Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Biopharmaceutics: The study of the physical and chemical properties of a drug and its dosage form as related to the onset, duration, and intensity of its action.Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Knowledge Bases: Collections of facts, assumptions, beliefs, and heuristics that are used in combination with databases to achieve desired results, such as a diagnosis, an interpretation, or a solution to a problem (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed).Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Scientific Misconduct: Intentional falsification of scientific data by presentation of fraudulent or incomplete or uncorroborated findings as scientific fact.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Aluminum: A metallic element that has the atomic number 13, atomic symbol Al, and atomic weight 26.98.Diatoms: The common name for the phylum of microscopic unicellular STRAMENOPILES. Most are aquatic, being found in fresh, brackish, and salt water. Diatoms are noted for the symmetry and sculpturing of their siliceous cell walls. They account for 40% of PHYTOPLANKTON, but not all diatoms are planktonic.Silicon: A trace element that constitutes about 27.6% of the earth's crust in the form of SILICON DIOXIDE. It does not occur free in nature. Silicon has the atomic symbol Si, atomic number 14, and atomic weight [28.084; 28.086].Gallionellaceae: A family of gram-negative bacteria in the order Nitrosomonadales, class BETAPROTEOBACTERIA. It contains a single genus Gallionella.Silicic Acid: A hydrated form of silicon dioxide. It is commonly used in the manufacture of TOOTHPASTES and as a stationary phase for CHROMATOGRAPHY.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Oligochaeta: A class of annelid worms with few setae per segment. It includes the earthworms such as Lumbricus and Eisenia.Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)Soil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Drugs, Essential: Drugs considered essential to meet the health needs of a population as well as to control drug costs.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Graphite: An allotropic form of carbon that is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in matches and explosives. It is obtained by mining and its dust can cause lung irritation.Nanostructures: Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.Nanotechnology: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.Titanium: A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)Nanocomposites: Nanometer-scale composite structures composed of organic molecules intimately incorporated with inorganic molecules. (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechology Terms, 4th ed)Access to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.Plasma: The residual portion of BLOOD that is left after removal of BLOOD CELLS by CENTRIFUGATION without prior BLOOD COAGULATION.Tasmania: An island south of Australia and the smallest state of the Commonwealth. Its capital is Hobart. It was discovered and named Van Diemen's Island in 1642 by Abel Tasman, a Dutch navigator, in honor of the Dutch governor-general of the Dutch East Indian colonies. It was renamed for the discoverer in 1853. In 1803 it was taken over by Great Britain and was used as a penal colony. It was granted government in 1856 and federated as a state in 1901. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1190 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, p535)Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Chemical Terrorism: The use of chemical agents in TERRORISM. This includes the malevolent use of nerve agents, blood agents, blister agents, and choking agents (NOXAE).Terrorism: The use or threatened use of force or violence against persons or property in violation of criminal laws for purposes of intimidation, coercion, or ransom, in support of political or social objectives.Variola virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing infections in humans. No infections have been reported since 1977 and the virus is now believed to be virtually extinct.Emergency Responders: Personnel trained to provide the initial services, care, and support in EMERGENCIES or DISASTERS.Strategic Stockpile: Planned and coordinated pre-event accumulation of ESSENTIAL DRUGS and medical supplies.Chemical Warfare: Tactical warfare using incendiary mixtures, smokes, or irritant, burning, or asphyxiating gases.Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.Garcinia mangostana: A plant genus of the family CLUSIACEAE. It is the source of the mangosteen fruit.Sapindaceae: The soapberry plant family of the order Sapindales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. Some members contain SAPONINS.Bathing Beaches: Beaches, both natural and man-made, used for bathing and other activities.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Bombacaceae: A plant family of the order Malvales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida of tropical trees.Pseudotsuga: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are coniferous evergreen trees with long, flat, spirally arranged needles that grow directly from the branch.Xanthones: A group of XANTHENES that contain a 9-keto OXYGEN.HandbooksManuals as Topic: Books designed to give factual information or instructions.Cartoons as Topic: Images used to comment on such things as contemporary events, social habits, or political trends; usually executed in a broad or abbreviated manner.Information Services: Organized services to provide information on any questions an individual might have using databases and other sources. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.

Advanced analysis of biotin metabolites in body fluids allows a more accurate measurement of biotin bioavailability and metabolism in humans. (1/3985)

In previous studies, the bioavailability of biotin in humans was estimated from the recovery of biotin in urine; urinary biotin was measured by microbial growth assays or assays of avidin-binding activity. These assays underestimate concentrations of biotin metabolites, which originate from beta-oxidation, sulfur oxidation or a combination. We have developed an HPLC/avidin-binding assay that is specific for biotin and its metabolites. With the use of the HPLC/avidin-binding assay, TLC and derivatization with p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde, we have identified and quantitated biotin and metabolites in urine from six healthy adults. Of that total, biotin accounted for 32+/-12%, bisnorbiotin for 52+/-15%, bisnorbiotin methyl ketone for 7.9+/-5.8%, biotin-d,l-sulfoxide for 4.0+/-3.2% and biotin sulfone for 3.6+/-1.9%. After intravenous administration of 18.4 micromol of biotin, the urinary excretion of biotin metabolites increased 21-130 times above baseline values. Because the biliary excretion of biotin is quantitatively minor (1.9+/-0.2% of an intravenous [14C]biotin dose in rats), intravenously administered biotin is not exposed to intestinal microorganisms. Thus we conclude that biotin metabolites in human urine originate from biotin catabolism in human tissues rather than biotin catabolism by intestinal microorganisms. With the use of the HPLC/avidin-binding assay, we estimated the bioavailability of biotin in adults from the urinary excretion of biotin and metabolites after ingestion of 2.1, 8.2 and 81.9 micromol of biotin. These data provide evidence that biotin is nearly completely absorbed.  (+info)

The importance of pyruvate availability to PDC activation and anaplerosis in human skeletal muscle. (2/3985)

No studies have singularly investigated the relationship between pyruvate availability, pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) activation, and anaplerosis in skeletal muscle. This is surprising given the functional importance attributed to these processes in normal and disease states. We investigated the effects of changing pyruvate availability with dichloroacetate (DCA), epinephrine, and pyruvate infusions on PDC activation and accumulation of acetyl groups and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates (TCAI) in human muscle. DCA increased resting PDC activity sixfold (P < 0.05) but decreased the muscle TCAI pool (mmol/kg dry muscle) from 1.174 +/- 0.042 to 0.747 +/- 0.055 (P < 0.05). This was probably a result of pyruvate being diverted to acetyl-CoA and acetylcarnitine after near-maximal activation of PDC by DCA. Conversely, neither epinephrine nor pyruvate activated PDC. However, both increased the TCAI pool (1.128 +/- 0.076 to 1.614 +/- 0.188, P < 0.05 and 1.098 +/- 0.059 to 1.385 +/- 0.114, P < 0.05, respectively) by providing a readily available pool of pyruvate for anaplerosis. These data support the hypothesis that TCAI pool expansion is principally a reflection of increased muscle pyruvate availability and, together with our previous work (J. A. Timmons, S. M. Poucher, D. Constantin-Teodosiu, V. Worrall, I. A. Macdonald, and P. L. Greenhaff. J. Clin. Invest. 97: 879-883, 1996), indicate that TCA cycle expansion may be of little functional significance to TCA cycle flux. It would appear therefore that the primary effect of DCA on oxidative ATP provision is to provide a readily available pool of acetyl groups to the TCA cycle at the onset of exercise rather than increasing TCA cycle flux by expanding the TCAI pool.  (+info)

Busulphan is active against neuroblastoma and medulloblastoma xenografts in athymic mice at clinically achievable plasma drug concentrations. (3/3985)

High-dose busulphan-containing chemotherapy regimens have shown high response rates in children with relapsed or refractory neuroblastoma, Ewing's sarcoma and medulloblastoma. However, the anti-tumour activity of busulfan as a single agent remains to be defined, and this was evaluated in athymic mice bearing advanced stage subcutaneous paediatric solid tumour xenografts. Because busulphan is highly insoluble in water, the use of several vehicles for enteral and parenteral administration was first investigated in terms of pharmacokinetics and toxicity. The highest bioavailability was obtained with busulphan in DMSO administered i.p. When busulphan was suspended in carboxymethylcellulose and given orally or i.p., the bioavailability was poor. Then, in the therapeutic experiments, busulphan in DMSO was administered i.p. on days 0 and 4. At the maximum tolerated total dose (50 mg kg(-1)), busulphan induced a significant tumour growth delay, ranging from 12 to 34 days in the three neuroblastomas evaluated and in one out of three medulloblastomas. At a dose level above the maximum tolerated dose, busulphan induced complete and partial tumour regressions. Busulphan was inactive in a peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET) xenograft. When busulphan pharmacokinetics in mice and humans were considered, the estimated systemic exposure at the therapeutically active dose in mice (113 microg h ml(-1)) was close to the mean total systemic exposure in children receiving high-dose busulphan (102.4 microg h ml(-1)). In conclusion, busulphan displayed a significant anti-tumour activity in neuroblastoma and medulloblastoma xenografts at plasma drug concentrations which can be achieved clinically in children receiving high-dose busulphan-containing regimens.  (+info)

Bioavailability and toxicity after oral administration of m-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG). (4/3985)

meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) radiolabelled with iodine-131 is used for diagnosis and treatment of neuroadrenergic neoplasms such as phaeochromocytoma and neuroblastoma. In addition, non-radiolabelled MIBG, administered i.v., is used in several clinical studies. These include palliation of the carcinoid syndrome, in which MIBG proved to be effective in 60% of the patients. Oral MIBG administration might be convenient to maintain palliation and possibly improve the percentage of responders. We have, therefore, investigated the feasibility of oral administration of MIBG in an animal model. Orally administered MIBG demonstrated a bioavailability of 59%, with a maximal tolerated dose of 60 mg kg(-1). The first and only toxicity encountered was a decrease in renal function, measured by a reduced clearance of [51Cr]EDTA and accompanied by histological tubular damage. Repeated MIBG administration of 40 mg kg(-1) for 5 sequential days or of 20 mg kg(-1) for two courses of 5 sequential days with a 2-day interval did not affect renal clearance and was not accompanied by histological abnormalities in kidney, stomach, intestines, liver, heart, lungs, thymus, salivary glands and testes. Because of a sufficient bioavailability in absence of gastrointestinal toxicity, MIBG is considered suitable for further clinical investigation of repeated oral administration in patients.  (+info)

A phase I study of the lipophilic thymidylate synthase inhibitor Thymitaq (nolatrexed dihydrochloride) given by 10-day oral administration. (5/3985)

2-Amino-3,4-dihydro-6-methyl-4-oxo-5-(4-pyridylthio)-quinazoline dihydrochloride (nolatrexed dihydrochloride, Thymitaq, AG337), a specific inhibitor of thymidylate synthase, was developed using protein structure-based drug design. Intravenously administered nolatrexed is active clinically. As oral bioavailability is high (70-100%), nolatrexed was administered orally, 6 hourly for 10 days, at 3-week intervals, and dose escalated from 80 to 572 mg m(-2) day(-1) in 23 patients. Common toxicity criteria (CTC) grade 3 toxicities included nausea, vomiting, stomatitis and liver function test (LFT) abnormalities. Thrombocytopenia (grade 1 or 2) occurred at doses > or = 318 mg m(-2) day(-1) and neutropenia (grade 2) at 429 and 572 mg m(-2) day(-1). An erythematous maculopapular rash occurred at dosages > or = 318 mg m(-2) day(-1) (7 out of 19 patients). LFT abnormalities occurred in two out of six patients (grade 3 or 4 bilirubin and grade 3 alanine transaminase) at 572 mg m(-2) day(-1). Nolatrexed plasma concentrations 1 h after dosing were 6-16 microg ml(-1), and trough 3-8 microg ml(-1), at 572 mg m(-2) day(-1). Inhibition of thymidylate synthase was demonstrated by elevation of plasma deoxyuridine. Six-hourly oral nolatrexed for 10 days was associated with antiproliferative effects, but nausea and vomiting was dose limiting at 572 mg m(-2) day(-1). Nine patients were treated at 429 mg m(-2) day(-1); three out of nine experienced grade 3 nausea, but 17 out of 22 treatment courses were completed (with the co-administration of prophylactic antiemetics) and this dose level could be considered for phase II testing.  (+info)

Pharmacokinetics of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in rabbits and mice. (6/3985)

AIM: To study the pharmacokinetics of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhGCSF) in rabbits and mice. METHODS: 125I-rhGCSF was prepared by iodogen method and determined by size exclusive HPLC (SEHPLC). RESULTS: Concentration-time curves after i.v. 125I-rhGCSF in rabbits were best fitted with 2-compartment open model. The alpha and terminal elimination T1/2 were 0.25-0.33 and 3.2-4.6 h, respectively. AUC increased with doses, and Cls and K10 were similar. Tpeak was 0.59 +/- 0.25 h after s.c., and elimination T1/2 was similar to that after i.v. The bioavailability after sc was 1.0. In mice the highest level was found in renal system, the next was bile-enteric system. Levels in lymph nodes, bone marrow, and spleen were approximately equal to or slightly lower than that in plasma, while the levels in brain, fat, and muscles were the lowest. About 68%-86% were recovered in urine and feces. CONCLUSION: Pharamcokinetics of 125I-rhGCSF in rabbits and mice provided a useful index for clinical trial.  (+info)

Pharmacokinetics of bendazac lysine in 10 Chinese young men. (7/3985)

AIM: To compare the pharmacokinetics of domestic and imported tablets of bendazao lysine (BL). METHODS: A single oral dose of 500 mg BL of this 2 kinds of tablets was given to 10 Chinese volunteers of Han nationality in a randomized crossover study. Plasma levels were determined with HPLC-UV method. Data were analyzed automatically by using a CAPP program on microcomputer. RESULTS: The plasma concentration-time curve was fitted to 2-compartment open model, and the major pharmacokinetic parameters of domestic and imported BL tablets were shown respectively as following: Cmax 66 +/- 16 and 65 +/- 8 mg.L-1; Tmax 0.98 +/- 0.22 and 0.98 +/- 0.21 h; T1/2 beta 6.2 +/- 1.8 and 6.2 +/- 1.7 h; AUC 335 +/- 47 and 337 +/- 58 mg.h.L-1. There was no significant difference between domestic and imported tablets. The bioavailability of the domestic vs that of the imported tablet was 99 +/- 12%. The unchanged BL in urine were about 5.4% and 5.6% respectively of the dosage in 24 h after a single oral dose. CONCLUSION: The two kinds of tablets had the same biological effects.  (+info)

A study of the relative bioavailability of cysteamine hydrochloride, cysteamine bitartrate and phosphocysteamine in healthy adult male volunteers. (8/3985)

AIMS: Cysteamine, the only drug available for the treatment of cystinosis in paediatric patients, is available as the hydrochloride, the bitartrate and as sodium phosphocysteamine salts. It has been suggested that cysteamine bitartrate and phosphocysteamine are better tolerated and may have a better bioavailability than cysteamine hydrochloride. This has, however, never been demonstrated. METHODS: We compared the pharmacokinetics and tolerance of these three formulations of cysteamine in 18 healthy adult male volunteers in a double-blind, latin-square, three-period, single oral dose cross-over relative bioavailability study. RESULTS: No statistical difference was found between relative bioavailabilities, AUC (0, infinity) (geometric mean and s.d. in micromol l(-1) h: 169+/-51, 158+/-46, 173+/-49 with cysteamine hydrochloride, phosphocysteamine and cysteamine bitartrate respectively), Cmax (geometric mean and s.d. in micromol l(-1); 66+/-25.5, 59+/-12, 63+/-20) and tmax (median and range in h: 0.88 (0.25-2), 1.25 (0.25-2), 0.88 (0.25-2)) with each of the three forms of cysteamine tested. Bioequivalence statistics (90% confidence intervals) showed non equivalence of Cmax of cysteamine base as the only non equivalence of pharmacokinetics between the three formulations: 90% CI for Cmax relative ratios to cysteamine hydrochloride were [75.6-105.81 for phosphocysteamine and [74.2-124.2] for cysteamine bitartrate. The only significant adverse event was vomiting whose frequency was inversely correlated with body weight (Spearman's r=-0.76, P<0.001). The nature of the salt tested did not influence vomiting. CONCLUSIONS: While none of the three forms of cysteamine tested has a clear advantage over the others in terms of pharmacokinetics and tolerance profile, this should now however be addressed in patients treated for cystinosis during repeat administrations.  (+info)

Wheat, a tetany prone forage, and orchardgrass, a non-tetany prone forage, were cut at three stages of maturity to determine the magnesium availability in these forages for lambs. The forages were dried in forced air ovens and ground through a 2.5 cm screen. The nitrogen contents of the forages were not significantly different between forages but decreased quadratically with maturity in wheat (P < .Ol) and linearly in orchardgrass (P < .Ol). Nonprotein nitrogen was significantly higher in wheat than in orchardgrass. The magnesium content of the wheat was lower (P < .O1) than orchardgrass (.14 vs .21%). Magnesium content in wheat was similar at all maturities but decreased with maturity in orchardgrass. Potassium, calcium and phosphorous levels in the forages were similar between wheat and orchardgrass but decreased with advancing maturity in both forages.. In two metabolism trials with 18 wether lambs, the biological availability of magnesium was determined for the two forages cut at three ...
In the dietary and beverage industry, and food in general, the supply of minerals is usually made through inorganic salts. However, these salts are inefficient as they are poorly absorbed (bioavailability).. As a result, the industry has been moving for some time towards other alternatives to solve this problem: organic salts.. For this reason, in Quimidroga we incorporated in its moment a wide range of organic salts as a contribution of minerals for feeding by Jungbunzlauer. These are salts obtained by fermentation with greater bioavailability than their corresponding inorganic salts. For example, calcium citrate absorbs between 22% and 27% more than calcium carbonate.. Now, given the growing demand for mineral beverages and responding to their needs, Jungbuzlauer has expanded its range of organic salts with the launch of magnesium lactate and zinc lactate, which in addition to good bioavailability, offers greater solubility compared to other organic salts.. An added advantage of these organic ...
Therefore, a drug given by the intravenous route will have an absolute bioavailability of 100% (f = 1), whereas drugs given by other routes usually have an absolute bioavailability of less than one. If we compare the two different dosage forms having same active ingredients and compare the two drug bioavailability is called comparative bioavailability.. Although knowing the true extent of systemic absorption (referred to as absolute bioavailability) is clearly useful, in practice it is not determined as frequently as one may think. The reason for this is that its assessment requires an intravenous reference, that is, a route of administration that guarantees that all of the administered drug reaches the systemic circulation. Such studies come at considerable cost, not least of which is the necessity to conduct preclinical toxicity tests to ensure adequate safety, as well as there being potential problems due to solubility limitations. These limitations may be overcome, however, by administering ...
At screening and check-in for each period, subjects must have blood pressure and pulse rate within the following ranges: Systolic blood pressure (110-150 mmHg); Diastolic blood pressure (70-95 mmHg); Pulse (50-105 bpm). Minor deviations (1-3 mmHg) at check-in may be acceptable at the discretion of the physician investigator. For all except the first period check-in, if a subjects vital signs measurements fall outside the range specified above, the subject may, at the discretion of the physician investigator, be allowed to remain enrolled until 0-hour measurements are made. If the 0-hour protocol vital signs requirements are met, the investigator may allow dosing and the subjects continuation in the study. If 0-hour vital signs requirements are not met, the subject will not be dosed and must be withdrawn from the study. The blood pressure and pulse will be measured after the subject has been seated at least three minutes. Subjects with blood pressure and pulse measurements outside the ranges ...
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
The most complete multinutrient formulation for men of all ages. Contains a broad spectrum of food based, highly bioavailable nutrients.
The worlds first wiki where authorship really matters. Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts.
Part I focuses on in vitro and in vivo measurements of physicochemical properties, such as membrane permeability and ionization. Part II discusses solubility and gastrointestinal absorption, while the third part is devoted to metabolism and excretory mechanisms. The much revised and expanded part IV surveys current in silico approaches to predict drug properties needed to estimate the bioavailability of any new drug candidate. The final part shows how poor bioavailability may be improved by various approaches during the development process ...
Resveratrol has emerged as a leading candidate for improving healthspan through potentially slowing the aging process and preventing chronic diseases. The poor bioavailability of resveratrol in humans has been a major concern for translating basic science findings into clinical utility. Although a number of positive findings have emerged from human clinical trials, there remain many conflicting results, which may partially be attributed to the dosing protocols used. A number of theoretical solutions have been developed to improve the bioavailability of resveratrol, including consumption with various foods, micronized powders, combining it with additional phytochemicals, controlled release devices, and nanotechnological formulations. While laboratory models indicate these approaches all have potential to improve bioavailability of resveratrol and optimize its clinical utility, there is surprisingly very little data regarding the bioavailability of resveratrol in humans. If bioavailability is indeed a
Checkout some of the amazing ingredients that every jar of EverPup® contains to make it the ultimate dog supplement for dogs of all ages. With no muss and no fuss, EverPup may be able to replace several other individual supplements you may now be giving. Especially since EverPup is formulated for high bioavailability, using our technology Biovadex™! Because EverPup is formulated with Biovadex, the ingredients in EverPup are highly bioavailable which means they can perform optimally.. ...
Please note that Lonza has updated its Privacy Policy. By visiting our website or using services provided by Lonza, you are accepting the practices described in the Privacy Policy.. We also use cookies on our websites. Cookies allow us to give you the best browsing experience and help us to understand how you use our site. You can disable cookies but parts of our website may not work. Please read our updated Cookies Policy for information about which cookies we use and the information we collect. By continuing to use this website, you agree that we may store and access cookies on your device.. By clicking "I Agree", you confirm that you are above the age of 16, that you have read and understood the Privacy Policy and the Cookies Policy, and that you agree to the collection, use and processing of your Personal Information by Lonza in accordance with said policies.. ...
The number of poorly water-soluble drug substances in the pharmaceutical pipeline is increasing, and thereby also the need to design effective drug delivery systems providing high bioavailability. One favourable formulation approach is preparation of solid dispersions, where dispersing a poorly water-soluble drug in a water-soluble polymer matrix improves the dissolution behaviour and the bioavailability of the drug. However, in order to take full advantage of such formulations the impact of material properties on their performance needs to be investigated.. An experimental toolbox has been designed, and applied, for analysing the processes which govern the behaviour of solid pharmaceutical formulations in general, and that of solid dispersions in particular. For the purpose of monitoring multifaceted phenomena in situ during tablet dissolution, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and NMR imaging are superior to many other techniques, both on macroscopic and molecular levels. The ...
The bioavailability of an AA refers to the proportion of that AA that is in a form that can be digested, absorbed, and used for metabolic functions.1-1-1 Bioavailability coefficients of AAs in feedstuffs are determined in slope ratio growth assays. These assays are laborious and time consuming and only allow determination of the bioavailability of a single AA at a time, which is costly. Consequently, there are only a limited number of ingredients and AAs for which bioavailability coefficients have been determined and such coefficients of AA are not routinely used in feed formulation.. The use of bioavailability coefficients is important for heat-processed or long-stored ingredients because of the negative impact of these treatments on the bioavailability of the AA lysine. Lysine is rendered biologically unavailable by complexing with reducing compounds in the feed.. There are considerable efforts to develop simpler methods for estimating AA bioavailability in feedstuffs. A method known as the ...
Which antibiotics have good / near 100% oral bioavailability? Antibiotics with enhanced oral bioavailability allows conversion to oral therapy once a patient meets defined clinical criteria. This can result in reduced length of hospital stay, health care costs, and potential complications due to intravenous access.
Glucopro is a combination of Glucosamine with high bioavailability and Inulin that promotes and supports healthy joints and a good intestinal flora.
Pregnancy is a period of increased metabolic demands, with changes in the womans physiology and the requirements of a growing fetus. Nutritional requirement in pregnancy increases for carbohydrate, vitamins and micronutrients especially for Iron, Zinc and Folic acid etc. Presenting R.B.TONE forte tablets containing ferrous ascorbate providing 100 mg of elemental iron which is integral part of many proteins and enzymes that maintain good health. Ferrous ascorbate have high bioavailability with least GI side effects. Folic acid is vital for cell division and growth while zinc is essential for many functions, including growth and neurobehavioral development, immune and sensory function. Thus combination in R.B. TONE FORTE improves fetal growth and develops immune system ensuring expected outcome of pregnancy - "no maternal complication and healthy baby ...
Muscle repair and protein replacement: Currently, this is the main goal sought by the Test Boost Elite consumers and was discovered through research carried out in the elderly, aiming to maintain their muscle strength and avoid accidents such as falls, so common at this age.. In this research, the researchers linked low levels of testosterone with lower muscle strength, thus indicating that it increases muscle capacity and function. Because it is a supplement of high biological value, when it is ingested by bodybuilders, it restores eventual muscle losses through the training effort, in order to reduce catabolism. The plasma biological availability of this protein also helps in gaining muscle mass.. - Decreased post workout symptoms: A survey conducted by Ball State University compared the symptoms of bodybuilders after a week of overtraining. While one group took Test Boost Elite supplement after exercise, the other group took a placebo, without either group knowing which of the two products ...
Muscle repair and protein replacement: Currently, this is the main goal sought by the Test Boost Elite consumers and was discovered through research carried out in the elderly, aiming to maintain their muscle strength and avoid accidents such as falls, so common at this age.. In this research, the researchers linked low levels of testosterone with lower muscle strength, thus indicating that it increases muscle capacity and function. Because it is a supplement of high biological value, when it is ingested by bodybuilders, it restores eventual muscle losses through the training effort, in order to reduce catabolism. The plasma biological availability of this protein also helps in gaining muscle mass.. - Decreased post workout symptoms: A survey conducted by Ball State University compared the symptoms of bodybuilders after a week of overtraining. While one group took Test Boost Elite supplement after exercise, the other group took a placebo, without either group knowing which of the two products ...
The overall objective of this project was to investigate the role of locally derived growth factors and extracellular matrix proteins in regulating prepubertal heifer mammary development. In the first experiment, short-term treatment of heifers with GH or E increased proliferation of mammary epithelial cells. Coinciding with increased epithelial cell proliferation, IGF-I protein increased and IGFBP-3 protein decreased within mammary tissues. Thus, proliferation was associated with an apparent net increase in the biological availability of IGF-I within the mammary gland. In the second experiment, decreased mammary development and epithelial cell proliferation in response to ovariectomy coincided with decreased mammary expression of IGF-I mRNA and decreased binding of IGF-I to mammary microsomes. Taken together, these results imply an important role for locally derived IGF-I in regulating heifer mammary development. However, in contrast to our hypothesis, IGF-I mRNA did not differ between cleared ...
There are few p.o. administered chemotherapeutics currently available with demonstrated efficacy against i.c. tumors. The principal finding in our study is that ZD1839, a p.o.-active EGFR-TKI, is efficacious against i.c. tumors expressing the wild-type EGFR. This is important not only for EGFR-expressing primary malignant tumors of the CNS but also metastatic tumors that also frequently overexpress EGFR and that commonly seek refuge within the CNS. Previous studies have shown that oral administration of ZD1839 to rats (5 mg/kg) yields a terminal half-life of approximately 3-13.8 h in male animals and 5-8.2 h in female animals (data on file at AstraZeneca). The absolute bioavailability after oral dosing at 5 mg/kg was 49.8%. Consequently, when dosage was increased to 12.5 mg/kg, the absolute bioavailability was 76.7 and 87.6% in male and female animals, respectively. On the basis of this information, we had reason to believe that in our experiments treating with nontoxic doses 10-20-fold higher ...
Ok so, Noopept has been proven to cause minimal negative effects when used based on recommended doses and has a really low toxicity levels.. A lot users who know anything about other Racetams, like Piracetam and Oxiracetam for example, are probably going to know that these types of nootropics have headache as a common side effect.. Noopept, on the other hand, can reduce headaches or not cause them at all.. Its able to avoid headaches because Noopept works to affect Glutamate and not Acetylcholine neurotransmitters that are going to use up your brains supply of choline.. Also, Noopept doesnt lead to digestive problems when it is being used at the ideal dosage.. Because of its really high bioavailability level almost all of it is going to get soaked up down in the GI tract and before it goes toward the brain so you probably wont have any problems.. With that being said there have been cases of where people who take abnormally large doses of Noopept do experience upset stomach and GI tract ...
Ok so, Noopept has been proven to cause minimal negative effects when used based on recommended doses and has a really low toxicity levels.. A lot users who know anything about other Racetams, like Piracetam and Oxiracetam for example, are probably going to know that these types of nootropics have headache as a common side effect.. Noopept, on the other hand, can reduce headaches or not cause them at all.. Its able to avoid headaches because Noopept works to affect Glutamate and not Acetylcholine neurotransmitters that are going to use up your brains supply of choline.. Also, Noopept doesnt lead to digestive problems when it is being used at the ideal dosage.. Because of its really high bioavailability level almost all of it is going to get soaked up down in the GI tract and before it goes toward the brain so you probably wont have any problems.. With that being said there have been cases of where people who take abnormally large doses of Noopept do experience upset stomach and GI tract ...
Raw Hemp Protein High Bioavailability (absorption into body) No psychotropic reaction - they are safe and healthy to eat Raw, Cold-processed Contains a Complete Amino Acid Profile Including the 9 Essential Amino Acids Ideal 3:1 Omega-3 vs. Omega-6 fatty acids Rich in GLAs (Gamma-Linoleic Acids) The hemp seeds, from wh
Dairy-free, great-tasting vegetarian protein powder with non-GMO pea yellow peas. High bioavailability and digestibility and a wide array of amino acids, very similar to whey. Supports healthy cholesterol and blood [...] ...
You should seize only do a weakly buffered Kerasal like Salicylic acid and urea topical. Salicylic acid and although urea topical is uniquely formulated with our bema drug delivery technology that allows approximately for assessing high bioavailability of Salvax duo in the bloodstream, and beliefs represents an important new option for patients and healthcare providers. Read More. ...
GSK2118436 is an orally administered, potent and selective small molecule BRAF inhibitor that is currently being developed for the treatment of BRAF mut
Dr. David Hough, the crew chief on Janssens esketamine job, absolutely thinks so. He touts esketamines "high bioavailability"- which means that far more on the drug will make its way to the brain-and many stellar quantities: a sixty to 70 p.c response charge and 6 to 8 months of http://trainer-albuquerque60371.blogolize.com/The-2-Minute-Rule-for-start-a-ketamine-clinic-9793483 ...
Due to their poor oral bioavailability, oligosaccharides are formulated as solutions or suspensions and delivered by invasive intravenous (IV) or...
duration of action (inhibition of acid secretion). Biotransformation: Pantoprazoles serum protein binding is about 98%. The substance is almost exclusively metabolized in the liver. Renal elimination represents the major route of excretion (about 80%) for the metabolites of pantoprazole, the rest are excreted with the faeces. The main metabolite in both the serum and urine is desmethylpantoprazole which is conjugated with sulphate. The half-life of the main metabolite (about 1.5 h) is not much longer than that of pantoprazole. Bioavailability: Pantoprazole is completely absorbed after oral administration. The absolute bioavailability from the tablet was found to be about 77%. Concomitant intake of food had no influence on AUC, maximum serum concentration and thus bioavailability. Only the variability of the lag-time will be increased by concomitant food intake. Linearity: Pharmacokinetics do not vary after single or repeated administration. In the dose range of 10 to 80 mg, the plasma kinetics ...
Your compounds can be tested in PharmOptimas 6500 square foot vivarium for in vivo bioavailability, metabolism, pharmacologic efficacy, and tolerance.
(KudoZ) German to English translation of präsystemische Metabolisierung: first-pass effect/presystemic metabolization [Medical: Pharmaceuticals (Medical)].
NDA Filing Planned for April 2013 Nov 15, 2012 - POZEN Inc. (NASDAQ POZN), a pharmaceutical company committed to transforming medicine that transforms lives, an
In the present study, we demonstrated that the mechanism of inhibition of Y-700 is distinctly different from that of allopurinol. X-ray crystallographic analysis showed that a Y-700 molecule filled the entire pocket, thereby inhibiting the enzyme activity by obstructing access of substrate to the active site. We also clarified that Y-700 is absorbed with high oral bioavailability and is predominantly eliminated via the liver in normal rats.. The steady-state kinetic analysis under air-saturated conditions showed that the mechanism of inhibition against bovine milk XO by Y-700 was of a mixed type, and the Ki and Ki′ values for this compound were 0.6 and 3.2 nM, respectively. Similar findings have been reported with two other inhibitors, BOF-4272 (Okamoto and Nishino, 1995) and TEI-6720 (Okamoto et al., 2003). When oxygen is the terminal electron acceptor for xanthine, XOR acts via a ping-pong mechanism, altering between oxidized and reduced forms (Massey et al., 1969; Olson et al., 1974). When ...
Description: Given the proposed involvement of VLA-4 in inflammatory processes, a program to identify orally active VLA-4 antagonists was initiated. Herein, we report the discovery of a N-tetrahydrofuroyl-( l)-phenylalanine derivative ( 17) and related analogues as potent VLA-4 antagonists with good oral bioavailability. The synthesis, biological properties, and pharmacokinetic profile of tetrahydrofuranoyl such as 17 are reported. ...
Aptar Pharmas e-Lockout device uses advanced electronic technology to limit the number of doses available during a 24-hour period, thereby ensuring safe patient compliance to Takedas pain-relieving nasal spray ...
Designed for children and teens ages 4 and up. It is a complete hypo-allergenic, nutrient rich, highly bioavailable multi-vitamin, multi-mineral, antioxidants and trace element supplement in small capsules for easy [...] ...
Youngevity Order Line - 888.244.8948 Cell Shield RTQ™ delivers a highly bioavailable, proprietary blend of three powerful antioxidants (Resveratrol, Turmeric, and Quercetin) for potent protection against cell-damaging free radicals. For best results, use Cell Shield RTQ™ as part of a full nutritional program that includes Beyond Tangy Tangerine® and Ultimate™ EFA Plus™.* SUGGESTED USE: Take two capsules per day. WARNING: If you are pregnant, nursing or taking medications, consult your healthcare professional before using this or any other product. KEEP OUT OF THE REACH OF CHILDREN.
Co Q-10 plus Q-Sorb 200mg. Nature's Bounty Q-Sorb™ is a natural, highly bioavailable form of Co Q-10, and these easy-to-swallow softgels are a powerful way to support heart health. This unique antioxidant supports energy production in the brain and muscles.
Save 46% Lindberg - CoQsol-CF CoQ10 100 mg Softgels 60 Softgels New product is expected to arrive at our warehouse January 26, 2018. Highly bioavailable CoQ10
Plasma drug concentration (top), muscle drug concentration (middle) and co-localization of Nogo-A with drug (bottom).In the top and bottom panels: visual predic
ZEN-3694 is an orally bioavailable inhibitor of the bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) family of proteins, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, the BET inhibitor ZEN-3694 binds to the acetylated lysine recognition motifs in the bromodomains of BET proteins, thereby preventing the interaction between the BET proteins and acetylated histones. This disrupts chromatin remodeling and gene expression.
AZD1480 is an orally bioavailable inhibitor of Janus-associated kinase 2 (JAK2) with potential antineoplastic activity. JAK2 inhibitor AZD1480 inhibits JAK2 activation, leading to the inhibition of the JAK/STAT (signal transducer and activator of transcription) signaling including activation of STAT3. This may lead to induction of tumor cell apoptosis and a decrease in cellular proliferation. JAK2, often upregulated or mutated in a variety of cancer cells, mediates STAT3 activation and plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation and survival.
bioavailable: the unbound (free) fraction of a hormone that has left the bloodstream to enter target tissues in the body. This unbound fraction is present and measurable in saliva. ...
Greenmedinfo.com - Natural Health Resource - The worlds most widely referenced, open access, natural medicine database, with 30,000+ study abstracts and growing daily
Bioavailability refers to how easy it is for the body to digest, absorb and use a protein in its metabolic processes. Some foods have a greater bioavailability than others. Animal proteins like milk are known to have high bioavailability, meaning that they support muscle building.. Researchers from the University of Exeter compared milk protein with Mycoprotein - the patent-protected protein used in Quorn products - and found "equivalent"​ bioavailability.. Detailing the study, which was published in British Journal of Nutrition​, the researchers said that they investigated the impact of mycoprotein ingestion, in a dose-response manner, on acute postprandial hyperaminoacidaemia and hyperinsulinaemia.. In all, 12 healthy young men completed five experimental trials in a randomised, single-blind, cross-over design. During each trial, volunteers consumed a test drink containing either 20 g milk protein, mass matched (not protein matched due to the fibre content) mycoprotein, or a protein ...
There are some good choices today for curcumin supplements designed to improve bioavailability, much better than the options that existed even just five years ago. But even with these choices, if you are aiming to maintain significant levels of curcumin in your blood at all times for maximum effect, you are going to need to take two or three doses per day spaced evenly.. Ive not noted any particular digestive upset from taking curcumin with other supplements without a big meal, but this varies from person to person and also depends upon the other supplements you are taking. If you find that you need to take it with some food to minimize digestive upset, Id suggest you try taking one dose in the morning with breakfast and another shortly before bedtime with a small protein-rich snack with some fat content such as cottage cheese. If you choose to take a third dose each day, take it with an afternoon snack or an early dinner.. Consider taking curcumin along with other beneficial oils and fats to ...
As stated in the comments by Eliane B., testosterone can actually be administered orally when an undecanoate ester is attached. The reason regular testosterone cannot be adminstered orally is because it undergoes extensive first pass metabolism (oxidation of the 17b-hydroxyl group to a 17-keto group, catalyzed by 17b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzymes, which are active in the liver). The undecanoate ester makes the substance lipophilic enough to be transported by the lymphatic system to the circulation after absorption by the intestines. Without the ester it will first reach the liver via the portal vein, thus exposing it to first pass metabolism. Nevertheless, bioavailability of oral testosterone undecanoate is estimated to be less than 10% [1].. Besides that, there are also derivates of testosterone which have a high oral bioavailability. These derivates have an alpha-oriented alkyl group, usually methyl, at position C-17, which retards hepatic metabolism. However, this can lead to ...
IntroductionMisoprostol (Cytotec) was primarily made for treating gastric ulcers. However today it is mostly used for abortion, treating postpartum hemorrhage, and for induction of labor. The tablet contains 200 µg of misoprostol, yet the dosages used for induction of labor are much smaller (25-50 µg), leading to uncertainty of dosage in daily use.AimTo evaluate and compare the relative bioavailability of two misoprostol products (Angusta 25 µg and Cytotec 200 µg tablets) administered orally or sublingually given in a daily clinical setting to women admitted for induction of labor at term.MethodsWomen carrying a live, singleton fetus in a cephalic position and with a gestational age between 259 and 296 days were included. Blood samples were collected at 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 75, 100, 120, 180, and 240 minutes. A serum analytical assay was performed and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. Patients were assigned to one of three groups.ResultsA total of 72 patients were included. No
The current study indicates that administration of the dual ABCB1 and ABCG2 inhibitor tariquidar results in a statistically significantly increase in plasma, liver and brain exposure to imatinib. Since imatinib is known to have very high bioavailability (approximately 98%) [1], it is likely that the difference in plasma AUC is due to modified distribution and/or elimination of the drug, rather than a change in the extent of intestinal absorption. This hypothesis is supported by the fact that tariquidar increased the peak plasma concentration of imatinib by less than 20% and this change was not statistically significant. As expected, there was also no apparent change in the rate of absorption. Considering that imatinib is effluxed by both ABCB1 and ABCG2, the almost complete bioavailability may seem somewhat surprising. However, it is possible that the high concentrations of imatinib in the gut are actually leading to localized inhibition of these transporters, as has been suggested by inhibition ...
General Absorption Pravastatin sodium is administered orally in the active form. In studies in man, peak plasma pravastatin concentrations occurred 1 to 1.5 hours upon oral administration. Based on urinary recovery of total radiolabeled drug, the average oral absorption of pravastatin is 34% and absolute bioavailability is 17%. While the presence of food in the gastrointestinal tract reduces systemic bioavailability, the lipid-lowering effects of the drug are similar whether taken with or 1 hour prior to meals.. Pravastatin plasma concentrations, including area under the concentration-time curve (AUC), Cmax, and steady-state minimum (Cmin), are directly proportional to administered dose. Systemic bioavailability of pravastatin administered following a bedtime dose was decreased 60% compared to that following an AM dose. Despite this decrease in systemic bioavailability, the efficacy of pravastatin administered once daily in the evening, although not statistically significant, was marginally more ...
General Absorption Pravastatin sodium is administered orally in the active form. In studies in man, peak plasma pravastatin concentrations occurred 1 to 1.5 hours upon oral administration. Based on urinary recovery of total radiolabeled drug, the average oral absorption of pravastatin is 34% and absolute bioavailability is 17%. While the presence of food in the gastrointestinal tract reduces systemic bioavailability, the lipid-lowering effects of the drug are similar whether taken with or 1 hour prior to meals.. Pravastatin plasma concentrations, including area under the concentration-time curve (AUC), Cmax, and steady-state minimum (Cmin), are directly proportional to administered dose. Systemic bioavailability of pravastatin administered following a bedtime dose was decreased 60% compared to that following an AM dose. Despite this decrease in systemic bioavailability, the efficacy of pravastatin administered once daily in the evening, although not statistically significant, was marginally more ...
meilleur sites de piratage. http://testadsl.menara.ma/speed.php http://www.ratiatum.com/: pir to. such as children who pass to Hutchison Rudimentary School.Lisinopril hctz makes me tired Lisinopril make me tired Lisinopril. you`ll have to deal with it and wait for these phase to pass. Why dows lisinopril make.Long-term renoprotective effect of nisoldipine and lisinopril in type 1 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy. Diabetes Care, Dec 2000.. it was first described in medical literature. thus taking advantage of the blockade exerted by quinidine on the first-pass hepatic metabolism of.Emergency Cardiac Drugs by. • Oral nitroglycerin undergoes significant first-pass metabolism and has less than 1%. (Vasotec) • Lisinopril.. ...
First-pass hepatic retention of glucose had previously been measured indirectly from the appearance of ingested labelled glucose into the systemic circulation. To determine the accuracy of the procedure, results obtained by this indirect method were compared with those of direct measurement of hepatic retention of labelled glucose given by instantaneous injection into the portal vein. In the rat, the indirect procedure gave a value of 13.7 +/- 2.3%. In the direct method, [14C]glucose was injected intraportally together with [3H]sucrose as a marker of extracellular distribution. Hepatic content of both labels was maximal immediately after administration; the content of sucrose fell to basal values by 15 s, indicating that the injected bolus had passed through the liver; the content of [14C]glucose continued to fall for 90 s. The difference in tissue retention between glucose and sucrose, representing intracellular glucose, was constant from 90 to 180 s, and indicated a first-pass retention of 13 ...
Fortified-blended foods (FBFs), grain-legume porridges (most commonly corn and soy), are frequently used for food aid purposes. Sorghum and cowpea have been suggested as alternative FBF commodities because they are drought-tolerant, grown locally in food aid receiving countries, and are not genetically modified. The objective of this thesis was to determine the protein quality and iron bioavailability of newly formulated, extruded FBFs in broiler chickens, which have been suggested as a good model for assessing iron bioavailability. Five FBFs were formulated to contain whey or soy protein to compare protein quality, sugar, oil, and an improved micronutrient premix. These included three white sorghum-cowpea FBFs; two were extruded with either whey protein concentrate (WSC) or soy protein isolate (WSC+SPI) added, one was non-extruded (N-WSC). Two others were white sorghum-soy (WSS) and corn-soy (CSB14) FBFs. Two additional white-sorghum cowpea FBFs were reformulated and "over-processed" to contain ...
Curcumin is a molecule that is notoriously difficult to absorb. There is evidence that turmeric in its basal state, when used as a persistent part of the diet, can exert health benefits, including antimicrobial effects​​, even with its poor absorption profile. The curcumin content of turmeric samples tested in India recently varied widely​​, from a low of about 2.5% to a high of almost 9% by weight. The discussion among researchers then has been what dosages in a dietary supplement application are effective, given that so little of the active ingredients actually end up crossing the blood barrier. "Despite its reported benefits via inflammatory and antioxidant mechanisms, one of the​ major problems with ingesting curcumin by itself is its poor bioavailability, which appears to be primarily due to poor absorption, rapid metabolism, and rapid elimination. Several agents have been tested to improve curcumins bioavailability by addressing these various mechanisms," ​Drs Kalman and ...
Therefore, a drug given by the intravenous route will have an absolute bioavailability of 100% (f = 1), whereas drugs given by other routes usually have an absolute bioavailability of less than one. If we compare the two different dosage forms having same active ingredients and compare the two drug bioavailability is called comparative bioavailability.[citation needed] Although knowing the true extent of systemic absorption (referred to as absolute bioavailability) is clearly useful, in practice it is not determined as frequently as one may think. The reason for this is that its assessment requires an intravenous reference; that is, a route of administration that guarantees all of the administered drug reaches systemic circulation. Such studies come at considerable cost, not least of which is the necessity to conduct preclinical toxicity tests to ensure adequate safety, as well as potential problems due to solubility limitations. These limitations may be overcome, however, by administering a ...
The growth promoting hormone Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) similar to insulin may be an important regulator of nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. We have previously reported in two murine models of reduced IGF-1 receptor (global hemizygous knockout (IGFRKO) and endothelial cell specific IGF-1R knockout (ECIGFRKO)) evidence of increased basal NO production in the vasculature, with augmentation of this increase relative to decreasing IGF-1R number (WT v ECIGFRKO hemizygotes p=0.01, WT vs ECIGFRKO homozygotes p = 0.001). Furthermore, by decreasing IGF-1R numbers in the insulin resistant hemizygous insulin receptor knockout (IRKO) model (IRKO x IGFRKO) insulin sensitivity in the vasculature can be restored. In this study, we have investigated further these receptor interactions with the generation of a mouse overexpressing the human IGF-1R specifically in the endothelium under control of the Tie-2 promoter-enhancer (hIGFREO) and by targeted knockdown of the IGF-1R in human endothelial cells. ...
After oral administration MTX is rapidly but incompletely absorbed. Its bioavailability is about 70% at low doses (≤10 mg/m2), approximately 15-20% lower than that of intramuscular (IM) or intravenous (IV) MTX.4,5 In addition, there is a marked interindividual and a moderate intraindividual variability in the extent of absorption of oral MTX.6 Oral administration in doses above 25 mg/day is associated with lower bioavailability due to the saturation of the absorption mechanism. Thus in high doses the parenteral administration is mandatory.7 IM MTX showed higher bioavailability than oral MTX either as tablets or as solution.8 However, other studies have shown a similar MTX concentration after oral, IM, or IV administration.5,9. To compare the relative bioavailability of oral versus intramuscular administration in patients with RA, the pharmacokinetics of MTX at both the usual starting dose of 7.5 mg and at established higher maintenance doses was examined in 21 patients.10 Pharmacokinetics ...
When assessing the risks to children and adults due to contaminated soil and/or house dust, it has become clear over the past 25 years that ingestion does not equal the absorbed dose. That is, not all of the chemical in these media will be absorbed due to a myriad of chemical interactions with the different types of soil and dust present in the environment. To characterize the likely absorbed dose, many factors need to be considered. Theoretically, physiochemical characteristics should govern interactions between the contaminant and soil matrix and may affect solubilization, gastrointestinal absorption, and subsequently absolute oral bioavailability. Once solubilized and bioaccessible, a chemical must undergo absorption from the gut into systemic circulation. Absorption is most affected by chemical ionization, lipophilicity, and solubility. However, nearly 3 decades of research have not given sufficient insight to develop a universal model for predicting bioaccessibility. In this paper, we ...
Forte is utilization of the Maurmerization technology, providing more complete intake of the products ingredients.. Astymin Forte represents an encapsulated combination of 7 types of granules of different colors. Dissolution rate of each granule type is carefully calculated to allow the dissolution within the prescribed time and in certain regions of gastrointestinal tract. As a result the amino acids and vitamins, which can be found in Astymin Forte, are absorbed in the blood stream slowly and as much as possible, providing 98% bioavailability! So far, such a high bioavailability is completely unattainable for other amino acid and vitamin complexes!. Distribution of active ingredients in the granules of Astymin Forte furthermore provides a very short time to maximum blood amino acid concentration after the product administration - about 20-30 minutes.. As opposed to Astymin Forte most amino acid and vitamin complexes are manufactured in traditional presentation. Due to this active substances ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Valeria Galetti, Prosper Kujinga, Comlan Evariste S Mitchikpè, Christophe Zeder, Fabian Tay, Félicien Tossou, Joseph D Hounhouigan, Michael B Zimmermann, Diego Moretti].
Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a glycoprotein responsible for the transport and biologic availability of sex steroid hormones, primarily testosterone and estradiol. SHBG has been associated with chronic diseases ...
Organic PurePea™, an organic, natural pea protein isolate, offers a high level of functionality and nutritional benefits. Organic PurePea™ is a true vegan protein which has high bioavailability and excellent digestibility.* The raw materials, certified or
n humans, they are converted to acyclovir and penciclovir.This causes their close morphological and histological properties.. mechanism of action of acyclovir is in the interaction with enzymes of the virus, and then interrupted their development cycle.The result is the death of the microorganism.This interaction ensures the structure of acyclovir, which is similar to dezoksiguanedina (purine nucleoside).The most sensitive to this drug is the herpes simplex virus.There are strains of microorganisms which are resistant to this drug.This effect can be explained by the use of immunosuppressive therapy.The mechanism of resistance is a mutation of the virus enzyme systems, changing the specificity of the drug.In the event of such situations are drugs of other pharmacological groups ("Foscarnet").Children antivirals include "Valacyclovir."The high bioavailability, which is more than fifty percent causes a similar effect.This means that to achieve the effect required much smaller doses of the drug ...
Some of the studies cited above simply used raw ginger powder to achieve the reported results, so this approach certainly has proven merit (and its nearly always the least expensive).. Simply brewing tea with ginger powder (or even mixing the powder into room temperature water) can provide relief from nausea, headaches, and other everyday maladies. Raw ginger root also adds a nice kick to smoothies and cooked dishes, so for an extra antioxidant and anti-inflammatory boost, throw some in whenever you think of it.. If you want to implement ginger as an acute therapeutic agent for the prevention and treatment of disease, though, its best to work with concentrated full-spectrum extracts and oils (especially those that have been optimally formulated for high bioavailability).. This product is our favorite, especially if youre seeking out ginger for any kind of pain relief-its a powerful complex of liposomal ginger oil, curcumin (the famed healing component in turmeric), and vegan DHA (which also ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of digitoxin by a specific assay. AU - MacFarland, R. T.. AU - Marcus, F. I.. AU - Fenster, P. E.. AU - Graves, P. E.. AU - Perrier, D.. PY - 1984/1. Y1 - 1984/1. N2 - The pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of digitoxin were examined in six normal human subjects using an assay that separates digitoxin from its metabolites. After intravenous administration, the mean systemic clearance was 2.44 ml/min; the volume of distribution was 0.47 l/kg; and the elimination half-life was 6.5 days. After oral administration, the elimination half-life was 5.8 days. The bioavailability was 81.5% using the specific assay. Using a non-specific, direct serum digitoxin radioimmunoassay the bioavailability was 98.0%. Assay of aqueous fractions from extracted serum samples indicated higher levels of water-soluble metabolites following oral compared to intravenous digitoxin administration. These findings suggest that previously reported values for digitoxin ...
Bioavailable P is the proportion of P that can be absorbed and available for use or storage.4 The most common methods to estimate P bioavailability are the slope-ratio assay and digestibility experiments. The slope-ratio assay method theoretically estimates the digestible plus post-absorptive utilization of P at the tissue level and is known as available P (AvP), whereas digestibility experiments measure only digestible utilization, known as digestible P.5. Available P. In the slope-ratio assay method, linear regression is fitted to the response criterion (eg, growth performance or bone ash) for each set of titrated diets (new versus inorganic standard ingredient) and the slope of the equation from the ingredient is divided by the slope from the inorganic standard. The drawbacks of the slope-ratio assay method1,5 are mainly assumption that the inorganic standard is 100% bioavailable, thus it is important to use the same standard for all ingredients; dependence on the response criterion used ...
As far as the synergy, I would think that most would be already taking the CoQ-10, resveratrol, B-vitamins and green tea.. Curcumin-soy formulation may boost absorption 60-fold: Indena study - Nutra USA, 4/6/11 - Curcumin has been a sort of forbidden fruit for biomedical research, since its poor oral bioavailability has substantially hampered clinical development, despite the very promising indications of the preclinical research ... The volunteers received five (low-dose - 209 mg total curcuminoids) or nine (high-dose - 376 mg total curcuminoids) hard-shell capsules of either the soybean-based phospholipid-curcumin formulation (Meriva) or five capsules of a non-formulated curcuminoid mixture containing 1799 mg of curcuminoids ... Total curcuminoid absorption was about 29-fold higher for Meriva than for its corresponding unformulated curcuminoid mixture, but only phase-2 metabolites could be detected, and plasma concentrations were still significantly lower than those required for the ...
US Department of Health and Human Service, FDA Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) Draft Guidance: Waiver of In Vivo Bioavailability and Bioequivalence Studies for Immediate Release Solid Dosage Forms Containing Certain Active Moieties/Active Ingredients Based on a Biopharmaceutic Drug Classification System. CDERGUID-2062 DFT.WPD, January 1999. ...
The action of MMPs has been linked to the pathological remodeling of blood vessels that constitutes the basis for cardiovascular conditions with significant mortality and morbidity. Specifically, MMP-9 has been associated with the development of lesions after vascular surgical interventions,12 appears to have a role in vein graft occlusion after coronary bypass surgery,13,14⇓ and seems to be associated with acute vascular syndromes,15,16⇓ suggesting that MMP-9 may be an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. However, lack of specificity, poor oral bioavailability, and unrelated side effects of currently available synthetic inhibitors do not allow the proper demonstration of MMP-9 involvement in pathological arterial remodeling. We thus decided to investigate the role of MMP-9 in arterial remodeling by using targeted genetic disruption of MMP-9 gene, which results in complete loss of MMP-9 expression and activity,6 and the mouse carotid artery flow cessation model. In spite of its ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Transdermal bioavailability and first-pass skin metabolism. T2 - A preliminary evaluation with nitroglycerin. AU - Nakashima, Emi. AU - Noonan, Patrick K.. AU - Benet, Leslie Z.. PY - 1987/8. Y1 - 1987/8. N2 - A model comprising six compartments, a systemic and presystemic compartment for nitroglycerin and each of its two dinitrate metabolites is presented to describe the interrelationships between plasma concentrations of the two metabolites and metabolism in skin after intravenous and transdermal ointment administration of nitroglycerin. Using a perfusion-limited pharmacokinetic model, the equation for the calculation of the fraction (F)of the dose of nitroglycerin systemically available from skin was derived independent of nitroglycerin plasma concentrations. Estimated F values (0.68-0.76) are comparable to values reported in Rhesus monkeys (0.80-0.84). Simulated plasma concentration-time profiles were reasonably fitted to the observed concentrations of nitroglycerin and its ...
PRUV®, Sodium Stearyl Fumarate, is a tablet lubricant specifically designed for formulations in which other lubricants lead to formulation and/or manufacturing challenges. As opposed to magnesium stearate, it offers advantages including: high degree of API compatibility, robustness to over-lubrication, no adverse effect on bioavailability, and improved appearance of effervescent solutions.
Hi, welcome to Seasoned Advice. Do not wonder that I edited your question to be in line with our faq, here it is normal for high-rep users and moderators to do this. In particular, health questions are off-topic here. You can ask whether the magnesium is lost or not, but its effects on your body depend on bioavailability and should be answered by medical specialists, not cooks. Also, calcium and magnesium are not vitamins but trace elements :) - rumtscho♦ Mar 5 13 at 17:00 ...
The study of zinc bioavailability in foods is important because this mineral intake does not meet the recommended doses for some population groups. Also, the presence of dietary factors that reduce zinc absorption contributes to its deficiency. Rice fortified with micronutrients (Ultra Rice®) is a viable alternative for fortification since this cereal is already inserted into the population habit. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioavailability of zinc (Zn) in rice fortified with zinc oxide. During 42 days, rats were divided into four groups and fed with diets containing two different sources of Zn (test diet: UR® fortified with zinc oxide, or control diet: zinc carbonate (ZnCO3)), supplying 50% or 100%, respectively, of the recommendations of this mineral for animals. Weight gain, food intake, feed efficiency ratio, weight, thickness and length of femur; retention of zinc, calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) in the femur and the concentrations of Zn in femur, plasma and erythrocytes ...
Jongbloed et al. [17] noted that relative bioavailability (RBV) of copper in broiler chickens was the highest in the case of such forms of that element as CuSO4·5H2O, Cu2O and Cu-lysine chelate, and on similar level for CuSO4 and copper acetate. However, higher bioavailability of copper from Cu2(OH)3Cl comparing to CuCl, and also considerably lower in the case of copper carbonate and copper oxide (II) with relation to CuSO4·5H2O was observed. This was confirmed by results obtained by Jackson and Stevenson [14], who compared availability of Cu from oxide form and from CuSO4·5H2O during an experiment on laying hens. The RBV index determined for CuO was 40 % lower than the index determined for sulfate form. The determined retention of Fe varied from 6.56 (group IV) to 8.691 mg/hen/day (group III). Apparent absorption of iron was in a range of 24.89-32.43 %. RBV index was the highest in group III. However, an addition of iron in a form of enriched yeast did not significantly influence the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Application of routine monitoring data for determination of the population pharmacokinetics and enteral bioavailability of phenytoin in neonates and infants with seizures. AU - Zaabi, Mohammed Al. AU - Lanner, Anders. AU - Xiaonian, Xiao. AU - Donovan, Timothy. AU - Charles, Bruce. PY - 2006/12. Y1 - 2006/12. N2 - This study investigated the population pharmacokinetics and the enteral bioavailability of phenytoin (PTN) in neonates and infants with seizures. Data from 83 patients were obtained retrospectively from medical records. A 1-compartment model was fitted to the log-transformed concentration data using NONMEM. Between-subject variability and interoccasion variability were modelled exponentially together with a log transform, both-sides exponential residual unexplained variance model. Covariates in nested models were screened for significance. Model robustness was assessed by bootstrapping with replacement (n = 500) from the study data. The parameters of the final ...
At latest update, relevant information on excretion into breast milk was not found. Because of pharmacokinetic data (wide distribution volume and moderately high molecular weight) excretion into breast milk in significant quantity seems to be unlikely. Based on a low oral bioavailability, concentration in the infants plasma should be nil or low, except in premature and newborn infants with a increased intestinal absorption capacity.
For people, its not generally considered healthy to eat the same thing day in, day out. So, why wouldnt that same rule apply to our pets? A person shouldnt eat turkey on rye for every meal, so why should a dog eat lamb and brown rice for the rest of its life? While pet foods are meant to be complete and balanced for long-term nutrition, it is still very possible that a certain food would lead to some sort of deficiency thanks to things like digestibility, ingredients, and nutrient bioavailability. For example, Ive discussed before my concerns about the inclusion of plant-based protein boosters in pets foods. Nutritional information on pet food is very limited, and one of the few things that we do get are things like the percent of food that is protein. The problem with this is that plant proteins, due to being more difficult to digest, have a lower bioavailability than animal proteins. That means that the amount that can be measured in the sources is different than the amount that a body can ...
Calithera Biosciences, Inc. is a clinical-stage pharmaceutical company. The Company focuses on discovering and developing small molecule drugs directed against tumor and immune cell targets that control key metabolic pathways in the tumor microenvironment. It is engaged in developing agents that take advantage of the metabolic requirements of tumor cells and cancer-fighting immune cells, such as cytotoxic T-cells. The Companys lead product candidate, CB-839, is a critical enzyme in tumor cells. Its other product candidate, CB-1158, is being developed for hematology and oncology indications. CB-1158 is a potent and selective orally bioavailable inhibitor of the enzyme arginase. CB-839 is a selective, reversible and orally bioavailable inhibitor of human glutaminase. CB-1158 has single agent anti-tumor activity in syngeneic mouse tumor models that has been demonstrated to act through an immune mechanism. CB-1158 is being tested in a Phase I clinical trial in patients with solid tumors.
Gadolinium chelate that has a similar action and use than gadopentetic acid. At latest update no published data on excretion into breast milk were found. It has been used in the pediatric and neonatal age. The various contrast media that are gadolinium derivatives and used for explorations with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) are considered compatible with breastfeeding because they are quickly eliminated (elimination half-life of less than 2 hours). They undergo very little metabolic changes and are virtually non-absorbable orally. They are structurally very similar to each other. Some have been shown to have no or minimal excretion into the milk. Less than 0.04% of the dose given to the mother ends just going into the milk (ACR 2018 p99, Wang 2012, Rubik 2000, Rofsky 1993). Due to its low oral bioavailability, intestinal absorption should be less than 1% of the dose took by the infant. The maximum dose received by the infant is considered less than 0.0004% of the maternal dose, which
General pharmacology:. 1. Pharmacology, sub-branches, origin of drugs, drug names. 2. Types of pharmacotherapy, rules of rational and safe phramacotherapy. The question of drug misuse. 3. Preclinical and clinical trials, stages. 4. Basic legislation related to drug use, Sources of information on drugs and medicinal products. 5. Solid and gaseous pharmaceutical drug dosage forms - overview and their influence on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. 6. Semi-solid and liquid pharmaceutical drug dosage forms - overview and their influence on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. 7. Routes of drug administration - overview, characteristics. 8. Drug absorption, presystemic elimination, drug bioavailability. 9. Drug distribution, volume of distribution, redistribution. General principles of drug movement through the body. 10. Drug elimination, processes of the first and zero order, drug accummulation. 11. Drug biotransformation - stages, examples. 12. Drug excretion (ways of excretion, possibilities ...
Introduction Broiler dietsare commonly supplemented with dry DL-methionine (DL-Met; 99% active substance), liquid methionine hydroxy analogue-free acid ...
VitalTox Reduced Glutathione Suppositories are a potent & highly bioavailable alternative to oral GSH supplements. Designed to aid in antioxidant activity.
Blend in food processor until smooth. Water amounts may be varied to achieve desired consistency for feeding. Soaking time is reduced if kitten kibble is pulverized in food processor prior to adding water. Dry Weight Composition: 46% protein, 22% fat, 23% carbohydrate Ca:P = 2:1 Energy: 1.3 kcal/cc Supplementing with live insects is recomended. About the Ingredients NOTE: Changing any of the ingredients will change the formula macronutrient levels and the ratio of Ca:P. Eukanuba Kitten Formula: All brands of kitten food are not alike; in attempting to assess the proportion of animal:plant protein sources, remember that ingredients are listed in the order of their prevalence. The first three ingredients in Eukanuba are animal products; many other brands have a grain as the second ingredient. Macronutrients from plant sources are not highly bioavailable to many songbirds. Beech-Nut Chicken & Chicken Broth Baby Food: All brands of chicken baby food are not alike, either. For example, Gerber Chicken ...
Manach, C., Williamson, G., Morand, C., Scalbert, A. and Rémésy, C. (2005). Bioavailability and bioefficacy of polyphenols in humans. I. Review of 97 bioavailability studies. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 81(1), pp.230S-240S ...
Manach, C., Williamson, G., Morand, C., Scalbert, A. and Rémésy, C. (2005). Bioavailability and bioefficacy of polyphenols in humans. I. Review of 97 bioavailability studies. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 81(1), pp.230S-240S ...
NutriBiotic Ascorbic Acid with Bioflavonoids delivers 100% pharmaceutical grade vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid) and bioflavonoids from lemon in a highly bioavailable and soluble, crystalline powder. Vitamin C, an essential nutrient, is often found in nature accompanied by bioflavonoids, a group of water-soluble plant pigments that work synergistically with vitamin C to help support the body.
Promote healthy cardiovascular function with Country Life Folate. Folate is a highly bioavailable form of the B vitamin folic acid. Besides playing a role in heart health, fol...
Progest-Avail™ is a natural topical progesterone serum providing 20 mg of bioidentical progesterone in each 1 ml serving. This highly bioavailable progesterone serum contains just four ingredients: micronized USP progesterone, dimethyl isosorbide, capryli
Eating vegetables can help benefit your skin and bones by supplying highly bioavailable nutrients that work together for optimal health and beauty.
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ABSTRACT. Buccal administration of drug provides a convenient route of administration for both systemic and local drug actions. The preferred site for retentive oral transmucosal delivery systems and for sustained and controlled release delivery device is the buccal mucosa. Rapid developments in the field of molecular biology and gene technology resulted in generation of many macromolecular drugs including peptides, proteins, polysaccharides and nucleic acids in great number possessing superior pharmacological efficacy with site specificity and devoid of untoward and toxic effects. However, the main impediment for the oral delivery of such drugs as potential therapeutic agents is their extensive presystemic metabolism, instability in acidic environment resulting into inadequate and erratic oral absorption. Direct access to the systemic circulation through the internal jugular vein bypasses drug from the hepatic first pass metabolism leading to high bioavailability. The objective of this article ...
The first part of the thesis addresses the problem of poor oral bioavailability arising from high polarity of the FimH antagonists. The strategy involves a prodrug approach, in which lipophilic esters are introduced to the parent compounds either on the aglycones carboxylic acid or the mannose moiety. The absorption potential as well as propensity to hydrolysis by esterases of liver or plasma was evaluated. The second part of the thesis emphasizes the optimization of the pharmacodynamic properties of FimH antagonists. In the first approach, the mannose moiety was modified in order to explore a cavity located at the entrance to binding pocket. The obtained antagonists were evaluated in competitive binding assay and by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) to reveal their thermodynamic binding profile. The second approach involved an elongation of the aglycone to allow additional interactions with the guanidinium side chain of Arg98. For the evaluation of these antagonists, competitive binding ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Biologic Availability of Fluoride from Alginate Impressions and APF Gel Applications in Children. AU - Joseph Lecompte, E.. AU - Whitford, Gary M.. PY - 1981/4. Y1 - 1981/4. N2 - Ten child volunteers received routine alginate impressions and APF gel topical applications during separate visits. Whole saliva, urine, and surface enamel fluoride concentrations were measured before and after these procedures. Significant increases in salivary, urinary, and enamel fluoride concentrations were observed following APF gel application but only in whole saliva following alginate impressions.. AB - Ten child volunteers received routine alginate impressions and APF gel topical applications during separate visits. Whole saliva, urine, and surface enamel fluoride concentrations were measured before and after these procedures. Significant increases in salivary, urinary, and enamel fluoride concentrations were observed following APF gel application but only in whole saliva following alginate ...
Role of Components in the Formation of Self-microemulsifying Drug Delivery Systems. GURRAM, A. K.; DESHPANDE, P. B.; KAR, S. S.; NAYAK, USHA Y.; UDUPA, N.; REDDY, M. S. // Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences;May/Jun2015, Vol. 77 Issue 3, p249 Pharmaceutical research is focused in designing novel drug delivery systems to improve the bioavailability of poorly water soluble drugs. Self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems, one among the lipid-based dosage forms were proven to be promising in improving the oral bioavailability of such... ...
Methods currently used to determine iron bioavailability have disadvantages for both the subjects and researchers involved. One safe and simple method that needs further evaluation, the serum iron absorption method, involves an initial blood drawing, dosage s of iron, and blood drawings taken at intervals thereafter. Generally, the rise in serum iron or area under the curve is used to determine iron uptake. Two experiments were conducted using the serum iron absorption method in an effort to improve the utility of this method for the measurement of iron bioavailability. With this effort in mind, an equation adjusting for dose of iron (0.5-8 mg) and blood volume was used to estimate serum iron absorption and allow for adequate comparisons of other iron absorption data obtained with this method and others. One very significant result was that low serum ferritin was found to be a predictor of high serum estimated iron absorption (SEIA). Similarly, low serum ferritin levels were also highly correlated to
Pangea Organics Lip Balm Egyptian Fennel Grapefruit and Sweet Orange GRAPEFRUIT antioxidant, euphoric SWEET ORANGE soothing, vitamin-richIngredients HELIANTHUS ANNUUS (ORGANIC SUNFLOWER) SEED OIL, CERA ALBA (ORGANIC BEESWAX), SIMMONDSIA CHINENSIS (ORGANIC JOJOBA) O...deep-moisturizing, organic oils that offer tremendous staying power without that unwanted waxy feel. Nourishing and protecting, our lip balms have high bioavailability (easy for the body to use), a...
In preparation for a study of the relative oral bioavailability of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in soils (typically containing less than 1 ppb 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin [TCDD] toxic equivalents [TEQ]), the background concentrations of PCDD/ Fs and selected polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in liver and adipose tissue from female Sprague-Dawley rats and juvenile swine after 30 d of ingesting laboratory chow. The measured concentrations of TCDD and other PCDD/Fs in rat livers were severalfold less than previously reported in the literature for control (unexposed) laboratory rodents. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs and selected PCBs in livers of swine were three- to fourfold lower than those reported for rats. The lower concentrations found in this study compared to previous findings may be due to inadvertent laboratory contamination in previous studies or to declining levels of PCDD/Fs in laboratory feed, which parallel the declines in ...
Biological Conservation. 71: 61-67. doi:10.1016/0006-3207(94)00021-H. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-10-12.. ... Estany-Tigerström, David; Bas, Josep Maria; Pons, Pere (2010). "Does Argentine ant invasion affect prey availability for ... foliage-gleaning birds?". Biological Invasions. 12 (4): 827-839. doi:10.1007/s10530-009-9504-6.. ...
Biological functions[edit]. The cysteine sulfhydryl group is nucleophilic and easily oxidized. The reactivity is enhanced when ... The systemic availability of oral glutathione (GSH) is negligible; so it must be biosynthesized from its constituent amino ... the sulfhydryl group of cysteine has numerous biological functions, and cysteine may have played an important role in the ...
Biological functions[edit]. The cysteine sulfhydryl group is nucleophilic and easily oxidized. The reactivity is enhanced when ... The systemic availability of oral glutathione (GSH) is negligible; so it must be biosynthesized from its constituent amino ... Glutamic acid and glycine are readily available in most Western diets, but the availability of cysteine can be the limiting ... the sulfhydryl group of cysteine has numerous biological functions, and cysteine may have played an important role in the ...
Their biological availability to the body depends upon dihydrofolate reductase action in the liver. This action is unusually ... Biological roles[edit]. The formation of tetrahydrofolate (FH4, also THF) begins when folic acid (F) is reduced to ... All the biological functions of folic acid are performed by tetrahydrofolate and other derivatives. ... despite the availability of folate in foods and in supplements, there was still a challenge for people to meet their daily ...
Biological role and precautions[edit]. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (January 2013) ... Radium has a low availability and is highly radioactive, making it toxic to life. ... Beryllium's low aqueous solubility means it is rarely available to biological systems; it has no known role in living organisms ...
food availability) and biological factors (ie. age). Weddell seals are high latitude Antarctic inhabitants, allowing them to ... air temperature, wind speed, and time of day) and biological constraints (ie. moulting, age, and sex). Variations in hauling- ... Despite the increased time ashore for females and decreased time ashore or males during birthing and weaning, biological ... alternating between the two depending on resource availability. Walruses haul-out onto land primarily for birthing, moulting, ...
The availability of these things will affect the cost benefits of the body deploying its own biological ones. This could, in ... Now, if you wonder about this choice of managerial terminology for talking about biological healing systems, I should say that ... Placebos are explained as the result of false information about the availability of external treatment and support that mislead ... External treatment and the availability of support is factored into the health management system's cost-benefit assessment as ...
Nectar availability is likely to influence Karner blue butterfly abundance. In a right-of-way in west-central Wisconsin, the ... Schellhorn, Nancy A.; Lane, Cynthia P.; Olson, Dawn M. (2005). "The co-occurrence of an introduced biological control agent ( ... Report to National Biological Survey and U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Baraboo, WI: North American Butterfly Association.. ... Grundel, R; Pavlovic, N (2007). "Resource availability, matrix quality, microclimate, and spatial pattern as predictors of ...
Availability: [cited 23 May 15]. Phillips, N. (2012, Dec 29). Feral cats' devastating threat to native animals laid bare. The ... Biological Conservation, Volume 97, Issue 1, Pages 71-88, doi:10.1016/S0006-3207(00)00101-4. The problem of feral cats is now ... Increasing CO2 levels will affect the nutrient availability of eucalyptus leaves further weakening koala populations, increased ... Biological Conservation, Volume 102, Issue 1, Pages 47-66 doi:10.1016/S0006-3207(01)00090-8. Food, Hugh A, Geoffrey W Barrett, ...
The systemic availability of oral glutathione (GSH) is negligible; so it must be biosynthesized from its constituent amino ... Because of its high reactivity, the thiol group of cysteine has numerous biological functions. Due to the ability of thiols to ... Glutamic acid and glycine are readily available in most Western diets, but the availability of cysteine can be the limiting ...
The amount of manure composted on a livestock farm is often determined by cleaning schedules, land availability, and weather ... Each type of manure has its own physical, chemical, and biological characteristics. Cattle and horse manures, when mixed with ... Diener, Stefan; Studt Solano, Nandayure M.; Roa Gutiérrez, Floria; Zurbrügg, Christian; Tockner, Klement (2011). "Biological ... Composting requires the following three components: human management, aerobic conditions, development of internal biological ...
The amount of manure composted on a livestock farm is often determined by cleaning schedules, land availability, and weather ... Each type of manure has its own physical, chemical, and biological characteristics. Cattle and horse manures, when mixed with ... Bahramisharif, Amirhossein; Rose, Laura E. (2019). "Efficacy of biological agents and compost on growth and resistance of ... Diener, Stefan; Studt Solano, Nandayure M.; Roa Gutiérrez, Floria; Zurbrügg, Christian; Tockner, Klement (2011). "Biological ...
"Federal Register , Nonproprietary Naming of Biological Products; Draft Guidance for Industry; Availability". www. ... Even though the biosimilars market is rising, the price drop for biological drugs at risk of patent expiration will not be as ... Every biological displays a certain degree of variability. However, provided that structure and function(s), pharmacokinetic ... This market entry barrier affects not only the companies willing to produce them but could also delay availability of ...
The availability of furosemide is high variable from 10% to 90%. The biological half-life of furosemide is limited by ...
3.1 Water quality and availability 3.2 Structural safety of project infrastructure 3.3 Life and fire safety (L&FS) ... 2.5 Biological hazards 2.6 Radiological hazards 2.7 Personal protective equipment (PPE) 2.8 Special hazard environments ...
His research during this time focused on biological and chemical assays on vitamins, proteins, and other nutrient; ... pharmaceutical vitamin fortification, stabilization, and availability; toxicology and safety evaluation of food additives, ...
One hundred years of Biology Biological Bulletin Volume 168 Number 3 Symposium Supplement to the Biological Bulletin [4] Free ... Dohrn argued that availability of all the major published sources was essential. He gave his own books and scientific journals ... The Naples Station's biological reference collection is still unrivalled in Europe today.[citation needed] The first librarian ... SZN was divided into five parts: Biological Oceanography, Benthic Ecology (at the Villa Dohrn in Ischia), Biochemistry, Cell ...
Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, 58, 521-561. *^ Keddy, P. A., Campbell, D., McFalls T., Shaffer, G ... Physical alterations include changes in water temperature, water flow and light availability. Chemical alterations include ... Mann KH and Lazier JRN (2006) Dynamics of marine ecosystems: biological-physical interactions in the oceans Wiley-Blackwell. ... Loeb, Stanford L. (24 January 1994). Biological Monitoring of Aquatic Systems. CRC Press. ISBN 0-87371-910-7. .. ...
... the developmental biological model has been argued to better reflect underlying biological processes. Distinct genetic, ... Novelty seeking correlates with dopamine synthesis capacity in the striatum, and reduced auto receptor availability in the ... Developmental biological model[edit]. Modern conceptions of personality, such as the Temperament and Character Inventory have ... The biological basis of personality is the theory that anatomical structures located in the brain contribute to personality ...
Archives of Biological Science, Belgrade. 58 (3): 27P, 28P. doi:10.2298/abs060327pl. Archived (PDF) from the original on July ... altering the availability of an important food source for paddlefish and native unionidae.[16][40] A few days after the ... "Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 274 (1609): 489-498. doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3749. PMC 1766393. PMID ... Although availability of preferred spawning habitat is essential, there are three precise environmental events that must occur ...
"Habitat selection of the Eurasian woodcock in winter in relation to earthworms availability". Biological Conservation. 122 (3 ... Biological Conservation. 122 (1): 89-97. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2004.07.002. "BTO/Game Conservancy Trust Breeding Woodcock Survey ...
Schaefer, M. R.; Golden, S. S. (1989-05-05). "Light availability influences the ratio of two forms of D1 in cyanobacterial ... Biological Sciences. 357 (1426): 1369-1420. doi:10.1098/rstb.2002.1134. ISSN 0962-8436. PMC 1693055 . PMID 12437876. ... thylakoids". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 264 (13): 7412-7417. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 2496127. http://www.nasonline.org, ...
"Journal of Biological Chemistry. 146: 85-93.. *^ Berg, Jeremy M.; Tymoczko, John L.; Stryer, Lubert (2002). "Appendix: Vmax and ... In that case, the substrate will reduce the availability for an inhibitor to bind, and, thus, outcompete the inhibitor in ... Biological Examples[edit]. After an accidental ingestion of a contaminated opioid drug desmethylprodine, the neurotoxic effect ...
When there is less food available, feeding adjusts to rates that correlate with food availability. Predation Effects In a study ... Biological Oceaonography. Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 162, 176. ISBN 0-632-05536-7. Durbin, Ann (December 15, 1990). "Diel feeding ... not related to light availability, but persistent regardless of whether the copepods were subjected to light or dark. This ... behavior in the marine copepod Acartia tonsa in relation to food availability". Marine Ecology Progress Series. 68: 23-45. doi: ...
Radium has a low availability and is highly radioactive, making it toxic to life. The next alkaline earth metal after radium is ... Beryllium's low aqueous solubility means it is rarely available to biological systems; it has no known role in living organisms ...
The first known biological control of privet is the privet lace bug (Leptoypha hospita), which has been deployed in New Zealand ... on Decomposition and Nutrient Availability in Riparian Forests. Invasive Plant Science and Management 4:437-447. Bradley, B.A ... Biological Invasions. 14:139-150 Zhang, Y., Hanula, J., Horn, S., Braman, S.K., Sun, J. (2011). Biology of ''Leptoypha hospita ... Biological species invasion is considered a main component of global ecosystem change due to changes in biogeochemical cycles ...
Humphries, M. M.; Thomas, D.W.; Kramer, D.L. (2003). "The role of energy availability in mammalian hibernation: A cost-benefit ... Those species that seek pest insects are considered beneficial 'biological control agents' and their presence encouraged in ... biological pest control programmes.[45] Combined, insectivorous birds eat 400-500 million metric tons of arthropods annually.[ ...
Their biological availability to the body depends upon dihydrofolate reductase action in the liver. This action is unusually ... In the late 1990s, US scientists realized, despite the availability of folate in foods and in supplements, there was still a ... All the biological functions of folic acid are performed by tetrahydrofolate and other derivatives. ... between folic acid fortification and an increase in colorectal cancer rates may be illuminating important biological principles ...
Biological context of Biological Availability. *Despite increasing attempts to control environmental pollution, changes in the ... Disease relevance of Biological Availability. *Ritonavir is an inhibitor of HIV-1 protease with potent in vitro anti-HIV ... Associations of Biological Availability with chemical compounds. *To assess the potential for therapeutic problems related to ... High impact information on Biological Availability. *This suggests a defect in the gene HSD11B1 encoding 11beta-hydroxysteroid ...
Biological availability of sediment phosphorus inputs to the lower Great Lakes. [Scott C Martin; Joseph V DePinto; Thomas C ... Biological availability of sediment phosphorus inputs to the lower Great Lakes. Author:. Scott C Martin; Joseph V DePinto; ... schema:name "Biological availability of sediment phosphorus inputs to the lower Great Lakes"@en ;. schema:productID "15358557 ... Add tags for "Biological availability of sediment phosphorus inputs to the lower Great Lakes". Be the first. ...
Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Old World Climbing Fern. A Notice by the Animal ... Notice of availability and request for comments. SUMMARY:. We are advising the public that the Animal and Plant Health ... for the biological control (biocontrol) of Old World climbing fern in Florida. The purpose of the proposed release is to reduce ... for the biological control of Old World climbing fern in Florida. We are making the environmental assessment available to the ...
1986 Food availability affects growth in a coral reef fish. Oecologia 70, 136-139. (doi:10.1007/BF00377123). ... To summarize, resource availability leads to a considerably plastic response by strongly affecting life-history traits when ... 2010 Dietary carotenoid availability, sexual signalling and functional fertility in sticklebacks. Biol. Lett. 6, 191-193. (doi: ... Your Name) thought you would like to see the Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences web site. ...
General Considerations for Pediatric Pharmacokinetic Studies for Drugs and Biological Products. This document is intended to ... is announcing the availability of a draft guidance for industry entitled `` ... Availability. A Notice by the Food and Drug Administration on 11/30/1998. ... Draft Guidance for Industry on General Considerations for Pediatric Pharmacokinetic Studies for Drugs and Biological Products; ...
Silicon, aluminium and the biological availability of phosphorus in algae Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ... Silicon, aluminium and the biological availability of phosphorus in algae. Christopher Exley, Alan Tollervey, Gillian Gray, ... Silicon, aluminium and the biological availability of phosphorus in algae. Christopher Exley, Alan Tollervey, Gillian Gray, ... Your Name) thought you would like to see the Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences web site. ...
Molybdenum, Phosphorous, and Nitrogen Availability Control Rates of Biological N2-fixation in Boreal Peatlands / Katherine ... Molybdenum, Phosphorous, and Nitrogen Availability Control Rates of Biological N2-fixation in Boreal... ...
Influence of magnesium stearate on the dissolution and biological availability of sulphadiazine tablet formulations [ ... Influence of magnesium stearate on the dissolution and biological availability of sulphadiazine tablet formulations [ ...
Funding availability. All students admitted to the Department of Biological Sciences, who do not hold a major scholarship, will ... Biological Sciences - Graduate Studies Biological Sciences Building 186. 2500 University Drive NW. Calgary, ABT2N 1N4. 403-220- ... Biological Sciences. Doctor of Philosophy (PhD). Toggle Compare Add degree to comparison list ... Graduate study in Biological Sciences puts students on the front lines of discovery. Doctoral students design, conduct and ...
Course Availability We will endeavour to make all course options available; however, these may be subject to timetabling and ... Frontiers in Biological Sciences (BI1009) - 15 Credit Points Eleven themes, critical to our understanding of the living world ... Biological Enhanced Skills Training (BEST) (BI2018) - 15 Credit Points The course will help you consolidate and develop skills ... Statistical Analysis of Biological Data (BI3010) - 15 Credit Points Review of basics of probability theory, data exploration ...
Funding availability. All students admitted to the Department of Biological Sciences, who do not hold a major scholarship, will ... Biological Sciences - Graduate Studies Biological Sciences Building 186. 2500 University Drive NW. Calgary, ABT2N 1N4. 403-220- ... Biological Sciences. Master of Science (MSc). Toggle Compare Add degree to comparison list ... Find new ways to pursue your passion for life in the University of Calgarys Biological Sciences department. Masters students ...
In the work underlying this thesis the availability, chemical composition and biological effects of PAHs in samples of soils ... Characterization of PAH-contaminated soils focusing on availability, chemical composition and biological effects ... The availability and bioavailability of contaminants in soil also has to be studied further, and such future studies should ... However, the link between the chemical analyses and the biological tests could be improved as as an organic solvent that ...
AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: The prototype implementation of the algorithm will be available upon request for non- ... YOABS: yet other aligner of biological sequences--an efficient linearly scaling nucleotide aligner.. Galinsky VL1. ... that combines the advantages of both hash and trie-based methods has been designed to effectively align long biological ...
AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: DA 1.0 was developed using Java and thus would be executable on any platform installed with ... DA 1.0: parameter estimation of biological pathways using data assimilation approach.. Koh CH1, Nagasaki M, Saito A, Wong L, ...
Data Availability. Crystallographic data for the structures reported in this manuscript have been deposited in the Cambridge ... Crystal Structure and Biological Evaluation of Two Novel Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Materials as Antitumor Agents in the ... Despite remarkable progress in the evolution of biological medicine field and understanding of the origin of the de diseases, ... cancer cells used in this work were commercially available from the Beijing National Institute for the Control of Biological ...
... polymeric and biological) materials, to hybrid materials or nanocomposites. ... Data Availability. The data obtained for this study are presented in the tables and figures herein. In addition, you may ... Biological Effects of Plasma-Based Graphene Oxide Deposition on Titanium. Keonho Rho,1 Chan Park,2 Khurshed Alam,1 Dongyun Kim, ...
Background Understanding the dynamical behaviour of biological systems is challenged by their large number of components and ... Availability of data and materials. All data generated or analysed during this study are included in the published article and ... In models of biological networks, these processes appear in a linear additive manner in each ODE. We first identify the ... Dynamical systems Biological networks Process analysis Model reduction Parameter sensitivity analysis Circadian clock ...
Fibronectin protects from excessive liver fibrosis by modulating the availability of and responsiveness of stellate cells to ... To get the biological information for each node, the node identifier is connected with the corresponding key identifier in the ... Valuable biological information can be highlighted on the nodes in the network, by the integration of various databases within ... The addition of biological information, such as pathway or disease association, helps to further understand the role of ...
This work is the first report of biological synthesis of CdS/CdSe Core/Shell QDs using bacterial cells and represents a ... As expected, the efficiency of solar cells sensitized with biological CdS/CdSe QDs increased almost 2.5 times when compared to ... This work is the first report of biological synthesis of CdS/CdSe Core/Shell QDs using bacterial cells and rep... ... As expected, the efficiency of solar cells sensitized with biological CdS/CdSe QDs increased almost 2.5 times when compared to ...
This module explores a broad range of advanced topics in modern biological sciences, from evolution to cell and molecular ... Future availability. Biological science: from genes to species starts once a year - in October. This page describes the module ... Biological science: from genes to species. This module explores a range of advanced topics in biological science from evolution ... This topic takes a look at fascinating biological processes that occur at the beginning and end of the life of a cell. Cell ...
Data Availability Statement. Data used in this manuscript can be found on the CCE LTER DataZoo website: https:// ... Passow, U., and Carlson, C. A. (2012). The biological pump in a high CO2 world. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 470, 249-271. doi: ... Boyd, P. W. (2015). Toward quantifying the response of the oceans biological pump to climate change. Front. Mar. Sci. 2:77. ... 2009). Skill assessment for coupled biological/physical models of marine systems. J. Mar. Syst. 76, 4-15. doi: 10.1016/j. ...
With massive increases in the availability of ecological and other kinds of biological data, skill in developing models to ... The University reserves the right to amend or remove courses and unit availabilities, as appropriate. ... is fundamental in modern biological research. This unit builds on the foundation provided in Quantitative Methods in Biology to ...
c) Data availability and collection. Comprehensive and verified data on the fate and effects of pharmaceutical substances in ... Your Name) thought you would like to see the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences web site. ... Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. ... New approaches that link biological effects to environmental exposure promise interesting results, although to date studies on ...
... leverage multi-omics association data to identify biological processes that are perturbed in disease, and 2) overlay the ... Complex diseases are characterized by multiple subtle perturbations to biological processes. New omics platforms can detect ... Availability. Mergeomics is available as a freely downloadable Bioconductor package released under GPL license, version 2 ( ... Availability of data and materials. The disease association datasets, canonical pathways and Bayesian networks supporting the ...
Availability. Before booking, please check the calendars for embryo booking, behaviour room and microscope room availability. ... Please book as far in advance as possible to guarantee availability:. *Embryos must be booked three days in advance with an ... The zebrafish facility within the School of Biological and Chemical Sciences at QMUL is dedicated to the maintenance of wild ...
  • Advances in such fields as proteomics and genomics place new demands on students and professionals to be able to apply quantitative concepts to the biological phenomena that they are studying. (wiley.com)
  • Little is so far known about how gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy impacts the biological availability of medication. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In this study, we performed an analysis of inter-regional and inter-annual differences in temperature (T) conditions associated with MMEs of the red gorgonian Paramuricea clavata by analyzing high resolution T time series (hourly records for 3 to 8 years) from four regions of the NW Mediterranean with differing hydrological conditions and biological impacts. (plos.org)
  • This Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) is to promote the development and initial clinical validation of objective biological measures to be used for prognosing, and monitoring recovery of adolescents who either clinically present with or are at risk for developing prolonged/persistent concussive symptoms following exposure to repetitive head impacts and/or concussion. (nih.gov)
  • discovering, characterizing the selectivity and sensitivity, and externally validating biological measures to be used for assessing, prognosing, and monitoring recovery of adolescents who either clinically present with or are at risk for developing prolonged/persistent concussive symptoms following exposure to repetitive head impacts and/or concussion. (nih.gov)
  • The enormous increase in scalability it provides empowers users to study complex and previously unassailable gene-set associations between genes and their biological functions in a hierarchical fashion and on a genome-wide scale. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, the link between the chemical analyses and the biological tests could be improved as as an organic solvent that solubilised virtually all of the contaminants was used during the chemical analysis while the biological tests were performed in an aqueous solution with limited solubility for a number of compounds. (eugris.info)
  • Coastal marine ecosystems harbor high biological diversity and are among the most productive systems in the world , . (plos.org)
  • Nothing is known regarding the genetic diversity of D. siricidicola, even though such knowl edge would be invaluable in improving sustainable biological control programs. (gc.ca)
  • The lack of diversity in Southern Hemisphere populations of D. siricidicola could affect the ability of this nematode to adapt to different environments and host types where it is used in biological control programs, and should thus be considered as a factor in future control strategies and research projects. (gc.ca)
  • With massive increases in the availability of ecological and other kinds of biological data, skill in developing models to describe and understand relationships in data and extrapolate beyond existing data, and an understanding of the nuances of particular kinds of data, is fundamental in modern biological research. (edu.au)
  • they develop rigorous expertise in everything from foundational theory and the study of evolution to cutting-edge research methodologies as they investigate a broad range of biological problems ranging from the molecular level to the biosphere. (ucalgary.ca)
  • The availability and bioavailability of contaminants in soil also has to be studied further, and such future studies should focus on the molecular interactions between the contaminants and different compartments of the soil. (eugris.info)
  • Such studies would generate the data needed for molecular-based modelling of availability and bioavailability, which would be a big step forward compared to current risk assessment practices. (eugris.info)
  • This unit applies the core principles of chemistry, molecular structure and chemical reactivity to biological molecules. (edu.au)
  • Here, all-atom molecular dynamics simulations are leveraged to investigate the capsid without symmetry bias, enabling study of capsid flexibility and its implications for biological function and cryo-EM resolution limits. (elifesciences.org)
  • Each biological problem is accompanied by precise formulations, providing graduate students and researchers in bioinformatics and computer science with a powerful toolkit for the emerging applications of high-throughput sequencing. (cambridge.org)
  • We have developed a robust RNA sequencing method for generating complete de novo assemblies with intra-host variant calls of Lassa and Ebola virus genomes in clinical and biological samples. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Sequencing viral genomes directly from clinical and biological samples, however, holds special challenges. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Resultant biological measures should be incorporated into risk stratification algorithms to inform clinical care and patient stratification for future clinical trials. (nih.gov)
  • Here we present DynOVis, a network visualization tool that can capture dynamic dose-over-time effects in biological networks. (springer.com)
  • Currently there are a number of different tools available that focus on visualizing dynamic networks [ 9 , 10 , 11 ], but these do not focus on the integration of dynamic visualization with biological knowledge. (springer.com)
  • To improve upon this, we developed a tool that integrates dynamic network visualization with functional biological information. (springer.com)
  • We present a novel visualization system for aligned biological networks in 3D space that naturally embeds existing 2D layouts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • First attempts to the visualization of aligned biological networks can mostly be regarded as ad-hoc approaches in terms of visualization methodology, see the related work in Section 1.3. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A variety of biological challenges can be addressed by finding maximal bicliques in bipartite graphs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A variety of biological data includes length and weight at age groups, age structure of exploited stocks, sex ratio and maturation in annual cycle. (bodc.ac.uk)
  • Despite remarkable progress in the evolution of biological medicine field and understanding of the origin of the de diseases, the scientists fail to obtain effective methods for treating some diseases such as cancer. (hindawi.com)
  • For a better understanding of the evolution of biological networks, such aligned networks have to be explored. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The validity of such a risk estimation is dependent on the presence of additional compounds, the availability of the compounds (including the PAHs), and the methods used to correlate the measured chemical data and biological effects. (eugris.info)
  • DA 1.0: parameter estimation of biological pathways using data assimilation approach. (nih.gov)
  • The integrated data from various online databases makes it easy to identify the biological relevance of nodes in the network. (springer.com)
  • However, the regulatory ERA framework could be improved by (i) inclusion of the environment in the risk-benefit analysis for human pharmaceuticals, (ii) improvement of risk management options, (iii) generation of data on existing pharmaceuticals, and (iv) improving the availability of ERA data. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In order to minimize the quantity of pharmaceuticals in the environment these should aim to (i) improve the existing legislation for pharmaceuticals, (ii) prioritize pharmaceuticals in the environment and (iii) improve the availability and collection of pharmaceutical data. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The present study investigates in-depth the availability of MudPIT data for the classification of biological samples. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The new method is streamlined, efficient, and particularly well-suited to the study of huge and diverse biological data. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Innovative Formalism for Biological Data Analysis. (igi-global.com)
  • This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Biological and Medical Data Analysis, ISBMDA 2004, held in Barcelona, Spain in November 2004. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • Statistical Methods and Tools for Biological and Medical Data Analysis. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • The collected biological data set is also used by the Baltic Fisheries Assessment Working Group (ICES) to assess the flounder stocks size in Subdivision 25. (bodc.ac.uk)
  • It can visualize the dynamic perturbations in biological networks and allows the user to investigate the changes over time. (springer.com)
  • Its application has enabled researchers to address important biological questions, often for the first time. (cambridge.org)
  • These findings confirm the availability of the most label-free quantitative methods based on processing of spectral count and SEQUEST-based SCORE values. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The identification of proteins changing their quantitative level is a key aspect to investigate biological systems as well as to develop strategies for classifying samples into pre-specified categories, such as healthy and diseased. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Australian citizens, permanent residents and international students studying outside Australia may have the choice of full-time, part-time and external study, depending on course availability and in-country requirements. (edu.au)
  • You will study information transfer in biological systems, macromolecular structures, enzyme kinetics, membrane structure and function and metabolic pathways. (le.ac.uk)
  • Because her topic is a mixture of civil and biological engineering she's able to make practical use of her study and classes such as hydrology, fluid mechanics and hydraulics, statics and geographic information systems. (ncat.edu)
  • In order to study the dynamics of biological models, a simulation procedure is usually employed to emulate reaction firings. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, the in vitro penetration study with excised full-thickness rabbit skin was done to evaluate the pharmaceutical availability. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The University reserves the right to amend or remove courses and unit availabilities, as appropriate. (edu.au)
  • Dr. Godfrey Gayle, a professor of biological engineering, has secured a $400,000 contract with the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Natural Resources Conservation Service to provide scholarships and other support to students studying biological engineering at North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University. (ncat.edu)
  • North Carolina A&T State University senior, biological engineering student Madeline Keefer will spend nine months studying flood management in the Netherlands thanks to a Fulbright U.S. Student Programs Grant jointly sponsored by the Netherland-America Foundation. (ncat.edu)
  • Key chemical concepts such as bonding and structure (e.g. chirality) will be used to highlight the function of biological building blocks (lipids, carbohydrates, amino acids and the nitrogen bases) of large cellular molecules like proteins, DNA and RNA. (edu.au)
  • The two-year contract seeks to increase enrollment and improve retention of undergraduate and graduate students studying biological engineering, especially natural resources and agricultural engineering programs in the CAES. (ncat.edu)
  • 200 each year pending availability of funds. (nsf.gov)
  • 72,000,000 for new awards each year pending availability of funds. (nsf.gov)
  • In two metabolism trials with 18 wether lambs, the biological availability of magnesium was determined for the two forages cut at three stages of maturity. (vt.edu)
  • Save 12% on the Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy (The Language of Science) by Springer at Translate This Blog. (translateth.is)
  • Known as the USAMRIID Blue Book, this invaluable handbook supplies basic summary and treatment information quickly for the healthcare provider on the front lines of a biological incident. (gpo.gov)
  • The purpose of this handbook is to serve as a concise, pocket-sized manual that can be pulled off the shelf (or from a pocket) in a crisis to guide medical personnel in the prophylaxis and management of biological casualties. (gpo.gov)
  • The Medical Management of Biological Casualties Handbook, which has been known as the "Blue Book" has been enormously successful. (gpo.gov)
  • Influence of magnesium stearate on the dissolution and biological availability of sulphadiazine tablet formulations [proceedings]. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Wheat, a tetany prone forage, and orchardgrass, a non-tetany prone forage, were cut at three stages of maturity to determine the magnesium availability in these forages for lambs. (vt.edu)
  • The biological availability of magnesium for lambs fed wheat was slightly lower than for those fed orchardgrass. (vt.edu)
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae responds to changes in extracellular inorganic phosphate (Pi) availability by regulating the activity of the phosphate-responsive (PHO) signaling pathway, enabling cells to maintain intracellular levels of the essential nutrient P i . (osti.gov)
  • The U.S. national civilian vulnerability to the deliberate use of biological and chemical agents has been highlighted by recognition of substantial biological weapons development programs and arsenals in foreign countries, attempts to acquire or possess biological agents by militants, and high-profile terrorist attacks. (cdc.gov)
  • Medical professionals learn about effective available medical countermeasures against many of the bacteria, viruses, and toxins that might be used as biological weapons against military forces or civilian communities. (gpo.gov)
  • Since the first edition in 1993, the awareness of biological weapons in the U.S. has increased dramatically. (gpo.gov)
  • In-depth definitions of biological agents, biological weapons, and biological warfare (BW) are included, as well as an appendix of further reading on the subject. (gpo.gov)
  • The risks associated with a soil contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are generally assessed by measuring individual PAHs in the soil and correlating the obtained amounts to known adverse biological effects of the PAHs. (eugris.info)
  • It can be concluded from the results presented in the included papers that the PAHs in the studied soils from industrial sites were not generally physically trapped in soil material, indicating that the availability of the PAHs was not restricted in this sense. (eugris.info)
  • 2. What are Biological Soil Crusts? (slideshare.net)
  • Cyanobacteria and Moss Lichen Lycopod This biological soil crust is found in the Central Range of the Dominican Republic. (slideshare.net)
  • To determine the water absorption capacity of the biological soil crust under different environmental conditions. (slideshare.net)
  • To measure soil stability due to biological soil crust cover. (slideshare.net)
  • To estimate the total surface area covered with biological soil crust in the Rome Sand Plains and map the area. (slideshare.net)
  • The availability of resources strongly influences an individual's ability to modulate investment in sexually selected traits. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • As the production and maintenance of traits mediated by pre- and postcopulatory sexual selection is energetically demanding [ 12 , 13 ], an increased investment in traits subject to both episodes of sexual selection can be expected under conditions of high resource availability. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • By contrast, under limitation an increased allocation in one function often results in a decreased resource availability for alternative functions [ 14 ], leading to one of the major predictions of sperm competition theory that a male's investment should be traded-off between pre- and postcopulatory traits [ 15 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Experimental manipulation of diet is a suitable approach to explore the impact of variation in resource availability on the expression of pre- and postcopulatory traits and their interrelationship. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • These will be contrasted with the biological traits that show regional clustering but which have no adaptive value and cannot therefore be hierarchically arranged. (umich.edu)
  • Here, sample quality is often compromised by cold chain gaps in remote rural areas in hot climates and by complications with handling, containment and biological inactivation at the highest biosafety level (US Biosafety Level 4 or equivalent). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The topics covered range from the foundations of biological sequence analysis (alignments and hidden Markov models), to classical index structures (k-mer indexes, suffix arrays and suffix trees), Burrows-Wheeler indexes, graph algorithms and a number of advanced omics applications. (cambridge.org)
  • It offers a sound, clear, and rich overview of computer science methods for the challenge of today's biological sequence analysis. (cambridge.org)
  • We consider for this approach fuzzy set as a formalism of analysis of biological signals processing and we propose to be accomplished this goal by developing fuzzy operators for filtering the noise of biological signals measurement. (igi-global.com)
  • To test how dietary resource availability affects sexual ornamentation, sperm quality and their interrelationship in three-spined sticklebacks ( Gasterosteus aculeatus ), full-sibling groups were raised under three conditions differing in food quantity and/or quality (i.e. carotenoid content): (i) high-quantity/high-quality, (ii) high-quantity/low-quality or (iii) low-quantity/low-quality. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Advantages of UCB include no risk to the donor, reduced risk of viral contamination of the graft, rapid donor identification, and faster availability ( Box 3 ). (mja.com.au)
  • Target audience are military and civilian healthcare providers treating biological warfare injuries, and members of the military, defense agencies and relevant contractors that need to know the different bacterial and viral agents and biological toxins being used in warfare (and need to stay current on bioterrorist threats). (gpo.gov)