A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
Agents that improve the ability to carry out activities such as athletics, mental endurance, work, and resistance to stress. The substances can include PRESCRIPTION DRUGS; DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS; phytochemicals; and ILLICIT DRUGS.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.
Treatment of diseases with biological materials or biological response modifiers, such as the use of GENES; CELLS; TISSUES; organs; SERUM; VACCINES; and humoral agents.
Warfare involving the use of living organisms or their products as disease etiologic agents against people, animals, or plants.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Biological activities and function of the whole organism in human, animal, microorgansims, and plants, and of the biosphere.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.

Assaying potential carcinogens with Drosophila. (1/4973)

Drosophila offers many advantages for the detection of mutagenic activity of carcinogenic agents. It provides the quickest assay system for detecting mutations in animals today. Its generation time is short, and Drosophila is cheap and easy to breed in large numbers. The simple genetic testing methods give unequivocal answers about the whole spectrum of relevant genetic damage. A comparison of the detection capacity of assays sampling different kinds of genetic damage revealed that various substances are highly effective in inducing mutations but do not produce chromosome breakage effects at all, or only at much higher concentrations than those required for mutation induction. Of the different assay systems available, the classical sex-linked recessive lethal test deserves priority, in view of its superior capacity to detect mutagens. Of practical importance is also its high sensitivity, because a large number of loci in one fifth of the genome is tested for newly induced forward mutations, including small deletions. The recent findings that Drosophila is capable of carrying out the same metabolic activation reactions as the mammalian liver makes the organism eminently suitable for verifying results obtained in prescreening with fast microbial assay systems. An additional advantage in this respect is the capacity of Drosophila for detecting short-lived activation products, because intracellular metabolic activation appears to occur within the spermatids and spermatocytes.  (+info)

Experimental axonal injury triggers interleukin-6 mRNA, protein synthesis and release into cerebrospinal fluid. (2/4973)

Diffuse axonal injury is a frequent pathologic sequel of head trauma, which, despite its devastating consequences for the patients, remains to be fully elucidated. Here we studied the release of interleukin-6 (IL-6) into CSF and serum, as well as the expression of IL-6 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and protein in a weight drop model of axonal injury in the rat. The IL-6 activity was elevated in CSF within 1 hour and peaked between 2 and 4 hours, reaching maximal values of 82,108 pg/mL, and returned to control values after 24 hours. In serum, the levels of IL-6 remained below increased CSF levels and did not exceed 393 pg/mL. In situ hybridization demonstrated augmented IL-6 mRNA expression in several regions including cortical pyramidal cells, neurons in thalamic nuclei, and macrophages in the basal subarachnoid spaces. A weak constitutive expression of IL-6 protein was shown by immunohistochemical study in control brain. After injury, IL-6 increased at 1 hour and remained elevated through the first 24 hours, returning to normal afterward. Most cells producing IL-6 were cortical, thalamic, and hippocampal neurons as confirmed by staining for the neuronal marker NeuN. These results extend our previous studies showing IL-6 production in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with severe head trauma and demonstrate that neurons are the main source of IL-6 after experimental axonal injury.  (+info)

A technique for dual determination of cytotoxic and helper lymphocyte precursor frequency by a miniaturized dye release method. (3/4973)

Helper (HTLPf) and cytotoxic (CTLPf) lymphocyte precursor frequency assays are increasingly used in bone marrow stem cell and organ transplant compatibility testing. Current techniques require large cell numbers and radioisotopes. To improve the technique, we developed a miniaturized fluorescent read-out combined HTLPf/CTLPf limiting dilution assay. The assay requires only 5 x 10(6) stimulators, 2 x 10(6) responders and 0.24 x 10(6) target cells in Terasaki plates (40 microl/well). For the HTLPf, culture supernatants from each well were assayed for IL-2 production. The IL-2-dependent proliferation of the mouse 9.12 cell line was detected by a semi-automated fluorescent dye technique. After addition of rhIL-2 (recombinant human IL-2) on days 3 and 7, CTLPs were detected on day 10 by measuring the lysis of dye-labeled targets. Results were comparable to standard radioisotope-based techniques. The assay had a coefficient of variation of approximately 30%. The assay detected helper CD4 cells, pure cytotoxic CD8, helper CD8 cells and helper/cytotoxic CD8 cells. Discrimination was demonstrated between HLA-matched related and non-related pairs. The ease of testing and small cell numbers required should facilitate further evaluation of HTLPf and CTLPf for compatibility testing in unrelated donor transplantation and monitoring immune responses following adoptive transfer of lymphocytes.  (+info)

Overexpression of the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry2Aa2 protein in chloroplasts confers resistance to plants against susceptible and Bt-resistant insects. (4/4973)

Evolving levels of resistance in insects to the bioinsecticide Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) can be dramatically reduced through the genetic engineering of chloroplasts in plants. When transgenic tobacco leaves expressing Cry2Aa2 protoxin in chloroplasts were fed to susceptible, Cry1A-resistant (20,000- to 40,000-fold) and Cry2Aa2-resistant (330- to 393-fold) tobacco budworm Heliothis virescens, cotton bollworm Helicoverpa zea, and the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua, 100% mortality was observed against all insect species and strains. Cry2Aa2 was chosen for this study because of its toxicity to many economically important insect pests, relatively low levels of cross-resistance against Cry1A-resistant insects, and its expression as a protoxin instead of a toxin because of its relatively small size (65 kDa). Southern blot analysis confirmed stable integration of cry2Aa2 into all of the chloroplast genomes (5, 000-10,000 copies per cell) of transgenic plants. Transformed tobacco leaves expressed Cry2Aa2 protoxin at levels between 2% and 3% of total soluble protein, 20- to 30-fold higher levels than current commercial nuclear transgenic plants. These results suggest that plants expressing high levels of a nonhomologous Bt protein should be able to overcome or at the very least, significantly delay, broad spectrum Bt-resistance development in the field.  (+info)

Binding of annexin V to plasma membranes of human spermatozoa: a rapid assay for detection of membrane changes after cryostorage. (5/4973)

When the cell membrane is disturbed, phospholipid phosphatidylserine (PS) is translocated from the inner to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane. This is one of the earliest signs of apoptosis and can be monitored by the calcium-dependent binding of annexin V. Therefore, annexin V-binding, in conjunction with flow cytometry, was used to evaluate the integrity of the sperm plasma membrane after different cryostorage protocols: i.e. 10% (v/v) glycerol; sperm maintenance medium (MM); freezing medium TEST yolk buffer (TYB); or cryostorage without protection (cryoshock). Using a combination of two fluorescent dyes, annexin V and propidium iodide (PI), led to three groups of spermatozoa being identified: (i) viable spermatozoa (annexin V-negative and PI-negative); (ii) dead spermatozoa (annexin V-positive and PI-positive); and (iii) cells with impaired but integer plasma membrane (annexin V-positive and PI-negative). The percentage of vital annexin V-negative spermatozoa increased significantly (P < 0.05) from spermatozoa treated by cryoshock (15.0+/-1.2%) to spermatozoa cryopreserved by TYB (26.6+/-2.2%) via cryopreservation by 10% (v/v) glycerol (19.9+/-1.6%) and by MM (22.2 1.8%) and was associated with the percentage of motile spermatozoa (17.6+/-3.4% by glycerol; 19.6+/-3.7% by MM and 22.6+/-3.9% by TYB; P = 0.0001). Of the spermatozoa, 12-22% were annexin V-positive even though they did not bind to PI, indicating viability before as well as after cryostorage. The percentage of vital annexin V-positive spermatozoa was significantly correlated with different sperm motility parameters (velocity straight linear, r = 0.601, P = 0.018; percentage of linearly motile spermatozoa: r = 0.549, P = 0.034). We, therefore, concluded that annexin V-binding is more sensitive in detecting a deterioration of membrane functions than PI staining, and that a considerable percentage of spermatozoa might have dysfunctional plasma membranes besides dead or moribund cells. Of the cryopreservation protocols tested, TYB yielded the most viable spermatozoa. Therefore, we advocate the use of the annexin V-binding assay for the evaluation of the quality and integrity of spermatozoa.  (+info)

Enterotoxin-producing bacteria and parasites in stools of Ethiopian children with diarrhoeal disease. (6/4973)

Enterotoxinogenic bacteria were isolated from 131 (37%) of 354 Ethiopian infants and children with acute gastrointestinal symptoms. Only one of these isolates belonged to the classical enteropathogenic serotypes of Esch. coli. Two colonies from each patient were isolated and tested for production of enterotoxin by the rabbit ileal loop test, the rabbit skin test, and an adrenal cell assay. However, only 38% of the isolated enterotoxinogenic strains were Esch. coli; the others belonged to Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Proteus, Citrobacter, Serratia, and Aeromonas. In 18 patients both isolates were toxinogenic and belonged to different species. The incidence of intestinal parasites was 35% with no apparent correlation to the occurrence of toxinogenic bacteria in the stools.  (+info)

Animals as sentinels of human health hazards of environmental chemicals. (7/4973)

A workshop titled "Using Sentinel Species Data to Address the Potential Human Health Effects of Chemicals in the Environment," sponsored by the U.S. Army Center for Environmental Health Research, the National Center for Environmental Assessment of the EPA, and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, was held to consider the use of sentinel and surrogate animal species data for evaluating the potential human health effects of chemicals in the environment. The workshop took a broad view of the sentinel species concept, and included mammalian and nonmammalian species, companion animals, food animals, fish, amphibians, and other wildlife. Sentinel species data included observations of wild animals in field situations as well as experimental animal data. Workshop participants identified potential applications for sentinel species data derived from monitoring programs or serendipitous observations and explored the potential use of such information in human health hazard and risk assessments and for evaluating causes or mechanisms of effect. Although it is unlikely that sentinel species data will be used as the sole determinative factor in evaluating human health concerns, such data can be useful as for additional weight of evidence in a risk assessment, for providing early warning of situations requiring further study, or for monitoring the course of remedial activities. Attention was given to the factors impeding the application of sentinel species approaches and their acceptance in the scientific and regulatory communities. Workshop participants identified a number of critical research needs and opportunities for interagency collaboration that could help advance the use of sentinel species approaches.  (+info)

Inhibitory effect of plasma obtained from hypophysectomized and control women on the assay of bioactive luteinizing hormone. (8/4973)

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of components of female plasma on the value of bioactive luteinizing hormone (LH), especially in the presence of low immunological LH value. Using both an immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) and rat Leydig cell bioassay, immunoreactive (I) and bioactive (B) LH were assessed in plasma collected from women during a gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) test performed on day 7 of a spontaneous cycle. Two modes of response to an acute administration of GnRH were defined: normal production of gonadotrophins (group I) and excessive secretion (group II) associated with a significant difference in the B/I-LH ratio between the two groups. The B/I-LH ratio did not vary with sampling time during the test in either group. The addition of LH-free plasma collected from hypophysectomized women caused a 30% decrease in testosterone production compared to control values (in the presence or absence of hLH standard). A partial restoration of testosterone production was observed if plasma was first treated with PEG 12%. The inhibitory factor(s) was also present in plasma from ovulatory women, even after treatment by an antibody against the entire LH molecule. The effect of normal (A) or low I-LH plasma (B) on testosterone production varied strongly according to the plasma volume added to the bioassay, as well as to plasma treatments. Diethylether treatment caused a 50% decrease in testosterone secretion for plasma B (but not for A) whereas a diminution of the steroidogenesis is observed after a PEG treatment of plasma A (but not for B), suggesting that different inhibitory factors are present in plasmas A and B. Therefore the LH bioactivity measured in the rat Leydig cell assay, in terms of testosterone output, seems to represent a balance between the LH molecule and the presence of inhibitory factors in the plasma.  (+info)

A biological assay is a method used in biology and biochemistry to measure the concentration or potency of a substance (like a drug, hormone, or enzyme) by observing its effect on living cells or tissues. This type of assay can be performed using various techniques such as:

1. Cell-based assays: These involve measuring changes in cell behavior, growth, or viability after exposure to the substance being tested. Examples include proliferation assays, apoptosis assays, and cytotoxicity assays.
2. Protein-based assays: These focus on measuring the interaction between the substance and specific proteins, such as enzymes or receptors. Examples include enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), radioimmunoassays (RIAs), and pull-down assays.
3. Genetic-based assays: These involve analyzing the effects of the substance on gene expression, DNA structure, or protein synthesis. Examples include quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays, reporter gene assays, and northern blotting.

Biological assays are essential tools in research, drug development, and diagnostic applications to understand biological processes and evaluate the potential therapeutic efficacy or toxicity of various substances.

Performance-enhancing substances (PES) are drugs or medications that are used to improve physical or mental performance, stamina, or recovery. These substances can include anabolic steroids, human growth hormone, stimulants, and other compounds that affect various physiological processes in the body. They are often used by athletes, soldiers, and others looking to gain a competitive edge, but their use can also have serious health consequences and is often prohibited in certain competitions or activities. It's important to note that the use of performance-enhancing substances without a prescription from a licensed medical professional is generally considered unethical and against the rules in most sports organizations.

A Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR) in the context of medicinal chemistry and pharmacology refers to the relationship between the chemical structure of a drug or molecule and its biological activity or effect on a target protein, cell, or organism. SAR studies aim to identify patterns and correlations between structural features of a compound and its ability to interact with a specific biological target, leading to a desired therapeutic response or undesired side effects.

By analyzing the SAR, researchers can optimize the chemical structure of lead compounds to enhance their potency, selectivity, safety, and pharmacokinetic properties, ultimately guiding the design and development of novel drugs with improved efficacy and reduced toxicity.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

Molecular structure, in the context of biochemistry and molecular biology, refers to the arrangement and organization of atoms and chemical bonds within a molecule. It describes the three-dimensional layout of the constituent elements, including their spatial relationships, bond lengths, and angles. Understanding molecular structure is crucial for elucidating the functions and reactivities of biological macromolecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates. Various experimental techniques, like X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), are employed to determine molecular structures at atomic resolution, providing valuable insights into their biological roles and potential therapeutic targets.

High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a type of chromatography that separates and analyzes compounds based on their interactions with a stationary phase and a mobile phase under high pressure. The mobile phase, which can be a gas or liquid, carries the sample mixture through a column containing the stationary phase.

In HPLC, the mobile phase is a liquid, and it is pumped through the column at high pressures (up to several hundred atmospheres) to achieve faster separation times and better resolution than other types of liquid chromatography. The stationary phase can be a solid or a liquid supported on a solid, and it interacts differently with each component in the sample mixture, causing them to separate as they travel through the column.

HPLC is widely used in analytical chemistry, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, and other fields to separate, identify, and quantify compounds present in complex mixtures. It can be used to analyze a wide range of substances, including drugs, hormones, vitamins, pigments, flavors, and pollutants. HPLC is also used in the preparation of pure samples for further study or use.

Peptides are short chains of amino acid residues linked by covalent bonds, known as peptide bonds. They are formed when two or more amino acids are joined together through a condensation reaction, which results in the elimination of a water molecule and the formation of an amide bond between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another.

Peptides can vary in length from two to about fifty amino acids, and they are often classified based on their size. For example, dipeptides contain two amino acids, tripeptides contain three, and so on. Oligopeptides typically contain up to ten amino acids, while polypeptides can contain dozens or even hundreds of amino acids.

Peptides play many important roles in the body, including serving as hormones, neurotransmitters, enzymes, and antibiotics. They are also used in medical research and therapeutic applications, such as drug delivery and tissue engineering.

Protein binding, in the context of medical and biological sciences, refers to the interaction between a protein and another molecule (known as the ligand) that results in a stable complex. This process is often reversible and can be influenced by various factors such as pH, temperature, and concentration of the involved molecules.

In clinical chemistry, protein binding is particularly important when it comes to drugs, as many of them bind to proteins (especially albumin) in the bloodstream. The degree of protein binding can affect a drug's distribution, metabolism, and excretion, which in turn influence its therapeutic effectiveness and potential side effects.

Protein-bound drugs may be less available for interaction with their target tissues, as only the unbound or "free" fraction of the drug is active. Therefore, understanding protein binding can help optimize dosing regimens and minimize adverse reactions.

Recombinant proteins are artificially created proteins produced through the use of recombinant DNA technology. This process involves combining DNA molecules from different sources to create a new set of genes that encode for a specific protein. The resulting recombinant protein can then be expressed, purified, and used for various applications in research, medicine, and industry.

Recombinant proteins are widely used in biomedical research to study protein function, structure, and interactions. They are also used in the development of diagnostic tests, vaccines, and therapeutic drugs. For example, recombinant insulin is a common treatment for diabetes, while recombinant human growth hormone is used to treat growth disorders.

The production of recombinant proteins typically involves the use of host cells, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells, which are engineered to express the desired protein. The host cells are transformed with a plasmid vector containing the gene of interest, along with regulatory elements that control its expression. Once the host cells are cultured and the protein is expressed, it can be purified using various chromatography techniques.

Overall, recombinant proteins have revolutionized many areas of biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study and manipulate proteins in ways that were previously impossible.

Molecular models are three-dimensional representations of molecular structures that are used in the field of molecular biology and chemistry to visualize and understand the spatial arrangement of atoms and bonds within a molecule. These models can be physical or computer-generated and allow researchers to study the shape, size, and behavior of molecules, which is crucial for understanding their function and interactions with other molecules.

Physical molecular models are often made up of balls (representing atoms) connected by rods or sticks (representing bonds). These models can be constructed manually using materials such as plastic or wooden balls and rods, or they can be created using 3D printing technology.

Computer-generated molecular models, on the other hand, are created using specialized software that allows researchers to visualize and manipulate molecular structures in three dimensions. These models can be used to simulate molecular interactions, predict molecular behavior, and design new drugs or chemicals with specific properties. Overall, molecular models play a critical role in advancing our understanding of molecular structures and their functions.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) is a non-invasive diagnostic technique that provides information about the biochemical composition of tissues, including their metabolic state. It is often used in conjunction with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to analyze various metabolites within body tissues, such as the brain, heart, liver, and muscles.

During MRS, a strong magnetic field, radio waves, and a computer are used to produce detailed images and data about the concentration of specific metabolites in the targeted tissue or organ. This technique can help detect abnormalities related to energy metabolism, neurotransmitter levels, pH balance, and other biochemical processes, which can be useful for diagnosing and monitoring various medical conditions, including cancer, neurological disorders, and metabolic diseases.

There are different types of MRS, such as Proton (^1^H) MRS, Phosphorus-31 (^31^P) MRS, and Carbon-13 (^13^C) MRS, each focusing on specific elements or metabolites within the body. The choice of MRS technique depends on the clinical question being addressed and the type of information needed for diagnosis or monitoring purposes.

Electrophoresis, polyacrylamide gel (EPG) is a laboratory technique used to separate and analyze complex mixtures of proteins or nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) based on their size and electrical charge. This technique utilizes a matrix made of cross-linked polyacrylamide, a type of gel, which provides a stable and uniform environment for the separation of molecules.

In this process:

1. The polyacrylamide gel is prepared by mixing acrylamide monomers with a cross-linking agent (bis-acrylamide) and a catalyst (ammonium persulfate) in the presence of a buffer solution.
2. The gel is then poured into a mold and allowed to polymerize, forming a solid matrix with uniform pore sizes that depend on the concentration of acrylamide used. Higher concentrations result in smaller pores, providing better resolution for separating smaller molecules.
3. Once the gel has set, it is placed in an electrophoresis apparatus containing a buffer solution. Samples containing the mixture of proteins or nucleic acids are loaded into wells on the top of the gel.
4. An electric field is applied across the gel, causing the negatively charged molecules to migrate towards the positive electrode (anode) while positively charged molecules move toward the negative electrode (cathode). The rate of migration depends on the size, charge, and shape of the molecules.
5. Smaller molecules move faster through the gel matrix and will migrate farther from the origin compared to larger molecules, resulting in separation based on size. Proteins and nucleic acids can be selectively stained after electrophoresis to visualize the separated bands.

EPG is widely used in various research fields, including molecular biology, genetics, proteomics, and forensic science, for applications such as protein characterization, DNA fragment analysis, cloning, mutation detection, and quality control of nucleic acid or protein samples.

Molecular cloning is a laboratory technique used to create multiple copies of a specific DNA sequence. This process involves several steps:

1. Isolation: The first step in molecular cloning is to isolate the DNA sequence of interest from the rest of the genomic DNA. This can be done using various methods such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, or hybridization.
2. Vector construction: Once the DNA sequence of interest has been isolated, it must be inserted into a vector, which is a small circular DNA molecule that can replicate independently in a host cell. Common vectors used in molecular cloning include plasmids and phages.
3. Transformation: The constructed vector is then introduced into a host cell, usually a bacterial or yeast cell, through a process called transformation. This can be done using various methods such as electroporation or chemical transformation.
4. Selection: After transformation, the host cells are grown in selective media that allow only those cells containing the vector to grow. This ensures that the DNA sequence of interest has been successfully cloned into the vector.
5. Amplification: Once the host cells have been selected, they can be grown in large quantities to amplify the number of copies of the cloned DNA sequence.

Molecular cloning is a powerful tool in molecular biology and has numerous applications, including the production of recombinant proteins, gene therapy, functional analysis of genes, and genetic engineering.

Anti-bacterial agents, also known as antibiotics, are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria. These agents work by either killing the bacteria or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. There are several different classes of anti-bacterial agents, including penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and tetracyclines, among others. Each class of antibiotic has a specific mechanism of action and is used to treat certain types of bacterial infections. It's important to note that anti-bacterial agents are not effective against viral infections, such as the common cold or flu. Misuse and overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which is a significant global health concern.

Protein conformation refers to the specific three-dimensional shape that a protein molecule assumes due to the spatial arrangement of its constituent amino acid residues and their associated chemical groups. This complex structure is determined by several factors, including covalent bonds (disulfide bridges), hydrogen bonds, van der Waals forces, and ionic bonds, which help stabilize the protein's unique conformation.

Protein conformations can be broadly classified into two categories: primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures. The primary structure represents the linear sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain. The secondary structure arises from local interactions between adjacent amino acid residues, leading to the formation of recurring motifs such as α-helices and β-sheets. Tertiary structure refers to the overall three-dimensional folding pattern of a single polypeptide chain, while quaternary structure describes the spatial arrangement of multiple folded polypeptide chains (subunits) that interact to form a functional protein complex.

Understanding protein conformation is crucial for elucidating protein function, as the specific three-dimensional shape of a protein directly influences its ability to interact with other molecules, such as ligands, nucleic acids, or other proteins. Any alterations in protein conformation due to genetic mutations, environmental factors, or chemical modifications can lead to loss of function, misfolding, aggregation, and disease states like neurodegenerative disorders and cancer.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

A cell line that is derived from tumor cells and has been adapted to grow in culture. These cell lines are often used in research to study the characteristics of cancer cells, including their growth patterns, genetic changes, and responses to various treatments. They can be established from many different types of tumors, such as carcinomas, sarcomas, and leukemias. Once established, these cell lines can be grown and maintained indefinitely in the laboratory, allowing researchers to conduct experiments and studies that would not be feasible using primary tumor cells. It is important to note that tumor cell lines may not always accurately represent the behavior of the original tumor, as they can undergo genetic changes during their time in culture.

Signal transduction is the process by which a cell converts an extracellular signal, such as a hormone or neurotransmitter, into an intracellular response. This involves a series of molecular events that transmit the signal from the cell surface to the interior of the cell, ultimately resulting in changes in gene expression, protein activity, or metabolism.

The process typically begins with the binding of the extracellular signal to a receptor located on the cell membrane. This binding event activates the receptor, which then triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling molecules, such as second messengers, protein kinases, and ion channels. These molecules amplify and propagate the signal, ultimately leading to the activation or inhibition of specific cellular responses.

Signal transduction pathways are highly regulated and can be modulated by various factors, including other signaling molecules, post-translational modifications, and feedback mechanisms. Dysregulation of these pathways has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Rabbits" is a common name used to refer to the Lagomorpha species, particularly members of the family Leporidae. They are small mammals known for their long ears, strong legs, and quick reproduction.

However, if you're referring to "rabbits" in a medical context, there is a term called "rabbit syndrome," which is a rare movement disorder characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements of the fingers, resembling those of a rabbit chewing. It is also known as "finger-chewing chorea." This condition is usually associated with certain medications, particularly antipsychotics, and typically resolves when the medication is stopped or adjusted.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Biological models, also known as physiological models or organismal models, are simplified representations of biological systems, processes, or mechanisms that are used to understand and explain the underlying principles and relationships. These models can be theoretical (conceptual or mathematical) or physical (such as anatomical models, cell cultures, or animal models). They are widely used in biomedical research to study various phenomena, including disease pathophysiology, drug action, and therapeutic interventions.

Examples of biological models include:

1. Mathematical models: These use mathematical equations and formulas to describe complex biological systems or processes, such as population dynamics, metabolic pathways, or gene regulation networks. They can help predict the behavior of these systems under different conditions and test hypotheses about their underlying mechanisms.
2. Cell cultures: These are collections of cells grown in a controlled environment, typically in a laboratory dish or flask. They can be used to study cellular processes, such as signal transduction, gene expression, or metabolism, and to test the effects of drugs or other treatments on these processes.
3. Animal models: These are living organisms, usually vertebrates like mice, rats, or non-human primates, that are used to study various aspects of human biology and disease. They can provide valuable insights into the pathophysiology of diseases, the mechanisms of drug action, and the safety and efficacy of new therapies.
4. Anatomical models: These are physical representations of biological structures or systems, such as plastic models of organs or tissues, that can be used for educational purposes or to plan surgical procedures. They can also serve as a basis for developing more sophisticated models, such as computer simulations or 3D-printed replicas.

Overall, biological models play a crucial role in advancing our understanding of biology and medicine, helping to identify new targets for therapeutic intervention, develop novel drugs and treatments, and improve human health.

According to the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), biological products are "products that are made from or contain a living organism or its derivatives, such as vaccines, blood and blood components, cells, genes, tissues, and proteins." These products can be composed of sugars, proteins, nucleic acids, or complex combinations of these substances, and they can come from many sources, including humans, animals, microorganisms, or plants.

Biological products are often used to diagnose, prevent, or treat a wide range of medical conditions, and they can be administered in various ways, such as through injection, inhalation, or topical application. Because biological products are derived from living organisms, their manufacturing processes can be complex and must be tightly controlled to ensure the safety, purity, and potency of the final product.

It's important to note that biological products are not the same as drugs, which are chemically synthesized compounds. While drugs are designed to interact with specific targets in the body, such as enzymes or receptors, biological products can have more complex and varied mechanisms of action, making them potentially more difficult to characterize and regulate.

Biological therapy, also known as biotherapy or immunotherapy, is a type of medical treatment that uses biological agents (such as substances derived from living organisms or laboratory-made versions of these substances) to identify and modify specific targets in the body to treat diseases, including cancer. These therapies can work by boosting the body's natural defenses to fight illness, interfering with the growth and spread of abnormal cells, or replacing absent or faulty proteins in the body. Examples of biological therapies include monoclonal antibodies, cytokines, and vaccines.

Biological warfare, also known as germ warfare, is the use of biological agents or toxins with the intent to cause disease or death in humans, animals, or plants. These agents can be spread through the air, water, or food and can include bacteria, viruses, fungi, or toxic substances produced by living organisms. The purpose of using these agents is typically to cause widespread illness, fear, and disruption. Biological warfare is considered a weapon of mass destruction and is illegal under international law.

A biological marker, often referred to as a biomarker, is a measurable indicator that reflects the presence or severity of a disease state, or a response to a therapeutic intervention. Biomarkers can be found in various materials such as blood, tissues, or bodily fluids, and they can take many forms, including molecular, histologic, radiographic, or physiological measurements.

In the context of medical research and clinical practice, biomarkers are used for a variety of purposes, such as:

1. Diagnosis: Biomarkers can help diagnose a disease by indicating the presence or absence of a particular condition. For example, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a biomarker used to detect prostate cancer.
2. Monitoring: Biomarkers can be used to monitor the progression or regression of a disease over time. For instance, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels are monitored in diabetes patients to assess long-term blood glucose control.
3. Predicting: Biomarkers can help predict the likelihood of developing a particular disease or the risk of a negative outcome. For example, the presence of certain genetic mutations can indicate an increased risk for breast cancer.
4. Response to treatment: Biomarkers can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a specific treatment by measuring changes in the biomarker levels before and after the intervention. This is particularly useful in personalized medicine, where treatments are tailored to individual patients based on their unique biomarker profiles.

It's important to note that for a biomarker to be considered clinically valid and useful, it must undergo rigorous validation through well-designed studies, including demonstrating sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, and clinical relevance.

Biological processes refer to the series of interactions and reactions that occur within a living organism in order to maintain life. These processes are often complex and involve multiple systems and structures within the body. They can include things like metabolism, cell division, growth and development, respiration, circulation, immune response, and digestion, among others.

Biological processes are typically regulated by a combination of genetic and environmental factors, and they can be influenced by various internal and external stimuli. The study of biological processes is a key area of focus in the field of biology, as understanding these processes can shed light on how living organisms function, grow, reproduce, and respond to changes in their environment.

In medical terms, understanding biological processes is essential for developing effective treatments for various diseases and conditions. By studying the underlying mechanisms that contribute to disease, researchers can identify potential targets for therapeutic intervention and develop new drugs or other treatments designed to modulate specific biological processes.

An algorithm is not a medical term, but rather a concept from computer science and mathematics. In the context of medicine, algorithms are often used to describe step-by-step procedures for diagnosing or managing medical conditions. These procedures typically involve a series of rules or decision points that help healthcare professionals make informed decisions about patient care.

For example, an algorithm for diagnosing a particular type of heart disease might involve taking a patient's medical history, performing a physical exam, ordering certain diagnostic tests, and interpreting the results in a specific way. By following this algorithm, healthcare professionals can ensure that they are using a consistent and evidence-based approach to making a diagnosis.

Algorithms can also be used to guide treatment decisions. For instance, an algorithm for managing diabetes might involve setting target blood sugar levels, recommending certain medications or lifestyle changes based on the patient's individual needs, and monitoring the patient's response to treatment over time.

Overall, algorithms are valuable tools in medicine because they help standardize clinical decision-making and ensure that patients receive high-quality care based on the latest scientific evidence.

ISBN 0-521-08041-X Finney, D.J. (1978). Statistical Method in Biological Assay, 3rd Ed. Griffin, London. ISBN 0-02-844640-2 ... Dilution assays can be direct or indirect. In a direct dilution assay the amount of dose needed to produce a specific (fixed) ... The term dilution assay is generally used to designate a special type of bioassay in which one or more preparations (e.g. a ... The biological response u {\displaystyle u} is in this case the zone of inhibition and the diameter of this zone f ( u ) {\ ...
"Assay Acceptance Criteria for Multiwell-Plate-Based Biological Potency Assays". BioProcess International. 12 (1): 30-41. "SIMAG ... A ligand binding assay (LBA) is an assay, or an analytic procedure, which relies on the binding of ligand molecules to ... Filter assays are a solid phase ligand binding assay that use filters to measure the affinity between two molecules. In a ... The use of multiwell plates are common when measuring in vitro biological assay activity, or measuring immunoreactivity through ...
2010). "Protein-binding assays in biological liquids using microscale thermophoresis". Nature Communications. 1 (7): 100. ... The MTT assay, a redox assay using a tetrazolium dye as substrate is an example of a colorimetric assay. UV light is often used ... Enzyme assays can be split into two groups according to their sampling method: continuous assays, where the assay gives a ... In spectrophotometric assays, you follow the course of the reaction by measuring a change in how much light the assay solution ...
Methods of Biological Assay, 1928; Recent Advances in Materia Medica, 1931; Biological Standardization, 1937; Background of ...
Fisher, R. A. (1949). "A Biological Assay of Tuberculins". Biometrics. 5 (4): 300-316. doi:10.2307/3001513. hdl:2440/15259. ... "Statistical Appendix to a Paper by J. Davidson on Biological Studies of Aphis rumicis". Annals of Applied Biology. 9: 142-145. ... "The Case of Zero Survivors in Probit Assays". Annals of Applied Biology. 22: 164-165. 1935. doi:10.1111/j.1744-7348.1935. ... Fisher, R. A. (1931). "The Evolution of Dominance". Biological Reviews. 6 (4): 345-368. doi:10.1111/j.1469-185X.1931.tb01030.x ...
Afshar Saber W, Gasparoli FM, Dirks MG, Gunn-Moore FJ, Antkowiak M (2018). "All-Optical Assay to Study Biological Neural ... A new class of fluorescent indicators". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 272 (20): 13270-13274. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.20. ... biological degradation and toxicity, in addition to higher signal-to-noise ratios. Such systems may rely on aequorin and the ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 279 (14): 14280-14286. doi:10.1074/jbc.M312751200. PMID 14742421. Mank M, Reiff DF, Heim N ...
Afshar Saber W, Gasparoli FM, Dirks MG, Gunn-Moore FJ, Antkowiak M (2018). "All-Optical Assay to Study Biological Neural ...
Enhanced chemiluminescent assay for antioxidant capacity in biological fluids. Analynca Chumca Acta, 266, 265-277 Sawcer, K.E ... Eclox ECL is a broadband enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL) assay that can be used to qualitatively assess a water sample to ... Reliability of the Eclox Enhanced Chemiluminescence Assay for Rapid Field Testing of Drinking Water, Thesis, Texas A&M ...
... a New Criterion for Biological Assay of Acetylcholine". Experimental Biology and Medicine. 44 (2): 658-661. doi:10.3181/ ... Tashiro, Shiro (1914). "Carbon dioxide apparatus III". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 16 (4): 485-494. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258 ... he also examined the possibility of assays for acetylcholine. He became a full professor in 1925 and retired in 1952. He ...
Biological Assays of Various Synthetic Compounds". Science. 88 (2271): 38-39. Bibcode:1938Sci....88...38E. doi:10.1126/science. ... Journal of Biological Chemistry. 113 (1): 319-332. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258(18)74918-1. Evans, H. M.; Emerson, O. H.; Emerson, G ...
... biochemical assays) may be similar to chemical analysis and titration. However, assays typically involve biological material or ... DNase footprinting assay Filter binding assay Gel shift assay Bicinchoninic acid assay (BCA assay) Bradford protein assay Lowry ... Chemotaxis assay Secretion assays Apoptosis assays such as the DNA laddering assay, the Nicoletti assay, caspase activity ... MTT assay Cell Counting Kit-8 (WST-8 based cell viability assay) SRB (Sulforhodamine B) assay CellTiter-Glo® Luminescent Cell ...
Other methods have been developed to assay biological hydrogen production. Diode based Schottky sensor - A Schottky diode-based ...
The assay started to be used in biological research in the early 1980s. Intracellular bacteria need to enter host cells (cells ... The gentamicin protection assay or survival assay or invasion assay is a method used in microbiology. It is used to quantify ... should be included in the assay. An alternative invasion assay is the differential immunostaining assay, based on the binding ... As for bacteria, only species susceptible to gentamicin can be assayed. The assay is performed in plastic microtiter plates, ...
"A sensitive microbiological assay procedure for determining magnesium in biological materials". The Analyst. 88 (1048): 534. ... The Society of Biological Chemists (India) awarded him the Professor M. Srinivasayya Award in 1984 and the Indian National ... "M. Srinivasayya Award". Society of Biological Chemists, India. 2017. Archived from the original on 24 February 2017. Retrieved ...
M. F. Manzoli-Palma; N. Gobbi; M. S. Palma (2003). "Insects as biological models to assay spider and scorpion venom toxicity". ... Barbaro KC, Ferreira ML, Cardoso DF, Eickstedt VR, Mota I (November 1996). "Identification and neutralization of biological ...
Here she developed nanoparticle sensors for biological assays. In particular, Thanh used gold nanoparticles combined with ...
His doctorate thesis was a study of biological assays of cortical hormone and their application. His PhD supervisor was Dr ... "Biological assays of cortical hormone and their application". hdl:1842/17238. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires ,journal ...
Coates, Marie Evelyn (1949). "Methods of biological assay, using chicks, of vitamins of the B complex". Coates, Marie E. (1 ...
Together with biological assay, these methods greatly facilitate the DNA methylation analysis. 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine 5- ... Molecular break light assay for DNA adenine methyltransferase activity - an assay that relies on the specificity of the ... and often such models are faster and cheaper to perform than biological assays. Such up-to-date computational models include ... the assay is similar in concept to the HELP assay. Methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP), analogous to chromatin ...
JSTOR 2983630 Fieller, EC (1944). "A fundamental formula in the statistics of biological assay, and some applications". ... 1940) "The biological standardisation of insulin". Journal of the Royal Statistical Society (Supplement). 1:1-54. ...
ATCC also serves to set standards for biological reagent and assay quality. These standards are used by the U.S. Food and Drug ... ATCC also provides biological repository management services to institutions, agencies and companies wishing to outsource the ... ATCC, along with the Centers for Disease Control, sold or sent biological samples of anthrax, West Nile virus and botulism to ... A number of these materials were used for Iraq's biological weapons research program, while others were used for vaccine ...
Wienken CJ, Baaske P, Rothbauer U, Braun D, Duhr S (2010). "Protein-binding assays in biological liquids using microscale ... Small molecules may be used as research tools to probe biological function as well as leads in the development of new ... Small molecules can have a variety of biological functions or applications, serving as cell signaling molecules, drugs in ... Pharmacology usually restricts the term "small molecule" to molecules that bind specific biological macromolecules and act as ...
Wienken CJ, Baaske P, Rothbauer U, Braun D, Duhr S (October 2010). "Protein-binding assays in biological liquids using ... Ligand efficacy refers to the ability of the ligand to produce a biological response upon binding to the target receptor and ... In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose ... ISBN 978-0-12-370599-0. Cabanos, C; Wang, M; Han, X; Hansen, SB (8 August 2017). "A Soluble Fluorescent Binding Assay Reveals ...
"Protein-binding assays in biological liquids using microscale thermophoresis". Nature Communications. 1 (7): 100. Bibcode: ... A single assay is typically completed in minutes and only requires a sample consumption of a few µl. Fluorescence polarization/ ... Recovery of Biological Products XIII. Quebec City, Quebec. Archived from the original on 2010-11-04. Attri AK, Minton AP ( ... Proximity ligation assay (PLA) in situ is an immunohistochemical method utilizing so called PLA probes for detection of ...
Wienken CJ, Baaske P, Rothbauer U, Braun D, Duhr S (October 2010). "Protein-binding assays in biological liquids using ... For example, microscale thermophoresis can be used to quantify how the biological matrix/liquid affects the affinity of a drug ... Chemical techniques are employed to measure the concentration of drugs in biological matrix, most often plasma. Proper ... Bateman equation Blood alcohol concentration Biological half-life Bioavailability Cooperstown cocktail Enzyme kinetics ...
Oct 2010). "Protein-binding assays in biological liquids using microscale thermophoresis". Nature Communications. 1 (7): 100. ...
Wienken CJ, Baaske P, Rothbauer U, Braun D, Duhr S (2010). "Protein-binding assays in biological liquids using microscale ... Assay and Drug Development Technologies. 9 (4): 342-53. doi:10.1089/adt.2011.0380. PMC 3148787. PMID 21812660. Dijkman PM, ...
Tannous, Bakhos A (April 2009). "Gaussia luciferase reporter assay for monitoring biological processes in culture and in vivo ... ISBN 978-1-139-45181-9. Shimomura, O. (August 1995). "A short story of aequorin". The Biological Bulletin. 189 (1): 1-5. doi: ... Renilla and Gaussia based cell viability assays use the substrate coelenterazine. Animal coloration Biophoton Life That Glows, ... Viviani, Vadim R.; Bechara, Etelvino J.H. (1997). "Bioluminescence and Biological Aspects of Brazilian Railroad-Worms ( ...
Probit Analysis, Cambridge University Press, 1947 Statistical methods in biological assay, Hafner, 1952; Griffin, 1971, ISBN ... "Standardization of biological medicines: the first hundred years, 1900-2000". Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London ...
For pharmacology and genetics, the Umu Chromotest, first developed and published by Oda et al., is a biological assay (bioassay ... As with other bacterial genotoxicity and mutagenicity assays, compounds requiring metabolic activation for activity can be ...
I have a question about the error on certain biological results. Apologies for the long explanation, but its not a trivial ... Suggested for: Error on biological assay results I Error Propagation in Measurements ... we can predict what biological response %R a molecule will give, depending on its concentration in the assay well.. The ... and whether the error must be found from each single run of the assay or from the repeats of the assay (or both?).. @Stephen ...
Biological test methods publications. *Biological test method: fertilization assay using echinoids (sea urchins and sand ... Biological test method: fertilization assay using echinoids (sea urchins and sand dollars), chapter 8. Previous page ... For instance, high concentrations of biological solids in certain types of treated wastewater might contribute to sample ... although that might not be a major factor for this small-scale assay. ...
Learn how to validate an assay for clinical diagnostics and transition the assay into the clinical laboratory for diagnostic ... This training on assay validation will teach you how to validate an assay for clinical diagnostics and transition the assay ... Unless an assay can give clinically actionable results in a clinical laboratory, whatever utility the assay may have will be ... In addition, you will learn how to select a clinically relevant population for a given assay, validate the assay within such a ...
Copyright©2015 Immuno-Biological Laboratories Co,Ltd. All Rights Reserved.. The material displayed on our Website is not ...
"Biological Assay" by people in this website by year, and whether "Biological Assay" was a major or minor topic of these ... "Biological Assay" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Biological Assay" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Biological Assay". ...
Stem cells for Biological Assays of Novel drugs and predictive toxiCology (StemBANCC) Share Share Share ... Stem cells for Biological Assays of Novel drugs and predictive toxiCology (StemBANCC) ...
... of Intracellular Granules or other local Intracellular Particles is a valuable tool for a large variety of Biological Assays. ... intracellular granules/foci or other local intracellular particles is a valuable tool for a large variety of biological assays. ... intracellular granules/foci or other local intracellular particles is a valuable tool for a large variety of biological assays. ... Proximity ligation assays (PLA) performed with the Hermes WiScan to identify protein-protein interactions. ...
Bioassay or Biological Assay:. "The determination of the potency of a physical, chemical or biological agent, by means of a ... What is a bioassay or biological assay?. The following pharmacological definition has been taken from the Pharmacology and ... When the absolute amounts of standard used in the assay are known, the results of the assay can be used to estimate the amount ... biological indicator . . . The biological indicators in bioassay are the reactions of living organisms or tissues." Principles ...
A High-Resolution Luminescent Assay for Rapid and Continuous Monitoring of Protein Translocation across Biological Membranes. ... A High-Resolution Luminescent Assay for Rapid and Continuous Monitoring of Protein Translocation across Biological Membranes. ... A High-Resolution Luminescent Assay for Rapid and Continuous Monitoring of Protein Translocation across Biological Membranes. ... A High-Resolution Luminescent Assay for Rapid and Continuous Monitoring of Protein Translocation across Biological Membranes. ...
ISBN 0-521-08041-X Finney, D.J. (1978). Statistical Method in Biological Assay, 3rd Ed. Griffin, London. ISBN 0-02-844640-2 ... Dilution assays can be direct or indirect. In a direct dilution assay the amount of dose needed to produce a specific (fixed) ... The term dilution assay is generally used to designate a special type of bioassay in which one or more preparations (e.g. a ... The biological response u {\displaystyle u} is in this case the zone of inhibition and the diameter of this zone f ( u ) {\ ...
Development of a sensitive in vitro assay to quantify the biological activity of pro-inflammatory phorbol esters in Jatropha ... Development of a sensitive in vitro assay to quantify the biological activity of pro-inflammatory phorbol esters in Jatropha ... Development of a sensitive in vitro assay to quantify the biological activity of pro-inflammatory phorbol esters in Jatropha ... View accepted manuscript: Development of a sensitive in vitro assay to quantify the biological activity of pro-inflammatory ...
... von Sebastian Bierbaum ... super-resolution fluorescence microscopy has revolutionized biological research by enabling the study of biological functions ... Keywords: automated microscopy; super-resolution fluorescence microscopy; STED nanoscopy; cell-based assay; drug screening; ...
DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF BIOLOGICAL ASSAYS Auxiliary Information Staff Liaison : Larry N. Callahan, Ph.D., Scientist Expert ...
Bioanalytical assays are vital at all stages of the drug development process. Drug discovery focuses on identifying and ... Besides, a biological assay should comply with GLP regulations. The US FDA has several parameters required for assay validation ... Home/Health & Fitness/Bioanalytical Assay Exposed: The Key to Unlocking Insights into Biological Samples!. Bioanalytical Assay ... As a drug candidate reaches the clinical stages of drug development, bioanalytical assays will require full assay validation. ...
... J Neurochem. 1976 Mar;26(3):513-9. doi: ... Biological Assay * Humans * Macromolecular Substances * Mice * Molecular Weight * Nerve Growth Factors / analysis* ...
Statistical method in biological assay. 2nd ed. London: Charles Griffin; 1964. p. 524-30. ... The use of half-lives and associated confidence intervals in biological research. Vet Res Commun. 1990;14:235-40. DOIPubMed ...
... and demonstrate the use of these particles in ultrasensitive lateral flow assays. M13 phage displaying an in vivo ... Biological Assay* * Immunoglobulin E / analysis* * Penicillin-Binding Proteins / analysis* * Staphylococcus aureus / chemistry ... Aptamer-Phage Reporters for Ultrasensitive Lateral Flow Assays Anal Chem. 2015 Dec 1;87(23):11660-5. doi: 10.1021/acs.analchem. ... The limit of detection of this LFA was 0.13 ng/mL IgE, ∼100 times lower than those of previously reported IgE assays. ...
The standard assay couples IP to immunoblotting (IP/IB), a procedure severely limited as it is not easily scaled for high- ... assay is a valuable molecular biology tool applied across a breadth of fields. ... Our FLIP assay is not meant to substitute for the LUMIER assay, which is probably more sensitive compared to IP/WB and FLIP ... The FLIP assay is an additional tool for the fast screening of IP reactions. FLIP can also be envisioned as an orthogonal assay ...
Biological Assay of Vitamin A of Certain Texas Foods Description: The purpose of the present study was to compare the amounts ... of vitamin A in sweet potato flour with that of carrot flour and dehydrated carrots by using the biological assay method. ... A Chemical, Physical, and Biological Investigation of the Total Suspended and Dissolved Substances in Lake Dallas with Emphasis ...
Planar optical waveguide based sandwich assay sensors and processes for the detection of biological targets including early ... Assay system and method for conducting assays patent, March 1999 * Andrevski, Zygmunt M.; Roach, William R.; Southgate, Peter D ... Planar optical waveguide based sandwich assay sensors and processes for the detection of biological targets including protein ... therein and an assay process for detecting the presence of a biological target is described including injecting a biological ...
... reduction and human liver S9 assay for predicting the release properties of antibody-drug conjugates in biological environment ... In addition, a human liver S9 assay designed for full ADCs was investigated for the feasibility of studying linker-payload ... reduction and human liver S9 assay for predicting the release properties of antibody-drug conjugates in biological environment ... reduction and human liver S9 assay for predicting the release properties of antibody-drug conjugates in biological environment ...
Categories: Biological Assay Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted 7 ...
Yeo, H.C. Assay of Malondialdehyde in Biological Fluids by Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectrometry. Analytical Biochemistry, Vol ... Because aldehydes have the tendency to react with biological molecules to form various products, including Schiff base protein ... Reported results for all assays meet the Division of Laboratory Sciences quality control and quality assurance performance ... adducts, free aldehydes released into the headspace of biological samples from the Schiff base protein adducts at low pH (~3) ...
... tool expedited the targeted isolation of a natural product possessing both a novel chemical structure and a desired biological ... Integrating Molecular Networking and Biological Assays To Target the Isolation of a Cytotoxic Cyclic Octapeptide, Samoamide A, ... Integrating molecular networking and biological assays to target the isolation of a cytotoxic cyclic octapeptide, samoamide a, ... American Samoa; Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung; Cyanobacteria; Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor; Humans; Lung Neoplasms; Marine ...
Simulations can now be used as computational assays of biological activity, for example, in predictions of drug resistance. ... Simulations can now be used as computational assays of biological activity, for example, in predictions of drug resistance. ... Simulations can now be used as computational assays of biological activity, for example, in predictions of drug resistance. ... Simulations can now be used as computational assays of biological activity, for example, in predictions of drug resistance. ...
Targeted MS Assays for Biomarkers: Enabling a Biomarker Pipeline ... Biological Assay--methods. Biomarkers--analysis. Biomarkers-- ... Targeted MS assays for biomarkers : enabling a biomarker pipeline / Leigh Anderson. Author: Anderson, Leigh. National ...
Biological assays to test the cytotoxicity of the compound ,b ,1b,/b, combined with electroporation were performed to determine ... Biological Activity Assays. Murine melanoma cell line B16F1 (European Collection of Cell Cultures, UK) was tested in vitro to ... Biological assays to test the cytotoxicity of the compound 1b combined with electroporation were performed to determine its ... Biological Activity. Previous studies have shown that while NAMI-A is inactive against B16F1 cells in vitro, it shows ...
Robust, universal biomarker assay to detect senescent cells in biological specimens. Aging Cell 16, 192-197 (2017). ... For glucose uptake assay, primary hepatocytes or PPCs were starved in low glucose medium in the presence of EVs for 24 h prior ... h Over-represented GO biological processes and i pathways (Reactome) of Er1F/− BMDMs compared to corresponding control cells; p ... 1l). Likewise, senescence-associated (SA)‐β‐gal assay and western blotting for Lamin B1 revealed an increase in β-galactosidase ...
  • Hence, whether in vitro assay development or fully validated bioanalytical methods, unlocking the potential of bioanalytical assays is crucial in gaining insights into biological samples. (uscalifornia.com)
  • This in-vitro assay detected carcinogens and other toxicants that promoted tumors through epigenetic mechanisms. (cdc.gov)
  • Quantitative activation suppression assay to evaluate human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cell potency. (ctsicn.org)
  • In particular, the biological assay of potency recommended in 1991 had been shown not to correlate with the efficacy of the vaccine in infants, nor to provide a sensitive indicator of vaccine quality. (who.int)
  • Biological assays to test the cytotoxicity of the compound 1b combined with electroporation were performed to determine its potential for future medical applications in cancer treatment. (hindawi.com)
  • The negative results for cytotoxic and antimicrobial assays indicated possible low cytotoxicity to the extract. (researchgate.net)
  • A parallel cytotoxicity assay was also run without the 6-TG wild type cell. (cdc.gov)
  • In one run of the assay M molecules are tested, generating 2 M N data points. (physicsforums.com)
  • The assay is often repeated multiple times on certain molecules. (physicsforums.com)
  • Because aldehydes have the tendency to react with biological molecules to form various products, including Schiff base protein adducts, free aldehydes released into the headspace of biological samples from the Schiff base protein adducts at low pH (~3) are analyzed. (cdc.gov)
  • Biomolecular simulation is increasingly central to understanding and designing biological molecules and their interactions. (manchester.ac.uk)
  • This training on assay validation will teach you how to validate an assay for clinical diagnostics and transition the assay into the clinical laboratory for diagnostic use. (complianceonline.com)
  • Develop and validate your molecular diagnostic assays faster with ready-to-use quantitative genomic and synthetic molecular standards and heat-inactivated preparations. (atcc.org)
  • The use of international reference materials for designating the activity of biological substances used in prophylaxis or therapy, or for ensuring the reliability of diagnostic procedures, allows comparability of data globally. (who.int)
  • During the recent Zika outbreak, CDC developed and deployed two Zika diagnostic assays to LRN-B reference laboratories across the U.S. From March 2016 through April 2017, LRN-B reference laboratories tested and reported over 90,000 distinct results to CDC-a staggering volume. (cdc.gov)
  • BioGenes is a highly specialized and experienced partner for challenging and customized antibody and immunoassay development projects, with a particular focus on ELISAs for quality control, diagnostics, and the development and testing of new biological therapeutics. (b3cnewswire.com)
  • The WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization reviews developments in the field of biological substances, which include vaccines, blood products and biological therapeutics, and recommends procedures to assure their quality, safety and efficacy, including the establishment of international reference materials. (who.int)
  • What is a bioassay or biological assay? (pharmacologycorner.com)
  • The biological indicators in bioassay are the reactions of living organisms or tissues. (pharmacologycorner.com)
  • The term dilution assay is generally used to designate a special type of bioassay in which one or more preparations (e.g. a drug) are administered to experimental units at different dose levels inducing a measurable biological response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Combining bioassay screening with the cheminformatics strategy of LC-MS/MS molecular networking as a discovery tool expedited the targeted isolation of a natural product possessing both a novel chemical structure and a desired biological activity. (henryford.com)
  • Synthace's cloud-based platform Antha® enables automation of design of experiments (DOE) to optimize complex biological processes and assays. (jmp.com)
  • Using mathematical models, they're evaluating experimental parameters in order to optimize assay conditions. (qualitydigest.com)
  • The ATP Bioluminescence Kit provides a simple and quick assay to quantify ATP, and also to measure cell viability based on ATP content. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Assay biological specimens for biomarkers of disease. (nih.gov)
  • Detection of intracellular granules/foci or other local intracellular particles is a valuable tool for a large variety of biological assays. (idea-bio.com)
  • We introduce the modification of bacteriophage particles with aptamers for use as bioanalytical reporters, and demonstrate the use of these particles in ultrasensitive lateral flow assays. (nih.gov)
  • Statistical method in biological assay. (cdc.gov)
  • Statistical analysis of experimental designs applied to biological assays. (lu.se)
  • The HCP ELISA is the predominant assay for continuous HCP monitoring, and ELISA reagent characterization is vital for determining the assay's suitability for HCP detection and quantification. (b3cnewswire.com)
  • Antinuclear antithrombin, protein C, protein S or pres- antibodies were investigated with standard- ence of antiphospholipid antibodies, are ized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay common in patients with retinal vein occlu- sions and may contribute to the etiology of (ELISA). (who.int)
  • Biological Assay" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (ctsicn.org)
  • To demonstrate its versatility, we implemented and validated the assay in vitro and in vivo for the bacterial Sec system and the mitochondrial protein import apparatus. (uni-luebeck.de)
  • By the time you are finished with this seminar, you will be able to learn what needs to be done to an assay to make sure it is ready for the clinic and how to validate such changes. (complianceonline.com)
  • In addition, you will learn how to select a clinically relevant population for a given assay, validate the assay within such a population and how to select Gold Standards for comparison. (complianceonline.com)
  • This webinar will help you learn how to validate assays for clinical diagnostics. (complianceonline.com)
  • How to make sure an assay can regularly be performed by a medical technologist, and how to validate those changes? (complianceonline.com)
  • How to validate an assay for clinical use? (complianceonline.com)
  • Until now the standard procedure to validate antibodies for IP couples the IP assay to immunoblotting (IP/IB), a procedure that is challenging to scale to high-throughput analysis [ 10 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The biological response may be quantal (e.g. positive/negative) or quantitative (e.g. growth). (wikipedia.org)
  • With the advent of laboratory automation and more rigorous analytical techniques, scientists now have the opportunity to ask more complex questions to understand and develop more complex biological systems. (jmp.com)
  • The approval was based on "comprehensive review of scientific evidence," including "comparisons of the products on an analytical level using an extensive battery of chemical and biological tests and biological assays that confirmed similarity in the structural and functional features of Wezlana and Stelara (including those known to impact safety and efficacy), and comparative human pharmacokinetic data, clinical immunogenicity data, and other clinical safety and effectiveness data," the FDA said. (medscape.com)
  • Finally, you will be able to develop clinical quality monitoring standards to make sure the assay remains relevant in a clinical context. (complianceonline.com)
  • How to find a Gold Standard assay and develop a validation plan against it? (complianceonline.com)
  • How to develop a clinical quality plan to make sure the assay remains valid? (complianceonline.com)
  • The requirement is to develop high-quality, robust assays that work across a wide range of biological conditions. (qualitydigest.com)
  • Hence robust bioanalytical assays will always remain crucial to maximize the generation of reliable and reproducible study data. (uscalifornia.com)
  • Hence bioanalytical assays should be robust enough to accommodate minor modifications for incorporating newer alterations to the study. (uscalifornia.com)
  • The need for robust bioanalytical assays is well-appreciated in the scientific community. (uscalifornia.com)
  • The assay usually involves some form of automation or a way to conduct multiple assays at the same time using sample arrays. (bvsalud.org)
  • Unless an assay can give clinically actionable results in a clinical laboratory, whatever utility the assay may have will be useless to clinical practioners, who have different demands than research laboratories. (complianceonline.com)
  • What are the key differences between a research assay and a clinical assay? (complianceonline.com)
  • How do you find clinical relevant samples to test your assay against? (complianceonline.com)
  • However, before employing a bioanalytical assay for routine purposes, assay qualification and validation become vital to demonstrate its suitability for clinical applications. (uscalifornia.com)
  • As a drug candidate reaches the clinical stages of drug development , bioanalytical assays will require full assay validation. (uscalifornia.com)
  • These modified viral nanoparticles were used in immunochromatographic sandwich assays for the direct detection of IgE and of the penicillin-binding protein from Staphylococcus aureus (PBP2a). (nih.gov)
  • The limit of detection of this LFA was 0.13 ng/mL IgE, ∼100 times lower than those of previously reported IgE assays. (nih.gov)
  • Synthace offers a new approach, by applying the principles of DOE, to reduce experimentation time and make biological research more reproducible. (jmp.com)
  • Bioanalytical Assay Exposed: The Key To Unlocking Insights Into Biological Samples! (uscalifornia.com)
  • Life scientists have often taken a manual, one-factor-at-a-time approach to experimentation that omits critical insights into how simultaneous changes in multiple factors can affect the biological outcomes. (jmp.com)
  • The development and validation process of a high throughput, high-plex mIF assay to derive meaningful biological insights. (genengnews.com)
  • Besides, a biological assay should comply with GLP regulations. (uscalifornia.com)
  • More important, measuring how the change of one single factor affects the assay leaves the experimenter blind to interactions that may exist between two or more experimental factors. (qualitydigest.com)
  • These experimental parameters represent only a few of the many influencing assay factors that are currently being studied using DOE. (qualitydigest.com)
  • The biological digitalis-like activity in the urine measured by the 86Rb-uptake assay was decreased, but not to a statistically significant degree. (lu.se)
  • Major gaps in our understanding of this process arise due the poor sensitivity, low time resolution and irreproducibility of translocation assays. (uni-luebeck.de)
  • The immunoprecipitation (IP) assay is a valuable molecular biology tool applied across a breadth of fields. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Simulations can now be used as computational assays of biological activity, for example, in predictions of drug resistance. (manchester.ac.uk)
  • With this assay, they tested the vapour-phase-mediated activity of 175 essential oils (EOs) and 37 EO components. (sciencedaily.com)
  • The same assay could also be used to test other biological activity. (sciencedaily.com)
  • To confirm this popular use, ethanol extract from leaves of G. globosa L. was prepared by maceration and analyzed by some phytochemical and biological assays, including cardiovascular activity. (researchgate.net)
  • The increasing complexity and sophistication of biological/biotechnological substances used in human medicine, and the rapid growth in their volume, present a considerable challenge for regulatory authorities, especially in the developing world. (who.int)
  • Rapid methods of measuring the effects of an agent in a biological or chemical assay. (bvsalud.org)
  • In addition, these assays have to be able to handle clinically relevant samples, which often differ from the samples used in research studies. (complianceonline.com)
  • In the past decade, super-resolution fluorescence microscopy has revolutionized biological research by enabling the study of biological functions down to the molecular scale. (uni-goettingen.de)
  • The use of half-lives and associated confidence intervals in biological research. (cdc.gov)
  • The immunoprecipitation assay (IP) is an important tool used in academic and industrial research labs for applications such as targeted protein purification, protein concentration, analysis of protein-protein interactions, identification/analysis of protein complexes and analysis of protein/DNA interactions using chromatin IP (ChIP). (biomedcentral.com)
  • In Beersheva (Israel) research was carried out using radio-immuno assay of sexual hormones in the blood of the female. (fao.org)
  • Clean, document, disseminate, archive (including storage of biological specimens for future study), and promote the Wave VI data to the scientific community for aging research. (nih.gov)
  • PLOS Biology provides an Open Access platform to showcase your best research and commentary across all areas of biological science. (plos.org)
  • Today's approval exemplifies the FDA's longstanding commitment to support a competitive marketplace for biological products," Sarah Yim, MD, director of the Office of Therapeutic Biologics and Biosimilars in the FDA's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, said in a statement . (medscape.com)
  • Furthermore, by leveraging human cells as the sensing platform, our assay provides more accurate and realistic information in regards to bioavailability and a chemical's true effect on individual human health than does the employment of small animal models. (inknowvation.com)
  • Up to now, we still know little about why plants make such decision from the perspective of biological genetic mechanisms. (bvsalud.org)
  • The information lost in OFAT designs may significantly reduce assay quality and robustness. (qualitydigest.com)
  • Five concentrations of each test chemical were used in the metabolic cooperation assay. (cdc.gov)
  • Integrating DOE and automated, liquid-handling technology offers scientists the ability to design experiments that test a wide range of assay conditions. (qualitydigest.com)
  • The Laboratory Response Network for Biological Threats (LRN-B) was created to strengthen the nation's ability to detect biological threat agents, like smallpox and anthrax. (cdc.gov)
  • 45 distinct tests for biological threats, emerging infectious diseases, and other high-consequence pathogens-like Ebola, plague, and smallpox. (cdc.gov)
  • Most of the assay methods for quantifying uromodulin rely on the availability of antibodies to this glycoprotein. (tubitak.gov.tr)
  • This assay is less prone to artifacts than other viability assay methods. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • SAGIAN Automated Assay Optimization (AAO) software is now allowing scientists to import designed experiments that are translated into corresponding Biomek FX methods. (qualitydigest.com)
  • The most important parameters are a sufficient total HCP coverage, the demonstration of HCP log reduction, and a high level of assay accuracy. (b3cnewswire.com)
  • Newer bioanalytical assays are developed continuously to support drug candidates at various stages of development. (uscalifornia.com)
  • Researchers may not perform complete assay validation during early drug discovery studies. (uscalifornia.com)
  • Support the development and validation of your assays with orthopoxviruses and nucleic acids from ATCC. (atcc.org)
  • HCPs stem from the production cell line used for biological product manufacturing. (b3cnewswire.com)
  • The search for new active drugs that can alleviate or cure different diseases is a constant challenge to researchers in the biological area and to the pharmaceutical industry. (scielo.br)
  • Bioanalytical assays are vital at all stages of the drug development process. (uscalifornia.com)
  • These requirements may need simple assay development, primarily focusing on screening and assessing lead compounds. (uscalifornia.com)
  • Blood samples were collected and processed for a dicentric chromosome assay. (springer.com)
  • Of notable importance in this respect is the theory of Generalized Linear Models with which a wide range of dilution assays can be modelled. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, because of the wide range of applications of the IP assay, quick and high-throughput ways to determine the success of an IP are necessary. (biomedcentral.com)
  • With current in vitro screening assays now representing a $1.4B market with a predicted 12% annual growth rate, we believe we possess a product capable of significantly impacting the chemical/drug screening market and, here in particular, advancing our understanding of cytotoxic chemical biotransformations as they pertain to public health and consumer safety. (inknowvation.com)
  • Similarly, a range of diverse biological assays are available. (scielo.br)
  • Recommendations published by WHO are intended to provide guidance for national regulatory authorities and for manufacturers of biological products. (who.int)
  • Hi everyone, I have a question about the error on certain biological results. (physicsforums.com)
  • When the absolute amounts of standard used in the assay are known, the results of the assay can be used to estimate the amount - in absolute units - of biologically active material contained in the unknown preparation. (pharmacologycorner.com)
  • Reported results for all assays meet the Division of Laboratory Sciences' quality control and quality assurance performance criteria for accuracy and precision, similar to the Westgard rules (Caudill, et al. (cdc.gov)
  • The results of a study that evaluated the Chinese-hamster V79 cell metabolic cooperation assay were presented. (cdc.gov)
  • A completely validated bioanalytical assay is crucial as the drug compound is tested in human subjects. (uscalifornia.com)
  • Can the 'standard deviation' or the assay itself be calculated from these data, as if they were direct, repeated measurements? (physicsforums.com)
  • The standard assay couples IP to immunoblotting (IP/IB), a procedure severely limited as it is not easily scaled for high-throughput analysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • WHO has played a key role for over 50 years in establishing international reference materials and in developing recommendations on the production and control of biological substances. (who.int)
  • The purpose of the present study was to compare the amounts of vitamin A in sweet potato flour with that of carrot flour and dehydrated carrots by using the biological assay method. (unt.edu)
  • In addition, a human liver S9 assay designed for full ADCs was investigated for the feasibility of studying linker-payload constructs by themselves. (aalto.fi)
  • Ordinarily, the relationship between changes in behavior of the indicator and differences in drug dose - (a dose-effect curve) - must be determined as a part of each assay. (pharmacologycorner.com)
  • Defined as process-related drug impurities, they can negatively influence a biological drug's quality, safety, and efficacy. (b3cnewswire.com)
  • how to slowly get the new technology up and running, validating the quality system, equipment and the assay itself. (complianceonline.com)
  • New assays and biotechnologies, including physicochemical techniques, are also evaluated by the Expert Committee, as appropriate, through collaborative laboratory studies. (who.int)
  • In the V79 assay, the amount of cell killing that occurred when toxic 6-thioguanine (154427) (6-TG) monophosphate from wild type cells was transferred to 6-TG resistant cells, was an indication of cell to cell communication inhibition. (cdc.gov)
  • The authors conclude that since the promotion of tumors is complex and largely unknown, more experimentation is needed to understand the role of cell to cell communication and the usefulness of the metabolic cooperation assay. (cdc.gov)
  • Watch our on-demand webinar to learn how immortalized primary cells can solve the problem of limited biological relevancy in cell-based assays. (atcc.org)
  • These luciferase expressing cells can be used as a target cancer cell for in vitro killing assay by CD20 CAR-T cells. (atcc.org)