The continuous developmental process of a culture from simple to complex forms and from homogeneous to heterogeneous qualities.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The techniques used to produce molecules exhibiting properties that conform to the demands of the experimenter. These techniques combine methods of generating structural changes with methods of selection. They are also used to examine proposed mechanisms of evolution under in vitro selection conditions.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.
Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
A genus of gram-negative, mostly facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family MYCOPLASMATACEAE. The cells are bounded by a PLASMA MEMBRANE and lack a true CELL WALL. Its organisms are pathogens found on the MUCOUS MEMBRANES of humans, ANIMALS, and BIRDS.
NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.
A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.
Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.
The science devoted to the comparative study of man.
The study of animals - their morphology, growth, distribution, classification, and behavior.
The comparative science dealing with the physical characteristics of humans as related to their origin, evolution, and development in the total environment.
Field of social science that is concerned with differences between human groups as related to health status and beliefs.
It is the study of social phenomena which characterize the learned, shared, and transmitted social activities of particular ethnic groups with focus on the causes, consequences, and complexities of human social and cultural variability.
Scientific study of human skeletal remains with the express purpose of identification. This includes establishing individual identity, trauma analysis, facial reconstruction, photographic superimposition, determination of time interval since death, and crime-scene recovery. Forensic anthropologists do not certify cause of death but provide data to assist in determination of probable cause. This is a branch of the field of physical anthropology and qualified individuals are certified by the American Board of Forensic Anthropology. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1992 Jun;13(2):146)
Validation of the sex of an individual by means of the bones of the SKELETON. It is most commonly based on the appearance of the PELVIS; SKULL; STERNUM; and/or long bones.
Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are classified in the Subkingdom Tracheobionta (also known as Tracheophyta).
A vertical distance measured from a known level on the surface of a planet or other celestial body.
A syndrome characterized by HYPERPIGMENTATION, enlarging pituitary mass, visual defects secondary to compression of the OPTIC CHIASM, and elevated serum ACTH. It is caused by the expansion of an underlying ACTH-SECRETING PITUITARY ADENOMA that grows in the absence of feedback inhibition by adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS, usually after ADRENALECTOMY.
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.
A live, attenuated varicella virus vaccine used for immunization against chickenpox. It is recommended for children between the ages of 12 months and 13 years.
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)
Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.
Societies whose membership is limited to scientists.
The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.
Care of patients by a multidisciplinary team usually organized under the leadership of a physician; each member of the team has specific responsibilities and the whole team contributes to the care of the patient.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.
Environment un-modified by human activity. Areas in which natural processes operate without human interference.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
The repetitive uterine contraction during childbirth which is associated with the progressive dilation of the uterine cervix (CERVIX UTERI). Successful labor results in the expulsion of the FETUS and PLACENTA. Obstetric labor can be spontaneous or induced (LABOR, INDUCED).

The developmental basis for allometry in insects. (1/15569)

Within all species of animals, the size of each organ bears a specific relationship to overall body size. These patterns of organ size relative to total body size are called static allometry and have enchanted biologists for centuries, yet the mechanisms generating these patterns have attracted little experimental study. We review recent and older work on holometabolous insect development that sheds light on these mechanisms. In insects, static allometry can be divided into at least two processes: (1) the autonomous specification of organ identity, perhaps including the approximate size of the organ, and (2) the determination of the final size of organs based on total body size. We present three models to explain the second process: (1) all organs autonomously absorb nutrients and grow at organ-specific rates, (2) a centralized system measures a close correlate of total body size and distributes this information to all organs, and (3) autonomous organ growth is combined with feedback between growing organs to modulate final sizes. We provide evidence supporting models 2 and 3 and also suggest that hormones are the messengers of size information. Advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of allometry will come through the integrated study of whole tissues using techniques from development, genetics, endocrinology and population biology.  (+info)

Novel regulation of the homeotic gene Scr associated with a crustacean leg-to-maxilliped appendage transformation. (2/15569)

Homeotic genes are known to be involved in patterning morphological structures along the antero-posterior axis of insects and vertebrates. Because of their important roles in development, changes in the function and expression patterns of homeotic genes may have played a major role in the evolution of different body plans. For example, it has been proposed that during the evolution of several crustacean lineages, changes in the expression patterns of the homeotic genes Ultrabithorax and abdominal-A have played a role in transformation of the anterior thoracic appendages into mouthparts termed maxillipeds. This homeotic-like transformation is recapitulated at the late stages of the direct embryonic development of the crustacean Porcellio scaber (Oniscidea, Isopoda). Interestingly, this morphological change is associated with apparent novelties both in the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of the Porcellio scaber ortholog of the Drosophila homeotic gene, Sex combs reduced (Scr). Specifically, we find that Scr mRNA is present in the second maxillary segment and the first pair of thoracic legs (T1) in early embryos, whereas protein accumulates only in the second maxillae. In later stages, however, high levels of SCR appear in the T1 legs, which correlates temporally with the transformation of these appendages into maxillipeds. Our observations provide further insight into the process of the homeotic leg-to-maxilliped transformation in the evolution of crustaceans and suggest a novel regulatory mechanism for this process in this group of arthropods.  (+info)

An overview of the evolution of overproduced esterases in the mosquito Culex pipiens. (3/15569)

Insecticide resistance genes have developed in a wide variety of insects in response to heavy chemical application. Few of these examples of adaptation in response to rapid environmental change have been studied both at the population level and at the gene level. One of these is the evolution of the overproduced esterases that are involved in resistance to organophosphate insecticides in the mosquito Culex pipiens. At the gene level, two genetic mechanisms are involved in esterase overproduction, namely gene amplification and gene regulation. At the population level, the co-occurrence of the same amplified allele in distinct geographic areas is best explained by the importance of passive transportation at the worldwide scale. The long-term monitoring of a population of mosquitoes in southern France has enabled a detailed study to be made of the evolution of resistance genes on a local scale, and has shown that a resistance gene with a lower cost has replaced a former resistance allele with a higher cost.  (+info)

The expiry date of man: a synthesis of evolutionary biology and public health. (4/15569)

In industrialised countries, mortality and morbidity are dominated by age related chronic degenerative diseases. The health and health care needs of future populations will be heavily determined by these conditions of old age. Two opposite scenarios of future morbidity exist: morbidity might decrease ("compress"), because life span is limited, and the incidence of disease is postponed. Or morbidity might increase ("expand"), because death is delayed more than disease incidence. Optimality theory in evolutionary biology explains senescence as a by product of an optimised life history. The theory clarifies how senescence is timed by the competing needs for reproduction and survival, and why this leads to a generalised deterioration of many functions at many levels. As death and disease are not independent, future morbidity will depend on duration and severity of the process of senescence, partly determined by health care, palliating the disease severity but increasing the disease duration by postponing death. Even if morbidity might be compressed, health care needs will surely expand.  (+info)

Molecular and evolutionary analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi 297 circular plasmid-encoded lipoproteins with OspE- and OspF-like leader peptides. (5/15569)

We previously described two OspE and three OspF homologs in Borrelia burgdorferi 297 (D. R. Akins, S. F. Porcella, T. G. Popova, D. Shevchenko, S. I. Baker, M. Li, M. V. Norgard, and J. D. Radolf, Mol. Microbiol. 18:507-520, 1995; D. R. Akins, K. W. Bourell, M. J. Caimano, M. V. Norgard, and J. D. Radolf, J. Clin. Investig. 101:2240-2250, 1998). In this study, we characterized four additional lipoproteins with OspE/F-like leader peptides (Elps) and demonstrated that all are encoded on plasmids homologous to cp32 and cp18 from the B31 and N40 strains, respectively. Statistical analysis of sequence similarities using the binary comparison algorithm revealed that the nine lipoproteins from strain 297, as well as the OspE, OspF, and Erp proteins from the N40 and B31 strains, fall into three distinct families. Based upon the observation that these lipoproteins all contain highly conserved leader peptides, we now propose that the ancestors of each of the three families arose from gene fusion events which joined a common N terminus to unrelated proteins. Additionally, further sequence analysis of the strain 297 circular plasmids revealed that rearrangements appear to have played an important role in generating sequence diversity among the members of these three families and that recombinational events in the downstream flanking regions appear to have occurred independently of those within the lipoprotein-encoding genes. The association of hypervariable regions with genes which are differentially expressed and/or subject to immunological pressures suggests that the Lyme disease spirochete has exploited recombinatorial processes to foster its parasitic strategy and enhance its immunoevasiveness.  (+info)

A family of S-methylmethionine-dependent thiol/selenol methyltransferases. Role in selenium tolerance and evolutionary relation. (6/15569)

Several plant species can tolerate high concentrations of selenium in the environment, and they accumulate organoselenium compounds. One of these compounds is Se-methylselenocysteine, synthesized by a number of species from the genus Astragalus (Fabaceae), like A. bisulcatus. An enzyme has been previously isolated from this organism that catalyzes methyl transfer from S-adenosylmethionine to selenocysteine. To elucidate the role of the enzyme in selenium tolerance, the cDNA coding for selenocysteine methyltransferase from A. bisulcatus was cloned and sequenced. Data base searches revealed the existence of several apparent homologs of hitherto unassigned function. The gene for one of them, yagD from Escherichia coli, was cloned, and the protein was overproduced and purified. A functional analysis showed that the YagD protein catalyzes methylation of homocysteine, selenohomocysteine, and selenocysteine with S-adenosylmethionine and S-methylmethionine as methyl group donors. S-Methylmethionine was now shown to be also the physiological methyl group donor for the A. bisulcatus selenocysteine methyltransferase. A model system was set up in E. coli which demonstrated that expression of the plant and, although to a much lesser degree, of the bacterial methyltransferase gene increases selenium tolerance and strongly reduces unspecific selenium incorporation into proteins, provided that S-methylmethionine is present in the medium. It is postulated that the selenocysteine methyltransferase under selective pressure developed from an S-methylmethionine-dependent thiol/selenol methyltransferase.  (+info)

Kodamaea nitidulidarum, Candida restingae and Kodamaea anthophila, three new related yeast species from ephemeral flowers. (7/15569)

Three new yeast species were discovered during studies of yeasts associated with ephemeral flowers in Brazil, Australia and Hawaii. Their physiological and morphological similarity to Kodamaea (Pichia) ohmeri suggested a possible relationship to that species, which was confirmed by rDNA sequencing. Kodamaea nitidulidarum and Candida restingae were found in cactus flowers and associated nitidulid beetles in sand dune ecosystems (restinga) of South-eastern Brazil. Over 350 strains of Kodamaea anthophila were isolated from Hibiscus and morning glory flowers (Ipomoea spp.) in Australia, and from associated nitidulid beetles and Drosophila hibisci. A single isolate came from a beach morning glory in Hawaii. Expansion of the genus Kodamaea to three species modified the existing definition of the genus only slightly. The type and isotype strains are as follows: K. nitidulidarum strains UFMG96-272T (h+; CBS 8491T) and UFMG96-394I (h-; CBS 8492I); Candida restingae UFMG96-276T (CBS 8493T); K. anthophila strains UWO(PS)95-602.1T (h+; CBS 8494T), UWO(PS)91-893.2I (h-; CBS 8495I) and UWO(PS)95-725.1I (h-; CBS 8496I).  (+info)

Reticulate evolution and the origins of ribosomal internal transcribed spacer diversity in apomictic Meloidogyne. (8/15569)

Among root knot nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne, the polyploid obligate mitotic parthenogens M. arenaria, M. javanica, and M. incognita are widespread and common agricultural pests. Although these named forms are distinguishable by closely related mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes, detailed sequence analyses of internal transcribed spacers (ITSs) of nuclear ribosomal genes reveal extremely high diversity, even within individual nematodes. This ITS diversity is broadly structured into two very different groups that are 12%-18% divergent: one with low diversity (< 1.0%) and one with high diversity (6%-7%). In both of these groups, identical sequences can be found within individual nematodes of different mtDNA haplotypes (i.e., among species). Analysis of genetic variance indicates that more than 90% of ITS diversity can be found within an individual nematode, with small but statistically significant (5%-10%; P < 0.05) variance distributed among mtDNA lineages. The evolutionarily distinct parthenogen M. hapla shows a similar pattern of ITS diversity, with two divergent groups of ITSs within each individual. In contrast, two diploid amphimictic species have only one lineage of ITSs with low diversity (< 0.2%). The presence of divergent lineages of rDNA in the apomictic taxa is unlikely to be due to differences among pseudogenes. Instead, we suggest that the diversity of ITSs in M. arenaria, M. javanica, and M. incognita is due to hybrid origins from closely related females (as inferred from mtDNA) and combinations of more diverse paternal lineages.  (+info)

Developmental evolution as mechanistic science: The inference from developmental mechanisms to evolutionary processes. Wagner, Gunter P. Developmental Evolution as a Mechanistic Science: The Inference from Developmental Mechanisms to Evolutionary Processes1 SYNOPSIS. Developmental Evolution (DE) contributes to various research programs in biology, such as the assessment of homology and the determination of the genetic architecture underlying species differences. The most distinctive contribution offered by DE to evolutionary biology, however, is the elucidation of the role of developmental mechanisms in the origin of evolutionary innovations. To date, explanations of evolutionary innovations have remained beyond the reach of classical evolutionary genetics, because such explanations require detailed information on the function of genes and the emergent developmental dynamics of their interactions with other genetic factors. We argue that this area has the potential to become the core of DEs ...
20 Questions on Adaptive Dynamics Adaptive dynamics is a tool used of studying phenotypic changes in evolving populations over time1. Adaptive dynamics approach is different from population genetic Fishers model2. Fishers population under natural selection will additively increase its population fitness, where as an adaptive dynamics population of unfit individuals are replace by fitter ones but…
Linksvayer, T A., J Fewell, J Gadau, and M D. Laubichler. Developmental Evolution in Social Insects - Regulatory Networks from Genes to Societies,. Journal of Experimental Zoology Part B: Molecular and Developmental Evolution 318 (2012): 159-169. ...
The first conceptual review of contemporary evolution, which also coined the term, was Hendry and Kinnison 1999. That paper also advocated and advanced the use evolutionary rate metrics to analyze and compare rates of phenotypic change. Contemporary evolution was later alternatively defined as evolution occurring over ecological time scales in Hairston, et al. 2005, which also argued for the importance of ongoing evolution in shaping ecological processes. Hendry 2017 provides a general overview of the various factors shaping contemporary evolution and the ecological consequences of that evolution. Although the study of contemporary evolution emphasizes changes that take place in wild populations, studies of selection in laboratory or other controlled populations have taught us much about how evolution responds to changes in selection, as reviewed in Kassen 2014.. ...
Developmental plasticity looks like a promising bridge between ecological and developmental perspectives on evolution. Yet, there is no consensus on whether plasticity is part of the explanation for adaptive evolution or an optional add-on to genes and natural selection. Here, we suggest that these differences in opinion are caused by differences in the simplifying assumptions, and particular idealizations, that enable evolutionary explanation. We outline why idealizations designed to explain evolution through natural selection prevent an understanding of the role of development, and vice versa. We show that representing plasticity as a reaction norm conforms with the idealizations of selective explanations, which can give the false impression that plasticity has no explanatory power for adaptive evolution. Finally, we use examples to illustrate why evolutionary explanations that include developmental plasticity may in fact be more satisfactory than explanations that solely refer to genes and ...
Laubichler, M D.. Form and Function in Evo Devo: A Conceptual and Historical Analysis. In Form and Function in Developmental Evolution, edited by M D. Laubichler and Jane Maienschein, 10-46. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009. ...
More recently, some of the Altenberg attendees, among others, launched a web site, The Third Way, as an organizing tool for scientists working on a model of evolution that accommodates the research findings that are stretching the Modern Synthesis. More recently the The John Templeton Foundation has awarded a major grant (£5.7m or $8m) to an international team of leading researchers for a three-year research program to put the predictions of the extended evolutionary synthesis to the test. The Royal Society in 2015 published an article, The extended evolutionary synthesis: its structure, assumptions and predictions that provides additional background information. And in November 2016 the Society hosted a scientific meeting on the topic, entitled, New trends in evolutionary biology: biological, philosophical and social science perspectives ...
Living things are organized in a hierarchy of levels. Genes group together in cells, cells group together in organisms, and organisms group together in societies. Even different species form mutualistic partnerships. In the history of life, previously independent units have formed groups that, in time, have come to resemble individuals in their own right. Biologists term such events the major transitions. The process common to them all is social evolution. Each occurs only if natural selection favours one unit joining with another in a new kind of group. This book presents a fresh synthesis of the principles of social evolution that underlie the major transitions, and explains how the basic theory underpinning social evolution, inclusive fitness theory, is central to understanding each event. At the same time, it defends inclusive fitness theory against recent critiques. The book defines the key stages in a major transition, then picks out the shared principles operating at each stage across the
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Dieckmann U & Doebeli M (2004). Adaptive dynamics of speciation: Sexual populations. In: Adaptive Speciation. Eds. Dieckmann, U., Doebeli, M., Metz, J.A.J. & Tautz, D., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-82842-2 DOI:10.2277/0521828422. Full text not available from this repository ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of sphingolipid extracts on the morphological structure and lipid profile in an in vitro model of canine skin. AU - Cerrato, Santiago. AU - Ramió-Lluch, Laura. AU - Brazís, Pilar. AU - Fondevila, Dolors. AU - Segarra, Sergi. AU - Puigdemont, Anna. PY - 2016/6/1. Y1 - 2016/6/1. N2 - © 2016 The Authors Ceramides (CER) are essential sphingolipids of the stratum corneum (SC) that play an important role in maintaining cutaneous barrier function. Skin barrier defects occur in both human beings and dogs affected with atopic dermatitis, and have been associated with decreased CER concentrations and morphological alterations in the SC. The aim of the present study was to investigate the changes induced by three different sphingolipid extracts (SPE-1, SPE-2 and SPE-3) on the morphological structure and lipid composition of canine skin, using an in vitro model, whereby keratinocytes were seeded onto fibroblast-embedded collagen type I matrix at the air-liquid interface. Cell ...
Coevolution accounts for a significant proportion of the evolutionary change that occurs in nature. This is quite reasonable because most, if not all, species live as members of communities composed of many species. As a result of interactions between members in a community, many species utilize not only their own genome, but also the genome of other species to facilitate survival and reproduction in context of mutualistic interactions. Conversely, antagonistic interactions between species are capable of driving rapid evolutionary change between interacting species. Thus intergenomic interactions, resulting from both mutualistic and antagonistic coevolution, play a major role in shaping the evolutionary trajectory of many species. Current Projects: -Antagonistic coevolution - Experimental Coevolution Test of the Red Queen: This project combines my interests in both mating system evolution and coevolutionary dynamics! The Red Queen Hypothesis predicts that selective pressure from coevolving ...
Current research in evolutionary biology covers diverse topics and incorporates ideas from diverse areas, such as molecular genetics and computer science. First, some fields of evolutionary research try to explain phenomena that were poorly accounted for in the modern evolutionary synthesis. These include speciation,[13] the evolution of sexual reproduction,[14] the evolution of cooperation, the evolution of ageing, and evolvability.[15] Second, biologists ask the most straightforward evolutionary question: what happened and when?. This includes fields such as paleobiology, as well as systematics and phylogenetics. Third, the modern evolutionary synthesis was devised at a time when nobody understood the molecular basis of genes. Today, evolutionary biologists try to determine the genetic architecture of interesting evolutionary phenomena such as adaptation and speciation. They seek answers to questions such as how many genes are involved, how large are the effects of each gene, how ...
As we will see in the rest of this volume, several of these tenets [of the Modern Synthesis] are being challenged as either inaccurate or incomplete. It is important, however, to understand the kind of challenge being posed here, in order to avoid wasting time on unproductive discussions that missed the point of an extended evolutionary synthesis. Perhaps a parallel with another branch of biology will be helpful. After Watson and Crick discovered the double-helix structure of DNA, and the molecular revolution got started in earnest, one of the first principles to emerge from the new discipline was the unfortunately named central dogma of molecular biology. The dogma (a word that arguably should never be used in science) stated that the flow of information in biological systems is always one way, from DNA to RNA to proteins. Later on, however, it was discovered that the DNA > RNA flow can be reversed by the appropriately named process of reverse transcription, which takes place in a variety of ...
Current research in evolutionary biology covers diverse topics and incorporates ideas from diverse areas, such as molecular genetics and computer science.. First, some fields of evolutionary research try to explain phenomena that were poorly accounted for in the modern evolutionary synthesis. These include speciation,[7] the evolution of sexual reproduction,[8] the evolution of cooperation, the evolution of ageing, and evolvability.[9]. Second, biologists ask the most straightforward evolutionary question: what happened and when?. This includes fields such as palaeobiology, as well as systematics and phylogenetics.. Third, the modern evolutionary synthesis was devised at a time when nobody understood the molecular basis of genes. Today, evolutionary biologists try to determine the genetic architecture of interesting evolutionary phenomena such as adaptation and speciation. They seek answers to questions such as how many genes are involved, how large are the effects of each gene, how ...
The evolutionist tradition of concealing fossils watch video, Adnan Oktars comments and opinions about The evolutionist tradition of concealing fossils, watch related articles, videos, interviews and documentries for The evolutionist tradition of concealing fossils, share on facebook, share on twitter
Dive into the research topics of Phenotypic plasticity, genetic assimilation, and genetic compensation in hypoxia adaptation of high-altitude vertebrates. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
William Smith (1769-1839), an English canal engineer, observed that rocks of different ages (based on the law of superposition) preserved different assemblages of fossils, and that these assemblages succeeded one another in a regular and determinable order. He observed that rocks from distant locations could be correlated based on the fossils they contained. He termed this the principle of faunal succession. Smith, who preceded Charles Darwin, was unaware of biological evolution and did not know why faunal succession occurred. Biological evolution explains why faunal succession exists: as different organisms evolve, change and go extinct, they leave behind fossils. Faunal succession was one of the chief pieces of evidence cited by Darwin that biological evolution had occurred. Early naturalists well understood the similarities and differences of living species leading Linnaeus to develop a hierarchical classification system still in use today. It was Darwin and his contemporaries who first ...
William Smith (1769-1839), an English canal engineer, observed that rocks of different ages (based on the law of superposition) preserved different assemblages of fossils, and that these assemblages succeeded one another in a regular and determinable order. He observed that rocks from distant locations could be correlated based on the fossils they contained. He termed this the principle of faunal succession. Smith, who preceded Charles Darwin, was unaware of biological evolution and did not know why faunal succession occurred. Biological evolution explains why faunal succession exists: as different organisms evolve, change and go extinct, they leave behind fossils. Faunal succession was one of the chief pieces of evidence cited by Darwin that biological evolution had occurred. Early naturalists well understood the similarities and differences of living species leading Linnaeus to develop a hierarchical classification system still in use today. It was Darwin and his contemporaries who first ...
The foregoing suggests that natural selection theory be formulated as a problem of signal-to-noise ratio. That is, the burden on the theory is to show that the variability of heritable phenotypic traits within a species in a local population, limited as it is by developmental constraints, nonetheless is significant enough to account for the variability of reproductive success among the members of a generation. Can the variability of the heritable traits in a given generation, the signal, rise above the day-in day-out contingencies of the environment and the intrinsic developmental constraints that limit the variability of phenotypes in a given generation, the noise, to override these factors and determine reproductive outcomes generation after generation ...
Abstract Because of the variability of relevant developmental resources across different environments, and because only a portion of the genome is expressed in any individual organism as a result of its specific developmental context and experience,
Page 1 of 2 - Why Evolutionist Dont Like To Give Evidence? - posted in Creation vs Evolution: I find it quite frustrating and amusing that for all their talk about science, many evolutionists refuse to give evidence of their claims. Many seem to think that just by merely saying the word fossil makes it evidence of evolution, without actually demonstrating how it is... So calling all evolutionists to give a summary of how their evidence is evidence of evolution. Just one...
Phenotypic convergence between distinct species provides an opportunity to examine the predictability of genetic evolution. Unrelated species sharing genetic underpinnings for phenotypic convergence suggests strong genetic constraints, and thus high predictability of evolution. However, there is no clear big picture of the genomic constraints on convergent evolution. Genome-based phylogenies have confirmed many cases of phenotypic convergence in birds, making them a good system for examining genetic constraints in phenotypic convergence. In this study, we used hierarchical genomic approaches to estimate genetic constraints in three convergent avian traits: nocturnality, raptorial behavior and foot-propelled diving. Phylogeny-based hypothesis tests and positive selection tests were applied to compare 16 avian genomes, representing 14 orders, and identify genes with strong convergence signals. We found 43 adaptively convergent genes (ACGs) associated with the three phenotypic convergence cases and
A recent report, published in Nature,1 on the genome sequence of the so-called living fish fossil, the African coelacanth, has some evolutionists scrambling to defend their story. This is because the coelacanths DNA is similar to other types of fish and not land animals, thus forcing the evolutionists to postulate that the coelacanth evolved slowly.1. Although modern coelacanths are found in water about 500 feet deep, Axel Meyer, a member of the study team believes that ancient coelacanths may have lived in shallow water, stating, Other coelacanths lived in more shallow, estuary-like environments 400 million years ago, and you can envisage them using fins more like walking legs.2 In the overall evolutionary scenario, fish are believed to have transitioned to land and then continued evolving into amphibians and eventually into other land creatures.. The ancestral lineage of the coelacanth was thought to have gone extinct 70 million years ago, during the Cretaceous Period-an era most famous for ...
Environmental stochasticity is known to play an important role in life-history evolution, but most general theory assumes a constant environment. In this paper, we examine life-history evolution in a variable environment, by decomposing average individual fitness (measured by the long-run stochastic growth rate) into contributions from average vital rates and their temporal variation. We examine how generation time, demographic dispersion (measured by the dispersion of reproductive events across the lifespan), demographic resilience (measured by damping time), within-year variances in vital rates, within-year correlations between vital rates and between-year correlations in vital rates combine to determine average individual fitness of stylized life histories. In a fluctuating environment, we show that there is often a range of cohort generation times at which the fitness is at a maximum. Thus, we expect optimal phenotypes in fluctuating environments to differ from optimal phenotypes in constant
UNUSUAL TIME AND PLACE Modeling adaptive dynamics for structured populations with functional traits We develop the framework of adaptive dynamics for populations that are structured by age and functional traits. The functional trait of an individual may express itself differently during the life of an individual according to her age and a random parameter that is chosen at birth to capture the environmental stochasticity. The population evolves through birth, death and selection mechanisms. At each birth, the new individual may be a clone of its parent or a mutant. Starting from an individual based model we use averaging techniques to take the large population and rare mutation limit under a well-chosen time-scale separation. This gives us the Trait Substitution Sequence process that describes the adaptive dynamics in our setting. Assuming small mutation steps we also derive the Canonical Equation which expresses the evolution of advantageous traits as a function-valued ordinary differential ...
UNUSUAL TIME Modeling adaptive dynamics for structured populations with functional traits We develop the framework of adaptive dynamics for populations that are structured by age and functional traits. The functional trait of an individual may express itself differently during the life of an individual according to her age and a random parameter that is chosen at birth to capture the environmental stochasticity. The population evolves through birth, death and selection mechanisms. At each birth, the new individual may be a clone of its parent or a mutant. Starting from an individual based model we use averaging techniques to take the large population and rare mutation limit under a well-chosen time-scale separation. This gives us the Trait Substitution Sequence process that describes the adaptive dynamics in our setting. Assuming small mutation steps we also derive the Canonical Equation which expresses the evolution of advantageous traits as a function-valued ordinary differential equation. ...
Predicting adaptive trajectories is a major goal of evolutionary biology and useful for practical applications. Systems biology has enabled the development of genome-scale metabolic models. However, analysing these models via flux balance analysis (FBA) cannot predict many evolutionary outcomes including adaptive diversification, whereby an ancestral lineage diverges to fill multiple niches. Here we combine in silico evolution with FBA and apply this modelling framework, evoFBA, to a long-term evolution experiment with Escherichia coli. Simulations predicted the adaptive diversification that occurred in one experimental population and generated hypotheses about the mechanisms that promoted coexistence of the diverged lineages. We experimentally tested and, on balance, verified these mechanisms, showing that diversification involved niche construction and character displacement through differential nutrient uptake and altered metabolic regulation. The evoFBA framework represents a promising new way to
Antagonistic coevolution is particularly likely to take place between parasites and their hosts. It is easy to imagine how a change in a parasite, which improves its ability to penetrate its hosts, will reciprocally set up selection for a change in the host. Antagonism can cause cyclical or escalatory coevolution:. • If the range of genetic variants in parasite and host is limited, coevolution can be cyclic. • But if new mutants continually arise, the parasite and host may undergo unending coupled changes in a particular direction. Many properties of the biology of parasites and hosts have been attributed to antagonistic coevolution, such as parasitic virulence, and the simultaneous phylogenetic branching of parasites and hosts. Antagonisms are thought to be the biological factor most likely to cause extinction.. The shells of these molluscs are an example of escalatory coevolution: the fossil record shows that the thickness of the shells increases in response to the evolution of more ...
It takes all the running you can do, to keep in the same place. - Lewis Carroll in Through the Looking-Glass http://astore.amazon.com/spectrevision-20/detail/0525951113 Let me tell you the story of the most successful organism of all time: this is the story of the parasite. Early on, evolution branched into two distinct paths: independent organisms-those that exist…
One major feature of the Palaeogene radiation of acanthomorphs-the origin of several clades of pelagic predators-appears related to the filling of vacated functional roles, but additional axes of morphological diversification are not clearly explained under this model. This might reflect the conservative approach applied here, which focuses on regions of morphospace that were devastated, rather than thinned, by extinction, combined with the limitations of a broadly framed landmark-based morphometric scheme in comparison to a targeted functional analysis. A mosaic pattern of turnover could remain an important but subtle mechanism underlying aspects of the acanthomorph radiation. Selection against higher trophic levels of the sort inferred for teleosts during the K-P (Cavin 2001; Friedman 2009) might yield particularly nuanced succession dynamics, because piscivorous fishes assume a range of morphologies and represent the most anatomically disparate diet class in some modern faunas (Chakrabarty ...
Few major questions in biological evolution have been as daunting to solve as the evolution of social behavior. Most research in the discipline has been structured by natural history observations and experiments designed to support a particular concept of how sociality evolved. Theoretical contributions have also been a significant part of the literature, sometimes linked to a favored concept. The discipline is divided into camps of opposing opinion on concepts of social evolution, and there has been scant increase in insight or understanding beyond positions adopted years ago. In this epistemic environment, characterized by contention and stasis, the catalysis group �Modeling Insect Sociality� has been designed to seek a new way forward. The meeting will assemble evolutionary modelers with a diversity of analytical tool kits together with social insect biologists with a diversity of taxonomic expertise. The intent is to foster discussion in an atmosphere of neutrality with regard to ...
As we will see in the rest of this volume, several of these tenets [of the Modern Synthesis] are being challenged as either a inaccurate or incomplete. It is important however, to understand the kind of challenge being posted here, in order to avoid wasting time on unproductive discussions that miss the point of an extended evolutionary synthesis. Perhaps a parallel with another branch of biology will be helpful. After Watson and Crick discovered the double-helix structure of DNA, and the molecular revolution got started in earnest, one of the first principles to emerge from the new discipline was the unfortunately named central dogma of molecular biology. The dogma (a word that arguably should never be used in science) stated that the flow of information in biological systems is always one-way, from DNA to RNA proteins. Later on, however, it was discovered that the DNA > RNA flow can be reversed by the appropriately named process of reverse transcription, which takes place in a variety of ...
Life cycle strategies have evolved extensively throughout the history of metazoans. The expression of disparate life stages within a single ontogeny can present conflicts to trait evolution, and therefore may have played a major role in shaping metazoan forms. However, few studies have examined the consequences of adding or subtracting life stages on patterns of trait evolution. By analysing trait evolution in a clade of closely related salamander lineages we show that shifts in the number of life cycle stages are associated with rapid phenotypic evolution. Specifically, salamanders with an aquatic-only (paedomorphic) life cycle have frequently added vertebrae to their trunk skeleton compared with closely related lineages with a complex aquatic-to-terrestrial (biphasic) life cycle. The rate of vertebral column evolution is also substantially lower in biphasic lineages, which may reflect the functional compromise of a complex cycle. This study demonstrates that the consequences of life cycle ...
CA, Azlan and N.A., Kadri, and NF, Mohd Nasir and MG, Rah (2006) The study of morphological structure, phase structure and molecular structure of collagen-PEO 600K blends for tissue engineering application. American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 2 (5). pp. 175-179. ...
We demonstrate how a genetic polymorphism of distinctly different alleles can develop during long-term frequency-dependent evolution in an initially monomorphic diploid population, if mutations have only small phenotypic effect. As a specific example, we use a version of Levenes (1953) soft selection model, where stabilizing selection acts on a continuous trait within each of two habitats. If the optimal phenotypes within the habitats are sufficiently different, then two distinctly different alleles evolve gradually from a single ancestral allele. In a wide range of parameter values, the two locally optimal phenotypes will be realized by one of the homozygotes and the heterozygote, rather than by the two homozygotes. Unlike in the haploid analogue of the model, there can be multiple polymorphic evolutionary attractors with different probabilities of convergence. Our results differ from the population genetic models of short-term evolution in two aspects: (1) a polymorphism that is population ...
This working group will assemble a team of investigators from population, quantitative, demographic and human genetics, and evolutionary biology to analyze the three generation longitudinal Framingham Heart Study cohort data to document microevolutionary changes in a contemporary human population. The team will utilize the rich and diverse morphological, physiological and genomic data collected for nearly sixty years to primarily understand the manifestation of cardiovascular disease in a healthy white North American population. The investigators will use analytical approaches proven in evolutionary biology and if necessary develop novel approaches for the purpose. This concerted effort will yield an evolutionary framework to understand the distribution of human genetic variation and the role of evolution in human health and disease. The specific aims of this working group are to: 1) measure microevolutionary changes at the phenotype level in a white North American human population, using ...
When evolutionists try to draw their tree of related animals, they have a problem: not everything fits. They must say that some things---even things that are extremely similar---evolved multiple times independently (called convergence). They say that eyes evolved 40-60 times independently. This is awkward for evolutionists to explain, but it makes much more sense for a creationist: God reuses good designs!. Learn More. ...
It is definitely true that the so-called Modern Synthesis of Evolution needs an update. That is common knowledge. The problem is that there are not really leading figures that can come down with what might be called The Standard Model of Biological Evolution. I phrase it as such since as such it might also help against the ID movement. ID is constantly challenging biologists and other scientists. The thing they do understand all too well is that every new finding comes with many new questions, which they subsequently abuse to attack evolution. One of the issues they keep on coming back is that evolution is just a theory. Besides the fact that apparently they misunderstand the scientific meaning of theory, they easily put aside the enormous of evidence that backs up this theory. The reason why they keep on doing this is that there are still a number of battle areas , albeit much less then it seems. Here The Standard Model of Biological Evolution might come in quite handy. But who should ...
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Page 1 of 3 - Is Macroevolution Testable? - posted in Best all time threads.: Evolutionists frequently affirm that macroevolution in nature is too slow to observe. Fair enough. Supposedly, significant macroevolutionary changes occured by natural selection, such as the evolution of cetaceans from a hippo- like precursor over a period of only 8 million years. The evolution of man from australopithecus supposedly took around 2 million years. My challenge is to produce macroevolutionary ch...
Workman, L., Reader, W. & Barkow, J. H. (Eds) (2020) Cambridge Handbook of Evolutionary Perspectives on Human Behavior. The Cambridge Handbook of Evolutionary Perspectives on Human Behavior - edited by Lance Workman March 2020 Skip to main content Accessibility help We use cookies to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better experience on our websites. The Cambridge Handbook of Evolutionary Perspectives on Human Behavior (Cambridge Handbooks in Psychology) (English Edition) eBook: Workman, Lance, Reader, Will, Barkow, Jerome H.: Amazon.nl: Kindle Store Kin selection and the evolution of male androphilia31. Book summary views reflect the number of visits to the book and chapter landing pages. The Cambridge Handbook of Evolutionary Perspectives on Human Behavior - March 2020 British Wildlife is the leading natural history magazine in the UK, providing essential reading Ontogeny of tactical deception19. 11 - Can Evolutionary Processes Explain the Origins of Morality? Close ...
Im constantly amazed by how many people in the US either reject the idea of biological evolution or have serious reservations. By contrast, in Europe and other countries with developed economies, only a relatively small fraction do. And the mainstream Christian denominations that most Americans belong to all explicitly accept the reality of biological evolution. That includes the Catholic, Episcopalian, Presbyterian, Methodist, Lutheran, and Anglican churches. The simple fact is that there is overwhelming evidence for biological evolution. As the 20th century biologist Theodosius Dobzhansky said (when the evidence for biological evolution was not even as strong as it is today), Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution. If we were compelled to reject the idea of biological evolution, there would be literally thousands of unexplained biological phenomena that currently make perfect sense as consequences of the evolutionary history of life on Earth.. No credible biologist ...
Evolutionary game theory (EGT) is the application of game theory to evolving populations in biology. It defines a framework of contests, strategies, and analytics into which Darwinian competition can be modelled. It originated in 1973 with John Maynard Smith and George R. Prices formalisation of contests, analysed as strategies, and the mathematical criteria that can be used to predict the results of competing strategies. Evolutionary game theory differs from classical game theory in focusing more on the dynamics of strategy change. This is influenced by the frequency of the competing strategies in the population. Evolutionary game theory has helped to explain the basis of altruistic behaviours in Darwinian evolution. It has in turn become of interest to economists, sociologists, anthropologists, and philosophers. Classical non-cooperative game theory was conceived by John von Neumann to determine optimal strategies in competitions between adversaries. A contest involves players, all of whom ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - A multivariate analysis of genetic constraints to life history evolution in a wild population of red deer. AU - Walling, Craig A.. AU - Morrissey, Michael B.. AU - Foerster, Katharina. AU - Clutton-Brock, Tim H.. AU - Pemberton, Josephine M.. AU - Kruuk, Loeske E B. PY - 2014/1/1. Y1 - 2014/1/1. N2 - Evolutionary theory predicts that genetic constraints should be widespread, but empirical support for their existence is surprisingly rare. Commonly applied univariate and bivariate approaches to detecting genetic constraints can underestimate their prevalence, with important aspects potentially tractable only within a multivariate framework. However, multivariate genetic analyses of data from natural populations are challenging because of modest sample sizes, incomplete pedigrees, and missing data. Here we present results from a study of a comprehensive set of life history traits (juvenile survival, age at first breeding, annual fecundity, and longevity) for both males and females ...
Looking for online definition of Co-adaptation in the Medical Dictionary? Co-adaptation explanation free. What is Co-adaptation? Meaning of Co-adaptation medical term. What does Co-adaptation mean?
Evolutionary perspectives on human behavior are almost as old as the science of psychology itself. A new brand of functionalism has emerged; it draws inspiration from developments in evolutionary biology in the past half-century. This chapter offers an overview of evolutionary biology as applied to human psychology. An ecological niche is discussed, and the critical issue of the nature of the niche humans entered and defined is addressed. Unusually, individuals fitness was highly dependent on their ability to attract, form, and maintain cooperative coalitions with others and harness the competencies of others to their own. Several broad, evolution-inspired proposals about human social behavior are described, illustrating how evolutionary perspectives offer integrative understanding of psychological phenomena and generate new research programs. Individual differences from an evolutionary perspective are addressed. Evolutionary perspectives, rather than representing alternatives to social or cultural
Biological evolution is a process that results in heritable changes in a population spread over many generations. [1]Microevolution occurs in terms of biological evolution, but macroevolution does not. ...
Compiled and edited by Andrew Morozov. Mathematical modelling is widely recognised as a powerful and convenient theoretical tool for investigating various aspects of biological evolution and explaining the existing genetic complexity of the real world. The importance of such models stems from their usefulness in providing wide-ranging exploration without a need for expensive and potentially dangerous experiments with biological systems. This theme issue aims to provide a useful guide to important recent findings in some key-areas in modelling biological evolution, to refine the existing challenges and to outline possible future directions. Many of the contributions stress the importance of linking theory and empirical work, emphasised by concrete case study-based examples.. All articles from this issue are now available online.. If you would like to recommend this journal to your Librarian please fill out this form or contact [email protected] Also of interest. See all Royal Society ...
We consider the stability of strict equilibrium under deterministic evolutionary game dynamics. We show that if the correlation between strategies growth rates and payoffs is positive and bounded away from zero in a neighborhood of a strict equilibrium, then this equilibrium is locally stable.
This 727 word essay is about Human evolution, Biological evolution, Apes, Recent African origin of modern humans, Anthropology, Evolution. Read the full essay now!
Antagonistic selection-where alleles at a locus have opposing effects on male and female fitness (sexual antagonism), or between components of fitness (antagonistic pleiotropy)-might play an important role in maintaining population genetic variation, and in driving phylogenetic and genomic patterns of sexual dimorphism and life-history evolution. While prior theory has thoroughly characterized the conditions necessary for antagonistic balancing selection to operate, we currently know little about the evolutionary interactions between antagonistic selection, recurrent mutation, and genetic drift, which should collectively shape empirical patterns of genetic variation. To fill this void, we developed and analyzed a series of population genetic models that simultaneously incorporate these processes. Our models identify two general properties of antagonistically selected loci. First, antagonistic selection inflates heterozygosity and fitness variance across a broad parameter range-a result that ...
Biological evolution is a process that results in [[heritable]] changes in a [[population]] spread over many [[generations]]. [http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/evolution-definition.html][[Microevolution]] occurs in terms of biological evolution, but [[macroevolution]] does not. == See also == *[[Question evolution! campaign]] [[Category:Evolution ...
This study examines the Colloquium which is a professional development process used in Catholic schools. The Colloquium was designed to help people employed in catholic schools renew their vision of care and service to students and to seek to reshape the curriculum to reflect Gospel values more clearly. This thesis was a research evaluation of the Colloquium process and aimed to exploreits effectiveness in te1ms of its impact on the teachers and their work in Catholic schools. The study is based on the theoretical domains of faith development, school improvement end staff development. The design of the study involved before and after questionnaires about the colloquium experience and unstructured interviews. The conclusion drawn from the qualitative data is that the Colloquium process influences the faith development or the individual as well as the staff collectively. It influences relationships and can lead to the building of a shared vision and an identification of common goals for the improvement of
Biological evolution is any genetic change in a population inherited over several generations. These changes may be obvious or not very noticeable at all.
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Introduction. There are winds of change in evolutionary biology, and they are blowing from many directions: from developmental biology (particularly the molecular aspects), from microbial biology (especially studies of mutational mechanisms and horizontal gene transfer), from ecology (in particular ideas about niche construction and studies of extensive symbiosis), from behavior (where the transmission of information through social learning is a major focus), and from cultural studies (where the relation between cultural evolution and genetic evolution is under scrutiny). Many biologists feel that the foundations of the evolutionary paradigm that was constructed during the 1930s and 1940s (Mayr, 1982) and has dominated Western views of evolution for the last 60 years are crumbling, and that the construction of a new evolutionary paradigm is underway.. In this paper we focus on one of the important challenges to the Modern Evolutionary Synthesis (referred to here as the Modern Synthesis, or the ...
PhD Project - Human Demography and Gene-culture Coevolution: human population dynamics on a (pre)-historical time-scale, and in tandem with microbial evolution at Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, listed on FindAPhD.com
Complex cognition and relatively large brains are distributed across various taxa, and many primarily verbal hypotheses exist to explain such diversity. Yet, mathematical approaches formalizing verbal hypotheses would help deepen the understanding of brain and cognition evolution. With this aim, we combine elements of life history and metabolic theories to formulate a metabolically explicit mathematical model for brain life history evolution. We assume that some of the brains energetic expense is due to production (learning) and maintenance (memory) of energy-extraction skills (or cognitive abilities, knowledge, information, etc.). We also assume that individuals use such skills to extract energy from the environment, and can allocate this energy to grow and maintain the body, including brain and reproductive tissues. The model can be used to ask what fraction of growth energy should be allocated at each age, given natural selection, to growing brain and other tissues under various biological ...
In Lewis Carrolls Through the Looking Glass (1871), a sequel to his Alices Adventures in Wonderland (1865), Alice learns from the Red Queen that, in Carrolls
In addition to developmental constraints, the experiences that children have with the world further entrench their intuition, and cause them to develop particular ideas about how the world works. Both of these factors make it difficult to adopt new, more scientifically accurate ones. These intuitions, also referred to as naïve theories or framework theories, provide simple explanations for natural phenomena that work well in everyday life, even if they are not entirely accurate from a scientific standpoint (Wellman and Gelman 1998). For example, childrens everyday experience of the earth is that of a flat stationary surface. The notion of the earth being a giant ball floating in space belies this experience and requires radical restructuring. It is interesting that such restructuring often goes through shifts that involve the construction of alternative conceptions of the earth shape, or synthetic models (Vosniadou and Brewer 1992). For example, a child may confidently claim that there are ...
Evolutionary trade-offs in performance from one environment to another have long been thought to be essential in the balance in population and distribution of organisms. It is an essential concept in natural selection. (The process in nature by which, according to Darwins theory of evolution, only the organisms best adapted to their environment tend to survive and transmit their genetic characteristics in increasing numbers to succeeding generations while those less adapted tend to be eliminated.) An advantageous mutation in a certain environment will increase the likelihood of reaching the age of reproduction, allowing passing on of the gene to the next generation, therefore a positive mutation. If the mutation is detrimental to health and the person dies before reproduction, the mutation is lost and is therefore a negative mutation. Natural selection has to be considered in the context of pre-modern societies. Modern medicine has altered the balance of nature and often allows us to rescue ...
Maropeng is thrilled to announce that it will be hosting the Royal Society of South Africas Broom Colloquium on November 26, 2011. The top scientists behind some of the more recent palaeontological discoveries will be gathering for the day to present papers on a wide range of research issues.. This Broom Colloquium serves to commemorate the death of renowned palaeontologist and medical doctor, Professor Robert Broom, 60 years ago.. The colloquium is an initiative of the Royal Society of South Africa, in partnership with Maropeng, to honour Broom in the context of recent discoveries of and research on hominids and other fossils from the Cradle of Humankind World Heritage Site. Maropeng curator Lindsay Marshall says that hosting the colloquium is very prestigious. It adds a huge amount of credibility to Maropengs role, not only as a tourism destination but as a place where international scientific discussion can take place.. An exhibition of original fossils discovered at Bolts Farm, one of ...
The successful experience of the first International Colloquium, in 1997, was on Money, Growth, Distribution and Structural Change: Contemporaneous Analysis, that coincided with the foundation of PhD Program in Economics at the University of Brasilia (UnB). It was an outstanding meeting with the presence of many fine scholars from Brazil and the larger world community.. The 1999 International Colloquium on Economic Dynamics and Economic Policy which was the result of the consolidation of efforts to stimulate and sustain a critical dialogue, continued to develop these critical themes leading to a series of colloquia that followed. These include the 2001 International Colloquium on Structural Change, Growth and Redistribution and the 2003 International Colloquium on Globalization, New Technologies and Economic Relations, both held in Brasilia, with the support of the UnB and other institutions and had the presence of scholars from various countries around the world.. Subsequent to this ...
The successful experience of the first International Colloquium, in 1997, was on Money, Growth, Distribution and Structural Change: Contemporaneous Analysis, that coincided with the foundation of PhD Program in Economics at the University of Brasilia (UnB). It was an outstanding meeting with the presence of many fine scholars from Brazil and the larger world community.. The 1999 International Colloquium on Economic Dynamics and Economic Policy which was the result of the consolidation of efforts to stimulate and sustain a critical dialogue, continued to develop these critical themes leading to a series of colloquia that followed. These include the 2001 International Colloquium on Structural Change, Growth and Redistribution and the 2003 International Colloquium on Globalization, New Technologies and Economic Relations, both held in Brasilia, with the support of the UnB and other institutions and had the presence of scholars from various countries around the world.. Subsequent to this ...
Major transitions in biological evolution show the same pattern of sudden emergence of diverse forms at a new level of complexity. The relationships between major groups within an emergent new class of biological entities are hard to decipher and do not seem to fit the tree pattern that, following Darwins original proposal, remains the dominant description of biological evolution. The cases in point include the origin of complex RNA molecules and protein folds; major groups of viruses; archaea and bacteria, and the principal lineages within each of these prokaryotic domains; eukaryotic supergroups; and animal phyla. In each of these pivotal nexuses in lifes history, the principal types seem to appear rapidly and fully equipped with the signature features of the respective new level of biological organization. No intermediate grades or intermediate forms between different types are detectable. Usually, this pattern is attributed to cladogenesis compressed in time, combined with the ...
Major transitions in biological evolution show the same pattern of sudden emergence of diverse forms at a new level of complexity. The relationships between major groups within an emergent new class of biological entities are hard to decipher and do not seem to fit the tree pattern that, following Darwins original proposal, remains the dominant description of biological evolution. The cases in point include the origin of complex RNA molecules and protein folds; major groups of viruses; archaea and bacteria, and the principal lineages within each of these prokaryotic domains; eukaryotic supergroups; and animal phyla. In each of these pivotal nexuses in lifes history, the principal types seem to appear rapidly and fully equipped with the signature features of the respective new level of biological organization. No intermediate grades or intermediate forms between different types are detectable. Usually, this pattern is attributed to cladogenesis compressed in time, combined with the ...
The Comparative - Phylogenetic Method of Reconstructing Evolutionary History. Kramer, Elena M [1]. A molecular perspective on the reconstruction of morphological evolution.. JUST as understanding morphological evolution requires a clear picture of taxonomic relationships, a complete understanding of developmental evolution is dependent on reconstructing the evolution of gene lineages. Therefore, the first step in studying the evolution of genetic pathways that underlie morphological change is analyzing the phylogenetic relationships among the genes that participate in these pathways. The importance of this type of analysis will be discussed in the context of the floral organ identity program and the MADS box genes which play critical roles in this program. In particular, the evolutionary history of the APETALA3 and PISTILLATA gene lineages in the Ranunculales has the potential to shed light on the morphological diversification of this group. Current evidence suggests that duplications which ...
article{Cl07b, author = {Jens Christian Claussen}, title = {Drift reversal in asymmetric coevolutionary conflicts: influence of microscopic processes and population size}, journal = {European Physical Journal B}, volume = {60}, pages = {391--399}, year = {2007}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjb/e2007-00357-2}, abstract = {The coevolutionary dynamics in finite populations currently is investigated in a wide range of disciplines, as chemical catalysis, biological evolution, social and economic systems. The dynamics of those systems can be formulated within the unifying framework of evolutionary game theory. However it is not a priori clear which mathematical description is appropriate when populations are not infinitely large. Whereas the replicator equation approach describes the infinite population size limit by deterministic differential equations, in finite populations the dynamics is inherently stochastic which can lead to new effects. Recently, an explicit mean-field description in the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cancer phenotype as the outcome of an evolutionary game between normal and malignant cells. AU - Dingli, D.. AU - Chalub, F. A.C.C.. AU - Santos, F. C.. AU - Van Segbroeck, S.. AU - Pacheco, J. M.. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported by Mayo Foundation (DD), FCT Portugal (FACCC and JMP), FNRS Belgium (FCS) and FWO Belgium (SVS).. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. N2 - Background: There is variability in the cancer phenotype across individuals: two patients with the same tumour may experience different disease life histories, resulting from genetic variation within the tumour and from the interaction between tumour and host. Until now, phenotypic variability has precluded a clear-cut identification of the fundamental characteristics of a given tumour type. Methods: Using multiple myeloma as an example, we apply the principles of evolutionary game theory to determine the fundamental characteristics that define the phenotypic variability of a tumour. Results: Tumour dynamics is ...
The main focus of my project is to learn more about morphological character evolution in a phylogenetic context.. One of the goals is to erect homology hypotheses of morphological characters. The morphological characters are then used as a data base for reconstructing of a hypothesis of phylogenetic relationships (=tree) in combination with existing DNA sequences or are mapped on existing trees to study the character evolution.. The emphasis of my research is to unravel annelid character evolution.. Several anatomical structures are studied: body wall muscles, epidermis and cuticle, and genital ducts, using different methods such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and routin histology.. Another goal of the project is to study the morphology of homologous characters; characters that come out as derived from a common ancestor in both DNA and morphological analyses and that have long been recognized by morphologists to unite a certain group of organisms, e.g. the clitellum of Clitellata and ...
In other words - if the evidence points to God - as they know much of it does, there is no way they will ever acknowledge it. They will tell some outrageous story about the evidence (or as Id call it - a lie) to avoid drawing the obvious conclusion: the evidence points to a transcendent God.. Which brings me back to our first question: Is lie too strong a word? Are evolutionists really trying to deceive? Once you recognize the target of the deception the answer becomes obvious. Scripture tells us The heavens declare the glory of God. (Ps 19.1) But evolutionists and atheists have determined they want a world without God. And thus they deny any evidence that points to God. And so the target of their lies - first and foremost - is themselves. They are lying to themselves so that they dont have to acknowledge to themselves the evidence of God because …since the creation of the world Gods invisible qualities-his eternal power and divine nature-have been clearly seen, being understood from ...
BACKGROUND: Animal and plant species can harbour microbes that provide them with protection against enemies. These beneficial microbes can be a significant component of host defence that complement or replaces a repertoire of immunity, but they can also be costly. Given their impact on host and parasite fitness, defensive microbes have the potential to influence host-parasite interactions on an evolutionary timescale. RESULTS: Using a phenotypic framework, we explore the evolutionary and coevolutionary dynamics of a host-parasite interaction in the presence of defensive microbes. We show that costs of host-defensive microbe systems are critical in determining whether a defensive microbe based system or an immune system provides better host protection investment. Partitioning the coevolutionary dynamics yields testable predictions. The density of defensive microbes influences the strength of selection resulting from host - defensive microbe - parasite coevolutionary interactions. We find that they lessen
Introduction The publication of Darwins Origin of Species in 18591 marked one of the great revolutions in science. Darwins central idea, that species diverged through natural selection and are thus related by a branching pattern of common descent, provided a new materialistic explanation for the diversity of the natural world. How did evolutionary biology develop in South Africa over the subsequent 150 years, and what were the milestones along the way? What are its current strengths and roles in a modern democratic South Africa? To address these questions I review the South African literature on evolutionary biology, first as an historical narrative, and second with respect to noteworthy research themes. I also consider the extent to which sociological misinterpretation of Darwins ideas had an influence on the development of racist ideology in South Africa. Finally, I present the results of a bibliographic analysis of publication trends in evolutionary biology for South Africa, relative to ...
Due to regulations regarding the COVID-19 situation, all the SCCS Colloquium sessions with physical presence are cacelled until further notice. If you need to present your work as part of a graded project, please contact your advisor. Projects that need to and can be presented via videoconference as part of a graded exam can be hosted. The SC²S Colloquium is a forum giving students, guests, and members of the chair the opportunity to present their research insights, results, and challenges. Do you need ideas for your thesis topic? Do you want to meet your potential supervisor? Do you want to discuss your research with a diverse group of researchers, rehearse your conference talk, or simply cheer for your colleagues? This is the right place for you! When and where: Wednesdays at 3 pm, in the room 02.07.023. Guests are always welcome! You dont want to miss a talk? Subscribe to our mailing list and our Colloquium calendar (iCal link, updated regularly). ...
A Joint Meeting of the British Mathematical Colloquium (BMC) and the British Applied Mathematics Colloquium (BAMC) was held at the University of Cambridge from 11:00 on Monday 30th March 2015 to 13:00 on Thursday 2nd April 2015. This was the 4th Joint Meeting following Warwick (2002), Liverpool (2005) and Edinburgh (2010). ...
A Joint Meeting of the British Mathematical Colloquium (BMC) and the British Applied Mathematics Colloquium (BAMC) was held at the University of Cambridge from 11:00 on Monday 30th March 2015 to 13:00 on Thursday 2nd April 2015. This was the 4th Joint Meeting following Warwick (2002), Liverpool (2005) and Edinburgh (2010). ...
Virus-host biological interaction is a continuous coevolutionary process involving both host immune system and viral escape mechanisms. Flaviviridae family is composed of fast evolving RNA viruses that infects vertebrate (mammals and birds) and/or invertebrate (ticks and mosquitoes) organisms. These host groups are very distinct life forms separated by a long evolutionary time, so lineage-specific anti-viral mechanisms are likely to have evolved. Flaviviridae viruses which infect a single host lineage would be subjected to specific host-induced pressures and, therefore, selected by them. In this work we compare the genomic evolutionary patterns of Flaviviridae viruses and their hosts in an attempt to uncover coevolutionary processes inducing common features in such disparate groups. Especially, we have analyzed dinucleotide and codon usage patterns in the coding regions of vertebrate and invertebrate organisms as well as in Flaviviridae viruses which specifically infect one or both host types. ...
Biological And Evolutionary Approaches To Personality Definition and Meaning: Biological and evolutionary approaches to personality Theories that suggest that important components of personality are inherited.
Genotyping and sequencing of a number of eukaryotic genomes provide us with an opportunity to study the temporal and functional character of evolutionary changes in metazoans. Here we provide a framework for identifying changes in evolutionary constraints on mutated positions in the human genome. Due to lack of SNP data, in the current analysis we captured only higher order patterns at the level of functional categories. But upon availability of resequencing data, using BaseDiver it is possible to achieve higher resolution. In this work we restricted the use of BaseDiver to coding regions only, where most of the base positions are under selection and the effects of hitchhiking are small, it can be used to identify changes in constraints in non-coding regions as well.. Recently outliers of evolutionary patterns like ultra-conserved elements in higher eukaryotes and highly accelerated regions in humans have been identified [4, 7]; here we attempt to capture the comprehensive spectrum of evolution ...
Evolution of digital organism at high mutation rates leads to survival of the flattest. The evolutionary origin of complex features
Product of biological evolution[edit]. Human preferences toward things in nature, while refined through experience and culture ... are hypothetically the product of biological evolution. For example, adult mammals (especially humans) are generally attracted ... induce a strengthening in emotive and biological terms at a neural level; (iv) support, according to the many clinical ... and to explain them in terms of the conditions of human evolution. ...
Biological function and evolution[edit]. Opinions are divided as to where in biological evolution consciousness emerged and ... B.I.B. Lindahl (1997). "Consciousness and biological evolution". Journal of Theoretical Biology. 187 (4): 613-629. doi:10.1006/ ... Richard Maurice Bucke (1905). Cosmic Consciousness: A Study in the Evolution of the Human Mind. Innes & Sons. pp. 1-2.. CS1 ... S. Budiansky (1998). If a Lion Could Talk: Animal Intelligence and the Evolution of Consciousness. The Free Press. ISBN 978-0- ...
B. I. B. Lindahl (1997). "Consciousness and biological evolution". Journal of Theoretical Biology. 187 (4): 613-629. doi: ... Opinions are divided as to where in biological evolution consciousness emerged and about whether or not consciousness has ... In biological psychology, awareness is defined as a human's or an animal's perception and cognitive reaction to a condition or ... Haselton, M. G.; Nettle, D. & Andrews, P. W. (2005). "The evolution of cognitive bias.". In D.M. Buss (ed.). The Handbook of ...
In Grinin, L. E.; Carneiro, R. L.; Korotayev, A. V.; Spier, F. (eds.). Evolution: Cosmic, Biological, and Social. Uchitel ... Social Evolution & History. 6 (1): 58-119.. *^ Heylighen, Francis (2002). "Das Globale Gehirn als neue Utopia" [The global ... Bloom, Howard (2000). Global Brain: The Evolution of Mass Mind from the Big Bang to the 21st Century.. ... Kelly, Kevin (1994). Out of control: The Rise of Neo-Biological Civilization. Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley. pp. 5-28. ISBN 978 ...
Lindenfors, Patrik (2017). For whose benefit? The biological and cultural evolution of human cooperation. Cham, Switzerland: ... "Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 278 (1714): 1989-96. doi:10.1098/rspb.2010.1771. PMC 3107641. PMID ... In evolution, co-operation is the process where groups of organisms work or act together for common or mutual benefits. It is ... "Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 365 (1553): 2687-2697. doi:10.1098/rstb.2010.0150. PMC ...
Living, biological systems[edit]. Emergence and evolution[edit]. See also: Abiogenesis. Life is a major source of complexity, ... has been the underlying cause of the evolution of emergent phenomena in biological evolution; it is the synergies produced by ... Biology (including biological evolution) can be viewed as an emergent property of the laws of chemistry. Similarly, psychology ... Emergent evolution - The hypothesis that, in the course of evolution, some entirely new properties, such as mind and ...
Clark, W. E. L. G. (1940). "Palaeontological Evidence Bearing on Human Evolution". Biological Reviews. 15 (2): 202-230. doi: ... Le Gros Clark, W. E. (1964). The fossil evidence for human evolution: An introduction to the study of paleoanthropology, 2nd ed ... During his career Le Gros Clark published numerous papers on human evolution and palaeontology,[7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15 ... Le Gros Clark, W. E. (1955). The fossil evidence for human evolution: An introduction to the study of paleoanthropology. The ...
"The Evolution and Ecology of Masquerade". Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 99: 1-8. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8312.2009. ... Evolution: An Introduction (5th ed.). p. 464.. *^ a b c Pinheiro, Carlos E. G. (1996). "Palatability and escaping ability in ... a b Van der Pijl, L., Dodson, C. H. (1966) Orchid Flowers; Their Pollination and Evolution. Coral Gables, Florida, USA, Univ. ... "Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 274 (1617): 1457-1464. doi:10.1098/rspb.2007.0220. PMC 1950298. PMID ...
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Stern, D.; Foster, W. (1996). "The evolution of soldiers in aphids". Biological Reviews. 71: 27-79. doi:10.1111/j.1469-185x. ... Evolution[edit]. Main article: Evolution of eusociality. Phylogenetic distribution[edit]. Eusociality is a rare but widespread ... Thorne, B. L. (1997). "Evolution of eusociality in termites". Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics. 28: 27-54. ... Duffy, J.E. (2003). "The ecology and evolution of eusociality in sponge-dwelling shrimp". Genes, Behaviors and Evolution of ...
"Dynamics of mimicry evolution". Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 66 (2): 145-158. doi:10.1006/bijl.1998.0269 ... "Proceedings: Biological Sciences. 268 (1478): 1755-1758. doi:10.1098/rspb.2001.1708. PMC 1088805. PMID 11522192.. ... "Proceedings: Biological Sciences. 268 (1478): 1755-1758. doi:10.1098/rspb.2001.1708. PMC 1088805. PMID 11522192.. ... "Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 66: 1-22. doi:10.1006/bijl.1998.0264.. ...
Adami C, Ofria C, Collier TC (2000). "Evolution of biological complexity". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97 (9): 4463-8. arXiv: ... However, the idea of a general trend towards complexity in evolution can also be explained through a passive process. This ... who proposed a model of cultural evolution which regards psychological and socio-cultural systems as analogous with biological ... This observation has led to the common misconception of evolution being progressive and leading towards what are viewed as " ...
"Salk Chemical Evolution Scientist Leslie Orgel Dies". Salk Institute for Biological Studies. 30 October 2007. Retrieved 1 June ... Adami, Christoph; Ofria, Charles; Collier, Travis (2000). "Evolution of biological complexity". Proceedings of the National ... Orgel used the term for biological features which are considered in science to have arisen through a process of evolution, ... Dembski asserts that CSI exists in numerous features of living things, such as in DNA and in other functional biological ...
This conception connects our understanding of God with today's ideas of the Big Bang; cosmic and biological evolution; the ... This profound mystery of creativity is manifest in and through the overall human bio-historical evolution and development ...
Abstract C. Adami, C. Ofria, and T.C. Collier (2000). Evolution of biological complexity. "Proceedings of the National Academy ... the director of the Digital Evolution (DEvo) Lab there, and Director of the BEACON Center for the Study of Evolution in Action ... "Effects of population size and mutation rate on the evolution of mutational robustness". Evolution. 61 (3): 666-674. doi: ... Abstract C. O. Wilke, J. L. Wang, C. Ofria, R. E. Lenski, and C. Adami (2001). Evolution of Digital Organisms at High Mutation ...
Evolution of Biological Diversity. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-850304-0. Official website Google Scholar "Anne Magurran ... Magurran, Anne E.; Britain), Royal Society (Great (1999). Evolution of Biological Diversity. Current Biology. 20. Oxford ... Magurran completed her PhD at the University of Ulster on the biological diversity of native woodlands in Ireland. She then ... Throughout her career she has used fish communities to study biodiversity, the evolution of biodiversity, and on the role of ...
Boxshall, G.A. (2004). "The evolution of arthropod limbs". Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society. 79 (2): ... 2005). Henderson's Dictionary of Biological Terms (13th ed.). Pearson Education. p. 51. ISBN 978-0-13-127384-9. .. ...
"Mormon Cricket Ecology and Evolution". University of Sydney, School of Biological Sciences. Retrieved March 31, 2013.. ...
Fox, Sidney W.; Duane L Rohlfing, Aleksandr Ivanovich Oparin (1972). Molecular evolution: prebiological and biological. New ... Fox moved to the University of Miami where he was a professor and the director of the Institute for Molecular Evolution for 25 ... Fox, Sidney W., Klaus Dose ; with a foreword by A. Oparin (1977). Molecular evolution and the origin of life (Rev. ed. ed.). ... ISBN 0-471-91801-6. Fox, Sidney W. (1988). The emergence of life: Darwinian evolution from the inside. Basic Books. Fox, Sidney ...
He elucidated socio-biological evolution. He expands the idea of the Pakistani philosopher Sir Muhammad Iqbal that every living ...
G. Auletta, M. Leclerc, R. A. Martinez (eds.), Biological Evolution: Facts and Theories. A Critical Appraisal 150 years After « ... and has been the Vice-Director of the international conference on Biological Evolution: Facts and Theories, held at the ... Highlights of the Pontifical Gregorian University's International Conference on Biological Evolution», Theology and Science 8 ( ... His main interests in quantum information led him to focus his further research on the way in which biological and cognitive ...
Further information: Evolution of flowers and Floral biology. While land plants have existed for about 425 million years, the ... The biological function of a flower is to effect reproduction, usually by providing a mechanism for the union of sperm with ... "Human Affection Altered Evolution of Flowers". Livescience.com. Archived from the original on 2008-05-16. Retrieved 2010-08-30. ... Flower evolution continues to the present day; modern flowers have been so profoundly influenced by humans that many of them ...
Adami, C.; Ofria, C.; Collier, T. C. (2000). "Evolution of biological complexity". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... Digital organisms are used as a tool to study the dynamics of Darwinian evolution, and to test or verify specific hypotheses or ... However, Rasmussen did not observe the evolution of complex and stable programs. It turned out that the programming language in ... Trends in Ecology and Evolution 17, 528-532. Pargellis, A.N. (1996). The spontaneous generation of digital "Life". Physica D 91 ...
This user accepts evolution as a biological fact.. This user understands biological evolution.. ...
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"Evolution of early Homo: An integrated biological perspective". Science. 345 (6192): 45-59. doi:10.1126/science.1236828. PMID ... "Evolution of the human brain" In Handbook of Human Symbolic Evolution, edited by A. Locke and C. Peters, pp. 74-116. Oxford ... "Symbol and structure: A comprehensive framework for language evolution" In Language Evolution, edited by M. H. Christiansen and ... Up from Dragons: The evolution of intelligence McGraw-Hill. *^ Moroccan fossil find rearranges Homo sapiens family tree, June 8 ...
Olson M, Varki A. Sequencing the chimpanzee genome: insights into human evolution and disease.. Nat Rev Genet. 2003, 4 (1): 20- ... under selection for biological function.. " Mouse Genome Sequencing Consortium. Initial sequencing and comparative analysis of ...
Series B, Biological Sciences. May 2001, 356 (1409): 617-23. PMC 1088449. PMID 11375065. doi:10.1098/rstb.2001.0845.. ... MR1 antigen presentation to mucosal-associated invariant T cells was highly conserved in evolution. Proceedings of the National ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. December 2015, 290 (51): 30204-11. PMC 4683245. PMID 26468291. doi:10.1074/jbc.R115.685990 ...
Archer, M. and Clayton, C. (Eds.) (1984). Vertebrate Zoogeography & Evolution in Australasia: Animals in Space & Time. ... He is a Professor at the School of Biological, Earth & Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales. His previous ... Archer, M. (Ed.) (1987). Possums and Opossums: Studies in Evolution. Surrey Beatty & Sons in association with the Royal ... Professor Michael Archer, School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales. Retrieved ...
Those species that seek pest insects are considered beneficial 'biological control agents' and their presence encouraged in ... "Energetics and the evolution of body size in small terrestrial mammals" (PDF). Symposia of the Zoological Society of London ... biological pest control programmes.[45] Combined, insectivorous birds eat 400-500 million metric tons of arthropods annually.[ ... "Déjà vu: the evolution of feeding morphologies in the Carnivora". Integrative and Comparative Biology. 47 (1): 147-163. doi ...
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"Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 265 (1398): 793. doi:10.1098/rspb.1998.0362. PMC 1689037 . PMID ... Molecular Biology and Evolution. 14 (11): 1154-1166. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a025725. ISSN 0737-4038. PMID 9364773.. ...
"Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 361 (1465): 173-194. doi:10.1098/rstb.2005.1737. PMC ... Marine deposits showcase a variety of cetaceans and penguins, illustrating the evolution of both groups into modern ... Zhisheng, An; Kutzbach, John E.; Prell, Warren L.; Porter, Stephen C. (3 May 2001). "Evolution of Asian monsoons and phased ... "Dynamic topography control on Patagonian relief evolution as inferred from low temperature thermochronology". Earth and ...
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Barlow, Connie C. (2000). The ghosts of evolution: nonsensical fruit, missing partners, and other ecological anachronisms. New ... "Agricultural and Biological Chemistry Vol.46, No.2(1982)pp.481-485. http://www.journalarchive.jst.go.jp/english/jnlabstract_en. ...
೨೫.೦ ೨೫.೧ Cavalier-Smith, T. (1998). "A revised six-kingdom system of life". Biological Reviews. 73 (03): 203-66. doi:10.1111/j ... Huxley, T. H. (1876): Lectures on Evolution. New York Tribune. Extra. no 36. In Collected Essays IV: pp 46-138 original text w ... Mayr, E. (1982) The Growth of Biological Thought. Belknap P. of Harvard U.P, Cambridge (Mass.) ...
Raviña, Enrique (2011). "Vinca alkaloids". The evolution of drug discovery: From traditional medicines to modern drugs. John ... "Synthesis and biological evaluation of Vinca alkaloids and phomopsin hybrids". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 52 (1): 134-142 ...
Shettleworth, S. J. (2010). Cognition, Evolution and Behavior (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford.. .mw-parser-output cite.citation{ ... Despite the importance of numerous psychosocial factors, at its core, drug addiction involves a biological process: the ability ...
"Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 276 (1654): 121-127. doi:10.1098/rspb.2008.0858. PMC 2614250. PMID ... 2004). The Evolution of Plant Physiology. Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-08-047272-0. .. ... In the course of evolution, leaves have adapted to different environments in the following ways:[citation needed] ... Stewart, Wilson N; Rothwell, Gar W. (1993) [1983]. Paleobotany and the Evolution of Plants (2nd ed.). Cambridge University ...
May 2002). "Hemorrhagic fever viruses as biological weapons: medical and public health management". Journal of the American ... and rapid evolution death after a mean of three days."[163] ... It has the potential to be weaponised for use in biological ...
"Hybridization patterns and the evolution of reproductive isolation in ducks". Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 77 (2 ... "Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 70: 402-411. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2013.08.008. ISSN 1095-9513. PMID 23994490.. ... "Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution. 5. doi:10.3389/fevo.2017.00025. ISSN 2296-701X.. ... "Evolution and connectivity in the world-wide migration system of the mallard: Inferences from mitochondrial DNA". BMC Genetics ...
The third chimpanzee: the evolution and future of the human animal.. *^ a b Sharman Apt Russell (2006). Hunger an unnatural ... "Cooking as a biological trait" (PDF). Comp Biochem Physiol a Mol Integr Physiol. 136 (1): 35-46. doi:10.1016/S1095-6433(03) ... In Ungar, Peter S.; Teaford, Mark F. Human Diet: Its Origins and Evolution. Westport, Connecticut: Bergin and Garvey. pp. 111- ... "Human Evolution," Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2007 Archived 2009-11-01 at WebCite Contributed by Richard B. Potts, B. ...
"Genome Biology and Evolution. 10 (10): 2669-2571. doi:10.1093/gbe/evy189. PMC 6166771. PMID 30165616.. ... Series B, Biological Sciences. 365 (1541): 729-48. doi:10.1098/rstb.2009.0103. PMC 2817223. PMID 20124341.. ... Takenaka M, Zehrmann A, Verbitskiy D, Härtel B, Brennicke A (2013). "RNA editing in plants and its evolution". Annual Review of ... Krause K (September 2008). "From chloroplasts to "cryptic" plastids: evolution of plastid genomes in parasitic plants". Current ...
This means evolution, population biology, organismal biology and biological diversity. It was first awarded in 1890. It comes ... For his work on the quantitative treatment of biological problems. 1900. Ernst Haeckel. For his long-continued and highly ... Distinguished for his work on molecular evolution, in particular on the role of stochastic events in determining the rate of ... for their fundamental work on the ecology, breeding and evolution of Darwin's finches on the Galapagos islands. This work has ...
"Barnacles: Structure, Function, Development and Evolution. Springer. pp. 197-246. ISBN 978-0-412-44420-3. .. ... The Biological Bulletin. 211 (3): 248-262. doi:10.2307/4134547. JSTOR 4134547. PMID 17179384.. ... to thoroughly understand at least one species before making the generalisations needed for his theory of evolution by natural ... "Remarkable convergent evolution in specialized parasitic Thecostraca (Crustacea)". BMC Biology. 7 (1): 15. doi:10.1186/1741- ...
Klein, Richard G. (1999). The Human Career: Human Biological and Cultural Origins (2nd ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago ... Findings Challenge Conventional Ideas on Evolution of Human Diet, Natural Selection Newswise, Retrieved on June 26, 2008. ...
"Human Evolution". History Channel. Archived from the original on 23 April 2008. Retrieved 17 May 2008.. ... including the possibility of the permanent alteration of our biological nature. These concerns are shared by other philosophers ... The use of tools by early humans was partly a process of discovery and of evolution. Early humans evolved from a species of ... "Evolution of Modern Humans: Archaic Homo sapiens Culture". Palomar College. Retrieved 31 March 2007.. ...
"Human Evolution (Netherlands: Springer) 3 (4): 297-308. ISSN (Print) 1824-310X (Online) 0393-9375 (Print) 1824-310X (Online). ... Russo J, Russo I (1987). "Biological and molecular bases of mammary carcinogenesis". Laboratory Investigation 57 (2): 112-37. ...
Evolution. Further information: Evolution of cephalopods. Fossil history and phylogeny. Cephalopods have existed for 500 ... The Biological Bulletin. 197 (1): 26-39. doi:10.2307/1542994. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 March 2011.. ... Hence, greater transcriptome plasticity has come as the cost of slower genome evolution. High levels of RNA editing do not ... Octopuses offer many possibilities in biological research, including their ability to regenerate limbs, change the colour of ...
Australian Biological Resources Study (16 April 2014). "Species Grus (Mathewsia) rubicunda (Perry, 1810)". Australian Faunal ... Evolution. *Origin of birds. *Origin of flight. *Evolution of birds. *Darwin's finches ...
The evolution of stalk positioning in the Caulobacter cladeEdit. Diverse positioning of the stalks. Caulobacter crescentus ( ... "Biological Properties and Classification of the Caulobacter Group". Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 28 (3): 231-95. doi:10.1128/ ... On the basis of experimental evolution studies in C. crescentus, Ackermann et al.[19] suggested that aging is probably a ... "Experimental evolution of aging in a bacterium". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 7: 126. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-7-126. PMC 2174458 ...
Biomechanics is the study of the structure and function of biological systems by means of the methods of Mechanics. ... Genomics and knowledge of human genetics and human evolution is having increasingly significant influence on medicine, as the ... Biophysics is an interdisciplinary science that uses the methods of physics and physical chemistry to study biological systems. ... Histology is the study of the structures of biological tissues by light microscopy, electron microscopy and ...
The evolution of biological complexity is one important outcome of the process of evolution.[1] Evolution has produced some ... Constructive neutral evolution[edit]. Recently work in evolution theory has proposed that by relaxing selection pressure, which ... With selection, evolution can also produce more complex organisms. Complexity often arises in the co-evolution of hosts and ... Stoltzfus, Arlin (1999). "On the Possibility of Constructive Neutral Evolution". Journal of Molecular Evolution. 49 (2): 169- ...
A Critique of the paper: "Do fish have nociceptors: Evidence for the evolution of a vertebrate sensory system" Archived March ... and Biological Perspectives [1] Published in Reviews in Fisheries Science, Volume 15, Issue 1 & 2 January 2007, pages 75 - 167 ... "Do fish have nociceptors: Evidence for the evolution of a vertebrate sensory system", 2003 by Sneddon, Braithwaite and Gentle. ...
The evolution of biological complexity is one important outcome of the process of evolution.[1] Evolution has produced some ... Constructive neutral evolution[edit]. Recently work in evolution theory has proposed that by relaxing selection pressure, which ... With selection, evolution can also produce more complex organisms. Complexity often arises in the co-evolution of hosts and ... Stoltzfus, Arlin (1999). "On the Possibility of Constructive Neutral Evolution". Journal of Molecular Evolution. 49 (2): 169- ...
That preliminary but tantalizing finding hints at some larger phenomenon driving the mechanisms of neo-Darwinian evolution. ... Evolution as Biological Thermodynamics. When Guy Hoelzer runs computer simulations of organisms living in the modeling ... In a biological system, if the function is to break down gradients and increase the rate of entropy production, natural ... The way I think about it in the biological sense is from thermodynamic point of view, which is the same way chemists think of ...
The evolution of life on earth from simple matter is accepted as a fact by secular science. The Bible-and the evidence-show a ... What We Really Know about Biological Evolution. Among Christians, there is a wide variety of views on biological evolution. ... Evolution Exposed: Earth Science. In this follow-up to the best-selling Evolution Exposed: Biology, students will learn how to ... The topic of biological evolution is a very broad topic that cannot be covered in detail in this chapter. The companion to this ...
Biological evolution is "a process that results in heritable changes in a population spread over many generations." [1] ... Retrieved from "http://www.conservapedia.com/index.php?title=Biological_evolution&oldid=934563" ...
Biological Evolution Cultural Evolution Biological Theory Niche Construction Cultural Transmission These keywords were added by ... Sperber D, Claidière N (2006) Why modeling cultural evolution is still such a challenge. Biological Theory 1: 20-22.CrossRef ... Huxley JS (1955) Evolution, cultural and biological. Yearbook of Anthropology 2-25.Google Scholar ... Campbell DT (1975) On the conflicts between biological and social evolution and between psychology and moral tradition. ...
Volkenstein M.V. (1991) Physical Approaches to Biological Evolution. In: Peliti L. (eds) Biologically Inspired Physics. NATO ... J. Wicken, Evolution, Thermodynamics and Information. Oxford Univ. Press, N. Y., Oxford, 1987.Google Scholar ... M. Kimura, The Neutral Theory of Molecular Evolution. Cambridge Univ. Press, London, N. Y., Melbourne, Sidney, 1983.CrossRef ... C. Anfinsen, The Molecular Basis of Evolution. John Wiley and Sons, N. Y. 1959.Google Scholar ...
Biological Anthropology, Primatology and Evolution 2015. Biological Anthropology, Primatology and Evolution 2015. .addthis_ ... Receive email alerts on new books, offers and news in Biological Anthropology, Primatology and Evolution 2015. ... Evolution of the Rodents Advances in Phylogeny, Functional Morphology and Development. Cox, Philip G. Hautier, Lionel Published ... Ecology, Evolution and Behaviour of Wild Cattle Implications for Conservation. Melletti, Mario Burton, James Published: October ...
Biological Anthropology, Primatology and Evolution 2018. Biological Anthropology, Primatology and Evolution 2018. .addthis_ ... Receive email alerts on new books, offers and news in Biological Anthropology, Primatology and Evolution 2018. ... Evolution, Biogeography, and Conservation of the Flora of the Juan Fernández (Robinson Crusoe) Archipelago. Stuessy, Tod F. ... Comparative Social Evolution Rubenstein, Dustin R. Abbot, Patrick Published: April 2017Published: April 2017 ...
Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior (EEB). The EEB Research Group strives to understand the natural world through the lens of ... Research areas offered by the EEB group are designed to understand major concepts in ecology, evolution, behavior, and ... Biological [email protected](414) 382-1740GLRF Main Building 137 ...
MadSci Network: Evolution Query: Re: What criteria unambiguously define biological evolution?. Date: Thu Jan 27 10:11:34 2000. ... Evolution archives Try the links in the MadSci Library for more information on Evolution. MadSci Home , Information , Search , ... Biological evolution is the change in organisms over time, often in response to natural selection, such that the descendants ... Next, benefit: Evolution does not require natural selection to occur, i.e. a genetic change in an organism does not have to be ...
Errors In Protein Structure Sparked Evolution Of Biological Complexity. by Sam Savage ... may have boosted the evolution of biological complexity. Flaws in the "packing" of proteins that make them more unstable in ... "I hope that it causes us to pause and think about how evolution operates in new ways that we havent thought about before." ... Over four billion years of evolution, plants and animals grew far more complex than their single-celled ancestors. But a new ...
Effect of psychological bias separates cultural from biological evolution Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ... Effect of psychological bias separates cultural from biological evolution. Nicolas Claidière, Simon Kirby and Dan Sperber ... 1) essentially implemented a search algorithm to find pleasing tunes, albeit one with key similarities to biological evolution ... 2012) Evolution of music by public choice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109(30):12081-12086. ...
... Carlos A. Cañas1 and Felipe Cañas2 ... One way to understand autoimmunity is through knowledge of the biological significance of evolution. Since a specialized system ... Teleost fish has TNF-α and TNF-α receptors and the human recombinant TNF-α produces biological effects such as macrophage ... Such receptors were highly conserved during evolution and were first identified in Drosophila melanogaster [7]. The TLRs are ...
... www.talkorigins.org/faqs/evolution-definition.html][[Microevolution]] occurs in terms of biological evolution, but [[ ... Biological evolution is "a process that results in [[heritable]] changes in a [[population]] spread over many [[generations ... View source for Biological evolution. ← Biological evolution. Jump to: navigation, search You do not have permission to edit ...
Charles Darwin viewed evolution as a gradual emergence of new varieties of life from previous forms over long periods. A ... Biological anthropologists explore many of these environmental pressures and investigate the adaptations that populations ... This debate between acclimatization and adaptation is at the crux of what a biological anthropologist might study. They employ ... not an actual adaptation in the population that demonstrates evolution. ...
The Ecology and Evolution research groups interests cover the interactions of species with their environment. We are ... Research Group: Ecology and Evolution. Currently Active: Yes. The Ecology and Evolution research groups interests cover the ... List of related projects to Ecology and Evolution. Related Projects. Status. A genome-wide approach to understand domestication ... List of all staff members in Ecology and Evolution. Staff Member. Primary Position. ...
Engineered Protein "Evolution" Proves Biological Complexity. Acts & Facts. 42 (3): 13-15. ... Evolution and Functional Impact of Rare Coding Variation from Deep Sequencing of Human Exomes. Science. 337 (6090): 64-69. ... The main problem regarding false ideas about protein evolution is one of perception associated with the steady diet of ... However, when we see biological systems that are magnitudes of complexity more highly designed and engineered than the devices ...
... fees and contact details for Biological Sciences (Evolution, Ecology and Behaviour) at University of Liverpool on prospects.ac. ... Biological Sciences (Evolution, Ecology and Behaviour). Institution. University of Liverpool · University of Liverpool. ... Biological Sciences (Evolution, Ecology and Behaviour). Institution. University of Liverpool · University of Liverpool. ... Ultimately, our goal is to understand the principles that underlie biological diversity - be this why individual mice behave ...
Micro snails we scraped from sidewalk cracks help unlock details of ancient earths biological evolution. ... Using the rates of evolution calculated in our tree, we were able to apply these rates using how the shells look today, to ... By sampling organisms that are alive today, we can ask deeper questions about the evolution that happened millions of years ago ... Now, geochemists will compare their notes to our biological insights, and our understanding of ancient earth will continue to ...
Magurran, Anne E. is the author of Evolution of Biological Diversity with ISBN 9780198503040 and ISBN 0198503040. ... Evolution of Biological Diversity. Evolution of Biological Diversity. by Magurran, Anne E., May, Robert M. by Magurran, Anne E. ...
Model explains rapid transition toward division of labor in biological evolution. PLOS ... Biological organisms are highly complex and are comprised of many different parts that function together to ensure the survival ... It is the first model to show the evolution of complete germ-soma differentiation, where one part of the colonys cells (germ) ... In the model, the division of labor occurs through the evolution of the ability to develop in a variety of ways (developmental ...
The evolution of biological complexity is one important outcome of the process of evolution. Evolution has produced some ... The evolution of order, manifested as biological complexity, in living systems and the generation of order in certain non- ... Adami, C.; Ofria, C.; Collier, T. C. (2000). "Evolution of biological complexity". PNAS. 97 (9): 4463-8. arXiv:physics/0005074 ... Stoltzfus, Arlin (1999). "On the Possibility of Constructive Neutral Evolution". Journal of Molecular Evolution. 49 (2): 169- ...
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Conservation Program. Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Conservation Program. The Ecology, ... Jennifer Koop, invasive species ecology and evolution. *Virginia L. Naples, comparative morphology and vertebrate paleontology ... Research laboratories investigate how organisms interact and relate to their environment, how evolution shapes these organisms ... Evolution, Behavior and Conservation (EECB) Program includes faculty who research a wide variety of topics and contribute to ...
Evolution of Plant Body Plans. The conquest of land by plants over 450 million years ago was one of the most significant events ... Evolution and Development 10, 176-186.. 12.Bennett, T.A., et al. (2014) Plasma membrane-targeted PIN proteins drive shoot ... 2. The evolution of branching mechanisms.. Diverse branching forms have arisen independently in both the gametophyte and ... 11.Fujita, T., et al. (2008) Convergent evolution of shoots in land plants: lack of auxin polar transport in moss shoots. ...
... sets out in this volume a general analysis of this selection process that applies equally to biological evolution, the reaction ... actually analysis antibody antigen areas of science argue biological evolution biological species causal cells change in ... Science and Selection: Essays on Biological Evolution and the Philosophy of Science. Cambridge Studies in Philosoph. Cambridge ... Science and Selection: Essays on Biological Evolution and the Philosophy of .... David L. Hull. No preview available - 2000. ...
You are required to identify the program to which you are applying (Cell & Molecular Biology or Ecology & Evolution). ... Students with an undergraduate major in chemistry, physics or mathematics and minimal preparation in biological sciences also ...
Evolutionary Dynamics and Information Hierarchies in Biological Systems. Douglas Braaten (Editor). ISBN: 978-1-573-31906-5 ... Douglas Braaten is the editor of Evolutionary Dynamics and Information Hierarchies in Biological Systems, published by Wiley. ... Evolutionary Dynamics and Information Hierarchies in Biological Systems: Aspen Center for Physics Workshop. Organisms use a ... Although these areas represent a wide breadth of biological phenomena, several unifying themes emerged through workshop ...
Biological Evolution: Facts and Theories was a five-day conference held in March 2009 by the Pontifical Gregorian University in ...
Describe trends in human evolution.. Explain trends in human evolution.. Discuss trends in human evolution. ... NZ Level 8: Biological sciences/Evolution. From Wikibooks, open books for an open world ... Describe processes and patterns of evolution.. Explain processes and patterns of evolution.. Discuss processes and patterns of ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?title=NZ_Level_8:_Biological_sciences/Evolution&oldid=2182755" ...
... and the later biological evolution (from 10 billions years to now)?Why we are separating Universal evolution into two separated ... Where do you think human evolution is headed, how do you think we will look in 1 million plus years from now? ... Why we dont search the evolutionary link between the prior cosmological evolution (Big Bang to 10 billions years) ...
  • Students with an undergraduate major in chemistry, physics or mathematics and minimal preparation in biological sciences also will be considered but may be required to take undergraduate courses when the prerequisites are lacking. (du.edu)
  • Researchers can now use the 32,223-species tree to uncover the "tempo and mode" of plant trait evolution, says Tank, an assistant professor of biological sciences. (uidaho.edu)
  • Therefore, as a Biological Sciences student you benefit from the expertise, networks and research projects at both universities. (uva.nl)
  • Please apply via the webpage, directly to Biological Sciences, providing a CV and a letter outlining why you wish to undertake the programme. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • The thing that has always fascinated me about biology is that it changes, it is chaotic, it adapts, it evolves," explained Sim Castle, first author and a doctoral student in the school of biological sciences at the University of Bristol, in a statement. (scienceboard.net)
  • Learning how to effectively engineer with evolution is one of, if not the biggest, challenges facing bioengineers today," said Claire Grierson, PhD, co-author and head of the school of biological sciences at the University of Bristol. (scienceboard.net)
  • The 3-day International Conference aims to provide an interdisciplinary platform where evolutionary scholars from the exact, technological, life, human and sociocultural sciences can exchange ideas and techniques on how to conceptualize, model, and quantify biological and sociocultural evolution. (cognitionandculture.net)
  • A team of researchers from the School of Biological and Chemical Sciences (SBCS) and the Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (EAWAG) has revealed that diseases can not only affect fish evolution, but also the aquatic environments in which fish live. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • Co-author Dr Franziska Brunner , from QMUL's School of Biological and Chemical Sciences (SBCS), said: "Parasites and disease are of high importance to human and wildlife health. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • Find out more about studying Biology BSc or Ecology and Evolutionary Biology MSc in QMUL's School of Biological and Chemical Sciences . (qmul.ac.uk)
  • of Vertebrate Biology - Biological Sciences (L13)- Curriculum Naturalistic- Environmental, second year. (uniurb.it)
  • We emphasize an integrative, collaborative approach to research not only among the members of the BEES section, but also with members of the other sections in the School of Biological Sciences and with faculty and students at other universities. (illinoisstate.edu)
  • The School of Biological Sciences leads Illinois State with the more Distinguished Professors than any other department on campus. (illinoisstate.edu)
  • Trends in Ecology and Evolution 15: 27-32. (springer.com)
  • Trends in Ecology and Evolution 11: 453-457. (springer.com)
  • The Ecology and Evolution research group's interests cover the interactions of species with their environment. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • What does Ecology and Evolution at the UvA have to offer me? (uva.nl)
  • The Master's track Ecology and Evolution builds on the internationally renowned research of the Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED). (uva.nl)
  • However, feedbacks between ecology and evolution may challenge the ability of current models to make long-term predictions for these examples. (umich.edu)
  • These results show that frequent, nonrandom transformative processes, resulting from psychological biases, are crucial in models of cultural evolution, requiring a difference in emphasis from models inspired by biology, such as genetic algorithms. (pnas.org)
  • 1 ) opens up a wide range of possible developments that invites further studies on the relative strength of transformative processes and Darwinian selection and on their role in shaping cultural evolution. (pnas.org)
  • Since the beginning of life, the most important element of evolution has been the increasing ability of living things to accumulate information about these processes at different levels of memory. (hindawi.com)
  • The development of natural languages follows clearly discernible processes which, contrary to the claim by Robert T. Pennock in his book Tower of Babel, in no way resemble the concept of biological evolution. (creation.com)
  • Thus, the changes observed in language development are quite different to the processes proposed for biological evolution, so any analogy is completely unfounded. (creation.com)
  • They have sought not just to imitate the forms of plants and animals, but to find methods in design analogous to the processes of growth and evolution in nature. (google.ca)
  • Has the evolution of the human thought processes become more of a primary importance to our survival than biological selection? (thenakedscientists.com)
  • evolution of the human thought processes vs biological selection? (thenakedscientists.com)
  • The field of systems biology has emerged from a confluence of technological advances (DNA sequencing, gene expression profiling, proteomics, metabolomics etc.) and a "systems-level" understanding of biological processes, supported by network theory. (umn.edu)
  • The Evolution and Biological Diversity laboratory aims at understanding the ecological and evolutionary processes that generate and maintain the biological diversity of individuals, populations and communities. (ups-tlse.fr)
  • We rehearse the processes of innovation and discovery in general terms, using as our main metaphor the biological concept of an evolutionary fitness landscape. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Moreover, even rather coarse simulations of the biological evolutionary processes result in adaptable control systems that are considerably more efficient than those designed by human researchers. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • These processes are the drivers of biological evolution and they employ enzymatic activities of so-called evolution genes acting as variation generators and as modulators of the frequency of genetic variation, together with a number of non-genetic elements. (geoset.info)
  • In most cases, the structure of the network is assumed to be fixed, but recently time-varying networks have been proposed, which enable richer dynamics and may better reflect underlying biological changes in processes such as development or adaptation. (sicsa.ac.uk)
  • Three examples of genetics and evolution simulation concerning Mendelian inheritance, genetic mapping, and natural selection are used to illustrate the use of simulations in modeling scientific/natural processes. (ed.gov)
  • The evolution of biological complexity is one important outcome of the process of evolution . (wikipedia.org)
  • [1] Evolution has produced some remarkably complex organisms - although the actual level of complexity is very hard to define or measure accurately in biology, with properties such as gene content, the number of cell types or morphology all proposed as possible metrics. (wikipedia.org)
  • [5] This idea of "progression" and "higher organisms" in evolution is now regarded as misleading, with natural selection having no intrinsic direction and organisms selected for either increased or decreased complexity in response to local environmental conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Complexity often arises in the co-evolution of hosts and pathogens, [9] with each side developing ever more sophisticated adaptations, such as the immune system and the many techniques pathogens have developed to evade it. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this hypothesis, any appearance of evolution acting with an intrinsic direction towards increasingly complex organisms is a result of people concentrating on the small number of large, complex organisms that inhabit the right-hand tail of the complexity distribution and ignoring simpler and much more common organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • That said, I feel compelled to address the issues of complexity and benefit, to show their disconnection with evolution. (madsci.org)
  • First, complexity: To say that increasing complexity is a hallmark of evolution suggests that for any evolutionary process, the descendent organisms are more complex that their ancestors. (madsci.org)
  • In fact, bacterial evolution drives more toward streamlining and high efficiency than complexity, and bacteria are by far the best adapted to living in every possible corner of this planet. (madsci.org)
  • The study, published in Nature, suggests that the random introduction of errors into proteins, rather than traditional natural selection, may have boosted the evolution of biological complexity. (redorbit.com)
  • How and why complexity increases in the course of evolution is a question of great scientific and philosophical significance. (eurekalert.org)
  • Biologists have identified a number of major transitions in the evolution of complexity including the origin of chromosomes, eukaryotes, sexual reproduction, multicellular organisms, and social groups in insects. (eurekalert.org)
  • These findings help to answer many questions for evolutionary biologists working toward understanding the major transitions in the evolution of complexity. (eurekalert.org)
  • If evolution possessed an active trend toward complexity (orthogenesis), as was widely believed in the 19th century, then we would expect to see an active trend of increase over time in the most common value (the mode) of complexity among organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • First, natural selection does not require the evolution of ever increasing complexity, yet this is the hallmark of biology. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Hence, the complexity of modern organisms is a consequence of four billion years of energy flow and the resulting information accumulation, making biological information stored energy. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • A review of Eric D. Beinhocker's The Origin of Wealth: Evolution, Complexity, and the Radical Remaking of Economics , Harvard Business School Press, 2006. (metanexus.net)
  • In this talk, I will present specific biological examples in which a focus on the different layers of temporal complexity improves our understanding of the system under scrutiny. (umich.edu)
  • Unfortunately, biology is fraught with seeming exceptions and ambiguities, because the most accurate description of any biological process is that it follows the rules of chemistry and physics. (madsci.org)
  • The Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Conservation (EECB) Program includes faculty who research a wide variety of topics and contribute to diverse areas of the biology curriculum. (niu.edu)
  • Using a modern approach to evolutionary biology called cladistics, which utilizes genetic information in combination with a variety of other data to evaluate biological relationships that emerge over the ages, Parker and colleagues found that the appendix has evolved at least twice, once among Australian marsupials and another time among rats, lemmings and other rodents, selected primates and humans. (phys.org)
  • Thus, has now entered the realm of 'self propelled' evolution, dependant on our transcendental ability to improve on naturalistic biology with cyborgs and cures for ageing, GM and all that jazz. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • Biology makes culture possible and culture influences the direction of evolution. (biology-online.org)
  • Two fields of rapid growth in biological science today are molecular biology and genetic engineering . (jrank.org)
  • Evolution makes engineering living systems complex because traditional engineering concepts do not apply to biology, the authors said. (scienceboard.net)
  • They urge that evolution should be a central component of an engineering theory of biology. (scienceboard.net)
  • Cognitive Evolution suggests that the high order mental behaviors of Homo sapiens are rooted in the same biology as the moth's attraction to light, worker bees' foreknowledge of their assignments, ants' knowledge of the mechanics to execute the architectural design of an ant hill, or a female cat's instinct to open the umbilical sack after giving birth. (eurobuch.com)
  • One of the most challenging aspects of theoretical systems biology lies in the accurate reconstruction of biological networks. (umn.edu)
  • There is a lot of literature out there now that takes apart the biology/culture distinction -- and I think any discussion of evolution has to question this. (ning.com)
  • Chen, Bor-Sen is the author of 'Systems Evolutionary Biology : Biological Network Evolution Theory, Stochastic Evolutionary Game Strategies, and Applications to Systems Synthetic Biology', published 2018 under ISBN 9780128140727 and ISBN 0128140720. (valorebooks.com)
  • Whether one believes in the theory of dynamic biological change and evolution or a more static creationist model of biology, one cannot deny we are biological beings with certain characteristics that largely distinguish us from other animals. (flowofhistory.com)
  • From microbial populations to ecological networks or aggregation patterns and critical transitions, I will show how a multidisciplinary approach combining physics and mathematics with biology helps identify the relevant underlying biological mechanisms. (umich.edu)
  • Many biologists used to believe that evolution was progressive (orthogenesis) and had a direction that led towards so-called "higher organisms," despite a lack of evidence for this viewpoint. (wikipedia.org)
  • With selection, evolution can also produce more complex organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biological evolution is the change in organisms over time, often in response to natural selection, such that the descendants are genotypically different from their ancestors. (madsci.org)
  • This could have been the beginning of evolution of multicellular organisms (metazoans) which later migrated from the sea [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • By sampling organisms that are alive today, we can ask deeper questions about the evolution that happened millions of years ago in now-extinct ancestors. (pri.org)
  • Through similarity of DNA sequences between living organisms, one can infer relationships using complex computational approaches that model evolution change over time from empirically derived data. (pri.org)
  • Biological organisms are highly complex and are comprised of many different parts that function together to ensure the survival and reproduction of the whole. (eurekalert.org)
  • Understanding how the division of labor evolved in multicellular organisms is difficult because single cells are expected to act selfishly to protect their own existence instead of working cooperatively to achieve a more productive higher level of organization, explains author Sergey Gavrilets, Associate Director for Scientific Activities at the National Institute for Mathematical and Biological Synthesis and a professor at the University of Tennessee-Knoxville. (eurekalert.org)
  • Research laboratories investigate how organisms interact and relate to their environment, how evolution shapes these organisms through time, and how human activities affect biodiversity. (niu.edu)
  • In LS4: Biological Evolution: Unity and Diversity, performance expectations are designed for students to demonstrate an understanding of how organisms change over time in response to changes in the environment. (hawaii.edu)
  • books.google.ca - This book tells the history of the many analogies that have been made between the evolution of organisms and the human production of artefacts, especially buildings. (google.ca)
  • You've probably been taught that evolution is a very slow process, yet we know of many examples in which organisms adapt very quickly. (vt.edu)
  • As an example, chemical pathways adapted to a rapidly fluctuating radiation environment might result in organisms whose signatures of biological activity may be very different from those of terrestrial organisms. (mcdonaldobservatory.org)
  • As biological organisms we are composed of highly complex mechanisms, including our gene expression circuits, our cell signaling networks, and our brains. (hiit.fi)
  • Darwin proposed that evolution could be explained by the differential survival of organisms following their naturally occurring variation--a process he termed "natural selection. (nap.edu)
  • Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using data to provide evidence for how specific biotic and abiotic differences in ecosystems (such as ranges of seasonal temperature, long-term climate change, acidity, light, geographic barriers, or evolution of other organisms) contribute to a change in gene frequency over time, leading to adaptation of populations. (nextgenscience.org)
  • Evolution has shown that mutation and selection over billions of years can produce complex molecules and organisms that thrive in a diverse range of environments. (harvard.edu)
  • It is substantiated that the realization of the purpose to exist is the result of evolution (that is, the secondary factor), is the main characteristic of all living organisms (can be considered as the primary factor in the context of the living), that is, distinguishes the living from the nonliving. (vixra.org)
  • That preliminary but tantalizing finding hints at some larger phenomenon driving the mechanisms of neo-Darwinian evolution. (wired.com)
  • 2. The evolution of branching mechanisms. (bristol.ac.uk)
  • It also suggests some intriguing new factors that could be of great significance in the evolution of biological molecules and the mechanisms that regulate their behaviour. (nih.gov)
  • This is a contribution to the history of scientific advance in the past 70 years concerning the identification of genetic information, its molecular structure, the identification of its functions and the molecular mechanisms of its evolution. (mdpi.com)
  • We hypothesized that the biological characteristics of H5N1 viruses circulating in ducks are evolving rapidly by mechanisms that have not previously been detected. (pnas.org)
  • Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include other mechanisms of evolution, such as genetic drift, gene flow through migration, and co-evolution. (nextgenscience.org)
  • Fortunately, our understanding of the genetic mechanisms responsible for network change during evolution can provide a means to integrate the observed data from multiple species. (umn.edu)
  • Chen J-M, Cooper DN, Chuzhanova N et al (2007) Gene conversion: mechanisms, evolution and human disease. (springer.com)
  • Polanyi emphasized the important role of information in biological phenomena but considered this notion as something alien to physics 3 . (springer.com)
  • Although these areas represent a wide breadth of biological phenomena, several unifying themes emerged through workshop discussions. (wiley.com)
  • We suggest that this commonality is constraining and provides a useful new approach towards understanding biological and psychological phenomena. (hiit.fi)
  • Complex biological systems embody some of the most fascinating phenomena observed in nature. (umich.edu)
  • Research areas offered by the EEB group are designed to understand major concepts in ecology, evolution, behavior, and phylogenetic relatedness of the species that populate the earth. (uwm.edu)
  • Evolution is far trickier to pin down, again because the interactions between genes, individuals, populations, and species can't really be summarized in one sentence. (madsci.org)
  • Through evolution the species have stored "an immunological experience," which provides information that is important for developing effective responses in the future. (hindawi.com)
  • Life began on earth more than 3.5 billion years ago and evolution has allowed the development of myriads of species from very simple to highly complex ones. (hindawi.com)
  • The "first memory" is DNA, the inherited database each species has, and which is the result of nonrandom evolution. (hindawi.com)
  • Biological Evolution: Facts and Theories was a five-day conference held in March 2009 by the Pontifical Gregorian University in Rome, marking the 150th anniversary of the publication of the Origin of Species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ismail AM, Zhou X, Dyer DW, Seto D, Rajaiya J, Chodosh J. Genomic foundations of evolution and ocular pathogenesis in human adenovirus species D. FEBS Lett. (harvard.edu)
  • R. toxicus is the most genetically distant, and evidence suggested that this species experienced a dramatic event in its evolution. (asm.org)
  • If Darwin had been aware of the species that have an appendix attached to a large cecum, and if he had known about the widespread nature of the appendix, he probably would not have thought of the appendix as a vestige of evolution. (phys.org)
  • Contrary to popular opinion, neither the term nor the idea of biological evolution began with Charles Darwin and his foremost work, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859). (nap.edu)
  • In 1859, Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species, in which he outlined the theory of evolution by means of natural selection . (jrank.org)
  • In the future, the authors hope to construct an evolutionary tree of multiple primate species, utilizing induced pluripotent stem cell lines, to better understand of the evolution of the human brain. (salk.edu)
  • Biological invasions involve the movement of species outside their native area, to different environments in which these species have evolved, and to which had already been adapted. (uvigo.es)
  • This video shows the results of a study conducted by researchers at the University of Vigo (Spain) and Coimbra (Portugal) to study the evolution of the breeding system of the invasive species Oxalis pes-caprae outside its native distribution range. (uvigo.es)
  • Punctuated equilibrium is a biological theory that regards evolution not as a gradual process by which one species slowly and continuously transforms into another, rather a process in which species were remaining stable for long periods and then have dramatic change in isolated short bursts. (gmatclub.com)
  • Evolution and Human Behavior 28: 151-158. (springer.com)
  • Evolution and Human Behavior 27: 169-184. (springer.com)
  • social behavior and disease, evolution of pathogen virulence in a novel host, causes and consequences of phenotypic immune variation. (vt.edu)
  • A meme propagates itself as a unit of cultural evolution and diffusion - analogous in many ways to the behavior of the gene (the unit of genetic information). (biology-online.org)
  • Müller says that "current evolutionary theory…largely avoids the question of how the complex organizations of organismal structure, physiology, development or behavior…actually arise in evolution. (evolutionnews.org)
  • For example, animal behaviorists would need to understand the biological nature of the animal they are studying in order to evaluate the animal's behavior . (jrank.org)
  • i can mail it to you, no charge hehehe) The base idea is that human behavior, even though pre-determined like the the behavior of complex systems, cannot be predicted due to the amount of variables that have to be taken into account in its construction, whether these be biological, cultural or environmental variables! (ning.com)
  • Furthermore, there is a great deal of nonhuman animal behavior that suggests that various types of communication -- linguistic or pre-linguistic and otherwise -- and empathic relationships (and is emotion cultural or biological? (ning.com)
  • It is substantiated that such behavior is an adaptation that appeared in the process of evolution and can be regulated by means of more complex behavior, which is also an adaptation. (vixra.org)
  • One can see cultural evolution as how people adapt their behavior to the environment. (flowofhistory.com)
  • 2005) The Evolution of Cultural Diversity: A Phylogenetic Approach. (springer.com)
  • Magurran, Anne E. is the author of 'Evolution of Biological Diversity' with ISBN 9780198503040 and ISBN 0198503040. (valorebooks.com)
  • Performance expectations in high school LS4: Biological Evolution: Unity and Diversity call for students to explore evidence of evolution and common ancestry. (hawaii.edu)
  • Mutations are usually deleterious, but they provide the diversity necessary to drive evolution. (mcdonaldobservatory.org)
  • Radiation bursts may spur evolution by intermittently enlarging the genomic diversity upon which natural selection is believed to operate," Scalo said. (mcdonaldobservatory.org)
  • A phylogenomic approach was employed to model the evolution of R. toxicus to explain the low genetic diversity observed among isolates collected during a 30-year period of sampling in three regions of Australia, gain insight into the taxonomy of Rathayibacter , and provide a framework for studying these bacteria. (asm.org)
  • Bailey JA, Eichler EE (2006) Primate segmental duplications: crucibles of evolution, diversity and disease. (springer.com)
  • Receive email alerts on new books, offers and news in Biological Anthropology, Primatology and Evolution 2015. (cambridge.org)
  • Collard M, Shennan S, Tehrani JJ (2006) Branching, blending, and the evolution of cultural similarities and differences among human populations. (springer.com)
  • Biological anthropologists explore many of these environmental pressures and investigate the adaptations that populations undergo in response to them. (howstuffworks.com)
  • We study the evolution of sexual and asexual populations in general fitness landscapes. (arxiv.org)
  • We give the general structure of the evolution of populations which is in general an off-equilibrium process that can be expressed by path integrals over phylogenies. (arxiv.org)
  • Finally, we show that the Bose-Einstein and the Fermi-Dirac distributions describe the stationary state of biological populations in simple cases. (arxiv.org)
  • In particular, I shall consider the evolution of appropriate innate starting points for learning/adaptation, patterns of learning rates that vary across different system components, learning rates that vary during the system's lifetime, and the relevance of individual differences across the evolved populations. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Research within the BEES is conducted across different levels of biological organization, from genes to individuals, populations to communities. (illinoisstate.edu)
  • [1] Microevolution occurs in terms of biological evolution, but macroevolution does not. (conservapedia.com)
  • As a contribution to the history of scientific investigations, we trace here a sequence of steps of conceptual and experimental approaches to understand microbial evolution at the molecular level. (mdpi.com)
  • In this perspective paper we will discuss (a) the conditions that can enhance the "foraging efficacy gain," (b) the possible approaches to implementation of POC and their costs and benefits, and (c) a stepwise approach to develop appropriate POC methods for the optimization of biological pest control. (frontiersin.org)
  • The aims of this perspective paper are to discuss (a) the conditions under which the impact of POC on biological pest control will be highest, (b) the costs and benefits of possible approaches to POC implementation, and (c) a stepwise approach for the development of POC methods for the optimization of biological pest control. (frontiersin.org)
  • The different approaches include statistical and mathematical ecology, molecular evolution, evolution of long-lasting interactions, behavioral ecology or evolution complex quantitative traits. (ups-tlse.fr)
  • An important new book by the author of the bestselling text Defending Evolution:A Guide to the Creation/Evolution Controversy, this title examines the controversial issues surrounding this central concept of life science and explores students' common scientific misconceptions, describes approaches for teaching topics and principles of evolution, and offers strategies for handling the various problems some students have with the idea of evolution due to religious influences. (abebooks.com)
  • Computers in Biological Education: Simulation Approaches. (ed.gov)
  • Biological systems' dynamics represent a prime example of complex behaviour, providing a powerful motivation and application domain for computational modelling. (sicsa.ac.uk)
  • The complex behaviour observed in biological dynamics is often the result of a non-trivial network of interactions between individual components of the biological system: this is true at a variety of scales and level of abstractions, from physiology, to neuroscience, to molecular interactions within a single cell. (sicsa.ac.uk)
  • Charles Darwin viewed evolution as a gradual emergence of new varieties of life from previous forms over long periods. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Modern popular presenters of biological evolution do not often make a comparison between it and the development of natural languages, although such prominent figures as Charles Lyell and Charles Darwin did so. (creation.com)
  • Evolution is a scientific theory that was proposed by Charles Darwin . (thoughtco.com)
  • This holds for genetics, biochemistry, and evolution. (madsci.org)
  • The Evolution & Genetics group has interests that encompass the ecological and evolutionary consequences of speciation and hybridisation to the evolution of social systems. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • This is a novel strategy to study human evolution," says Carol Marchetto, a Salk senior staff scientist in the Laboratory of Genetics, co-first author and one of the study's senior authors. (salk.edu)
  • It is concluded that, although some problems exist in using such computer simulations in genetics and evolution instruction, students' grasp of many difficult topics can be greatly enhanced through interaction with computer models. (ed.gov)
  • 1 ) essentially implemented a search algorithm to find pleasing tunes, albeit one with key similarities to biological evolution. (pnas.org)
  • Why we don't search the evolutionary link between the prior cosmological evolution (Big Bang to 10 billions years) and the later biological evolution (from 10 billions years to now)?Why we are separating Universal evolution into two separated blocks? (yahoo.com)
  • Biological evolution is "a process that results in heritable changes in a population spread over many generations . (conservapedia.com)
  • Some of these changes can be attributed to individuals' bodies making physiological adjustments to their environment ( acclimatization ), not an actual adaptation in the population that demonstrates evolution. (howstuffworks.com)
  • This rapid adaptation might be disastrous in the case of antibiotic resistance across a bacterial population or evolution of the HIV population within a person to evade treatment. (vt.edu)
  • which unlike natural evolution leads to ethical problems and putting us out of balance with nature by harming our environment through over population etc. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • Biological evolution is defined as any genetic change in a population that is inherited over several generations. (thoughtco.com)
  • For an event to be considered an instance of evolution, changes have to occur on the genetic level of a population and be passed on from one generation to the next. (thoughtco.com)
  • C. Anfinsen, The Molecular Basis of Evolution. (springer.com)
  • M. Kimura, The Neutral Theory of Molecular Evolution. (springer.com)
  • B.-O. Küppers, Molecular Theory of Evolution. (springer.com)
  • Some evolutionary biologists claimed that this study showed how amino acids could change (mutate) and not destroy a protein's function during that process of change, illustrating how molecular evolution could be possible. (icr.org)
  • HS-LS4-1 Communicate scientific information that common ancestry and biological evolution are supported by multiple lines of empirical evidence. (hawaii.edu)
  • Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on a conceptual understanding of the role each line of evidence has relating to common ancestry and biological evolution. (nextgenscience.org)
  • In a bold, reasoned, and meticulously researched knowledge leap, Cognitive Evolution erases the demarcation between life and intelligent life, deciphers the concepts of intelligence and cognition, and moves our kind to the precipices of digitizing the anatomical gnome of reason. (eurobuch.com)
  • Workshop discussions therefore pointed to key areas where theory and observations should aim to converge as we refine our understanding of evolution. (wiley.com)
  • The modern theory of evolution represents a highly significant contribution from the classical period of Enlightenment. (alpbach.org)
  • It examines the effects of these analogies on architectural and design theory and considers how recent biological thinking has relevance. (google.ca)
  • Darwin & Wallace [ 1 , 2 ] elaborated on this theory to explain many important biological questions. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • MRes Evolution: from Galapagos to the 21st Century is a flexible programme that allows students to study and interrogate evolutionary theory in as wide a field as is possible at the frontier of current knowledge. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • Discussion of everything related to the Theory of Evolution. (biology-online.org)
  • As we've noted before, it was a devastating one for anyone who wants to think that, on the great questions of biological origins, orthodox evolutionary theory has got it all figured out. (evolutionnews.org)
  • A rising number of publications argue for a major revision or even a replacement of the standard theory of evolution [2-14], indicating that this cannot be dismissed as a minority view but rather is a widespread feeling among scientists and philosophers alike. (evolutionnews.org)
  • Is Evolution a Theory? (thoughtco.com)
  • The theory of evolution has caused controversy from the time of its introduction until today. (thoughtco.com)
  • There are no weaknesses in the theory of evolution. (intelligentdesign.org)
  • This chapter will review some of this literature, and show that there are numerous legitimate scientific challenges to core tenets of Darwinian theory, as well as predominant theories of chemical evolution. (intelligentdesign.org)
  • The article discusses the theory of biological evolution. (vixra.org)
  • The terms of the theory of evolution 'struggle for existence', 'selection' and others are considered from the point of view of the interpretation of facts. (vixra.org)
  • In order for the theory of evolution to be complete and as objective as possible, it must be based on primary factors, and interpretations should be kept to a minimum. (vixra.org)
  • The article discusses Darwin's theory and the modern theory of evolution in the context of these problems. (vixra.org)
  • Campbell DT (1975) On the conflicts between biological and social evolution and between psychology and moral tradition. (springer.com)
  • Aristotle's Ladder, Darwin's Tree : The Evolution of Visual Metaphors for Biological Order. (diva-portal.org)
  • This talk will show how Darwinian evolution can be formulated in that framework also as computational learning. (hiit.fi)
  • He also has interests in computational neuroscience, evolution and artificial intelligence. (hiit.fi)
  • The unifying contribution of this dissertation is a demonstration at multiple scales of how to systematically integrate DNA synthesis, sequencing, high-throughput assays, and computational methods to interrogate biological systems and learn design principles that expand our engineering capabilities. (harvard.edu)
  • Evolution of Proteomic Methods for Analysis of Complex Biological Samples - Implications for Personalized Medicine, Integrative Proteomics Hon-Chiu Leung, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/29613. (intechopen.com)
  • Re: What criteria unambiguously define biological evolution? (madsci.org)
  • I suggest you first reflect on and define biological evolution, then reflect on and define etc., ... and then the interrelationship will simply pop out into view. (biology-online.org)
  • Stephen J. Gould, in Evolution Now: A Century After Darwin , ed. (answersingenesis.org)
  • The term Darwin most often used to refer to biological evolution was "descent with modification," which remains a good brief definition of the process today. (nap.edu)
  • 1 Such was professed by Eugenie Scott, the de facto head of the Darwin lobby, while speaking to the media in response to the Texas State Board of Education's 2009 vote to require students to learn about both the scientific evidence for and against neo-Darwinian evolution. (intelligentdesign.org)
  • However, the authors of a perspective piece published in Nature Communications on June 7 believe that a new perspective is needed for engineering of biological systems -- one that takes into consideration how a biosystem will continue to evolve over time. (scienceboard.net)
  • In this thesis, I approach the engineering of biological systems from the perspective of design. (harvard.edu)
  • ICBCE 2020 has teamed up with the Special Journal Issue on Biological Clocks and Evolution . (waset.org)
  • The MRes Evolution: From the Galapagos to the 21st Century brings together academics from 9 different Schools and Departments across the University of Southampton. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • This is the course page for MRes Evolution: from the Galapagos to the 21st Century at the University of Southampton. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • We also suggest career opportunities open to you as a University of Southampton graduate of MRes Evolution: from the Galapagos to the 21st Century. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • Biological, cultural and technological evolution? (biology-online.org)
  • Would someone be able to explain to me the interrelationships between biological, cultural and technological evolution? (biology-online.org)
  • Technological evolution enables people to adapt or change their environment to meet their needs. (flowofhistory.com)
  • Over four billion years of evolution, plants and animals grew far more complex than their single-celled ancestors. (redorbit.com)
  • Everybody wants to say that evolution is equivalent to natural selection and that things that are sophisticated and complex have been absolutely selected for," said study co-author Ariel Fernández, PhD, a visiting scholar at the University of Chicago and senior researcher at the Mathematics Institute of Argentina (IAM) in Buenos Aires. (redorbit.com)
  • Parallel evolution in jaws and teeth helped early mammals diversify their diets. (the-scientist.com)
  • The evolution of life on earth from simple matter is accepted as a fact by secular science. (answersingenesis.org)
  • David Hull, one of the dominant figures in contemporary philosophy of science, sets out in this volume a general analysis of this selection process that applies equally to biological evolution, the reaction of the immune. (google.com)
  • So much work was being done in biological science during this period that academies of science and scientific journals were formed, the first of which being the Academy of the Lynx in Rome in 1603. (jrank.org)
  • In the nineteenth century, many explorers contributed to biological science by collecting plant and animal specimens from around the world. (jrank.org)
  • Therefore, beyond its core activities on fundamental research, the laboratory is committed to the transfer of knowledge through college education, communication events oriented towards the general public, as well as interactions with the administrators and guardians of biodiversity and biological resources, of sustainable development or of public health. (ups-tlse.fr)
  • While this was a classic case of human-guided bioengineering in a high-tech laboratory environment, it was hardly an example of naturalistic evolution in a real cell or organism. (icr.org)
  • Their experimental design, however, emphasizes the role of selection at the expense of other fundamental features of human cultural evolution that need to be taken into account to study the evolution of real musical culture. (pnas.org)
  • Where do you think human evolution is headed, how do you think we will look in 1 million plus years from now? (yahoo.com)
  • All organic change, including human evolution, was understood to be driven by the relationship between inheritance, variation and differential reproduction. (alpbach.org)
  • Today, human activity interferes with multiple biological parameters at an ever increasing rate and scale, introducing new technological practices, such as genetic engineering, biomedical enhancement and industrialised agriculture. (alpbach.org)
  • The seminar explores to what extent human societies have eliminated the constraints of natural evolution and become creators of a phenomenon which may be termed synthetic evolution. (alpbach.org)
  • Is evolution of human thought now more important than biological evolution? (thenakedscientists.com)
  • There is an interesting scene in my favourite film 'waking life' (about lucid dreaming), where they talk about human evolution. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • It is also important to keep in mind that new discoveries are made each year that refine what we know about human evolution. (wikieducator.org)
  • While this can make studying human evolution frustrating at times, the new discoveries help us gain a better understanding of just how our early ancestors evolved. (wikieducator.org)
  • It is highly recommended that you begin your exploration of human evolution by watching the documentary, Becoming Human . (wikieducator.org)
  • The evolution of territorial conflict: Monica Duffy-Toft and Dominic Johnson's study argues that there's a biological basis for human wars over land. (slate.com)
  • For quite some time there is a tremendous nuisance in my mind: Could there be a similar transitional condition in the concept of human cultural evolution? (ning.com)
  • These aspects will probably become important clues at the chromosomal level in post-genomic research to elucidate human evolution. (springer.com)
  • There are three types of evolution that have driven the development of human societies. (flowofhistory.com)
  • Evolutionary Dynamics and Information Hierarchies in Biological Systems: Aspen Center for Physics Workshop. (wiley.com)
  • Douglas Braaten is the editor of Evolutionary Dynamics and Information Hierarchies in Biological Systems, published by Wiley. (wiley.com)
  • Modelling of biological networks is often divided into two sub-problems: given the structure of the interaction network (i.e., which components interact with each other), one may be interested in reconstructing the dynamics of the individual nodes from partial observations of (some of) the nodes' states, using techniques from system identification to estimate states and parameters of the system. (sicsa.ac.uk)
  • The massive crosscurrents between languages (borrowings of various kinds 8 ) are an enormous factor in their histories, and have no analogy in classical biological evolution. (creation.com)
  • We are applying the latest sequencing technologies to tackle ash dieback ( Buggs ), resolve ecological networks ( Clare ), understand the evolution of invertebrate nervous systems ( Elphick and Stollewerk ) and unlock the genetic basis of ageing in long-lived naked mole rats ( Faulkes ). (qmul.ac.uk)
  • Horizontal and Vertical Transmission and Micro- and Macroevolutionary Patterns of Biological and Sociocultural Evolution.May 27-29th, 2013,Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, Lisbon, Portugal. (cognitionandculture.net)
  • With the evolution of dimorphism of gamete morphology comes significant differences in the process of gametogenesis in the two sexes. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In recent papers, Dr. Nowak has argued that cooperation is one of the three basic principles of evolution. (cooperationcommons.com)
  • Mayr E (1982) The Growth of Biological Thought. (springer.com)
  • Our group aims to identify the developmental and genetic basis of two such innovations- three dimensional shoot growth and branching- in a range of model systems representing different stages of plant evolution. (bristol.ac.uk)
  • Cavalli-Sforza LL, Feldman MW (1981) Cultural Transmission and Evolution. (springer.com)
  • Gerard RW, Kluckhohn C, Rapoport A (1956) Biological and cultural evolution: Some analogies and explorations. (springer.com)
  • Henrich J, McElreath R (2003) The evolution of cultural evolution. (springer.com)
  • Huxley JS (1955) Evolution, cultural and biological. (springer.com)
  • Linguistic and cultural developments were interpreted as epiphenomena of biological evolution. (alpbach.org)
  • Cultural production and reproduction replaced biological evolution. (ning.com)
  • There are a few assumptions in the idea that 1) there has been little biological development since the development of language/culture and 2) Cultural re/production replaced biological evolution. (ning.com)
  • This unique combination of biological characteristics is the basis for two other types of evolution: cultural and technological. (flowofhistory.com)
  • This shall allow us to extrapolate to generally valid laws of nature guiding biological evolution by self-organization. (mdpi.com)
  • Despite the vast body of theoretical and empirical literature dealing with parasitoid learning, this knowledge has thus far rarely been exploited for manipulating the efficacy of augmentative biological pest control. (frontiersin.org)
  • McElreath R, Boyd R (2007) Mathematical Models of Social Evolution. (springer.com)
  • In a biological system, if the function is to break down gradients and increase the rate of entropy production, natural selection is an effective evolutionary way to get there. (wired.com)
  • Evolution is a process of change over time and is accomplished by natural selection. (answersingenesis.org)
  • Next, benefit: Evolution does not require natural selection to occur, i.e. a genetic change in an organism does not have to be beneficial for it to be considered evolution. (madsci.org)
  • On the contrary, natural selection has been the major motivational force behind the evolution of life on Earth. (madsci.org)
  • Students should use scientific evidence to support their understanding of natural selection and evolution. (hawaii.edu)
  • Due to the continuous acceleration of evolution, we must have left natural biological evolution behind because of time needed. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • How does epigenetics affect the mechanistic basis of evolution by natural selection? (southampton.ac.uk)
  • Natural selection is the process by which biological evolutionary changes take place. (thoughtco.com)
  • The concepts 'primary factors of evolution' (natural factors) and 'secondary factors of evolution' (the result of evolution itself) are defined. (vixra.org)
  • On the basis of acquired knowledge on the slow, but steady progress of biological evolution, we can conclude that natural reality takes active care of biological evolution. (geoset.info)