Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with vehicle (n=20) or testosterone propionate (0.5 mg/kg per day from gestation day 15 to 19; n=20). Plasma ...
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The present study was designed to determine whether or not lipoxygenase-dependent metabolites of arachidonic acid are involved in the endothelium-dependent
Three inhibitors of the release or effects of endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF), N-nitro-L-arginine, methylene blue and oxyhemoglobin, caused
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The idea of having the cooling exit duct co-axial with the exhaust outlet was very popular in the early 2000s, and the reason is that the flow of exhaust gases can be used the increase the mass-flow rate through the cooling system, a phenomenon sometimes referred to as aspiration. If you pull the flow out of the cooling system more quickly, you can get the same mass-flow rate for a smaller inlet area, and a smaller inlet provides aerodynamic benefits. This concept was studied by Parra and Kontis in their 2006 paper, Aerodynamic effectiveness of the flow of exhaust gases in a generic formula one car configuration, published in the The Aeronautical Journal ...
The idea of having the cooling exit duct co-axial with the exhaust outlet was very popular in the early 2000s, and the reason is that the flow of exhaust gases can be used the increase the mass-flow rate through the cooling system, a phenomenon sometimes referred to as aspiration. If you pull the flow out of the cooling system more quickly, you can get the same mass-flow rate for a smaller inlet area, and a smaller inlet provides aerodynamic benefits. This concept was studied by Parra and Kontis in their 2006 paper, Aerodynamic effectiveness of the flow of exhaust gases in a generic formula one car configuration, published in the The Aeronautical Journal ...
Ann Holcomb, Biological Factors. Atlanta, Georgia: NEXUS Gallery, 1991. Exhibition catalogue includes statements by the artists ...
Both biological and social/environmental factors have been studied for their impact on sex differences. Separating biological ... and advocates for biological influences generally accept that social factors are also important. Biological differentiation is ... Those differences found are attributed to both social and biological factors. It was once thought that sex differences in ... ISBN 978-0-8166-2444-7. Bancroft, John (February 2002). "Biological factors in human sexuality". Journal of Sex Research. 39 (1 ...
Zeiler M.D, Harzem P. (Eds.) (1983). Biological factors in learning. New York: Wiley. Harzem, P.E. (Ed.)(1981). Predictability ...
... biological and social, protective and risk factors; interactions of biological and social factors; stress; longitudinal as well ... The importance of these refinements of the maternal deprivation hypothesis was to reposition it as a "vulnerability factor" ...
... biological factors may play important role". Cornell University. Retrieved March 20, 2022. Lang, Susan S. (March 30, 2001). " ...
Chemical factors include oxygen and trace elements. Biological factors include grazing and migrations. Upwelling carries ... The spatial distribution of organisms can be controlled by a number of factors. Physical factors include: temperature, ... Due to biological uptake, the photic zone has relatively low levels of nutrient concentrations. As a result, phytoplankton ... It undergoes a series of physical, chemical, and biological processes that supply nutrients into the upper water column. The ...
Biological and physiological factors in cardiovascular disease. Berlin: Springer Verlag, 355-75 (1986). Wesseling KH: Finapres ... Digest of the 10th international conference on medical and biological engineering - Dresden (1973). Wesseling, K. H.; Settels, ...
Most of these factors serve biological functions. For example, the process of satiation helps the organism maintain a stable ... The variable ratio payoff from slot machines and other forms of gambling has often been cited as a factor underlying gambling ... Occasional reinforcement can lead to an even longer delay before behavior extinction due to the learning factor of repeated ... Several experimental findings seem to run counter to two-factor theory. For example, avoidance behavior often extinguishes very ...
Chavira, Michelle (2015). "Re-evaluating temperament: biological and psychological factors". American Journal of Behavioral ... Greeson, Sean; Hoalburrough, Janise (2014). "Temperament and workforce performance: factors, theories and findings". British ... "other factors that have the potential to affect how one socializes." The term isolation is also used to show that oppression is ...
... non-biological factors may also be relevant. Age, with older people more at risk Obesity Asthma Depression or anxiety Post- ... January 2022). "Risk factors and disease profile of post-vaccination SARS-CoV-2 infection in UK users of the COVID Symptom ... Some research suggests this is due primarily to hormonal differences, while other research points to other factors, including ... Several risk factors have been found for long COVID: Gender - Women are more likely to develop long COVID than men. ...
Biological factor in schizophrenia. A. Okasha. Ain shams Medical Journal. 1974 pp. 149-151 1975 30. Psychosocial and ... Interpersonal Factors in the Origin and Course of Affective Disorders". (Expressed emotion in families of a sample of Egyptian ... Ethical Issues in Biological Psychiatry Research Read in WPA intersectional congress Athens 2004. 244. The Family differences ... Biological aspects of addiction editorial. Current Opinion in Psychiatry.1999 208. comments on teaching psychiatry to ...
Dfarhud D, Malmir M, Khanahmadi M (November 2014). "Happiness & Health: The Biological Factors- Systematic Review Article". ... Biological Sciences. 279 (1731): 1161-7. doi:10.1098/rspb.2011.1373. PMC 3267132. PMID 21920973. Boecker, Henning; Sprenger, ... "Posttranslational Modifications of Proopiomelanocortin in Vertebrates and Their Biological Significance". Frontiers in ...
Shnoll Physico-chemical factors of biological evolution. - Moscow: Nauka, 1979. - 263. S. Shnoll Cosmophysical factors in ... He was also author of the books "Physico-chemical factors of biological evolution" (1979) and "Heroes, villains, and ...
... cognitive and biological factors...is shaped at an early age...[and evidence suggests] biological, including genetic or inborn ... Biological theories for explaining the causes of sexual orientation are favored by scientists. These factors, which may be ... Hershberger SL (2001). "Biological Factors in the Development of Sexual Orientation". In D'Augelli AR, Patterson CJ (eds.). ... Daryl Bem, a social psychologist at Cornell University, has theorized that the influence of biological factors on sexual ...
They include socioeconomic, psychological, biological, and behavioral factors. Controversial topics include media violence ... 1979 The concept of the pater familias acted as a unifying factor in extended kin groups, and the later practice of wergild ...
Rossi A, Galetta D, Gridelli C (2009). "Biological prognostic and predictive factors in lung cancer". Oncology. 77 Suppl 1: 90- ... Riely GJ, Politi KA, Miller VA, Pao W (December 2006). "Update on epidermal growth factor receptor mutations in non-small cell ... Shigematsu H, Gazdar AF (January 2006). "Somatic mutations of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway in lung ... Because these variants have differing genetic, biological, and clinical properties, including response to treatment, correct ...
Dfarhud, Dariush; Malmir, Maryam; Khanahmadi, Mohammad (November 2014). "Happiness & Health: The Biological Factors- Systematic ... Despite the influence of exogenic factors on an individual's happiness, endogenic factors have been proven to form the ... researchers broke down the biological foundations into several categories in order to further understand how endogenic factors ... A study between two twins found that 35-50 percent of happiness can be related to genetic factors. Studying happiness can ...
Rossi A, Galetta D, Gridelli C (2009). "Biological prognostic and predictive factors in lung cancer". Oncology. 77 (Suppl 1): ... Riely GJ, Politi KA, Miller VA, Pao W (December 2006). "Update on epidermal growth factor receptor mutations in non-small cell ... September 2010). "Small-cell carcinoma with an epidermal growth factor receptor mutation in a never-smoker with gefitinib- ... October 2008). "Epidermal growth factor receptor mutations in small cell lung cancer". Clin. Cancer Res. 14 (19): 6092-6. doi: ...
2002). Biological Factors of PTSD: neurotransmitters and neuromodulators. Encephale, 28: 241-247. Wagner, M. (2008). The ... Encoding is a biological event that begins with perception. All perceived and striking sensations travel to the brain's ... Human Factors, 5, 19-31. Sperling, G. (1967). Successive approximations to a model for short term memory. Acta Psychologica, 27 ... With advances in technology, the field of neuropsychology emerged and with it a biological basis for theories of encoding. In ...
Notably, this is partly explained by biological factors. For instance, there is a cross-cultural trend that male fetal ... Social factors play a large role in gender disparities in health. One of the main factors that contributes to the decreased ... These factors affect the physical and mental health of an individual. As we know, most of the people living in poverty in the ... However, biological differences do not fully account for the large gender gap in the health outcomes of men and women. ...
"Chemical and Biological Characterization of Corticotropin Releasing Factor". Proceedings of the 1982 Laurentian Hormone ... Corticotropin-releasing factor family, CRF family is a family of related neuropeptides in vertebrates. This family includes ... "Evolution and physiology of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) family of neuropeptides in vertebrates". Gen. Comp. ... found in the teleost caudal neurosecretory system and may play a role in osmoregulation and as a corticotropin-releasing factor ...
Zayed, Adel M.; Terry, Norman (2003-02-01). "Chromium in the environment: factors affecting biological remediation". Plant and ...
Dfarhud D, Malmir M, Khanahmadi M (November 2014). "Happiness & Health: The Biological Factors- Systematic Review Article". ... The factors that explain life satisfaction roughly map (negatively) to those factors that explain misery. They are first and ... independent of factors such as smoking, exercise, body mass index, and socio-economic factors. This could be due to the ... These factors count twice as much as each of whether someone is employed and whether they are a non-criminal, which in turn are ...
... perhaps due to biological factors; and frustration and boredom, say arising from membership of a minority group or through lack ... The presence of these factors determines the level of social control within a community, particularly when it comes to the ... Complementary Factors in the Predatory Behavior of Hoodlums". Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology. 48 (1): 12-17. doi: ...
It stresses mathematics and biological factors in psychological phenomena. It can provide a foundation for clinical psychology ...
Tian XC, Kubota C, Enright B, Yang X (November 2003). "Cloning animals by somatic cell nuclear transfer-biological factors". ... For instance, an iPS cell derived from a blood cell using only the yamanaka factors will be more efficient at differentiating ... Egg cells in MII contain special factors in the cytoplasm that have a special ability in reprogramming implanted somatic cell ... After the somatic cell transfers, the cytoplasmic factors affect the nucleus to become a zygote. The blastocyst stage is ...
Chang BP, Franklin JC, Ribeiro JD, Fox KR, Bentley KH, Kleiman EM, Nock MK (September 2016). "Biological risk factors for ... Therefore, the factor of education probably negatively correlates with the probability of developing a disease of despair (that ... While the disease model of addiction has a strong body of empirical support, there is weak evidence for biological markers of ... Anne Case and Angus Deaton, Deaths of Despair and the Future of Capitalism (2020) The factors that seem to exacerbate diseases ...
Symposium: Obesity in developing countries: biological and ecological factors". J. Nutr. 131 (3): 866S-870S. doi:10.1093/jn/ ... what has caused shifts in these two factors on a global scale is much debated. The correlation between social class and body ... Social context associated with meal-time plays a key role in factors involved with obesity. Studies have shown the effects of ...
... rather than biological, factors; and PMDD was fabricated by pharmaceutical companies for financial gain. Each argument was ... Many studies have noted that a polymorphism of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene (BDNF), a gene that helps support ... Finally, an easily modifiable risk factor for PMDD is cigarette smoking. One meta-analysis found dramatically increased risk of ... PMDD has been reported by menstruating women worldwide, indicating a biological basis that is not geographically selective. ...
Potential risk factors include these cognitive or biological factors. Patients with endogenous depression often are more likely ... Endogenous depression occurs as the results of an internal stressor-commonly cognitive or biological-and not an external factor ... Symptoms vary in severity, type, and frequency and can be attributed to cognitive, social, biological, or environmental factors ... It could be caused by genetic and biological factors. Endogenous depression occurs due to the presence of an internal ( ...
... of unclear biological significance. Mischel and colleagues integrated whole genome sequencing, cytogenetics and structural ... "Oncogene Amplification in Growth Factor Signaling Pathways Renders Cancers Dependent on Membrane Lipid Remodeling". Cell ... "Heterogeneity of epidermal growth factor receptor signalling networks in glioblastoma". Nature Reviews Cancer. 15 (5): 302-310 ...
The main factors affecting the hyporheic exchange are: Underlying aquifer geometry and hydraulic properties Temporal variation ... However, the hyporheic zone is a zone of biological and physical activity, and therefore has functional significance for stream ...
Malik P, Terry TD, Bellintani F, Perham RN (October 1998). "Factors limiting display of foreign peptides on the major coat ... US patent 5866363, Pieczenik G, "Method and means for sorting and identifying biological information", published 1999-02-02 ... Gommans WM, Haisma HJ, Rots MG (December 2005). "Engineering zinc finger protein transcription factors: the therapeutic ... and late sigma factor (gp55) interaction". J Mol Biol. 319 (2): 289-304. doi:10.1016/S0022-2836(02)00298-X. PMID 12051907. ...
Each subunit has three different structural domains: a short N-terminal epidermal growth factor (EGF) domain; an α-helical ... The two 15-HETE stereoisomers have intrinsic biological activities but, perhaps more importantly, can be further metabolized to ... Callan OH, So OY, Swinney DC (February 1996). "The kinetic factors that determine the affinity and selectivity for slow binding ... is a key factor regulating the activity of PGHS-2 and its response to PTGS (COX) inhibitors. PTGS2 (COX-2) is unexpressed under ...
... anthropogenic factors come into play. The nature of those factors cannot, however, be determined with certainty and act in ... A number of biological characteristics of the copper redhorse, such as its longevity, late age of sexual maturity, late ... and the disturbance of spawners on spawning sites all constitute possible factors in the species' decline. The significance of ...
Jenny, Hans (1941). Factors of soil formation-a system of quantitative pedology. McGraw-Hill. Jenny, Hans (1961) E.W. Hilgard ... and potential biota determine the rate at which chemical and biological transformations proceed, and time determines the reach ... Jenny, Hans (1994) Factors of Soil Formation. A System of Quantitative Pedology. New York: Dover Press. (Reprint, with foreword ... In The Soil Resource, Origin and Behaviour (1980), Jenny redefined the soil forming factors as state variables and extended the ...
"Biological Kerker Effect Boosts Light Collection Efficiency in Plants". Nano Letters 19, no. 10 (9 October 2019): 7062-71. ... the form factor). The notable features of these results are the Mie resonances, sizes that scatter particularly strongly or ... The Mie solution is also important for understanding the appearance of common materials like milk, biological tissue and latex ... and biological cells and cellular components, a more detailed approach is necessary. The Mie solution is named after its ...
One factor which isn't considered is the whispered rumor which circulates in our nation's ghettos. It holds that whites are ... but and that these standards of biological fitness deliberately excluded black people, who were claimed to not be capable of ... The Black Panther Party identified a number of injustices as factors which contributed to black genocide, including social ills ... The way in which certain drugs are criminalized also factors into the large disparities in involvement in the prison system ...
The journal is abstracted and indexed in: Academic Search British Education Index CSA Biological Sciences Database CSA ... With this impact factor, BJET continues to rank second globally among generic educational technology journals. "InCites Journal ... the journal has a 2021 impact factor of 5.268, ranking it 23rd out of 267 journals in the category "Education & Educational ...
... biological and mental-health factors." This conclusion supports Surgeon General Satcher's 2001 study (supra). Despite this ... Olson, CK; Kutner, LA; Warner, DE; Almerigi, JB; Baer, L; Nicholi, AM (2007). "Jr, & Beresin EV: Factors correlated with ...
According to a 2022 report from World Animal Protection and the Center for Biological Diversity around 235 million pounds of ... Wolf, Julie; Asrar, Ghassem R.; West, Tristram O. (29 September 2017). "Revised methane emissions factors and spatially ... which was commissioned by the Center for Biological Diversity, asserts that if the U.S. cut its meat consumption by half, it ...
Biological Reviews 64(4), pp. 435-515. doi:10.1111/j.1469-185X.1989.tb00683.x González, Jorge M.; Vinson, S. Bradleigh (2007 ... 29 at the Wayback Machine Potential medical usage Harvested Human Lung Preservation With the Use of Hibernation Trigger Factors ...
Now whether or not the chicken has laid eggs for collection depends on some unknown factors that are hidden. We can however ( ... In the 1980s, HMMs were emerging as a useful tool in the analysis of biological systems and information, and in particular ... Durbin, Richard (23 April 1998). Biological Sequence Analysis: Probabilistic Models of Proteins and Nucleic Acids. Cambridge ...
Many factors can act as facets of the politicization of science. These can range, for example, from populist anti- ... A cornerstone of modern scientific biological theory is that all forms of life on Earth are related by common descent with ... Input from the industry advocacy group Global Climate Coalition was also a factor. In 2006, Guardian columnist George Monbiot ... Pregnancy interruption as a risk factor in tumor incidence". Am J Pathol. 100 (2): 505-506. PMC 1903536. PMID 6773421. "In ...
An example of a PFM from the TRANSFAC database for the transcription factor AP-1: The first column specifies the position, the ... motif is a nucleotide or amino-acid sequence pattern that is widespread and usually assumed to be related to biological ... February 2013). "Evaluation of methods for modeling transcription factor sequence specificity". Nature Biotechnology. 31 (2): ...
DNA fragmentation factor (DFF) is a heterodimeric protein of 40-kD (DFFB) and 45-kD (DFFA) subunits. DFFA is the substrate for ... This biological response is characterized by the chromosomal DNA's degradation in tiny fragments within the nucleus of the cell ... The factor that seems to induce more cell differentiation is caspase-3 protease. This was identified as the penultimate stage ... Liu X, Li P, Widlak P, Zou H, Luo X, Garrard WT, Wang X (July 1998). "The 40-kDa subunit of DNA fragmentation factor induces ...
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 279 (44): 45546-55. doi:10.1074/jbc.M402762200. PMID 15326179. Frimodt-Møller J, Charbon G ... TraM and the integrated host factor IHF. The nicked strand, or T-strand, is then unwound from the unbroken strand and ... Journal of Biological Chemistry. 287 (44): 37458-37471. doi:10.1074/jbc.M112.372052. PMC 3481341. PMID 22942281. Kato J, ...
In 1965 Mammadov Garib successfully left secondary school in Amasia, in 1966 he entered geography-biological faculty of the ... "Influence of ecological factors on accumulation of food elements in a lucerne in the conditions of Azerbaijan". From 1999 to ... "Influence of anthropogenous factors on soils under agricultural and other plants" and "Maps of an ecological assessment and ...
Merfield, Charles N. (November 1999), Industrial hemp and its potential for New Zealand, The Biological Husbandry Unit (BHU) ... cite journal}}: Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) Legros, Sandrine (2013), "Factors affecting the industrial production of ...
Ladd and Spilka's first factor was awareness of self, inward reaching. Their second and third factors were upward reaching ( ... Like all biological systems, the mind is optimised to promote survival and reproduction in the evolutionary environment. On ... Factor analysis was also brought into play by both psychologists and sociologists of religion, to establish a fixed core of ... Prayer in this manner may prepare an individual to carry out positive pro-social behavior after praying, due to factors such as ...
... is otherwise not known to have a biological role in any other organisms. Neodymium metal dust is combustible and ... ISBN 0-8493-0464-4. Werbowy, S., Windholz, L. Studies of Landé gJ-factors of singly ionized neodymium isotopes (142, 143 and ...
A negative factor in their use is that any bomblets that fail to function go on to litter the battlefield in a highly sensitive ... More rarely, others are used to release chemical or biological agents, either on impact or when over the target area; designing ... Common factors include bullet weight, composition, velocity, and shape. There are three basic classes of bullets: Those ... injury Hydrostatic shock Kinetic energy penetrator Stopping power Table of handgun and rifle cartridges Taylor KO factor ...
Li M, Luo F, Tian X, Yin S, Zhou L, Zheng S (2020). "Chemokine-Like Factor-Like MARVEL Transmembrane Domain-Containing Family ... Wu J, Li L, Wu S, Xu B (August 2020). "CMTM family proteins 1-8: roles in cancer biological processes and potential clinical ... These proteins are: chemokine-like factor (i.e. CLF, the founding member of the family) and CEF-like marvel transmembrane ... Duan HJ, Li XY, Liu C, Deng XL (April 2020). "Chemokine-like factor-like MARVEL transmembrane domain-containing family in ...
Although "H. salinarum" is unable to catabolize glucose, the transcription factor TrmB has been proven to regulate the ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 251 (7): 2005-14. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258(17)33647-5. PMID 1270419. Sára, M; Sleytr, U. B ... Horia, Todor; Dulmage, Keely; Gillum, Nicholas; Bain, James; Muehlbauer, Michael; Schmid, Amy (2014). "A transcription factor ... along with algal and other factors, cause the pink color of these lakes. The researchers found 10 species of halophilic ...
The amount of the contribution depends on the biomass, which varies over time and depends on rainfall and other factors. The ... Mary Peet, NCSU Alfalfa living mulch advances biological control of soybean aphid Why I Chose White Clover as a Living Mulch ...
... the histological grading criteria have yet to be fully defined and its biological behavior appears to be variable. This ... gross total resection of the tumor has been the only clinical factor associated overall and progression-free survival. The ...
According to the Journal Citation Reports, the journal has a 2020 impact factor of 1.973. The journal is abstracted and indexed ... "Biological Abstracts - Journal List". Intellectual Property & Science. Clarivate Analytics. Retrieved 2019-01-06. "Master ... Articles with outdated impact factors from 2020, Elsevier academic journals, English-language journals, Publications ... in: Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts Biological Abstracts BIOSIS Previews CAB Abstracts Chemical Abstracts Service ...
These signals are usually in the form of water-soluble messengers such as hormones and growth factors and are detected by ... Series B, Biological Sciences. 293 (1063): 5-22. Bibcode:1981RSPTB.293....5B. doi:10.1098/rstb.1981.0056. PMID 6115423. Pilkis ... Capaldi RA, Aggeler R (March 2002). "Mechanism of the F(1)F(0)-type ATP synthase, a biological rotary motor". Trends in ... Their main structural uses are as part of biological membranes both internal and external, such as the cell membrane. Their ...
If time is the responsible factor, it may be possible to delay cell division in clones, giving time for proper reprogramming to ... Schrader F (1921). "The chromosomes in Pseudococcus nipæ". Biological Bulletin. 40 (5): 259-270. doi:10.2307/1536736. JSTOR ... For example, the gene encoding insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2/Igf2) is only expressed from the allele inherited from the ... Lyon MF, Glenister PH (February 1977). "Factors affecting the observed number of young resulting from adjacent-2 disjunction in ...
The most interesting factor is represented by the coexistence of those small nuclei inside of a cell that contains another ... Series B: Biological Sciences. 267 (1451): 1423-1431. doi:10.1098/rspb.2000.1159. PMC 1690690. PMID 10983826. Petrov, Dmitri A ... In animals they range more than 3,300-fold, and in land plants they differ by a factor of about 1,000. Protist genomes have ... Series B. Biological Sciences. 181 (1063): 109-135. Bibcode:1972RSPSB.181..109B. doi:10.1098/rspb.1972.0042. PMID 4403285. ...
... 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T ...
World Health Organization. Regional Office for the Western Pacific (‎WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific, 1995)‎ ...
Although the biological implications of these data need to be further investigated, we have highlighted the relevance of ... Although the biological implications of these data need to be further investigated, we have highlighted the relevance of ... we sought to investigate mechanisms which may lead to the frequent coexistence of MS and HT by analyzing several factors ... we sought to investigate mechanisms which may lead to the frequent coexistence of MS and HT by analyzing several factors ...
... dc.contributor.author. Motta, Jorge A.. es_ ... Of the biological risk factors, being overweight had the strongest association with DM mortality. Of the socioeconomic risk ... A composite health index (CHI) calculated from biological and socioeconomic risk factors was estimated for each province/ ... Diabetes mortality in Panama and related biological and socioeconomic risk factors. en_US. ...
... biological factors and substance abuse according to KKH. ... can be caused by genetics factors, life experiences, ... Biological factors. Some changes in the brain functioning due to the chemical called neurotransmitters, that transmit ... Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD) - Causes and Risk Factors What causes Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD). Genetic factors ... Home , Patient Care , Conditions and Treatment , Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD) , Causes and Risk Factors ...
Biological factors determine the roles that men and women play in society. Because of the roles the people perform seam fixed. ... Biological factors determine the roles that men and women play in society. Because of the roles the people perform seam fixed. ... These roles are determined by a combination of biological and sociocultural factors. The gender role is born in nature, and it ... The difference of biological is mostly visual; people can determine gender from the obvious facial features. The biological ...
Stopping the Biological Clock - The Lazarus factor and Pulling Life back from the Edge.. Add to your list(s) Download to your ... University of Cambridge , Talks.cam , Cambridge University Longevity Society Talks , Stopping the Biological Clock - The ...
Biological Diversity and Conservation. Biological Diversity and Conservation" publishes original articles on biological ... Keywords: biological diversity, conservation, biotechnology, environment, systematics, ecology, plants, animals, microorganisms ...
Biological and environmental factors affecting the physiological maturity of grass seeds Final report. Main Author:. Eifrig, ...
Identified risk factors for poor biological water quality that could be used to ensure sufficient water quality on-farm were: ... This study aimed to evaluate biological water quality on Western German dairy farms, identify potential risk factors for ... Interpretive Summary: A risk-oriented evaluation of biofilm and other influencing factors on biological quality of drinking ... Interpretive Summary: A risk-oriented evaluation of biofilm and other influencing factors on biological quality of drinking ...
ABF-Advanced Biological Factors) or new, emerging agents pose a significant diagnostic problem using previously applied methods ... Both the known biological agents that cause infectious diseases, as well as modified ( ... Both the known biological agents that cause infectious diseases, as well as modified (ABF-Advanced Biological Factors) or new, ... Microarrays - new possibilities for detecting biological factors hazardous for humans and animals, and for use in environmental ...
Intranuclear trafficking of transcription factors: Implications for biological control. G. S. Stein, A. J. van Wijnen, J. L. ... Dive into the research topics of Intranuclear trafficking of transcription factors: Implications for biological control. ...
The biological activation of fibroblast growth factor receptor in a klotho dependent manner.. Banerjee Mohan* ... Citation: Mohan B. The biological activation of fibroblast growth factor receptor in a klotho dependent manner. J Clin ... Biological function of FGFR. Three immunoglobulin-like domains, an acid box, a transmembrane domain, and a split intracellular ... Fibroblast growth factor 23 and Klotho: Physiology and pathophysiology of an endocrine network of mineral metabolism. Annu Rev ...
Title: Incorporating Biological Knowledge with Factor Graph Neural Network for Interpretable Deep Learning. Authors: Tianle Ma ... We directly encode biological knowledge such as Gene Ontology as a factor graph into the model architecture, making the model ... To address this challenge, we developed the Factor Graph Neural Network model that is interpretable and predictable by ... With parameter sharing mechanism, the unrolled Factor Graph Neural Network model can be trained with stochastic depth and ...
Arvey R, Zhang Z. Applied Psychology: An International Review Special Issue; Biological Factors in Organizational Behavior and ... Applied Psychology : An International Review Special Issue; Biological Factors in Organizational Behavior and I/O Psychology. ... Applied Psychology : An International Review Special Issue; Biological Factors in Organizational Behavior and I/O Psychology. ... Applied Psychology: An International Review Special Issue; Biological Factors in Organizational Behavior and I/O Psychology. ...
... ... Title : Biological factors in the transmission of American arthropod-borne virus encephalitides; a summary Personal Author(s ... Biological factors in the transmission of American arthropod-borne virus encephalitides; a summary ... Arthropod-borne virus encephalitides ; Biological factors in the transmission of arthropod-borne virus encephalitides ; ...
GO: Biological Process QuickGO AmiGO Relationships is a type of: biological regulation positive regulation of developmental ... biological regulation positive regulation of developmental process positive regulation of fibroblast growth factor receptor ... fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling pathway involved in neural plate anterior/posterior pattern formation Show first 5 ... fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling pathway involved in neural plate anterior/posterior pattern formation ...
From these two factors 315 genes associated with cisplatin resistance were selected, 199 genes from the first factor ( False ... From these two factors 315 genes associated with cisplatin resistance were selected, 199 genes from the first factor ( False ... From these two factors 315 genes associated with cisplatin resistance were selected, 199 genes from the first factor ( False ... From these two factors 315 genes associated with cisplatin resistance were selected, 199 genes from the first factor ( False ...
Factors that influence biological age. Telomere length can be used to indicate an individuals biological age (which is ... Whether telomere length is a marker of biological aging or a cause of it remains to be seen. But limiting. the factors that are ... Environmental factors, such as ultraviolet rays, poor diet, and alcohol, as well as psychological factors including stress, are ... These factors cause damage to the DNA in our cells, predisposing us to cancer and other diseases. ...
Biological agent factors * *Virulence factors: adhesion, invasiveness, toxigenesis, production of exoenzymes, antigenic ... Biological Risk Assessment: General Considerations for Laboratories. *Biological Risk Management for Point of Care Testing ... Some factors to consider that can affect the likelihood of an undesirable incident (such as exposure to a biological agent in ... Laboratory/testing environment factors * *Physical infrastructure and existing controls: the type of facility, presence of ...
... of biological factors, heightened susceptibility to exposure can occur because of cultural factors. An example of this is ... Biological/Developmental Factors. Sensitivity to a given toxicant exposure varies with stage of human development. The fetus is ... Among the factors to be considered in these studies are actual or perceived control over the exposure situation or ability to ... Thus, the biological effects of a hazardous waste site may be experienced and reported differently depending on the culture of ...
This is the second factors, which is supposed to play role in personality. The structure of brain determines personality ... This is the second factors, which is supposed to play role in personality. The structure of brain determines personality ...
Gender and tuberculosis : an international research workshop : report from the workshop at the Nordic School of Public Health, Göteborg, May 24-26, 1998 / [editors, Vinod K. Diwan, Anna Thorson, Anna Winkvist]. by Diwan, Vinod Kumar , Thorson, Anna , Winkvist, Anna , International Research Workshop on Gender and Tuberculosis (1998 : Göteborg, Sweden).. Series: NHV report ; 1998:3Material type: ...
... ... Behavioral, socioeconomic, and biological factors could also be associated with increased risk of death due to AIDS. This study ... Biological, behavioral, and socioeconomic factors associated with death from AIDS in Brasília, Brazil, in 2007. Rev. Soc. Bras ... Socioeconomic factors Mortalidade Letalidade Usuários de drogas Distribuição por idade Fatores socioeconômicos ...
... and psychological factors that together contribute to aggression in men. ... While previous research has examined various risk factors (provocation, expectations to behave aggressively, biological factors ... ODea and collaborators Elliot Jardin and Don Saucier explored how social, biological, and psychological factors combine to ... New Research Summary: How do social, biological, and psychological factors lead to violence in men?. ...
Health First Dental applies a biological approach to cavitations. ... The major factors contributing to cavitations are the physical ... Risk Factors of Cavitations. Holistic Dental Treatments Calgary. ...
Interrelationship of birth weight with certain biological & socio-economic factors.. Authors: Das, K. Ganguly, S S. Saha, R. ... Interrelationship of birth weight with certain biological & socio-economic factors. Indian Journal of Public Health. 1981 Jan- ...
Biological Risk Factors for Psychosocial Disorders Rutter, Michael Casaer, Paul Published: December 1991 ...
... takes into account the connections between the Biological, Psychological and Social factors. These factors all have an effect ... Health And Illness Are Affected By Biological Factors. Info: 1616 words (6 pages) Nursing Essay. Published: 11th Feb 2020 ... By understanding the links between biological, psychological and social factors the person gains an element of control. The ... "Health And Illness Are Affected By Biological Factors." nursinganswers.net. 11 2018. Business Bliss Consultants FZE. 12 2022 , ...
Biological Transport; Cell Nucleus; Chromatin; Core Binding Factor Alpha 2 Subunit; DNA-Binding Proteins; *Gene Expression ... factors, the SC-35 RNA-processing factors, nucleolar proteins and components of both transcriptional and DNA replication ... Mechanisms that control the spatial distribution of transcription factors within the three-dimensional context of the nucleus ... These modifications in the intranuclear targeting of transcription factors might abrogate fidelity of gene expression in tumor ...
  • Among these, genetic variants involved in the regulation of NF-kB pathway such as TNFAIP3 and NR42A are prominent risk factors for MS. Enhanced NF-kB activation and greater responsiveness to inflammatory stimuli is an important aspect of MS pathology wherein these genes may play a role ( 14 , 15 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Furthermore, we devised an attention mechanism that can capture multi-scale hierarchical interactions among biological entities such as genes and Gene Ontology terms. (arxiv.org)
  • From these two factors 315 genes associated with cisplatin resistance were selected, 199 genes from the first factor ( False Discovery Rate (FDR): 19%) and 152 ( FDR: 24%) from the second factor, while both gene sets shared 36. (rug.nl)
  • As the author of the book, "Pleased to Meet Me: Genes, Germs, and the Curious Forces That Make Us Who We Are," I have done extensive research into the biological forces that conspire to shape human personality and behavior, including the factors influencing sexual attraction. (culturedplus.com)
  • 2 There is no single gene that causes AUD rather, a combination of genes and other factors contribute to problematic drinking. (alcohol.org)
  • Identification of mutations and polymorphisms in the factor XI genes of an African American family by dideoxyfingerprinting. (medscape.com)
  • We will determine whether the biological pathways which are responsible for lung, liver or bone marrow fibrosis may also lead to scarring in other organs and whether they link expanded clusters of scarring involving the lung, liver, pancreas, kidney, bone marrow, brain, heart, gastrointestinal tract, or whether there are other genes that promote different clusters of scarring disease. (ukri.org)
  • A combination of such activities along with alterations connected with genes and biological factors may trigger BPD. (epainassist.com)
  • Several studies have suggested genetic, epigenetic, environmental, and infectious agents as interacting factors influencing the risk for the development of these disorders. (frontiersin.org)
  • Environmental factors, such as ultraviolet rays, poor diet, and alcohol, as well as psychological factors including stress , are putting our cells at risk of significant damage. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Is obesity biological or environmental? (lowcarbisland.com)
  • In reality, obesity is a multifactorial disease (3) that is caused by a combination of biological, genetic, social, environmental, and behavioral determinants. (lowcarbisland.com)
  • What environmental factors affect obesity? (lowcarbisland.com)
  • Familial, social, and environmental factors appear to play significant roles in the course of depressive illness in children and youths, even in preschool children. (medscape.com)
  • Environmental factors like where a person lives, divorce, education level, and socioeconomic status (SES) all influence drinking behaviors. (alcohol.org)
  • The OSH field grew out of social medicine, which began in the 1800s and studies the social origin of illnesses and how biological, social, and environmental factors interact with one another to influence health [1]. (cdc.gov)
  • However, in many cases, these diseases occur together as they have similar biological and environmental factors. (cmcrc.com)
  • These strong emotions may appear at different times during their development as a result of both biological and environmental factors. (bcparent.ca)
  • Environment plays a role: conflict with family or friends, familial instability, academic or athletic failure, loss of a loved one, bullying, poverty, and chronic illness are some examples of environmental factors that can trigger depressive symptoms. (bcparent.ca)
  • Discusses role of human populations in local ecosystems, factors affecting population growth, and human adaptability to environmental stress. (colorado.edu)
  • Field and laboratory experiments to investigate the key environmental and biological factors of the early life history of the tuna that affect the recruitment of young fish to the exploitable population. (iattc.org)
  • Using substances at an early age is also an environmental factor that causes some people to develop an addiction to alcohol. (harmonyridgerecovery.com)
  • due to climatic, environmental, and behavioral factors, many of these present great potential for (re)emergence and endemic establishment. (scielo.br)
  • It is important to identify the nature of the patient's current and previous jobs, exposure to irritant or allergenic products, and physical environmental factors, such as temperature, humidity, airflow or exposure to ultraviolet light. (medscape.com)
  • However, many scarring clusters are not well recognised (eg lung fibrosis and diabetes) and it is possible that there are completely unknown clusters that may reflect distinct genetic or environmental risk factors for scarring. (ukri.org)
  • The aim of this proposal is to understand how genetic and environmental risk factors interact to promote the development of progressive fibrosis across a number of different organs. (ukri.org)
  • It is associated with aging and metabolic abnormalities that occur in response to a range of known and unknown genetic and environmental factors. (ukri.org)
  • Common genetic, environmental, lifestyle and socioeconomic factors or biological pathways that link these mechanistic clusters aren't readily recognised by conventional disease and organ centred approaches. (ukri.org)
  • Others develop over time caused by a combination of biological, psychological and environmental factors. (ecolifebabies.com)
  • To this point, in masculinity and honor-based literatures, little has been done to connect biological, psychological, and social factors to explain these processes. (division51.net)
  • The Biopsychosocial modal of health care as developed by Engel (J.Ogden, 2012) takes into account the connections between the Biological, Psychological and Social factors. (nursinganswers.net)
  • Successfully addressing health inequities needs a biopsychosocial approach, which considers how biological, psychological, and social factors interact to affect worker health [4]. (cdc.gov)
  • Health psychologists specialize in how biological, psychological and social factors affect health and illness. (thumbtack.com)
  • This means understanding the biological, psychological and social factors that are affecting our emotional well-being. (who.int)
  • Risk factors for developing kleptomania include biological, psychological and social factors. (essayholic.com)
  • IL-2 is a potent lymphoid cell growth factor which exerts its biological activity primarily on T cells, promoting proliferation and maturation. (biolegend.com)
  • Tumor necrosis factor superfamily 14 (TNFSF14) (LIGHT) is an interesting costimulatory molecule associated with T lymphocyte activation, and it mainly exerts its biological effects by binding to its receptors herpesvirus invasion mediator (HVEM) and lymphotoxin-ß receptor. (bvsalud.org)
  • The biological activation of fibroblast growth factor receptor in a klotho dependent manner. (alliedacademies.org)
  • The diverse, complicated, and functional importance of FGFR signalling is highlighted by the pleiotropic effects of fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), the ubiquitous expression of all seven signalling FGF receptors (FGFRs) throughout the body, and the dramatic phenotypes demonstrated by several FGF/R knockout mice. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling pathway involved in neural plate anterior/posterior pattern formation. (zfin.org)
  • The present study was performed to investigate the effect of N-desulfated heparin on basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) expression, tumor angiogenesis and metastasis of gastric carcinoma. (hindawi.com)
  • Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) are the main factors promoting angiogenesis [ 7 , 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Fibroblast growth factor-basic (FGF) (Sigma cat. (researchsquare.com)
  • OBJECTIVE: To estimate mortality from diabetes mellitus (DM) for the period 2001-2011 in the Republic of Panama, by province/indigenous territory, and determine its relationship with biological and socioeconomic risk factors. (paho.org)
  • Linear regression analyses were performed to determine the relationship between DM mortality and biological and socioeconomic risk factors. (paho.org)
  • A composite health index (CHI) calculated from biological and socioeconomic risk factors was estimated for each province/indigenous territory in Panama. (paho.org)
  • Of the biological risk factors, being overweight had the strongest association with DM mortality. (paho.org)
  • Of the socioeconomic risk factors, earning less than US$ 100 per month had the strongest association with DM mortality. (paho.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Regional disparities in the association between DM mortality and DM risk factors reaffirm the heterogeneous composition of the Panamanian population and the uneven distribution of biological and social determinant risk factors in the country and point to the need to vary management strategies by geographic area for this important cause of disability and death in Panama. (paho.org)
  • Excessive use of caffeine, alcohol, tobacco smoking have been established as a risk factor for developing anxiety disorders. (kkh.com.sg)
  • Although water is recognized as one of the most important nutrients for dairy cows, only limited research on its quality and potential risk factors for quality impairments is available. (asas.org)
  • This study aimed to evaluate biological water quality on Western German dairy farms, identify potential risk factors for impairment, and evaluate rapid test systems to score the hygienic status of troughs. (asas.org)
  • Identified risk factors for poor biological water quality that could be used to ensure sufficient water quality on-farm were: high-volume troughs, plastic or cast iron as trough material, a lower distance to the milking parlor, heavy visible soiling, biofilm formation, and high ambient and high water temperatures. (asas.org)
  • The risk assessment should include considerations about the hazards (e.g., biological agent), the specific processes and procedures, existing control measures, the facility and testing environment, and the competency of the testing personnel. (cdc.gov)
  • the consequences of risk considers factors that affect the severity of an incident after it has occurred. (cdc.gov)
  • Non-adherence to treatment and delayed diagnosis appear to be the main factors that increase the risk of death from AIDS. (unifesp.br)
  • Behavioral, socioeconomic, and biological factors could also be associated with increased risk of death due to AIDS. (unifesp.br)
  • RESULTS: The factors that were associated with an increased risk of death were intravenous drug use, age 50 years or more, and residing in a region whose residents have low per capita income. (unifesp.br)
  • While previous research has examined various risk factors (provocation, expectations to behave aggressively, biological factors, lack of social support) that might contribute to reactive and/or retaliatory aggression separately, their combination (additive or even multiplicative) could help explain why so many violent aggressors in society are young men. (division51.net)
  • Is obesity a biological risk factor? (lowcarbisland.com)
  • What are examples of biological risk factors? (lowcarbisland.com)
  • Some of these biological risk factors include chromosomal and chemical abnormalities, genetic predisposition, medical illness, poor response to medication, poor sleep, substance abuse, brain damage, and already having a mental health disorder. (lowcarbisland.com)
  • What are the risk factors of obesity? (lowcarbisland.com)
  • It is the way the brain responds to alcohol and drug use that determines the Biological Risk Factors. (sahyogclinic.com)
  • Aging is the main risk factor for vascular disease and ensuing cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events, the leading causes of death worldwide. (jacc.org)
  • Modern risk stratification includes both clinical and biological features. (haematologica.org)
  • Adverse biological risk factors for central nervous system relapse include presence of translocations of MYC , BCL2 and/or BCL6 , in so-called double- or triple-hit lymphoma. (haematologica.org)
  • This part deals with risk factors for prematurity. (who.int)
  • The study revealed that low educational level of fathers and parental smoking were significant risk factors for prematurity. (who.int)
  • Other risk factors were identified. (who.int)
  • Successful prevention depends on knowledge of causation and identification of risk factors. (who.int)
  • This second part of the study was carried out to reveal the relation between some risk factors and the problem of prematurity. (who.int)
  • On the other hand, maternal education was a statistically insignificant risk factor for prematurity. (who.int)
  • 1 In fact, even when raised by guardians without a history of AUD, children from biological parents with AUD were still three to four times more at risk. (alcohol.org)
  • 5 These elements can be called protective factors and help decrease the risk of AUD even when family history or low childhood SES are taken into account. (alcohol.org)
  • Objectives: To evaluate the association between biological risk factors, home affordances, and infant motor development. (ijmrhs.com)
  • Typical biological risk factors like gestation and birth weight are highly associated with motor development similarly some home environment factors like availability of space, parental interaction, and motor toys significantly affect infant motor development. (ijmrhs.com)
  • Conclusion: Biological risk factors significantly influence an infant's motor development, similarly the home environment plays a key role to improve motor development that could be modified to meet the requirement of infants with high biological risk factors. (ijmrhs.com)
  • Rugeri L, Quélin F, Chatard B, De Mazancourt P, Negrier C, Dargaud Y. Thrombin generation in patients with factor XI deficiency and clinical bleeding risk. (medscape.com)
  • Type A behavior, stress, hostility and anger have all been implicated as heart disease risk factors. (ishn.com)
  • Our team is leading a multi-country network of clinical research centers from Sub-Saharan Africa, South East Asia, the UK, and the USA dedicated to identifying risk factors that increase mortality, hospital readmission, and poor recovery in children who are malnourished and suffering from acute infection. (washington.edu)
  • Therefore, it would be fascinating if we can understand these factors from the patients' medical history and predict the risk of chronic diseases based on that. (cmcrc.com)
  • Risk factors for suicide in later life. (bvsalud.org)
  • This strategy tree analysis determined that among several possible risk is based on the assumption that Leishmania donovani , the factors for Leishmania infection among persons, proximity etiologic agent of VL, is transmitted from person to person of Leishmania spp. (cdc.gov)
  • clusions have been drawn with regard to animals as risk factors or reservoir hosts. (cdc.gov)
  • In contrast, the proximity to a VL-infected person is a major risk factor for VL ( 6 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The diagnosis of CD depends on patient history, clinical examination, exposure assessment (including hazard identification, estimation of dermal exposure and risk characterization), analysis of all predisposing and contributory factors, and comprehensive diagnostic testing. (medscape.com)
  • Howells, C and West, AK and Chung, RS, Neuronal growth-inhibitory factor (metallothionein-3): evaluation of the biological function of growth-inhibitory factor in the injured and neurodegenerative brain , The F E B S Journal, 277, (14) pp. 2931-2939. (edu.au)
  • Neuronal growth-inhibitory factor, later renamed metallothionein-3, is one of four members of the mammalian metallothionein family. (edu.au)
  • Although neuronal growth-inhibitory factor shares metal-binding and reactive oxygen species scavenging properties with the other metallothioneins, it displays several distinct biological properties. (edu.au)
  • In this review, we examine the recent developments regarding the function of neuronal growth-inhibitory factor within the brain, particularly in response to brain injury or during neurodegenerative disease progression. (edu.au)
  • Human neuronal growth inhibitory factor (hGIF) is able to inhibit the outgrowth of neurons. (elsevier.com)
  • abstract = "Background: Factor analysis ( FA) has been widely applied in microarray studies as a data-reduction-tool without any a-priori assumption regarding associations between observed data and latent structure ( Exploratory Factor Analysis).A disadvantage is that the representation of data in a reduced set of dimensions can be difficult to interpret, as biological contrasts do not necessarily coincide with single dimensions. (rug.nl)
  • The first step in the diagnosis of CD is a comprehensive and standardized anamnesis that covers the clinical evolution of the dermatitis and all possible etiological factors ( Box 1 ). (medscape.com)
  • Considered as a multifactorial condition, the knowledge of chemical, biological and behavioral etiological factors is essential for erosion understanding [6,7]. (bvsalud.org)
  • Nuclear proteins that are localized in discrete domains within the nucleus include the leukemia-associated acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and promyelocytic leukemia (PML) factors, the SC-35 RNA-processing factors, nucleolar proteins and components of both transcriptional and DNA replication complexes. (umassmed.edu)
  • Aside from its anticoagulant action, heparin binds to various growth factors, cytokines, and extracellular proteins and consequently is able to affect migration of cancer cells and angiogenesis in tumors. (hindawi.com)
  • Genetics, personality, personal choices, and psychological components are examples of internal factors that might influence alcohol use. (alcohol.org)
  • The biological sciences, or the life sciences, encompass a broad spectrum of subjects from molecular biology to ecology as well as such disciplines as biochemistry, biophysics, genetics and physiology. (brocku.ca)
  • Scientists now know that many factors - including physical exercise , sleep , depression , and certain gene mutations - are associated with reduced telomere length, and, by extension, can lead to premature biological aging. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • CDC 's Divi sion of Laboratory Systems knows that incidents involving biological, chemical, physical, and radiological hazards can have a significant impact on the safety and health of those who work in laborator y settings. (cdc.gov)
  • The major factors contributing to cavitations are the physical, bacterial, and toxic components of dental trauma. (healthfirstdental.com)
  • The biological factors include genetic, hereditary factors, physical appearance and physique and rate of maturation. (lowcarbisland.com)
  • These agents may be biological (specific viruses or bacteria), physical (ultraviolet light, x-rays) or chemical. (cancer.org.au)
  • The model focuses mainly on isolating and removing a single biological or physical factor that may contribute to an injury or illness [2,3,4]. (cdc.gov)
  • The term psychosomatic disorder is mostly used to mean "a physical disease that is thought to be reason, or made worse, by mental factors. (serenitymindcare.com)
  • The term is also used when mental factors reason physical indication but where there is no physical disease. (serenitymindcare.com)
  • Some physical diseases are thought to be prone to be made worse by mental factors such as stress and anxiety. (serenitymindcare.com)
  • Physical indications that are reason by mental factors are also called somatization or somatoform disorders. (serenitymindcare.com)
  • A broad range of physical diseases and situation may be especially prone to being made worse by mental factors. (serenitymindcare.com)
  • Events connected with physical abuse, sexual abuse and emotions are seen as the prime factors. (epainassist.com)
  • Certain cultural and social factors can contribute to alcohol misuse. (alcohol.org)
  • Often, these groups may not have worker protections to lessen their risks because of social factors like immigration status, and this makes them less likely to receive worker rights and benefits granted to them by law. (cdc.gov)
  • Among the important social factors are a set of traits that tend to be more common in men than in women. (ishn.com)
  • Although the biological implications of these data need to be further investigated, we have highlighted the relevance of studies comparing different autoimmune pathologies for the understanding of the core concepts of autoimmunity. (frontiersin.org)
  • The structure of tumour necrosis factor--implications for biological function. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In the present study, we sought to investigate mechanisms which may lead to the frequent coexistence of MS and HT by analyzing several factors related to the pathogenesis of MS and HT in patients affected by one or both diseases, as well as in healthy donors. (frontiersin.org)
  • Both the known biological agents that cause infectious diseases, as well as modified (ABF-Advanced Biological Factors) or new, emerging agents pose a significant diagnostic problem using previously applied methods, both classical, as well as based on molecular biology methods. (aaem.pl)
  • At BRICS, scientists use state-of-the-art methods to look at biological cells and record the status of highly complex metabolic networks holistically and precisely. (idw-online.de)
  • With the help of computer-assisted, bioinformatic methods, they identify those factors that cause biological systems to become unbalanced - and thus lead to diseases. (idw-online.de)
  • Due to its protective potential, saliva has been described as an important factor that influences the prevention and development of dental erosion [7-10]. (bvsalud.org)
  • Composite materials used in dentistry indicate adverse biological effects in laboratory conditions. (aaem.pl)
  • These modifications in the intranuclear targeting of transcription factors might abrogate fidelity of gene expression in tumor cells by influencing the spatial organization and/or assembly of machineries involved in the synthesis and processing of gene transcripts. (umassmed.edu)
  • If the presence of tumor is confirmed, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor type 2 (HER2) expression/amplification should be evaluated. (cancer.gov)
  • Tumor size, lymph node involvement, and grade are anatomical prognostic factors, while estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER2 status are predictive of response to therapy. (cancer.gov)
  • During tumor-associated angiogenesis, the balance of angiogenesis stimulators and inhibitors is tipped in favor of angiogenesis by hypoxia-inducible factor-1 gene expression [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In the category of biological factors, age gender, marital status, race, disability and sexual transmitted infections are described. (lowcarbisland.com)
  • What is the 5 important biological factors that you need in order to live? (lowcarbisland.com)
  • The most important biological component of estuaries are the areas in which grasses, worms, shellfish and other organisms collectively form ecosystems called salt marshes . (earthjournalism.net)
  • The program is designed to provide the student with a broad base in modern biological thought, to fulfill the basic requirements for admission to professional and advanced degree studies and to prepare graduates for careers in the biological sciences and related fields. (brocku.ca)
  • The honours year provides students with the opportunity for either broadening their understanding of the biological sciences or for increased specialization. (brocku.ca)
  • Students must apply to the Department of Biological Sciences in order to be admitted to year 4 (honours). (brocku.ca)
  • Prerequisite requirements are strictly enforced in Biological Sciences courses. (brocku.ca)
  • A quantitative, cross-sectional study was conducted to analyze notification forms of occupational accidents with biological material in municipalities in southern Brazil , from 2014 to 2019. (bvsalud.org)
  • The subnuclear organization of nucleic acids and cognate regulatory factors suggests that there are functional interrelationships between nuclear structure and gene expression. (umassmed.edu)
  • Factors Affecting Airflow inside the BSC demonstrates how Airflow in a biological safety cabinet or BSC can be interrupted, altered, and changed by many different factors. (cdc.gov)
  • A new study builds on existing evidence suggesting that hand grip strength is a biomarker of biological age. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The currently available evidence points to a region of biological importance situated at the interface between two subunits on the lower half of the trimer. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Does the evidence from the biological perspective confirm or reject information from different perspectives (trait, psychodynamic, phenomenological)?Which of these biological factors do you believe has had an effect on your own personality development? (homeworkprowriters.com)
  • There is strong evidence that BPD is connected with biological factors. (epainassist.com)
  • To analyze and quantify the factors influencing this evolution, such as the optimization of the biological drugs, the use of biosimilars, and official discounts and discounts obtained after negotiated procedures. (reumatologiaclinica.org)
  • To analyze the socioeconomic and behavioral factors associated with the presence of dental plaque on the occlusal surface of first permanent molars of schoolchildren. (bvsalud.org)
  • The aim is to analyze factors associated with the non-use of PPE by workers affected by occupational accidents with biological material. (bvsalud.org)
  • Biological vascular aging can be targeted by behavioral and pharmacological interventions. (jacc.org)
  • Propolis has plenty of biological and pharmacological properties and its mechanisms of action have been widely investigated in the last years, using different experimental models in vitro and in vivo. (blogspot.com)
  • It depends on a complex mix of biological, social and behavioral factors. (ishn.com)
  • As for behavioral factors, smoking, drinking and drug abuse are traditionally male problems. (ishn.com)
  • Mechanisms that control the spatial distribution of transcription factors within the three-dimensional context of the nucleus may involve the sorting of regulatory information, as well as contribute to the assembly and activity of sites that support gene expression. (umassmed.edu)
  • Molecular, cellular, genetic and biochemical approaches have identified distinct protein segments, termed intranuclear-targeting signals, that are responsible for directing regulatory factors to specific subnuclear sites. (umassmed.edu)
  • Gene rearrangements that remove or alter intranuclear-targeting signals are prevalent in leukemias and have been linked to altered localization of regulatory factors within the nucleus. (umassmed.edu)
  • Medications for prophylaxis and treatment of bleeding in patients with factor XI deficiency include fresh frozen plasma and antifibrinolytic agents. (medscape.com)
  • Biological factors include the fact that, compared with men, women have substantially higher levels of HDL (good) cholesterol, which protects against heart disease. (ishn.com)
  • Factors that show that someone is depressed include having a low mood for a prolonged amount of time, having anxiety, having distress, feeling unmotivated, and frequency of these feelings. (howtotrainthedog.com)
  • The number of immunocompromised patients is increasing due to factors such as increase in number of transplants and therapeutic approaches with biological and chemotherapeutic agents. (scielo.br)
  • There are a number of factors that play a part in the occurrence of depressive symptoms. (bcparent.ca)
  • Archived Articles (old blog) 36 Lupu F, Terwilliger JD, Lee K, Segre GV, Efstratiadis A: results of shop modification of radiation response cytokines growth factors and other biological ability and insight bureaus consistency in portrait exciting bottom. (zarska.com)
  • Stem cells and their progeny, from all ages of the CNS, can be stimulated to proliferate when they are exposed to growth factors in tissue culture 1 . (researchsquare.com)
  • SFM is filtered with a 0.22µm pore size filter after the addition of the components, with the exception of the growth factors (EGF, FGF), B-27 and ITSS which are added to the sterile SFM. (researchsquare.com)
  • This review summarizes the current knowledge on biological age biomarkers, factors influencing biological aging, and antiaging interventions, with a focus on vascular aspects of the aging process and its cardiovascular disease related manifestations. (jacc.org)
  • Biological vascular age should be used to select individuals for early prevention of cardiovascular disease. (jacc.org)
  • Objective: To investigate the effects of down-regulation of Krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5) on biological functions of rat intestinal epithelial cells IEC-6 in response to ionizing radiation. (elsevier.com)
  • The comparison revealed biological signs of chronic stress consisting of increased blood pressure (elevations were subclinical) and higher than normal levels of urinary cortisol and norepinephrine metabolites. (cdc.gov)
  • Chronic protection out of personal factors denies the kid extremely important potential having corrective experiences that might contradict their negative presumptions, opportunities to grasp his or her anxiety within the awkward circumstances, and chances to learn how to effortlessly browse developmentally suitable social affairs. (parkingberiain.com)
  • What are the biological factors that influence personality development? (lowcarbisland.com)
  • what factors the biological perspective points to as influential in personality development. (homeworkprowriters.com)
  • As you read the chapter and watch the video, consider what factors the biological perspective points to as influential in personality development.Next, in your initial post to the discussion board, answer the following questions:How does the biological perspective fit into the theories you have already learned about? (homeworkprowriters.com)
  • https://homeworkprowriters.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/01/Homeworkprowriters-logo-300x70.png 0 0 Joseph https://homeworkprowriters.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/01/Homeworkprowriters-logo-300x70.png Joseph 2021-02-10 23:53:22 2021-02-10 23:53:22 what factors the biological perspective points to as influential in personality development. (homeworkprowriters.com)
  • These roles are determined by a combination of biological and sociocultural factors. (cram.com)
  • There are many factors that can cause a person to chronically abuse alcohol to the point of addiction. (harmonyridgerecovery.com)
  • One psychological factor that often causes people to develop an addiction to alcohol is past trauma. (harmonyridgerecovery.com)
  • These factors all have an effect on each other, to demonstrate the interactions between the biological, psychological and social aspects an example will be used. (nursinganswers.net)
  • It was also shown that the acidic insert could regulate the interdomain interactions in hGIF, leading to the structural change in the β-domain, which resulted in the alteration of the solvent accessibility and metal release ability, thus playing an important role in the biological activity of hGIF. (elsevier.com)
  • Analysis of AMT in biological fluids requires a sensitive and selective analytical method. (cdc.gov)
  • Biological and Cultural factors in human evolution: Homozinization Process: Homozinization process is the evolutionary transformation of hominoids into hominids. (kupdf.net)
  • Overview of the evolution of human diet and ecological and cultural factors shaping modern diets. (colorado.edu)
  • Analyzes ecological, social, and cultural factors leading to hunger and undernutrition, as well as biological and behavioral consequences of undernutrition. (colorado.edu)
  • Treatment choices are guided by patient factors and clinical circumstances. (medscape.com)
  • Wheeler AP, Gailani D. Why factor XI deficiency is a clinical concern. (medscape.com)
  • This disparity appeared to persist after accounting for clinical characteristics, treatment factors, and access to care, suggesting that biological factors and treatment efficacy may play a role. (cancer.gov)
  • Dermatitis is related to various factors and causes such as infection, consumption of drugs and food, psychosomatic, and exposure to chemicals. (hbsra.org)
  • During hepatitis virus infection, TNFSF14 acts as a proinflammatory factor, participates in inflammation and causes tissue damage. (bvsalud.org)
  • To investigate the potential structural and biological significance of the EAAEAE(55-60) insert, several mutants were constructed and investigated in detail. (elsevier.com)
  • Karczmarczyk M, Bartoszcze M. DNA microarrays - new tool in the identification of biological agents. (aaem.pl)
  • Provides laboratory-based research experience in selected areas of biological anthropology. (colorado.edu)
  • Area of emphasis within biological anthropology will depend on instructor. (colorado.edu)
  • The observation that individuals do not age at the same pace led to the concept of biological aging, also called functional or physiological aging. (jacc.org)