Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Performance-Enhancing Substances: Agents that improve the ability to carry out activities such as athletics, mental endurance, work, and resistance to stress. The substances can include PRESCRIPTION DRUGS; DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS; phytochemicals; and ILLICIT DRUGS.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Biological Products: Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.Biological Therapy: Treatment of diseases with biological materials or biological response modifiers, such as the use of GENES; CELLS; TISSUES; organs; SERUM; VACCINES; and humoral agents.Biological Warfare: Warfare involving the use of living organisms or their products as disease etiologic agents against people, animals, or plants.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Biological Processes: Biological activities and function of the whole organism in human, animal, microorgansims, and plants, and of the biosphere.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Electronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.Thiamine: 3-((4-Amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl)-5-(2- hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazolium chloride.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Thiamine Pyrophosphate: The coenzyme form of Vitamin B1 present in many animal tissues. It is a required intermediate in the PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX and the KETOGLUTARATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX.Thiamine Monophosphate: Thiamine dihydrogen phosphate ester. The monophosphate ester of thiamine. Synonyms: monophosphothiamine; vitamin B1 monophosphate.Molecular Probes: A group of atoms or molecules attached to other molecules or cellular structures and used in studying the properties of these molecules and structures. Radioactive DNA or RNA sequences are used in MOLECULAR GENETICS to detect the presence of a complementary sequence by NUCLEIC ACID HYBRIDIZATION.Xenon Isotopes: Stable xenon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element xenon, but differ in atomic weight. Xe-124, 126, 128-131, 134, and 136 are stable xenon isotopes.Molecular Probe Techniques: The use of devices which use detector molecules to detect, investigate, or analyze other molecules, macromolecules, molecular aggregates, or organisms.Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular: NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.DNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.CholinesterasesCholinesterase Inhibitors: Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.Juglandaceae: The walnut plant family of the order Juglandales, subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are mainly temperate zone trees.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Acetylcholinesterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC 3.1.1.7.Dithionitrobenzoic Acid: A standard reagent for the determination of reactive sulfhydryl groups by absorbance measurements. It is used primarily for the determination of sulfhydryl and disulfide groups in proteins. The color produced is due to the formation of a thio anion, 3-carboxyl-4-nitrothiophenolate.Butyrylcholinesterase: An aspect of cholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.8).

Assaying potential carcinogens with Drosophila. (1/4973)

Drosophila offers many advantages for the detection of mutagenic activity of carcinogenic agents. It provides the quickest assay system for detecting mutations in animals today. Its generation time is short, and Drosophila is cheap and easy to breed in large numbers. The simple genetic testing methods give unequivocal answers about the whole spectrum of relevant genetic damage. A comparison of the detection capacity of assays sampling different kinds of genetic damage revealed that various substances are highly effective in inducing mutations but do not produce chromosome breakage effects at all, or only at much higher concentrations than those required for mutation induction. Of the different assay systems available, the classical sex-linked recessive lethal test deserves priority, in view of its superior capacity to detect mutagens. Of practical importance is also its high sensitivity, because a large number of loci in one fifth of the genome is tested for newly induced forward mutations, including small deletions. The recent findings that Drosophila is capable of carrying out the same metabolic activation reactions as the mammalian liver makes the organism eminently suitable for verifying results obtained in prescreening with fast microbial assay systems. An additional advantage in this respect is the capacity of Drosophila for detecting short-lived activation products, because intracellular metabolic activation appears to occur within the spermatids and spermatocytes.  (+info)

Experimental axonal injury triggers interleukin-6 mRNA, protein synthesis and release into cerebrospinal fluid. (2/4973)

Diffuse axonal injury is a frequent pathologic sequel of head trauma, which, despite its devastating consequences for the patients, remains to be fully elucidated. Here we studied the release of interleukin-6 (IL-6) into CSF and serum, as well as the expression of IL-6 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and protein in a weight drop model of axonal injury in the rat. The IL-6 activity was elevated in CSF within 1 hour and peaked between 2 and 4 hours, reaching maximal values of 82,108 pg/mL, and returned to control values after 24 hours. In serum, the levels of IL-6 remained below increased CSF levels and did not exceed 393 pg/mL. In situ hybridization demonstrated augmented IL-6 mRNA expression in several regions including cortical pyramidal cells, neurons in thalamic nuclei, and macrophages in the basal subarachnoid spaces. A weak constitutive expression of IL-6 protein was shown by immunohistochemical study in control brain. After injury, IL-6 increased at 1 hour and remained elevated through the first 24 hours, returning to normal afterward. Most cells producing IL-6 were cortical, thalamic, and hippocampal neurons as confirmed by staining for the neuronal marker NeuN. These results extend our previous studies showing IL-6 production in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with severe head trauma and demonstrate that neurons are the main source of IL-6 after experimental axonal injury.  (+info)

A technique for dual determination of cytotoxic and helper lymphocyte precursor frequency by a miniaturized dye release method. (3/4973)

Helper (HTLPf) and cytotoxic (CTLPf) lymphocyte precursor frequency assays are increasingly used in bone marrow stem cell and organ transplant compatibility testing. Current techniques require large cell numbers and radioisotopes. To improve the technique, we developed a miniaturized fluorescent read-out combined HTLPf/CTLPf limiting dilution assay. The assay requires only 5 x 10(6) stimulators, 2 x 10(6) responders and 0.24 x 10(6) target cells in Terasaki plates (40 microl/well). For the HTLPf, culture supernatants from each well were assayed for IL-2 production. The IL-2-dependent proliferation of the mouse 9.12 cell line was detected by a semi-automated fluorescent dye technique. After addition of rhIL-2 (recombinant human IL-2) on days 3 and 7, CTLPs were detected on day 10 by measuring the lysis of dye-labeled targets. Results were comparable to standard radioisotope-based techniques. The assay had a coefficient of variation of approximately 30%. The assay detected helper CD4 cells, pure cytotoxic CD8, helper CD8 cells and helper/cytotoxic CD8 cells. Discrimination was demonstrated between HLA-matched related and non-related pairs. The ease of testing and small cell numbers required should facilitate further evaluation of HTLPf and CTLPf for compatibility testing in unrelated donor transplantation and monitoring immune responses following adoptive transfer of lymphocytes.  (+info)

Overexpression of the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry2Aa2 protein in chloroplasts confers resistance to plants against susceptible and Bt-resistant insects. (4/4973)

Evolving levels of resistance in insects to the bioinsecticide Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) can be dramatically reduced through the genetic engineering of chloroplasts in plants. When transgenic tobacco leaves expressing Cry2Aa2 protoxin in chloroplasts were fed to susceptible, Cry1A-resistant (20,000- to 40,000-fold) and Cry2Aa2-resistant (330- to 393-fold) tobacco budworm Heliothis virescens, cotton bollworm Helicoverpa zea, and the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua, 100% mortality was observed against all insect species and strains. Cry2Aa2 was chosen for this study because of its toxicity to many economically important insect pests, relatively low levels of cross-resistance against Cry1A-resistant insects, and its expression as a protoxin instead of a toxin because of its relatively small size (65 kDa). Southern blot analysis confirmed stable integration of cry2Aa2 into all of the chloroplast genomes (5, 000-10,000 copies per cell) of transgenic plants. Transformed tobacco leaves expressed Cry2Aa2 protoxin at levels between 2% and 3% of total soluble protein, 20- to 30-fold higher levels than current commercial nuclear transgenic plants. These results suggest that plants expressing high levels of a nonhomologous Bt protein should be able to overcome or at the very least, significantly delay, broad spectrum Bt-resistance development in the field.  (+info)

Binding of annexin V to plasma membranes of human spermatozoa: a rapid assay for detection of membrane changes after cryostorage. (5/4973)

When the cell membrane is disturbed, phospholipid phosphatidylserine (PS) is translocated from the inner to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane. This is one of the earliest signs of apoptosis and can be monitored by the calcium-dependent binding of annexin V. Therefore, annexin V-binding, in conjunction with flow cytometry, was used to evaluate the integrity of the sperm plasma membrane after different cryostorage protocols: i.e. 10% (v/v) glycerol; sperm maintenance medium (MM); freezing medium TEST yolk buffer (TYB); or cryostorage without protection (cryoshock). Using a combination of two fluorescent dyes, annexin V and propidium iodide (PI), led to three groups of spermatozoa being identified: (i) viable spermatozoa (annexin V-negative and PI-negative); (ii) dead spermatozoa (annexin V-positive and PI-positive); and (iii) cells with impaired but integer plasma membrane (annexin V-positive and PI-negative). The percentage of vital annexin V-negative spermatozoa increased significantly (P < 0.05) from spermatozoa treated by cryoshock (15.0+/-1.2%) to spermatozoa cryopreserved by TYB (26.6+/-2.2%) via cryopreservation by 10% (v/v) glycerol (19.9+/-1.6%) and by MM (22.2 1.8%) and was associated with the percentage of motile spermatozoa (17.6+/-3.4% by glycerol; 19.6+/-3.7% by MM and 22.6+/-3.9% by TYB; P = 0.0001). Of the spermatozoa, 12-22% were annexin V-positive even though they did not bind to PI, indicating viability before as well as after cryostorage. The percentage of vital annexin V-positive spermatozoa was significantly correlated with different sperm motility parameters (velocity straight linear, r = 0.601, P = 0.018; percentage of linearly motile spermatozoa: r = 0.549, P = 0.034). We, therefore, concluded that annexin V-binding is more sensitive in detecting a deterioration of membrane functions than PI staining, and that a considerable percentage of spermatozoa might have dysfunctional plasma membranes besides dead or moribund cells. Of the cryopreservation protocols tested, TYB yielded the most viable spermatozoa. Therefore, we advocate the use of the annexin V-binding assay for the evaluation of the quality and integrity of spermatozoa.  (+info)

Enterotoxin-producing bacteria and parasites in stools of Ethiopian children with diarrhoeal disease. (6/4973)

Enterotoxinogenic bacteria were isolated from 131 (37%) of 354 Ethiopian infants and children with acute gastrointestinal symptoms. Only one of these isolates belonged to the classical enteropathogenic serotypes of Esch. coli. Two colonies from each patient were isolated and tested for production of enterotoxin by the rabbit ileal loop test, the rabbit skin test, and an adrenal cell assay. However, only 38% of the isolated enterotoxinogenic strains were Esch. coli; the others belonged to Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Proteus, Citrobacter, Serratia, and Aeromonas. In 18 patients both isolates were toxinogenic and belonged to different species. The incidence of intestinal parasites was 35% with no apparent correlation to the occurrence of toxinogenic bacteria in the stools.  (+info)

Animals as sentinels of human health hazards of environmental chemicals. (7/4973)

A workshop titled "Using Sentinel Species Data to Address the Potential Human Health Effects of Chemicals in the Environment," sponsored by the U.S. Army Center for Environmental Health Research, the National Center for Environmental Assessment of the EPA, and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, was held to consider the use of sentinel and surrogate animal species data for evaluating the potential human health effects of chemicals in the environment. The workshop took a broad view of the sentinel species concept, and included mammalian and nonmammalian species, companion animals, food animals, fish, amphibians, and other wildlife. Sentinel species data included observations of wild animals in field situations as well as experimental animal data. Workshop participants identified potential applications for sentinel species data derived from monitoring programs or serendipitous observations and explored the potential use of such information in human health hazard and risk assessments and for evaluating causes or mechanisms of effect. Although it is unlikely that sentinel species data will be used as the sole determinative factor in evaluating human health concerns, such data can be useful as for additional weight of evidence in a risk assessment, for providing early warning of situations requiring further study, or for monitoring the course of remedial activities. Attention was given to the factors impeding the application of sentinel species approaches and their acceptance in the scientific and regulatory communities. Workshop participants identified a number of critical research needs and opportunities for interagency collaboration that could help advance the use of sentinel species approaches.  (+info)

Inhibitory effect of plasma obtained from hypophysectomized and control women on the assay of bioactive luteinizing hormone. (8/4973)

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of components of female plasma on the value of bioactive luteinizing hormone (LH), especially in the presence of low immunological LH value. Using both an immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) and rat Leydig cell bioassay, immunoreactive (I) and bioactive (B) LH were assessed in plasma collected from women during a gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) test performed on day 7 of a spontaneous cycle. Two modes of response to an acute administration of GnRH were defined: normal production of gonadotrophins (group I) and excessive secretion (group II) associated with a significant difference in the B/I-LH ratio between the two groups. The B/I-LH ratio did not vary with sampling time during the test in either group. The addition of LH-free plasma collected from hypophysectomized women caused a 30% decrease in testosterone production compared to control values (in the presence or absence of hLH standard). A partial restoration of testosterone production was observed if plasma was first treated with PEG 12%. The inhibitory factor(s) was also present in plasma from ovulatory women, even after treatment by an antibody against the entire LH molecule. The effect of normal (A) or low I-LH plasma (B) on testosterone production varied strongly according to the plasma volume added to the bioassay, as well as to plasma treatments. Diethylether treatment caused a 50% decrease in testosterone secretion for plasma B (but not for A) whereas a diminution of the steroidogenesis is observed after a PEG treatment of plasma A (but not for B), suggesting that different inhibitory factors are present in plasmas A and B. Therefore the LH bioactivity measured in the rat Leydig cell assay, in terms of testosterone output, seems to represent a balance between the LH molecule and the presence of inhibitory factors in the plasma.  (+info)

... ,One-step, microplate or cuvet, colorimetric, linear detection range 8 mg/dL to 300 mg/dL. Procedure: 5 min.,biological,biology supply,biology supplies,biology product
... ,One-step, microplate or cuvet, colorimetric, linear detection range 0.2 mg/dL to 20 mg/dL. Procedure: 20 min.,biological,biology supply,biology supplies,biology product
BioAssay Systems Phospolipid Assay Kit (EPLP-100) measures choline-containing phospholipids in biological samples. The absorbance at 570nm or fluorescence intensity at 530/585 nm is proportional to the phospholipid concentration. Detection range: 3 - 200 µM (colorimetric), 0.6 - 20 µM (fluorimetric).
BioAssay Systems fluorometric CellQuanti-Blue Cell Viability Assay Kit (CQBL-05K) is an assay for cell viability, proliferation, and cytotoxcity. This HTS-capable assay involves adding a reagent to the cell culture and measuring the fluorescence after incubation. As low as 100 cells can be quantified.
Cover by D.Meissner WHO/GRA These Guidelines were adopted by the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization at its 59th meeting which took place in Geneva…
Journal Article 2016; 37(Suppl 1): 17-24 PubMed PMID: 28263526 Citation Keywords: Animals, Biological Assay:methods, Environmental Monitoring, Fishes, Toxicity Tests:methods, Waste Water:toxicity, Water Pollutants, Chemical:toxicity,. : Wastewater, especially containing hospital effluents, exhibits high chemical complexity and specificity since it includes various chemicals, biocides, pharmaceuticals, surfactants, radionuclides, disinfectants and pathogens. Biological tests provide true evidence of the wastewater quality and unlike chemical analytical tests show comprehensive pollution effects on the environment and human health. Normalized conventional bioassays are not sensitive enough for ecotoxicological evaluation of wastewater and there is a great need for the development of suitable sensitive bioassays in order to characterize properly the residual toxicity of treated effluents. Provisions of binding EU legislation regarding protection of animals used for scientific purposes and ...
Plasma samples obtained from patients receiving a 24-h continuous infusion of human recombinant (hr)TNF or a combination of two overlapping, 24-h continuous infusions of hrIFN-gamma and hrTNF were analyzed for IL-6 in a sensitive bioassay. A transient appearance of circulating IL-6 was observed with peak levels between 3 and 6 h after the start of the hrTNF infusion. These peak levels correlated quite well with the dose of hrTNF administered (r = 0.86; p less than 0.001). The maximal value observed was 27.5 ng/ml IL-6 in a sample of a patient receiving 545 micrograms/m2 hrTNF. The combination of hrIFN-gamma (200 micrograms/m2) and hrTNF in the infusions resulted in higher IL-6 levels than a comparable dose of hrTNF alone. A maximal value of 23.5 ng/ml IL-6 was observed in a patient receiving 205 micrograms/m2 hrTNF. No IL-6 was found in the plasma of patients during the 12-h infusion with hrIFN-gamma alone, except for two borderline samples. ...
Preclinical CRO for pharmacology, dermatology and cosmetics, in vitro models and bioassays alternative methods to animal testing.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Soluble CD141-152 confers responsiveness to both lipoarabinomannan and lipopolysaccharide in a novel HL-60 cell bioassay. AU - Yu, Weiming. AU - Soprana, Elisa. AU - Cosentino, Giovanna. AU - Volta, Manuela. AU - Lichenstein, Henri S.. AU - Viale, Giovanna. AU - Vercelli, Donata. PY - 1998/10/15. Y1 - 1998/10/15. N2 - CD14 is a pattern recognition receptor involved in the interaction with multiple ligands, including LPS from Gram-negative bacteria and lipoarabinomannan (LAM) from mycobacteria. While the interactions between LPS and soluble CD14 (sCD14) have been analyzed in detail, LAM/CD14 interactions remain uncharacterized due to the lack of suitable functional assays. We describe herein a novel bioassay for the analysis of CD14/ligand interactions. CD14-negative myeloid HL-60 cells up-regulate endogenous CD14 gene expression when stimulated with LPS in the presence of recombinant soluble CD141-348. Using the HL-60 bioassay, we showed that sCD141- 348 confers responsiveness ...
BBI SolutionsBBI solutions為一家領先的開發商以及原料/成品測試製造商,目前已於五個不同的國家設立據點,生產的產品包括:生物原料:抗原、酶、monoclonal / 重組的Fab antibody血清和血漿產品:正常人血清及患者樣本,疾病狀態離子另外還有金奈米粒子及Horseraddish過氧化物及葡萄糖氧化物的生產。BioAssay SystemsBioAssay Systems 公司從事研發和銷售創新高通量的檢測試劑組,以滿足不斷增加需求的生命科學產業。提供的生物測定系統檢測試劑盒,使用簡單方便且性能優越。BioAssay Systems 著重於安全、無放射性、吸收熒光和發光檢測技術,目前的產品包括以下幾個方面:*檢測試劑盒及試劑»血液和尿液化學»代謝/酶活性»陰離子和陽離子»氧化激活»信號轉導»HTS試劑*設備及配件»手持式讀寫器»酶標儀»微孔板*服務»分析服務»含量定制/設計與開發Bioassay Technology LaboratoryBT
C55 High throughput screening technologies have revolutionized the manner in which potential therapeutics are identified. One casualty of the move to high throughput screening technologies has been the widespread disappearance of natural product extracts from pharmaceutical screening programs. Though they are the source of lead compounds for ~65% of anticancer and antimicrobial drugs approved by the FDA between 1981-2002, natural products have often been excluded from modern screening programs. This is due, at least in part, to the inherent difficulties in testing complex extract mixtures, which often contain nuisance compounds, in modern bioassay systems. Here we present a novel electrochemiluminescent assay system that is suitable for testing natural product extracts in high throughput screening systems. To demonstrate its utility, we have developed a screen for inhibition of E3 (ubiquitin ligase) activity utilizing the cancer-relevant molecular target MDM2. Additional screens for inhibition ...
Hi For the last 8 months Ive been working on an in vitro bioassay for FSH. However, I have been struggling with a lack of sensativity when dealing with serum samples which are typically around the 2 ng/ml region. The assay involves incubating sertoli cells from the testes of 7-10 day old rats in the presence of FSH. The presence of FSH then causes a dose-dependent increase in aromatase activity when adrostendione is converted to estradiol which can be measured to determine the concentration of FSH. If anyone out there is familiar with this assay and can help me to increase the sensativity (by decreasing the variability) then please e-mail me Wayne Young Youngwa at agresearch.cri.nz AgResearch New Zealand ...
CHI s Bioassays for Immuno-Oncology Symposium, October 23, 2017, Washington, DC, brings together experts in bioassays for immuno-oncology therapies will discuss selection, development, and standards for bioassays and immunoassays. Special attention will be given to understanding the mechanism-of-action for immunotherapies, whether they be antibody- or cell-based. Overall, this one-day immersive symposium will outline a product life cycle approach for developing and implementing biological assays from preclinical studies to clinical development. This symposium is part of the Immunogenicity & Bioassay Summit.
A method for performing time resolved homogeneous assays using a long-lifetime luminescent dye as a donor. A reaction well containing a sample portion, donor reagent, and acceptor reagent and a matrix well containing a sample portion and donor reagent are excited and the resulting emission from each is measured at a single wavelength associated with the acceptor. The measurement obtained from the matrix well is used to provide a correction for the measurement obtained from the reaction well. The sample may be a biological fluid such as an oral fluid.
In general, all constituents of a multi-component compound are not equally important for the process in hand. If we restrict ourselves to some sort of biological assay or property measure such as logD or pKa, then these are easily understood as reflecting the presence of a parent molecule. Data such as aD reflect the presence of isomeric parent molecule. Note that neither of these parent molecules have an independent existence as a physical entity, in the Daylight sense they are identifiers or names, about which, data exist. Data such as melting point are clearly about a particular sample, as are the experimental results of both physicochemical and biological assays. A version molecule structure may also have been assigned to this sample perhaps a salt or solvate or even a impure isomer.. Calculated data such as cLogP are about the parent molecule, whereas a rubicon structure is a datum about the isomeric parent. An x-ray structure on the other hand is a datum about the sample, and is related to ...
Secondly we were interested in the amount and distribution of PrPSc at 24 mpi, since the extent of this accumulation varied at earlier time points with peaks at 8 and in particular 12 mpi and lows at 16 mpi respectively [10]. However, these earlier studies did also suggest a higher amount in animals at 24 mpi suggesting an undulant pattern of about 12 months. This finding is now supported by the bioassay results, as three out of the four cattle from the 24 mpi group showed levels and distribution of infectivity comparable to the peaks seen at 12 mpi. However it has to be bear in mind that only four animals per time point were investigated here and in earlier studies and that the variations between individuals are very high [10,14]. This is reflected in the present study by variable detection rates in different animals of the 24 mpi group and might explain the differences seen in infectivity levels reported for ileal samples by several authors before [6,9-11,15]. In summary, data presented here ...
Secondly we were interested in the amount and distribution of PrPSc at 24 mpi, since the extent of this accumulation varied at earlier time points with peaks at 8 and in particular 12 mpi and lows at 16 mpi respectively [10]. However, these earlier studies did also suggest a higher amount in animals at 24 mpi suggesting an undulant pattern of about 12 months. This finding is now supported by the bioassay results, as three out of the four cattle from the 24 mpi group showed levels and distribution of infectivity comparable to the peaks seen at 12 mpi. However it has to be bear in mind that only four animals per time point were investigated here and in earlier studies and that the variations between individuals are very high [10,14]. This is reflected in the present study by variable detection rates in different animals of the 24 mpi group and might explain the differences seen in infectivity levels reported for ileal samples by several authors before [6,9-11,15]. In summary, data presented here ...
Enzymes are crucial for a variety of cellular functions (e.g. metabolism, signal transduction). Enzymatic activity assays measure enzyme kinetics and inhibition, by different detection methods (e.g. absorbance, fluorescence, or chemiluminescence).
Clonogenic assays measure the ability of single cells to proliferate and form a colonyThis process approximates closely the regrowth and recurrence of tumors after treatment with radiation or chemotherapyproviding an assay to screen for drugs that block this processYetclonogenic assays are labor intensive and too cumbersome for high throughout screeningHTSof compound librariesHere we propose to de .... ...
PIPETMAX® is an automated pipetting solution for the efficient processing of high-throughput biological assays. It will help you to improve on the accuracy, reproducibility, and consistency among all samples processed. Unlike traditional automation platforms, PIPETMAX comes in a benchtop size that ...
ZenBio offers a variety of assays to using our ArrayScan XTI. Customers can choose from any of the following assays or we can design a custom program tailored to each clients specific research needs.
Annex 1: Release procedure of International Chemical Reference Substances; Annex 2: WHO good practices for pharmaceutical microbiology laboratories; Annex 3: WHO good manufacturing practices: main principles for pharmaceutical Products; Annex 4: WHO good manufacturing practices for blood establishments (jointly with the Expert Committee on Biological Standardization); Annex 5: WHO guidelines on good manufacturing practices for heating, ventilation and air-conditioning systems for non-sterile pharmaceutical dosage forms; Annex 6: WHO good manufacturing practices for sterile pharmaceutical products; Annex 7: WHO guidelines on transfer of technology in pharmaceutical manufacturing; Annex 8: Good pharmacy practice: standards for quality of pharmacy services (joint FIP/WHO); Annex 9: Model guidance for the storage and transport of time- and temperature-sensitive pharmaceutical products (jointly with the Expert Committee on Biological Standardization); Annex 10: Procedure for prequalification of ...
Looking for online definition of biologic assay in the Medical Dictionary? biologic assay explanation free. What is biologic assay? Meaning of biologic assay medical term. What does biologic assay mean?
Video articles in JoVE about bioassay include Isolating and Using Sections of Bovine Mesenteric Artery and Vein as a Bioassay to Test for Vasoactivity in the Small Intestine, A Simple Bioassay for the Evaluation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors, A Fish-feeding Laboratory Bioassay to Assess the Antipredatory Activity of Secondary Metabolites from the Tissues of Marine Organisms, Electroantennographic Bioassay as a Screening Tool for Host Plant Volatiles, A Rapid In Vivo Bioassay for Developmentally Active Enhancers, A Small Volume Bioassay to Assess Bacterial/Phytoplankton Co-culture Using WATER-Pulse-Amplitude-Modulated (WATER-PAM) Fluorometry, Human In-Vivo Bioassay for the Tissue-Specific Measurement of Nociceptive and Inflammatory Mediators, Bone Conditioned Medium: Preparation and Bioassay, Isolation and Quantification of Botulinum Neurotoxin From Complex Matrices Using the BoTest Matrix Assays, Screening for Endocrine Activity in Water Using Commercially-available In Vitro
The effects of many chemicals on cellular processes are governed by their ability to enter the cell, which is in turn a function of the composition of the cells external environment. To examine this relationship, the effect of serum in cell culture medium on the bioavailability of cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A)-inducing compounds was determined in PLHC-1 (Poeciliopsis lucida hepatocellular carcinoma) cells. The presence of 10% calf serum in the medium increased the EC50 (effective concentration to achieve 50% maximal response) for induction of ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) 20-fold as compared to treatment in serum-free medium. Measurement of [3H]TCDD uptake and Ah receptor binding indicated that the apparent difference in potencies was a result of decreased bioavailability in the presence of serum, effectively reducing the concentration of TCDD within the cells. Induction of EROD and CYP1A protein in response to treatment with each of ...
Host Cell Protein Assay Development. After polyclonal antibody generation, Rockland performs assay development for clients who choose to add that service. Assay development is customized to each individual client. Client can decide to stop the project at the end of multiple project phases. Below is an example of an assay development project for a capture sandwich ELISA that was performed recently by Rockland Immunochemicals.
Several of the pressing scientific challenges in the filed of environmental toxicology are to understand the basic mechanisms of chemically-induced toxic substances and of the design, interpretation, and extrapolation of data from non-human bioassay systems to the human situation. The objective is to offer a new paradigm, namely the idea that cytotoxic and epigenetic effects of chemicals can contribute to many toxic endpoints in human beings. We will speculate that the disruption of calcium homeostasis by a wide variety of chemicals and the conditions of their use might provide an unification of mechanisms leading to either cytotoxicity or epigenetic changes. Depending on the conditions, the effects of this disruption, a pleiotropy of diseases might result, namely, embryotoxicity, teratogenesis, tumor promotion, immune modulation, neurotoxicity, and preproductive dysfunction. In summary, there are at least three biological endpoints at the cell level which chemicals can influence - mutations, cell death
Profiling Animal Toxicants by Automatically Mining Public Bioassay Data: A Big Data Approach for Computational Toxicology Jun Zhang 1,2, Jui-Hua Hsieh 3, Hao Zhu 1,2 * 1 Department of Chemistry, Rutgers
Khan, S. M. M. K., Yoshimura, C., Arikawa, M., Omura, G., Nishiyama, S., Suetomo, Y., Kakuta, S., Suzaki, T. 2006 Axopodial degradation in the heliozoon Raphidiophrys contractilis: a novel bioassay system for detecting heavy metal toxicity in an aquatic environment. Environ. Sci., 13, 193-200 ...
Overall, the company believes there is alignment with the FDA on its panel of analytical methods and the proposed assay qualification/validation plans. Analytical methods are used to assess how reliably and consistently the key product characteristics can be determined in order to ensure patients receive safe and effective product.. In the meeting minutes, the FDA made a request that the company complete implementation of its potency assay qualification plan, presented in the meeting, prior to initiation of upcoming clinical studies. This assay utilizes the Delta 7 mouse model, which has been used historically to assess AVXS-101 potency but now incorporates additional elements to make it acceptable to global regulatory authorities. Specifically, the agency stated, "We believe that your potency assay development and qualification plans have the potential to result in an acceptable potency assay, and we are encouraged that the assay includes reference controls that allow for calculation of ...
Pharmaceutical Information » Question Category » Education & Reference » Pharmacology » Test microorganism used in the microbiological assay of Streptomycin ...
Filtering by: Keyword nucleic acid hybridization Remove constraint Keyword: nucleic acid hybridization Keyword analysis Remove constraint Keyword: analysis Keyword biological assay Remove constraint Keyword: biological assay Rights http://rightsstatements.org/vocab/InC/1.0/ Remove constraint Rights: http://rightsstatements.org/vocab/InC/1.0/ ...
A main presentation track at SLAS 2018 focuses on Assay Development and Screening with emphasis on methods such as high throughput screening, phenotypic screening, and 3rd and 4th dimension screens of cell-based assays.
Course organised by LCBU and gives a practical basis for assay development in high throughput screening and is given as a practical complement to the course
Two industry leading experts have partnered together to take Assay Development to the next level. Lampire Biological Labs and Saladax Biomedical have partnered together to bring you Assay Development, from Concept to Completion. All projects are completed in GMP facilities certified to ISO 13485. We are the only stop you need for your Assay Development. From Pre-Clinical, and Companion Diagnostics, to characterized antibodies and ELISAs, this partnership fills every need you have for your next custom assay. With our expert technical staffs collaborating with you, your next project has to be a success. Dont piece together an assay, get it all at one stop, with our Concept to Completion Assay Development. We look forward to your success!. ...
Hiyoshi began a joint study with XDS in 1998 and came to a licensing agreement in 2000. Since then, Hiyoshi has been working to promote the CALUX Assay in Japan and in Asia. Meanwhile, we have participated in many joint studies with governmental institutes, universities and private companies to prove the superiority of the CALUX Assay ...
Three pressor amines, namely, epinephrine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenethyl-methylamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenethyldimethylamine were tested for relative potencies by an increasing dose method, and the data were studied to determine when linear relationships might be assumed. The following conclusions may be drawn:. 1. The Weber-Fechner law may be said to hold for restricted ranges of our data but not for the data as a whole.. 2. The application of a progressively increasing dose method to the biological assay of epinephrine may be an improvement upon the U.S.P.XI procedure.. 3. Expressing relative pressor potencies on the basis of doses required to elicit a specific response may not convey a true picture when the characteristic slopes of the logarithmic dose-response curves of two compounds are not identical.. 4. When the logarithmic curves of compounds being compared with epinephrine are dissimilar, it may indicate the presence of qualitative differences in action.. ...
The decimal form should be used when a fraction is given with an abbreviated unit of measure (eg, 0.5 g, 2.7 mm) to reflect the precision of the measurement (eg, 38.0 kg should not be rounded to 38 kg if the scale was accurate to tenths of a kilogram). (See also , Units of Measure, Use of Numerals With Units, Decimal Format.)The patient was receiving gentamicin sulfate, 3.5 mg/kg, every 8 hours. Her serum gentamicin level reached a peak of 5.8 μg/mL and a trough of 0.7 μg/mL after the third dose. Place a zero before the decimal point in numbers less than Less ...
NCDO <- J.O. Mundt, MUTK 6. Plant; USA, Knoxville. Taxonomy/description (3578). Murein: A11.31 (3578). Classification according to the recommendations of the Central Committee on Biological Safety (ZKBS, Germany): Risk group 2. (Medium 92, 37°C ...
animal bioassays could create a lot of controversy with associations such as PETA. a similar association came to my university once and tried to steal cows that were used for digestive processes experiments. even though it might not seem to relevant, i think it is something important to consider when designing an experiment with animals, you never know what these radical associations can make, and ruin years of experiments ...
This course is designed for all individuals who develop, validate, perform or monitor bioassays or immunoassays. Individuals who develop assay methodologies, assign computational and analysis criteria, measure and validate performance characteristics, perform, evaluate and troubleshoot problem assays, or are responsible for the quality of the data will benefit from the lessons and examples presented. Attendees should have a basic understanding of bioassays or immunoassays.
Whether custom conjugation of a ligand to one of our nanoparticles, sample analysis, or full-scale assay development Cytodiagnostics is here to help.Our highly trained technical staff has many years of experience with nanoparticle synthesis, surface modification, analysis, and assay development. This allows us not only
9781574444537 Our cheapest price for Cell-based Bioassays in Drug Discovery And Development is $59.48. Free shipping on all orders over $35.00.
Equipment for collection and concentration of samples from air, surfaces, and liquids for use with rapid microbiological methods ...
Biotherapeutic products (biotherapeutics) have a successful record in treating many life-threatening and chronic diseases. However, their cost has often been high, thereby limiting their access to patients, particularly in developing countries. Recently, the expiration of patents and/or data protection for the first major group of originators biotherapeutics has ushered in an era of products that are designed to be "similar" to a licensed originator product. These products rely, in part, for their licensing on prior information regarding safety and efficacy obtained with the originator products. The clinical experience and established safety profile of the originator products should contribute to the development of similar biotherapeutic products (SBPs). A variety of terms, such as "biosimilar products", "follow-on protein products" and "subsequent-entry biologics" have been coined by different jurisdictions to describe these products.. The term "generic" medicine is used to describe chemical, ...
Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives is on Rediff pages, ,Follow Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives to get latest updates from Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives
CURRENT LUMINESCENCE BIOASSAYS RELY SOLELY UPON MESUREMENT OF LUMINESCENCE INTENSITY TO GENERATE INFORMATION. MULTIPLE COLORS FROM BEETLE LUCIFERASE HAS CREATED THE OPPORTUNITY TO INCREASE ASSAY INFORMATION CONTENT BY USING MULTIPLEXING TECHNIQUES TO MEASURE LIGHT INTENSITIES AT DIFFERENT WAVELENGTHS. THIS PROVIDES GREATER ASSAY RELIABILITY, PRECISION, AND ABILITY TO MEASURE CONCURRENT MOLECULAR EVENTS. THE EXCELLENT PERFORMANCE OF BEETLE LUCIFERASE ENZYMES IN BIOASSAY METHODS YIELDS THE HIGHEST QUANUM EFFICIENCY OF ANY LUMINESCENCE METHODOLOGY, AND DEMONSTRATES SUPERIOR PRECISION, LINEARITY, AND RAPIDITY. TO FURTHER ASSESS THE FEASIBILITY OF USING MULTIPLEXING TO INCRASE THE COMMERCIAL POTENTIAL OF BIOLUMINESCENCE ASSAYS, RESEARCHERS ARE IDENTIFYING NOVEL SUBSTITUTIONS THAT REGULATE COLOR BY EXAMINING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AMINO ACID SUBSTITUTIONS IN THE PRIMARY STRUCTURES OF BETLE LUCIFERASES TO THE ENZYMES SPECTRAL PROPERTISE ...
en] Among the different analytical tools proposed as an alternative to the very expensive gas chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) analyses of polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorodibenzofurans, Chemically Activated LUciferase gene eXpression (CALUX) in vitro cell bioassay is very promising. It allows the analyses of a high number of samples since it is relatively fast, inexpensive, and sensitive. However, this technique is not yet widely applied for screening or environmental monitoring. The main reasons are probably the lack of validation and the difficulty in interpreting the global biological response of the bioassay. In this paper, the strict quality control criteria set up for the validation of CALUX are described. The validation has shown good repeatability (relative standard deviation (RSD) = 9%) and good within-lab reproducibility (RSD = 15%) of the results. The quantification limit, in the conditions applied in this paper, is 1.25 pg CALUX-TEQ/g fat. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Bleomycin serum pharmacokinetics as determined by a radioimmunoassay and a microbiologic assay in a patient with compromised renal function. AU - Crooke, Stanley T.. AU - Luft, Friedrich. AU - Broughton, Alan. AU - Strong, James. AU - Casson, Kay. AU - Einhorn, Lawrence. PY - 1977/4. Y1 - 1977/4. N2 - Serum and plasma bleomycin concentrations were determined in a patient with renal dysfunction at two creatinine clearances. The results obtained with a new radioimmunoassay and the microbiologic assay were compared. It was shown: 1) that the clearance of bleomycin from the blood is markedly retarded in severe renal dysfunction, 2) that clearance of bleomycin varies with creatinine clearance, 3) that bleomycin is probably not dialyzable, 4) that determinations on serum and plasma were equivalent, and 5) that the radioimmunoassay and microbiologic assays gave equivalent results (P , 0.001).. AB - Serum and plasma bleomycin concentrations were determined in a patient with renal ...
Background: Today, cells are commonly analyzed in ensembles, i.e. thousands of cells per sample, yielding results on the average response of the cells. However, cellular heterogeneity implies the importance of studying how individual cells respond, one by one, in order to learn more about drug targeting and cellular behavior. Scope of review: This review discusses general aspects on miniaturization of biological assays and in particular summarizes single-cell assays in microwell formats. A range of microwell-based chips are discussed with regard to their well characteristics, cell handling, choice of material etc. along with available detection systems for single-cell studies. History and trends in microsystem technology, various commonly used materials for device fabrication, and conventional methods for single-cell analysis are also discussed, before a closing section with a detailed example from our research in the field. Major conclusions:A range of miniaturized and microwell devices have ...
Topoisomerase II In Vivo Link Kit - quantify the activity of topoisomerase in vivo and determine how a given drug affects its predicted target using the ICE Bioassay technique. Available from TopoGEN.
Để khích lệ tinh thần của những thành viên tâm huyết và những người có bài viết hay, hoặc những bài viết sưu tầm chất lượng, BQT quyết định : -- Những bài viết đó sẽ đc trang trọng đưa lên phần đầu diễn đàn, và đc dán lên cao tại Box có bài viết đó. -- Chủ nhân của những bài viết đó sẽ đc cộng điểm thưởng từ 1-|5 (tùy theo chất lượng bài viết). -- Người tìm và giới thiệu bài viết đó (nếu bài viết đó đc công nhận) sẽ đc cộng 2 điểm. -- Cuối tháng sẽ có đợt tổng kết và người có nhiều bài
The Department never provided the auditors with any information about the Department s current method to assist members or veterans in obtaining information on all available federal treatment services, including, as specifically required by law, a best practice health screening test for exposure to depleted uranium using a bioassay procedure involving sensitive methods capable of detecting depleted uranium at low levels and the use of the equipment with the capacity to discriminate between different radioisotopes in naturally occurring levels of uranium and the characteristic ratio and marker for depleted uranium. When asked about compliance with the Act, the Department merely gave the auditors a memo stating that the task force terminated on January 31, 2008 and the legislation expired before any of the named entities made the appropriate appointments. Further, the Department provided no documentation or communication showing that it attempted to have the appointments to the task force made by ...
ScrubChem: Cleaning of PubChem Bioassay Data. ScrubChem.org is a digital curation of PubChem Bioassay, designed to build datasets and enhance data-driven research. ScrubChem contains approximately 694 million bioactivity values and maps this data to 9 thousand biomolecular targets and 2.3 million chemical structures. ...
Described here are procedures and kits for the selective detection of toxicants in environmental samples. Specifically exemplified are procedures and kits which are used to detect heavy metals. The presence of heavy metals is detected by observing the inhibition by the toxicant of a microbially produced enzyme.
Looking for Bioassays? Find out information about Bioassays. A method for the quantitation of the effects on a biological system by its exposure to a substance, as well as the quantitation of the concentration of a... Explanation of Bioassays
Potency is a critical quality attribute to support development and release of biopharmaceutical products. Researchers assess most protein-drug potencies using biological assays (such as cell-based assays), which mimic a products known mechanism of action or binding assays (if the only known mechanism of action is a drug binding to its target or if a drug is in early phases development). Potency denotes an important feature of complex biologics: their biological activity produced as a direct result of the molecules tertiary/quaternary…. ...
The decimal form should be used when a fraction is given with an abbreviated unit of measure (eg, 0.5 g, 2.7 mm) to reflect the precision of the measurement (eg, 38.0 kg should not be rounded to 38 kg if the scale was accurate to tenths of a kilogram). (See also , Units of Measure, Use of Numerals With Units, Decimal Format.)The patient was receiving gentamicin sulfate, 3.5 mg/kg, every 8 hours. Her serum gentamicin level reached a peak of 5.8 μg/mL and a trough of 0.7 μg/mL after the third dose. Place a zero before the decimal point in numbers less than
A novel and patented platform technology is being developed to create a new method ultimately capable of sequencing over four billion bases a day. The new method will be faster, more accurate and will inaugurate a paradigm shift in the analysis of genomic information. The method is based on the development of digital multibit encoding techniques that utilise advanced magnetic technology. The project has far reaching implications related to the development of advanced systems for ultra high throughput biological assays that can be used in clinical diagnostics, drug discovery and genome sequencing. The generic technology will be capable of tagging billions of compounds synthesised by combinatorial chemistry techniques and decode them in a single experiment. The main advantages of the proposed technology are, the ability to provide remote encoding during the synthesis of chemical or biological moieties, the ability to provide an extremely large number of discrete codes and the ability to rapidly ...
Search Document Centers online database of US and international standards, place orders for documents, learn about the standards industry.
Search Document Centers online database of US and international standards, place orders for documents, learn about the standards industry.
The c-met ELISA includes two highly specific HGFR antibodies. The c-Met HGFR Assay measures human c-Met HGFR in serum, plasma and cell culture
With the drug industrys expanding emphasis on biologics, the need for robust cell-based assays has grown at all stages of development. Requirements for efficacy, quality, and potency testing often demand a complex set of bioassays and/or cell-based assays for new therapeutics or biosimilars. Developers of the latter have found this need for cell-based assays to be particularly challenging. Commercially available, ready-to-use cell-based assays provide a robust functional response from specific therapeutic targets. They can significantly shorten assay development time while…. ...
GxP compliance tools makes the Octet system an ideal analytical instrument in developing validated assay methods for from antibody quantitation, ligand binding to potency assays.
Do you work in product manufacturing for pharmaceuticals, food, or dietary supplements? Are you looking to apply advanced microbiological identification techniques to your industrys manufacturing processes as regulated by the FDA, USDA, and other agencies? Consider this course.
Do you work in product manufacturing for pharmaceuticals, food, or dietary supplements? Are you looking to apply advanced microbiological identification techniques to your industrys manufacturing processes as regulated by the FDA, USDA, and other agencies? Consider this course.
In the four years since the 1978 Symposium on the Application of Short-Term Bioassays in the Fractionation and Analysis of Complex Environmental Mixtures the use of short-term bioassays to evaluate potential health hazards of complex environmental mixtures has substantially increased. Increased
E2122 - 02(2013) Standard Guide for Conducting In-situ Field Bioassays With Caged Bivalves , bioaccumulation, bivalve, exposure effects, field bioassay, growth, in-situ,
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NordVal is an independent, 3rd party that evaluates the quality characteristics and applications of alternative microbiological methods in the analysis of food, water, feedd and environmental samples. Go to NordVal ...
NordVal is an independent, 3rd party that evaluates the quality characteristics and applications of alternative microbiological methods in the analysis of food, water, feedd and environmental samples. Go to NordVal ...
Testicular function declines with normal aging, while serum immunoreactive LH and FSH levels increase. Since there are reports of an age-related decrease in the ratio of bioactivity to immunoreactivity (B/I ratio) for LH, we used a newly available bioassay for FSH to assess age-associated changes in the bioactivity and B/I ratio of FSH in man. Thirty-nine healthy men (23 young and 16 elderly) had single blood samples drawn. In addition, a subset of these men (12 young and 13 elderly) underwent frequent blood sampling for 24 h, both before and after 7 days of clomiphene citrate (CC) administration. Hourly blood samples from the 24-h sampling were pooled, and these, along with the single samples, were assayed for FSH by an in vitro bioassay system, using estrogen production by immature rat granulosa cells as the end point, and by RIA. Baseline single sample mean FSH, as measured by bioassay, was similar in young and elderly men [386 +/- 98 (+/- SEM) and 342 +/- 77 ng/mL, respectively]. Baseline ...
Citation: Liu, D., Lawrence, M.L., Ainsworth, A.J., Austin, F.W. 2007. Toward an Improved Laboratory Definition of Listeria monocytogenes Virulence. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 118(2):101-15. Interpretive Summary: Listeria monocytogenes is an opportunistic foodborne pathogen that encompasses a diversity of strains with varied virulence. The ability to rapidly determine the pathogenic potential of L. monocytogenes strains is integral to the control and prevention campaign against listeriosis. Early methods for assessing L. monocytogenes virulence include in vivo bioassays and in vitro cell assays. While in vivo bioassays provide a measurement of all virulence determinants of L. monocytogenes, they are not applied routinely due to the requirement for and cost of experimental animals. In vitro cell assays are useful for estimating the virulence of L. monocytogenes strains, but are often slow and sometimes give inconsistent results. Recent identification of novel virulence-specific ...
The synthesis and biological evaluation on thermoregulation of 39 peptides related to bombesin (structural analogues or other naturally occurring peptides) are described. The bioassay system reported measures the ability of peptides injected intracisternally to lower body temperature of cold (4 degrees C) exposed rats. The most potent analogues of bombesin were those in which positions one to five (not included) were altered, indicating that the decapeptide C terminal was sufficient for full potency. Gln at the seventh position and Gly at the 11th position could be replaced by D-Gln and D-Ala (but not D-Pro or D-Phe), respectively, without any change in potency. Methionine at the 14 position could be replaced with its D isomer with retention of 10% biological activity. Any other alteration of the C terminus (deletions or free acid with the exception of the N-methylamide) drastically reduced the biological potency of those peptides. Among other naturally occurring peptides, alytesin was found to ...
Methionine is an essential amino acid for animals and is typically considered one of the first limiting amino acids in animal feed formulations. Methionine deficiency or excess in animal diets can lead to sub-optimal animal performance and increased environmental pollution, which necessitates its accurate quantification and proper dosage in animal rations. Animal bioassays are the current industry standard to quantify methionine bioavailability. However, animal-based assays are not only time consuming, but expensive and are becoming more scrutinized by governmental regulations. In addition, a variety of artifacts can hinder the variability and time efficacy of these assays. Microbiological assays, which are based on a microbial response to external supplementation of a particular nutrient such as methionine, appear to be attractive potential alternatives to the already established standards. They are rapid and inexpensive in vitro assays which are characterized with relatively accurate and consistent
Earthworms have great potential for use as bioassay/biomonitor organisms in studies of contaminant uptake and possess many characteristics that make them ideally suited for this purpose (Ma 1982). Studies have demonstrated that native species of earthworms, collected at contaminated sites, can be used to Indicate biologically available levels of these contaminants (Helmke et al. 1979, Ireland 1983, Pietz et al. 1984). However, it Is the species Eisenia foetida (which does not naturally colonize these sites) which has been recommended for use In the laboratory for the ecotoxicological testing of agricultural and industrial chemicals (European Economic Community (EEC) 1984), proposed as a bioassay species for assessing contaminant availability In waste materials, and used to determine the bioavallability of contaminants In dredged material (Marquenie and Simmers 1984). Correlations between total and OTPA-extractable metal concentrations in contaminated
The assessment of gene expression changes at key developmental periods of the life cycle, as well as at the ages most commonly used in pre-clinical drug safety testing, was the focus of this study. Fischer 344 rats are frequently used in the National Toxicology Program and one of the most commonly used inbred strains for preclinical pharmaceutical in-life testing [25, 33]. The two early time points, 2 and 5 weeks, span the time of weaning (3 weeks). The National Toxicology Program (NTP) 2-year bioassays are typically initiated in 6-8 week old rats [34], thus 6 and 8 week age groups were included to provide baseline for future NTP bioassays. The 15-week age group captures expression data after sexual and physical maturity [35]. Furthermore, a 13-week NTP sub-chronic study, initiated in 8 week old animals would be completed at 21 weeks. Reproductive senescence and aging phenotypes begin to be apparent during the second year [35], thus 52, 78, and 104 week age groups were assessed.. Data analysis ...
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During the last decade, the development of nuclear spin polarization enhanced (hyperpolarized) molecular probes has opened up new opportunities for studying the inner workings of living cells in real time. The hyperpolarized probes are produced ex situ, introduced into biological systems and detected with high sensitivity and contrast against background signals using high resolution NMR spectroscopy. A variety of natural, derivatized and designed hyperpolarized probes has emerged for diverse biological studies including assays of intracellular reaction progression, pathway kinetics, probe uptake and export, pH, redox state, reactive oxygen species, ion concentrations, drug efficacy or oncogenic signaling. These probes are readily used directly under natural conditions in biofluids and are often directly developed and optimized for cellular assays, thus leaving little doubt about their specificity and utility under biologically relevant conditions. Hyperpolarized molecular probes for biological NMR
In forming a view of the burden imposed by regulations, portfolios will be required specifically to assess the extent to which opportunities exist for the acceptance or adoption of trusted international standards and risk assessments, or greater alignment with them, as part of the Governments deregulation agenda. The Government has asked PM&C to track and report progress against this principle, including by publishing progress on repeal days and in annual deregulation reports.. Portfolios are expected to consider the immediate opportunities for applying international standards and risk assessments in the concrete reform priorities that they will develop by the end of 2014 as input into the deregulation forward work programme. Where scope for reform exists for the adoption of international standards and risk assessments, or greater alignment with them, these opportunities will need to be implemented in a manner that is consistent with portfolios delivering on their 2015 and 2016 red tape targets ...
This paper proposes a microbiological method in microtitre plates for the detection of residues of quinolones in milk. The method uses spores of Bacillus licheniformis in culture medium with a redox combination of indicators and gives a response time of 5.5 h. This method detects 92 μg L−1 of ciprofloxacin, 63 μg L−1 of danofloxacin, 109 μg L−1 of enrofloxacin, 101 μg L−1 of marbofloxacin and 109 μg L−1 of sarafloxacin in milk. Therefore, the assay is easy to develop and to use in laboratory, allowing analysis of large numbers of samples at low cost. Due to its good sensitivity to quinolones, this assay can be used as a complementary test of commercial microbiological methods and thereby improve food security ...
0054]A method of pooling as defined herein may be performed by (using) a pooling device. Such a device suitably comprises a sample collector arranged for collecting and delivering a defined amount of sample, for instance in the form of a defined (but variable) volume. A suitable sample collector is a pipettor such as generally applied in robotic sample delivery and processing systems used in laboratories. Such robotics systems are usually bench-top apparatuses, suitably comprising one or more of a microplate processor stages, reagent stations, filter plate aspirators, and robotic pipetting modules based on pneumatics and disposable pipette tips. These sample robot systems are very suitable for performing the method of the present invention as they are ultimately designed to combine different liquid volumes from different samples into one or more reaction tubes. Therefore, it is within the level of skill of the artisan to adapt such a pipetting robotic system to perform the task of combining ...
This article is from Experimental & Molecular Medicine, volume 44.AbstractAptamers are synthetic, relatively short (e.g., 20-80 bases) RNA or ssDNA...
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We recently reported that intraperitoneal administration of leptin-related synthetic peptide 116-130 [LEP-(116-130)] resulted in reduced food intake and significant weight loss in homozygous female C57BL/6J ob/ob mice. In this study, we used two in vitro bioassays to show that the interaction of LEP-(116-130) with the long form of the leptin receptor (OB-Rb), the receptor isoform that is predominantly expressed in the hypothalamus, is not required for the observed in vivo effects of the peptide on energy balance. LEP-(116-130) was unable to compete the binding of alkaline phosphatase-leptin fusion protein to OB-R. Moreover, LEP-(116-130) was unable to activate signal transduction by OB-Rb in vitro. In homozygous female C57BLKS/J-m db/db mice that do not express OB-Rb, intraperitoneal administration of LEP-(116-130) reduced body weight gain and blood glucose levels but not food intake, which further supports a mechanism of action that does not require peptide interaction with OB-Rb. ...
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Antibodies & reagents for reliable immunoassays, ELISA & ELISPOT assays. Quickly design a highly sensitive ELISA or immunoassay. Reagents for veterinary ELISAs.
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Article Dewatering of moist sediments and soils for application to RaPID Prep AND RaPID assays procedures. BACKGROUND INFORMATION: High moisture content (>30% by weight) can significantly lower concentrations of analytes detected in the RaPID Pre...
Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology - Vol. 80 - N° 6 - p. 1564-1584 - Developing an international standard for the classification of surface anatomic location for use in clinical practice and epidemiologic research - EM|consulte
An improved synthetic, polymer hydrogel permeation layer for use with an active electronic matrix device for biological assays. The permeation layer includes a dried coating of raffinose or a combination of raffinose and stachyose to protect the permeation layer from degradation during shipping and storage.
Photothermal response (PTR) is an established pump and probe technique for real-time sensing of biological assays. Continuous and selective PTR monitoring is difficult owing to the Brownian motion changing the relative position of the target with respect to the beams. Integration of laser trapping with PTR is proposed as a solution. The proposed method is verified on red polystyrene microparticles. PTR is continuously monitored for ...
We want to judiciously use antimicrobial and antimalarials only on the people that really need them. So I think a low cost diagnostic test that you could disseminate more widely would allow us to preserve our antimalarials only for the children who need them which would let them work longer ...
INTEGRA has published a video demonstrating how US-based biotech contract research specialists Likarda LLC are using VIAFLO ASSIST to cost effectively d...
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"Protein-binding assays in biological liquids using microscale thermophoresis". Nature Communications. 1 (7): 100. Bibcode: ... In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose ... Ligand efficacy refers to the ability of the ligand to produce a biological response upon binding to the target receptor and ... These privileged elements[29] can be used as a basis for designing new active biological compounds or compound libraries. ...
Determined by consideration of all biological assay methods (circa 1970):[17]. Androgen. Potency (%). ... Biological activity[edit]. Androgens bind to and activate androgen receptors (ARs) to mediate most of their biological effects. ... Biological function[edit]. Male prenatal development[edit]. Testes formation[edit]. During mammalian development, the gonads ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 280 (9): 7786-92. doi:10.1074/jbc.M413992200. PMID 15623502.. ...
The sensor is also available as tape.[14] Other methods have been developed to assay biological hydrogen production. [15] ...
"A sensitive microbiological assay procedure for determining magnesium in biological materials". The Analyst. 88 (1048): 534. ... "Society of Biological Chemists, India. 2017. Archived from the original on 24 February 2017. Retrieved 23 February 2017.. ... The Society of Biological Chemists (India) awarded him the Professor M. Srinivasayya Award in 1984[21] and the Indian National ...
Wienken CJ, Baaske P, Rothbauer U, Braun D, Duhr S (2010). "Protein-binding assays in biological liquids using microscale ... "Assay and Drug Development Technologies. 9 (4): 342-53. doi:10.1089/adt.2011.0380. PMC 3148787. PMID 21812660.. ...
Methods of Biological Assay, 1928; Recent Advances in Materia Medica, 1931; Biological Standardization, 1937; Background of ...
Fisher, R. A. (1949). "A Biological Assay of Tuberculins". Biometrics. 5 (4): 300-316. doi:10.2307/3001513. JSTOR 3001513. PMID ... "Statistical Appendix to a Paper by J. Davidson on Biological Studies of Aphis rumicis". Annals of Applied Biology. 9: 142-145. ... "The Case of Zero Survivors in Probit Assays". Annals of Applied Biology. 22: 164-165. 1935. doi:10.1111/j.1744-7348.1935. ... Fisher, R. A. (1931). "The Evolution of Dominance". Biological Reviews. 6 (4): 345-368. doi:10.1111/j.1469-185X.1931.tb01030.x ...
... allows Bradford assay to be used for fingerprint analysis. Bradford assay was successfully used to identify the biological sex ... and having little to no assay preparation, in comparison to the Ninhydrin chemical assay which requires assay preparation such ... The Bradford assay uses the spectral properties of Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 to estimate the amount of protein in a ... Compton, S. J.; Jones, C. G. (1985). "Mechanism of dye response and interference in the Bradford protein assay". Analytical ...
"Lipid G Protein-coupled Receptor Ligand Identification Using β-Arrestin Path Hunter™ Assay". Journal of Biological Chemistry ... "The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 265 (3): 1454-8. PMID 2104842.. *^ Belkner, J; Stender, H; Kühn, H (1998). "The rabbit 15- ... "Journal of Biological Chemistry. 285 (29): 22211-20. doi:10.1074/jbc.M110.119982. PMC 2903350. PMID 20460374.. ... "The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 273 (36): 23225-32. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.36.23225. PMID 9722553.. ...
... and often such models are faster and cheaper to perform than biological assays. Such up-to-date computational models include ... Molecular break light assay for DNA adenine methyltransferase activity - an assay that relies on the specificity of the ... Bhasin, et al.,[102] Bock, et al.,[103] and Zheng, et al.[104] [105] Together with biological assay, these methods greatly ... the assay is similar in concept to the HELP assay.. *Methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP), analogous to chromatin ...
Genotyping is the process of elucidating the genotype of an individual with a biological assay. Also known as a genotypic assay ...
Protein-binding assays in biological liquids using microscale thermophoresis. Nature Communications. 2010, 1 (7): 100. Bibcode: ...
Enhanced chemiluminescent assay for antioxidant capacity in biological fluids. Analynca Chumca Acta, 266, 265-277 Sawcer, K.E ... Eclox ECL is a broadband enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL) assay that can be used to qualitatively assess a water sample to ... Reliability of the Eclox Enhanced Chemiluminescence Assay for Rapid Field Testing of Drinking Water, Thesis, Texas A&M ...
... in biological assays refer to artifacts in data that are caused by the position of the wells on a screening plate ... ISBN 978-1-4443-3254-4. Reducing Edge Effects in biological assays. ... rather than a biological effect.[citation needed] The edge effect in scanning electron microscopy is the phenomenon in which ... in the environmental conditions that result from the proximity to a structurally dissimilar matrix Direct biological effects- ...
Biological Assays of Various Synthetic Compounds". Science. 88 (2271): 38-39. doi:10.1126/science.88.2271.38. PMID 17780891. ... Journal of Biological Chemistry. 113 (1): 319-332. Evans, H. M.; Emerson, O. H.; Emerson, G. A. (2009). "THE ISOLATION FROM ...
... in biological assays refer to artifacts in data that are caused by the position of the wells on a screening plate ... Indirect biological effects which involve changes in species interactions such as predation[4], brood parasitism, competition, ... Direct biological effects-Changes in species abundance and distribution caused directly by physical conditions near the edge ... rather than a biological effect.[citation needed]. The edge effect in scanning electron microscopy is the phenomenon in which ...
Multicolor optical coding for biological assays has been achieved by embedding different-sized quantum dots into polymeric ... Kinesin is a protein complex functioning as a molecular biological machine. It uses protein domain dynamics on nanoscales ... The size of nanomaterials is similar to that of most biological molecules and structures; therefore, nanomaterials can be ... Functionalities can be added to nanomaterials by interfacing them with biological molecules or structures. ...
The amount of hydrogen peroxide in biological systems can be assayed using a fluorometric assay.[51] ... The toxicity is due to oxidation of proteins, membrane lipids and DNA by the peroxide ions.[33] The class of biological enzymes ... Hydrogen peroxide has roles as a signalling molecule in the regulation of a wide variety of biological processes.[45] The ... Rapoport, R.; Hanukoglu, I.; Sklan, D. (May 1994). "A fluorometric assay for hydrogen peroxide, suitable for NAD(P)H-dependent ...
M. F. Manzoli-Palma; N. Gobbi; M. S. Palma (2003). "Insects as biological models to assay spider and scorpion venom toxicity". ... Barbaro KC, Ferreira ML, Cardoso DF, Eickstedt VR, Mota I (November 1996). "Identification and neutralization of biological ...
His doctorate thesis was a study of biological assays of cortical hormone and their application. His PhD supervisor was Dr ... Will his drugs legacy survive the new tendencies in the industry ? S.W., Bibile, (1952). "Biological assays of cortical hormone ...
PubChem database of NCBI is a public resource for molecules and their activities against biological assays. PubChem is ... BLAST is an algorithm used for calculating sequence similarity between biological sequences such as nucleotide sequences of DNA ... Protein provides the relevant data to the users such as genes, DNA/RNA sequences, biological pathways, expression and variation ...
Together with biological assay, these methods greatly facilitate the DNA methylation analysis. 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine 5- ... Molecular break light assay for DNA adenine methyltransferase activity - an assay that relies on the specificity of the ... and often such models are faster and cheaper to perform than biological assays. Such up-to-date computational models include ... the assay is similar in concept to the HELP assay. Methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP), analogous to chromatin ...
ATCC also serves to set standards for biological reagent and assay quality. These standards are used by the U.S. Food and Drug ... ATCC also provides biological repository management services to institutions, agencies and companies wishing to outsource the ... In addition to serving as a biorepository and distributor, ATCC provides specialized services as a biological resource center. ... This includes the 18,000 sq ft (1,700 m2) biological material repository which contains 200 freezers to store biomaterials, ...
Wienken CJ, Baaske P, Rothbauer U, Braun D, Duhr S (2010). "Protein-binding assays in biological liquids using microscale ... Introduction to Biological and Small Molecule Drug Research and Development: theory and case studies (Kindle ed.). New York: ... Small molecules may be used as research tools to probe biological function as well as leads in the development of new ... Small molecules can have a variety of biological functions or applications, serving as cell signaling molecules, drugs in ...
"Protein-binding assays in biological liquids using microscale thermophoresis". Nature Communications. 1 (7): 100. Bibcode: ... Ligand efficacy refers to the ability of the ligand to produce a biological response upon binding to the target receptor and ... In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose ... Nimczick M, Pemp D, Darras FH, Chen X, Heilmann J, Decker M (August 2014). "Synthesis and biological evaluation of bivalent ...
"The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 288 (7): 4878-90. doi:10.1074/jbc.M112.422410. PMC 3576092 . PMID 23275336.. ... When assayed in the human, the observed variability of the SP concentrations are large, and in some cases the assay methodology ... Unique among biological processes, SP release (and expression of its NK1 Receptor (through autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine- ... The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 279 (44): 45519-27. doi:10.1074/jbc.M408523200. PMID 15319441.. ...
Biological Assay. Br Med J 1949; 2 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.2.4629.688-b (Published 24 September 1949) Cite this as: Br ...
Biological Preparation to Assess Folate in Whole Blood and Serum Folate Microbiologic Assay Materials. ... Biological Preparation to Assess Folate in Whole Blood and Serum Folate Microbiologic Assay Materials ... CDC offers assay materials to laboratories measuring serum or whole blood folate by microbiologic assay. ... The WHO recommends the microbiologic assay for assessing folate status in population surveys (WHO, 2015) and this assay is ...
We also developed a spatio-temporal all-optical assay to simultaneously stimulate a sub-section of a neural network and record ... We also developed a spatio-temporal all-optical assay to simultaneously stimulate a sub-section of a neural network and record ... Finally, we demonstrate the sensitivity of this assay to the change of neural network connectivity. ... Finally, we demonstrate the sensitivity of this assay to the change of neural network connectivity. ...
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Finally, there was an update on data coordination, collaboration, and data harmonization to advance biological and therapeutics ... or similar reprogrammed cell assays. Participants represented the National Cooperative Reprogrammed Cell Research Groups ( ... along with current progress and need for improved cell assay technologies. ...
... design and use of hyperpolarized NMR probes in biological assays, and describe current limitations and developments. ... derivatized and designed hyperpolarized probes has emerged for diverse biological studies including assays of intracellular ... The hyperpolarized probes are produced ex situ, introduced into biological systems and detected with high sensitivity and ... Hyperpolarized molecular probes for biological NMR spectroscopy enable the unbiased detection of complex processes by virtue of ...
A cryogenic detector is used for detection in a biological assay. ... A biological assay of this invention typically involves ... DETECTION OF THE ENERGY OF PHOTONS FROM BIOLOGICAL ASSAYS. The present invention relates to the detection of the energy of ... According to the present invention, we employ a cryogenic detector in a biological assay. A cryogenic detector operates at a ... Such a detector can detect the energy of photons from biological assays, notably those giving rise to changes in fluorescence. ...
SGS is a world leader in conducting potency assays. Our consultants can advise you on the most suitable tests for your product ... Life Sciences Potency Assays and Biological Activity Assays. As a regulatory requirement for the release of biological products ... Our assays, conducted by experts in their field, measure the efficacy or effectiveness of biological drug candidates in an in ... biological potency assays are of vital importance in the product development and manufacturing processes. ...
BIOLOGICAL ASSAY OF THYROID ACTIVITY Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Journal of Pharmacology and ...
... and store assay endpoint data - ideal for assay development functions as well as LTS and HTS screening ... Arxspan Assay is a cloud-based software tool set that can define, collect, manage, ... Centrally house your biological assay data. Designed for use in studies which are centrally managed and where biological data ... Employ Arxspan Assay to provide study coordinators with an integrated view of study activity and assay data as reported by ...
A Highly Sensitive Chemiluminometric Assay for Real-Time Detection of Biological Hydrogen Peroxide Formation.. Zhu H1, Jia Z2, ... While a number of assays have been developed over the past decades for detecting and/or quantifying biological H2O2formation, ... The article discusses the usefulness and shortcomings of this chemiluminometric assay in detecting biological H2O2 formation ... A Highly Sensitive Chemiluminometric Assay for Real-Time Detection of Biological Hydrogen Peroxide Formation ...
... aims to present and discuss different tools available for the study of lipids and their main applications in biological assays. ... Lipids are heterogeneous biological molecules with many important roles. In human body, lipids can be energy substrates, ... most appropriate one for the analysis as to answer a scientific question about lipid composition and role within a biological ... Mass spectrometry: application in biological assays. In biological assays, lipidomics-MS analysis is highly applied to generate ...
Optimal detection of cholinesterase activity in biological samples: modifications to the standard Ellmans assay.. [Dominika ... Ellmans assay is the most commonly used method to measure cholinesterase activity. It is cheap, fast, and reliable, but it has ... To eliminate possible interference of DTNB with enzyme hydrolysis, we introduce a modification of the standard Ellmans assay. ... Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to enrich tissue homogenates for cholinesterase while depleting the sample of ...
The sample may be a biological fluid such as an oral fluid. ... A method for performing time resolved homogeneous assays using ... In particular, the invention relates to a corrected method for biological homogeneous assays.. 2. Description of Related Art. ... 1. A method for performing a homogeneous biological assay comprising: preparing at least one reaction volume and a matrix ... have the potential to impact assay results. With a heterogeneous assay, this is not usually a concern when the sample result is ...
Biological assays explanation free. What is Biological assays? Meaning of Biological assays medical term. What does Biological ... Looking for online definition of Biological assays in the Medical Dictionary? ... redirected from Biological assays). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia.. Related to Biological assays: bioassay ... The database currently tags 158,000 individuals working with Biological Assays.. Maven Semantic: Biological Assay Research ...
Assay, New Type Of Biological Food Anti - Oxygen And Antiseptic D-Sodium Erythorbate D-sodium erythorbate, It is a new type of ... C6h7nao6 Biological Antimicrobial Food Preservatives 98 0 100 5% Assay - China. price: check with company for price. C6h7nao6 ... New Type Of Biological Food Anti - Oxygen And Antiseptic D-Sodium Erythorbate D-sodium erythorbate, It is a new type of ... High Assay Antimicrobial Food Additives Sorbic Acid With 132 135 Melting Range Cereal and pulse products - XIAMEN ASAU IMPORT ...
EXPERIENCES WITH THE BIOLOGICAL ASSAY OF SEVERAL SYMPATHICOTONIC SUBSTANCES INCLUDING EPINEPHRINE. AXEL M. HJORT, EDWIN J. ... EXPERIENCES WITH THE BIOLOGICAL ASSAY OF SEVERAL SYMPATHICOTONIC SUBSTANCES INCLUDING EPINEPHRINE. AXEL M. HJORT, EDWIN J. ... EXPERIENCES WITH THE BIOLOGICAL ASSAY OF SEVERAL SYMPATHICOTONIC SUBSTANCES INCLUDING EPINEPHRINE. AXEL M. HJORT, EDWIN J. ... EXPERIENCES WITH THE BIOLOGICAL ASSAY OF SEVERAL SYMPATHICOTONIC SUBSTANCES INCLUDING EPINEPHRINE Message Subject (Your Name) ...
Many parallel biochemical assays rely on thin aqueous films to spread a reactant solution over a wide area decorated with ...
Assay Acceptance and Sample Acceptance. For plate-based biological potency assays, we propose two separate sets of acceptance ... For plate-based biological potency assays, we propose the following two separate sets of acceptance criteria: assay acceptance ... Assay Acceptance Criteria for Multiwell-Plate-Based Biological Potency Assays. View PDF ... biochemical assays (such as clotting-factor activity assays) considered as functional assays or as a separate class ...
Find out information about Biological assays. A method for the quantitation of the effects on a biological system by its ... exposure to a substance, as well as the quantitation of the concentration of a... Explanation of Biological assays ... redirected from Biological assays). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical.. Related to Biological assays: bioassay ... Biological assays , Article about Biological assays by The Free Dictionary https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/ ...
Tomašić J. (1986) Assays of Peptidoglycans and Specific Antibodies in Biological Samples. In: Reid E., Scales B., Wilson I.D. ( ...
... Gaëtan Chicanne,* Sonia Severin,* ... The assay was found to be linear with pure PtdIns3P quantities varying from a few pmol up to 100 pmol (Figure 2A). To assay the ... In the present study, we describe a mass assay to quantify this lipid from various biological samples using the recombinant ... In the present study, we propose a convenient mass assay to accurately quantify PtdIns3P from various biological samples, ...
This review discusses general aspects on miniaturization of biological assays and in particular summarizes single-cell assays ... Miniaturization of biological assays: Overview on microwell devices for single-cell analyses. Lindstrom, Sara KTH, School of ... Miniaturization, Microwell, Single cell, Well design, Well-based assay, In vitro cell assay National Category Biochemistry and ... General significance: In vitro assays offering low volume sampling and rapid analysis in a high-throughput manner are of great ...
Automation of a Homogeneous Proximity Assay for Immunogenicity Testing of Biological Drug Products ... Assay Specificity and Selectivity. The Assay specificity and sensitivity data was only determined for the AlphaLISA assay ... and intra-assay precision testing is used in conjunction with the above Assay Sensitivity data for determination of assay ... Automation of a Homogeneous Proximity Assay for Immunogenicity Testing of Biological Drug Products Download Related Products: ...
About Advanced Biological Laboratories (ABL) S.A.. Advanced. Biological Laboratories (ABL), S.A., is a Medical Data Technology ... Advanced Biological Laboratories (ABL) Launches HIV and HCV DeepChek® SingleRound Genotyping and Sequencing Assays. ... These two assays are the first in its virology reagents portfolio. The. DeepChek® SingleRound assays are currently available ... DeepChek® SingleRound assays are bundled with the ViroScore® and. DeepChek® software, both CE-marked for IVD use, for Sanger ...
  • Chromagen will develop biological assays and screen CombiChem compounds, while receiving research support and a percentage of future payments received by CombiChem upon outlicensing of drug candidates. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The characterized compounds were screened to identify if they interfere with mammalian type I DNA topoisomerase activity via in vitro supercoil relaxation assays. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Selected compounds were subjected to cytostatic assays using HeLa (cervix adenocarcinoma), MCF7 (breast adenocarcinoma) and A431 (skin epidermoid carcinoma) cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • To the best of our knowledge no biological studies and syntheses of these compounds have been reported. (hindawi.com)
  • All compounds were subjected to biological activity tests. (mdpi.com)
  • Using in vitro cytotoxicity assays provides a high-throughput method of screening compounds to determine selectivity of toxicity in fish cells. (viterbo.edu)
  • is a biological assay (bioassay) to assess the genotoxic potential of chemical compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • As with other bacterial genotoxicity and mutagenicity assays, compounds requiring metabolic activation for activity can be investigated with the addition of S9 microsomal rat liver extract. (wikipedia.org)
  • This test was developed as a practical complement or alternative to the traditional Ames test assay for genotoxicity, which involves growing bacteria on agar plates and comparing natural mutation rates to mutation rates of bacteria exposed to potentially mutagenic compounds or samples. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like the other compounds, it has also been shown to be reactive in many different assays of biological activities, raising the possibility that any drug generated from fisetin would have too many side effects to be useful. (wikipedia.org)
  • Discovery is the identification of novel active chemical compounds, often called "hits", which are typically found by assay of compounds for a desired biological activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, hits also regularly originate from en-masse testing of chemical compounds against biological targets, where the compounds may be from novel synthetic chemical libraries known to have particular properties (kinase inhibitory activity, diversity or drug-likeness, etc.), or from historic chemical compound collections or libraries created through combinatorial chemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Unlike other protein assays, the Bradford protein assay is less susceptible to interference by various chemical compounds such as sodium, potassium or even carbohydrates like sucrose, that may be present in protein samples. (wikipedia.org)
  • Standard research involves an extraction of the organism in a suitable solvent followed by either an assay of this crude extract for a particular disease target or a rationally guided isolation of new chemical compounds using standard chromatography techniques. (wikipedia.org)
  • Electron donating substituents can also encourage photoisomerization to the linear diazo compound, rather than the singlet carbene, and hence these compounds are unfavorable for use in biological assays. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here we describe a new capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) based on monoclonal antibodies specific for lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Francisella tularensis subsp. (asm.org)
  • The isolation from wheat germ oil of an alcohol, a-tocopherol, having the properties of vitamin E". Journal of Biological Chemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Journal of Biological Chemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • As of September 2015, his 1951 paper in the Journal of Biological Chemistry describing the protein assay was still the most-highly cited paper of all time with more than 310,000 citations, although Lowry stated it was not the most important paper he had ever written. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Journal of Biological Chemistry: 269(30), pp. 19300-19306. (wikipedia.org)
  • A history of biological standardization : the characterization and measurement of complex molecules important in clinical and research medicine : contributions from the UK, 1900-1995 : what, why, how, where, and by whom / a personal account by D.R. Bangham. (who.int)
  • He was credited with efforts in standardization of drugs by introducing modern protocols of biological standardization and assays. (wikipedia.org)
  • To do so, the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization provides a reference preparation of the agent, arbitrarily sets the number of IUs contained in that preparation, and specifies a biological procedure to compare other preparations of the same agent to the reference preparation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The iu should not be confused with the enzyme unit, also known as the international unit of enzyme activity and abbreviated as U. To define the IU for a substance, an international collaborative study is organized by the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization using various assay systems in several laboratories. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2018). CDC offers assay materials containing common key reagents to laboratories conducting the folate microbiologic assay for epidemiologic use. (cdc.gov)
  • These two assays are the first in its virology reagents portfolio. (laraza.com)
  • If the assay involves addition of exogenous reactants (the reagents), then their quantities are kept fixed (or in excess) so that the quantity (and quality) of the target is the only limiting factor for the reaction/assay process, and the difference in the assay outcome is used to deduce the unknown quality or quantity of the target in question. (wikipedia.org)
  • Later, various kinds of antibody, viral antigens, reagents, medical kits and biological service were launched to broaden market and it worked. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is cheap, fast, and reliable, but it has limitations when used for biological samples. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Thus, assay design - especially the positioning of individual samples within and between plates - is crucial to obtaining valid results and thus needs to be considered when setting acceptance criteria for an assay. (bioprocessintl.com)
  • In the present study, we describe a mass assay to quantify this lipid from various biological samples using the recombinant PtdIns3 P 5-kinase, PIKfyve. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The results confirm that TINA is suitable for high-throughput experiments and efficient analysis of biological IN in laboratory and field samples. (atmos-meas-tech.net)
  • Methods are described for application of the assay techniques to other types of biological and food samples. (nih.gov)
  • Additionally, the Luminex assay works in a multiplex format, simultaneously detecting four category A and B bacterial bioterrorism agents and is suitable for detecting Brucella in complex samples. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Making use of a protein found in animals which has evolved to selectively bind metabolites, an assay was developed which better classified samples compared to current methods used in the field of metabolomics. (montana.edu)
  • citation needed] The bioanalyst deals with complex biological samples containing the analyte alongside a diverse range of chemicals that can have an adverse impact on the accurate and precise quantification of the analyte. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exposure is defined prior to disease development based on data collected at baseline or on assays conducted in biological samples collected at baseline. (wikipedia.org)
  • The spectrum of visible light was not broad enough to enable scientists to examine substances such as vitamin A. Accurate characterization of complex samples, particularly of biological materials, would require the accurate reading of absorption frequencies in the ultraviolet and infrared (IR) sections of the spectrum in addition to visible light. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a discipline, proteomics has moved past rapid protein identification and has developed into a biological assay for quantitative analysis of complex protein samples by comparing protein changes in differently perturbed systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemical biologists are poised to impact proteomics through the development of techniques, probes and assays with synthetic chemistry for the characterization of protein samples of high complexity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Assays are performed using these samples and are calibrated against the previously available IU standard. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipids are heterogeneous biological molecules with many important roles. (intechopen.com)
  • Lipids are a very heterogeneous group of biological molecules. (intechopen.com)
  • However, lack of simple and economic approach for large scale screening of the natural products has been a big impediment and thus warrants a development of a novel high-throughput assay for screening of novel and efficient small molecules from a pool of thousands of natural products. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The term 'lipids' refers to a class of biological molecules primarily composed of hydrocarbons such as fatty acids, glycerolipids, sphingolipids and sterol lipids. (intechopen.com)
  • Small molecules may be used as research tools to probe biological function as well as leads in the development of new therapeutic agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pharmacology usually restricts the term "small molecule" to molecules that bind specific biological macromolecules and acts as an effector, altering the activity or function of the target. (wikipedia.org)
  • Small molecules can have a variety of biological functions or applications, serving as cell signaling molecules, drugs in medicine, pesticides in farming, and in many other roles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bioanalysis is a sub-discipline of analytical chemistry covering the quantitative measurement of xenobiotics (drugs and their metabolites, and biological molecules in unnatural locations or concentrations) and biotics (macromolecules, proteins, DNA, large molecule drugs, metabolites) in biological systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • PubChem is a database of chemical molecules and their activities against biological assays. (wikipedia.org)
  • Medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical chemistry are disciplines at the intersection of chemistry, especially synthetic organic chemistry, and pharmacology and various other biological specialties, where they are involved with design, chemical synthesis and development for market of pharmaceutical agents, or bio-active molecules (drugs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Biological molecules, including proteins and nucleic acids, absorb light energy in both the ultraviolet and visible range. (wikipedia.org)
  • The discipline involves the application of chemical techniques, analysis, and often small molecules produced through synthetic chemistry, to the study and manipulation of biological systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbenes produced from diazirines are quickly quenched by reaction with water molecules, and hence yields for photoreactive crosslinking assays are often low. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hybridization assays involve labelled nucleic acid probes to identify related DNA or RNA molecules (i.e. with significantly high degree of sequence similarity) within a complex mixture of unlabelled nucleic acid molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research includes such methodologies as: bead-based assays for biological molecules fluorescent assays for chemical molecules retro-reflector assays for both chemical and biological molecules Upon successfully determining the nature of the CWA/BWA threat, "technologies that mimic the seeding of rain clouds will be developed for particulate bio-agents, and technologies that react with chemical agent vapor will be investigated. (wikipedia.org)
  • The biological response may be quantal (e.g. positive/negative) or quantitative (e.g. growth). (wikipedia.org)
  • This assay provides both a qualitative (visible observation of colour gradient) for screening purposes, or quantitative measurement (spectrophotometry) for calculation of commonly accepted metrics. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the quantitative assay, the dose-response (colour production linked to beta-galactosidase production) of a compound is plotted, with the slope of the initial linear region used as a universal parameter, the SOS-inducing potency (SOSIP), which reflects the ability of a compound to induce the SOS response (measured indirectly through production of beta-galactosidase and the breakdown of a lactose analog). (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, older generation qualitative assays, especially bioassays, may be much more gross and less quantitative (e.g., counting death or dysfunction of an organism or cells in a population, or some descriptive change in some body part of a group of animals). (wikipedia.org)
  • Quantitative structure-activity relationship models (QSAR models) are regression or classification models used in the chemical and biological sciences and engineering. (wikipedia.org)
  • A hybridization assay comprises any form of quantifiable hybridization,[clarification needed] i.e. the quantitative annealing[clarification needed] of two complementary strands of nucleic acids, known as nucleic acid hybridization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Development of Asian carp liver cell lines for biological assays Justine Nelson (Tammy Clark) Abstract The Asian carp are an invasive species that have a high probability of causing ecological and economic effects to the fishing industry where inhabitants are found. (viterbo.edu)
  • The NIMH Division of Neuroscience and Basic Behavioral Science convened a workshop of scientists involved in several ongoing NIMH-funded research efforts involving human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) or similar reprogrammed cell assays. (nih.gov)
  • The contribution of specific genes or proteins to the bacteria's ability to invade cells can be easily assayed using this method. (wikipedia.org)
  • Co-immunoprecipitation is considered to be the gold standard assay for protein-protein interactions, especially when it is performed with endogenous (not overexpressed and not tagged) proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pull-down assays are a common variation of immunoprecipitation and immunoelectrophoresis and are used identically, although this approach is more amenable to an initial screen for interacting proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each method has its strengths and weaknesses but they all struggle with intrinsically disordered proteins without any clearly defined tertiary structure as the essence of a thermal shift assay is measuring the temperature at which a protein goes from well-defined structure to disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • An overlay assay is a biological technique used to find proteins that bind to a protein of interest. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is the basis of the Bradford assay which is a protein determination method that involves the coomasie brilliant blue dye binding to proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular diagnostics is a collection of techniques used to analyse biological markers in the genome and proteome-the individual's genetic code and how their cells express their genes as proteins-by applying molecular biology to medical testing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Typically, digoxigenin is introduced chemically (conjugation) into biomolecules (proteins, nucleic acids) to be detected in further assays. (wikipedia.org)
  • Selection and amplification binding assay (SAAB) is a molecular biology technique typically used to find the DNA binding site for proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, TINA was applied to investigate the influence of chemical processing on the activity of biological IN, in particular the effects of oxidation and nitration reactions. (atmos-meas-tech.net)
  • Microfluidics, the flow of liquids in micrometer sized channels, allows a reduction in reagent volumes and cost for biological and chemical assays. (scu.edu)
  • Droplets can then be used as microreactors for chemical reactions or can be analyzed sequentially or in parallel for large scale biological assays. (scu.edu)
  • Since the chemical tested may inhibit protein synthesis at higher concentrations, which would lead to an underestimation of B-galactosidase induction, alkaline phosphatase is assayed simultaneously with β-galactosidase in order to scale the data to survivability of the cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In analogy to digital microelectronics, these basic instructions can be combined and reused within hierarchical design structures so that complex procedures (e.g. chemical synthesis or biological assays) can be built up step-by-step. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus reading of an assay may be quite noisy and may involve greater difficulties in interpretation than an accurate chemical titration. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tests include "fingerprinting" using spectroscopy or chromatography, chemical or biological assays, and process controls on raw material collection and processing. (wikipedia.org)
  • While a number of approaches toward the identification and development of hits exist, the most successful techniques are based on chemical and biological intuition developed in team environments through years of rigorous practice aimed solely at discovering new therapeutic agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • QSAR models first summarize a supposed relationship between chemical structures and biological activity in a data-set of chemicals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some forms of chemical biology attempt to answer biological questions by directly probing living systems at the chemical level. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in the later work which led up to the isolation of vitamin C as the antiscorbutic factor in 1932-33, Holst and Frølich's guinea pig model of scurvy proved to be the key biological assay which allowed identification of the chemical substance (hexuronic acid, later called ascorbic acid) which was ascorbutic vitamin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Threat Agent Cloud Tactical Intercept & Countermeasure, or TACTIC, is a United States military research program whose goal is to detect, classify, and neutralize airborne biological and chemical warfare agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, we have developed a spatio-temporal all-optical assay to simultaneously stimulate a sub-section of a neural network and record evoked calcium activity, in both stimulated and non-stimulated neurons, thus allowing the investigation of the spread of excitation through an interconnected network. (frontiersin.org)
  • Employ Arxspan Assay to provide study coordinators with an integrated view of study activity and assay data as reported by research team(s), and empower individual researchers to collaborate. (bruker.com)
  • Ellman's assay is the most commonly used method to measure cholinesterase activity. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • 1. Determination of the strength or biological activity of a substance, such as a drug, by comparing its effects with those of a standard preparation on a test organism. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Early estimates of CCK-like activity in blood were based on biological assays such as pancreatic secretion or gallbladder contraction. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This study was designed to investigate impact of tannins on in vitro ruminal fermentation parameters as well as relationships between concentration and in vitro biological activity of tannins present in tree fruits. (scielo.org.za)
  • Correlation between in vitro biological activity and phenolic concentration was determined. (scielo.org.za)
  • A key assumption of a dilution assay is that the active component follows the same principle of activity in standard and in sample preparation. (bioassay.de)
  • Our results demonstrated that this IFN-γ based high-throughput assay for screening of natural products for NK cell tumoricidal activity is a simple, economic and reliable method. (biomedcentral.com)
  • By coupling the radioactive 45 Ca 2+ accumulation assay in microsomes with quantification of ATP hydrolysis and P i release into the post-assay eluate, SERCA-dependent Ca 2+ accumulation in comparison to SERCA activity (ATP hydrolysis) can simultaneously be quantified. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Precursor forms of IL-18 and IL-1β lack a signal peptide and they require cleavage by caspase-1 (IL-1β-converting enzyme) for their maturation, and hence for their biological activity ( 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The present disclosure provides methods and assay systems for use in spatially encoded biological assays, including assays to determine a spatial pattern of abundance, expression, and/or activity of one or more biological targets across multiple sites in a sample. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • and (g) determining a spatial pattern of the biological target abundance, expression and/or activity in the sample based on the analysis of step (f). (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Since the extracts of E. coli showed little or no activity against the substrate, the assay protocol should be useful for identification and purification of eukaryotic deubiquitinating enzymes cloned and expressed in the cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We also studied the morphology of treated and untreated larvae using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and assessed the agonistic/antagonistic activity of SERMs in a human embryonic kidney cell line using a luciferase reporter assay system. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The biological role of miR-1 in controlling MET expression and biological activity was assessed in colon cancer cells either by its forced expression or by AntagomiR-mediated inhibition. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The ComX biological activity decay is reduced in the spent media of floating biofilms with low proteolytic activity found in the comP and degQ mutants. (frontiersin.org)
  • ComX biological activity decay can be restored by the addition of subtilisin to such media. (frontiersin.org)
  • In contrast, inhibition of metalloproteases by EDTA reduces ComX biological activity decay. (frontiersin.org)
  • BCSR supporters argue that a soil balanced using their methods leads to greater crop yield and nutritional quality, as well as increasing the soil biological activity and the physical properties of tilth, aeration, and moisture retention. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to the bovine and porcine tissue from which pharmaceutical-grade heparin is commonly extracted, it has also been extracted and characterised from: Turkey Whale Dromedary camel Mouse Humans Lobster Fresh water mussel Clam Shrimp Mangrove crab Sand dollar Atlantic salmon Zebra fish The biological activity of heparin within species 6-11 is unclear and further supports the idea that the main physiological role of heparin is not anticoagulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • An assay is an investigative (analytic) procedure in laboratory medicine, pharmacology, environmental biology and molecular biology for qualitatively assessing or quantitatively measuring the presence, amount, or functional activity of a target entity (the analyte). (wikipedia.org)
  • The assay usually aims to measure an intensive property of the analyte and express it in the relevant measurement unit (e.g. molarity, density, functional activity in enzyme international units, degree of some effect in comparison to a standard, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ATPase assay is a membrane assay that indirectly measures the activity of efflux transporters. (wikipedia.org)
  • It includes synthetic and computational aspects of the study of existing drugs and agents in development in relation to their bioactivities (biological activities and properties), i.e., understanding their structure-activity relationships (SAR). (wikipedia.org)
  • MacLeod, over a number of years of research, had resolved several thorny technical issues to render the experimental system somewhat more reliable as an assay for biological activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The progress of this research over the next three years is beautifully described in McCarty's memoir The Transforming Principle, written in the early 1980s As purification progressed, exposure of extracts to crystalline RNase and to proteinase preparations helped Avery's team determine that the biological activity of extracts was not dependent on RNA or protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • the QSAR response-variable could be a biological activity of the chemicals. (wikipedia.org)
  • As an example, biological activity can be expressed quantitatively as the concentration of a substance required to give a certain biological response. (wikipedia.org)
  • the mass or volume that constitutes one international unit varies based on which substance is being measured, and the variance is based on the biological activity or effect, for the purpose of easier comparison across substances. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vitamin C: 1 IU is 50 μg L-ascorbic acid Vitamin D: The biological activity of 40 IU is equal to 1 μg Vitamin E: 1 IU is the biological equivalent of about 0.667 mg d-alpha-tocopherol (2/3 mg exactly), or of 0.45 mg of dl-alpha-tocopherol acetate. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2. The application of a progressively increasing dose method to the biological assay of epinephrine may be an improvement upon the U.S.P.XI procedure. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Such industrial scale assays as these are often done in well equipped laboratories and with automated organization of the procedure-from ordering an assay to pre-analytic sample processing (sample collection, necessary manipulations e.g. spinning for separation or other processes, aliquoting if necessary, storage, retrieval, pipetting/aspiration etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Bicinchoninic acid assay and the Hartree-Lowry assay are subsequent modifications of the original Lowry procedure. (wikipedia.org)
  • They also discussed measures needed to assess iPSC-derived cell-type fidelity and physiological relevance to their in vivo counterparts, along with current progress and need for improved cell assay technologies. (nih.gov)
  • In preclinical cancer research, bioluminescence imaging with firefly luciferase and D -luciferin has become a standard to monitor biological processes both in vitro and in vivo . (nature.com)
  • In vivo assays showed that hybrid composite PLA-ORMOGLASS fibers were able to promote the formation of blood vessels. (rsc.org)
  • Zhang M, Sternberg MR, Pfeiffer CM. Harmonizing the calibrator and microorganism used in the folate microbiological assay increases the comparability of serum and whole blood folate results in a CDC round-robin study. (cdc.gov)
  • The hyperpolarized probes are produced ex situ , introduced into biological systems and detected with high sensitivity and contrast against background signals using high resolution NMR spectroscopy. (mdpi.com)
  • A variety of natural, derivatized and designed hyperpolarized probes has emerged for diverse biological studies including assays of intracellular reaction progression, pathway kinetics, probe uptake and export, pH, redox state, reactive oxygen species, ion concentrations, drug efficacy or oncogenic signaling. (mdpi.com)
  • These probes are readily used directly under natural conditions in biofluids and are often directly developed and optimized for cellular assays, thus leaving little doubt about their specificity and utility under biologically relevant conditions. (mdpi.com)
  • Here, we provide a survey of strategies used for the selection, design and use of hyperpolarized NMR probes in biological assays, and describe current limitations and developments. (mdpi.com)
  • Lerche, M.H. Hyperpolarized NMR Probes for Biological Assays. (mdpi.com)
  • Dilution assays can be direct or indirect. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a direct dilution assay the amount of dose needed to produce a specific (fixed) response is measured, so that the dose is a stochastic variable defining the tolerance distribution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conversely, in an indirect dilution assay the dose levels are administered at fixed dose levels, so that the response is a stochastic variable. (wikipedia.org)
  • For a mathematical definition of a dilution assay an observation space U {\displaystyle U} is defined and a function f : U → R {\displaystyle f:U\rightarrow \mathbb {R} } so that the responses u ∈ U {\displaystyle u\in U} are mapped to the set of real numbers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of notable importance in this respect is the theory of Generalized Linear Models with which a wide range of dilution assays can be modelled. (wikipedia.org)
  • Perhaps there is no perfect assay for sensitively and accurately quantifying H 2 O 2 as well as other ROS in cells, wherein numerous potential reactants are present to interfere with the reliable measurement of the specific ROS. (nih.gov)
  • Since the measurement of cell viability was based on the reduction of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) to formazan crystal by mitochondrial dehydrogenases [ 11 ], in the current study we revisited our previous results, checking for a possible interference of Rottlerin in the MTT assay. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Since the tyrosine residue in the PESTc portion of the fusion protein was almost exclusively radioiodinated under a mild labeling condition, such as using IODO-BEADS, the enzymes could be assayed directly by simple measurement of the radioactivity released into acid soluble products. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The third problem is analytical and biological variance, which deals with deviations in measurement and in composition. (wikibooks.org)
  • In summary, the key links between the compiled studies are the testing of a specific analyte - toxicity assays used are for sediment, and a significant effect must be determined. (wikipedia.org)
  • The measured entity is generally called the analyte, the measurand or the target of the assay. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like other hybridization assays, it relies on complementarity, where the capture probe competes between the analyte and the tracer-a labelled oligonucleotide analog to the analyte. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite hybridization-ligation assay's robustness, sensitivity and added specificity for the 3'-end of the oligonculeotide analyte, the hybridization-ligation assay is not specific for the 5' end of the analyte. (wikipedia.org)
  • As for the hybridization-ligation assay, the DLA is specific for the parent compound because the efficiency of ligation over a bulge loop is low, and thus the DLA detects the full-length analyte with both intact 5' and 3'-ends. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our aim was to specifically detect Brucellae with 'smooth' lipopolysaccharide (LPS) using a highly sensitive monoclonal antibody (mAb) based immunological assay. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The aim of this study was to develop a rapid and sensitive immunological assay to detect all Brucellae with 'smooth' LPS, particularly B. melitensis and B. abortus . (biomedcentral.com)
  • For efficient data analysis and clinical genotyping report generation, DeepChek® SingleRound assays are bundled with the ViroScore® and DeepChek® software, both CE-marked for IVD use, for Sanger and NGS, respectively. (laraza.com)
  • An assay (analysis) is never an isolated process and must be combined with pre- and post-analytic procedures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similarly, after the assay, the result may be documented, verified and transmitted/communicated in steps that are called post-analytic steps. (wikipedia.org)
  • i.e. not only analytic variations and errors intrinsic to the assay itself but also variations and errors involved in preanalytic and post analytic steps. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the assay itself (the analytic step) gets much attention, steps that get less attention by the chain of users, i.e. the preanalytic and the post analytic steps, are often less stringently regulated and generally more prone to errors - e.g. preanalytic steps in medical laboratory assays may contribute to 32-75% of all lab errors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The specificity of the hybridization-ligation assay for ligation at the 3'-end is particularly relevant because the predominant nucleases in blood are 3' to 5' exonucleases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dual ligation hybridization assay (DLA) extends the specificity of the hybridization-ligation assay to a specific method for the parent compound. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many technologies are used to characterize biological products, manufacturing processes, and raw materials. (bioprocessintl.com)
  • The impact of bionanoscience, achieved through structural and mechanistic analyses of biological processes at nanoscale, is their translation into synthetic and technological applications through nanotechnology. (wikipedia.org)
  • The WHO recommends the microbiologic assay for assessing folate status in population surveys (WHO, 2015) and this assay is amenable for laboratory capacity building in low-resource settings (Pfeiffer et al. (cdc.gov)
  • Parameters of importance for optimization of a cell based assay will be tested empirically in the laboratory and their significance calculated using Z'. During the course a small-scale screen will be executed. (umu.se)
  • In the cytogenetic laboratory of the BfS in Munich/ Neuherberg , individuals who have or may have been exposed to an increased radiation dose have the possibility to use the biological dosimetry service for dose assessment under specific requirements. (bfs.de)
  • This assay was finally conducted at the University of Pittsburgh in the laboratory of King, which had been working on the problem for years, using guinea pigs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our search for new antibiotics led to the syntheses and biological evaluation of new classes of dicarboxylic acid analogues. (hindawi.com)
  • The assay is based on several observations made in the 1970s, in which the ability of internalized bacteria to avoid killing by antibiotics was reported. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, thermophoresis has been demonstrated as a versatile technique for manipulating single biological macromolecules, such as genomic-length DNA, and HIV virus in micro- and nanochannels by means of light-induced local heating. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aryl azides require a low wavelength of irradiation, which can damage the biological macromolecules under investigation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conditions for controlling temperature effects and decreasing assay variability using fluorescein as the fluorescent probe were validated in different laboratories. (nih.gov)
  • We recently reported the improved oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay using fluorescein (FL) as the fluorescent probe. (nih.gov)
  • A method for the quantitation of the effects on a biological system by its exposure to a substance, as well as the quantitation of the concentration of a substance by some observable effect on a biological system. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This work sets out to investigate biological responses of Eisenia fetida to Cd, based on the bioavailable rather than total concentration of Cd, in soils. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Cd concentration measured using DGT and CaCl2 extraction provided the narrowest ranges of lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) values based on biological responses, indicating the potential use of these measurements in management of soil quality and setting soil remediation standards. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Essential aspects of binding assays include, but are not limited to, the concentration level of reactants or products (see radioactive section), maintaining the equilibrium constant of reactants throughout the assay, and the reliability and validity of linked reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • This effect can interfere with the estimation of protein concentration using the Bradford assay. (wikipedia.org)
  • While other detergents interfere with the assay at high concentration, the interference caused by SDS is of two different modes, and each occurs at a different concentration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lack of biological assays to measure many of these contaminants in tissue specimens, the high cost of using these assays in large epidemiologic studies when they were available, and challenges related to the interpretation of the results when exposures were measured after the adverse reproductive event occurred limit the conclusions that can be drawn from these investigations. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The Canadian team of organic chemists and enzymologists developed drug design motifs, and pursued preparative chemistry, enzymology, molecular biology, and tissue culture studies that were interfaced with biological assays and pharmacokinetic studies carried out in Syntex, Palo Alto, CA. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The S9 fraction is the product of an organ tissue homogenate used in biological assays. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biological immortality Cell culture assays Organ culture Plant tissue culture Tissue culture Jayme DW, Smith SR (2000). (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Different types of radiation have different biological effectiveness mainly because they transfer their energy to the tissue in different ways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Radiation weighting factors that go from physical energy to biological effect must not be confused with tissue weighting factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The relative biological effectiveness for radiation of type R on a tissue of type T is traditionally defined as the ratio R B E = D X D R {\displaystyle RBE={\frac {D_{X}}{D_{R}}}} where DX is a reference absorbed dose of radiation of a standard type X, and DR is the absorbed dose of radiation of type R that causes the same amount of biological damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • A method for performing time resolved homogeneous assays using a long-lifetime luminescent dye as a donor. (patentgenius.com)
  • 2. The method of claim 1 wherein said biological fluid is an oral fluid. (patentgenius.com)
  • A fluorometric method for the estimation of the vitamin B1 content in food and biological materials is described. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The implementation of this method in the study of complex biological systems would have an immediate impact in academic and medical research. (montana.edu)
  • A general method for the assay of deubiquitinating enzymes was described in detail using 125 I-labeled ubiquitin-fused αNH-MHISPPEPESEEEEEHYC (referred to as Ub-PESTc) as a substrate. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Together with an improvement in the LOD of at least 1 order of magnitude compared to that of conventional assays, this suggests that the method will become useful in furthering our understanding of the role of PLA2 in health and disease and in detecting the pharmacodynamic effects of PLA2-targeting drug candidates. (chalmers.se)
  • Biological dosimetry is an internationally approved method to quantify the exposure and to perform a dose assessment following a suspected radiation overexposure. (bfs.de)
  • The method is internationally considered the gold standard for biological dosimetry. (bfs.de)
  • The gentamicin protection assay or survival assay or invasion assay is a method used in microbiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specifically, despite the human body's endogenous receptors, hormones, and other neurotransmitters, pharmacologists utilize assays in order to create drugs that are selective, or mimic, the endogenously found cellular components. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additional contributions in biological assay were work on the analysis of time-mortality data and of slope-ratio assays (Cochran & Finney 1979). (wikipedia.org)
  • Modern drugs are more potent, which has required more sensitive bioanalytical assays to accurately and reliably determine these drugs at lower concentrations. (wikipedia.org)
  • This polyphenolic compound, originally described as a selective inhibitor of PKCδ, can inhibit many other PKC-unrelated kinases and has a number of biological actions, including mitochondrial uncoupling effects. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although binding assays are simple, they fail to provide information on whether or not the compound being tested affects the target's function. (wikipedia.org)
  • The test serves as a quick and convenient assay to estimate the carcinogenic potential of a compound because standard carcinogen assays on mice and rats are time-consuming (taking two to three years to complete) and expensive. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ATPase assay is designed to indicate the nature of the interaction between the compound and the transporter. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ATPase assays can therefore have the potential for determining whether a compound acts as a transporter substrate and/or inhibitor. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] In order to measure the absorbance of a colorless compound a Bradford assay must be performed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our chapter aims to present and discuss different tools available for the study of lipids and their main applications in biological assays. (intechopen.com)
  • In contrast, the monoclonal antibody test for detecting serum CTX levels features minimal spontaneous disruption yet remarkable change to antiresorptive therapy, making the serum CTX assay both highly sensitive and specific. (wikipedia.org)
  • BioTek Field Applications Scientists (FAS) and Product Specialists provide unparalleled scientific support, assisting with experimental planning and assay optimization on BioTek's instrumentation and software. (biotek.com)
  • El grupo de Científicos de Aplicaciones en el Campo (FAS en inglés) y los Especialistas de Producto de BioTek, brindan soporte científico sin igual, ayudando en la planificación experimental y la optimización del análisis en los equipos y software de BioTek. (biotek.es)
  • Historically, the experimental techniques of choice to discover and analyze DNA binding sites have been the DNAse footprinting assay and the Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA). (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemotaxis assays are experimental tools for evaluation of chemotactic ability of prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Isolate the DNA bound protein by EMSA: the DNA bound protein, migrated in acrylamide gel, is isolated by autoradiography as per an Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) protocol. (wikipedia.org)