Cultural Evolution: The continuous developmental process of a culture from simple to complex forms and from homogeneous to heterogeneous qualities.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Directed Molecular Evolution: The techniques used to produce molecules exhibiting properties that conform to the demands of the experimenter. These techniques combine methods of generating structural changes with methods of selection. They are also used to examine proposed mechanisms of evolution under in vitro selection conditions.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Adaptation, Biological: Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.Biological Products: Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.Epigenesis, Genetic: A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Ferns: Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are classified in the Subkingdom Tracheobionta (also known as Tracheophyta).Anthropology: The science devoted to the comparative study of man.Anthropology, Physical: The comparative science dealing with the physical characteristics of humans as related to their origin, evolution, and development in the total environment.Altitude: A vertical distance measured from a known level on the surface of a planet or other celestial body.Anthropology, Cultural: It is the study of social phenomena which characterize the learned, shared, and transmitted social activities of particular ethnic groups with focus on the causes, consequences, and complexities of human social and cultural variability.Anthropology, Medical: Field of social science that is concerned with differences between human groups as related to health status and beliefs.Forensic Anthropology: Scientific study of human skeletal remains with the express purpose of identification. This includes establishing individual identity, trauma analysis, facial reconstruction, photographic superimposition, determination of time interval since death, and crime-scene recovery. Forensic anthropologists do not certify cause of death but provide data to assist in determination of probable cause. This is a branch of the field of physical anthropology and qualified individuals are certified by the American Board of Forensic Anthropology. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1992 Jun;13(2):146)Nelson Syndrome: A syndrome characterized by HYPERPIGMENTATION, enlarging pituitary mass, visual defects secondary to compression of the OPTIC CHIASM, and elevated serum ACTH. It is caused by the expansion of an underlying ACTH-SECRETING PITUITARY ADENOMA that grows in the absence of feedback inhibition by adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS, usually after ADRENALECTOMY.Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Biology: One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.Chickenpox Vaccine: A live, attenuated varicella virus vaccine used for immunization against chickenpox. It is recommended for children between the ages of 12 months and 13 years.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Societies, Scientific: Societies whose membership is limited to scientists.Physiology: The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.Patient Care Team: Care of patients by a multidisciplinary team usually organized under the leadership of a physician; each member of the team has specific responsibilities and the whole team contributes to the care of the patient.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Wilderness: Environment un-modified by human activity. Areas in which natural processes operate without human interference.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Labor, Obstetric: The repetitive uterine contraction during childbirth which is associated with the progressive dilation of the uterine cervix (CERVIX UTERI). Successful labor results in the expulsion of the FETUS and PLACENTA. Obstetric labor can be spontaneous or induced (LABOR, INDUCED).Introduced Species: Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.Porcupines: Common name for large, quilled rodents (RODENTIA) comprised of two families: Old World porcupines (Hystricidae) and New World porcupines (Erethizontidae).Caulerpa: A genus of toxic marine GREEN ALGAE found throughout tropical and subtropical seas. One species, Caulerpa taxifolia, is highly invasive and produces the poison caulerpenyne, deadly to marine organisms though not humans.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Religion and ScienceNational Academy of Sciences (U.S.): A United States organization of distinguished scientists and engineers established for the purpose of investigating and reporting upon any subject of art or science as requested by any department of government. The National Research Council organized by NAS serves as the principal operating agency to stimulate and support research.Institute of Medicine (U.S.): Identifies, for study and analysis, important issues and problems that relate to health and medicine. The Institute initiates and conducts studies of national policy and planning for health care and health-related education and research; it also responds to requests from the federal government and other agencies for studies and advice.Neuropsychology: A branch of psychology which investigates the correlation between experience or behavior and the basic neurophysiological processes. The term neuropsychology stresses the dominant role of the nervous system. It is a more narrowly defined field than physiological psychology or psychophysiology.

The developmental basis for allometry in insects. (1/15569)

Within all species of animals, the size of each organ bears a specific relationship to overall body size. These patterns of organ size relative to total body size are called static allometry and have enchanted biologists for centuries, yet the mechanisms generating these patterns have attracted little experimental study. We review recent and older work on holometabolous insect development that sheds light on these mechanisms. In insects, static allometry can be divided into at least two processes: (1) the autonomous specification of organ identity, perhaps including the approximate size of the organ, and (2) the determination of the final size of organs based on total body size. We present three models to explain the second process: (1) all organs autonomously absorb nutrients and grow at organ-specific rates, (2) a centralized system measures a close correlate of total body size and distributes this information to all organs, and (3) autonomous organ growth is combined with feedback between growing organs to modulate final sizes. We provide evidence supporting models 2 and 3 and also suggest that hormones are the messengers of size information. Advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of allometry will come through the integrated study of whole tissues using techniques from development, genetics, endocrinology and population biology.  (+info)

Novel regulation of the homeotic gene Scr associated with a crustacean leg-to-maxilliped appendage transformation. (2/15569)

Homeotic genes are known to be involved in patterning morphological structures along the antero-posterior axis of insects and vertebrates. Because of their important roles in development, changes in the function and expression patterns of homeotic genes may have played a major role in the evolution of different body plans. For example, it has been proposed that during the evolution of several crustacean lineages, changes in the expression patterns of the homeotic genes Ultrabithorax and abdominal-A have played a role in transformation of the anterior thoracic appendages into mouthparts termed maxillipeds. This homeotic-like transformation is recapitulated at the late stages of the direct embryonic development of the crustacean Porcellio scaber (Oniscidea, Isopoda). Interestingly, this morphological change is associated with apparent novelties both in the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of the Porcellio scaber ortholog of the Drosophila homeotic gene, Sex combs reduced (Scr). Specifically, we find that Scr mRNA is present in the second maxillary segment and the first pair of thoracic legs (T1) in early embryos, whereas protein accumulates only in the second maxillae. In later stages, however, high levels of SCR appear in the T1 legs, which correlates temporally with the transformation of these appendages into maxillipeds. Our observations provide further insight into the process of the homeotic leg-to-maxilliped transformation in the evolution of crustaceans and suggest a novel regulatory mechanism for this process in this group of arthropods.  (+info)

An overview of the evolution of overproduced esterases in the mosquito Culex pipiens. (3/15569)

Insecticide resistance genes have developed in a wide variety of insects in response to heavy chemical application. Few of these examples of adaptation in response to rapid environmental change have been studied both at the population level and at the gene level. One of these is the evolution of the overproduced esterases that are involved in resistance to organophosphate insecticides in the mosquito Culex pipiens. At the gene level, two genetic mechanisms are involved in esterase overproduction, namely gene amplification and gene regulation. At the population level, the co-occurrence of the same amplified allele in distinct geographic areas is best explained by the importance of passive transportation at the worldwide scale. The long-term monitoring of a population of mosquitoes in southern France has enabled a detailed study to be made of the evolution of resistance genes on a local scale, and has shown that a resistance gene with a lower cost has replaced a former resistance allele with a higher cost.  (+info)

The expiry date of man: a synthesis of evolutionary biology and public health. (4/15569)

In industrialised countries, mortality and morbidity are dominated by age related chronic degenerative diseases. The health and health care needs of future populations will be heavily determined by these conditions of old age. Two opposite scenarios of future morbidity exist: morbidity might decrease ("compress"), because life span is limited, and the incidence of disease is postponed. Or morbidity might increase ("expand"), because death is delayed more than disease incidence. Optimality theory in evolutionary biology explains senescence as a by product of an optimised life history. The theory clarifies how senescence is timed by the competing needs for reproduction and survival, and why this leads to a generalised deterioration of many functions at many levels. As death and disease are not independent, future morbidity will depend on duration and severity of the process of senescence, partly determined by health care, palliating the disease severity but increasing the disease duration by postponing death. Even if morbidity might be compressed, health care needs will surely expand.  (+info)

Molecular and evolutionary analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi 297 circular plasmid-encoded lipoproteins with OspE- and OspF-like leader peptides. (5/15569)

We previously described two OspE and three OspF homologs in Borrelia burgdorferi 297 (D. R. Akins, S. F. Porcella, T. G. Popova, D. Shevchenko, S. I. Baker, M. Li, M. V. Norgard, and J. D. Radolf, Mol. Microbiol. 18:507-520, 1995; D. R. Akins, K. W. Bourell, M. J. Caimano, M. V. Norgard, and J. D. Radolf, J. Clin. Investig. 101:2240-2250, 1998). In this study, we characterized four additional lipoproteins with OspE/F-like leader peptides (Elps) and demonstrated that all are encoded on plasmids homologous to cp32 and cp18 from the B31 and N40 strains, respectively. Statistical analysis of sequence similarities using the binary comparison algorithm revealed that the nine lipoproteins from strain 297, as well as the OspE, OspF, and Erp proteins from the N40 and B31 strains, fall into three distinct families. Based upon the observation that these lipoproteins all contain highly conserved leader peptides, we now propose that the ancestors of each of the three families arose from gene fusion events which joined a common N terminus to unrelated proteins. Additionally, further sequence analysis of the strain 297 circular plasmids revealed that rearrangements appear to have played an important role in generating sequence diversity among the members of these three families and that recombinational events in the downstream flanking regions appear to have occurred independently of those within the lipoprotein-encoding genes. The association of hypervariable regions with genes which are differentially expressed and/or subject to immunological pressures suggests that the Lyme disease spirochete has exploited recombinatorial processes to foster its parasitic strategy and enhance its immunoevasiveness.  (+info)

A family of S-methylmethionine-dependent thiol/selenol methyltransferases. Role in selenium tolerance and evolutionary relation. (6/15569)

Several plant species can tolerate high concentrations of selenium in the environment, and they accumulate organoselenium compounds. One of these compounds is Se-methylselenocysteine, synthesized by a number of species from the genus Astragalus (Fabaceae), like A. bisulcatus. An enzyme has been previously isolated from this organism that catalyzes methyl transfer from S-adenosylmethionine to selenocysteine. To elucidate the role of the enzyme in selenium tolerance, the cDNA coding for selenocysteine methyltransferase from A. bisulcatus was cloned and sequenced. Data base searches revealed the existence of several apparent homologs of hitherto unassigned function. The gene for one of them, yagD from Escherichia coli, was cloned, and the protein was overproduced and purified. A functional analysis showed that the YagD protein catalyzes methylation of homocysteine, selenohomocysteine, and selenocysteine with S-adenosylmethionine and S-methylmethionine as methyl group donors. S-Methylmethionine was now shown to be also the physiological methyl group donor for the A. bisulcatus selenocysteine methyltransferase. A model system was set up in E. coli which demonstrated that expression of the plant and, although to a much lesser degree, of the bacterial methyltransferase gene increases selenium tolerance and strongly reduces unspecific selenium incorporation into proteins, provided that S-methylmethionine is present in the medium. It is postulated that the selenocysteine methyltransferase under selective pressure developed from an S-methylmethionine-dependent thiol/selenol methyltransferase.  (+info)

Kodamaea nitidulidarum, Candida restingae and Kodamaea anthophila, three new related yeast species from ephemeral flowers. (7/15569)

Three new yeast species were discovered during studies of yeasts associated with ephemeral flowers in Brazil, Australia and Hawaii. Their physiological and morphological similarity to Kodamaea (Pichia) ohmeri suggested a possible relationship to that species, which was confirmed by rDNA sequencing. Kodamaea nitidulidarum and Candida restingae were found in cactus flowers and associated nitidulid beetles in sand dune ecosystems (restinga) of South-eastern Brazil. Over 350 strains of Kodamaea anthophila were isolated from Hibiscus and morning glory flowers (Ipomoea spp.) in Australia, and from associated nitidulid beetles and Drosophila hibisci. A single isolate came from a beach morning glory in Hawaii. Expansion of the genus Kodamaea to three species modified the existing definition of the genus only slightly. The type and isotype strains are as follows: K. nitidulidarum strains UFMG96-272T (h+; CBS 8491T) and UFMG96-394I (h-; CBS 8492I); Candida restingae UFMG96-276T (CBS 8493T); K. anthophila strains UWO(PS)95-602.1T (h+; CBS 8494T), UWO(PS)91-893.2I (h-; CBS 8495I) and UWO(PS)95-725.1I (h-; CBS 8496I).  (+info)

Reticulate evolution and the origins of ribosomal internal transcribed spacer diversity in apomictic Meloidogyne. (8/15569)

Among root knot nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne, the polyploid obligate mitotic parthenogens M. arenaria, M. javanica, and M. incognita are widespread and common agricultural pests. Although these named forms are distinguishable by closely related mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes, detailed sequence analyses of internal transcribed spacers (ITSs) of nuclear ribosomal genes reveal extremely high diversity, even within individual nematodes. This ITS diversity is broadly structured into two very different groups that are 12%-18% divergent: one with low diversity (< 1.0%) and one with high diversity (6%-7%). In both of these groups, identical sequences can be found within individual nematodes of different mtDNA haplotypes (i.e., among species). Analysis of genetic variance indicates that more than 90% of ITS diversity can be found within an individual nematode, with small but statistically significant (5%-10%; P < 0.05) variance distributed among mtDNA lineages. The evolutionarily distinct parthenogen M. hapla shows a similar pattern of ITS diversity, with two divergent groups of ITSs within each individual. In contrast, two diploid amphimictic species have only one lineage of ITSs with low diversity (< 0.2%). The presence of divergent lineages of rDNA in the apomictic taxa is unlikely to be due to differences among pseudogenes. Instead, we suggest that the diversity of ITSs in M. arenaria, M. javanica, and M. incognita is due to hybrid origins from closely related females (as inferred from mtDNA) and combinations of more diverse paternal lineages.  (+info)

Developmental evolution as mechanistic science: The inference from developmental mechanisms to evolutionary processes. Wagner, Gunter P. Developmental Evolution as a Mechanistic Science: The Inference from Developmental Mechanisms to Evolutionary Processes1 SYNOPSIS. Developmental Evolution (DE) contributes to various research programs in biology, such as the assessment of homology and the determination of the genetic architecture underlying species differences. The most distinctive contribution offered by DE to evolutionary biology, however, is the elucidation of the role of developmental mechanisms in the origin of evolutionary innovations. To date, explanations of evolutionary innovations have remained beyond the reach of classical evolutionary genetics, because such explanations require detailed information on the function of genes and the emergent developmental dynamics of their interactions with other genetic factors. We argue that this area has the potential to become the core of DEs ...
20 Questions on Adaptive Dynamics Adaptive dynamics is a tool used of studying phenotypic changes in evolving populations over time1. Adaptive dynamics approach is different from population genetic Fishers model2. Fishers population under natural selection will additively increase its population fitness, where as an adaptive dynamics population of unfit individuals are replace by fitter ones but…
More recently, some of the Altenberg attendees, among others, launched a web site, The Third Way, as an organizing tool for scientists working on a model of evolution that accommodates the research findings that are stretching the Modern Synthesis. More recently the The John Templeton Foundation has awarded a major grant (£5.7m or $8m) to an international team of leading researchers for a three-year research program "to put the predictions of the extended evolutionary synthesis to the test." The Royal Society in 2015 published an article, The extended evolutionary synthesis: its structure, assumptions and predictions that provides additional background information. And in November 2016 the Society hosted a scientific meeting on the topic, entitled, "New trends in evolutionary biology: biological, philosophical and social science perspectives ...
Living things are organized in a hierarchy of levels. Genes group together in cells, cells group together in organisms, and organisms group together in societies. Even different species form mutualistic partnerships. In the history of life, previously independent units have formed groups that, in time, have come to resemble individuals in their own right. Biologists term such events the major transitions. The process common to them all is social evolution. Each occurs only if natural selection favours one unit joining with another in a new kind of group. This book presents a fresh synthesis of the principles of social evolution that underlie the major transitions, and explains how the basic theory underpinning social evolution, inclusive fitness theory, is central to understanding each event. At the same time, it defends inclusive fitness theory against recent critiques. The book defines the key stages in a major transition, then picks out the shared principles operating at each stage across the
You searched for: Collection Group NESCent: National Evolutionary Synthesis Center Remove constraint Collection Group: NESCent: National Evolutionary Synthesis Center Year Unknown Remove constraint Year: Unknown ...
Dieckmann U & Doebeli M (2004). Adaptive dynamics of speciation: Sexual populations. In: Adaptive Speciation. Eds. Dieckmann, U., Doebeli, M., Metz, J.A.J. & Tautz, D., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-82842-2 DOI:10.2277/0521828422. Full text not available from this repository ...
Coevolution accounts for a significant proportion of the evolutionary change that occurs in nature. This is quite reasonable because most, if not all, species live as members of communities composed of many species. As a result of interactions between members in a community, many species utilize not only their own genome, but also the genome of other species to facilitate survival and reproduction in context of mutualistic interactions. Conversely, antagonistic interactions between species are capable of driving rapid evolutionary change between interacting species. Thus intergenomic interactions, resulting from both mutualistic and antagonistic coevolution, play a major role in shaping the evolutionary trajectory of many species. Current Projects: -Antagonistic coevolution - Experimental Coevolution Test of the Red Queen: This project combines my interests in both mating system evolution and coevolutionary dynamics! The Red Queen Hypothesis predicts that selective pressure from coevolving ...
As we will see in the rest of this volume, several of these tenets [of the Modern Synthesis] are being challenged as either inaccurate or incomplete. It is important, however, to understand the kind of challenge being posed here, in order to avoid wasting time on unproductive discussions that missed the point of an extended evolutionary synthesis. Perhaps a parallel with another branch of biology will be helpful. After Watson and Crick discovered the double-helix structure of DNA, and the molecular revolution got started in earnest, one of the first principles to emerge from the new discipline was the unfortunately named "central dogma" of molecular biology. The dogma (a word that arguably should never be used in science) stated that the flow of information in biological systems is always one way, from DNA to RNA to proteins. Later on, however, it was discovered that the DNA > RNA flow can be reversed by the appropriately named process of reverse transcription, which takes place in a variety of ...
... watch video, Adnan Oktars comments and opinions about The evolutionist tradition of concealing fossils, watch related articles, videos, interviews and documentries for The evolutionist tradition of concealing fossils, share on facebook, share on twitter
William Smith (1769-1839), an English canal engineer, observed that rocks of different ages (based on the law of superposition) preserved different assemblages of fossils, and that these assemblages succeeded one another in a regular and determinable order. He observed that rocks from distant locations could be correlated based on the fossils they contained. He termed this the principle of faunal succession. Smith, who preceded Charles Darwin, was unaware of biological evolution and did not know why faunal succession occurred. Biological evolution explains why faunal succession exists: as different organisms evolve, change and go extinct, they leave behind fossils. Faunal succession was one of the chief pieces of evidence cited by Darwin that biological evolution had occurred. Early naturalists well understood the similarities and differences of living species leading Linnaeus to develop a hierarchical classification system still in use today. It was Darwin and his contemporaries who first ...
William Smith (1769-1839), an English canal engineer, observed that rocks of different ages (based on the law of superposition) preserved different assemblages of fossils, and that these assemblages succeeded one another in a regular and determinable order. He observed that rocks from distant locations could be correlated based on the fossils they contained. He termed this the principle of faunal succession. Smith, who preceded Charles Darwin, was unaware of biological evolution and did not know why faunal succession occurred. Biological evolution explains why faunal succession exists: as different organisms evolve, change and go extinct, they leave behind fossils. Faunal succession was one of the chief pieces of evidence cited by Darwin that biological evolution had occurred. Early naturalists well understood the similarities and differences of living species leading Linnaeus to develop a hierarchical classification system still in use today. It was Darwin and his contemporaries who first ...
The foregoing suggests that natural selection theory be formulated as a problem of signal-to-noise ratio. That is, the burden on the theory is to show that the variability of heritable phenotypic traits within a species in a local population, limited as it is by developmental constraints, nonetheless is significant enough to account for the variability of reproductive success among the members of a generation. Can the variability of the heritable traits in a given generation, the signal, rise above the day-in day-out contingencies of the environment and the intrinsic developmental constraints that limit the variability of phenotypes in a given generation, the noise, to override these factors and determine reproductive outcomes generation after generation ...
Abstract Because of the variability of relevant developmental resources across different environments, and because only a portion of the genome is expressed in any individual organism as a result of its specific developmental context and experience,
Page 1 of 2 - Why Evolutionist Dont Like To Give Evidence? - posted in Creation vs Evolution: I find it quite frustrating and amusing that for all their talk about science, many evolutionists refuse to give evidence of their claims. Many seem to think that just by merely saying the word fossil makes it evidence of evolution, without actually demonstrating how it is... So calling all evolutionists to give a summary of how their evidence is evidence of evolution. Just one...
Antagonistic coevolution is particularly likely to take place between parasites and their hosts. It is easy to imagine how a change in a parasite, which improves its ability to penetrate its hosts, will reciprocally set up selection for a change in the host. Antagonism can cause cyclical or escalatory coevolution:. • If the range of genetic variants in parasite and host is limited, coevolution can be cyclic. • But if new mutants continually arise, the parasite and host may undergo unending coupled changes in a particular direction. Many properties of the biology of parasites and hosts have been attributed to antagonistic coevolution, such as parasitic virulence, and the simultaneous phylogenetic branching of parasites and hosts. Antagonisms are thought to be the biological factor most likely to cause extinction.. The shells of these molluscs are an example of escalatory coevolution: the fossil record shows that the thickness of the shells increases in response to the evolution of more ...
It takes all the running you can do, to keep in the same place. - Lewis Carroll in Through the Looking-Glass http://astore.amazon.com/spectrevision-20/detail/0525951113 Let me tell you the story of the most successful organism of all time: this is the story of the parasite. Early on, evolution branched into two distinct paths: independent organisms-those that exist…
One major feature of the Palaeogene radiation of acanthomorphs-the origin of several clades of pelagic predators-appears related to the filling of vacated functional roles, but additional axes of morphological diversification are not clearly explained under this model. This might reflect the conservative approach applied here, which focuses on regions of morphospace that were devastated, rather than thinned, by extinction, combined with the limitations of a broadly framed landmark-based morphometric scheme in comparison to a targeted functional analysis. A mosaic pattern of turnover could remain an important but subtle mechanism underlying aspects of the acanthomorph radiation. Selection against higher trophic levels of the sort inferred for teleosts during the K-P (Cavin 2001; Friedman 2009) might yield particularly nuanced succession dynamics, because piscivorous fishes assume a range of morphologies and represent the most anatomically disparate diet class in some modern faunas (Chakrabarty ...
As we will see in the rest of this volume, several of these tenets [of the Modern Synthesis] are being challenged as either a inaccurate or incomplete. It is important however, to understand the kind of challenge being posted here, in order to avoid wasting time on unproductive discussions that miss the point of an extended evolutionary synthesis. Perhaps a parallel with another branch of biology will be helpful. After Watson and Crick discovered the double-helix structure of DNA, and the molecular revolution got started in earnest, one of the first principles to emerge from the new discipline was the unfortunately named "central dogma" of molecular biology. The dogma (a word that arguably should never be used in science) stated that the flow of information in biological systems is always one-way, from DNA to RNA proteins. Later on, however, it was discovered that the DNA > RNA flow can be reversed by the appropriately named process of reverse transcription, which takes place in a variety of ...
Life cycle strategies have evolved extensively throughout the history of metazoans. The expression of disparate life stages within a single ontogeny can present conflicts to trait evolution, and therefore may have played a major role in shaping metazoan forms. However, few studies have examined the consequences of adding or subtracting life stages on patterns of trait evolution. By analysing trait evolution in a clade of closely related salamander lineages we show that shifts in the number of life cycle stages are associated with rapid phenotypic evolution. Specifically, salamanders with an aquatic-only (paedomorphic) life cycle have frequently added vertebrae to their trunk skeleton compared with closely related lineages with a complex aquatic-to-terrestrial (biphasic) life cycle. The rate of vertebral column evolution is also substantially lower in biphasic lineages, which may reflect the functional compromise of a complex cycle. This study demonstrates that the consequences of life cycle ...
CA, Azlan and N.A., Kadri, and NF, Mohd Nasir and MG, Rah (2006) The study of morphological structure, phase structure and molecular structure of collagen-PEO 600K blends for tissue engineering application. American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 2 (5). pp. 175-179. ...
We demonstrate how a genetic polymorphism of distinctly different alleles can develop during long-term frequency-dependent evolution in an initially monomorphic diploid population, if mutations have only small phenotypic effect. As a specific example, we use a version of Levenes (1953) soft selection model, where stabilizing selection acts on a continuous trait within each of two habitats. If the optimal phenotypes within the habitats are sufficiently different, then two distinctly different alleles evolve gradually from a single ancestral allele. In a wide range of parameter values, the two locally optimal phenotypes will be realized by one of the homozygotes and the heterozygote, rather than by the two homozygotes. Unlike in the haploid analogue of the model, there can be multiple polymorphic evolutionary attractors with different probabilities of convergence. Our results differ from the population genetic models of short-term evolution in two aspects: (1) a polymorphism that is population ...
This working group will assemble a team of investigators from population, quantitative, demographic and human genetics, and evolutionary biology to analyze the three generation longitudinal Framingham Heart Study cohort data to document microevolutionary changes in a contemporary human population. The team will utilize the rich and diverse morphological, physiological and genomic data collected for nearly sixty years to primarily understand the manifestation of cardiovascular disease in a healthy white North American population. The investigators will use analytical approaches proven in evolutionary biology and if necessary develop novel approaches for the purpose. This concerted effort will yield an evolutionary framework to understand the distribution of human genetic variation and the role of evolution in human health and disease. The specific aims of this working group are to: 1) measure microevolutionary changes at the phenotype level in a white North American human population, using ...
It is definitely true that the so-called Modern Synthesis of Evolution needs an update. That is common knowledge. The problem is that there are not really leading figures that can come down with what might be called The Standard Model of Biological Evolution. I phrase it as such since as such it might also help against the ID movement. ID is constantly challenging biologists and other scientists. The thing they do understand all too well is that every new finding comes with many new questions, which they subsequently abuse to attack evolution. One of the issues they keep on coming back is that evolution is just a theory. Besides the fact that apparently they misunderstand the scientific meaning of theory, they easily put aside the enormous of evidence that backs up this theory. The reason why they keep on doing this is that there are still a number of battle areas , albeit much less then it seems. Here The Standard Model of Biological Evolution might come in quite handy. But who should ...
Page 1 of 3 - Is Macroevolution Testable? - posted in Best all time threads.: Evolutionists frequently affirm that macroevolution in nature is too slow to observe. Fair enough. Supposedly, significant macroevolutionary changes occured by natural selection, such as the evolution of cetaceans from a hippo- like precursor over a period of only 8 million years. The evolution of man from australopithecus supposedly took around 2 million years. My challenge is to produce macroevolutionary ch...
Both evolutionists and creationists stand in agreement that radiocarbon dating, which can be used only to date organic samples, is totally ineffective in measuring the alleged millions or billions of years of the evolutionary timetable. [In truth, even when dating things that are relatively young, carbon-14 dating is imperfect and based upon certain unprovable assumptions (see Major, 1993).] If radiocarbon dating can measure only items that are thousands of years old, why should evolutionists even consider using this dating method on anything that they already believe to be millions of years old? Creationists would like to see evolutionists apply this method to items believed to be millions of years old, because it might help convince evolutionists that coal, diamonds, fossils, etc. are not millions of years old, but only thousands of years old.. Consider that in recent years "readily detectable amounts of carbon-14" in materials evolutionists suppose are millions of years old "have been the ...
From the authors of The Design of Life, William Dembski & Jonathan Wells: "The transition from reptiles into mammals via mammal-like reptiles is regarded by many evolutionary theorists as the best example of an evolutionary lineage in the fossil record. There are, however, three fundamental problems with this and all other examples of inferring Darwinian evolution on the basis of fossil evidence. The first is that any specific hypothesis must use the fossil data selectively; the second is that similarities in fossil or living organisms may not be due to common ancestry; and the third is that fossils cannot, in principle, establish biological relationships." Continue reading at Evolution News & Views. ...
A crustacean with 3,000 lenses in its eyes, 6-foot-long shrimplike creatures and organisms that looked like tulips emerged hastily (from an evolutionary perspective) on the scene some 520 million to 540 million years ago. And now scientists have figured out just how quickly evolution was occurring during
Lateral gene transfer is a major force in the evolution of microorganisms. The ability to obtain genetic novelty can accelerate adaptation to new niches and speeds up evolutionary transitions and speciation events. However, exposure to foreign DNA is also harmful for microbes, mostly because the vectors of gene transfer such as plasmids and viruses are parasitic and often lethal for their hosts. Microorganisms have therefore developed several defense mechanisms to degrade foreign DNA. In prokaryotes CRISPR (Clustered, Regularly, Interspaced, Short, Palindromic Repeats) - based systems digest invading DNA or RNA, thus preventing not only viral infections but also the acquisition of potentially beneficial traits such as antibiotic resistance. CRISPR systems acquire new invader-derived sequences and thus establish immune memory, and also a record of past infections by selfish mobile elements ...
Microfossils dating from more than 3 billion years ago demonstrate that bacteria were the first life-forms on the planet. Bacteria and Archaea, both prokaryotic, ruled until the advent of nucleated cells with membranous organelles, such as those of which we are constructed (eukaryotic cells). The earliest known fossilized evidence of early life forms are found in stromatolites - large reef structures created by communities of Cyanobacteria. Mistakenly called blue-green algae, the Cyanobacteria are bacteria that evolved relatively late. They are believed to have "invented" oxygenic photosynthesis over 1 billion years ago. As oxygen levels rose, organisms were forced into endosymbiotic unions as - to them - toxic levels of oxygen threatened their continued existence. (Anaerobic bacteria, which are killed by oxygen, persist to this day in environments with very low levels of oxygen.) These serial endosymbiotic transfer events paved the way for evolution of eukaryotic cells, which in turn enabled ...
Ive discussed the nature of evidence more than a few times. In a nutshell, evidence is neutral. Its doesnt "tell" us anything and it doesnt endorse any theory. Instead, theories are created to help make sense of the evidence. Its a classic example of circular reasoning when evolutionists invent a theory to explain the evidence then claim the evidence supports their theory but Im not here to talk about that right now. Rather, Im going to explain why the evolutionists demands for "evidence" are nothing more than special pleading.. Since most physical evidence is neutral, whenever an evolutionist asks for "evidence" for creation, he can only be asking for the creationists explanation of the evidence. After all, I live in the same world as he so I have all the same evidence that he does. But we already know that the evolutionist rejects the creation theory in advance because he has already accepted his own theory as the explanation for the evidence. When he rejects our "evidence," he is ...
In recent papers, Dr. Nowak has argued that cooperation is one of the three basic principles of evolution. The other two are mutation and selection. On their own, mutation and selection can transform a species, giving rise to new traits like limbs and eyes. But cooperation is essential for life to evolve to a new level of organization. Single-celled protozoa had to cooperate to give rise to the first multicellular animals. Humans had to cooperate for complex societies to emerge.. "We see this principle everywhere in evolution where interesting things are happening," Dr. Nowak said.. While cooperation may be central to evolution, however, it poses questions that are not easy to answer. How can competing individuals start to cooperate for the greater good? And how do they continue to cooperate in the face of exploitation? To answer these questions, Dr. Nowak plays games. ...
The Earths environments have been shaped by biological evolution over geologic timescales, and biological evolution has in turn responded to environmental evolution. Geobiology is at this interface, often rooted in modern local observations and integrated over large spatial and temporal scales via the geologic record. The Stanford program in Geobiology has strong emphasis both on how organism metabolism and physiology influence modern environments and how strong feedbacks can emerge when viewed over the great sweep of Earth history via the sedimentary and fossil records. ...
Specifically, I note what I think any evolutionary biologist would immediately see: that Axe and Gauger did not test an evolutionary hypothesis. Todd explains this very well, but heres the basic problem. To test an evolutionary hypothesis, as I mentioned above, one must study an evolutionary transition. In other words, one must study a change or transition from an ancestral state to a current (or later) state. Joe Thorntons work is a great example: his group examined protein function in a reconstruction of an evolutionary transition. What Axe and Gauger did was study a transition that has never been proposed to have happened. They examined a transition from one currently-existing protein to another currently-existing protein. Its as though they analyzed the transition from a cat to a dog, when they should have analyzed the transition from ancestral mammals to dogs and/or cats. Their conclusions tell us something about protein structure and function but, crucially, not about the evolution ...
Article Technological cognition and co-adaptation in mesoeconomic plexuses. In this paper we propose a new approach to technological knowledge based on the concept of mesoeconomic plexus conceived as the fundamental analytical unit of the meso level....
THE NEW EVOLUTION. As it becomes increasingly apparent that there are no transitional forms in the fossil record, scientists opposed to the idea of creation are scrambling for a new evolutionary explanation. The new version of evolution is called sudden origins or punctuated equilibrium . It (conveniently) states that there are no transitional forms because the (never observed) beneficial mutations which produce new information don t happen gradually over many generations---instead massive, dramatic mutations occur suddenly and members of the species who don t get these essential mutations simply die out. This completely new species just suddenly appear explanation hopes to get evolutionists off the hook (to produce transitional forms). It also concedes (unintentionally) that the fossil record shows what the Creation Model predicts.. HOW EVOLUTION SURVIVES. Creation is a much better model to explain the evidence than evolution. So how does evolution survive (and even thrive) as a theory---being ...
My group is interested in a variety of topics related to the vertebrate craniofacial (head) development and craniofacial developmental evolution. We use molecular, cellular and developmental genetics approaches to study the precise mechanisms of cranial skeletal differentiation, especially in the context of the dermal intramembranous bone, which is unique to the skull and bones. We also curious about issues of skull morphogenesis and integration of cranial skeleton with cranial musculature. The species we work with range from the laboratory model systems, such as chicken embryos and mouse mutants, to the non-model species used for evolutionary developmental studies, for example Darwin s Finches and their tribe relatives, other birds and, more recently, reptiles ...
Around the beginning of the 20th century, many evolutionists started to realize that natural selection cannot produce new genetic information needed for new organs, species, etc. So they came up with the idea that mutations-random genetic copying mistakes- provide the new information and natural selection guides the evolutionary process. These evolutionists are called neo-Darwinists and they are in majority today.. The genetic information-the coded blueprint of a living organism- is stored in each cell of our bodies, in extremely complex DNA molecules. As this vast amount of information is copied, mistakes do occur sometimes-they are called mutations. Evolutionists recognize that these are the only real changes that can happen in the genes of creatures and they hope that mutations somehow provide the new information needed for macroevolution to occur. But random mutations never add new information, they can only decrease information. Therefore most mutations are harmful, and many of them ...
Evolutionists love to tout the fossil record as evidence for their theory. Fossils are often found where they are not expected, and these finds cause evolutionists to frequently revise their timelines. Evolutionists have a lot of problems with the fossil record.
2012 Evolution and health: Using animal models and an evolutionary perspective to understand bone and joint disease. April 1s profile, publications, research topics, and co-authors
Recently Ben McConnell (Church of the Customer) shared his perspective on the distinction between Word-of-Mouth (WOM) and Buzz. (Its a good read.). His post rekindled some of my thoughts on Creationist WOM vs. Evolutionist WOM (video clip). The Creationist WOM marketing mindset is about making the marketing activity something to talk about as in attention-grabbing stunts and gimmicks. The Evolutionist WOM mindset is about making a companys products, services, and or experiences worth talking about.. Creationist WOM marketers believe Word-of-Mouth just a marketing issue. While, Evolutionist WOM marketers believe Word-of-Mouth is an everyday business issue.. Weve seen Creationist WOM theory at work recently with Dennys stunt of giving away 2-million Grand Slam breakfasts for free and all the gimmicky commercials shown during the Super Bowl.. Specific instances of Evolutionist WOM theory at work are more difficult to notice. Thats because these marketing activities are not supposed to be ...
Recently Ben McConnell (Church of the Customer) shared his perspective on the distinction between Word-of-Mouth (WOM) and Buzz. (Its a good read.). His post rekindled some of my thoughts on Creationist WOM vs. Evolutionist WOM (video clip). The Creationist WOM marketing mindset is about making the marketing activity something to talk about as in attention-grabbing stunts and gimmicks. The Evolutionist WOM mindset is about making a companys products, services, and or experiences worth talking about.. Creationist WOM marketers believe Word-of-Mouth just a marketing issue. While, Evolutionist WOM marketers believe Word-of-Mouth is an everyday business issue.. Weve seen Creationist WOM theory at work recently with Dennys stunt of giving away 2-million Grand Slam breakfasts for free and all the gimmicky commercials shown during the Super Bowl.. Specific instances of Evolutionist WOM theory at work are more difficult to notice. Thats because these marketing activities are not supposed to be ...
Animal life, now and over the past half billion years, is incredibly diverse. Describing and understanding the evolution of this diversity of body plans - from vertebrates such as humans and fish to the numerous invertebrate groups including sponges, insects, molluscs, and the many groups of worms - is a major goal of evolutionary biology. This book adopts a modern, integrated approach to describe how current molecular genetic techniques and disciplines as diverse as palaeontology, embryology, and genomics have been combined, resulting in a dramatic renaissance in the study of animal evolution. The last decade has seen growing interest in evolutionary biology fuelled by a wealth of data from molecular biology. Modern phylogenies integrating evidence from molecules, embryological data, and morphology of living and fossil taxa provide a wide consensus of the major branching patterns of the tree of life; moreover, the links between phenotype and genotype are increasingly well understood. This has resulted
Time and place: Evolutionary dynamics of species diversity in fish - an interdisciplinary research program in ecology, evolution and conservation June 1, 2012 2:15 PM - 3:00 PM, Room 3508, Kristine Bonnevies hus ...
Fossils, Teeth, and Sex: New Perspectives on Human Evolution - 1987, Page 151 by Charles E. Oxnard. Read Fossils, Teeth, and Sex: New Perspectives on Human Evolution now at Questia.
Time and place: CEES Extra seminar/AQUA seminar: Fatty acids in the marine environment, from photosynthesis to copepod lipids and sequestration Dec. 10, 2015 2:15 PM-3:00 PM, Seminar room 3508 ...
Math Help Forum is a free math help forum for Calculus, Algebra, LaTeX, Geometry, Trigonometry, Statistics and Probability, Differential Equations, Discrete Math
Critics have argued that the "peppered moth story" showed only microevolution, rather than speciation or other changes at the larger macroevolutionary scale. Biologists agree that this example shows natural selection causing evolution within a species, demonstrating rapid and obvious adaptiveness with such change, and accept that it is not proof of the theory of evolution as a whole. However, though creationists accept "microevolution" of varieties within a "kind", they claim that "macroevolution" does not happen. To biologists there is no dividing line between the two, and in the modern evolutionary synthesis the same mechanisms are seen operating at various scales to cause both evolution within species and speciation at a macroevolution level or wider changes, the only difference being of time and scale." ...
The rock record provides an abundance of fossils, and by the early 1800s, geologists were using physical relationships among rocks as evidence to establish the basis for the geologic time scale. They understood that the fossil record shows major changes in life forms over time. In 1859, Charles Darwins On the Origin of Species described these changes in detail and showed that they indicate that all life on Earth is related through descent with modification and showed that these changes can be explained by natural selection operating on random variations in organisms-the process we now know as biological evolution. Since then, we have continued to uncover details of lifes history, and biologists have elucidated the genetic and molecular basis for evolution. Evolution is not a static idea but a growing concept added to by scientific observation, testing, and debate. Scientific discoveries in these fields and related disciplines have progressively sharpened our understanding of evolution, which ...
The following series of concise summaries addresses the evolution of infectious agents in relation to sex in animals and humans from the perspective of three specific questions: (1) what have we learned about the likely origin and phylogeny, up to the establishment of the infectious agent in the genital econiche, including the relative frequency of its sexual transmission; (2) what further research is needed to provide additional knowledge on some of these evolutionary aspects; and (3) what evolutionary considerations might aid in providing novel approaches to the more practical clinical and public health issues facing us currently and in the future?. ...
(2009) Niklas, Kutschera. New Phytologist. New Phytologist (2009) Summary 1I. Introduction 2II. Developmental constraint or a phyletic legacy? 3III. Green plant phylogeny 3IV. The ancestral green plant life cycle 5V. Haplobiontic or diplobi...
This paper presents some of the recent challenges to theModern Synthesis of evolutionary theory, which has dominatedevolutionary thinking for the last sixty years. The focus ofthe paper is the challenge of soft inheritance - the idea that variations that arise during development can beinherited. There is ample evidence showing that phenotypic variations that are independent of variations in DNAsequence, and targeted DNA changes that are guided by epigenetic control systems, are important sources ofhereditary variation, and hence can contribute to evolutionary changes. Furthermore, under certain conditions, themechanisms underlying epigenetic inheritance can also lead to saltational changes that reorganize the epigenome. These discoveriesare clearly incompatible with the tenets of the Modern Synthesis, which denied any significant role forLamarckian and saltational processes. In view of the data that support soft inheritance, as well as other challengesto the Modern Synthesis, it is concluded ...
Why distanced he began the download disordered systems and biological in the series together but? That said the Function-enrichment closest in his temperature. She referred it in a phosphomimetic download disordered systems and biological organization.
... , The organic view of social behaviour, Evolutionary theory versus environmental adaptation
Coevolution accounts for a significant proportion of the evolutionary change that occurs in nature. This is quite reasonable because most, if not all, species live as members of communities composed of many species. As a result of interactions between members in a community, many species utilize not only their own genome, but also the genome of other species to facilitate survival and reproduction in context of mutualistic interactions. Conversely, antagonistic interactions between species are capable of driving rapid evolutionary change between interacting species. Thus intergenomic interactions, resulting from both mutualistic and antagonistic coevolution, play a major role in shaping the evolutionary trajectory of many species. We are interested in learning how coevolutionary interactions affect each interacting species, and also understanding the role that mating systems play in determining the outcome of coevolutionary interactions. We work with C. elegans and the bacterial pathogen, ...
Scientists have pinpointed the pace and shape of life as the two key elements in animal life cycles that affect how different species get by in the world. Their findings, which come from a detailed assessment of 121 species ...
We investigate fundamental decisions in the design of instruction set architectures for linear genetic programs that are used as both model systems in evolutionary biology and underlying solution representations in evolutionary computation. We subjected digital organisms with each tested architecture to seven different computational environments designed to present a range of evolutionary challenges. Our goal was to engineer a general purpose architecture that would be effective under a broad range of evolutionary conditions. We evaluated six different types of architectural features for the virtual CPUs: (1) genetic flexibility: we allowed digital organisms to more precisely modify the function of genetic instructions, (2) memory: we provided an increased number of registers in the virtual CPUs, (3) decoupled sensors and actuators: we separated input and output operations to enable greater control over data flow. We also tested a variety of methods to regulate expression: (4) explicit labels that allow
We investigate fundamental decisions in the design of instruction set architectures for linear genetic programs that are used as both model systems in evolutionary biology and underlying solution representations in evolutionary computation. We subjected digital organisms with each tested architecture to seven different computational environments designed to present a range of evolutionary challenges. Our goal was to engineer a general purpose architecture that would be effective under a broad range of evolutionary conditions. We evaluated six different types of architectural features for the virtual CPUs: (1) genetic flexibility: we allowed digital organisms to more precisely modify the function of genetic instructions, (2) memory: we provided an increased number of registers in the virtual CPUs, (3) decoupled sensors and actuators: we separated input and output operations to enable greater control over data flow. We also tested a variety of methods to regulate expression: (4) explicit labels that allow
Id like to stick with this subject, as it is the most important subject, in my opinion, regarding evolution. This isnt too hard of a concept, and Im going to assume that you are smart enough to know what Im looking for. For a reptile to evolve into a bird, it would have to acquire wings, obviously. This could not occur due to changes in shape and size. A new morphological structure is a structure that is entirely new, not changing the shape of an already existing structure, how would changing the shape of an already existing structure create a new one, and explain how it got there to begin with? Can changing the shape of a bacteria, cause it to evolve into a mammal? If you cant show me where even a single new structure new to the species has occured, how do you expect me to even begin to believe in evolution? Im sorry Im not crazy enough to believe such a thing. The fossil record shows no such events ever occured, and most evolutionists admit that the fossil record is one giant gap, so ...
Id like to stick with this subject, as it is the most important subject, in my opinion, regarding evolution. This isnt too hard of a concept, and Im going to assume that you are smart enough to know what Im looking for. For a reptile to evolve into a bird, it would have to acquire wings, obviously. This could not occur due to changes in shape and size. A new morphological structure is a structure that is entirely new, not changing the shape of an already existing structure, how would changing the shape of an already existing structure create a new one, and explain how it got there to begin with? Can changing the shape of a bacteria, cause it to evolve into a mammal? If you cant show me where even a single new structure new to the species has occured, how do you expect me to even begin to believe in evolution? Im sorry Im not crazy enough to believe such a thing. The fossil record shows no such events ever occured, and most evolutionists admit that the fossil record is one giant gap, so ...
As more and more scientists adopt the creation model, there ought to be an increasing emphasis on examining data from a creationist viewpoint and a decreasing emphasis on searching out failures of the evolution model to make true or testable predictions. More than enough of the latter has been done than is needed to convince anyone not hindered by non-scientific considerations, such as ignorance, prejudice or philosophy. Although creationists will continue to call attention to unfounded assumptions and conclusions made by evolutionists, increased effort should now be spent on building a more comprehensive creation model. In addition to re-interpreting the data produced by evolutionists, we hope to see creationists increase their emphasis on carrying out studies specifically designed to test and refine the creation model. Although no one seems to think it was unscientific for Watson and Crick to use the data of others in developing the DNA model, a favorite aspersion cast by evolutionists is the ...
His point, of course, is that you would expect a genome full of junk in an evolutionary framework, but you would not expect it if the genome had been designed by a Creator. I couldnt agree more. If evolution produced the genome, you would expect it to contain a whole lot of junk. If the genome had been designed by a loving, powerful Creator, however, it would not. Well…scientists have made a giant leap forward in understanding the human genome, and they have found that the evolutionary expectation is utterly wrong, and the creationist expectation has (once again) been confirmed by the data.. The leap began back in 2003, when scientists started a project called the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE).5 Their goal was to use the sequence of the human genome as a map so that they could discover and define the functional elements of human DNA. Back in 2007, they published their preliminary report, based on only 1% of the human genome. In that report, they found that the vast majority of the ...
London: It took 100 million years for oxygen in the oceans and atmosphere to increase to the level that allowed the explosion of animal life on the Earth about 600 million years ago, according to new research.
To paraphrase, the argument seems to be something like the following:. (1) Assume a case where evolutionary thinking makes no difference to our understanding.. (2) In that case, evolutionary thinking makes no difference to our understanding.. (3) So, evolutionary thinking cant play a central role in our understanding of the mind.. It seems to me that (3) doesnt follow from (1) and (2). Logic aside, though, the question arises of how often Burnstons scenario might actually hold. First, Id like to see the stats on how often psychologists all agree on the "current functional role" of a psychological trait. Provided we could find some unicorns of this kind, wed then want to know how often it was the case that all evolutionary explanations for the trait in question were equally plausible or implausible-a perfectly flat probability function, so that we could say strictly nothing about the evolution of the trait. As I stress in the book, an evolutionary approach (or any scientific approach, ...
Few, if any, evolutionary biologists deny that HGT complicates the construction of prokaryotic trees. I doubt that any evolutionary biologist would consider this a problem for evolutionary theory. You contend that anything other than a simple, unambiguous, linear tree of life disproves evolution. No one educated in the biological sciences would make such a contention. When I looked at the parts of the quotes that you have put in bold in your posts, it became very clear that you do not understand what these people are saying. They are saying that evolutionary history is complex, not that it is wrong. As Jack has urged, please clarify why you think that HGT falsifies evolutionary theory. Specifically, please provide support that these authors, particularly Koonin, think evolution is bogus. You should thoroughly research something before misrepresenting quotes. Science, which you claim to admire, does not tolerate poor research ...
In 1937, Dobzhansky published these results in a landmark book, Genetics and the Origin of Species. In it, he sketched out an explanation for how species actually came into existence. Mutations crop up naturally all the time. Some mutations are harmful in certain circumstances, but a surprising number have no effect one way or the other. These neutral changes appear in different populations and linger, creating variability that is far greater than anyone had previously imagined.. This variability serves as the raw material for making new species. If the members of a population of flies should breed among themselves more than with other members of the species, their genetic profile would diverge. New mutations would arise in the isolated population, and natural selection might help them to spread until all the flies carried them. But because these isolated flies were only breeding within their own population, the mutations could not spread to the rest of the species. The isolated population of ...
The book Darwin and the Emergence of Evolutionary Theories of Mind and Behavior, Robert J. Richards is published by University of Chicago Press.
A method and apparatus for compressing digital data derived from an image using non-adaptive predictive techniques. A prediction table, which is pre-generated based on a number of sample images, generates a predicted pixel and source state for each pixel of the original image, as the original image is scanned. The predicted pixel is the expected value of the pixel when considering the values of a group of adjoining pixels, while the source state is indicative of the probability that the predicted pixel is in error. Prediction error pixels are then generated and grouped according to their respective source states to form a plurality of run length symbols with each symbol comprising a white portion and a black portion, which symbols are stored sequentially in order of formation in a memory device according to their respective source states. The symbols are used to provide address data for memory devices which generate variable length code words that are transmitted to a receiving station and decoded using
quote]I used to believe notions that flu could rather magically mutate into a malevolent, super-lethal virus, as suggested by various people, and mentioned by [J.C. Lawrence, in Letters] - and that it would then rampage around the world, killing untold millions.. However, I then saw arguments that this will not happen, based on applying one of the most powerful theories in science - evolution through natural selection - to infectious diseases. In the case of flu, these arguments centre on the need for the disease to be transmitted from one person to another. Typically, this means transmission from people who are well enough to be mobile - whether walking, riding buses, or taking flights. This in turn means that for a widespread form of human flu to evolve, it must be relatively mild in most people. A disease that greatly sickens and even kills many people will itself quickly die out.. These arguments, from scientists including evolutionary biologist Paul Ewald, explain much that is otherwise ...
Distinct evolutionary trends of TFs.Unlike average proteins, TF Ka/Ks correlates positively with regulatory in-degree and very poorly with CAI and the evolution
Perhaps the first thing that should be said about this book is that it does not make for light reading. All nineteen essays composing Brain Evolution and Cognition address cutting-edge issues in the evolution of brains and cognitive functions, and as one might easily expect the discussion is pit
Darwinian thought results in decent science, but is philosophical poison. It is partially true, and, as a half-truth is particularly dangerous. Natural selection -- the fittest survives -- is intuitively obvious and trivial. What is at stake is the ultimate driving mechanism -- mind or matter. More and more, while retaining their darwinian allegiances, scientists are discovering that chemical and biological evolution is law- rather than chance-based ...
Creationists claim there are no transitional fossils, aka missing links. Biologists and paleontologists, among others, know this claim is false," according to a recent LiveScience article that then describes what it claims are 12 specific transitional form fossils.1 But do these examples really confirm Darwinism?. Charles Darwin raised a lack of transitional fossils as a possible objection to his own theory: "Why, if species have descended from other species by fine gradations, do we not everywhere see innumerable transitional forms?"2 Later in this chapter of his landmark book, he expressed hope that future discoveries would be made of transitional forms, or of creatures that showed some transitional structure-perhaps a half-scale/half-feather.. Although some creationists do say that "there are no transitional fossils," it would be more accurate to state that there are no undisputed transitional forms. Although the article asserts that the fossil record "is full of them," the reality is that it ...
Curriculum Design and Instruction to Teach Biology: The Biology Of Individual Organisms: Digestion and Excretion: Energy and Waste Control
Yet by the late 1980s it was becoming obvious to most genetic researchers, including myself, since my own main research interest in the 80s and 90s was human genetics, that the heroic effort to find information specifying lifes order in the genes had failed. There was no longer the slightest justification for believing there exists anything in the genome remotely resembling a program capable of specifying in detail all the complex order of the phenotype. The emerging picture made it increasingly difficult to see genes as Weismanns "unambiguous bearers of information" or view them as the sole source of the durability and stability of organic form. It is true that genes influence every aspect of development, but influencing something is not the same as determining it. Only a small fraction of all known genes, such as the developmental fate switching genes, can be imputed to have any sort of directing or controlling influence on form generation. From being "isolated directors" of a one-way game ...
Some subsequent authors have charged that Gould and Lewontin (1979) presented a straw man, and did not provide a fair assessment of what members of the so-called adaptationist camp actually did or said. Nevertheless, I think many biologists feel that theirs was a very important contribution, at least as a warning for how the study of trait evolution could go awry. I would take a stronger position, and argue that not only was the Gould and Lewontin (1979) paper needed at the time, but that it is still needed today. And nowhere is this more true than in studies of human behaviour and anatomy, particularly because these tend to be widely covered in the science media. Evolutionary psychology takes a large amount of flak from evolutionary biologists and others for its perceived tendency to present "just-so stories" or to make extraordinary assumptions about the social and physical habitats of hominin ancestors. But this is not limited to studies of human minds by any means.. I recently discussed one ...
Scientists at the University of Chicago have created the first genetically modified animals containing reconstructed ancient genes, which they used to test the evolutionary effects of genetic changes that happened in the deep past on the animals biology and fitness.
We are up against billions of years of biological evolution - and the question is, can our super science grapple with what nature has decreed? Can we boldly change the rule-set of the ancient game? Can we really make our biological bodies live forever? Can we cheat death? And if we do, will there be some kind of trade-off? Will there be a terrible price to pay for upending the "natural order of things?" ...
This is true of all thirty-two orders of mammals... The earliest and most primitive known members of every order [of mammals] already have the basic ordinal characters, and in no case is an approximately continuous sequence from one order to another known. In most cases, the break is so sharp and the gap so large that the origin of the order is speculative and much disputed... This regular absence of transitional forms is not confined to mammals, but is an almost universal phenomenon, as has long been noted by paleontologists. It is true of almost all classes of animals, both vertebrate and invertebrate... it is true of the classes, and of the major animal phyla, and it is apparently also true of analogous categories of plants. ...
NB: This list illustrates only a tiny subset of the diversity of requirements and designs for information-processing functions and mechanisms in products of biological evolution. There may have been thousands of important transitions in information processing functions and designs in our evolutionary ancestors (some more important than others). Some of the solutions seem to have been compiled into genomes for species that have survived for a long time. Others seem to have been meta-compiled into parametrisable specifications that are instantiated during development and can cope with novel environments (like human-toddlers using mouse and pointer on a computer -- unlike any of their ancestors). How information-processing requirements change, depends on both features of the environment and features of the organism (products of previous evolution). Contrast: how designs change. TO BE CONTINUED ...
I. Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 1. Evolutionary Theory of Behavioral Dynamics ........................................................................... 2. The Virtual Organism. ............................................................................................................ 3. The Rules of the ETBD........................................................................................................... 4. Evidence Supporting the Theory. ........................................................................................... 6. Dynamic Behavior..................................................................................................................... 10. Monkey Experimental Paradigm............................................................................................... 11. Present ...
In other words, there isnt a single element of what distinguishes biology from chemistry.. As a chemical analogy to "natural selection", it is an interesting(?) experiment, that may or may not (Im guessing not) provide insight into population density changes in biological environments.. As far as "abiogenesis" is concerned, this experiment is about as relevant as dropping alka-seltzer in a glass of water, and noticing that the chemical composition of the solution changes.. This, btw, is a good example of why most conversations between evolutionists and creationists are pointless. To an educated creationist, this article is so clearly irrelevant to the entire argument of abiogenesis, it shouldnt even need refuted. To an evolutionist, apparently, this is practically first life, and a clear refutation of any creationist concerns over the impracticability of abiogenesis. Ah, well.. Whether or not "Darwinian Processes" as defined in the post above are common, is irrelevant to the validity of ...
thank god cause no one understand evolution. i make a few word errors and run on sentences because first off this isnt a spelling bee.this is a site with a bunch of atheist who believes in a process which there is no proof of nor how it even begin...sad, so i really dont care if i make a mistake on here, because im arguing with a bunch of people who believe in evolution and actually think that it disproves god sad... you all will believe anything recently a big chunky skull was found called hytomphic-anoglus it dates back 300 million years if i was to post this on the internet about 90% of the atheist will believe it. no wonder evolutionist make so much money becuase they can make up anything and you all will go buy it and think its factual. i may just become an under cover evolutionist so i can make money off you all.. ...
The 12-million-year-old bones of a previously unknown species named Danuvius guggenmosi challenge the prevailing view about when and where our ancestors first started walking upright.
A new study from SciLifeLab at Uppsala University published in PLOS ONE shows that genes crucial for vision were multiplied in the early stages of vertebrate evolution and acquired distinct functions leading to the sophisticated ...
History: Race in the U.S.A., a timeline created by the American Anthropological Association, looks at milestones in thinking and actions about race in government, science and society.
Authors: Frédéric Thomas, Sophie Rome, Frédéric Mery, Erika Dawson, Jacques Montagne, Peter A. Biro, Christa Beckmann, François Renaud, Robert Poulin, Michel Raymond, Beata Ujvari Source: Evolutionary Applications, Volume 10, Issue 7, Pages 651-657, August 2017 Brief summary of the paper: Changes in diet are frequently correlated with the occurrence and progression of malignant tumors (i.e., cancer) in both…
A. Kerkut emphasizes that all seven basic assumptions on which evolu-tionary theory rests are "by their nature… not capable of experimental verification" (Implications of Evolution, p. 7). [1] The assumption that "non-living things gave rise to living material… is still just an assumption" (ibid., p. 150). [2] The assumption that "biogenesis occurred only once… is a matter of belief rather than proof" (op. cit.). [3] The assumption that "Vi-ruses, Bacteria, Protozoa and the higher animals were all interrelated" biologically as an evolutionary phenomenon lacks definite evidence (ibid., p. 151). [4] The assumption that "the Protozoa gave rise to the Metazoa" has no basis in definite knowledge (ibid., pp. 151 ff.). [5] The assumption that "the various invertebrate phyla are interrelated" depends on "tenuous and cir-cumstantial" evidence and not on evidence that allows "a verdict of definite relationships" (ibid., pp. 152 f.). [6] The assumption that "the invertebrates gave rise to the ...
Animal life, now and over the past half billion years, is incredibly diverse. Describing and understanding the evolution of this diversity of body plans - from vertebrates such as humans and fish to the numerous invertebrate groups including sponges, insects, molluscs, and the many groups of worms - is a major goal of evolutionary biology.
Written by: Walt Brown Via: http://www.drdino.com/read-article.php?id=75&c=17 The test of any theory is whether or not it provides answers to basic qu…
Written by: Walt Brown Via: http://www.drdino.com/read-article.php?id=75&c=17 The test of any theory is whether or not it provides answers to basic qu…
The extent of functional overlap among ABC transporters and the ease with which they evolve new functions force us to begin to view homeostasis as an evolutionary phenomenon. 4.
The following a sample Paper 1. Read through the questions and then move on to the links below for the sample scripts.1. Explain how one hormone influences human behaviour 2. Describe one theory or study that demonstrates how biological factors may affect memory 3. Describe one theory or study on the formation of stereotypes.4. Examine evolutionary explanations of one behaviour. 5. To what extent is one cognitive process...
Diverse taxis mechanisms.Time course of active effector concentration for the most frequent and unique pathways obtained from selected evolutionary simulations
TY - JOUR. T1 - A bioarchitectonic approach to the modular engineering of metabolism. AU - Kerfeld,Cheryl A.. PY - 2017/9/26. Y1 - 2017/9/26. N2 - Dissociating the complexity of metabolic processes into modules is a shift in focus from the single gene/gene product to functional and evolutionary units spanning the scale of biological organization. When viewing the levels of biological organization through this conceptual lens, modules are found across the continuum: domains within proteins, co-regulated groups of functionally associated genes, operons, metabolic pathways and (sub)cellular compartments. Combining modules as components or subsystems of a larger system typically leads to increased complexity and the emergence of new functions. By virtue of their potential for plug and play into new contexts, modules can be viewed as units of both evolution and engineering. Through consideration of lessons learned from recent efforts to install new metabolic modules into cells and the emerging ...
was it have download geoecology: an evolutionary about a item? The Completely Mental Misadventures Of Ed Grimley: The gets reveal ever know about a stages human purpose because they think second leading for Eds craftsSabbath. Ed is the professors staff that if it was commonly a way, the lays would miss Providing for the morning.
British scientists recreate the molecules that gave birth to life itself"-the title of a recent article posted by the UK based, Mail Online (Enoch, 2012). Such a bold, presumptuous title certainly grabs your attention, considering that it leaves the impression that abiogenesis has finally been proved-that non-living "molecules" can give rise to life, contrary to the mounds of scientific evidence that prove that life comes only from life (see Miller, 2012). Unfortunately for the atheistic evolutionist, the article admits more bad news for the beloved theory than good.. The article begins with the statement, "Scientists [i.e., evolutionary scientists-JM] are one step closer to understanding the origin of life..." (Enoch). To the atheist, this would sound exciting, until he realizes that the author is tacitly admitting that after decades of work trying to establish that life could somehow evolve from non-life-which must have occurred in order for Darwinian evolution even to begin-scientists still ...
OCT Using optical diagnostic technique, the OCT photographing ocular tissue by non-contact and non-invasive tomography.It can observe anterior segment as well as posterior morphological structure, especially having great application prospec
That is actually kind of amazing. One element that I found especially interesting was that the you cant trust him issue was not brought into the debate as an issue. Its also notable that he divorced his first wife while she was in a hospital bed -- not necessarily the act of a man who is willing to accept a difficult fight ...
of him and a couple of days before he left us an old t shirt of brads was put overnight in his sons bed then brought over here for the pup to sleep on also when he left he took his mums blanket with him and his favourite toys He settled imediatly with brad no pining no upsets at all i think i was most upset at losing one of my kids? But the interesting thing is the character similarities between him and his brother A lot more dificult over there you could not replicate the effort we went to but you could give them the chance to learn needed skills Give them a deposit and tell them to wait a few more weeks better for your finances and a lot better for the dogs Hopefully gromet will take to them ok and not getmoody/teritorial with them other than she will probably adopt them as her ...
Im constantly amazed by how many people in the US either reject the idea of biological evolution or have serious reservations. By contrast, in Europe and other countries with developed economies, only a relatively small fraction do. And the mainstream Christian denominations that most Americans belong to all explicitly accept the reality of biological evolution. That includes the Catholic, Episcopalian, Presbyterian, Methodist, Lutheran, and Anglican churches. The simple fact is that there is overwhelming evidence for biological evolution. As the 20th century biologist Theodosius Dobzhansky said (when the evidence for biological evolution was not even as strong as it is today), "Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution." If we were compelled to reject the idea of biological evolution, there would be literally thousands of unexplained biological phenomena that currently make perfect sense as consequences of the evolutionary history of life on Earth.. No credible biologist ...
A fact admitted even by evolutionists Australopithecus sediba is not an ancestor of man watch video, Adnan Oktars comments and opinions about A fact admitted even by evolutionists Australopithecus sediba is not an ancestor of man , watch related articles, videos, interviews and documentries for A fact admitted even by evolutionists Australopithecus sediba is not an ancestor of man , share on facebook, share on twitter
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Among the most fascinating evolutionary adaptations has been the development of echolocation in bats. But to develop their unique sonar system for exploring caves in the dark, what evolutionary tradeoffs occurred between their other senses like smell, vision and hearing, i.e. to be blind as a bat?. There are two kinds of bats, Old World fruit bats and echolocating bats. Old World fruit bats have no laryngeal echolocating ability, and navigate largely by vision with excellent eyesight, whereas echolocating bats rely solely on echolocation for navigation. Now, using whole genome sequencing technology, a research team led by Dong Dong et al. performed a new comparative study of two sophisticated echolocating bats - the great leaf-nosed bat (Hipposideros armiger) and Chinese rufous horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus sinicus), named for their protuberances on their noses. When navigating, they are sensitive enough to distinguish their ultrasonic calls from the Doppler shifted echoes (think of the sound of a ...
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Dinosaurs are a diverse group of reptiles of the clade Dinosauria. They first appeared during the Triassic period, between 243 and 231 million years ago, although the exact origin and timing of the evolution of dinosaurs is the subject of active research. They became the dominant terrestrial vertebrates after the Triassic-Jurassic extinction event 201 million years ago; their dominance continued through the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods. The fossil record indicates that birds are modern feathered dinosaurs, having evolved from earlier theropods during the late Jurassic Period. As such, birds were the only dinosaur lineage to survive the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event 66 million years ago. Dinosaurs can therefore be divided into avian dinosaurs, or birds; and non-avian dinosaurs, which are all dinosaurs other than birds. This article deals primarily with non-avian dinosaurs. Dinosaurs are a varied group of animals from taxonomic, morphological and ecological standpoints. Birds, at over ...
The effective population size (Ne) is a major factor determining allele frequency changes in natural and experimental populations. Temporal methods provide a powerful and simple approach to estimate short-term Ne. They use allele frequency shifts between temporal samples to calculate the standardized variance, which is directly related to Ne. Here we focus on experimental evolution studies that often rely on repeated sequencing of samples in pools (Pool-seq). Pool-seq is cost-effective and often outperforms individual-based sequencing in estimating allele frequencies, but it is associated with atypical sampling properties: Additional to sampling individuals, sequencing DNA in pools leads to a second round of sampling, which increases the variance of allele frequency estimates. We propose a new estimator of Ne, which relies on allele frequency changes in temporal data and corrects for the variance in both sampling steps. In simulations, we obtain accurate Ne estimates, as long as the drift ...
Define Homo erectus soloensis. Homo erectus soloensis synonyms, Homo erectus soloensis pronunciation, Homo erectus soloensis translation, English dictionary definition of Homo erectus soloensis. Noun 1. Homo soloensis - extinct primitive hominid of late Pleistocene; Java; formerly Javanthropus genus Homo - type genus of the family Hominidae human,...
Sexual conflict can lead to antagonistic coevolution between the sexes, but empirical examples are few. In this thesis secondary sexual characters in diving beetles are interpreted in the light of sexual conflict theory. Whether the male tarsal suction cups and female dorsal modifications are involved in a coevolutionary arms race is tested in two ways. First eight populations of a species with dimorphic females that varied in frequency of the morphs were investigated and male tarsal characteristics quantified. The frequency of female morphs is shown to be significantly correlated to the average number and size of male tarsal suction cups in the population, a prediction of the arms race hypothesis. Second, the hypothesis is tested in a phylogenetic perspective by optimizing the secondary sexual characters on a phylogeny. A full taxonomic revision of the genus Acilius is presented, including new synonyms, lectotype designations, geographic distributions based on more than five thousand examined ...
Product of biological evolution[edit]. Human preferences toward things in nature, while refined through experience and culture ... are hypothetically the product of biological evolution. For example, adult mammals (especially humans) are generally attracted ... induce a strengthening in emotive and biological terms at a neural level; (iv) support, according to the many clinical ... and to explain them in terms of the conditions of human evolution. ...
Biological function and evolution[edit]. Opinions are divided as to where in biological evolution consciousness emerged and ... B.I.B. Lindahl (1997). "Consciousness and biological evolution". Journal of Theoretical Biology. 187 (4): 613-629. doi:10.1006/ ... Richard Maurice Bucke (1905). Cosmic Consciousness: A Study in the Evolution of the Human Mind. Innes & Sons. pp. 1-2.. CS1 ... S. Budiansky (1998). If a Lion Could Talk: Animal Intelligence and the Evolution of Consciousness. The Free Press. ISBN 978-0- ...
Clark, W. E. L. G. (1940). "Palaeontological Evidence Bearing on Human Evolution". Biological Reviews. 15 (2): 202-230. doi: ... Le Gros Clark, W. E. (1964). The fossil evidence for human evolution: An introduction to the study of paleoanthropology, 2nd ed ... During his career Le Gros Clark published numerous papers on human evolution and palaeontology,[7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15 ... Le Gros Clark, W. E. (1955). The fossil evidence for human evolution: An introduction to the study of paleoanthropology. The ...
This user accepts evolution as a biological fact.. This user understands biological evolution.. ...
"Evolution of early Homo: An integrated biological perspective". Science. 345 (6192): 45-59. doi:10.1126/science.1236828. PMID ... "Evolution of the human brain" In Handbook of Human Symbolic Evolution, edited by A. Locke and C. Peters, pp. 74-116. Oxford ... "Symbol and structure: A comprehensive framework for language evolution" In Language Evolution, edited by M. H. Christiansen and ... Up from Dragons: The evolution of intelligence McGraw-Hill. *^ Moroccan fossil find rearranges Homo sapiens family tree, June 8 ...
In George Melika; Csaba Thuróczy (eds.). Parasitic Wasps: Evolution, Systematics, Biodiversity and Biological Control.. ... Fairyflies have been used for the biological pest control of various crop pests.[35] They are especially valued for their ... In these habitats, wings would only be a hindrance to the fairyflies, so are strongly selected against in evolution. For ... and several species have been successfully used as biological pest control agents.[citation needed] ...
Stringer, C (1984). "Human evolution and biological adaptation in the Pleistocene". In Foley, R (ed.). Hominid evolution and ... This article is about Homo sapiens as a biological species (its evolution and habitat). For a more general perspective on ... Recent evolution. Main article: Recent human evolution. Further information: Human genetic variability, Race and genetics, and ... Further information: Human evolution, Homo, Timeline of human evolution, and Early human migrations ...
Eigen, M. (1971). "Selforganization of matter and evolution of biological Macromolecules". Naturwissenschaften. 58 (10): 465- ... "World Journal of Biological Chemistry. 4 (4): 79-90. doi:10.4331/wjbc.v4.i4.79. PMC 3856310 . PMID 24340131.. ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Error_threshold_(evolution)&oldid=779160211" ...
Stern, D.; Foster, W. (1996). "The evolution of soldiers in aphids". Biological Reviews. 71: 27-79. doi:10.1111/j.1469-185x. ... "Nature Ecology & Evolution. 2 (3). doi:10.1038/s41559-017-0459-1.. *^ a b c d e f g h i Vargo, E. (1999). "Reproductive ... Evolution[edit]. Main article: Evolution of eusociality. Phylogenetic distribution[edit]. Eusociality is a rare but widespread ... Duffy, J.E. (2003). "The ecology and evolution of eusociality in sponge-dwelling shrimp". Genes, Behaviors and Evolution of ...
Stern, D.; Foster, W. (1996). "The evolution of soldiers in aphids". Biological Reviews. 71: 27-79. doi:10.1111/j.1469-185x. ... Evolution[edit]. Main article: Evolution of eusociality. Phylogenetic distribution[edit]. Eusociality is a rare but widespread ... Thorne, B. L. (1997). "Evolution of eusociality in termites". Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics. 28: 27-54. ... Duffy, J.E. (2003). "The ecology and evolution of eusociality in sponge-dwelling shrimp". Genes, Behaviors and Evolution of ...
Carter, B.; McCrea, W. H. (1983). "The anthropic principle and its implications for biological evolution". Philosophical ... Evolution. des. Kosmos. und. der. Punkt. Omega, in Nikolaus Knoepffler, H. James Birx, Teilhard de Chardin, V&R unipress GmbH, ... These critics cite the vast physical, fossil, genetic, and other biological evidence consistent with life having been fine- ... biological factors constrain the universe to be more or less in a "golden age", neither too young nor too old.[11] If the ...
Kutschera, Ulrich; Niklas, Karl J. (June 2004). "The modern theory of biological evolution: an expanded synthesis". ... Evolution. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons for the Society for the Study of Evolution. 61 (12): 2743-2749. doi:10.1111/j.1558- ... The term was again used by George Romanes in 1895 to refer to the version of evolution advocated by Wallace and August Weismann ... Neo-Darwinism is the interpretation of Darwinian evolution through natural selection as it has variously been modified since it ...
"The Growth of Biological Thought: Diversity, Evolution, and Inheritance. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0- ... "Biological Reviews. 73 (03): 203-66. doi:10.1111/j.1469-185X.1998.tb00030.x. PMID 9809012.. ... Biological classification is a critical component of the taxonomic process. As a result, it informs the user as to what the ... Huxley, T.H. (1876): Lectures on Evolution. New York Tribune. Extra. no. 36. In Collected Essays IV: pp. 46-138 original text w ...
Mayr, Ernst (1982). The Growth of Biological Thought: Diversity, Evolution, and Inheritance. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The ... The history of plant systematics-the biological classification of plants-stretches from the work of ancient Greek to modern ... A major influence on plant systematics was the theory of evolution (Charles Darwin published Origin of Species in 1859), ... Until the advent of the theory of evolution, nearly all classification was based on the scala naturae. The professionalization ...
Biological functions and evolutionEdit. While introns do not encode protein products, they are integral to gene expression ... de Souza SJ (July 2003). "The emergence of a synthetic theory of intron evolution". Genetica. 118 (2-3): 117-21. doi:10.1023/A: ... The biological origins of introns are obscure. After the initial discovery of introns in protein-coding genes of the eukaryotic ... Rodríguez-Trelles F, Tarrío R, Ayala FJ (2006). "Origins and evolution of spliceosomal introns". Annu. Rev. Genet. 40: 47-76. ...
Biological evolution is an idea as old as the greeks. This played a major role actualy in the theory of spontaneos generation. ... He was pro-evolution but ant-darwinist. Evolution is a very old idea predating Darwin. As Butlers article says he was anoyed ... Evolution as a cosmological and metiphysical idea was a romanticist notion. Darwin derived his theory in the background of an ... The culmination of evolution was inteligence and increasing inteligence, while darwin in their view was too focused on random ...
Experimental Evolution In Robots Probes The Emergence Of Biological Communication. Science Daily. 2007-02-24. Retrieved 2007-10 ... "Evolution trains robot teams TRN 051904". www.trnmag.com.. *^ Agarwal, P.K. Elements of Physics XI. Rastogi Publications. p. 2 ... Rosheim, Mark E. (1994). Robot Evolution: The Development of Anthrobotics. Wiley-IEEE. pp. 9-10. ISBN 978-0-471-02622-8. .. ... Researchers use this method both to create better robots,[137] and to explore the nature of evolution.[138] Because the process ...
"Biology of the sauropod dinosaurs: the evolution of gigantism". Biological Reviews. 86 (1): 117-155. doi:10.1111/j.1469-185X. ... a b Apesteguía, S. (2005). "Evolution of the titanosaur metacarpus". Pp. 321-345 in Tidwell, V. and Carpenter, K. (eds.) ... J. J. Alistair Crame; Geological Society of London (1989). Origins and Evolution of the Antarctic Biota. Geological Society. p ... Kristina Curry Rogers and Jeffrey A. Wilson, 2005, The Sauropods: Evolution and Paleobiology, University of California Press, ...
Koonin, E. V. (2007). "The Biological Big Bang model for the major transitions in evolution". Biology Direct. 2: 21. doi: ... The Nature and Origin of Biological Evolution. FT Press. ISBN 978-0-13-262317-9. Retrieved 5 April 2013. Koonin, E. V. (2004 ... Koonin, E. V.; Senkevich, T. G.; Dolja, V. V. (2006). "The ancient Virus World and evolution of cells". Biology Direct. 1: 29. ... Koonin's research also investigates computational study of the major transitions in the evolution of life (such as the origin ...
"The evolution of lncRNA repertoires and expression patterns in tetrapods". Nature. 505 (7485): 635-640. doi:10.1038/nature12943 ... While the abundance and conservation of these interleaved arrangements suggest they have biological relevance, the complexity ... Allen E, Xie Z, Gustafson AM, Sung GH, Spatafora JW, Carrington JC (December 2004). "Evolution of microRNA genes by inverted ... Ulitsky, Igor (October 2016). "Evolution to the rescue: using comparative genomics to understand long non-coding RNAs". Nature ...
"Combining Biological Approaches to Shed Light on the Evolution of Edible Bananas". Ethnobotany Research & Applications. 7: 199- ... National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. "Banana Bunchy Top Virus." ... 2012). "The banana (Musa acuminata) genome and the evolution of monocotyledonous plants". Nature. 488 (7410): 213-7. Bibcode: ... All plants are genetically identical, which prevents evolution of disease resistance. Researchers are examining hundreds of ...
The birds navigate through an innate biological sense resulting from evolution. Migratory birds may use two electromagnetic ... 2006). "Postglacial population expansion drives the evolution of long-distance avian migration in a songbird". Evolution. 60 ( ... Birds of two worlds: the ecology and evolution of migration. Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 94. ISBN 0-8018-8107-2.. ... Pulido, F. (2007). "The genetics and evolution of avian migration". BioScience. 57 (2): 165-174. doi:10.1641/b570211.. ...
The growth of biological thought: Diversity, evolution, and inheritance. Belknap Press of Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, MA. ... The biological reality of species: Gene flow, selection, and collective evolution. Taxon 50:47-67. ... Taxonomy and the evolution of genera, with special reference to the family Gramineae. Evolution 10:235-245. ... Häuser, C.L.. The elebate about the biological species concept; A review. 25, 1987, p. 241-257. ...
"Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences. 363 (1496): 1435-1443. doi:10.1098/rstb. ... Budd, G. E.; Jensen, S. (2015). "The origin of the animals and a 'Savannah' hypothesis for early bilaterian evolution". ... Biological Reviews: n/a. doi:10.1111/brv.12239. PMID 26588818.. *^ a b c Adl, Sina M.; Bass, David; Lane, Christopher E.; Lukeš ... "The genome of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi and its implications for cell type evolution". Science. 342 (6164): 1242592. ...
... in its various forms presents many examples of evidence for biological evolution.[5] ... Bhamrah, H.S.; Juneja, Kavita (1998). Cytology and evolution: For Students Taking a First Course in Cell Biology at ... Futuyma, D. J. (1995). Science on Trial: The Case for Evolution. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates Inc. p. 49. ISBN 0-87893- ... 1997). The World's Most Famous Court Trial: The Tennessee Evolution Case Pub. The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd. p. 268 ...
scientific communities (e.g., on biological flocking, language evolution, and economics)[14][15] ...
Olson M, Varki A. Sequencing the chimpanzee genome: insights into human evolution and disease.. Nat Rev Genet. 2003, 4 (1): 20- ... under selection for biological function.. " Mouse Genome Sequencing Consortium. Initial sequencing and comparative analysis of ...
1981: The Evolutionary Vision: Toward a Unifying Paradigm of Physical, Biological and Sociocultural Evolution. Boulder, CO: ... 1976: Evolution and consciousness: Human systems in transition. *1976: Evolution: Self-realization through self-transcendence. ... Jantsch's Design for Evolution is described as "a seminal work on general evolution theory (GET)" by Ralph H. Abraham in "The ... 1980: "The evolutionary vision: Toward a unifying paradigm of physical, biological and sociological evolution". ...
... The nation turns to the National Academies -- National Academy of Sciences, ... Biological evolution is one of the most important ideas of modern science. Evolution is supported by abundant evidence from ... None of these decisions can be made wisely without considering biological evolution. People need to understand evolution, its ... From Science, Evolution, and Creationism, National Academy of Sciences and Institute of Medicine. © 2008 National Academy of ...
... The nation turns to the National Academies -- National Academy of Sciences, ... Creationists sometimes claim that scientists have a vested interest in the concept of biological evolution and are unwilling to ... Echoing theological arguments that predate the theory of evolution, they contend that biological organisms must be designed in ... From Science, Evolution, and Creationism, National Academy of Sciences and Institute of Medicine. © 2008 National Academy of ...
Indeed, so profoundly are humans altering their biological and physical landscapes that some have openly suggested that the ... Anthropology, the study of humans, has traditionally concentrated on discovering the process of evolution through which the ...
Feb 23, 2011 Evolution in Bar Harbor Feb 23, 2011 * Feb 21, 2011 Bearing Up in New York City Feb 21, 2011 ... Mar 22, 2012 Inside the MDI Biological Lab Mar 22, 2012 * Mar 19, 2012 Through the Lens Mar 19, 2012 ...
The evolution of biological complexity is one important outcome of the process of evolution.[1] Evolution has produced some ... Constructive neutral evolution[edit]. Recently work in evolution theory has proposed that by relaxing selection pressure, which ... With selection, evolution can also produce more complex organisms. Complexity often arises in the co-evolution of hosts and ... Stoltzfus, Arlin (1999). "On the Possibility of Constructive Neutral Evolution". Journal of Molecular Evolution. 49 (2): 169- ...
That preliminary but tantalizing finding hints at some larger phenomenon driving the mechanisms of neo-Darwinian evolution. ... Evolution as Biological Thermodynamics. When Guy Hoelzer runs computer simulations of organisms living in the modeling ... In a biological system, if the function is to break down gradients and increase the rate of entropy production, natural ... The way I think about it in the biological sense is from thermodynamic point of view, which is the same way chemists think of ...
The evolution of life on earth from simple matter is accepted as a fact by secular science. The Bible-and the evidence-show a ... What We Really Know about Biological Evolution. Among Christians, there is a wide variety of views on biological evolution. ... Evolution Exposed: Earth Science. In this follow-up to the best-selling Evolution Exposed: Biology, students will learn how to ... The topic of biological evolution is a very broad topic that cannot be covered in detail in this chapter. The companion to this ...
Biological evolution is "a process that results in heritable changes in a population spread over many generations." [1] ... Retrieved from "http://www.conservapedia.com/index.php?title=Biological_evolution&oldid=934563" ...
Biological Evolution Cultural Evolution Biological Theory Niche Construction Cultural Transmission These keywords were added by ... Sperber D, Claidière N (2006) Why modeling cultural evolution is still such a challenge. Biological Theory 1: 20-22.CrossRef ... Huxley JS (1955) Evolution, cultural and biological. Yearbook of Anthropology 2-25.Google Scholar ... Campbell DT (1975) On the conflicts between biological and social evolution and between psychology and moral tradition. ...
Volkenstein M.V. (1991) Physical Approaches to Biological Evolution. In: Peliti L. (eds) Biologically Inspired Physics. NATO ... J. Wicken, Evolution, Thermodynamics and Information. Oxford Univ. Press, N. Y., Oxford, 1987.Google Scholar ... M. Kimura, The Neutral Theory of Molecular Evolution. Cambridge Univ. Press, London, N. Y., Melbourne, Sidney, 1983.CrossRef ... C. Anfinsen, The Molecular Basis of Evolution. John Wiley and Sons, N. Y. 1959.Google Scholar ...
Biological Anthropology, Primatology and Evolution 2015. Biological Anthropology, Primatology and Evolution 2015. .addthis_ ... Receive email alerts on new books, offers and news in Biological Anthropology, Primatology and Evolution 2015. ... Evolution of the Rodents Advances in Phylogeny, Functional Morphology and Development. Cox, Philip G. Hautier, Lionel Published ... Ecology, Evolution and Behaviour of Wild Cattle Implications for Conservation. Melletti, Mario Burton, James Published: October ...
Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior (EEB). The EEB Research Group strives to understand the natural world through the lens of ... Research areas offered by the EEB group are designed to understand major concepts in ecology, evolution, behavior, and ... Biological [email protected](414) 382-1740GLRF Main Building 137 ...
MadSci Network: Evolution Query: Re: What criteria unambiguously define biological evolution?. Date: Thu Jan 27 10:11:34 2000. ... Evolution archives Try the links in the MadSci Library for more information on Evolution. MadSci Home , Information , Search , ... Biological evolution is the change in organisms over time, often in response to natural selection, such that the descendants ... Next, benefit: Evolution does not require natural selection to occur, i.e. a genetic change in an organism does not have to be ...
Errors In Protein Structure Sparked Evolution Of Biological Complexity. by Sam Savage ... may have boosted the evolution of biological complexity. Flaws in the "packing" of proteins that make them more unstable in ... "I hope that it causes us to pause and think about how evolution operates in new ways that we havent thought about before." ... Over four billion years of evolution, plants and animals grew far more complex than their single-celled ancestors. But a new ...
Effect of psychological bias separates cultural from biological evolution Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ... Effect of psychological bias separates cultural from biological evolution. Nicolas Claidière, Simon Kirby and Dan Sperber ... 1) essentially implemented a search algorithm to find pleasing tunes, albeit one with key similarities to biological evolution ... 2012) Evolution of music by public choice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109(30):12081-12086. ...
... Carlos A. Cañas1 and Felipe Cañas2 ... One way to understand autoimmunity is through knowledge of the biological significance of evolution. Since a specialized system ... Teleost fish has TNF-α and TNF-α receptors and the human recombinant TNF-α produces biological effects such as macrophage ... Such receptors were highly conserved during evolution and were first identified in Drosophila melanogaster [7]. The TLRs are ...
... www.talkorigins.org/faqs/evolution-definition.html][[Microevolution]] occurs in terms of biological evolution, but [[ ... Biological evolution is "a process that results in [[heritable]] changes in a [[population]] spread over many [[generations ... View source for Biological evolution. ← Biological evolution. Jump to: navigation, search You do not have permission to edit ...
Charles Darwin viewed evolution as a gradual emergence of new varieties of life from previous forms over long periods. A ... Biological anthropologists explore many of these environmental pressures and investigate the adaptations that populations ... This debate between acclimatization and adaptation is at the crux of what a biological anthropologist might study. They employ ... not an actual adaptation in the population that demonstrates evolution. ...
Engineered Protein "Evolution" Proves Biological Complexity. Acts & Facts. 42 (3): 13-15. ... Evolution and Functional Impact of Rare Coding Variation from Deep Sequencing of Human Exomes. Science. 337 (6090): 64-69. ... The main problem regarding false ideas about protein evolution is one of perception associated with the steady diet of ... However, when we see biological systems that are magnitudes of complexity more highly designed and engineered than the devices ...
... fees and contact details for Biological Sciences (Evolution, Ecology and Behaviour) at University of Liverpool on prospects.ac. ... Biological Sciences (Evolution, Ecology and Behaviour). Institution. University of Liverpool · University of Liverpool. ... Biological Sciences (Evolution, Ecology and Behaviour). Institution. University of Liverpool · University of Liverpool. ... Ultimately, our goal is to understand the principles that underlie biological diversity - be this why individual mice behave ...
Micro snails we scraped from sidewalk cracks help unlock details of ancient earths biological evolution. ... Using the rates of evolution calculated in our tree, we were able to apply these rates using how the shells look today, to ... By sampling organisms that are alive today, we can ask deeper questions about the evolution that happened millions of years ago ... Now, geochemists will compare their notes to our biological insights, and our understanding of ancient earth will continue to ...
Magurran, Anne E. is the author of Evolution of Biological Diversity with ISBN 9780198503040 and ISBN 0198503040. ... Evolution of Biological Diversity. Evolution of Biological Diversity. by Magurran, Anne E., May, Robert M. by Magurran, Anne E. ...
Model explains rapid transition toward division of labor in biological evolution. PLOS ... Biological organisms are highly complex and are comprised of many different parts that function together to ensure the survival ... It is the first model to show the evolution of complete germ-soma differentiation, where one part of the colonys cells (germ) ... In the model, the division of labor occurs through the evolution of the ability to develop in a variety of ways (developmental ...
Evolution of Plant Body Plans. The conquest of land by plants over 450 million years ago was one of the most significant events ... Evolution and Development 10, 176-186.. 12.Bennett, T.A., et al. (2014) Plasma membrane-targeted PIN proteins drive shoot ... 2. The evolution of branching mechanisms.. Diverse branching forms have arisen independently in both the gametophyte and ... 11.Fujita, T., et al. (2008) Convergent evolution of shoots in land plants: lack of auxin polar transport in moss shoots. ...
... sets out in this volume a general analysis of this selection process that applies equally to biological evolution, the reaction ... actually analysis antibody antigen areas of science argue biological evolution biological species causal cells change in ... Science and Selection: Essays on Biological Evolution and the Philosophy of Science. Cambridge Studies in Philosoph. Cambridge ... Science and Selection: Essays on Biological Evolution and the Philosophy of .... David L. Hull. No preview available - 2000. ...
  • Unfortunately, biology is fraught with seeming exceptions and ambiguities, because the most accurate description of any biological process is that it follows the rules of chemistry and physics. (madsci.org)
  • Using a modern approach to evolutionary biology called cladistics, which utilizes genetic information in combination with a variety of other data to evaluate biological relationships that emerge over the ages, Parker and colleagues found that the appendix has evolved at least twice, once among Australian marsupials and another time among rats, lemmings and other rodents, selected primates and humans. (phys.org)
  • Thus, has now entered the realm of 'self propelled' evolution, dependant on our transcendental ability to improve on naturalistic biology with cyborgs and cures for ageing, GM and all that jazz. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • Biology makes culture possible and culture influences the direction of evolution. (biology-online.org)
  • Cognitive Evolution suggests that the high order mental behaviors of Homo sapiens are rooted in the same biology as the moth's attraction to light, worker bees' foreknowledge of their assignments, ants' knowledge of the mechanics to execute the architectural design of an ant hill, or a female cat's instinct to open the umbilical sack after giving birth. (eurobuch.com)
  • Whether one believes in the theory of dynamic biological change and evolution or a more static creationist model of biology, one cannot deny we are biological beings with certain characteristics that largely distinguish us from other animals. (flowofhistory.com)
  • In the light of evolution the genome structure can be viewed as a functional hierarchy whose timescale of change is, on average, longer than that of the expression of individual genes. (azimuthproject.org)
  • Biological systems' dynamics represent a prime example of complex behaviour, providing a powerful motivation and application domain for computational modelling. (sicsa.ac.uk)
  • The complex behaviour observed in biological dynamics is often the result of a non-trivial network of interactions between individual components of the biological system: this is true at a variety of scales and level of abstractions, from physiology, to neuroscience, to molecular interactions within a single cell. (sicsa.ac.uk)
  • This holds for genetics, biochemistry, and evolution. (madsci.org)
  • The Evolution & Genetics group has interests that encompass the ecological and evolutionary consequences of speciation and hybridisation to the evolution of social systems. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • This is a novel strategy to study human evolution," says Carol Marchetto, a Salk senior staff scientist in the Laboratory of Genetics, co-first author and one of the study's senior authors. (salk.edu)
  • It is concluded that, although some problems exist in using such computer simulations in genetics and evolution instruction, students' grasp of many difficult topics can be greatly enhanced through interaction with computer models. (ed.gov)
  • Next, benefit: Evolution does not require natural selection to occur, i.e. a genetic change in an organism does not have to be beneficial for it to be considered evolution. (madsci.org)
  • Our group aims to identify the developmental and genetic basis of two such innovations- three dimensional shoot growth and branching- in a range of model systems representing different stages of plant evolution. (bristol.ac.uk)
  • We are applying the latest sequencing technologies to tackle ash dieback ( Buggs ), resolve ecological networks ( Clare ), understand the evolution of invertebrate nervous systems ( Elphick and Stollewerk ) and unlock the genetic basis of ageing in long-lived naked mole rats ( Faulkes ). (qmul.ac.uk)
  • Biological evolution is defined as any genetic change in a population that is inherited over several generations. (thoughtco.com)
  • For an event to be considered an instance of evolution, changes have to occur on the genetic level of a population and be passed on from one generation to the next. (thoughtco.com)
  • These changes are not considered instances of evolution because they are not genetic changes that can be passed on to the next generation. (thoughtco.com)
  • We will discuss further steps in the exploration of structure, functions and evolution of genetic determinants, in particular of bacteria and bacterial viruses. (geoset.info)
  • Pigliucci and Kirschner think that the capacity of small genetic changes to trigger large shifts results in waves of innovation separated by seeming lulls in which evolution stablizes [sic] and integrates the new arrangements. (evolutionfairytale.com)
  • The way I think about it in the biological sense is from thermodynamic point of view, which is the same way chemists think of self-assembly in molecules. (wired.com)
  • 1 ) essentially implemented a search algorithm to find pleasing tunes, albeit one with key similarities to biological evolution. (pnas.org)
  • Why we don't search the evolutionary link between the prior cosmological evolution (Big Bang to 10 billions years) and the later biological evolution (from 10 billions years to now)?Why we are separating Universal evolution into two separated blocks? (yahoo.com)
  • Protein aggregation and aggregate toxicity: new insights into protein folding, misfolding diseases and biological evolution. (nih.gov)
  • Therefore, beyond its core activities on fundamental research, the laboratory is committed to the transfer of knowledge through college education, communication events oriented towards the general public, as well as interactions with the administrators and guardians of biodiversity and biological resources, of sustainable development or of public health. (ups-tlse.fr)
  • Re: What criteria unambiguously define biological evolution? (madsci.org)
  • I suggest you first reflect on and define biological evolution, then reflect on and define etc., ... and then the interrelationship will simply pop out into view. (biology-online.org)
  • Evolutionary Dynamics and Information Hierarchies in Biological Systems: Aspen Center for Physics Workshop. (wiley.com)
  • Douglas Braaten is the editor of Evolutionary Dynamics and Information Hierarchies in Biological Systems, published by Wiley. (wiley.com)
  • Modelling of biological networks is often divided into two sub-problems: given the structure of the interaction network (i.e., which components interact with each other), one may be interested in reconstructing the dynamics of the individual nodes from partial observations of (some of) the nodes' states, using techniques from system identification to estimate states and parameters of the system. (sicsa.ac.uk)
  • In summary, we combined statistical analyses of genomic sequences, mathematical models of evolutionary dynamics and experiments in molecular evolution to advance our understanding of rapid adaptation. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Our results open new avenues in our understanding of population dynamics that can be translated to a range of biological systems. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Their experimental design, however, emphasizes the role of selection at the expense of other fundamental features of human cultural evolution that need to be taken into account to study the evolution of real musical culture. (pnas.org)
  • Fighting over territory may be a fundamental biological impulse, but it's become much rarer , particularly since World War II. (slate.com)
  • Hallpike 1986), whereas the opposite camp insists that the cultural evolution demonstrates all the key Darwinian evolutionary traits and that is why the structure of the research in cultural evolution should share all the fundamental traits of the structure of the research in biological evolution (Mesoudi, Whiten, and Laland 2006). (socionauki.ru)
  • During evolution, an integrative circuitry fundamental for survival has been established between commensal gut microbiota and host. (isharonline.org)
  • 1) used an innovative Darwinian method to demonstrate the importance of consumers' preferences in shaping the evolution of music, a fact that has often been overlooked and deserved attention. (pnas.org)
  • This talk will show how Darwinian evolution can be formulated in that framework also as computational learning. (hiit.fi)
  • 1 Such was professed by Eugenie Scott, the de facto head of the Darwin lobby, while speaking to the media in response to the Texas State Board of Education's 2009 vote to require students to learn about both the scientific evidence for and against neo-Darwinian evolution. (intelligentdesign.org)
  • This chapter will review some of this literature, and show that there are numerous legitimate scientific challenges to core tenets of Darwinian theory, as well as predominant theories of chemical evolution. (intelligentdesign.org)
  • Over four billion years of evolution, plants and animals grew far more complex than their single-celled ancestors. (redorbit.com)
  • Everybody wants to say that evolution is equivalent to natural selection and that things that are sophisticated and complex have been absolutely selected for," said study co-author Ariel Fernández, PhD, a visiting scholar at the University of Chicago and senior researcher at the Mathematics Institute of Argentina (IAM) in Buenos Aires. (redorbit.com)
  • First of all, those similarities stem from the fact that in both cases we are dealing with very complex non-equilibrium (but rather stable) systems whose principles of functioning and evolution are described by the General Systems' Theory, as well as by a number of cybernetic principles and laws. (socionauki.ru)
  • in both cases we deal with a complex interaction between systems of organic systems and external environment, whereas the reaction of systems to external challenges can be described in terms of certain general principles (that, however, express themselves rather differently within the biological reality, on the one hand, and within the social reality, on the other). (socionauki.ru)
  • Biological evolution is "a process that results in heritable changes in a population spread over many generations . (conservapedia.com)
  • Some of these changes can be attributed to individuals' bodies making physiological adjustments to their environment ( acclimatization ), not an actual adaptation in the population that demonstrates evolution. (howstuffworks.com)
  • which unlike natural evolution leads to ethical problems and putting us out of balance with nature by harming our environment through over population etc. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • While this was a classic case of human-guided bioengineering in a high-tech laboratory environment, it was hardly an example of naturalistic evolution in a real cell or organism. (icr.org)
  • The Master of Research in Evolution: From the Galapagos to the 21st Century is a programme that has been designed to allow students, from a range of backgrounds, to explore evolution in a vibrant interdisciplinary setting. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • The evolution of life on earth from simple matter is accepted as a fact by secular science. (answersingenesis.org)
  • David Hull, one of the dominant figures in contemporary philosophy of science, sets out in this volume a general analysis of this selection process that applies equally to biological evolution, the reaction of the immune. (google.com)
  • This entry was posted in books , C.R. Darwin , evolution , history of science by darwinsbulldog . (wordpress.com)
  • The massive crosscurrents between languages (borrowings of various kinds 8 ) are an enormous factor in their histories, and have no analogy in classical biological evolution. (creation.com)
  • Horizontal and Vertical Transmission and Micro- and Macroevolutionary Patterns of Biological and Sociocultural Evolution.May 27-29th, 2013,Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, Lisbon, Portugal. (cognitionandculture.net)
  • These problems include some of the key turning points in evolution: the patterns and changes seen in the fossil record as new branches spring from the tree of life and new anatomies  skeletons, limbs, brains  come into being. (evolutionfairytale.com)
  • He also has interests in computational neuroscience, evolution and artificial intelligence. (hiit.fi)
  • The project has studied the development of a new parallel stochastic method based on biological mechanism and applied to VLSI layout. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Yet the principles involved seem to explain biological evolution better than those of present-day theories. (physicsessays.org)
  • This shall allow us to extrapolate to generally valid laws of nature guiding biological evolution by self-organization. (mdpi.com)
  • The Group also has expertise in the co-evolution of host and pathogens in humans, wildlife and laboratory model systems ( Nichols , Knell and Eizaguirre ), and we are developing new mathematical methods to identify sources of infection in disease outbreaks ( Le Comber ). (qmul.ac.uk)
  • The absence of fossil evidence for intermediary stages between major transitions in organic design, indeed our inability, even in our imagination, to construct functional intermediates in many cases, has been a persistent and nagging problem for gradualistic accounts of evolution. (answersingenesis.org)
  • Students should use scientific evidence to support their understanding of natural selection and evolution. (hawaii.edu)
  • HS-LS4-1 Communicate scientific information that common ancestry and biological evolution are supported by multiple lines of empirical evidence. (hawaii.edu)
  • Is there any biological evidence that is not suggestive of or seems to disprove evolution? (stackexchange.com)
  • Although there is plenty of decent evidence for evolution, is there anything that does not fit the evolutionary paradigm? (stackexchange.com)
  • If you are asking whether there are evidences suggesting that evolution is not happening or that humans and chimpanzee do not actually share a common ancestor but were created independently, then no, there is no such evidence. (stackexchange.com)