Cystatin C: An extracellular cystatin subtype that is abundantly expressed in bodily fluids. It may play a role in the inhibition of interstitial CYSTEINE PROTEASES.Cystatins: A homologous group of endogenous CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS. The cystatins inhibit most CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES such as PAPAIN, and other peptidases which have a sulfhydryl group at the active site.Cystatin A: A cytastin subtype found at high levels in the SKIN and in BLOOD CELLS. Cystatin A incorporates into the cornified cell envelope of stratified squamous epithelial cells and may play a role in bacteriostatic properties of skin.Cystatin B: An intracellular cystatin subtype that is found in a broad variety of cell types. It is a cytosolic enzyme inhibitor that protects the cell against the proteolytic action of lysosomal enzymes such as CATHEPSINS.CreatinineGlomerular Filtration Rate: The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.Salivary Cystatins: A group of closely-related cystatins found in SALIVA.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors: Exogenous and endogenous compounds which inhibit CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.Kidney Function Tests: Laboratory tests used to evaluate how well the kidneys are working through examination of blood and urine.Nephelometry and Turbidimetry: Chemical analysis based on the phenomenon whereby light, passing through a medium with dispersed particles of a different refractive index from that of the medium, is attenuated in intensity by scattering. In turbidimetry, the intensity of light transmitted through the medium, the unscattered light, is measured. In nephelometry, the intensity of the scattered light is measured, usually, but not necessarily, at right angles to the incident light beam.Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteins: Proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid, normally albumin and globulin present in the ratio of 8 to 1. Increases in protein levels are of diagnostic value in neurological diseases. (Brain and Bannister's Clinical Neurology, 7th ed, p221)Cathepsin B: A lysosomal cysteine proteinase with a specificity similar to that of PAPAIN. The enzyme is present in a variety of tissues and is important in many physiological and pathological processes. In pathology, cathepsin B has been found to be involved in DEMYELINATION; EMPHYSEMA; RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS, and NEOPLASM INVASIVENESS.Papain: A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Carica papaya. It is also the name used for a purified mixture of papain and CHYMOPAPAIN that is used as a topical enzymatic debriding agent. EC 3.4.22.2.Cathepsins: A group of lysosomal proteinases or endopeptidases found in aqueous extracts of a variety of animal tissues. They function optimally within an acidic pH range. The cathepsins occur as a variety of enzyme subtypes including SERINE PROTEASES; ASPARTIC PROTEINASES; and CYSTEINE PROTEASES.Lipocalins: A diverse family of extracellular proteins that bind to small hydrophobic molecules. They were originally characterized as transport proteins, however they may have additional roles such as taking part in the formation of macromolecular complexes with other proteins and binding to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Kidney Diseases: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.Cathepsin H: An ubiquitously-expressed lysosomal cysteine protease that is involved in protein processing. The enzyme has both endopeptidase and aminopeptidase activities.Cathepsin L: A ubiquitously-expressed cysteine protease that plays an enzymatic role in POST-TRANSLATIONAL PROTEIN PROCESSING of proteins within SECRETORY GRANULES.Acute Kidney Injury: Abrupt reduction in kidney function. Acute kidney injury encompasses the entire spectrum of the syndrome including acute kidney failure; ACUTE KIDNEY TUBULAR NECROSIS; and other less severe conditions.Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy: A heterogeneous group of sporadic or familial disorders characterized by AMYLOID deposits in the walls of small and medium sized blood vessels of CEREBRAL CORTEX and MENINGES. Clinical features include multiple, small lobar CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; cerebral ischemia (BRAIN ISCHEMIA); and CEREBRAL INFARCTION. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is unrelated to generalized AMYLOIDOSIS. Amyloidogenic peptides in this condition are nearly always the same ones found in ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (from Kumar: Robbins and Cotran: Pathologic Basis of Disease, 7th ed., 2005)Renal Insufficiency, Chronic: Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level for more than three months. Chronic kidney insufficiency is classified by five stages according to the decline in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA). The most severe form is the end-stage renal disease (CHRONIC KIDNEY FAILURE). (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002)Renal Insufficiency: Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level in the ability to remove wastes, concentrate URINE, and maintain ELECTROLYTE BALANCE; BLOOD PRESSURE; and CALCIUM metabolism. Renal insufficiency can be classified by the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE.Cysteine Endopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.Iohexol: An effective non-ionic, water-soluble contrast agent which is used in myelography, arthrography, nephroangiography, arteriography, and other radiographic procedures. Its low systemic toxicity is the combined result of low chemotoxicity and low osmolality.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Technetium Tc 99m Pentetate: A technetium imaging agent used in renal scintigraphy, computed tomography, lung ventilation imaging, gastrointestinal scintigraphy, and many other procedures which employ radionuclide imaging agents.Iothalamic Acid: A contrast medium in diagnostic radiology with properties similar to those of diatrizoic acid. It is used primarily as its sodium and meglumine (IOTHALAMATE MEGLUMINE) salts.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Protease Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Albuminuria: The presence of albumin in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.beta 2-Microglobulin: An 11-kDa protein associated with the outer membrane of many cells including lymphocytes. It is the small subunit of the MHC class I molecule. Association with beta 2-microglobulin is generally required for the transport of class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Beta 2-microglobulin is present in small amounts in serum, csf, and urine of normal people, and to a much greater degree in the urine and plasma of patients with tubular proteinemia, renal failure, or kidney transplants.Acute-Phase Proteins: Proteins that are secreted into the blood in increased or decreased quantities by hepatocytes in response to trauma, inflammation, or disease. These proteins can serve as inhibitors or mediators of the inflammatory processes. Certain acute-phase proteins have been used to diagnose and follow the course of diseases or as tumor markers.Azotemia: A biochemical abnormality referring to an elevation of BLOOD UREA NITROGEN and CREATININE. Azotemia can be produced by KIDNEY DISEASES or other extrarenal disorders. When azotemia becomes associated with a constellation of clinical signs, it is termed UREMIA.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Dependent Ambulation: To move about or walk on foot with the use of aids.Cysteine Proteases: A subclass of peptide hydrolases that depend on a CYSTEINE residue for their activity.Urine Specimen Collection: Methods or procedures used to obtain samples of URINE.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Macrophages, Peritoneal: Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Ixodidae: A family of hardbacked TICKS, in the subclass ACARI. Genera include DERMACENTOR and IXODES among others.Tick Infestations: Infestations with soft-bodied (Argasidae) or hard-bodied (Ixodidae) ticks.Ticks: Blood-sucking acarid parasites of the order Ixodida comprising two families: the softbacked ticks (ARGASIDAE) and hardbacked ticks (IXODIDAE). Ticks are larger than their relatives, the MITES. They penetrate the skin of their host by means of highly specialized, hooked mouth parts and feed on its blood. Ticks attack all groups of terrestrial vertebrates. In humans they are responsible for many TICK-BORNE DISEASES, including the transmission of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; TULAREMIA; BABESIOSIS; AFRICAN SWINE FEVER; and RELAPSING FEVER. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp543-44)Antipain: An oligopeptide produced by various bacteria which acts as a protease inhibitor.Arachnid Vectors: Members of the class Arachnida, especially SPIDERS; SCORPIONS; MITES; and TICKS; which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
  • Many researchers have already isolated several immune down-regulatory molecules from parasites, and these molecules have been identified as mammal cytokine homologues, protease inhibitors (cystatin and serpin), abundant larval transcript antigens, and venom allergen-like proteins [ 14 - 17 ]. (parasitol.kr)
  • During pathophysiological events, an imbalance between endogenous cystatin levels and cysteine proteinases can develop, resulting in dysregulated inflammation ( 5 - 7 ). (asm.org)
  • Cystatin 9 (CST9) is a member of the type 2 cysteine protease inhibitor family, which has been shown to have immunomodulatory effects that restrain inflammation, but its functions against bacterial infections are unknown. (springer.com)
  • 3. Frendéus K.H., Wallin H., Janciauskiene S., Abrahamson M . Macrophage responses to interferon-gamma are dependent on cystatin C levels // Int. J. Biochem. (iramn.ru)
  • Kotsyfakis M, Sa-Nunes A, Francischetti IM, Mather TN, Andersen JF, Ribeiro JM (2006) Antiinflammatory and immunosuppressive activity of sialostatin L, a salivary cystatin from the tick Ixodes scapularis . (springer.com)
  • Macrophages activated with interferon-γ and then stimulated with interferon-γ plus chicken cystatin generated increased amounts of NO in comparison with macrophages only activated with interferon-γ. (wiley.com)
  • Interferon-γ-activated macrophages must be incubated with chicken cystatin for at least 8 h to upregulate NO production. (wiley.com)
  • Macrophages incubated with chicken cystatin alone or with interferon-γ plus chicken cystatin produced increased amounts of both tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 10. (wiley.com)
  • The addition of neutralizing anti-(tumor necrosis factor α) antibodies reduced sharply NO production by chicken cystatin/interferon-γ-activated mouse peritoneal macrophages. (wiley.com)
  • Dual roles of cystatin A in the immune defense of the pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas[J]. FISH & SHELLFISH IMMUNOLOGY,2018,75:190-197. (scsio.ac.cn)
  • 2018).Dual roles of cystatin A in the immune defense of the pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas. (scsio.ac.cn)
  • 14. Grubb, A. (2000) Cystatin C properties and use as diagnostic marker. (edu.pl)
  • CgCytA was comprised of a cystatin-like domain with two conserved glycine residues (GG) near the N-terminal and a highly conserved glutamine-valine-glycine (Q-X-V-X-G) motif in the form of QVVAG loop. (scsio.ac.cn)
  • Cystatin C eGFR was linearly related to poorer physical performance beyond middle age among community-dwelling adults. (nih.gov)
  • A significant increase of immunoreactive cystatin C was found in human bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) from IPF patients, raising the question of its use as a potential marker of IPF [ 8 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Because of its expression patterns, Cystatin B can be used as a marker for certain cancers, such as glioblastoma tumors (4). (novusbio.com)
  • In clinical practice, cystatin C is known as a well-described serum marker of renal failure that is not dependent of age, sex or lean muscle mass (4, 5). (advimmuno.com)
  • At the same time cystatin C is becoming increasingly known marker of elevated risk of death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction and stroke (5). (advimmuno.com)
  • Stable production rate and free filtration by the renal glomeruli due to the low molecular weight, and positive charge (pI 9.3) are strong advantages of cystatin C as a serum marker of renal function. (advimmuno.com)
  • Mite-specific proliferations of C1A and C13 peptidase and I25 cystatin families and their over-expression in feeding stages of mites fit with a putative role in mite's feeding and could have a key role in its broad host feeding range. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The expression profiles of these cystatin genes in soybean symbiosis with rhizobium strain Bradyrhizobium japonicum strain 113-2 revealed that 7 cystatin family genes play different roles in nodulation as well as nodule development and senescence. (frontiersin.org)
  • Besides, evolutionary relationships analysis divided the cystatin genes from Arabidopsis thaliana, Nicotiana tabacum , rice, barley and four legume plants into three groups. (frontiersin.org)
  • The genes encoding the putative Phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 ), cytoplasmic Cystatin, Syntaxin-5, β-Actin and Calreticulin were targeted by delivering the dsRNA encoding the specific gene coding regions in the unfed nymphs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The PLA 2 , cytoplasmic Cystatin, Syntaxin-5, β-Actin and Calreticulin genes were also significantly silenced, suggesting that this method has the potential to introduce dsRNA in eggs and unfed nymphs. (biomedcentral.com)