Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Biopharmaceutics: The study of the physical and chemical properties of a drug and its dosage form as related to the onset, duration, and intensity of its action.Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Knowledge Bases: Collections of facts, assumptions, beliefs, and heuristics that are used in combination with databases to achieve desired results, such as a diagnosis, an interpretation, or a solution to a problem (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed).Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Scientific Misconduct: Intentional falsification of scientific data by presentation of fraudulent or incomplete or uncorroborated findings as scientific fact.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Aluminum: A metallic element that has the atomic number 13, atomic symbol Al, and atomic weight 26.98.Diatoms: The common name for the phylum of microscopic unicellular STRAMENOPILES. Most are aquatic, being found in fresh, brackish, and salt water. Diatoms are noted for the symmetry and sculpturing of their siliceous cell walls. They account for 40% of PHYTOPLANKTON, but not all diatoms are planktonic.Silicon: A trace element that constitutes about 27.6% of the earth's crust in the form of SILICON DIOXIDE. It does not occur free in nature. Silicon has the atomic symbol Si, atomic number 14, and atomic weight [28.084; 28.086].Gallionellaceae: A family of gram-negative bacteria in the order Nitrosomonadales, class BETAPROTEOBACTERIA. It contains a single genus Gallionella.Silicic Acid: A hydrated form of silicon dioxide. It is commonly used in the manufacture of TOOTHPASTES and as a stationary phase for CHROMATOGRAPHY.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Oligochaeta: A class of annelid worms with few setae per segment. It includes the earthworms such as Lumbricus and Eisenia.Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)Soil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Drugs, Essential: Drugs considered essential to meet the health needs of a population as well as to control drug costs.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Graphite: An allotropic form of carbon that is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in matches and explosives. It is obtained by mining and its dust can cause lung irritation.Nanostructures: Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.Nanotechnology: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.Titanium: A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)Nanocomposites: Nanometer-scale composite structures composed of organic molecules intimately incorporated with inorganic molecules. (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechology Terms, 4th ed)Access to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.Plasma: The residual portion of BLOOD that is left after removal of BLOOD CELLS by CENTRIFUGATION without prior BLOOD COAGULATION.Tasmania: An island south of Australia and the smallest state of the Commonwealth. Its capital is Hobart. It was discovered and named Van Diemen's Island in 1642 by Abel Tasman, a Dutch navigator, in honor of the Dutch governor-general of the Dutch East Indian colonies. It was renamed for the discoverer in 1853. In 1803 it was taken over by Great Britain and was used as a penal colony. It was granted government in 1856 and federated as a state in 1901. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1190 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, p535)Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Chemical Terrorism: The use of chemical agents in TERRORISM. This includes the malevolent use of nerve agents, blood agents, blister agents, and choking agents (NOXAE).Terrorism: The use or threatened use of force or violence against persons or property in violation of criminal laws for purposes of intimidation, coercion, or ransom, in support of political or social objectives.Variola virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing infections in humans. No infections have been reported since 1977 and the virus is now believed to be virtually extinct.Emergency Responders: Personnel trained to provide the initial services, care, and support in EMERGENCIES or DISASTERS.Strategic Stockpile: Planned and coordinated pre-event accumulation of ESSENTIAL DRUGS and medical supplies.Chemical Warfare: Tactical warfare using incendiary mixtures, smokes, or irritant, burning, or asphyxiating gases.Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.

Advanced analysis of biotin metabolites in body fluids allows a more accurate measurement of biotin bioavailability and metabolism in humans. (1/3985)

In previous studies, the bioavailability of biotin in humans was estimated from the recovery of biotin in urine; urinary biotin was measured by microbial growth assays or assays of avidin-binding activity. These assays underestimate concentrations of biotin metabolites, which originate from beta-oxidation, sulfur oxidation or a combination. We have developed an HPLC/avidin-binding assay that is specific for biotin and its metabolites. With the use of the HPLC/avidin-binding assay, TLC and derivatization with p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde, we have identified and quantitated biotin and metabolites in urine from six healthy adults. Of that total, biotin accounted for 32+/-12%, bisnorbiotin for 52+/-15%, bisnorbiotin methyl ketone for 7.9+/-5.8%, biotin-d,l-sulfoxide for 4.0+/-3.2% and biotin sulfone for 3.6+/-1.9%. After intravenous administration of 18.4 micromol of biotin, the urinary excretion of biotin metabolites increased 21-130 times above baseline values. Because the biliary excretion of biotin is quantitatively minor (1.9+/-0.2% of an intravenous [14C]biotin dose in rats), intravenously administered biotin is not exposed to intestinal microorganisms. Thus we conclude that biotin metabolites in human urine originate from biotin catabolism in human tissues rather than biotin catabolism by intestinal microorganisms. With the use of the HPLC/avidin-binding assay, we estimated the bioavailability of biotin in adults from the urinary excretion of biotin and metabolites after ingestion of 2.1, 8.2 and 81.9 micromol of biotin. These data provide evidence that biotin is nearly completely absorbed.  (+info)

The importance of pyruvate availability to PDC activation and anaplerosis in human skeletal muscle. (2/3985)

No studies have singularly investigated the relationship between pyruvate availability, pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) activation, and anaplerosis in skeletal muscle. This is surprising given the functional importance attributed to these processes in normal and disease states. We investigated the effects of changing pyruvate availability with dichloroacetate (DCA), epinephrine, and pyruvate infusions on PDC activation and accumulation of acetyl groups and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates (TCAI) in human muscle. DCA increased resting PDC activity sixfold (P < 0.05) but decreased the muscle TCAI pool (mmol/kg dry muscle) from 1.174 +/- 0.042 to 0.747 +/- 0.055 (P < 0.05). This was probably a result of pyruvate being diverted to acetyl-CoA and acetylcarnitine after near-maximal activation of PDC by DCA. Conversely, neither epinephrine nor pyruvate activated PDC. However, both increased the TCAI pool (1.128 +/- 0.076 to 1.614 +/- 0.188, P < 0.05 and 1.098 +/- 0.059 to 1.385 +/- 0.114, P < 0.05, respectively) by providing a readily available pool of pyruvate for anaplerosis. These data support the hypothesis that TCAI pool expansion is principally a reflection of increased muscle pyruvate availability and, together with our previous work (J. A. Timmons, S. M. Poucher, D. Constantin-Teodosiu, V. Worrall, I. A. Macdonald, and P. L. Greenhaff. J. Clin. Invest. 97: 879-883, 1996), indicate that TCA cycle expansion may be of little functional significance to TCA cycle flux. It would appear therefore that the primary effect of DCA on oxidative ATP provision is to provide a readily available pool of acetyl groups to the TCA cycle at the onset of exercise rather than increasing TCA cycle flux by expanding the TCAI pool.  (+info)

Busulphan is active against neuroblastoma and medulloblastoma xenografts in athymic mice at clinically achievable plasma drug concentrations. (3/3985)

High-dose busulphan-containing chemotherapy regimens have shown high response rates in children with relapsed or refractory neuroblastoma, Ewing's sarcoma and medulloblastoma. However, the anti-tumour activity of busulfan as a single agent remains to be defined, and this was evaluated in athymic mice bearing advanced stage subcutaneous paediatric solid tumour xenografts. Because busulphan is highly insoluble in water, the use of several vehicles for enteral and parenteral administration was first investigated in terms of pharmacokinetics and toxicity. The highest bioavailability was obtained with busulphan in DMSO administered i.p. When busulphan was suspended in carboxymethylcellulose and given orally or i.p., the bioavailability was poor. Then, in the therapeutic experiments, busulphan in DMSO was administered i.p. on days 0 and 4. At the maximum tolerated total dose (50 mg kg(-1)), busulphan induced a significant tumour growth delay, ranging from 12 to 34 days in the three neuroblastomas evaluated and in one out of three medulloblastomas. At a dose level above the maximum tolerated dose, busulphan induced complete and partial tumour regressions. Busulphan was inactive in a peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET) xenograft. When busulphan pharmacokinetics in mice and humans were considered, the estimated systemic exposure at the therapeutically active dose in mice (113 microg h ml(-1)) was close to the mean total systemic exposure in children receiving high-dose busulphan (102.4 microg h ml(-1)). In conclusion, busulphan displayed a significant anti-tumour activity in neuroblastoma and medulloblastoma xenografts at plasma drug concentrations which can be achieved clinically in children receiving high-dose busulphan-containing regimens.  (+info)

Bioavailability and toxicity after oral administration of m-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG). (4/3985)

meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) radiolabelled with iodine-131 is used for diagnosis and treatment of neuroadrenergic neoplasms such as phaeochromocytoma and neuroblastoma. In addition, non-radiolabelled MIBG, administered i.v., is used in several clinical studies. These include palliation of the carcinoid syndrome, in which MIBG proved to be effective in 60% of the patients. Oral MIBG administration might be convenient to maintain palliation and possibly improve the percentage of responders. We have, therefore, investigated the feasibility of oral administration of MIBG in an animal model. Orally administered MIBG demonstrated a bioavailability of 59%, with a maximal tolerated dose of 60 mg kg(-1). The first and only toxicity encountered was a decrease in renal function, measured by a reduced clearance of [51Cr]EDTA and accompanied by histological tubular damage. Repeated MIBG administration of 40 mg kg(-1) for 5 sequential days or of 20 mg kg(-1) for two courses of 5 sequential days with a 2-day interval did not affect renal clearance and was not accompanied by histological abnormalities in kidney, stomach, intestines, liver, heart, lungs, thymus, salivary glands and testes. Because of a sufficient bioavailability in absence of gastrointestinal toxicity, MIBG is considered suitable for further clinical investigation of repeated oral administration in patients.  (+info)

A phase I study of the lipophilic thymidylate synthase inhibitor Thymitaq (nolatrexed dihydrochloride) given by 10-day oral administration. (5/3985)

2-Amino-3,4-dihydro-6-methyl-4-oxo-5-(4-pyridylthio)-quinazoline dihydrochloride (nolatrexed dihydrochloride, Thymitaq, AG337), a specific inhibitor of thymidylate synthase, was developed using protein structure-based drug design. Intravenously administered nolatrexed is active clinically. As oral bioavailability is high (70-100%), nolatrexed was administered orally, 6 hourly for 10 days, at 3-week intervals, and dose escalated from 80 to 572 mg m(-2) day(-1) in 23 patients. Common toxicity criteria (CTC) grade 3 toxicities included nausea, vomiting, stomatitis and liver function test (LFT) abnormalities. Thrombocytopenia (grade 1 or 2) occurred at doses > or = 318 mg m(-2) day(-1) and neutropenia (grade 2) at 429 and 572 mg m(-2) day(-1). An erythematous maculopapular rash occurred at dosages > or = 318 mg m(-2) day(-1) (7 out of 19 patients). LFT abnormalities occurred in two out of six patients (grade 3 or 4 bilirubin and grade 3 alanine transaminase) at 572 mg m(-2) day(-1). Nolatrexed plasma concentrations 1 h after dosing were 6-16 microg ml(-1), and trough 3-8 microg ml(-1), at 572 mg m(-2) day(-1). Inhibition of thymidylate synthase was demonstrated by elevation of plasma deoxyuridine. Six-hourly oral nolatrexed for 10 days was associated with antiproliferative effects, but nausea and vomiting was dose limiting at 572 mg m(-2) day(-1). Nine patients were treated at 429 mg m(-2) day(-1); three out of nine experienced grade 3 nausea, but 17 out of 22 treatment courses were completed (with the co-administration of prophylactic antiemetics) and this dose level could be considered for phase II testing.  (+info)

Pharmacokinetics of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in rabbits and mice. (6/3985)

AIM: To study the pharmacokinetics of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhGCSF) in rabbits and mice. METHODS: 125I-rhGCSF was prepared by iodogen method and determined by size exclusive HPLC (SEHPLC). RESULTS: Concentration-time curves after i.v. 125I-rhGCSF in rabbits were best fitted with 2-compartment open model. The alpha and terminal elimination T1/2 were 0.25-0.33 and 3.2-4.6 h, respectively. AUC increased with doses, and Cls and K10 were similar. Tpeak was 0.59 +/- 0.25 h after s.c., and elimination T1/2 was similar to that after i.v. The bioavailability after sc was 1.0. In mice the highest level was found in renal system, the next was bile-enteric system. Levels in lymph nodes, bone marrow, and spleen were approximately equal to or slightly lower than that in plasma, while the levels in brain, fat, and muscles were the lowest. About 68%-86% were recovered in urine and feces. CONCLUSION: Pharamcokinetics of 125I-rhGCSF in rabbits and mice provided a useful index for clinical trial.  (+info)

Pharmacokinetics of bendazac lysine in 10 Chinese young men. (7/3985)

AIM: To compare the pharmacokinetics of domestic and imported tablets of bendazao lysine (BL). METHODS: A single oral dose of 500 mg BL of this 2 kinds of tablets was given to 10 Chinese volunteers of Han nationality in a randomized crossover study. Plasma levels were determined with HPLC-UV method. Data were analyzed automatically by using a CAPP program on microcomputer. RESULTS: The plasma concentration-time curve was fitted to 2-compartment open model, and the major pharmacokinetic parameters of domestic and imported BL tablets were shown respectively as following: Cmax 66 +/- 16 and 65 +/- 8 mg.L-1; Tmax 0.98 +/- 0.22 and 0.98 +/- 0.21 h; T1/2 beta 6.2 +/- 1.8 and 6.2 +/- 1.7 h; AUC 335 +/- 47 and 337 +/- 58 mg.h.L-1. There was no significant difference between domestic and imported tablets. The bioavailability of the domestic vs that of the imported tablet was 99 +/- 12%. The unchanged BL in urine were about 5.4% and 5.6% respectively of the dosage in 24 h after a single oral dose. CONCLUSION: The two kinds of tablets had the same biological effects.  (+info)

A study of the relative bioavailability of cysteamine hydrochloride, cysteamine bitartrate and phosphocysteamine in healthy adult male volunteers. (8/3985)

AIMS: Cysteamine, the only drug available for the treatment of cystinosis in paediatric patients, is available as the hydrochloride, the bitartrate and as sodium phosphocysteamine salts. It has been suggested that cysteamine bitartrate and phosphocysteamine are better tolerated and may have a better bioavailability than cysteamine hydrochloride. This has, however, never been demonstrated. METHODS: We compared the pharmacokinetics and tolerance of these three formulations of cysteamine in 18 healthy adult male volunteers in a double-blind, latin-square, three-period, single oral dose cross-over relative bioavailability study. RESULTS: No statistical difference was found between relative bioavailabilities, AUC (0, infinity) (geometric mean and s.d. in micromol l(-1) h: 169+/-51, 158+/-46, 173+/-49 with cysteamine hydrochloride, phosphocysteamine and cysteamine bitartrate respectively), Cmax (geometric mean and s.d. in micromol l(-1); 66+/-25.5, 59+/-12, 63+/-20) and tmax (median and range in h: 0.88 (0.25-2), 1.25 (0.25-2), 0.88 (0.25-2)) with each of the three forms of cysteamine tested. Bioequivalence statistics (90% confidence intervals) showed non equivalence of Cmax of cysteamine base as the only non equivalence of pharmacokinetics between the three formulations: 90% CI for Cmax relative ratios to cysteamine hydrochloride were [75.6-105.81 for phosphocysteamine and [74.2-124.2] for cysteamine bitartrate. The only significant adverse event was vomiting whose frequency was inversely correlated with body weight (Spearman's r=-0.76, P<0.001). The nature of the salt tested did not influence vomiting. CONCLUSIONS: While none of the three forms of cysteamine tested has a clear advantage over the others in terms of pharmacokinetics and tolerance profile, this should now however be addressed in patients treated for cystinosis during repeat administrations.  (+info)

  • In two metabolism trials with 18 wether lambs, the biological availability of magnesium was determined for the two forages cut at three stages of maturity. (vt.edu)
  • Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see the Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences web site. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Graduate study in Biological Sciences puts students on the front lines of discovery. (ucalgary.ca)
  • A PhD in biological sciences is usually considered a final degree. (ucalgary.ca)
  • Find new ways to pursue your passion for life in the University of Calgary's Biological Sciences department. (ucalgary.ca)
  • A master's degree in biological sciences will give you the pre-requisite for a PhD. (ucalgary.ca)
  • The zebrafish facility within the School of Biological and Chemical Sciences at QMUL is dedicated to the maintenance of wild type, mutant and transgenic stock lines (for available lines please contact facility manager). (qmul.ac.uk)
  • The biological sciences encompass numerous cutting-edge disciplines, with each offering a multitude of exciting career paths. (nau.edu)
  • Our Master of Science program helps you move further down one of those paths by training you in the biological sciences through coursework and research experience. (nau.edu)
  • The Biology M.S. program prepares students for research-focused professions in the biological sciences, emphasizing the development of a students' ability to develop experimental approaches that accurately capture information to solve questions and problems in their biological field of study. (nau.edu)
  • Geneticists study these processes in all types of organisms and discover how errors in them can cause disease, and they help discover how genes work across the biological sciences. (le.ac.uk)
  • By studying genetics alongside options in other biological sciences, you will be able to apply your knowledge across the boundaries of traditional disciplines and gain a valuable and powerful asset in scientific environments and in many other walks of life. (le.ac.uk)
  • The first three years of this course are identical to the Biological Sciences (Genetics) BSc , including the option to spend a Year in Industry or a Year Abroad between Years 2 and 3. (le.ac.uk)
  • The analytical and critical skills you acquire by studying an MBiolSci in Biological Sciences are particularly valued by PhD supervisors, researchers and employers in non-scientific fields. (le.ac.uk)
  • In addition, students become qualified to pursue graduate studies in any of several areas of study within the Biological Sciences and the health professions. (wiu.edu)
  • Spectroscopy for the Biological Sciences provides students and professionals with a working knowledge of the physical chemical aspects of spectroscopy, along with their applications to important biological problems. (wiley.com)
  • He is author of Thermodynamics and Kinetics for the Biological Sciences (also from Wiley) and more than 200 research articles. (wiley.com)
  • The risks associated with a soil contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are generally assessed by measuring individual PAHs in the soil and correlating the obtained amounts to known adverse biological effects of the PAHs. (eugris.info)
  • SMMC7721, Bel-7402, and MHCC97 human liver cancer cells used in this work were commercially available from the Beijing National Institute for the Control of Biological and Pharmaceutical Products (China). (hindawi.com)
  • As with emerging infectious diseases, early detection and control of biological or chemical attacks depends on a strong and flexible public health system at the local, state, and federal levels. (cdc.gov)
  • He's a professor of chemistry at Rutgers University who has long called for better control of biological research that could be misused. (npr.org)
  • they develop rigorous expertise in everything from foundational theory and the study of evolution to cutting-edge research methodologies as they investigate a broad range of biological problems ranging from the molecular level to the biosphere. (ucalgary.ca)
  • The availability and bioavailability of contaminants in soil also has to be studied further, and such future studies should focus on the molecular interactions between the contaminants and different compartments of the soil. (eugris.info)
  • Such studies would generate the data needed for molecular-based modelling of availability and bioavailability, which would be a big step forward compared to current risk assessment practices. (eugris.info)
  • MRPC learns a causal biological network efficiently and robustly from integrating individual-level genotype and molecular phenotype data, in which directed edges indicate causal directions. (frontiersin.org)
  • This module explores a range of advanced topics in biological science from evolution to cell and molecular biology. (open.ac.uk)
  • This unit applies the core principles of chemistry, molecular structure and chemical reactivity to biological molecules. (edu.au)
  • Biological Science covers major aspects of biology and molecular science across a wide range of organisms from bacteria and fungi to humans and plants. (le.ac.uk)
  • Here, all-atom molecular dynamics simulations are leveraged to investigate the capsid without symmetry bias, enabling study of capsid flexibility and its implications for biological function and cryo-EM resolution limits. (elifesciences.org)
  • In order to identify the molecular mechanism by which CD90 affects the biological behavior and energy metabolism of gastric cancer cells, the present study used Cell Counting Kit‑8 assays, lactate concentration determination and ATP content determination. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The technique is based purely on image processing of the input data, rather than numerical reconstruction of scalar fields like vorticity, allowing it to be used as a straightforward 'first pass' characterization technique for biological systems where traditional techniques are either unnecessary to support qualitative observations or prohibitively difficult because of the length and time scales involved. (biologists.org)
  • With massive increases in the availability of ecological and other kinds of biological data, skill in developing models to describe and understand relationships in data and extrapolate beyond existing data, and an understanding of the nuances of particular kinds of data, is fundamental in modern biological research. (edu.au)
  • The biological and ecological factors liable to induce a change in the radio-sensitivity of a species are undoubtedly responsible for the large fluctuations observed during radio-biological experiments. (osti.gov)
  • Influence des facteurs biologiques et ecologiques sur la radiosensibilite des animaux de laboratoire} author = {Guenet, J L, and Legeay, G} abstractNote = {The biological and ecological factors liable to induce a change in the radio-sensitivity of a species are undoubtedly responsible for the large fluctuations observed during radio-biological experiments. (osti.gov)
  • We contend that a possible hitherto unrecognized mechanism of silicon essentiality in biology is to increase the biological availability of phosphorus in the presence of aluminium. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Anthropology 362, on the other hand, addresses itself to two main problem areas where race is concerned: (1) the common concept of race has an inadequate foundation in biology and must be dispensed with before we can make sense out of the very real aspects of human biological variation. (umich.edu)
  • 2) If the common concept of race has an inadequate biological base, how did we get stuck with our generally held assumptions when it would appear that they owe more to folklore than to biology? (umich.edu)
  • With a minimum of mathematics and a strong focus on applications to biology, this book will prepare current and future professionals to better understand the quantitative interpretation of biological phenomena and to utilize these tools in their work. (wiley.com)
  • The enormous increase in scalability it provides empowers users to study complex and previously unassailable gene-set associations between genes and their biological functions in a hierarchical fashion and on a genome-wide scale. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Little is so far known about how gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy impacts the biological availability of medication. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In this study, we performed an analysis of inter-regional and inter-annual differences in temperature (T) conditions associated with MMEs of the red gorgonian Paramuricea clavata by analyzing high resolution T time series (hourly records for 3 to 8 years) from four regions of the NW Mediterranean with differing hydrological conditions and biological impacts. (plos.org)
  • This Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) is to promote the development and initial clinical validation of objective biological measures to be used for prognosing, and monitoring recovery of adolescents who either clinically present with or are at risk for developing prolonged/persistent concussive symptoms following exposure to repetitive head impacts and/or concussion. (nih.gov)
  • discovering, characterizing the selectivity and sensitivity, and externally validating biological measures to be used for assessing, prognosing, and monitoring recovery of adolescents who either clinically present with or are at risk for developing prolonged/persistent concussive symptoms following exposure to repetitive head impacts and/or concussion. (nih.gov)
  • investigation of the influence of tensides and other dissolved organic compounds on the biological availability and degradation of PAHs. (osti.gov)
  • However, the link between the chemical analyses and the biological tests could be improved as as an organic solvent that solubilised virtually all of the contaminants was used during the chemical analysis while the biological tests were performed in an aqueous solution with limited solubility for a number of compounds. (eugris.info)
  • Advances in such fields as proteomics and genomics place new demands on students and professionals to be able to apply quantitative concepts to the biological phenomena that they are studying. (wiley.com)
  • abstract = "The effect of glucose and other monosaccharide availability in culture medium on production of antibody by human hybridomas has been studied. (elsevier.com)
  • Evaluation of this vulnerability has focused on the role public health will have detecting and managing the probable covert biological terrorist incident with the realization that the U.S. local, state, and federal infrastructure is already strained as a result of other important public health problems. (cdc.gov)
  • The public health infrastructure must be prepared to prevent illness and injury that would result from biological and chemical terrorism, especially a covert terrorist attack. (cdc.gov)
  • Each biological problem is accompanied by precise formulations, providing graduate students and researchers in bioinformatics and computer science with a powerful toolkit for the emerging applications of high-throughput sequencing. (cambridge.org)
  • The validity of such a risk estimation is dependent on the presence of additional compounds, the availability of the compounds (including the PAHs), and the methods used to correlate the measured chemical data and biological effects. (eugris.info)
  • DA 1.0: parameter estimation of biological pathways using data assimilation approach. (nih.gov)
  • 5) The term 'biosimilar biological product development meeting' means any meeting, other than a biosimilar initial advisory meeting, regarding the content of a development program, including a proposed design for, or data from, a study intended to support a biosimilar biological product application. (house.gov)
  • The integrated data from various online databases makes it easy to identify the biological relevance of nodes in the network. (springer.com)
  • However, the regulatory ERA framework could be improved by (i) inclusion of the environment in the risk-benefit analysis for human pharmaceuticals, (ii) improvement of risk management options, (iii) generation of data on existing pharmaceuticals, and (iv) improving the availability of ERA data. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In order to minimize the quantity of pharmaceuticals in the environment these should aim to (i) improve the existing legislation for pharmaceuticals, (ii) prioritize pharmaceuticals in the environment and (iii) improve the availability and collection of pharmaceutical data. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The new method is streamlined, efficient, and particularly well-suited to the study of huge and diverse biological data. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Innovative Formalism for Biological Data Analysis. (igi-global.com)
  • This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Biological and Medical Data Analysis, ISBMDA 2004, held in Barcelona, Spain in November 2004. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • Statistical Methods and Tools for Biological and Medical Data Analysis. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • The collected biological data set is also used by the Baltic Fisheries Assessment Working Group (ICES) to assess the flounder stocks size in Subdivision 25. (bodc.ac.uk)
  • The availability of resources strongly influences an individual's ability to modulate investment in sexually selected traits. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • As the production and maintenance of traits mediated by pre- and postcopulatory sexual selection is energetically demanding [ 12 , 13 ], an increased investment in traits subject to both episodes of sexual selection can be expected under conditions of high resource availability. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • By contrast, under limitation an increased allocation in one function often results in a decreased resource availability for alternative functions [ 14 ], leading to one of the major predictions of sperm competition theory that a male's investment should be traded-off between pre- and postcopulatory traits [ 15 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Experimental manipulation of diet is a suitable approach to explore the impact of variation in resource availability on the expression of pre- and postcopulatory traits and their interrelationship. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • These will be contrasted with the biological traits that show regional clustering but which have no adaptive value and cannot therefore be hierarchically arranged. (umich.edu)
  • We consider for this approach fuzzy set as a formalism of analysis of biological signals processing and we propose to be accomplished this goal by developing fuzzy operators for filtering the noise of biological signals measurement. (igi-global.com)
  • Description: Molybdenum, Phosphorous, and Nitrogen Availability Control Rates of Biological N2-fixation in Boreal Peatlands / Katherine Dynarski. (villanova.edu)
  • Key chemical concepts such as bonding and structure (e.g. chirality) will be used to highlight the function of biological building blocks (lipids, carbohydrates, amino acids and the nitrogen bases) of large cellular molecules like proteins, DNA and RNA. (edu.au)
  • Our study therefore proposes a subsequent process of protein and partial cellular degradation caused by mutation of silk protein, which might be helpful for understanding its impact of the silk gland biological process, and further exploration the re-allocation of nitrogen in the silkworm. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It can be concluded from the results presented in the included papers that the PAHs in the studied soils from industrial sites were not generally physically trapped in soil material, indicating that the availability of the PAHs was not restricted in this sense. (eugris.info)
  • Weekly guest lectures about current research helps you to see how basic biological concepts are applied to real world problems. (abdn.ac.uk)
  • Communicate biological knowledge, including results of research undertakings, and the rationale underpinning their conclusions, to specialist and non-specialist audiences clearly and unambiguously. (nau.edu)
  • The government released a new policy on how to handle legitimate biological research that could be misused in the wrong hands. (npr.org)
  • And a new policy by the Obama administration aims to tighten oversight over potentially high-risk biological research. (npr.org)
  • This course examines key research findings and implications about the biological basis for addiction and mental health problems, including the causes, symptoms and course of addictions and mental illness, as well as drug classes and various drugs of abuse. (centennialcollege.ca)
  • Nevertheless, because of certain biological properties of UCB compared with bone marrow, UCB cells will grow or "engraft" in most patients and result in reconstitution of the haematopoietic and immune cells. (mja.com.au)
  • Its application has enabled researchers to address important biological questions, often for the first time. (cambridge.org)
  • Influence of magnesium stearate on the dissolution and biological availability of sulphadiazine tablet formulations [proceedings]. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Australian citizens, permanent residents and international students studying outside Australia may have the choice of full-time, part-time and external study, depending on course availability and in-country requirements. (edu.au)
  • Because her topic is a mixture of civil and biological engineering she's able to make practical use of her study and classes such as hydrology, fluid mechanics and hydraulics, statics and geographic information systems. (ncat.edu)
  • Medical Science allows you to select specialist modules that focus more closely on the application of biological principles to medicine. (le.ac.uk)
  • Save 12% on the Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy (The Language of Science) by Springer at Translate This Blog. (translateth.is)
  • Known as the USAMRIID Blue Book, this invaluable handbook supplies basic summary and treatment information quickly for the healthcare provider on the front lines of a biological incident. (gpo.gov)
  • The purpose of this handbook is to serve as a concise, pocket-sized manual that can be pulled off the shelf (or from a pocket) in a crisis to guide medical personnel in the prophylaxis and management of biological casualties. (gpo.gov)
  • The Medical Management of Biological Casualties Handbook, which has been known as the "Blue Book" has been enormously successful. (gpo.gov)
  • The University reserves the right to amend or remove courses and unit availabilities, as appropriate. (edu.au)
  • At the University of Leicester, we offer seven Biological Science subjects and four Medical Bioscience subjects, all as both BSc (three years) and MBiolSci (four years), plus a Foundation Year option, giving you an impressive range of 23 different courses to choose from. (le.ac.uk)
  • Dr. Godfrey Gayle, a professor of biological engineering, has secured a $400,000 contract with the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Natural Resources Conservation Service to provide scholarships and other support to students studying biological engineering at North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University. (ncat.edu)
  • North Carolina A&T State University senior, biological engineering student Madeline Keefer will spend nine months studying flood management in the Netherlands thanks to a Fulbright U.S. Student Programs Grant jointly sponsored by the Netherland-America Foundation. (ncat.edu)
  • Maha M. Hady ,Hoda A. Ali , Biological availability of manganese from several inorganic sources in Fayoumi chicks, Alex. (who.int)
  • To test how dietary resource availability affects sexual ornamentation, sperm quality and their interrelationship in three-spined sticklebacks ( Gasterosteus aculeatus ), full-sibling groups were raised under three conditions differing in food quantity and/or quality (i.e. carotenoid content): (i) high-quantity/high-quality, (ii) high-quantity/low-quality or (iii) low-quantity/low-quality. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • These results suggest that change of glucose availability affects the antigen-binding activity of the antibody via the alteration of the glycosylation. (elsevier.com)
  • The two-year contract seeks to increase enrollment and improve retention of undergraduate and graduate students studying biological engineering, especially natural resources and agricultural engineering programs in the CAES. (ncat.edu)
  • The environmental assessment considers the effects of, and alternatives to, the release of a nonindigenous gall mite, Floracarus perrepae, for the biological control of Old World climbing fern in Florida. (federalregister.gov)
  • Finally, single compounds from this large set of compounds, which correlated with different biological effects, could be identified using the multivariate technique partial least squares projections to latent structures (PLS). (eugris.info)
  • Additional topics include health promotion measures to cope with biological aging and treatment measures for dysfunctional effects of common health problems. (centennialcollege.ca)
  • The U.S. national civilian vulnerability to the deliberate use of biological and chemical agents has been highlighted by recognition of substantial biological weapons development programs and arsenals in foreign countries, attempts to acquire or possess biological agents by militants, and high-profile terrorist attacks. (cdc.gov)
  • Recovering amphibious forces can be complicated if ashore forces are attacked with chemical, biological, or radiological weapons. (rand.org)
  • Medical professionals learn about effective available medical countermeasures against many of the bacteria, viruses, and toxins that might be used as biological weapons against military forces or civilian communities. (gpo.gov)
  • Since the first edition in 1993, the awareness of biological weapons in the U.S. has increased dramatically. (gpo.gov)
  • In-depth definitions of biological agents, biological weapons, and biological warfare (BW) are included, as well as an appendix of further reading on the subject. (gpo.gov)
  • A greater in-depth discussion of the agents covered here may be found in the Army Surgeon General's Borden Institute Textbook of Military Medicine, "Medical Aspects of Biological Warfare" (2007) and in relevant infectious disease, tropical medicine, and disaster management textbooks. (gpo.gov)