A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Endogenously-synthesized compounds that influence biological processes not otherwise classified under ENZYMES; HORMONES or HORMONE ANTAGONISTS.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
Treatment of diseases with biological materials or biological response modifiers, such as the use of GENES; CELLS; TISSUES; organs; SERUM; VACCINES; and humoral agents.
Warfare involving the use of living organisms or their products as disease etiologic agents against people, animals, or plants.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Biological activities and function of the whole organism in human, animal, microorgansims, and plants, and of the biosphere.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Comprehensive, methodical analysis of complex biological systems by monitoring responses to perturbations of biological processes. Large scale, computerized collection and analysis of the data are used to develop and test models of biological systems.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The physiological mechanisms that govern the rhythmic occurrence of certain biochemical, physiological, and behavioral phenomena.
Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.
One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The ratio of radiation dosages required to produce identical change based on a formula comparing other types of radiation with that of gamma or roentgen rays.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Organisms, biological agents, or biologically-derived agents used strategically for their positive or adverse effect on the physiology and/or reproductive health of other organisms.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Living organisms or their toxic products that are used to cause disease or death of humans during WARFARE.
The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
An interdisciplinary science concerned with studies of the biological bases of behavior - biochemical, genetic, physiological, and neurological - and applying these to the understanding and treatment of mental illness.
The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.
Biological processes, properties, and characteristics of the whole organism in human, animal, microorganisms, and plants, and of the biosphere.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Facilities that collect, store, and distribute tissues, e.g., cell lines, microorganisms, blood, sperm, milk, breast tissue, for use by others. Other uses may include transplantation and comparison of diseased tissues in the identification of cancer.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Graphs representing sets of measurable, non-covalent physical contacts with specific PROTEINS in living organisms or in cells.
The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.
Human or animal tissue used as temporary wound coverings.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Drugs that are used to treat RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Cellular processes, properties, and characteristics.
The procedures involved in combining separately developed modules, components, or subsystems so that they work together as a complete system. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
The fundamental, structural, and functional units or subunits of living organisms. They are composed of CYTOPLASM containing various ORGANELLES and a CELL MEMBRANE boundary.
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A field of biological research combining engineering in the formulation, design, and building (synthesis) of novel biological structures, functions, and systems.
The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.
Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Liquid components of living organisms.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
An interdisciplinary field in materials science, ENGINEERING, and BIOLOGY, studying the use of biological principles for synthesis or fabrication of BIOMIMETIC MATERIALS.
Use of sophisticated analysis tools to sort through, organize, examine, and combine large sets of information.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
In INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, machine-sensing or identification of visible patterns (shapes, forms, and configurations). (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.

Charybdotoxin and apamin block EDHF in rat mesenteric artery if selectively applied to the endothelium. (1/1056)

In rat mesenteric artery, endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) is blocked by a combination of apamin and charybdotoxin (ChTX). The site of action of these toxins has not been established. We compared the effects of ChTX and apamin applied selectively to the endothelium and to the smooth muscle. In isometrically mounted arteries, ACh (0.01-10 micrometers), in the presence of indomethacin (2.8 microM) and Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (100 microM), concentration dependently relaxed phenylephrine (PE)-stimulated tone (EC50 50 nM; n = 10). Apamin (50 nM) and ChTX (50 nM) abolished this relaxation (n = 5). In pressurized arteries, ACh (10 microM), applied intraluminally in the presence of indomethacin (2.8 microM) and L-NAME (100 microM), dilated both PE-stimulated (0.3-0.5 microM; n = 5) and myogenic tone (n = 3). Apamin (50 nM ) and ChTX (50 nM) applied intraluminally abolished ACh-induced dilatations. Bath superperfusion of apamin and ChTX did not affect ACh-induced dilatations of either PE-stimulated (n = 5) or myogenic tone (n = 3). This is the first demonstration that ChTX and apamin act selectively on the endothelium to block EDHF-mediated relaxation.  (+info)

Endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization in resting and depolarized mammary and coronary arteries of guinea-pigs. (2/1056)

1. The membrane potential responses in guinea-pig coronary and mammary arteries attributable to endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin (PG) and hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF), and to exogenous NO and the prostacyclin analogue, iloprost, were compared at rest and when depolarized with the thromboxane analogue, U46619. 2. In the coronary artery, stimulation of the endothelium with acetylcholine (ACh) evoked hyperpolarization attributable to NO and a PG with similar pD2s at rest and in the presence of U46619. However, in depolarized tissues, the pD2 of the response attributed to EDHF required a 10 fold lower concentration of ACh compared with at rest. 3. In the mammary artery, lower concentrations of ACh were required to evoke NO- and EDHF-dependent hyperpolarizations in depolarized mammary artery compared with at rest, while PG-dependent hyperpolarization did not occur until the concentration of ACh was increased some 10 fold both at rest and in U46619. 4. The smooth muscle of the coronary artery of guinea-pigs was some 4 fold more sensitive to exogenous NO and iloprost than was the mammary artery. 5. In conclusion, the membrane potential response in arteries at rest, that is, in the absence of constrictor, may be extrapolated to events in the presence of constrictor when NO and PG are under study. However, the sensitivity to ACh and the magnitude of the hyperpolarization attributed to EDHF obtained in tissues at rest may underestimate these parameters in depolarized tissues.  (+info)

Effects of Aspergillus fumigatus culture filtrate on antifungal activity of human phagocytes in vitro. (3/1056)

BACKGROUND: Aspergillus fumigatus can colonise the airways and the lungs with localised underlying conditions and occasionally invade the surrounding lung tissues even in subjects without systemic predisposing factors, presumably by escaping the local host defences. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of A fumigatus culture filtrate (ACF) on the activities of human phagocytes--inhibition of germination of A fumigatus spores by alveolar macrophages (AMs) and hyphal damage by polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs)--which are the critical host defences against A fumigatus. METHODS: Spores were incubated with AMs at a ratio of 1:1 in a medium containing different concentrations of ACF for 10 hours at 37 degrees C. Spore germination was visualised with light microscopy and the inhibition rate was calculated. The percentage of hyphal damage caused by PMNs pretreated with various concentrations of ACF was measured by a colorimetric tetrazolium metabolic assay. RESULTS: The inhibition rate of spore germination by AMs cultured with medium alone (control) was 90 (0.8)% whereas that by AMs cultured with the medium containing 10% ACF was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced to 41.7 (4.6)%. ACF suppressed the inhibition of spore germination in a dose dependent manner without altering the phagocytosing activity against the spores. The percentage of hyphal damage caused by PMNs pretreated with medium-199 (control) was 78.1 (2.3)% compared with 65.3 (2.8)% when PMNs were pretreated with 50% ACF (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: A fumigatus releases biologically active substance(s) which suppress the inhibition of spore germination by AMs and also suppress PMN mediated hyphal damage, and thus may contribute to the pathogenicity of this fungus.  (+info)

Inhibition of the production of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor by cannabinoid receptor agonists. (4/1056)

1. The endogenous cannabinoid, anandamide, has been reported to induce an 'endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF)-like' relaxation in vitro. We therefore investigated the effects of cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonists; HU 210, delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC) and anandamide, and a CB1 antagonist/inverse agonist, SR 141716A, on nitric oxide (NO) and EDHF-mediated relaxation in precontracted rings of porcine coronary, rabbit carotid and mesenteric arteries. 2. In rings of mesenteric artery HU 210 and delta9-THC induced endothelium- and cyclo-oxygenase-independent relaxations which were sensitive to SR 141716A. Anandamide (0.03-30 microM) induced a slowly developing, endothelium-independent relaxation which was abolished by diclofenac and was therefore mediated by cyclo-oxygenase product(s). None of the CB1 agonists tested affected the tone of precontracted rings of rabbit carotid or porcine coronary artery. 3. In endothelium-intact segments, HU 210, delta9-THC and anandamide did not affect NO-mediated responses but under conditions of continuous NO synthase/cyclo-oxygenase blockade, significantly inhibited acetylcholine and bradykinin-induced relaxations which are attributed to the production of EDHF. The effects of HU 210 and delta9-THC were not observed when experiments were performed in the presence of SR 141716A suggesting the involvement of the CB1 receptor. 4. In a patch clamp bioassay of EDHF production, HU 210 decreased the EDHF-mediated hyperpolarization of detector smooth muscle cells when applied to the donor segment but was without effect on the membrane potential of detector cells. The inhibition of EDHF production was unrelated to alterations in Ca2+ -signalling or cytochrome P450 activity. 5. These results suggest that the activation of endothelial CB1 receptors appears to be negatively coupled to the production of EDHF.  (+info)

Proinflammatory mediators chronically downregulate the formation of the endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor in arteries via a nitric oxide/cyclic GMP-dependent mechanism. (5/1056)

BACKGROUND: Endothelium-dependent dilator responses mediated by NO and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) are altered in arteriosclerosis and sepsis. The possibility that proinflammatory mediators that stimulate the expression of inducible NO synthase (NOS II) affect the generation of EDHF was examined in isolated arteries. METHODS AND RESULTS: Under combined blockade of NOS and cyclooxygenase, EDHF-mediated relaxation elicited by several agonists was significantly attenuated in rabbit carotid and porcine coronary arteries exposed to cytokines and lipopolysaccharide. The blunted relaxation was coincident with NOS II expression and was prevented by inhibition of NOS II as well as of global protein synthesis. The NO donor CAS 1609 and 8-bromo-cGMP mimicked the proinflammatory mediator effect. In contrast, long-term blockade of endothelial NO generation increased the relaxation in carotid but not in coronary arteries. Proinflammatory mediators reduced the synthesis of EDHF assessed as hyperpolarization of vascular smooth muscle cells elicited by the effluent from bradykinin-stimulated coronary arteries. Proinflammatory mediators induced NOS II expression in cultured endothelial cells and decreased the expression of cytochrome P450 enzymes, which are the most probable candidates for the synthesis of EDHF. CONCLUSIONS: Proinflammatory mediators inhibit the formation of EDHF in isolated arteries. This impairment is coincident with NOS II expression in the arterial wall and seems to be mediated through the induced generation of NO, which downregulates the putative EDHF-forming enzyme. Thus, a decreased formation of EDHF may contribute to the endothelial dysfunction in arteriosclerosis and sepsis.  (+info)

A cytosolic factor is required for mitochondrial cytochrome c efflux during apoptosis. (6/1056)

Treatment of HL-60 cells with staurosporine (STS) induced mitochondrial cytochrome c efflux into the cytosol, which was followed by caspase-3 activation and apoptosis. Consistent with these observations, in vitro experiments demonstrated that, except for cytochrome c, the cytosol of HL-60 cells contained sufficient amounts of all factors required for caspase-3 activation. In contrast, treatment of HCW-2 cells (an apoptotic-resistant HL-60 subclone) with STS failed to induce significant amounts of mitochondrial cytochrome c efflux, caspase-3 activation, and apoptosis. In vitro assays strongly suggested that a lack of cytochrome c in the cytosol was the primary limiting factor for caspase-3 activation in HCW-2 cells. To explore the mechanism which regulates mitochondrial cytochrome c efflux, we developed an in vitro assay which showed that cytosolic extracts from STS-treated, but not untreated, HL-60 cells contained an activity, which we designated 'CIF' (cytochrome c-efflux inducing factor), which rapidly induced cytochrome c efflux from HL-60 mitochondria. In contrast, there was no detectable CIF activity in STS-treated HCW-2 cells although the mitochondria from HCW-2 cells were responsive to the CIF activity from STS-treated HL-60 cells. These experiments have identified a novel activity, CIF, which is required for cytochrome c efflux and they indicate that the absence of CIF is the biochemical explanation for the impaired ability of HCW-2 cells to activate caspase-3 and undergo apoptosis.  (+info)

Involvement of CB1 cannabinoid receptors in the EDHF-dependent vasorelaxation in rabbits. (7/1056)

1. It was recently suggested that an endogenous cannabinoid could represent an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF). The aim of the present study was to clarify whether CB1 cannabinoid receptors are involved in the nitric oxide (NO)- and prostanoid-independent vasodilation produced by acetylcholine in rabbits. 2. Pithed rabbits received indomethacin. Noradrenaline was infused to raise blood pressure, and vasodilation was elicited by bolus injections of acetylcholine. The NO-synthase inhibitor Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methylester inhibited the acetylcholine-evoked vasodilation by about 40%. The remaining vasodilation was unaffected by the CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist SR141716A, but was inhibited by the potassium channel blocker tetraethylammonium. In addition, the mixed CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55212-2 did not elicit vasodilation. 3. No CB1 cannabinoid receptors were involved in the prostanoid- and NO-independent vasodilation produced by acetylcholine. An exogenous cannabinoid also did not cause vasodilation. Therefore, it is unlikely that an endogenous cannabinoid serves as an EDHF acting at smooth muscle CB1 cannabinoid receptors in the rabbit.  (+info)

Relationship between NaF- and thapsigargin-induced endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization in rat mesenteric artery. (8/1056)

1. In isolated rat mesenteric artery with endothelium, NaF caused slowly developing hyperpolarization. The hyperpolarizing effect was unchanged in the presence of N(G)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG) and indomethacin, but was markedly reduced by high K+. In Ca2+ -free medium or in the presence of Ni2+, NaF failed to produce hyperpolarization. 2. NaF-induced hyperpolarization was substantially unaffected by deferoxamine, an Al3+ chelator, okadaic acid and calyculin A, phosphatase inhibitors, and preincubation with pertussis toxin, suggesting that neither the action of fluoroaluminates as a G protein activator nor inhibition of phosphatase activity contributes to the hyperpolarizing effect. 3. The selective inhibitors of the Ca2+ -pump ATPase of endoplasmic reticulum, thapsigargin and cyclopiazonic acid, elicited hyperpolarization, whose properties were very similar to those of NaF. When intracellular Ca2+ stores had been depleted with these inhibitors, NaF no longer generated hyperpolarization. 4. In Ca2+ -free medium, NaF (or thapsigargin) caused a transient increase in the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in cultured porcine aortic endothelial cells, and subsequent application of thapsigargin (or NaF) failed to increase [Ca2+]i. 5. In arterial rings precontracted with phenylephrine, NaF produced endothelium-dependent relaxation followed by sustained contraction even in the presence of L-NOARG and indomethacin. The relaxant response was abolished by high K+ or cyclopiazonic acid. 6. These results indicate that NaF causes endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization, thereby leading to smooth muscle relaxation of rat mesenteric artery. This action appears to be mediated by the promotion of Ca2+ influx into endothelial cells that can be triggered by the emptying of intracellular Ca2+ stores, as proposed for those of thapsigargin and cyclopiazonic acid.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - The contribution of d-tubocurarine-sensitive and Apamin-sensitive K-channels to EDHF-mediated Relaxation of Mesenteric Arteries from eNOS-/- Mice. AU - Chen, Xiaoliang. AU - Li, Yang. AU - Hollenberg, Morley. AU - Triggle, Christopher. AU - Ding, Hong. PY - 2012/5. Y1 - 2012/5. N2 - The nature of the potassium channels involved in determining endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor-mediated relaxation was investigated in first-order small mesenteric arteries from male endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS-/-)-knockout and control (+/+) mice. Acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation of small mesenteric arteries of eNOS-/- was resistant to N-nitro-L-arginine and indomethacin and the guanylyl cyclase inhibitor, 1H-(1,2,4) oxadiazolo (4,3-a) quinoxalin-1-one. Apamin and the combination of apamin and iberiotoxin or apamin and charybdotoxin induced a transient endothelium-dependent contraction of small mesenteric arteries from both eNOS-/- and +/+ mice. ...
Based on current evidence, the term of endothelium-derived hyperpolarising factor should represent a mechanism rather than a specific factor. The mechanism(s) of endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization (i.e., EDHF-mediated relaxation) seems to be heterogeneous depending on several factors (e.g., size and vascular bed), surrounding environment (oxidative stress, hypercholesterolemia) and demand (compensatory). Different endothelial mediators or pathways involved in EDHF-mediated relaxation may also work simultaneously and/or substitute each other. It implies a reasonable physiological sense, although to some extent and when EDHF acts as backup mechanism for endothelium-dependent relaxation in the present of compromised NO contribution. Thus, alternatives for EDHF-typed responses (H2O2, K+ etc.) will provide a guarantee for compensation of endothelial function. However, once the involvement of a certain endothelium-derived vasodilator for a given vascular bed is confirmed, it is preferred that ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor(s). T2 - Species and tissue heterogeneity. AU - Triggle, C. R.. AU - Dong, H.. AU - Waldron, G. J.. AU - Cole, W. C.. PY - 1999/1/1. Y1 - 1999/1/1. N2 - 1. Endothelium-derivcd relaxing factor is almost universally considered to be synonymous with nitric oxide (NO); however, it is now well established that at least two other chemically distinct species (prostacyclin (PGI2) and a hyperpolarizing factor) may also contribute to endothelium-dependent relaxation. 2. Only relatively few studies have provided definitive evidence that an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF), which is neither NO nor PGI2, exists as a chemical mediator. 3. There is a lack of agreement as to the likely chemical identity of this putative factor. Some evidence suggests that EDHF may be a cytochrome P450-derived arachidonic acid product, possibly an epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET); conflict-ing evidence supports an endogenous cannabinoid as the mediator and ...
The work presented in this thesis describes the influence of the endothelium on smooth muscle cells, and how the structure of the internal elastic lamina (IEL) affects this relationship in mesenteric and saphenous arteries. This was enabled by the study of functional and confocal microscopy dye transfer experiments. Normotensive (WKY) and hypertensive (SHR) rats of 12 weeks and 6 months of age were used to assess the effect of hypertension and ageing on endothelial and smooth muscle cell communication. The endothelium-derived hyperpolarising factor (EDHF) response in mesenteric arteries was investigated using wire myography, and the involvement of myoendothelial gap junctions (MEGJs) was assessed using the putative gap junction inhibitor carbenoxolone. Carbenoxolone attenuated the EDHF response in the WKY, suggestive of the involvement of myoendothelial gap junctions in EDHF. In the saphenous artery, incubation with L-NAME and indomethacin abolished the relaxation to ACh, indicating that there ...
Background: Whether impaired endothelial function in hypercholesterolemia (HC) impacts on exercise-induced vasodilation, and whether the contribution of nitric oxide (NO) and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) to exercise vasodilation varies in comparison to healthy subjects is unknown. We hypothesized that there is a differential contribution of these two agonists to exercise-induced vasodilation.. Methods: In 26 healthy and 19 HC subjects, we measured forearm blood flow (FBF) using strain gauge plethysmography at rest, during handgrip exercise (performed at 15%, 30% and 45% of maximum grip strength) and after sodium nitroprusside (1.6 and 3.2 μg/min) infusion. Measurements were repeated after either NO blockade with L-NMMA, calcium-dependent potassium channel blockade with tetraethylammonium (TEA, inhibiting EDHF activity), and combined blockade.. Results: Exercise-induced vasodilation produced a stepwise increase in FBF in both groups (p,0.0001). At peak (45%) exercise, there ...
CYP 2C9 has previously been reported to generate 11,12-EET in coronary endothelial cells and plays a crucial role in EDHF-mediated hyperpolarization and relaxation. In the present study, we have demonstrated that, in both cultured and native porcine coronary endothelial cells, CYP 2C9 is also a physiologically relevant source of ROS. Overexpression of CYP 2C9 in coronary artery endothelial cells markedly increases 11,12- and 8,9-EET16 generation as well as that of ROS. The consequences of superoxide anion or hydrogen peroxide production by CYP 2C9 range from the impairment of NO-mediated relaxation to a chronic elevation in the activity of the redox-sensitive transcription factor NF-κB and the expression of VCAM-1.. Although accepted to play a role in the pathophysiology of hypertension, atherosclerosis, and heart failure, it is not generally appreciated that ROS, such as O2− and hydrogen peroxide, are intracellular signaling molecules that are involved in the regulation of vascular tone ...
The endothelium has emerged as an important regulator of vascular tone.1 2 3 Several soluble mediators released by the endothelium are involved in these vascular effects. These mediators include prostacyclin, EDRF or NO, and EDHF. The activity of EDHF may be distinguished from NO in that EDHF activity is blocked by inhibitors of Ca2+-activated K+ channels, such as TEA or charybdotoxin, or by high [K+]o but is not blocked by arginine analogues that inhibit NOS or glibenclamide, an inhibitor of ATP-sensitive K+ channels.9 14 17 18 Relaxations mediated by EDRF are blocked by arginine analogues. In small coronary arteries, methacholine causes endothelium-dependent relaxations and endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization of smooth muscle cells.5 14 15 16 17 18 These relaxations are blocked by TEA and high [K+]o. Thus, it has been proposed that methacholine stimulates coronary endothelial cells to release EDHF, which acts on coronary smooth muscle cells to open K+ channels, hyperpolarize the cell ...
The aim of this study was to characterise vasodilator responses in the perfused ciliary vascular bed of the bovine eye. When bovine eyes were perfused at a constant rate of 2.5 ml min-1, infusion of the powerful vasodilator, papaverine (150 muM), produced a very small reduction in perfusion pressure. Under the same conditions, the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, L- NAME (100 muM), had no effect but the inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase, ODQ (10 muM), produced a small vasoconstrictor response. These results indicate that there is a small component of intrinsic (myogenic) tone that may be suppressed by a basal release of nitric oxide. In the bovine eye, vasodilatation to acetylcholine or bradykinin was unaffected by L- NAME (100 muM), or the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, flurbiprofen (30 muM), but was significantly attenuated following treatment with a high concentration of KC1 (30 muM), or by damaging the endothelium with the detergent, CHAPS (0.3%, 2 min). Thus agonist-induced vasodilatation ...
Although we found that the vasoconstrictor response to l-NMMA was lower in blacks, we did not examine effects of other nonspecific vasoconstrictors to investigate whether this is a reflection of reduced sensitivity of the vascular smooth muscle to vasoconstrictors. However, the fact that the constrictor response to TEA was similar to whites suggests that the response to l-NMMA is specific for reduced NO bioavailability. The reduced sensitivity to exogenous NO (sodium nitroprusside) complicates the interpretation of the reduced dilator responses observed with acetylcholine and bradykinin in blacks. However, because basal NO and the contribution of NO during exercise is lower in blacks, it is likely that in addition to reduced sensitivity, there is also an endothelial defect in NO release in blacks.. l-NMMA and TEA are competitive inhibitors, and thus our results may underestimate the physiological contribution of both NO and K+Ca channels to vasodilation. Our investigation was conducted on a ...
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Arachidonic acid 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO) metabolites function as endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors in rabbit and human arteries. In rabbit arteries, LO metabolites mediate nitric-oxide and prostaglandin-independent relaxations to acetylcholine and AA. Previously, we characterized 11,12,15-trihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (11,12,15-THETA) as a major vasoactive 15-LO metabolite in rabbit arteries. 11,12,15-THETA requires a specific structure for vascular activity. 11(R),12(S),15(S)-THETA causes concentration-related relaxation whereas 11(R),12(R),15(S)-THETA is without activity. The specific structure requirement suggests a role for a receptor. Therefore, we examined the role of G proteins in 11(R),12(S),15(S)-THETA vascular activity. Western immunoblot verified protein expression of Gαs, Gαi and a Gαo in rabbit endothelial and smooth muscle cells. 11(R),12(S),15(S)-THETA increased GTPγ35S binding to rabbit arterial membranes 280±25% while 11(R),12(S),15(S)-THETA was without effect. In ...
Hypothesis - Rotigaptide will improve endothelial function in the context of endothelial dysfunction.. The lining of blood vessels (endothelium) can react to hormones in the blood stream causing the blood vessel muscle to relax (vasodilatation) and allow more blood to flow. The nitric oxide and prostacyclin pathways are well documented in this process. However, evidence points to the existence of a third powerful relaxant called endothelium derived hyperpolarising factor (EDHF) but its identity and mechanism of action have proved elusive. As well as causing blood vessels to relax and more blood to flow, EDHF may be involved in the endothelium signaling, triggering release of a specialised clot dissolving factor called tissue plasminogen activator (t PA). t PA is important to ensure small clots, which are constantly being formed in the circulation, are rapidly dissolved and do not grow large enough to cause heart attacks and strokes.. Evidence points towards the requirement for gap junctions in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Endothelial influences on cerebrovascular tone. AU - Andresen, Jon. AU - Shafi, Nadeem. AU - Bryan, Robert M.. PY - 2006/1/1. Y1 - 2006/1/1. N2 - The cerebrovascular endothelium exerts a profound influence on cerebral vessels and cerebral blood flow. This review summarizes current knowledge of various dilator and constrictor mechanisms intrinsic to the cerebrovascular endothelium. The endothelium contributes to the resting tone of cerebral arteries and arterioles by tonically releasing nitric oxide (NO • ). Dilations can occur by stimulated release of NO • , endothelium-derived hyperpolarization factor, or prostanoids. During pathological conditions, the dilator influence of the endothelium can turn to that of constriction by a variety of mechanisms, including decreased NO • bioavailability and release of endothelin-1. The endothelium may participate in neurovascular coupling by conducting local dilations to upstream arteries. Further study of the cerebrovascular ...
Piezo1 channels are newly discovered ion channels which have come to the fore as players in endothelial biology. They have a key role as sensors of shear stress, a frictional force which arises in vascular biology because of blood flow. Endothelial Piezo1 channels are critical in murine embryonic development, just after the heart starts to beat and drive blood into the nascent endothelial network. In contrast they are not critical at the adult stage but they are important for performance in whole body physical activity where they have a vascular bed-specific effect to cause mesenteric resistance artery vasoconstriction, achieved through opposition to the vasodilatory mechanism of endothelium-derived hyperpolarization ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor mediates bradykinin-stimulated tissue plasminogen activator release in humans. AU - Rahman, Ayaz M.. AU - Murrow, Jonathan R.. AU - Ozkor, Muhiddin A.. AU - Kavtaradze, Nino. AU - Lin, Ji. AU - De Staercke, Christine. AU - Hooper, W. Craig. AU - Manatunga, Amita. AU - Hayek, Salim. AU - Quyyumi, Arshed A.. PY - 2014/1/1. Y1 - 2014/1/1. N2 - Bradykinin (BK) stimulates tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) release from human endothelium. Although BK stimulates both nitric oxide and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) release, the role of EDHF in t-PA release remains unexplored. This study sought to determine the mechanisms of BK-stimulated t-PA release in the forearm vasculature of healthy human subjects. Methods: In 33 healthy subjects (age 40.3 ± 1.9 years), forearm blood flow (FBF) and t-PA release were measured at rest and after intra-arterial infusions of BK (400 ng/min) and sodium nitroprusside (3.2 mg/min). Measurements ...
In WT mice, endothelium-dependent relaxations of small mesenteric arteries were mainly mediated by EDHF, whereas those of the aorta were mediated by NO, a finding that is consistent with our previous studies (2, 4, 14). Interestingly, EDHF-mediated relaxations were progressively reduced in accordance with the number of disrupted NOS genes in mesenteric arteries and were absent in n/i/eNOS−/− mice, indicating that EDHF-mediated relaxations are totally mediated by the endothelial NOSs system in mouse mesenteric arteries.. In this study, after the classical definition of EDHF (1-3), we evaluated EDHF-mediated responses in mouse mesenteric arteries in the presence of indomethacin and l-NNA. It is known that eNOS generates superoxide anions under normal conditions from reductase domain and only when uncoupled (e.g., BH4 and/or l-arginine depletion) from the oxidase domain, and that l-arginine analogues only inhibit the latter process (40). Indeed, we were able to demonstrate that endothelial ...
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Angiopoietin-related protein 4 (406 aa, ~45 kDa) is encoded by the human ANGPTL4 gene. This protein plays a role in the modulation of signaling during hypoxic stress and angiogenesis.
To explore the effects of estrogen on arterial functions we examined endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF)- and NO-mediated responses in isolated mesenteric arteries of female rats 4 weeks after sham-operation (CON) ovariectomy (OVX) and OVX plus chronic estrogen treatment (OVX+E2). and hsp90) were unchanged but that of its negative regulator caveolin-1 was decreased. The levels of iNOS in mesenteric artery and aorta and plasma levels of NO metabolites and cholesterol were elevated. In OVX contraction of the Ondansetron HCl Ondansetron HCl artery by phenylephrine was reduced but augmented by nonspecific inhibitor of NOS to the comparable level as that in CON group. The contraction in OVX group unlike that in CON group was augmented Ondansetron HCl by specific iNOS inhibitor and the difference between contractions in the presence of nonspecific and specific inhibitor as an index of eNOS activity was increased. In OVX+E2 all these changes were recovered. In all groups EDHF-mediated ...
The intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel KCa3.1 (also known as KCNN4, IK1, or the Ga´rdos channel) plays an important role in the activation of T and B cells, mast cells, macrophages, and microglia by regulating membrane potential, cellular volume, and calcium signaling. KCa3.1 is further involved in the proliferation of dedifferentiated vascular smooth muscle cells and fibroblast and endothelium-derived hyperpolarization responses in the vascular endothelium. Accordingly, KCa3.1 inhibitors are therapeutically interesting as immunosuppressants and for the treatment of a wide range of fibroproliferative disorders, whereas KCa3.1 activators constitute a potential new class of endothelial function preserving antihypertensives. Here, we report the development of QPatch assays for both KCa3.1 inhibitors and activators. During assay optimization, the Ca2+ sensitivity of KCa3.1 was studied using varying intracellular Ca2+ concentrations. A free Ca2+ concentration of 1 lM was chosen to ...
Definition of endothelial-derived relaxant factor in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is endothelial-derived relaxant factor? Meaning of endothelial-derived relaxant factor as a legal term. What does endothelial-derived relaxant factor mean in law?
Recombinant cytokines and growth factors for cell cultivation. Offered in different quality grades, with standardized research cytokines of highest quality. | Deutschland
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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor responses in the rat middle cerebral artery are blocked by inhibiting IKCa channels alone, contrasting with peripheral vessels where block of both IKCa and SKCa is required. As the contribution of IKCa and SKCa to endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization differs in peripheral arteries, depending on the level of arterial constriction, we investigated the possibility that SKCa might contribute to equivalent hyperpolarization in cerebral arteries under certain conditions. METHODS: Rat middle cerebral arteries (approximately 175 microm) were mounted in a wire myograph. The effect of KCa channel blockers on endothelium-dependent responses to the protease-activated receptor 2 agonist, SLIGRL (20 micromol/L), were then assessed as simultaneous changes in tension and membrane potential. These data were correlated with the distribution of arterial KCa channels revealed with immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: SLIGRL hyperpolarized and relaxed cerebral
5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-induced coronary artery responses have both vasoconstriction and vasorelaxation components. The vasoconstrictive effects of 5-HT have been well studied while the mechanism(s) of how 5-HT causes relaxation of coronary arteries has been less investigated. In isolated rat hearts, 5-HT-induced coronary flow increases are partially resistant to the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor Nω-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and are blocked by 5-HT7 receptor antagonists. In the present study, we investigated the role of 5-HT7 receptor in 5-HT-induced coronary flow increases in isolated rat hearts in the absence of L-NAME, and we also evaluated the involvement of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) in 5-HT-induced coronary flow increases in L-NAME-treated hearts with the inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism and the blockers of Ca2+-activated K+ channels. In isolated rat hearts, 5-HT and the 5-HT7 receptor agonist 5-carboxamidotryptamine induced coronary flow
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hepatic expression, synthesis and secretion of a novel fibrinogen/angiopoietin-related protein that prevents endothelial-cell apoptosis. AU - Kim, Injune. AU - Kim, Hwan Gyu. AU - Kim, Hyun. AU - Kim, Hong Hee. AU - Park, Sung Kwang. AU - Uhm, Chang Sub. AU - Lee, Zang Hee. AU - Koh, Gou Young. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2007 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2000/3/15. Y1 - 2000/3/15. N2 - Using degenerate PCR we isolated a cDNA encoding a novel 406- and 410-amino acid protein from human and mouse embryonic cDNAs and have designated it hepatic fibrinogen/angiopoietin-related protein (HFARP). The N-terminal and C-terminal portions of HFARP contain the characteristic coiled-coil domains and fibrinogen-like domains that are conserved in angiopoietins. In human and mouse tissues, HFARP mRNA is specifically expressed in the liver. HFARP mRNA and protein are mainly present in the hepatocytes. HFARP has a highly hydrophobic region at the N-terminus that is typical of a ...
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Many theories of neural processing focus quite rightly on computational and information processing concerns. While this is entirely sensible, the brain is not an abstract computational device, it generates heat, it is noisy, and requires a high energy-density diet to power it. Much of my work focuses on the role of such biophysical factors. In a series of studies which use simple neural networks/Bayesian models, I and colleagues have found that the remarkably simple notion of do work, whilst being energy efficient can explain multiple properties of the neural organisation of early sensory systems. 27/04/10 11:00 - 12:00. ANC Seminar: Michael Daw (Host: Mark van Rossum). Coordinated development of feedforward inhibition in neonatal cortex. Early changes in the expression of neuronal chloride transporters result in a developmental switch at GABAergic synapses from depolarising transmission to the hyperpolarising transmission which is typical in the adult brain. Studies in a number of brain ...
The present invention relates to intercellular adhesion inhibitory factors produced by cytokine activated endothelial cells. These factors designated endothelial-derived IL-8 find use in the diagnosis and treatment of inflammation and in the protection of endothelial cells from neutrophil mediated damage.
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With INVIGATE you will find an expert for expression and purification of recombinant cytokines, chemokines and growth factors from different species. INVIGATE developes superior cell-based assay formats for the analysis of cytokine action.
A series of agents were examined to determine whether responses to hyperosmolarity could involve a mediator known or postulated to exist in other organ systems or processes. Responses of vascular muscle to endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor are inhibited by the cytochrome P450 inhibitor proadifen (SKF525A; Eckman et al., 1998). This agent, however, did not antagonize responses to d-M or hyperosmolar NaCl, suggesting that arachidonic acid epoxides are not mediators of the response. Because histamine and leukotrienes are viewed to be important mediators in exercise-induced asthma, the effects of the H1-histamine receptor antagonist diphenhydramine and the CysLT1-receptor antagonist MK 571 were examined, even though there is little likelihood that these contractile substances would mediate relaxation. These blockers had no effect, suggesting that these substances do not serve as intermediaries of the response to hyperosmolar solution, at least in vitro.. Application of hyperosmolar solution ...
Graded Potentials - occur in dendrites, cell bodies or axon terminals. Graded potential refers to the post synaptic electrical impulse. Called graded because their size or amplitude is directly proportional to the strength of the triggering event. i.e. a large stimulus leads to the generation of a strong graded response, and a small stimulus leads to the generation of a weak graded response. A depolarising graded potential is known as an excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP). A hyperpolarising graded potential is known as an inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP). If graded potentials reaching the axon hillock depolarise the membrane to the threshold voltage, an Action potential is initiated. ...
Tetrabutylammonium bisulfate for ion pair chromatography, LiChropur™, ≥99.0%; CAS Number: 32503-27-8; EC Number: 251-068-5; Synonym: Tetrabutylammonium hydrogen sulfate; Linear Formula: C16H37NO4S; find Supelco-86853 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar products & more at Sigma-Aldrich.
Effect of recombinant cytokines on leucocytes and physiological changes in bovine mammary glands during early involution.: We examined the effects of administer
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Angiopoietin-related protein 2 also known as angiopoietin-like protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ANGPTL2 gene. Angiopoietin-like protein 2 maintains tissue homeostasis by promoting adaptive inflammation and subsequent tissue reconstruction, whereas an excess of ANGPTL2 activation induced by prolonged stress promotes the breakdown of tissue homeostasis due to chronic inflammation, promoting the development of metabolic diseases. ANGPTL2 has a role also in angiogenesis, in tissue repair, in obesity, in atherosclerotic diseases and finally in cancerogenesis. Angiopoietins are members of the vascular endothelial growth factor family and the only known growth factors largely specific for vascular endothelium. Angiopoietin-1, angiopoietin-2, and angiopoietin-4 participate in the formation of blood vessels. ANGPTL2 protein is a secreted glycoprotein with homology to the angiopoietins and may exert a function on endothelial cells through autocrine or paracrine action. GRCh38: ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Elevated testosterone levels during rat pregnancy cause hypersensitivity to angiotensin II and attenuation of endothelium-dependent vasodilation in uterine arteries. AU - Chinnathambi, Vijayakumar. AU - Blesson, Chellakkan S.. AU - Vincent, Kathleen. AU - Saade, George. AU - Hankins, Gary. AU - Yallampalli, Chandra. AU - Sathishkumar, Kunju. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Elevated testosterone levels increase maternal blood pressure and decrease uterine blood flow in pregnancy, resulting in abnormal perinatal outcomes. We tested whether elevated testosterone alters uterine artery adaptations during pregnancy, and whether these alterations depend on endothelium-derived factors such as nitric oxide, endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor, and prostacyclin, or endothelium-independent mechanisms such as angiotensin II (Ang-II). Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with vehicle (n=20) or testosterone propionate (0.5 mg/kg per day from gestation day 15 to 19; n=20). Plasma ...
The present study was designed to determine whether or not lipoxygenase-dependent metabolites of arachidonic acid are involved in the endothelium-dependent
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The idea of having the cooling exit duct co-axial with the exhaust outlet was very popular in the early 2000s, and the reason is that the flow of exhaust gases can be used the increase the mass-flow rate through the cooling system, a phenomenon sometimes referred to as aspiration. If you pull the flow out of the cooling system more quickly, you can get the same mass-flow rate for a smaller inlet area, and a smaller inlet provides aerodynamic benefits. This concept was studied by Parra and Kontis in their 2006 paper, Aerodynamic effectiveness of the flow of exhaust gases in a generic formula one car configuration, published in the The Aeronautical Journal ...
The idea of having the cooling exit duct co-axial with the exhaust outlet was very popular in the early 2000s, and the reason is that the flow of exhaust gases can be used the increase the mass-flow rate through the cooling system, a phenomenon sometimes referred to as aspiration. If you pull the flow out of the cooling system more quickly, you can get the same mass-flow rate for a smaller inlet area, and a smaller inlet provides aerodynamic benefits. This concept was studied by Parra and Kontis in their 2006 paper, Aerodynamic effectiveness of the flow of exhaust gases in a generic formula one car configuration, published in the The Aeronautical Journal ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of the inhibitory effect of vascular endothelium on agonist-induced vasoconstriction in rat mesenteric resistance arteries. AU - Jin, Xin. AU - Satoh-Otonashi, Yukiko. AU - Zamami, Yoshito. AU - Koyama, Toshihiro. AU - Sun, Pengyuan. AU - Kitamura, Yoshihisa. AU - Kawasaki, Hiromu. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2008 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. N2 - Vascular endothelium regulates vascular tone by releasing endothelium-derived vasoactive substances. We performed this study to characterize the inhibitory effect of the endothelium on vasoconstrictor stimuli in rat mesenteric vascular beds. Changes in perfusion pressure induced by continuous perfusion of Krebs solution containing methoxamine (α1-adrenoceptor agonist) or high KCl were measured over 180 min. In preparations with intact endothelium, methoxamine-induced vasoconstriction was time-dependently decreased to cause 60% - 80% reduction of the initial vasoconstriction level, while no ...
In rat mesenteric arteries, the ability of ACh to evoke hyperpolarization of smooth muscle cells and consummate dilatation relies on an increase in endothelial cell cytosolic free [Ca2+] and activation of Ca2+-activated K+ channels (KCa). The time course of average and spatially organized rises in endothelial cell [Ca2+]i and concomitant effects on membrane potential were investigated in individual cells of pressurized arteries and isolated sheets of native cells stimulated with ACh. In both cases, ACh stimulated a sustained and oscillating rise in endothelial cell [Ca2+]i. Overall, the oscillations remained asynchronous between cells, yet occasionally localized intercellular coordination became evident. In pressurized arteries, repetitive waves of Ca2+ moved longitudinally across endothelial cells, and depended on Ca2+-store refilling. The rise in endothelial cell Ca2+ was associated with sustained hyperpolarization of endothelial cells in both preparations. This hyperpolarization was also evident when
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mechanisms of vasorelaxation induced by oleoylethanolamide in the rat small mesenteric artery. AU - Alsuleimani, Yousuf M.. AU - Hiley, C. Robin. PY - 2013/2/28. Y1 - 2013/2/28. N2 - The actions of the anandamide-like mono-unsaturated fatty acid oleoylethanolamide (OEA) were first linked to satiety and control of food intake and recently reported to relax resistance vessels. This study characterizes its vasorelaxant mechanisms. Vasorelaxation to OEA were assessed in third order branches of rat superior mesenteric artery using a wire myograph. The roles of the endothelium, KCa channels, perivascular sensory nerves, NO, cannabinoid receptors, and the phospholipase C (PLC)/inositol trisphosphate (InsP3) and RhoA/ROCK signalling pathways, were assessed. OEA caused concentration- and endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation (pEC50=6.7±0.1, Rmax=93.1±2. 5%). L-NAME greatly reduced the response (residual relaxation of only 24.6±12.8%). Capsaicin and pertussis toxin significantly reduced ...
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Starter kits for polarization of mouse T helper 1 cells, containing recombinant cytokines and blocking functional-grade antibodies. - Österreich
Ann Holcomb, Biological Factors. Atlanta, Georgia: NEXUS Gallery, 1991. Exhibition catalogue includes statements by the artists ...
... biological and social, protective and risk factors; interactions of biological and social factors; stress; longitudinal as well ... The importance of these refinements of the maternal deprivation hypothesis was to reposition it as a "vulnerability factor" ...
Chemical factors include oxygen and trace elements. Biological factors include grazing and migrations. Upwelling carries ... The spatial distribution of organisms can be controlled by a number of factors. Physical factors include: temperature, ... Due to biological uptake, the photic zone has relatively low levels of nutrient concentrations. As a result, phytoplankton ... It undergoes a series of physical, chemical, and biological processes that supply nutrients into the upper water column. The ...
Biological factors[edit]. Women and men differ in their chromosomal makeup, protein gene products, genomic imprinting, gene ... All of these factors place them at higher risk.[11] In developing countries, cervical cancer accounts for 12% of cancer cases ... Biological differences vary all the way from phenotype to the cellular, and manifest unique risks for the development of ill ... Social and cultural factors[edit]. See also: Gender equality and Gender disparities in health ...
Biological Risk Factors[edit]. Some common biological risk factors include: *Age of either parent *Adolescent parents * ... General risk factors[edit]. Factors increasing the risk (to either the pregnant individual, the fetus/es, or both) of pregnancy ... Environmental Risk Factors[edit]. Some common environmental risk factors include: *Exposure to environmental toxins in ... "Risk factors present before pregnancy". Merck Manual Home Health Handbook. Merck Sharp & Dohme. Archived from the original on ...
Biological factors[edit]. Genetics[edit]. A 2008 study compared 112 male-to-female transsexuals (MtFs), both androphilic and ... The most studied factors are biological, especially brain structure differences in relation to biology and sexual orientation. ... "Biological Psychiatry. 65 (1): 93-6. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2008.08.033. PMC 3402034. PMID 18962445.. ... Environmental factors have also been proposed. Transgender brain studies, especially those on trans women who are sexually ...
Biological factors[edit]. Another possible explanation for increased social inhibition has to do with biological factors. A ... They will be highly critical of others much like they are to themselves.[9] Shyness is another factor that is a part of social ... One major factor that contributes to the increase of social inhibition is power. Reduced power is linked to an array of ... The factors that were found to be contributors to social inhibition were female gender, exposure to maternal stress during ...
Rose-John, S; Heinrich, P C (1 June 1994). "Soluble receptors for cytokines and growth factors: generation and biological ... Growth Factor Reviews. 26 (5): 475-487. doi:10.1016/j.cytogfr.2015.07.004. PMID 26189695. Taga, Tetsuya; Kishimoto, Tadamitsu ( ... International Journal of Biological Sciences. 8 (9): 1237-1247. doi:10.7150/ijbs.4989. PMC 3491447. PMID 23136552. Mülberg, ...
Human-Factors Engineering: application of engineering, physiology, and psychology to the optimization of the human-machine ... "MIT, Department of Biological Engineering". Retrieved 16 April 2015.. *^ "Utah State University, Department of Biological ... In general, biological engineers (or biomedical engineers) attempt to either mimic biological systems to create products or ... Biological engineering is a science-based discipline founded upon the biological sciences in the same way that chemical ...
Goochee CF (1992). "Bioprocess factors affecting glycoprotein oligosaccharide structure". Developments in Biological ... These oligosaccharides have biological function in the development of the gut flora of infants. Examples include lacto-N- ...
He defined motivation as a dynamic interaction between biological, social, internal, and external factors. Internal factors ... included physiological and driving cues, and external factors included environmental stimuli. Bindra strongly felt that ...
Behavioral factors, like men smoking more than women and engaging in more coronary-prone behavior, as well as biological ... It has been concluded that sociological and biological factors both contribute to the paradox. Proposed explanations for the ... An additional factor in male mortality is the gender differences in suicide - men are more likely to die from suicide despite ... Why We Need to Integrate Social and Biological Perspectives". The Journals of Gerontology: Series B. 60: S40-S47. doi:10.1093/ ...
Biological process. • brain-derived neurotrophic factor receptor signaling pathway. • negative regulation of neuron apoptotic ... BDNF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, ANON2, BULN2, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, brain derived neurotrophic factor. ... Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), or abrineurin,[5] is a protein[6] that, in humans, is encoded by the BDNF gene.[7][8] ... which are related to the canonical nerve growth factor. Neurotrophic factors are found in the brain and the periphery. BDNF was ...
Biological process. • regulation of protein phosphorylation. • positive regulation of protein phosphorylation. • positive ... TNF, DIF, TNF-alpha, TNFA, TNFSF2, Tumour necrosis factor, TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor, TNLG1F, Tumor necrosis factor alpha. ... Tumor necrosis factor (TNF, tumor necrosis factor alpha, TNFα, cachexin, or cachectin) is a cell signaling protein (cytokine) ... reported another cytotoxic factor produced by macrophages and named it tumor necrosis factor (TNF).[14] Both factors were ...
Many factors contribute to mental health problems, including: *Biological factors, such as genes or brain chemistry ... Factors such as clean water and air, adequate housing, and safe communities and roads all have been found to contribute to good ... More specifically, key factors that have been found to influence whether people are healthy or unhealthy include the following: ... See also: Social determinants of health and Risk factor. Generally, the context in which an individual lives is of great ...
Rossi A, Galetta D, Gridelli C (2009). "Biological prognostic and predictive factors in lung cancer". Oncology. 77 Suppl 1: 90- ... Inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)[13] *bevacizumab (Avastin)[14][unreliable medical source?] ... Inhibitors of Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) *tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI's):[9] *erlotinib (Tarceva)[10][ ... Riely GJ, Politi KA, Miller VA, Pao W (December 2006). "Update on epidermal growth factor receptor mutations in non-small cell ...
They include socioeconomic, psychological, biological, and behavioral factors. Controversial topics include media violence ... The concept of the pater familias acted as a unifying factor in extended kin groups, and the later practice of wergild ... Religious sentiment often becomes a contributory factor of crime. In the 1819 anti-Jewish riots in Frankfurt, rioters attacked ...
Biological process. • regulation of apoptotic process. • negative regulation of neuron apoptotic process. • positive regulation ... transforming growth factor beta receptor binding. • growth factor activity. • transforming growth factor beta binding. • type ... type III transforming growth factor beta receptor binding. • cytokine activity. • type I transforming growth factor beta ... TGFB3, ARVD, ARVD1, RNHF, TGF-beta3, Transforming growth factor, beta 3, LDS5, transforming growth factor beta 3. ...
Environmental physiologists also examine plant response to biological factors. This includes not only negative interactions, ... All biological pigments selectively absorb certain wavelengths of light while reflecting others. The light that is absorbed may ... Main article: Biological pigment. Among the most important molecules for plant function are the pigments. Plant pigments ... Secondly, plant physiology includes the study of biological and chemical processes of individual plant cells. Plant cells have ...
... a novel ADP-ribosylating factor from Vibrio cholerae". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 283 (16): 10671-8. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... Vibrio cholerae produces a similar protein called the Cholix toxin (Q5EK40). It inhibits elongation factor-2. It does so by ADP ... Yates SP, Merrill AR (May 2004). "Elucidation of eukaryotic elongation factor-2 contact sites within the catalytic domain of ...
Biological factors and views. See also: Sexual differentiation and Sexual differentiation in humans ... and other factors not limited to biological sex. In contrast to taxonomic approaches, some feminist philosophers have argued ... that link biological and behavioral differences. These extend from the exclusively biological "genetic" and "prenatal hormonal ... Anne Fausto-Sterling (1992) Myths of Gender: Biological Theories about Men and Women. New York: Basic Books. p. 8 ISBN 0-465- ...
Biological and environmental factorsEdit. Stress affect food preferences. Numerous studies - granted, many of them in animals ... These biological factors can interact with environmental elements to further trigger hyperphagia, namely the type of stressor ... Contributing factorsEdit. Negative affectEdit. Overall, high levels of the negative affect trait are related to emotional ... The biological stress response may also contribute to the development of emotional eating tendencies. In a crisis, ...
Endogenous factors originate from the organism itself; sex, age, biological rhythms, etc. Exogenous factors are environmental ... Endogenous factors[edit]. Endogenous rhythm[edit]. Biological clocks are an ancient and adaptive sense of time innate to an ... Exogenous factors[edit]. Light[edit]. This section possibly contains inappropriate or misinterpreted citations that do not ... argues that water transparency is the ultimate variable that determines the exogenous factor (or combination of factors) that ...
... is hypothesized to be associated with biological factors, but these have proven to be complex and diverse. ... Most experts agree that temperament has a genetic and biological basis, although environmental factors and maturation modify ... Using factor analysis on data from 3 -12 month old children, three broad factors emerged and were labelled surgency/ ... This factor reflects the degree to which a child is shy and not easily calmed. Anger and frustration is seen as early as 2 to 3 ...
These factors allow us to make the hybrid biological models.... ...we speculate that when a V -variable geometrical fractal ...
Series B, Biological Sciences. 359 (1441): 87-93. doi:10.1098/rstb.2003.1368. PMC 1693300 . PMID 15065660.. ... Sigurdsson S, Van Komen S, Petukhova G, Sung P (Nov 2002). "Homologous DNA pairing by human recombination factors Rad51 and ... Biological process. • regulation of protein phosphorylation. • strand invasion. • mitotic recombination-dependent replication ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 274 (18): 12748-52. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.18.12748. PMID 10212258.. ...
Epigenetic factors including DNA methylation and histone modification have also been proposed as possible biological mechanisms ... Other transcription factors that have been known to respond to social factors include some factors broadly related to the ... but several also appear to be responsive to external factors including several hormones, neurotransmitters, and growth factors ... Transcription factors are the proteins which control gene expression, and they can either increase (i.e. an activator) or ...
Vàzquez-Salat, Núria (2013). "Are good ideas enough? The impact of socio-economic and regulatory factors on GMO ... An International Journal Published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association. 38 (6): 473-483. ISSN 0278-6915. ... commercialisation". Biological Research. 46 (4): 317-322. doi:10.4067/S0716-97602013000400002. PMID 24510133.. ...
Health Hazards (Biological, Chemical and Physical hazards, Ergonomics and Human Factors);. *Working Environments (Mining, ... Biological hazards may stem from the potential for legionella exposure at work or the investigation of biological injury or ... The occupational hygienist may be involved with the assessment and control of physical, chemical, biological or environmental ... These hazards or stressors are typically divided into the categories biological, chemical, physical, ergonomic and psychosocial ...
Biological neurons are connected to each other in a complex, recurrent fashion. These connections are, unlike most artificial ... from growth factors to hormones that modulate and influence the growth and development of functional connections between ... Main article: Biological neuron models. Even single neurons have complex biophysical characteristics and can perform ... Hence there is a drive to produce simplified neuron models that can retain significant biological fidelity at a low ...
Series B, Biological Sciences. May 2001, 356 (1409): 617-23. PMC 1088449. PMID 11375065. doi:10.1098/rstb.2001.0845.. ... Cell-intrinsic transforming growth factor-beta signaling mediates virus-specific CD8+ T cell deletion and viral persistence in ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. December 2015, 290 (51): 30204-11. PMC 4683245. PMID 26468291. doi:10.1074/jbc.R115.685990 ...
Biological process. • anterior/posterior pattern specification. • multicellular organism development. • anterior/posterior axis ... transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • RNA polymerase II regulatory region sequence-specific DNA ... The homeobox genes encode a highly conserved family of transcription factors that play an important role in morphogenesis in ... "The thyroid transcription factor-1 gene is a candidate target for regulation by Hox proteins". EMBO J. 13 (14): 3339-47. PMC ...
The size of an animal is also a factor in determining diet type (Allen's rule). Since small mammals have a high ratio of heat- ... Those species that seek pest insects are considered beneficial 'biological control agents' and their presence encouraged in ... biological pest control programmes.[45] Combined, insectivorous birds eat 400-500 million metric tons of arthropods annually.[ ...
"Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research = Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Medicas e Biologicas. 39 (8): 1065-70. ...
... that has a biological or psychological effect on a patient may also have potential to possess dangerous biological or ... Other factors. There are also reasons why a placebo treatment group may outperform a "no-treatment" group in a test which are ... Social factors. Authors have speculated on the socio-cultural and psychological reasons for the appeal of alternative medicines ... Alternative medicine describes any practice that aims to achieve the healing effects of medicine, but which lacks biological ...
"β-Catenin". Sino Biological Inc.: Biological Solution Specialist. Reynolds AB (June 2011). "Epithelial organization: new ... Yi ZY, Feng LJ, Xiang Z, Yao H (2011). "Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 activation mediates epithelial to ... There are other physiological factors that are associated with cancer development through their interactions with catenins. For ... Mutations or aberrant regulation of catenins may also associate with other factors that promote metastasis and tumorigenesis ...
The conversion factor between RPM and g depends on the radius of the centrifuge rotor. The particles' settling velocity in ... Centrifugation in biological researchEdit. MicrocentrifugesEdit. Microcentrifuges are used to process small volumes of ... Ultracentrifugation makes use of high centrifugal force for studying properties of biological particles. Compared to ... biological molecules, cells, or nuclei. Microcentrifuge tubes generally hold 0.5 - 2.0 mL of liquid, and are spun at maximum ...
The two species are similar in size, shape and life history.[7][8][9] Habitat is the main factor separating the range of blue ... Biological Sciences. 279 (1730): 1017. doi:10.1098/rspb.2011.1496.. ...
Biological process. • progesterone biosynthetic process. • female gamete generation. • positive regulation of bone resorption. ... transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway. • positive regulation of cell migration. • positive regulation of ... 2002). "Assessment of the in vitro and in vivo biological activities of the human follicle-stimulating isohormones". Mol. Cell ... 2002). "Assessment of the in vitro and in vivo biological activities of the human follicle-stimulating isohormones". Mol. Cell ...
Biological process. • multicellular organism development. • intramembranous ossification. • regulation of transcription, DNA- ... Sutton AL, Zhang X, Ellison TI, Macdonald PN (September 2005). "The 1,25(OH)2D3-regulated transcription factor MN1 stimulates ...
A Vital Legacy: Biological and Environmental Research in the Atomic Age, U.S. Department of Energy, The Office of Biological ... One of the factors most responsible for the acceptance of positron imaging was the development of radiopharmaceuticals. In ... Psychiatry: Numerous compounds that bind selectively to neuroreceptors of interest in biological psychiatry have been ... by the Brookhaven group under the direction of Al Wolf and Joanna Fowler was a major factor in expanding the scope of PET ...
Despite the importance of numerous psychosocial factors, at its core, drug addiction involves a biological process: the ability ... As a causal factor in pathologyEdit. Sensitization has been implied as a causal or maintaining mechanism in a wide range of ... a b Croner S (1992). "Prediction and detection of allergy development: influence of genetic and environmental factors". J. ... De Swert LF (1999). "Risk factors for allergy". Eur. J. Pediatr. 158 (2): 89-94. doi:10.1007/s004310051024. PMID 10048601. ...
"Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 276 (1654): 121-127. doi:10.1098/rspb.2008.0858. PMC 2614250. PMID ... Plants respond and adapt to environmental factors, such as light and mechanical stress from wind. Leaves need to support their ... Other factors include the need to balance water loss at high temperature and low humidity against the need to absorb ... but also to other factors such as grazing animals (such as deer), available nutrients, and ecological competition from other ...
... proteins including interferon regulatory factor 3 and interferon regulatory factor 7 trigger a signalling cascade that leads to ... May 2002). "Hemorrhagic fever viruses as biological weapons: medical and public health management". Journal of the American ... Education of the general public about the risk factors for Ebola infection and of the protective measures individuals may take ... When EVD is suspected, travel, work history, and exposure to wildlife are important factors with respect to further diagnostic ...
"Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 77 (2): 193-200. doi:10.1046/j.1095-8312.2002.00096.x. ISSN 0024-4066.. ... International Wildfowl Inquiry Volume i Factors Affecting the General Status of Wild Geese and Wild Duck. Cambridge University ... Sandilands, Al (2011). Birds of Ontario: Habitat Requirements, Limiting Factors, and Status: Volume 1-Nonpasserines: Loons ... The mallard is omnivorous and very flexible in its choice of food.[61] Its diet may vary based on several factors, including ...
... caused by other factors such as disease and overhunting by humans.[16][17] New research suggests that the extinction of the ... "Cooking as a biological trait" (PDF). Comp Biochem Physiol a Mol Integr Physiol. 136 (1): 35-46. doi:10.1016/S1095-6433(03) ... "Slowly digested and absorbed carbohydrate in traditional bushfoods: a protective factor against diabetes?". Am J Clin Nutr. 45 ...
Examples of these classifications include gender, nationality, ethnicity, language, genre, style, biological species, and form. ...
... probably with the help of an unknown GDP exchange factor. A domain of Toc159 might be the exchange factor that carry out the ... Series B, Biological Sciences. 365 (1541): 729-48. doi:10.1098/rstb.2009.0103. PMC 2817223. PMID 20124341.. ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 271 (11): 6545-54. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.11.6545. PMID 8626459.. ...
a newly discovered member of the leucine-rich repeat protein family". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 (15): 12212-21. ... negative regulation of transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway. • negative regulation of tooth ... a novel member of the leucine-rich repeat protein family closely related to decorin and biglycan". The Journal of Biological ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 282 (44): 32193-9. PMID 17804408. doi:10.1074/jbc.M706262200. الوسيط ,التاريخ=. تم تجاهله ...
"The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 288 (7): 4878-90. doi:10.1074/jbc.M112.422410. PMC 3576092 . PMID 23275336.. ... Koon HW, Zhao D, Na X, Moyer MP, Pothoulakis C (Oct 2004). "Metalloproteinases and transforming growth factor-alpha mediate ... Unique among biological processes, SP release (and expression of its NK1 Receptor (through autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine- ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 279 (44): 45519-27. doi:10.1074/jbc.M408523200. PMID 15319441.. ...
... including the possibility of the permanent alteration of our biological nature. These concerns are shared by other philosophers ... Superpower § Possible factors. Theories and concepts in technology. *Appropriate technology. *Diffusion of innovations ...
Personal and social factors for abortions[change , change source]. A bar chart from a study done in 1998. In shows the reasons ... Russo J, Russo I (1987). "Biological and molecular bases of mammary carcinogenesis". Laboratory Investigation 57 (2): 112-37. ... Pregnancy interruption as a risk factor in tumor incidence". Am. J. Pathol. 100 (2): 497-512. PMC 1903536. PMID 6773421. ... Pregnancy interruption as a risk factor in tumor incidence". Am J Pathol 100 (2): 505-506. PMID 6773421. "In contrast, abortion ...
Hart BL (1988). "Biological basis of the behavior of sick animals". Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 12 (2): 123-37. doi:10.1016/S0149- ... Hyperalgesia is induced by platelet-activating factor (PAF) which comes about in an inflammatory or an allergic response. This ...
... in addition to many extracytoplasmic function sigma factors, providing the organism with the ability to respond to a wide range ... "Biological Properties and Classification of the Caulobacter Group". Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 28 (3): 231-95. doi:10.1128/ ... "An essential transcription factor, SciP, enhances robustness of Caulobacter cell cycle regulation". Proceedings of the ...
Freeman, Scott (2002). Biological Science (2nd Edition). Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice Hall. pp. 835-837. ISBN 0-13-140941-7. ... If any of the previously mentioned factors' functions are ablated, the default photoreceptor is a S cone. These events take ... The great biological importance of photoreceptors is that they convert light (visible electromagnetic radiation) into signals ... The key events mediating rod versus S cone versus M cone differentiation are induced by several transcription factors, ...
Biomechanics is the study of the structure and function of biological systems by means of the methods of Mechanics. ... The father of modern medicine: the first research of the physical factor of tetanus Archived 18 November 2011 at the Wayback ... Biophysics is an interdisciplinary science that uses the methods of physics and physical chemistry to study biological systems. ... Histology is the study of the structures of biological tissues by light microscopy, electron microscopy and ...
"The paired domain-containing factor Pax8 and the homeodomain-containing factor TTF-1 directly interact and synergistically ... Biological process. • regulation of apoptotic process. • pronephros development. • regulation of metanephric nephron tubule ... "The paired domain-containing factor Pax8 and the homeodomain-containing factor TTF-1 directly interact and synergistically ... Paramutation & Pax Transcription Factors. 44: 97-106. doi:10.1016/j.semcdb.2015.09.016. PMID 26410163.. ...
Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society. 82 (4): 591-605. doi:10.1111/j.1469-185X.2007.00027.x. PMID 17944619 ...
... biological) material. Specifically, diagenesis "is the cumulative physical, chemical and biological environment; these ... Hydrothermal solutions, meteoric groundwater, porosity, permeability, solubility, and time are all influential factors. ... many factors need to be assessed, beginning with elemental and mineralogical composition of bone and enveloping soil, as well ... or biological change undergone by a sediment after its initial deposition, after its lithification. This process excludes ...