The continuous developmental process of a culture from simple to complex forms and from homogeneous to heterogeneous qualities.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The techniques used to produce molecules exhibiting properties that conform to the demands of the experimenter. These techniques combine methods of generating structural changes with methods of selection. They are also used to examine proposed mechanisms of evolution under in vitro selection conditions.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.
Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
A genus of gram-negative, mostly facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family MYCOPLASMATACEAE. The cells are bounded by a PLASMA MEMBRANE and lack a true CELL WALL. Its organisms are pathogens found on the MUCOUS MEMBRANES of humans, ANIMALS, and BIRDS.
NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.
A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.
Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.
Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are classified in the Subkingdom Tracheobionta (also known as Tracheophyta).
The science devoted to the comparative study of man.
The comparative science dealing with the physical characteristics of humans as related to their origin, evolution, and development in the total environment.
A vertical distance measured from a known level on the surface of a planet or other celestial body.
It is the study of social phenomena which characterize the learned, shared, and transmitted social activities of particular ethnic groups with focus on the causes, consequences, and complexities of human social and cultural variability.
Field of social science that is concerned with differences between human groups as related to health status and beliefs.
Scientific study of human skeletal remains with the express purpose of identification. This includes establishing individual identity, trauma analysis, facial reconstruction, photographic superimposition, determination of time interval since death, and crime-scene recovery. Forensic anthropologists do not certify cause of death but provide data to assist in determination of probable cause. This is a branch of the field of physical anthropology and qualified individuals are certified by the American Board of Forensic Anthropology. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1992 Jun;13(2):146)
A syndrome characterized by HYPERPIGMENTATION, enlarging pituitary mass, visual defects secondary to compression of the OPTIC CHIASM, and elevated serum ACTH. It is caused by the expansion of an underlying ACTH-SECRETING PITUITARY ADENOMA that grows in the absence of feedback inhibition by adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS, usually after ADRENALECTOMY.
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.
A live, attenuated varicella virus vaccine used for immunization against chickenpox. It is recommended for children between the ages of 12 months and 13 years.
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)
Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.
Societies whose membership is limited to scientists.
The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.
Care of patients by a multidisciplinary team usually organized under the leadership of a physician; each member of the team has specific responsibilities and the whole team contributes to the care of the patient.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.
Environment un-modified by human activity. Areas in which natural processes operate without human interference.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
The repetitive uterine contraction during childbirth which is associated with the progressive dilation of the uterine cervix (CERVIX UTERI). Successful labor results in the expulsion of the FETUS and PLACENTA. Obstetric labor can be spontaneous or induced (LABOR, INDUCED).
Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.
Common name for large, quilled rodents (RODENTIA) comprised of two families: Old World porcupines (Hystricidae) and New World porcupines (Erethizontidae).
A genus of toxic marine GREEN ALGAE found throughout tropical and subtropical seas. One species, Caulerpa taxifolia, is highly invasive and produces the poison caulerpenyne, deadly to marine organisms though not humans.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.

The developmental basis for allometry in insects. (1/15569)

Within all species of animals, the size of each organ bears a specific relationship to overall body size. These patterns of organ size relative to total body size are called static allometry and have enchanted biologists for centuries, yet the mechanisms generating these patterns have attracted little experimental study. We review recent and older work on holometabolous insect development that sheds light on these mechanisms. In insects, static allometry can be divided into at least two processes: (1) the autonomous specification of organ identity, perhaps including the approximate size of the organ, and (2) the determination of the final size of organs based on total body size. We present three models to explain the second process: (1) all organs autonomously absorb nutrients and grow at organ-specific rates, (2) a centralized system measures a close correlate of total body size and distributes this information to all organs, and (3) autonomous organ growth is combined with feedback between growing organs to modulate final sizes. We provide evidence supporting models 2 and 3 and also suggest that hormones are the messengers of size information. Advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of allometry will come through the integrated study of whole tissues using techniques from development, genetics, endocrinology and population biology.  (+info)

Novel regulation of the homeotic gene Scr associated with a crustacean leg-to-maxilliped appendage transformation. (2/15569)

Homeotic genes are known to be involved in patterning morphological structures along the antero-posterior axis of insects and vertebrates. Because of their important roles in development, changes in the function and expression patterns of homeotic genes may have played a major role in the evolution of different body plans. For example, it has been proposed that during the evolution of several crustacean lineages, changes in the expression patterns of the homeotic genes Ultrabithorax and abdominal-A have played a role in transformation of the anterior thoracic appendages into mouthparts termed maxillipeds. This homeotic-like transformation is recapitulated at the late stages of the direct embryonic development of the crustacean Porcellio scaber (Oniscidea, Isopoda). Interestingly, this morphological change is associated with apparent novelties both in the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of the Porcellio scaber ortholog of the Drosophila homeotic gene, Sex combs reduced (Scr). Specifically, we find that Scr mRNA is present in the second maxillary segment and the first pair of thoracic legs (T1) in early embryos, whereas protein accumulates only in the second maxillae. In later stages, however, high levels of SCR appear in the T1 legs, which correlates temporally with the transformation of these appendages into maxillipeds. Our observations provide further insight into the process of the homeotic leg-to-maxilliped transformation in the evolution of crustaceans and suggest a novel regulatory mechanism for this process in this group of arthropods.  (+info)

An overview of the evolution of overproduced esterases in the mosquito Culex pipiens. (3/15569)

Insecticide resistance genes have developed in a wide variety of insects in response to heavy chemical application. Few of these examples of adaptation in response to rapid environmental change have been studied both at the population level and at the gene level. One of these is the evolution of the overproduced esterases that are involved in resistance to organophosphate insecticides in the mosquito Culex pipiens. At the gene level, two genetic mechanisms are involved in esterase overproduction, namely gene amplification and gene regulation. At the population level, the co-occurrence of the same amplified allele in distinct geographic areas is best explained by the importance of passive transportation at the worldwide scale. The long-term monitoring of a population of mosquitoes in southern France has enabled a detailed study to be made of the evolution of resistance genes on a local scale, and has shown that a resistance gene with a lower cost has replaced a former resistance allele with a higher cost.  (+info)

The expiry date of man: a synthesis of evolutionary biology and public health. (4/15569)

In industrialised countries, mortality and morbidity are dominated by age related chronic degenerative diseases. The health and health care needs of future populations will be heavily determined by these conditions of old age. Two opposite scenarios of future morbidity exist: morbidity might decrease ("compress"), because life span is limited, and the incidence of disease is postponed. Or morbidity might increase ("expand"), because death is delayed more than disease incidence. Optimality theory in evolutionary biology explains senescence as a by product of an optimised life history. The theory clarifies how senescence is timed by the competing needs for reproduction and survival, and why this leads to a generalised deterioration of many functions at many levels. As death and disease are not independent, future morbidity will depend on duration and severity of the process of senescence, partly determined by health care, palliating the disease severity but increasing the disease duration by postponing death. Even if morbidity might be compressed, health care needs will surely expand.  (+info)

Molecular and evolutionary analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi 297 circular plasmid-encoded lipoproteins with OspE- and OspF-like leader peptides. (5/15569)

We previously described two OspE and three OspF homologs in Borrelia burgdorferi 297 (D. R. Akins, S. F. Porcella, T. G. Popova, D. Shevchenko, S. I. Baker, M. Li, M. V. Norgard, and J. D. Radolf, Mol. Microbiol. 18:507-520, 1995; D. R. Akins, K. W. Bourell, M. J. Caimano, M. V. Norgard, and J. D. Radolf, J. Clin. Investig. 101:2240-2250, 1998). In this study, we characterized four additional lipoproteins with OspE/F-like leader peptides (Elps) and demonstrated that all are encoded on plasmids homologous to cp32 and cp18 from the B31 and N40 strains, respectively. Statistical analysis of sequence similarities using the binary comparison algorithm revealed that the nine lipoproteins from strain 297, as well as the OspE, OspF, and Erp proteins from the N40 and B31 strains, fall into three distinct families. Based upon the observation that these lipoproteins all contain highly conserved leader peptides, we now propose that the ancestors of each of the three families arose from gene fusion events which joined a common N terminus to unrelated proteins. Additionally, further sequence analysis of the strain 297 circular plasmids revealed that rearrangements appear to have played an important role in generating sequence diversity among the members of these three families and that recombinational events in the downstream flanking regions appear to have occurred independently of those within the lipoprotein-encoding genes. The association of hypervariable regions with genes which are differentially expressed and/or subject to immunological pressures suggests that the Lyme disease spirochete has exploited recombinatorial processes to foster its parasitic strategy and enhance its immunoevasiveness.  (+info)

A family of S-methylmethionine-dependent thiol/selenol methyltransferases. Role in selenium tolerance and evolutionary relation. (6/15569)

Several plant species can tolerate high concentrations of selenium in the environment, and they accumulate organoselenium compounds. One of these compounds is Se-methylselenocysteine, synthesized by a number of species from the genus Astragalus (Fabaceae), like A. bisulcatus. An enzyme has been previously isolated from this organism that catalyzes methyl transfer from S-adenosylmethionine to selenocysteine. To elucidate the role of the enzyme in selenium tolerance, the cDNA coding for selenocysteine methyltransferase from A. bisulcatus was cloned and sequenced. Data base searches revealed the existence of several apparent homologs of hitherto unassigned function. The gene for one of them, yagD from Escherichia coli, was cloned, and the protein was overproduced and purified. A functional analysis showed that the YagD protein catalyzes methylation of homocysteine, selenohomocysteine, and selenocysteine with S-adenosylmethionine and S-methylmethionine as methyl group donors. S-Methylmethionine was now shown to be also the physiological methyl group donor for the A. bisulcatus selenocysteine methyltransferase. A model system was set up in E. coli which demonstrated that expression of the plant and, although to a much lesser degree, of the bacterial methyltransferase gene increases selenium tolerance and strongly reduces unspecific selenium incorporation into proteins, provided that S-methylmethionine is present in the medium. It is postulated that the selenocysteine methyltransferase under selective pressure developed from an S-methylmethionine-dependent thiol/selenol methyltransferase.  (+info)

Kodamaea nitidulidarum, Candida restingae and Kodamaea anthophila, three new related yeast species from ephemeral flowers. (7/15569)

Three new yeast species were discovered during studies of yeasts associated with ephemeral flowers in Brazil, Australia and Hawaii. Their physiological and morphological similarity to Kodamaea (Pichia) ohmeri suggested a possible relationship to that species, which was confirmed by rDNA sequencing. Kodamaea nitidulidarum and Candida restingae were found in cactus flowers and associated nitidulid beetles in sand dune ecosystems (restinga) of South-eastern Brazil. Over 350 strains of Kodamaea anthophila were isolated from Hibiscus and morning glory flowers (Ipomoea spp.) in Australia, and from associated nitidulid beetles and Drosophila hibisci. A single isolate came from a beach morning glory in Hawaii. Expansion of the genus Kodamaea to three species modified the existing definition of the genus only slightly. The type and isotype strains are as follows: K. nitidulidarum strains UFMG96-272T (h+; CBS 8491T) and UFMG96-394I (h-; CBS 8492I); Candida restingae UFMG96-276T (CBS 8493T); K. anthophila strains UWO(PS)95-602.1T (h+; CBS 8494T), UWO(PS)91-893.2I (h-; CBS 8495I) and UWO(PS)95-725.1I (h-; CBS 8496I).  (+info)

Reticulate evolution and the origins of ribosomal internal transcribed spacer diversity in apomictic Meloidogyne. (8/15569)

Among root knot nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne, the polyploid obligate mitotic parthenogens M. arenaria, M. javanica, and M. incognita are widespread and common agricultural pests. Although these named forms are distinguishable by closely related mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes, detailed sequence analyses of internal transcribed spacers (ITSs) of nuclear ribosomal genes reveal extremely high diversity, even within individual nematodes. This ITS diversity is broadly structured into two very different groups that are 12%-18% divergent: one with low diversity (< 1.0%) and one with high diversity (6%-7%). In both of these groups, identical sequences can be found within individual nematodes of different mtDNA haplotypes (i.e., among species). Analysis of genetic variance indicates that more than 90% of ITS diversity can be found within an individual nematode, with small but statistically significant (5%-10%; P < 0.05) variance distributed among mtDNA lineages. The evolutionarily distinct parthenogen M. hapla shows a similar pattern of ITS diversity, with two divergent groups of ITSs within each individual. In contrast, two diploid amphimictic species have only one lineage of ITSs with low diversity (< 0.2%). The presence of divergent lineages of rDNA in the apomictic taxa is unlikely to be due to differences among pseudogenes. Instead, we suggest that the diversity of ITSs in M. arenaria, M. javanica, and M. incognita is due to hybrid origins from closely related females (as inferred from mtDNA) and combinations of more diverse paternal lineages.  (+info)

Developmental evolution as mechanistic science: The inference from developmental mechanisms to evolutionary processes. Wagner, Gunter P. Developmental Evolution as a Mechanistic Science: The Inference from Developmental Mechanisms to Evolutionary Processes1 SYNOPSIS. Developmental Evolution (DE) contributes to various research programs in biology, such as the assessment of homology and the determination of the genetic architecture underlying species differences. The most distinctive contribution offered by DE to evolutionary biology, however, is the elucidation of the role of developmental mechanisms in the origin of evolutionary innovations. To date, explanations of evolutionary innovations have remained beyond the reach of classical evolutionary genetics, because such explanations require detailed information on the function of genes and the emergent developmental dynamics of their interactions with other genetic factors. We argue that this area has the potential to become the core of DEs ...
20 Questions on Adaptive Dynamics Adaptive dynamics is a tool used of studying phenotypic changes in evolving populations over time1. Adaptive dynamics approach is different from population genetic Fishers model2. Fishers population under natural selection will additively increase its population fitness, where as an adaptive dynamics population of unfit individuals are replace by fitter ones but…
Linksvayer, T A., J Fewell, J Gadau, and M D. Laubichler. Developmental Evolution in Social Insects - Regulatory Networks from Genes to Societies,. Journal of Experimental Zoology Part B: Molecular and Developmental Evolution 318 (2012): 159-169. ...
Developmental plasticity looks like a promising bridge between ecological and developmental perspectives on evolution. Yet, there is no consensus on whether plasticity is part of the explanation for adaptive evolution or an optional add-on to genes and natural selection. Here, we suggest that these differences in opinion are caused by differences in the simplifying assumptions, and particular idealizations, that enable evolutionary explanation. We outline why idealizations designed to explain evolution through natural selection prevent an understanding of the role of development, and vice versa. We show that representing plasticity as a reaction norm conforms with the idealizations of selective explanations, which can give the false impression that plasticity has no explanatory power for adaptive evolution. Finally, we use examples to illustrate why evolutionary explanations that include developmental plasticity may in fact be more satisfactory than explanations that solely refer to genes and ...
Laubichler, M D.. Form and Function in Evo Devo: A Conceptual and Historical Analysis. In Form and Function in Developmental Evolution, edited by M D. Laubichler and Jane Maienschein, 10-46. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009. ...
More recently, some of the Altenberg attendees, among others, launched a web site, The Third Way, as an organizing tool for scientists working on a model of evolution that accommodates the research findings that are stretching the Modern Synthesis. More recently the The John Templeton Foundation has awarded a major grant (£5.7m or $8m) to an international team of leading researchers for a three-year research program to put the predictions of the extended evolutionary synthesis to the test. The Royal Society in 2015 published an article, The extended evolutionary synthesis: its structure, assumptions and predictions that provides additional background information. And in November 2016 the Society hosted a scientific meeting on the topic, entitled, New trends in evolutionary biology: biological, philosophical and social science perspectives ...
Living things are organized in a hierarchy of levels. Genes group together in cells, cells group together in organisms, and organisms group together in societies. Even different species form mutualistic partnerships. In the history of life, previously independent units have formed groups that, in time, have come to resemble individuals in their own right. Biologists term such events the major transitions. The process common to them all is social evolution. Each occurs only if natural selection favours one unit joining with another in a new kind of group. This book presents a fresh synthesis of the principles of social evolution that underlie the major transitions, and explains how the basic theory underpinning social evolution, inclusive fitness theory, is central to understanding each event. At the same time, it defends inclusive fitness theory against recent critiques. The book defines the key stages in a major transition, then picks out the shared principles operating at each stage across the
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Dieckmann U & Doebeli M (2004). Adaptive dynamics of speciation: Sexual populations. In: Adaptive Speciation. Eds. Dieckmann, U., Doebeli, M., Metz, J.A.J. & Tautz, D., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-82842-2 DOI:10.2277/0521828422. Full text not available from this repository ...
Coevolution accounts for a significant proportion of the evolutionary change that occurs in nature. This is quite reasonable because most, if not all, species live as members of communities composed of many species. As a result of interactions between members in a community, many species utilize not only their own genome, but also the genome of other species to facilitate survival and reproduction in context of mutualistic interactions. Conversely, antagonistic interactions between species are capable of driving rapid evolutionary change between interacting species. Thus intergenomic interactions, resulting from both mutualistic and antagonistic coevolution, play a major role in shaping the evolutionary trajectory of many species. Current Projects: -Antagonistic coevolution - Experimental Coevolution Test of the Red Queen: This project combines my interests in both mating system evolution and coevolutionary dynamics! The Red Queen Hypothesis predicts that selective pressure from coevolving ...
Current research in evolutionary biology covers diverse topics and incorporates ideas from diverse areas, such as molecular genetics and computer science. First, some fields of evolutionary research try to explain phenomena that were poorly accounted for in the modern evolutionary synthesis. These include speciation,[13] the evolution of sexual reproduction,[14] the evolution of cooperation, the evolution of ageing, and evolvability.[15] Second, biologists ask the most straightforward evolutionary question: what happened and when?. This includes fields such as paleobiology, as well as systematics and phylogenetics. Third, the modern evolutionary synthesis was devised at a time when nobody understood the molecular basis of genes. Today, evolutionary biologists try to determine the genetic architecture of interesting evolutionary phenomena such as adaptation and speciation. They seek answers to questions such as how many genes are involved, how large are the effects of each gene, how ...
As we will see in the rest of this volume, several of these tenets [of the Modern Synthesis] are being challenged as either inaccurate or incomplete. It is important, however, to understand the kind of challenge being posed here, in order to avoid wasting time on unproductive discussions that missed the point of an extended evolutionary synthesis. Perhaps a parallel with another branch of biology will be helpful. After Watson and Crick discovered the double-helix structure of DNA, and the molecular revolution got started in earnest, one of the first principles to emerge from the new discipline was the unfortunately named central dogma of molecular biology. The dogma (a word that arguably should never be used in science) stated that the flow of information in biological systems is always one way, from DNA to RNA to proteins. Later on, however, it was discovered that the DNA > RNA flow can be reversed by the appropriately named process of reverse transcription, which takes place in a variety of ...
Current research in evolutionary biology covers diverse topics and incorporates ideas from diverse areas, such as molecular genetics and computer science.. First, some fields of evolutionary research try to explain phenomena that were poorly accounted for in the modern evolutionary synthesis. These include speciation,[7] the evolution of sexual reproduction,[8] the evolution of cooperation, the evolution of ageing, and evolvability.[9]. Second, biologists ask the most straightforward evolutionary question: what happened and when?. This includes fields such as palaeobiology, as well as systematics and phylogenetics.. Third, the modern evolutionary synthesis was devised at a time when nobody understood the molecular basis of genes. Today, evolutionary biologists try to determine the genetic architecture of interesting evolutionary phenomena such as adaptation and speciation. They seek answers to questions such as how many genes are involved, how large are the effects of each gene, how ...
The evolutionist tradition of concealing fossils watch video, Adnan Oktars comments and opinions about The evolutionist tradition of concealing fossils, watch related articles, videos, interviews and documentries for The evolutionist tradition of concealing fossils, share on facebook, share on twitter
William Smith (1769-1839), an English canal engineer, observed that rocks of different ages (based on the law of superposition) preserved different assemblages of fossils, and that these assemblages succeeded one another in a regular and determinable order. He observed that rocks from distant locations could be correlated based on the fossils they contained. He termed this the principle of faunal succession. Smith, who preceded Charles Darwin, was unaware of biological evolution and did not know why faunal succession occurred. Biological evolution explains why faunal succession exists: as different organisms evolve, change and go extinct, they leave behind fossils. Faunal succession was one of the chief pieces of evidence cited by Darwin that biological evolution had occurred. Early naturalists well understood the similarities and differences of living species leading Linnaeus to develop a hierarchical classification system still in use today. It was Darwin and his contemporaries who first ...
William Smith (1769-1839), an English canal engineer, observed that rocks of different ages (based on the law of superposition) preserved different assemblages of fossils, and that these assemblages succeeded one another in a regular and determinable order. He observed that rocks from distant locations could be correlated based on the fossils they contained. He termed this the principle of faunal succession. Smith, who preceded Charles Darwin, was unaware of biological evolution and did not know why faunal succession occurred. Biological evolution explains why faunal succession exists: as different organisms evolve, change and go extinct, they leave behind fossils. Faunal succession was one of the chief pieces of evidence cited by Darwin that biological evolution had occurred. Early naturalists well understood the similarities and differences of living species leading Linnaeus to develop a hierarchical classification system still in use today. It was Darwin and his contemporaries who first ...
The foregoing suggests that natural selection theory be formulated as a problem of signal-to-noise ratio. That is, the burden on the theory is to show that the variability of heritable phenotypic traits within a species in a local population, limited as it is by developmental constraints, nonetheless is significant enough to account for the variability of reproductive success among the members of a generation. Can the variability of the heritable traits in a given generation, the signal, rise above the day-in day-out contingencies of the environment and the intrinsic developmental constraints that limit the variability of phenotypes in a given generation, the noise, to override these factors and determine reproductive outcomes generation after generation ...
Abstract Because of the variability of relevant developmental resources across different environments, and because only a portion of the genome is expressed in any individual organism as a result of its specific developmental context and experience,
Page 1 of 2 - Why Evolutionist Dont Like To Give Evidence? - posted in Creation vs Evolution: I find it quite frustrating and amusing that for all their talk about science, many evolutionists refuse to give evidence of their claims. Many seem to think that just by merely saying the word fossil makes it evidence of evolution, without actually demonstrating how it is... So calling all evolutionists to give a summary of how their evidence is evidence of evolution. Just one...
A recent report, published in Nature,1 on the genome sequence of the so-called living fish fossil, the African coelacanth, has some evolutionists scrambling to defend their story. This is because the coelacanths DNA is similar to other types of fish and not land animals, thus forcing the evolutionists to postulate that the coelacanth evolved slowly.1. Although modern coelacanths are found in water about 500 feet deep, Axel Meyer, a member of the study team believes that ancient coelacanths may have lived in shallow water, stating, Other coelacanths lived in more shallow, estuary-like environments 400 million years ago, and you can envisage them using fins more like walking legs.2 In the overall evolutionary scenario, fish are believed to have transitioned to land and then continued evolving into amphibians and eventually into other land creatures.. The ancestral lineage of the coelacanth was thought to have gone extinct 70 million years ago, during the Cretaceous Period-an era most famous for ...
Environmental stochasticity is known to play an important role in life-history evolution, but most general theory assumes a constant environment. In this paper, we examine life-history evolution in a variable environment, by decomposing average individual fitness (measured by the long-run stochastic growth rate) into contributions from average vital rates and their temporal variation. We examine how generation time, demographic dispersion (measured by the dispersion of reproductive events across the lifespan), demographic resilience (measured by damping time), within-year variances in vital rates, within-year correlations between vital rates and between-year correlations in vital rates combine to determine average individual fitness of stylized life histories. In a fluctuating environment, we show that there is often a range of cohort generation times at which the fitness is at a maximum. Thus, we expect optimal phenotypes in fluctuating environments to differ from optimal phenotypes in constant
UNUSUAL TIME AND PLACE Modeling adaptive dynamics for structured populations with functional traits We develop the framework of adaptive dynamics for populations that are structured by age and functional traits. The functional trait of an individual may express itself differently during the life of an individual according to her age and a random parameter that is chosen at birth to capture the environmental stochasticity. The population evolves through birth, death and selection mechanisms. At each birth, the new individual may be a clone of its parent or a mutant. Starting from an individual based model we use averaging techniques to take the large population and rare mutation limit under a well-chosen time-scale separation. This gives us the Trait Substitution Sequence process that describes the adaptive dynamics in our setting. Assuming small mutation steps we also derive the Canonical Equation which expresses the evolution of advantageous traits as a function-valued ordinary differential ...
UNUSUAL TIME Modeling adaptive dynamics for structured populations with functional traits We develop the framework of adaptive dynamics for populations that are structured by age and functional traits. The functional trait of an individual may express itself differently during the life of an individual according to her age and a random parameter that is chosen at birth to capture the environmental stochasticity. The population evolves through birth, death and selection mechanisms. At each birth, the new individual may be a clone of its parent or a mutant. Starting from an individual based model we use averaging techniques to take the large population and rare mutation limit under a well-chosen time-scale separation. This gives us the Trait Substitution Sequence process that describes the adaptive dynamics in our setting. Assuming small mutation steps we also derive the Canonical Equation which expresses the evolution of advantageous traits as a function-valued ordinary differential equation. ...
Predicting adaptive trajectories is a major goal of evolutionary biology and useful for practical applications. Systems biology has enabled the development of genome-scale metabolic models. However, analysing these models via flux balance analysis (FBA) cannot predict many evolutionary outcomes including adaptive diversification, whereby an ancestral lineage diverges to fill multiple niches. Here we combine in silico evolution with FBA and apply this modelling framework, evoFBA, to a long-term evolution experiment with Escherichia coli. Simulations predicted the adaptive diversification that occurred in one experimental population and generated hypotheses about the mechanisms that promoted coexistence of the diverged lineages. We experimentally tested and, on balance, verified these mechanisms, showing that diversification involved niche construction and character displacement through differential nutrient uptake and altered metabolic regulation. The evoFBA framework represents a promising new way to
Antagonistic coevolution is particularly likely to take place between parasites and their hosts. It is easy to imagine how a change in a parasite, which improves its ability to penetrate its hosts, will reciprocally set up selection for a change in the host. Antagonism can cause cyclical or escalatory coevolution:. • If the range of genetic variants in parasite and host is limited, coevolution can be cyclic. • But if new mutants continually arise, the parasite and host may undergo unending coupled changes in a particular direction. Many properties of the biology of parasites and hosts have been attributed to antagonistic coevolution, such as parasitic virulence, and the simultaneous phylogenetic branching of parasites and hosts. Antagonisms are thought to be the biological factor most likely to cause extinction.. The shells of these molluscs are an example of escalatory coevolution: the fossil record shows that the thickness of the shells increases in response to the evolution of more ...
It takes all the running you can do, to keep in the same place. - Lewis Carroll in Through the Looking-Glass http://astore.amazon.com/spectrevision-20/detail/0525951113 Let me tell you the story of the most successful organism of all time: this is the story of the parasite. Early on, evolution branched into two distinct paths: independent organisms-those that exist…
One major feature of the Palaeogene radiation of acanthomorphs-the origin of several clades of pelagic predators-appears related to the filling of vacated functional roles, but additional axes of morphological diversification are not clearly explained under this model. This might reflect the conservative approach applied here, which focuses on regions of morphospace that were devastated, rather than thinned, by extinction, combined with the limitations of a broadly framed landmark-based morphometric scheme in comparison to a targeted functional analysis. A mosaic pattern of turnover could remain an important but subtle mechanism underlying aspects of the acanthomorph radiation. Selection against higher trophic levels of the sort inferred for teleosts during the K-P (Cavin 2001; Friedman 2009) might yield particularly nuanced succession dynamics, because piscivorous fishes assume a range of morphologies and represent the most anatomically disparate diet class in some modern faunas (Chakrabarty ...
Few major questions in biological evolution have been as daunting to solve as the evolution of social behavior. Most research in the discipline has been structured by natural history observations and experiments designed to support a particular concept of how sociality evolved. Theoretical contributions have also been a significant part of the literature, sometimes linked to a favored concept. The discipline is divided into camps of opposing opinion on concepts of social evolution, and there has been scant increase in insight or understanding beyond positions adopted years ago. In this epistemic environment, characterized by contention and stasis, the catalysis group �Modeling Insect Sociality� has been designed to seek a new way forward. The meeting will assemble evolutionary modelers with a diversity of analytical tool kits together with social insect biologists with a diversity of taxonomic expertise. The intent is to foster discussion in an atmosphere of neutrality with regard to ...
As we will see in the rest of this volume, several of these tenets [of the Modern Synthesis] are being challenged as either a inaccurate or incomplete. It is important however, to understand the kind of challenge being posted here, in order to avoid wasting time on unproductive discussions that miss the point of an extended evolutionary synthesis. Perhaps a parallel with another branch of biology will be helpful. After Watson and Crick discovered the double-helix structure of DNA, and the molecular revolution got started in earnest, one of the first principles to emerge from the new discipline was the unfortunately named central dogma of molecular biology. The dogma (a word that arguably should never be used in science) stated that the flow of information in biological systems is always one-way, from DNA to RNA proteins. Later on, however, it was discovered that the DNA > RNA flow can be reversed by the appropriately named process of reverse transcription, which takes place in a variety of ...
Life cycle strategies have evolved extensively throughout the history of metazoans. The expression of disparate life stages within a single ontogeny can present conflicts to trait evolution, and therefore may have played a major role in shaping metazoan forms. However, few studies have examined the consequences of adding or subtracting life stages on patterns of trait evolution. By analysing trait evolution in a clade of closely related salamander lineages we show that shifts in the number of life cycle stages are associated with rapid phenotypic evolution. Specifically, salamanders with an aquatic-only (paedomorphic) life cycle have frequently added vertebrae to their trunk skeleton compared with closely related lineages with a complex aquatic-to-terrestrial (biphasic) life cycle. The rate of vertebral column evolution is also substantially lower in biphasic lineages, which may reflect the functional compromise of a complex cycle. This study demonstrates that the consequences of life cycle ...
CA, Azlan and N.A., Kadri, and NF, Mohd Nasir and MG, Rah (2006) The study of morphological structure, phase structure and molecular structure of collagen-PEO 600K blends for tissue engineering application. American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 2 (5). pp. 175-179. ...
We demonstrate how a genetic polymorphism of distinctly different alleles can develop during long-term frequency-dependent evolution in an initially monomorphic diploid population, if mutations have only small phenotypic effect. As a specific example, we use a version of Levenes (1953) soft selection model, where stabilizing selection acts on a continuous trait within each of two habitats. If the optimal phenotypes within the habitats are sufficiently different, then two distinctly different alleles evolve gradually from a single ancestral allele. In a wide range of parameter values, the two locally optimal phenotypes will be realized by one of the homozygotes and the heterozygote, rather than by the two homozygotes. Unlike in the haploid analogue of the model, there can be multiple polymorphic evolutionary attractors with different probabilities of convergence. Our results differ from the population genetic models of short-term evolution in two aspects: (1) a polymorphism that is population ...
This working group will assemble a team of investigators from population, quantitative, demographic and human genetics, and evolutionary biology to analyze the three generation longitudinal Framingham Heart Study cohort data to document microevolutionary changes in a contemporary human population. The team will utilize the rich and diverse morphological, physiological and genomic data collected for nearly sixty years to primarily understand the manifestation of cardiovascular disease in a healthy white North American population. The investigators will use analytical approaches proven in evolutionary biology and if necessary develop novel approaches for the purpose. This concerted effort will yield an evolutionary framework to understand the distribution of human genetic variation and the role of evolution in human health and disease. The specific aims of this working group are to: 1) measure microevolutionary changes at the phenotype level in a white North American human population, using ...
When evolutionists try to draw their tree of related animals, they have a problem: not everything fits. They must say that some things---even things that are extremely similar---evolved multiple times independently (called convergence). They say that eyes evolved 40-60 times independently. This is awkward for evolutionists to explain, but it makes much more sense for a creationist: God reuses good designs!. Learn More. ...
It is definitely true that the so-called Modern Synthesis of Evolution needs an update. That is common knowledge. The problem is that there are not really leading figures that can come down with what might be called The Standard Model of Biological Evolution. I phrase it as such since as such it might also help against the ID movement. ID is constantly challenging biologists and other scientists. The thing they do understand all too well is that every new finding comes with many new questions, which they subsequently abuse to attack evolution. One of the issues they keep on coming back is that evolution is just a theory. Besides the fact that apparently they misunderstand the scientific meaning of theory, they easily put aside the enormous of evidence that backs up this theory. The reason why they keep on doing this is that there are still a number of battle areas , albeit much less then it seems. Here The Standard Model of Biological Evolution might come in quite handy. But who should ...
Работа на тему «The Modern Synthesis Genetics Darwin Essay Research» в категории «Иностранные языки».
Page 1 of 3 - Is Macroevolution Testable? - posted in Best all time threads.: Evolutionists frequently affirm that macroevolution in nature is too slow to observe. Fair enough. Supposedly, significant macroevolutionary changes occured by natural selection, such as the evolution of cetaceans from a hippo- like precursor over a period of only 8 million years. The evolution of man from australopithecus supposedly took around 2 million years. My challenge is to produce macroevolutionary ch...
Both evolutionists and creationists stand in agreement that radiocarbon dating, which can be used only to date organic samples, is totally ineffective in measuring the alleged millions or billions of years of the evolutionary timetable. [In truth, even when dating things that are relatively young, carbon-14 dating is imperfect and based upon certain unprovable assumptions (see Major, 1993).] If radiocarbon dating can measure only items that are thousands of years old, why should evolutionists even consider using this dating method on anything that they already believe to be millions of years old? Creationists would like to see evolutionists apply this method to items believed to be millions of years old, because it might help convince evolutionists that coal, diamonds, fossils, etc. are not millions of years old, but only thousands of years old.. Consider that in recent years readily detectable amounts of carbon-14 in materials evolutionists suppose are millions of years old have been the ...
From the authors of The Design of Life, William Dembski & Jonathan Wells: The transition from reptiles into mammals via mammal-like reptiles is regarded by many evolutionary theorists as the best example of an evolutionary lineage in the fossil record. There are, however, three fundamental problems with this and all other examples of inferring Darwinian evolution on the basis of fossil evidence. The first is that any specific hypothesis must use the fossil data selectively; the second is that similarities in fossil or living organisms may not be due to common ancestry; and the third is that fossils cannot, in principle, establish biological relationships. Continue reading at Evolution News & Views. ...
A crustacean with 3,000 lenses in its eyes, 6-foot-long shrimplike creatures and organisms that looked like tulips emerged hastily (from an evolutionary perspective) on the scene some 520 million to 540 million years ago. And now scientists have figured out just how quickly evolution was occurring during
Evolution: Selection, Inheritance, and History Originally determined by Charles Darwin, biological evolution receives outlined in two significant views. These include things like macroevolution and microevolution. Though the latter considerations the procedural occurrences which make up all evolutionary things to do, the former investigates the history of evolutionary shifts and developments (Muskhelishvili, 2015). Therefore, the study of microevolution aims at being familiar with different designs because of which organisms establish and take benefit of their ecosystem through replica and development. When various alterations that purpose at advantaging organisms in an surroundings come about, they cumulatively be responsible for major shifts in genotypic and phenotypic endowments of varied organisms. This receives known as macroevolution (Knudsen, 2010). Evolution defines the progressive system of organismic development and diversification as a result of pure selection, mutation, gene ...
Microfossils dating from more than 3 billion years ago demonstrate that bacteria were the first life-forms on the planet. Bacteria and Archaea, both prokaryotic, ruled until the advent of nucleated cells with membranous organelles, such as those of which we are constructed (eukaryotic cells). The earliest known fossilized evidence of early life forms are found in stromatolites - large reef structures created by communities of Cyanobacteria. Mistakenly called blue-green algae, the Cyanobacteria are bacteria that evolved relatively late. They are believed to have invented oxygenic photosynthesis over 1 billion years ago. As oxygen levels rose, organisms were forced into endosymbiotic unions as - to them - toxic levels of oxygen threatened their continued existence. (Anaerobic bacteria, which are killed by oxygen, persist to this day in environments with very low levels of oxygen.) These serial endosymbiotic transfer events paved the way for evolution of eukaryotic cells, which in turn enabled ...
Im constantly amazed by how many people in the US either reject the idea of biological evolution or have serious reservations. By contrast, in Europe and other countries with developed economies, only a relatively small fraction do. And the mainstream Christian denominations that most Americans belong to all explicitly accept the reality of biological evolution. That includes the Catholic, Episcopalian, Presbyterian, Methodist, Lutheran, and Anglican churches. The simple fact is that there is overwhelming evidence for biological evolution. As the 20th century biologist Theodosius Dobzhansky said (when the evidence for biological evolution was not even as strong as it is today), Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution. If we were compelled to reject the idea of biological evolution, there would be literally thousands of unexplained biological phenomena that currently make perfect sense as consequences of the evolutionary history of life on Earth.. No credible biologist ...
Evolutionary game theory (EGT) is the application of game theory to evolving populations in biology. It defines a framework of contests, strategies, and analytics into which Darwinian competition can be modelled. It originated in 1973 with John Maynard Smith and George R. Prices formalisation of contests, analysed as strategies, and the mathematical criteria that can be used to predict the results of competing strategies. Evolutionary game theory differs from classical game theory in focusing more on the dynamics of strategy change. This is influenced by the frequency of the competing strategies in the population. Evolutionary game theory has helped to explain the basis of altruistic behaviours in Darwinian evolution. It has in turn become of interest to economists, sociologists, anthropologists, and philosophers. Classical non-cooperative game theory was conceived by John von Neumann to determine optimal strategies in competitions between adversaries. A contest involves players, all of whom ...
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Evolutionary perspectives on human behavior are almost as old as the science of psychology itself. A new brand of functionalism has emerged; it draws inspiration from developments in evolutionary biology in the past half-century. This chapter offers an overview of evolutionary biology as applied to human psychology. An ecological niche is discussed, and the critical issue of the nature of the niche humans entered and defined is addressed. Unusually, individuals fitness was highly dependent on their ability to attract, form, and maintain cooperative coalitions with others and harness the competencies of others to their own. Several broad, evolution-inspired proposals about human social behavior are described, illustrating how evolutionary perspectives offer integrative understanding of psychological phenomena and generate new research programs. Individual differences from an evolutionary perspective are addressed. Evolutionary perspectives, rather than representing alternatives to social or cultural
Biological evolution is a process that results in heritable changes in a population spread over many generations. [1]Microevolution occurs in terms of biological evolution, but macroevolution does not. ...
Compiled and edited by Andrew Morozov. Mathematical modelling is widely recognised as a powerful and convenient theoretical tool for investigating various aspects of biological evolution and explaining the existing genetic complexity of the real world. The importance of such models stems from their usefulness in providing wide-ranging exploration without a need for expensive and potentially dangerous experiments with biological systems. This theme issue aims to provide a useful guide to important recent findings in some key-areas in modelling biological evolution, to refine the existing challenges and to outline possible future directions. Many of the contributions stress the importance of linking theory and empirical work, emphasised by concrete case study-based examples.. All articles from this issue are now available online.. If you would like to recommend this journal to your Librarian please fill out this form or contact [email protected] Also of interest. See all Royal Society ...
We consider the stability of strict equilibrium under deterministic evolutionary game dynamics. We show that if the correlation between strategies growth rates and payoffs is positive and bounded away from zero in a neighborhood of a strict equilibrium, then this equilibrium is locally stable.
This 727 word essay is about Human evolution, Biological evolution, Apes, Recent African origin of modern humans, Anthropology, Evolution. Read the full essay now!
Antagonistic selection-where alleles at a locus have opposing effects on male and female fitness (sexual antagonism), or between components of fitness (antagonistic pleiotropy)-might play an important role in maintaining population genetic variation, and in driving phylogenetic and genomic patterns of sexual dimorphism and life-history evolution. While prior theory has thoroughly characterized the conditions necessary for antagonistic balancing selection to operate, we currently know little about the evolutionary interactions between antagonistic selection, recurrent mutation, and genetic drift, which should collectively shape empirical patterns of genetic variation. To fill this void, we developed and analyzed a series of population genetic models that simultaneously incorporate these processes. Our models identify two general properties of antagonistically selected loci. First, antagonistic selection inflates heterozygosity and fitness variance across a broad parameter range-a result that ...
Biological evolution is a process that results in [[heritable]] changes in a [[population]] spread over many [[generations]]. [http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/evolution-definition.html][[Microevolution]] occurs in terms of biological evolution, but [[macroevolution]] does not. == See also == *[[Question evolution! campaign]] [[Category:Evolution ...
This study examines the Colloquium which is a professional development process used in Catholic schools. The Colloquium was designed to help people employed in catholic schools renew their vision of care and service to students and to seek to reshape the curriculum to reflect Gospel values more clearly. This thesis was a research evaluation of the Colloquium process and aimed to exploreits effectiveness in te1ms of its impact on the teachers and their work in Catholic schools. The study is based on the theoretical domains of faith development, school improvement end staff development. The design of the study involved before and after questionnaires about the colloquium experience and unstructured interviews. The conclusion drawn from the qualitative data is that the Colloquium process influences the faith development or the individual as well as the staff collectively. It influences relationships and can lead to the building of a shared vision and an identification of common goals for the improvement of
Biological evolution is any genetic change in a population inherited over several generations. These changes may be obvious or not very noticeable at all.
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Introduction. There are winds of change in evolutionary biology, and they are blowing from many directions: from developmental biology (particularly the molecular aspects), from microbial biology (especially studies of mutational mechanisms and horizontal gene transfer), from ecology (in particular ideas about niche construction and studies of extensive symbiosis), from behavior (where the transmission of information through social learning is a major focus), and from cultural studies (where the relation between cultural evolution and genetic evolution is under scrutiny). Many biologists feel that the foundations of the evolutionary paradigm that was constructed during the 1930s and 1940s (Mayr, 1982) and has dominated Western views of evolution for the last 60 years are crumbling, and that the construction of a new evolutionary paradigm is underway.. In this paper we focus on one of the important challenges to the Modern Evolutionary Synthesis (referred to here as the Modern Synthesis, or the ...
PhD Project - Human Demography and Gene-culture Coevolution: human population dynamics on a (pre)-historical time-scale, and in tandem with microbial evolution at Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, listed on FindAPhD.com
Complex cognition and relatively large brains are distributed across various taxa, and many primarily verbal hypotheses exist to explain such diversity. Yet, mathematical approaches formalizing verbal hypotheses would help deepen the understanding of brain and cognition evolution. With this aim, we combine elements of life history and metabolic theories to formulate a metabolically explicit mathematical model for brain life history evolution. We assume that some of the brains energetic expense is due to production (learning) and maintenance (memory) of energy-extraction skills (or cognitive abilities, knowledge, information, etc.). We also assume that individuals use such skills to extract energy from the environment, and can allocate this energy to grow and maintain the body, including brain and reproductive tissues. The model can be used to ask what fraction of growth energy should be allocated at each age, given natural selection, to growing brain and other tissues under various biological ...
In Lewis Carrolls Through the Looking Glass (1871), a sequel to his Alices Adventures in Wonderland (1865), Alice learns from the Red Queen that, in Carrolls
In addition to developmental constraints, the experiences that children have with the world further entrench their intuition, and cause them to develop particular ideas about how the world works. Both of these factors make it difficult to adopt new, more scientifically accurate ones. These intuitions, also referred to as naïve theories or framework theories, provide simple explanations for natural phenomena that work well in everyday life, even if they are not entirely accurate from a scientific standpoint (Wellman and Gelman 1998). For example, childrens everyday experience of the earth is that of a flat stationary surface. The notion of the earth being a giant ball floating in space belies this experience and requires radical restructuring. It is interesting that such restructuring often goes through shifts that involve the construction of alternative conceptions of the earth shape, or synthetic models (Vosniadou and Brewer 1992). For example, a child may confidently claim that there are ...
Evolutionary trade-offs in performance from one environment to another have long been thought to be essential in the balance in population and distribution of organisms. It is an essential concept in natural selection. (The process in nature by which, according to Darwins theory of evolution, only the organisms best adapted to their environment tend to survive and transmit their genetic characteristics in increasing numbers to succeeding generations while those less adapted tend to be eliminated.) An advantageous mutation in a certain environment will increase the likelihood of reaching the age of reproduction, allowing passing on of the gene to the next generation, therefore a positive mutation. If the mutation is detrimental to health and the person dies before reproduction, the mutation is lost and is therefore a negative mutation. Natural selection has to be considered in the context of pre-modern societies. Modern medicine has altered the balance of nature and often allows us to rescue ...
Maropeng is thrilled to announce that it will be hosting the Royal Society of South Africas Broom Colloquium on November 26, 2011. The top scientists behind some of the more recent palaeontological discoveries will be gathering for the day to present papers on a wide range of research issues.. This Broom Colloquium serves to commemorate the death of renowned palaeontologist and medical doctor, Professor Robert Broom, 60 years ago.. The colloquium is an initiative of the Royal Society of South Africa, in partnership with Maropeng, to honour Broom in the context of recent discoveries of and research on hominids and other fossils from the Cradle of Humankind World Heritage Site. Maropeng curator Lindsay Marshall says that hosting the colloquium is very prestigious. It adds a huge amount of credibility to Maropengs role, not only as a tourism destination but as a place where international scientific discussion can take place.. An exhibition of original fossils discovered at Bolts Farm, one of ...
The successful experience of the first International Colloquium, in 1997, was on Money, Growth, Distribution and Structural Change: Contemporaneous Analysis, that coincided with the foundation of PhD Program in Economics at the University of Brasilia (UnB). It was an outstanding meeting with the presence of many fine scholars from Brazil and the larger world community.. The 1999 International Colloquium on Economic Dynamics and Economic Policy which was the result of the consolidation of efforts to stimulate and sustain a critical dialogue, continued to develop these critical themes leading to a series of colloquia that followed. These include the 2001 International Colloquium on Structural Change, Growth and Redistribution and the 2003 International Colloquium on Globalization, New Technologies and Economic Relations, both held in Brasilia, with the support of the UnB and other institutions and had the presence of scholars from various countries around the world.. Subsequent to this ...
The successful experience of the first International Colloquium, in 1997, was on Money, Growth, Distribution and Structural Change: Contemporaneous Analysis, that coincided with the foundation of PhD Program in Economics at the University of Brasilia (UnB). It was an outstanding meeting with the presence of many fine scholars from Brazil and the larger world community.. The 1999 International Colloquium on Economic Dynamics and Economic Policy which was the result of the consolidation of efforts to stimulate and sustain a critical dialogue, continued to develop these critical themes leading to a series of colloquia that followed. These include the 2001 International Colloquium on Structural Change, Growth and Redistribution and the 2003 International Colloquium on Globalization, New Technologies and Economic Relations, both held in Brasilia, with the support of the UnB and other institutions and had the presence of scholars from various countries around the world.. Subsequent to this ...
Major transitions in biological evolution show the same pattern of sudden emergence of diverse forms at a new level of complexity. The relationships between major groups within an emergent new class of biological entities are hard to decipher and do not seem to fit the tree pattern that, following Darwins original proposal, remains the dominant description of biological evolution. The cases in point include the origin of complex RNA molecules and protein folds; major groups of viruses; archaea and bacteria, and the principal lineages within each of these prokaryotic domains; eukaryotic supergroups; and animal phyla. In each of these pivotal nexuses in lifes history, the principal types seem to appear rapidly and fully equipped with the signature features of the respective new level of biological organization. No intermediate grades or intermediate forms between different types are detectable. Usually, this pattern is attributed to cladogenesis compressed in time, combined with the ...
Major transitions in biological evolution show the same pattern of sudden emergence of diverse forms at a new level of complexity. The relationships between major groups within an emergent new class of biological entities are hard to decipher and do not seem to fit the tree pattern that, following Darwins original proposal, remains the dominant description of biological evolution. The cases in point include the origin of complex RNA molecules and protein folds; major groups of viruses; archaea and bacteria, and the principal lineages within each of these prokaryotic domains; eukaryotic supergroups; and animal phyla. In each of these pivotal nexuses in lifes history, the principal types seem to appear rapidly and fully equipped with the signature features of the respective new level of biological organization. No intermediate grades or intermediate forms between different types are detectable. Usually, this pattern is attributed to cladogenesis compressed in time, combined with the ...
The Comparative - Phylogenetic Method of Reconstructing Evolutionary History. Kramer, Elena M [1]. A molecular perspective on the reconstruction of morphological evolution.. JUST as understanding morphological evolution requires a clear picture of taxonomic relationships, a complete understanding of developmental evolution is dependent on reconstructing the evolution of gene lineages. Therefore, the first step in studying the evolution of genetic pathways that underlie morphological change is analyzing the phylogenetic relationships among the genes that participate in these pathways. The importance of this type of analysis will be discussed in the context of the floral organ identity program and the MADS box genes which play critical roles in this program. In particular, the evolutionary history of the APETALA3 and PISTILLATA gene lineages in the Ranunculales has the potential to shed light on the morphological diversification of this group. Current evidence suggests that duplications which ...
The main focus of my project is to learn more about morphological character evolution in a phylogenetic context.. One of the goals is to erect homology hypotheses of morphological characters. The morphological characters are then used as a data base for reconstructing of a hypothesis of phylogenetic relationships (=tree) in combination with existing DNA sequences or are mapped on existing trees to study the character evolution.. The emphasis of my research is to unravel annelid character evolution.. Several anatomical structures are studied: body wall muscles, epidermis and cuticle, and genital ducts, using different methods such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and routin histology.. Another goal of the project is to study the morphology of homologous characters; characters that come out as derived from a common ancestor in both DNA and morphological analyses and that have long been recognized by morphologists to unite a certain group of organisms, e.g. the clitellum of Clitellata and ...
BACKGROUND: Animal and plant species can harbour microbes that provide them with protection against enemies. These beneficial microbes can be a significant component of host defence that complement or replaces a repertoire of immunity, but they can also be costly. Given their impact on host and parasite fitness, defensive microbes have the potential to influence host-parasite interactions on an evolutionary timescale. RESULTS: Using a phenotypic framework, we explore the evolutionary and coevolutionary dynamics of a host-parasite interaction in the presence of defensive microbes. We show that costs of host-defensive microbe systems are critical in determining whether a defensive microbe based system or an immune system provides better host protection investment. Partitioning the coevolutionary dynamics yields testable predictions. The density of defensive microbes influences the strength of selection resulting from host - defensive microbe - parasite coevolutionary interactions. We find that they lessen
Introduction The publication of Darwins Origin of Species in 18591 marked one of the great revolutions in science. Darwins central idea, that species diverged through natural selection and are thus related by a branching pattern of common descent, provided a new materialistic explanation for the diversity of the natural world. How did evolutionary biology develop in South Africa over the subsequent 150 years, and what were the milestones along the way? What are its current strengths and roles in a modern democratic South Africa? To address these questions I review the South African literature on evolutionary biology, first as an historical narrative, and second with respect to noteworthy research themes. I also consider the extent to which sociological misinterpretation of Darwins ideas had an influence on the development of racist ideology in South Africa. Finally, I present the results of a bibliographic analysis of publication trends in evolutionary biology for South Africa, relative to ...
Due to regulations regarding the COVID-19 situation, all the SCCS Colloquium sessions with physical presence are cacelled until further notice. If you need to present your work as part of a graded project, please contact your advisor. Projects that need to and can be presented via videoconference as part of a graded exam can be hosted. The SC²S Colloquium is a forum giving students, guests, and members of the chair the opportunity to present their research insights, results, and challenges. Do you need ideas for your thesis topic? Do you want to meet your potential supervisor? Do you want to discuss your research with a diverse group of researchers, rehearse your conference talk, or simply cheer for your colleagues? This is the right place for you! When and where: Wednesdays at 3 pm, in the room 02.07.023. Guests are always welcome! You dont want to miss a talk? Subscribe to our mailing list and our Colloquium calendar (iCal link, updated regularly). ...
A Joint Meeting of the British Mathematical Colloquium (BMC) and the British Applied Mathematics Colloquium (BAMC) was held at the University of Cambridge from 11:00 on Monday 30th March 2015 to 13:00 on Thursday 2nd April 2015. This was the 4th Joint Meeting following Warwick (2002), Liverpool (2005) and Edinburgh (2010). ...
A Joint Meeting of the British Mathematical Colloquium (BMC) and the British Applied Mathematics Colloquium (BAMC) was held at the University of Cambridge from 11:00 on Monday 30th March 2015 to 13:00 on Thursday 2nd April 2015. This was the 4th Joint Meeting following Warwick (2002), Liverpool (2005) and Edinburgh (2010). ...
Virus-host biological interaction is a continuous coevolutionary process involving both host immune system and viral escape mechanisms. Flaviviridae family is composed of fast evolving RNA viruses that infects vertebrate (mammals and birds) and/or invertebrate (ticks and mosquitoes) organisms. These host groups are very distinct life forms separated by a long evolutionary time, so lineage-specific anti-viral mechanisms are likely to have evolved. Flaviviridae viruses which infect a single host lineage would be subjected to specific host-induced pressures and, therefore, selected by them. In this work we compare the genomic evolutionary patterns of Flaviviridae viruses and their hosts in an attempt to uncover coevolutionary processes inducing common features in such disparate groups. Especially, we have analyzed dinucleotide and codon usage patterns in the coding regions of vertebrate and invertebrate organisms as well as in Flaviviridae viruses which specifically infect one or both host types. ...
Genotyping and sequencing of a number of eukaryotic genomes provide us with an opportunity to study the temporal and functional character of evolutionary changes in metazoans. Here we provide a framework for identifying changes in evolutionary constraints on mutated positions in the human genome. Due to lack of SNP data, in the current analysis we captured only higher order patterns at the level of functional categories. But upon availability of resequencing data, using BaseDiver it is possible to achieve higher resolution. In this work we restricted the use of BaseDiver to coding regions only, where most of the base positions are under selection and the effects of hitchhiking are small, it can be used to identify changes in constraints in non-coding regions as well.. Recently outliers of evolutionary patterns like ultra-conserved elements in higher eukaryotes and highly accelerated regions in humans have been identified [4, 7]; here we attempt to capture the comprehensive spectrum of evolution ...
Evolution of digital organism at high mutation rates leads to survival of the flattest. The evolutionary origin of complex features
One of the most difficult problems in evolutionary paleontology [the study of fossils] has been the almost abrupt appearance of the major animal groups (A. G. Fisher, evolutionist, Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia, 1998, fossil section.). The formation of species has long represented one of the most central, yet also one of the most elusive subjects in evolutionary biology (Palumbi, Marine Speciation, Annual Review of Ecology & Systematics, 1994, p. 548.). As Darwin noted in the Origin of the Species, the abrupt emergence of arthropods in the fossil record during the Cambrian presents a problem for evolutionary biology (Osorio, Bacon & Whitington, American Scientist, May/June 1997, p. 244.). How natural selection operates at the molecular level is a major problem in evolutionary biology (Yokoyama, Color vision of the Coelacanth, Journal of Heredity, May/June, 2000.). Genetic variability is an open problem within Darwin theory (David Berlinski, Commentary, September, 1996, p. 38.). Indeed, the ...
View Notes - Minerals-1 from GEOL 1610 at North Texas. Ontogeny Recapitulates Phylogeny Ontogeny Recapitulates Phylogeny y Phylogeny ¡ the evolutionary development of any plant or animal. y Ontogeny
The idea of biological evolution has existed since ancient times, notably among Hellenists such as Epicurus, but the modern theory wasnt established until the 18th and 19th centuries, with scientists such as Jean-Baptiste Lamarck and Charles Darwin. While transmutation of species was accepted by a sizeable number of scientists before 1859, it was the publication of Charles Darwins The Origin of Species which provided the first cogent mechanism by which evolutionary change could persist: his theory of natural selection. Darwin was motivated to publish his work on evolution after receiving a letter from Alfred Russel Wallace, in which Wallace revealed his own discovery of natural selection. As such, Wallace is sometimes given shared credit for the theory of evolution. Darwins theory, though it succeeded in profoundly shaking scientific opinion regarding the development of life (and indeed resulted in a small social revolution), could not explain the source of variation in traits within a ...
Background Insights in to the onset of evolutionary novelties are fundamental to the knowledge of amniote diversification and origins. from the Mezen River Basin in Russia. We retrieved a well-supported clade thats characterized by a distinctive cheek morphology indicative of the tympanum extending across huge elements of the temporal area to an level not observed in various other amniotes, extant or fossil, and a braincase customized in displaying adjustments linked to a rise in auditory function obviously, unlike the braincase of every other Paleozoic tetrapod. Chlorothiazide manufacture Furthermore, we approximated the proportion of the tympanum region in accordance with the stapedial footplate for the basalmost taxon from the clade, which, Chlorothiazide manufacture at 231, is within close correspondence compared to that of contemporary amniotes with the capacity of effective impedance-matching hearing. Conclusions/Significance Using contemporary amniotes as analogues, the ownership of the ...
By Jacques R. Fresco, Olga Amosova, Peter Wei, Juan R. Alvarez-Dominguez, Damian Glumcher (auth.), Pierre Pontarotti (eds.). The annual Evolutionary Biology conferences in Marseilles serve to collect best scientists, advertise the trade of principles and inspire the formation of foreign collaborations.. This e-book includes the main crucial contributions provided on the 14thEvolutionary Biology assembly, which came about in September 2010. It includes 19 chapters geared up in line with the subsequent categories:. · Evolutionary Biology Concepts. · Biodiversity and Evolution. · Macroevolution. · Genome Evolution. Offering an up to date review of modern leads to the sector of evolutionary biology, this booklet is a useful resource of data for scientists, lecturers and complex scholars. ...
Adami C, Ofria C, Collier TC (2000). "Evolution of biological complexity". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97 (9): 4463-8. arXiv: ... However, the idea of a general trend towards complexity in evolution can also be explained through a passive process. This ... who proposed a model of cultural evolution which regards psychological and socio-cultural systems as analogous with biological ... This observation has led to the common misconception of evolution being progressive and leading towards what are viewed as " ...
Evolution of Biological Diversity. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-850304-0. Official website Google Scholar "Anne Magurran ... Magurran, Anne E.; Britain), Royal Society (Great (1999). Evolution of Biological Diversity. Current Biology. 20. Oxford ... Magurran completed her PhD at the University of Ulster on the biological diversity of native woodlands in Ireland. She then ... Throughout her career she has used fish communities to study biodiversity, the evolution of biodiversity, and on the role of ...
He elucidated socio-biological evolution. He expands the idea of the Pakistani philosopher Sir Muhammad Iqbal that every living ...
Evolution: Cosmic, Biological, and Social. Uchitel Publishing. pp. 274-289. Wheeler, William (1911). "The Ant Colony as an ... ISBN 978-0-06-251586-5. Bloom, Howard (2000). Global Brain: The Evolution of Mass Mind from the Big Bang to the 21st Century. ... On the origin and impact of information in the average evolution. Includes how life forms originate and from there evolve to ... Teilhard proposed that if life persists then planetization, as a biological process producing a global brain, would necessarily ...
The evolution of the biological thought ). Springer. ISBN 978-3-540-43213-5. Werner Linß, Werner Linb, Jochen Fanghänel: ... As the laser emits a radiation in the near infrared, in this wavelength regime the laser can interact with biological materials ... Prior to cutting by microtome, biological materials are usually placed in a more rigid fixative, in a process known as ... The vibrating microtome is usually used for difficult biological samples. The cut thickness is usually around 30-500 μm for ...
... evolution, biodiversity, and biological control. 4th. International Hymenopterists Conference. Collingwood, Victoria, Australia ... Braconids are often used as biological pest control agents, especially against aphids. Thousands of species of insects are used ... These groups may be clades that diverged early in the evolution of braconids. Cyclostomes are monophyletic whereas ... Mahr, S. (February 1998). "Know Your Friends: Aphidius Wasps". Midwest Biological Control News Online. University of Wisconsin- ...
doi:10.1111/j.1095-8312.1981.tb01840.x. Holmgren, H.; Enquist, M. (1999). "Dynamics of mimicry evolution". Biological Journal ... Endler, J. A. (1981). "An overview of the relationships between mimicry and crypsis". Biological Journal of the Linnean Society ... Holen, O.H.; Johnstone, R. A. (2004). "The Evolution of Mimicry under Constraints". The American Naturalist. 164 (5): 598-613. ... Norman, M.D.; Finn, J.; Tregenza, T. (2001). "Dynamic Mimicry in an Indo-Malayan Octopus". Proceedings: Biological Sciences. ...
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Pagel, M. (1999). "Inferring the historical patterns of biological evolution". Nature. 401 (6756): 877-84. Bibcode:1999Natur. ... punctuational evolution and human cultural and linguistic evolution. "PAGEL, Prof. Mark". Who's Who 2014, A & C Black, an ... Pagel's interests include evolution and the development of languages. Pagel was the editor-in-chief for the Encyclopedia of ... Mark Pagel at TED Encyclopedia of Evolution. 2 volume set. USA: OUP. 2002. ISBN 978-0-19-512200-8. Retrieved 24 March 2013. CS1 ...
... with implications for the evolution of bipedalism". Journal of Human Evolution. 47 (6): 453-478. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2004.08. ... Biological Theory. 5 (4): 326-336. doi:10.1162/BIOT_a_00062. S2CID 84164968.CS1 maint: ref duplicates default (link) Gowlett, J ... This could indicate the evolution of hairlessness around this time, as a lack of body hair would have left the skin exposed to ... List of fossil sites List of human evolution fossils Broom, R.; Talbot, J. T. (1949). "A New Type of Fossil Man". Nature. 164 ( ...
Biological evolution forms the theoretical backbone of CFT. Humans have evolved with at least three primal types of emotion ... CFT is largely built on the idea that the evolution of caring behavior has major regulatory and developmental functions. The ...
The Biological and Cultural Evolution of Cooperation, Springer. ISBN 978-3-319-50873-3 Tom R. Tyler, "Why People Cooperate: The ... The Biological and Cultural Evolution of Human Cooperation. Springer. ISBN 978-3-319-50873-3. Kohn, Alfie (1992). No Contest: ... It has been suggested that this is one reason for the evolution of complex emotions in higher life forms. Playing the iterated ... Hamilton, W.D. (1964). "The Genetical Evolution of Social Behaviour". Journal of Theoretical Biology, 7, 1-16. de Waal, Frans ( ...
Markert, B.; S. Fränzle; S. Wünschmann (2015). Chemical Evolution: The Biological System of the Element. Springer International ...
Wanninger, Andreas; Wollesen, Tim (2019). "The evolution of molluscs: The evolution of molluscs". Biological Reviews. 94 (1): ... "Nemertean and phoronid genomes reveal lophotrochozoan evolution and the origin of bilaterian heads". Nature Ecology & Evolution ... Hejnol, A. (4 August 2010). "A Twist in Time-The Evolution of Spiral Cleavage in the Light of Animal Phylogeny". Integrative ... Telford, Maximilian J. (2019). "Evolution: Arrow Worms Find Their Place on the Tree of Life". Current Biology. 29 (5): R152- ...
103-4 of Sapp, Jan (2004). "Evolving biological organization". Microbial phylogeny and evolution: concepts and controversies. ... This accident is what can spur the evolution of the RM system. Phages can acquire or use the enzyme from the host cell to ... A community consists of all of the biological individuals found within a given environment (more formally, within an ecosystem ... Stern, Adi; Sorek, Rotem (2011). "The phage-host arms race: Shaping the evolution of microbes". BioEssays. 33 (1): 43-51. doi: ...
ISBN 978-0-387-09293-5. Eigen M (October 1971). "Selforganization of matter and the evolution of biological macromolecules". ... "Evolution and the tree of life , Biology , Science". Khan Academy. Retrieved 2019-02-20. Heylighen F. "Complexity and Evolution ... Quasispecies represents the evolution of high-mutation-rate viruses such as HIV and sometimes single genes or molecules within ... Series B, Biological Sciences. 365 (1548): 1943-52. doi:10.1098/rstb.2010.0076. PMC 2880120. PMID 20478889. Eigen, Manfred; ...
Mayr, Ernst (1982). The Growth of Biological Thought: Diversity, Evolution, and Inheritance. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard ... Wright, Sewall (1984). Evolution and the Genetics of Populations: Genetics and Biometric Foundations Volume 1. Chicago, ... In 1864 Albert von Kölliker revived Geoffroy's theory that evolution proceeds by large steps, under the name of heterogenesis. ... p. 9. Bowler, Peter J. (2003). Evolution: The History of an Idea. Oakland, California: University of California Press. p. 127. ...
"Love is just a biological function of our evolution. It sounds cold, but at the same time, it's important to remember how ... You might as well come clean and admit that you're an atheist with certain values, which are historical, cultural, biological, ... John Burroughs (1837-1921): American naturalist and essayist important in the evolution of the U.S. conservation movement. ... Edward Clodd (1840-1930): English banker, writer and anthropologist, an early populariser of evolution, keen folklorist and ...
"The modern theory of biological evolution: an expanded synthesis". Naturwissenschaften. 91 (6): 255-276. Bibcode:2004NW.....91 ... Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection, as published in 1859, provided a selection mechanism for evolution, but not ... Neo-Darwinism is generally used to describe any integration of Charles Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection with ... Romanes used the term to describe the combination of natural selection and Weismann's germ plasm theory that evolution occurs ...
Evolution of the Appendix: A Biological 'Remnant' No More; By Duke Medicine News and Communications; Published: 20 August 2009 ... Smith H. F.; Parker W.; Kotzé, S. H.; Laurin, M. (2017). "Morphological evolution of the mammalian cecum and cecal appendix". ... This function is potentially a selective force for the evolution and maintenance of the appendix. Three morphotypes of cecal- ... improved understanding of gut immunity has merged with current thinking in biological and medical science, pointing to an ...
Biological science. Pearson Prentice Hall, New York. Futuyma, DJ, 2009. Evolution, pp. 349-350. Sinauer Assoc. Inc., Sunderland ... "Institute for Contemporary Evolution". Institute for Contemporary Evolution. Institute for Contemporary Evolution. Retrieved 12 ... Why evolution is true. Penguin, New York. Weiner, J 1995. The beak of the finch, a story of evolution in our time. In order of ... Institute for Contemporary Evolution Carroll-Loye Biological Research Consulting. ...
Bayer's series discussed the ongoing biological and sociological evolution. For studies of the female form, these women would ...
The growth of biological thought: diversity, evolution, and inheritance. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press: 256) "Ray, John ( ... The biological works were usually in Latin, the rest in English. His first publication, while at Cambridge, was the Catalogus ... Mayr Growth of biological thought p256; original was Ray, History of Plants. 1686, trans E. Silk. Keynes, Sir Geoffrey [1951] ... He was among the first to attempt a biological definition for the concept of species. John Ray was born in the village of Black ...
1982), The Growth of Biological Thought: Diversity, Evolution, and Inheritance. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press: ... Evolution 20 (2005):23-27 S. G Herman, "Wildlife biology and natural history: time for a reunion", The Journal of wildlife ... their evolution, their behavior, and their relationships with other species". This focus on organisms in their environment is ... while natural history included the biological and geological sciences. The two were strongly associated. During the heyday of ...
The growth of biological thought: diversity, evolution, and inheritance. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press: 256) Bringhurst, ... The biological use of the term species was first defined in 1686. In 1838, Joseph Smith answered the following question while ...
Evolutionary Ecology (journal) Morozov, Andrew (2013-12-06). "Modelling biological evolution: recent progress, current ... Methods in Ecology and Evolution - a journal in the field. Ecology and Evolution - Wiley Evolutionary Ecology - Springer. ... The main subfields of evolutionary ecology are life history evolution, sociobiology (the evolution of social behavior), the ... or the modern conception of evolution itself. The second is the notion of branching evolution, implying the common descent of ...
Boxshall, G.A. (2004). "The evolution of arthropod limbs". Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society. 79 (2): ... 2005). Henderson's Dictionary of Biological Terms (13th ed.). Pearson Education. p. 51. ISBN 978-0-13-127384-9. " ...
Hominid Evolution and Community Ecology: Prehistoric Human Adaptation in Biological Perspective. London: Academic Press. pp. ... The North American ECA school began in the mid-1970s with the pioneering work of archaeologist Thomas G. Wynn, biological ... Parker, Sue Taylor; Gibson, Kathleen R (1979). "A Developmental Model for the Evolution of Language and Intelligence in Early ... Donald, Merlin (1991). Origins of the Modern Mind: Three Stages in the Evolution of Culture and Cognition. Cambridge, MA: ...
https://doi.org/10.1108/ER-02-2018-0041 Tulachan, B. P., & Felver, T. B. (2019). The evolution of industrial relations in Nepal ... a biological evolutionary perspective. Labor History, 60(2), 126-143.https://doi.org/10.1080/0023656X.2019.1537030 Tulachan, B. ...
ISBN 0-691-08387-8. Mayr E . (1982). The growth of biological thought: diversity, evolution, and inheritance (1st ed.). ...
Olson M, Varki A. Sequencing the chimpanzee genome: insights into human evolution and disease.. Nat Rev Genet. 2003, 4 (1): 20- ... under selection for biological function.. " Mouse Genome Sequencing Consortium. Initial sequencing and comparative analysis of ...
Series B, Biological Sciences. May 2001, 356 (1409): 617-23. PMC 1088449. PMID 11375065. doi:10.1098/rstb.2001.0845.. ... MR1 antigen presentation to mucosal-associated invariant T cells was highly conserved in evolution. Proceedings of the National ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. December 2015, 290 (51): 30204-11. PMC 4683245. PMID 26468291. doi:10.1074/jbc.R115.685990 ...
Archer, M. and Clayton, C. (Eds.) (1984). Vertebrate Zoogeography & Evolution in Australasia: Animals in Space & Time. ... He is a Professor at the School of Biological, Earth & Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales. His previous ... Archer, M. (Ed.) (1987). Possums and Opossums: Studies in Evolution. Surrey Beatty & Sons in association with the Royal ... Professor Michael Archer, School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales. Retrieved ...
Those species that seek pest insects are considered beneficial 'biological control agents' and their presence encouraged in ... "Energetics and the evolution of body size in small terrestrial mammals" (PDF). Symposia of the Zoological Society of London ... biological pest control programmes.[45] Combined, insectivorous birds eat 400-500 million metric tons of arthropods annually.[ ... "Déjà vu: the evolution of feeding morphologies in the Carnivora". Integrative and Comparative Biology. 47 (1): 147-163. doi ...
Trends in Ecology and Evolution. 20 (6): 345-353. doi:10.1016/j.tree.2005.04.004. PMID 16701391. Archived from the original ( ... Linkages connect to nodes in a food web, which are aggregates of biological taxa called trophic species. Trophic species are ... Trends in Ecology and Evolution. 17 (6): 269-277. doi:10.1016/S0169-5347(02)02455-2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011- ... Post, D. M. (1993). "The long and short of food-chain length". Trends in Ecology and Evolution. 17 (6): 269-277. doi:10.1016/ ...
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"Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 361 (1465): 173-194. doi:10.1098/rstb.2005.1737. PMC ... Marine deposits showcase a variety of cetaceans and penguins, illustrating the evolution of both groups into modern ... Zhisheng, An; Kutzbach, John E.; Prell, Warren L.; Porter, Stephen C. (3 May 2001). "Evolution of Asian monsoons and phased ... "Dynamic topography control on Patagonian relief evolution as inferred from low temperature thermochronology". Earth and ...
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Raviña, Enrique (2011). "Vinca alkaloids". The evolution of drug discovery: From traditional medicines to modern drugs. John ... "Synthesis and biological evaluation of Vinca alkaloids and phomopsin hybrids". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 52 (1): 134-142 ...
Shettleworth, S. J. (2010). Cognition, Evolution and Behavior (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford.. .mw-parser-output cite.citation{ ... Despite the importance of numerous psychosocial factors, at its core, drug addiction involves a biological process: the ability ...
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May 2002). "Hemorrhagic fever viruses as biological weapons: medical and public health management". Journal of the American ... and rapid evolution death after a mean of three days."[163] ... It has the potential to be weaponised for use in biological ...
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The third chimpanzee: the evolution and future of the human animal.. *^ a b Sharman Apt Russell (2006). Hunger an unnatural ... "Cooking as a biological trait" (PDF). Comp Biochem Physiol a Mol Integr Physiol. 136 (1): 35-46. doi:10.1016/S1095-6433(03) ... In Ungar, Peter S.; Teaford, Mark F. Human Diet: Its Origins and Evolution. Westport, Connecticut: Bergin and Garvey. pp. 111- ... "Human Evolution," Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2007 Archived 2009-11-01 at WebCite Contributed by Richard B. Potts, B. ...
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This user accepts evolution as a biological fact.. This user understands biological evolution.. ...
This means evolution, population biology, organismal biology and biological diversity. It was first awarded in 1890. It comes ... For his work on the quantitative treatment of biological problems. 1900. Ernst Haeckel. For his long-continued and highly ... Distinguished for his work on molecular evolution, in particular on the role of stochastic events in determining the rate of ... for their fundamental work on the ecology, breeding and evolution of Darwin's finches on the Galapagos islands. This work has ...
"Barnacles: Structure, Function, Development and Evolution. Springer. pp. 197-246. ISBN 978-0-412-44420-3. .. ... The Biological Bulletin. 211 (3): 248-262. doi:10.2307/4134547. JSTOR 4134547. PMID 17179384.. ... to thoroughly understand at least one species before making the generalisations needed for his theory of evolution by natural ... "Remarkable convergent evolution in specialized parasitic Thecostraca (Crustacea)". BMC Biology. 7 (1): 15. doi:10.1186/1741- ...
Klein, Richard G. (1999). The Human Career: Human Biological and Cultural Origins (2nd ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago ... Findings Challenge Conventional Ideas on Evolution of Human Diet, Natural Selection Newswise, Retrieved on June 26, 2008. ...
"Human Evolution". History Channel. Archived from the original on 23 April 2008. Retrieved 17 May 2008.. ... including the possibility of the permanent alteration of our biological nature. These concerns are shared by other philosophers ... The use of tools by early humans was partly a process of discovery and of evolution. Early humans evolved from a species of ... "Evolution of Modern Humans: Archaic Homo sapiens Culture". Palomar College. Retrieved 31 March 2007.. ...
"Human Evolution (Netherlands: Springer) 3 (4): 297-308. ISSN (Print) 1824-310X (Online) 0393-9375 (Print) 1824-310X (Online). ... Russo J, Russo I (1987). "Biological and molecular bases of mammary carcinogenesis". Laboratory Investigation 57 (2): 112-37. ...
Evolution. Further information: Evolution of cephalopods. Fossil history and phylogeny. Cephalopods have existed for 500 ... The Biological Bulletin. 197 (1): 26-39. doi:10.2307/1542994. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 March 2011.. ... Hence, greater transcriptome plasticity has come as the cost of slower genome evolution. High levels of RNA editing do not ... Octopuses offer many possibilities in biological research, including their ability to regenerate limbs, change the colour of ...
Australian Biological Resources Study (16 April 2014). "Species Grus (Mathewsia) rubicunda (Perry, 1810)". Australian Faunal ... Evolution. *Origin of birds. *Origin of flight. *Evolution of birds. *Darwin's finches ...
The evolution of stalk positioning in the Caulobacter cladeEdit. Diverse positioning of the stalks. Caulobacter crescentus ( ... "Biological Properties and Classification of the Caulobacter Group". Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 28 (3): 231-95. doi:10.1128/ ... On the basis of experimental evolution studies in C. crescentus, Ackermann et al.[19] suggested that aging is probably a ... "Experimental evolution of aging in a bacterium". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 7: 126. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-7-126. PMC 2174458 ...
Biomechanics is the study of the structure and function of biological systems by means of the methods of Mechanics. ... Genomics and knowledge of human genetics and human evolution is having increasingly significant influence on medicine, as the ... Biophysics is an interdisciplinary science that uses the methods of physics and physical chemistry to study biological systems. ... Histology is the study of the structures of biological tissues by light microscopy, electron microscopy and ...
"The origin and early evolution of dinosaurs" (PDF). Biological Reviews. 85 (1): 55-110. doi:10.1111/j.1469-185X.2009.00094.x ... Series B, Biological Sciences. 309 (1139): 395-460. Bibcode:1985RSPTB.309..395C. doi:10.1098/rstb.1985.0092.. ... Rauhut, O.W.M. (2003). "The interrelationships and evolution of basal theropod dinosaurs". Special Papers in Palaeontology. 69 ... Benton, Michael J. (1999). "Origin and early evolution of dinosaurs". In Farlow, James O.; Brett-Surman, M.K. The Complete ...
The evolution of biological complexity is one important outcome of the process of evolution.[1] Evolution has produced some ... Constructive neutral evolution[edit]. Recently work in evolution theory has proposed that by relaxing selection pressure, which ... With selection, evolution can also produce more complex organisms. Complexity often arises in the co-evolution of hosts and ... Stoltzfus, Arlin (1999). "On the Possibility of Constructive Neutral Evolution". Journal of Molecular Evolution. 49 (2): 169- ...
A Critique of the paper: "Do fish have nociceptors: Evidence for the evolution of a vertebrate sensory system" Archived March ... and Biological Perspectives [1] Published in Reviews in Fisheries Science, Volume 15, Issue 1 & 2 January 2007, pages 75 - 167 ... "Do fish have nociceptors: Evidence for the evolution of a vertebrate sensory system", 2003 by Sneddon, Braithwaite and Gentle. ...
Biological Evolution. NY Times on Martin Nowak: Cooperation is third fundamental element of evolution. By Howard Rheingold, 10 ... Nowak has argued that cooperation is one of the three basic principles of evolution. The other two are mutation and selection. ... While cooperation may be central to evolution, however, it poses questions that are not easy to answer. How can competing ... "We see this principle everywhere in evolution where interesting things are happening," Dr. Nowak said. ...
Biological Evolution Scientific theories of evolution seek to explain the mechanisms of the observable FACT of biological ... Labels: biological evolution, Dawkins, Dobzhansky, Ernst Mayr, fallacies of logic, fossil record, Gould, macroevolution, ... Since the advent of modern molecular genetics, biological evolution has come to be understood as a change in genotype - a ... The fact of biological evolution is the only route to understanding life on this planet. ...
The evolution of biological complexity is one important outcome of the process of evolution.[1] Evolution has produced some ... Constructive neutral evolution[edit]. Recently work in evolution theory has proposed that by relaxing selection pressure, which ... With selection, evolution can also produce more complex organisms. Complexity often arises in the co-evolution of hosts and ... Stoltzfus, Arlin (1999). "On the Possibility of Constructive Neutral Evolution". Journal of Molecular Evolution. 49 (2): 169- ...
That preliminary but tantalizing finding hints at some larger phenomenon driving the mechanisms of neo-Darwinian evolution. ... Evolution as Biological Thermodynamics. When Guy Hoelzer runs computer simulations of organisms living in the modeling ... In a biological system, if the function is to break down gradients and increase the rate of entropy production, natural ... The way I think about it in the biological sense is from thermodynamic point of view, which is the same way chemists think of ...
The evolution of life on earth from simple matter is accepted as a fact by secular science. The Bible-and the evidence-show a ... What We Really Know about Biological Evolution. Among Christians, there is a wide variety of views on biological evolution. ... Evolution Exposed: Earth Science. In this follow-up to the best-selling Evolution Exposed: Biology, students will learn how to ... The topic of biological evolution is a very broad topic that cannot be covered in detail in this chapter. The companion to this ...
Biological evolution is "a process that results in heritable changes in a population spread over many generations." [1] ... Retrieved from "http://www.conservapedia.com/index.php?title=Biological_evolution&oldid=934563" ...
Biological Evolution Cultural Evolution Biological Theory Niche Construction Cultural Transmission These keywords were added by ... Sperber D, Claidière N (2006) Why modeling cultural evolution is still such a challenge. Biological Theory 1: 20-22.CrossRef ... Huxley JS (1955) Evolution, cultural and biological. Yearbook of Anthropology 2-25.Google Scholar ... Campbell DT (1975) On the conflicts between biological and social evolution and between psychology and moral tradition. ...
Volkenstein M.V. (1991) Physical Approaches to Biological Evolution. In: Peliti L. (eds) Biologically Inspired Physics. NATO ... J. Wicken, Evolution, Thermodynamics and Information. Oxford Univ. Press, N. Y., Oxford, 1987.Google Scholar ... M. Kimura, The Neutral Theory of Molecular Evolution. Cambridge Univ. Press, London, N. Y., Melbourne, Sidney, 1983.CrossRef ... C. Anfinsen, The Molecular Basis of Evolution. John Wiley and Sons, N. Y. 1959.Google Scholar ...
Biological Anthropology, Primatology and Evolution 2015. Biological Anthropology, Primatology and Evolution 2015. .addthis_ ... Receive email alerts on new books, offers and news in Biological Anthropology, Primatology and Evolution 2015. ... Evolution of the Rodents Advances in Phylogeny, Functional Morphology and Development. Cox, Philip G. Hautier, Lionel Published ... Ecology, Evolution and Behaviour of Wild Cattle Implications for Conservation. Melletti, Mario Burton, James Published: October ...
Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior (EEB). The EEB Research Group strives to understand the natural world through the lens of ... Research areas offered by the EEB group are designed to understand major concepts in ecology, evolution, behavior, and ... Biological [email protected](414) 382-1740GLRF Main Building 137 ...
MadSci Network: Evolution Query: Re: What criteria unambiguously define biological evolution?. Date: Thu Jan 27 10:11:34 2000. ... Evolution archives Try the links in the MadSci Library for more information on Evolution. MadSci Home , Information , Search , ... Biological evolution is the change in organisms over time, often in response to natural selection, such that the descendants ... Next, benefit: Evolution does not require natural selection to occur, i.e. a genetic change in an organism does not have to be ...
Errors In Protein Structure Sparked Evolution Of Biological Complexity. by Sam Savage ... may have boosted the evolution of biological complexity. Flaws in the "packing" of proteins that make them more unstable in ... "I hope that it causes us to pause and think about how evolution operates in new ways that we havent thought about before." ... Over four billion years of evolution, plants and animals grew far more complex than their single-celled ancestors. But a new ...
Effect of psychological bias separates cultural from biological evolution Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ... Effect of psychological bias separates cultural from biological evolution. Nicolas Claidière, Simon Kirby and Dan Sperber ... 1) essentially implemented a search algorithm to find pleasing tunes, albeit one with key similarities to biological evolution ... 2012) Evolution of music by public choice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109(30):12081-12086. ...
... Carlos A. Cañas1 and Felipe Cañas2 ... One way to understand autoimmunity is through knowledge of the biological significance of evolution. Since a specialized system ... Teleost fish has TNF-α and TNF-α receptors and the human recombinant TNF-α produces biological effects such as macrophage ... Such receptors were highly conserved during evolution and were first identified in Drosophila melanogaster [7]. The TLRs are ...
... www.talkorigins.org/faqs/evolution-definition.html][[Microevolution]] occurs in terms of biological evolution, but [[ ... Biological evolution is "a process that results in [[heritable]] changes in a [[population]] spread over many [[generations ... View source for Biological evolution. ← Biological evolution. Jump to: navigation, search You do not have permission to edit ...
Charles Darwin viewed evolution as a gradual emergence of new varieties of life from previous forms over long periods. A ... Biological anthropologists explore many of these environmental pressures and investigate the adaptations that populations ... This debate between acclimatization and adaptation is at the crux of what a biological anthropologist might study. They employ ... not an actual adaptation in the population that demonstrates evolution. ...
The evolution of biological complexity is one important outcome of the process of evolution. Evolution has produced some ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Adami, C.; Ofria, C.; Collier, T. C. (2000). "Evolution of biological complexity ... With selection, evolution can also produce more complex organisms. Complexity often arises in the co-evolution of hosts and ... Stoltzfus, Arlin (1999). "On the Possibility of Constructive Neutral Evolution". Journal of Molecular Evolution. 49 (2): 169- ...
The Ecology and Evolution research groups interests cover the interactions of species with their environment. We are ... Research Group: Ecology and Evolution. Currently Active: Yes. The Ecology and Evolution research groups interests cover the ... List of related projects to Ecology and Evolution. Related Projects. Status. A genome-wide approach to understand domestication ... List of all staff members in Ecology and Evolution. Staff Member. Primary Position. ...
Biological Evolution: Facts and Theories was a five-day conference held in March 2009 by the Pontifical Gregorian University in ...
Engineered Protein "Evolution" Proves Biological Complexity. Acts & Facts. 42 (3): 13-15. ... Evolution and Functional Impact of Rare Coding Variation from Deep Sequencing of Human Exomes. Science. 337 (6090): 64-69. ... The main problem regarding false ideas about protein evolution is one of perception associated with the steady diet of ... However, when we see biological systems that are magnitudes of complexity more highly designed and engineered than the devices ...
... fees and contact details for Biological Sciences (Evolution, Ecology and Behaviour) at University of Liverpool on prospects.ac. ... Biological Sciences (Evolution, Ecology and Behaviour). Institution. University of Liverpool · University of Liverpool. ... Biological Sciences (Evolution, Ecology and Behaviour). Institution. University of Liverpool · University of Liverpool. ... Ultimately, our goal is to understand the principles that underlie biological diversity - be this why individual mice behave ...
Micro snails we scraped from sidewalk cracks help unlock details of ancient earths biological evolution. ... Using the rates of evolution calculated in our tree, we were able to apply these rates using how the shells look today, to ... By sampling organisms that are alive today, we can ask deeper questions about the evolution that happened millions of years ago ... Now, geochemists will compare their notes to our biological insights, and our understanding of ancient earth will continue to ...
Magurran, Anne E. is the author of Evolution of Biological Diversity with ISBN 9780198503040 and ISBN 0198503040. ... Evolution of Biological Diversity. Evolution of Biological Diversity. by Magurran, Anne E., May, Robert M. by Magurran, Anne E. ...
Model explains rapid transition toward division of labor in biological evolution. PLOS ... Biological organisms are highly complex and are comprised of many different parts that function together to ensure the survival ... It is the first model to show the evolution of complete germ-soma differentiation, where one part of the colonys cells (germ) ... In the model, the division of labor occurs through the evolution of the ability to develop in a variety of ways (developmental ...
Evolution of Plant Body Plans. The conquest of land by plants over 450 million years ago was one of the most significant events ... Evolution and Development 10, 176-186.. 12.Bennett, T.A., et al. (2014) Plasma membrane-targeted PIN proteins drive shoot ... 2. The evolution of branching mechanisms.. Diverse branching forms have arisen independently in both the gametophyte and ... 11.Fujita, T., et al. (2008) Convergent evolution of shoots in land plants: lack of auxin polar transport in moss shoots. ...
... sets out in this volume a general analysis of this selection process that applies equally to biological evolution, the reaction ... actually analysis antibody antigen areas of science argue biological evolution biological species causal cells change in ... Science and Selection: Essays on Biological Evolution and the Philosophy of Science. Cambridge Studies in Philosoph. Cambridge ... Science and Selection: Essays on Biological Evolution and the Philosophy of .... David L. Hull. No preview available - 2000. ...
You are required to identify the program to which you are applying (Cell & Molecular Biology or Ecology & Evolution). ... Students with an undergraduate major in chemistry, physics or mathematics and minimal preparation in biological sciences also ...
Evolutionary Dynamics and Information Hierarchies in Biological Systems. Douglas Braaten (Editor). ISBN: 978-1-573-31906-5 ... Douglas Braaten is the editor of Evolutionary Dynamics and Information Hierarchies in Biological Systems, published by Wiley. ... Evolutionary Dynamics and Information Hierarchies in Biological Systems: Aspen Center for Physics Workshop. Organisms use a ... Although these areas represent a wide breadth of biological phenomena, several unifying themes emerged through workshop ...
Describe trends in human evolution.. Explain trends in human evolution.. Discuss trends in human evolution. ... NZ Level 8: Biological sciences/Evolution. From Wikibooks, open books for an open world ... Describe processes and patterns of evolution.. Explain processes and patterns of evolution.. Discuss processes and patterns of ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?title=NZ_Level_8:_Biological_sciences/Evolution&oldid=2182755" ...
... and the later biological evolution (from 10 billions years to now)?Why we are separating Universal evolution into two separated ... Where do you think human evolution is headed, how do you think we will look in 1 million plus years from now? ... Why we dont search the evolutionary link between the prior cosmological evolution (Big Bang to 10 billions years) ...
... By Hugh Ross - January 29, 2018 ... Martín-Durán et al., "Convergent Evolution," 45.. *Carolin B. Albertin and Clifton W. Ragsdale, "More Than One Way to a Central ... José M. Martín-Durán et al., "Convergent Evolution of Bilaterian Nerve Cords," Nature 553 (January 4, 2018): 45-50, doi:10.1038 ... Biological convergence repeatedly arising in circumstances where the forces driving natural selection are vastly different ...
You can search across as many journals and collections as you wish. Each time you click on one of the boxes below, you can add a new parameter.. ...
  • Describing and understanding the evolution of this diversity of body plans - from vertebrates such as humans and fish to the numerous invertebrate groups including sponges, insects, molluscs, and the many groups of worms - is a major goal of evolutionary biology. (oxfordscholarship.com)
  • Evolution is accepted by the scientific community because all available evidence supports the central conclusions of evolutionary science: that life on Earth has evolved and species share common ancestors and genomes. (geosociety.org)
  • Current research themes and future prospects are highlighted including phylogeny reconstruction, comparative developmental biology, the value of different sources of data and the importance of fossils, homology assessment, character evolution, phylogeny of major groups of animals, and genome evolution. (oxfordscholarship.com)
  • There are, however, three fundamental problems with this and all other examples of inferring Darwinian evolution on the basis of fossil evidence. (discovery.org)
  • In 1859, Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species described these changes in detail and showed that they indicate that all life on Earth is related through descent with modification and showed that these changes can be explained by natural selection operating on random variations in organisms-the process we now know as biological evolution. (geosociety.org)
  • The short-term adaptive evolution demonstrated by the ability of viruses to evolve and adapt to new vaccines, or simply to new environmental conditions, is readily comparable to the longer-term evolution of more advanced species. (geosociety.org)
  • These topics are integrated in the light of a 'new animal phylogeny', to provide fresh insights into the patterns and processes of animal evolution. (oxfordscholarship.com)
  • From major elements such as carbon and nitrogen to trace elements such as arsenic and uranium, faculty and students in the ESS department study the biological, chemical, and physical processes driving their cycling through land systems (including soils, lakes, streams, and groundwater), oceans, and atmosphere. (stanford.edu)
  • Few major questions in biological evolution have been as daunting to solve as the evolution of social behavior. (nescent.org)
  • Since then, we have continued to uncover details of life's history, and biologists have elucidated the genetic and molecular basis for evolution. (geosociety.org)
  • and the third is that fossils cannot, in principle, establish biological relationships. (discovery.org)
  • GSA opposes teaching creationism alongside evolution in any science classroom and rejects the characterization of evolution as scientifically controversial. (geosociety.org)
  • The focus of this volume is at the level of major animal groups, the morphological innovations that define them, and the mechanisms of change to their embryology that have resulted in their evolution. (oxfordscholarship.com)
  • Human activities, such as urbanization and agriculture, have profound effects on landscapes by modifying their physical and biological properties. (stanford.edu)
  • Evolution is not a static idea but a growing concept added to by scientific observation, testing, and debate. (geosociety.org)
  • Scientific discoveries in these fields and related disciplines have progressively sharpened our understanding of evolution, which is now established as a well-tested fact. (geosociety.org)
  • The Earth's environments have been shaped by biological evolution over geologic timescales, and biological evolution has in turn responded to environmental evolution. (stanford.edu)
  • Studies of Earth's history, including the evolution of life on Earth, aid in the quest to understand how the Earth-life system functions and in the search for natural resources. (geosociety.org)
  • The Geological Society of America strongly supports the teaching of evolution and the directly related concept of deep time as part of science curricula at all levels of education. (geosociety.org)
  • The evolution of life on Earth stands as one of the central concepts of modern science. (geosociety.org)
  • Trends in Ecology and Evolution 15: 27-32. (springer.com)
  • Trends in Ecology and Evolution 11: 453-457. (springer.com)
  • The Ecology and Evolution research group's interests cover the interactions of species with their environment. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • What does Ecology and Evolution at the UvA have to offer me? (uva.nl)
  • The Master's track Ecology and Evolution builds on the internationally renowned research of the Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED). (uva.nl)
  • However, feedbacks between ecology and evolution may challenge the ability of current models to make long-term predictions for these examples. (umich.edu)
  • That preliminary but tantalizing finding hints at some larger phenomenon driving the mechanisms of neo-Darwinian evolution. (wired.com)
  • 2. The evolution of branching mechanisms. (bristol.ac.uk)
  • It also suggests some intriguing new factors that could be of great significance in the evolution of biological molecules and the mechanisms that regulate their behaviour. (nih.gov)
  • As biological organisms we are composed of highly complex mechanisms, including our gene expression circuits, our cell signaling networks, and our brains. (hiit.fi)
  • This is a contribution to the history of scientific advance in the past 70 years concerning the identification of genetic information, its molecular structure, the identification of its functions and the molecular mechanisms of its evolution. (mdpi.com)
  • We hypothesized that the biological characteristics of H5N1 viruses circulating in ducks are evolving rapidly by mechanisms that have not previously been detected. (pnas.org)
  • Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include other mechanisms of evolution, such as genetic drift, gene flow through migration, and co-evolution. (nextgenscience.org)
  • Fortunately, our understanding of the genetic mechanisms responsible for network change during evolution can provide a means to integrate the observed data from multiple species. (umn.edu)
  • Chen J-M, Cooper DN, Chuzhanova N et al (2007) Gene conversion: mechanisms, evolution and human disease. (springer.com)
  • From microbial populations to ecological networks or aggregation patterns and critical transitions, I will show how a multidisciplinary approach combining physics and mathematics with biology helps identify the relevant underlying biological mechanisms. (umich.edu)
  • [1] Microevolution occurs in terms of biological evolution, but macroevolution does not. (conservapedia.com)
  • Thus, in certain respects it appears reasonable to consider the biological and social macroevolution as a single macroevolutionary process. (socionauki.ru)
  • An important notion that may contribute to the improvement of the operationalization level as regards the comparison between the two types of macroevolution is the one that we suggested some time ago - the social aromorphosis (that was developed as a counterpart to the notion of biological aromorphosis well established within Russian evolutionary biology). (socionauki.ru)
  • In our paper we discuss a number of regularities that describe biological and social macroevolution and that employ the notions of social and biological aromorphosis such as ones of the module evolution (or the evolutionary 'block assemblage'), 'payment for arogenic progress' etc. (socionauki.ru)
  • Polanyi emphasized the important role of information in biological phenomena but considered this notion as something alien to physics 3 . (springer.com)
  • Although these areas represent a wide breadth of biological phenomena, several unifying themes emerged through workshop discussions. (wiley.com)
  • We suggest that this commonality is constraining and provides a useful new approach towards understanding biological and psychological phenomena. (hiit.fi)
  • Complex biological systems embody some of the most fascinating phenomena observed in nature. (umich.edu)
  • 2005) The Evolution of Cultural Diversity: A Phylogenetic Approach. (springer.com)
  • Magurran, Anne E. is the author of 'Evolution of Biological Diversity' with ISBN 9780198503040 and ISBN 0198503040. (valorebooks.com)
  • In LS4: Biological Evolution: Unity and Diversity, performance expectations are designed for students to demonstrate an understanding of how organisms change over time in response to changes in the environment. (hawaii.edu)
  • Performance expectations in high school LS4: Biological Evolution: Unity and Diversity call for students to explore evidence of evolution and common ancestry. (hawaii.edu)
  • Mutations are usually deleterious, but they provide the diversity necessary to drive evolution. (mcdonaldobservatory.org)
  • Radiation bursts may spur evolution by intermittently enlarging the genomic diversity upon which natural selection is believed to operate," Scalo said. (mcdonaldobservatory.org)
  • A phylogenomic approach was employed to model the evolution of R. toxicus to explain the low genetic diversity observed among isolates collected during a 30-year period of sampling in three regions of Australia, gain insight into the taxonomy of Rathayibacter , and provide a framework for studying these bacteria. (asm.org)
  • Bailey JA, Eichler EE (2006) Primate segmental duplications: crucibles of evolution, diversity and disease. (springer.com)
  • Unfortunately, biology is fraught with seeming exceptions and ambiguities, because the most accurate description of any biological process is that it follows the rules of chemistry and physics. (madsci.org)
  • Using a modern approach to evolutionary biology called cladistics, which utilizes genetic information in combination with a variety of other data to evaluate biological relationships that emerge over the ages, Parker and colleagues found that the appendix has evolved at least twice, once among Australian marsupials and another time among rats, lemmings and other rodents, selected primates and humans. (phys.org)
  • Thus, has now entered the realm of 'self propelled' evolution, dependant on our transcendental ability to improve on naturalistic biology with cyborgs and cures for ageing, GM and all that jazz. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • Biology makes culture possible and culture influences the direction of evolution. (biology-online.org)
  • Cognitive Evolution suggests that the high order mental behaviors of Homo sapiens are rooted in the same biology as the moth's attraction to light, worker bees' foreknowledge of their assignments, ants' knowledge of the mechanics to execute the architectural design of an ant hill, or a female cat's instinct to open the umbilical sack after giving birth. (eurobuch.com)
  • One of the most challenging aspects of theoretical systems biology lies in the accurate reconstruction of biological networks. (umn.edu)
  • There is a lot of literature out there now that takes apart the biology/culture distinction -- and I think any discussion of evolution has to question this. (ning.com)
  • Chen, Bor-Sen is the author of 'Systems Evolutionary Biology : Biological Network Evolution Theory, Stochastic Evolutionary Game Strategies, and Applications to Systems Synthetic Biology', published 2018 under ISBN 9780128140727 and ISBN 0128140720. (valorebooks.com)
  • Whether one believes in the theory of dynamic biological change and evolution or a more static creationist model of biology, one cannot deny we are biological beings with certain characteristics that largely distinguish us from other animals. (flowofhistory.com)
  • As a contribution to the history of scientific investigations, we trace here a sequence of steps of conceptual and experimental approaches to understand microbial evolution at the molecular level. (mdpi.com)
  • In this perspective paper we will discuss (a) the conditions that can enhance the "foraging efficacy gain," (b) the possible approaches to implementation of POC and their costs and benefits, and (c) a stepwise approach to develop appropriate POC methods for the optimization of biological pest control. (frontiersin.org)
  • The aims of this perspective paper are to discuss (a) the conditions under which the impact of POC on biological pest control will be highest, (b) the costs and benefits of possible approaches to POC implementation, and (c) a stepwise approach for the development of POC methods for the optimization of biological pest control. (frontiersin.org)
  • The different approaches include statistical and mathematical ecology, molecular evolution, evolution of long-lasting interactions, behavioral ecology or evolution complex quantitative traits. (ups-tlse.fr)
  • An important new book by the author of the bestselling text Defending Evolution:A Guide to the Creation/Evolution Controversy, this title examines the controversial issues surrounding this central concept of life science and explores students' common scientific misconceptions, describes approaches for teaching topics and principles of evolution, and offers strategies for handling the various problems some students have with the idea of evolution due to religious influences. (abebooks.com)
  • Computers in Biological Education: Simulation Approaches. (ed.gov)
  • Biological systems' dynamics represent a prime example of complex behaviour, providing a powerful motivation and application domain for computational modelling. (sicsa.ac.uk)
  • The complex behaviour observed in biological dynamics is often the result of a non-trivial network of interactions between individual components of the biological system: this is true at a variety of scales and level of abstractions, from physiology, to neuroscience, to molecular interactions within a single cell. (sicsa.ac.uk)
  • Evolution of Proteomic Methods for Analysis of Complex Biological Samples - Implications for Personalized Medicine, Integrative Proteomics Hon-Chiu Leung, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/29613. (intechopen.com)
  • Receive email alerts on new books, offers and news in Biological Anthropology, Primatology and Evolution 2015. (cambridge.org)
  • 1 ) essentially implemented a search algorithm to find pleasing tunes, albeit one with key similarities to biological evolution. (pnas.org)
  • Why we don't search the evolutionary link between the prior cosmological evolution (Big Bang to 10 billions years) and the later biological evolution (from 10 billions years to now)?Why we are separating Universal evolution into two separated blocks? (yahoo.com)
  • Biological evolution is "a process that results in heritable changes in a population spread over many generations . (conservapedia.com)
  • Some of these changes can be attributed to individuals' bodies making physiological adjustments to their environment ( acclimatization ), not an actual adaptation in the population that demonstrates evolution. (howstuffworks.com)
  • This rapid adaptation might be disastrous in the case of antibiotic resistance across a bacterial population or evolution of the HIV population within a person to evade treatment. (vt.edu)
  • which unlike natural evolution leads to ethical problems and putting us out of balance with nature by harming our environment through over population etc. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • Biological evolution is defined as any genetic change in a population that is inherited over several generations. (thoughtco.com)
  • For an event to be considered an instance of evolution, changes have to occur on the genetic level of a population and be passed on from one generation to the next. (thoughtco.com)
  • HS-LS4-1 Communicate scientific information that common ancestry and biological evolution are supported by multiple lines of empirical evidence. (hawaii.edu)
  • Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on a conceptual understanding of the role each line of evidence has relating to common ancestry and biological evolution. (nextgenscience.org)
  • Aristotle's Ladder, Darwin's Tree : The Evolution of Visual Metaphors for Biological Order. (diva-portal.org)
  • This talk will show how Darwinian evolution can be formulated in that framework also as computational learning. (hiit.fi)
  • He also has interests in computational neuroscience, evolution and artificial intelligence. (hiit.fi)
  • The unifying contribution of this dissertation is a demonstration at multiple scales of how to systematically integrate DNA synthesis, sequencing, high-throughput assays, and computational methods to interrogate biological systems and learn design principles that expand our engineering capabilities. (harvard.edu)
  • B.-O. Küppers, Molecular Theory of Evolution. (springer.com)
  • Discussion of everything related to the Theory of Evolution. (biology-online.org)
  • A rising number of publications argue for a major revision or even a replacement of the standard theory of evolution [2-14], indicating that this cannot be dismissed as a minority view but rather is a widespread feeling among scientists and philosophers alike. (evolutionnews.org)
  • The theory of evolution has caused controversy from the time of its introduction until today. (thoughtco.com)
  • There are no weaknesses in the theory of evolution. (intelligentdesign.org)
  • The terms of the theory of evolution 'struggle for existence', 'selection' and others are considered from the point of view of the interpretation of facts. (vixra.org)
  • In order for the theory of evolution to be complete and as objective as possible, it must be based on primary factors, and interpretations should be kept to a minimum. (vixra.org)
  • The article discusses Darwin's theory and the modern theory of evolution in the context of these problems. (vixra.org)
  • Evolutionary Dynamics and Information Hierarchies in Biological Systems: Aspen Center for Physics Workshop. (wiley.com)
  • Douglas Braaten is the editor of Evolutionary Dynamics and Information Hierarchies in Biological Systems, published by Wiley. (wiley.com)
  • Modelling of biological networks is often divided into two sub-problems: given the structure of the interaction network (i.e., which components interact with each other), one may be interested in reconstructing the dynamics of the individual nodes from partial observations of (some of) the nodes' states, using techniques from system identification to estimate states and parameters of the system. (sicsa.ac.uk)
  • C. Anfinsen, The Molecular Basis of Evolution. (springer.com)
  • M. Kimura, The Neutral Theory of Molecular Evolution. (springer.com)
  • Some evolutionary biologists claimed that this study showed how amino acids could change (mutate) and not destroy a protein's function during that process of change, illustrating how molecular evolution could be possible. (icr.org)
  • Re: What criteria unambiguously define biological evolution? (madsci.org)
  • I suggest you first reflect on and define biological evolution, then reflect on and define etc., ... and then the interrelationship will simply pop out into view. (biology-online.org)
  • Stephen J. Gould, in Evolution Now: A Century After Darwin , ed. (answersingenesis.org)
  • Darwin & Wallace [ 1 , 2 ] elaborated on this theory to explain many important biological questions. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The term Darwin most often used to refer to biological evolution was "descent with modification," which remains a good brief definition of the process today. (nap.edu)
  • 1 Such was professed by Eugenie Scott, the de facto head of the Darwin lobby, while speaking to the media in response to the Texas State Board of Education's 2009 vote to require students to learn about both the scientific evidence for and against neo-Darwinian evolution. (intelligentdesign.org)
  • ICBCE 2020 has teamed up with the Special Journal Issue on Biological Clocks and Evolution . (waset.org)
  • The MRes Evolution: From the Galapagos to the 21st Century brings together academics from 9 different Schools and Departments across the University of Southampton. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • This is the course page for MRes Evolution: from the Galapagos to the 21st Century at the University of Southampton. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • We also suggest career opportunities open to you as a University of Southampton graduate of MRes Evolution: from the Galapagos to the 21st Century. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • Biological, cultural and technological evolution? (biology-online.org)
  • Would someone be able to explain to me the interrelationships between biological, cultural and technological evolution? (biology-online.org)
  • Technological evolution enables people to adapt or change their environment to meet their needs. (flowofhistory.com)
  • Parallel evolution in jaws and teeth helped early mammals diversify their diets. (the-scientist.com)
  • Therefore, beyond its core activities on fundamental research, the laboratory is committed to the transfer of knowledge through college education, communication events oriented towards the general public, as well as interactions with the administrators and guardians of biodiversity and biological resources, of sustainable development or of public health. (ups-tlse.fr)
  • While this was a classic case of human-guided bioengineering in a high-tech laboratory environment, it was hardly an example of naturalistic evolution in a real cell or organism. (icr.org)
  • The evolution of life on earth from simple matter is accepted as a fact by secular science. (answersingenesis.org)
  • David Hull, one of the dominant figures in contemporary philosophy of science, sets out in this volume a general analysis of this selection process that applies equally to biological evolution, the reaction of the immune. (google.com)
  • Campbell DT (1975) On the conflicts between biological and social evolution and between psychology and moral tradition. (springer.com)
  • Their experimental design, however, emphasizes the role of selection at the expense of other fundamental features of human cultural evolution that need to be taken into account to study the evolution of real musical culture. (pnas.org)
  • Fighting over territory may be a fundamental biological impulse, but it's become much rarer , particularly since World War II. (slate.com)
  • Hallpike 1986), whereas the opposite camp insists that the cultural evolution demonstrates all the key Darwinian evolutionary traits and that is why the structure of the research in cultural evolution should share all the fundamental traits of the structure of the research in biological evolution (Mesoudi, Whiten, and Laland 2006). (socionauki.ru)
  • The massive crosscurrents between languages (borrowings of various kinds 8 ) are an enormous factor in their histories, and have no analogy in classical biological evolution. (creation.com)
  • Next, I describe how a model-guided approach that prioritizes mutations to test can augment adaptive laboratory evolution. (harvard.edu)
  • In this paper I shall describe some of the aspects of these biological models that are likely to be useful for building robot control systems. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • This implies the necessity to comprehend the general laws and regularities that describe this process, though their manifestations may display significant variations depending on properties of a concrete evolving entity (biological, or social one). (socionauki.ru)
  • First of all, those similarities stem from the fact that in both cases we are dealing with very complex non-equilibrium (but rather stable) systems whose principles of functioning and evolution are described by the General Systems' Theory, as well as by a number of cybernetic principles and laws. (socionauki.ru)
  • We are applying the latest sequencing technologies to tackle ash dieback ( Buggs ), resolve ecological networks ( Clare ), understand the evolution of invertebrate nervous systems ( Elphick and Stollewerk ) and unlock the genetic basis of ageing in long-lived naked mole rats ( Faulkes ). (qmul.ac.uk)
  • Where do you think human evolution is headed, how do you think we will look in 1 million plus years from now? (yahoo.com)
  • Is evolution of human thought now more important than biological evolution? (thenakedscientists.com)
  • There is an interesting scene in my favourite film 'waking life' (about lucid dreaming), where they talk about human evolution. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • It is also important to keep in mind that new discoveries are made each year that refine what we know about human evolution. (wikieducator.org)
  • While this can make studying human evolution frustrating at times, the new discoveries help us gain a better understanding of just how our early ancestors evolved. (wikieducator.org)
  • It is highly recommended that you begin your exploration of human evolution by watching the documentary, Becoming Human . (wikieducator.org)
  • The evolution of territorial conflict: Monica Duffy-Toft and Dominic Johnson's study argues that there's a biological basis for human wars over land. (slate.com)
  • For quite some time there is a tremendous nuisance in my mind: Could there be a similar transitional condition in the concept of human cultural evolution? (ning.com)
  • These aspects will probably become important clues at the chromosomal level in post-genomic research to elucidate human evolution. (springer.com)
  • There are three types of evolution that have driven the development of human societies. (flowofhistory.com)
  • In recent papers, Dr. Nowak has argued that cooperation is one of the three basic principles of evolution. (cooperationcommons.com)
  • Cavalli-Sforza LL, Feldman MW (1981) Cultural Transmission and Evolution. (springer.com)
  • Gerard RW, Kluckhohn C, Rapoport A (1956) Biological and cultural evolution: Some analogies and explorations. (springer.com)
  • Henrich J, McElreath R (2003) The evolution of cultural evolution. (springer.com)
  • Huxley JS (1955) Evolution, cultural and biological. (springer.com)
  • Cultural production and reproduction replaced biological evolution. (ning.com)
  • There are a few assumptions in the idea that 1) there has been little biological development since the development of language/culture and 2) Cultural re/production replaced biological evolution. (ning.com)
  • This unique combination of biological characteristics is the basis for two other types of evolution: cultural and technological. (flowofhistory.com)
  • This shall allow us to extrapolate to generally valid laws of nature guiding biological evolution by self-organization. (mdpi.com)
  • Despite the vast body of theoretical and empirical literature dealing with parasitoid learning, this knowledge has thus far rarely been exploited for manipulating the efficacy of augmentative biological pest control. (frontiersin.org)
  • McElreath R, Boyd R (2007) Mathematical Models of Social Evolution. (springer.com)
  • As we've noted before, it was a devastating one for anyone who wants to think that, on the great questions of biological origins, orthodox evolutionary theory has got it all figured out. (evolutionnews.org)
  • Protein aggregation and aggregate toxicity: new insights into protein folding, misfolding diseases and biological evolution. (nih.gov)
  • The absence of fossil evidence for intermediary stages between major transitions in organic design, indeed our inability, even in our imagination, to construct functional intermediates in many cases, has been a persistent and nagging problem for gradualistic accounts of evolution. (answersingenesis.org)
  • Students should use scientific evidence to support their understanding of natural selection and evolution. (hawaii.edu)
  • Mayr E (1982) The Growth of Biological Thought. (springer.com)
  • Our group aims to identify the developmental and genetic basis of two such innovations- three dimensional shoot growth and branching- in a range of model systems representing different stages of plant evolution. (bristol.ac.uk)
  • The way I think about it in the biological sense is from thermodynamic point of view, which is the same way chemists think of self-assembly in molecules. (wired.com)
  • It examines the effects of these analogies on architectural and design theory and considers how recent biological thinking has relevance. (google.ca)