Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared
Receptors, Biogenic Amine
Overexpression of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase under the control of mouse metallothionein I promoter in transgenic mice: evidence for a striking post-transcriptional regulation of transgene expression by a polyamine analogue. (1/216)We recently generated a transgenic mouse line overexpressing spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT) gene under its own promoter. The tissue polyamine pools of these animals were profoundly affected and the mice were hairless from early age. We have now generated another transgenic-mouse line overexpressing the SSAT gene under the control of a heavy-metal-inducible mouse metallothionein I (MT) promoter. Even in the absence of heavy metals, changes in the tissue polyamine pools indicated that a marked activation of polyamine catabolism had occurred in the transgenic animals. As with the SSAT transgenic mice generated previously, the mice of the new line (MT-SSAT) suffered permanent hair loss, but this occurred considerably later than in the previous SSAT transgenic animals. Liver was the most affected tissue in the MT-SSAT transgenic animals, revealed by putrescine overaccumulation, significant decrease in spermidine concentration and >90% reduction in the spermine pool. Even though hepatic SSAT mRNA accumulated to massive levels in non-induced transgenic animals, SSAT activity was only moderately elevated. Administration of ZnSO4 further elevated the level of hepatic SSAT message and induced enzyme activity, but not more than 2- to 3-fold. Treatment of the transgenic animals with the polyamine analogue N1,N11-diethylnorspermine (DENSPM) resulted in an immense induction, more than 40000-fold, of enzyme activity in the liver of transgenic animals, and minor changes in the SSAT mRNA level. Liver spermidine and spermine pools were virtually depleted within 1-2 days in response to the treatment with the analogue. The treatment also resulted in a marked mortality (up to 60%) among the transgenic animals which showed ultrastructural changes in the liver, most notably mitochondrial swelling, one of the earliest signs of cell injury. These results indicated that, even without its own promoter, SSAT is powerfully induced by the polyamine analogue through a mechanism that appears to involve a direct translational and/or heterogenous nuclear RNA processing control. It is likewise significant that overexpression of SSAT renders the animals extremely sensitive to polyamine analogues. (+info)
Novel gating mechanism of polyamine block in the strong inward rectifier K channel Kir2.1. (2/216)Inward rectifying K channels are essential for maintaining resting membrane potential and regulating excitability in many cell types. Previous studies have attributed the rectification properties of strong inward rectifiers such as Kir2.1 to voltage-dependent binding of intracellular polyamines or Mg to the pore (direct open channel block), thereby preventing outward passage of K ions. We have studied interactions between polyamines and the polyamine toxins philanthotoxin and argiotoxin on inward rectification in Kir2.1. We present evidence that high affinity polyamine block is not consistent with direct open channel block, but instead involves polyamines binding to another region of the channel (intrinsic gate) to form a blocking complex that occludes the pore. This interaction defines a novel mechanism of ion channel closure. (+info)
Polyamine biosynthesis inhibitors alter protein-protein interactions involving estrogen receptor in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. (3/216)We investigated the effects of polyamine biosynthesis inhibition on the estrogenic signaling pathway of MCF-7 breast cancer cells using a protein-protein interaction system. Estrogen receptor (ER) linked to glutathione-S-transferase (GST) was used to examine the effects of two polyamine biosynthesis inhibitors, difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) and CGP 48664. ER was specifically associated with a 45 kDa protein in control cells. In cells treated with estradiol, nine proteins were associated with ER. Cells treated with polyamine biosynthesis inhibitors in the absence of estradiol retained the binding of their ER with a 45 kDa protein and the ER also showed low-affinity interactions with a number of cellular proteins; however, these associations were decreased by the presence of estradiol and the inhibitors. When samples from the estradiol+DFMO treatment group were incubated with spermidine prior to GST-ER pull down assay, an increased association of several proteins with ER was detected. The intensity of the ER-associated 45 kDa protein increased by 10-fold in the presence of 1000 microM spermidine. These results indicate a specific role for spermidine in ER association of proteins. Western blot analysis of samples eluted from GST-ER showed the presence of chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor, an orphan nuclear receptor, and the endogenous full-length ER. These results show that multiple proteins associate with ER and that the binding of some of these proteins is highly sensitive to intracellular polyamine concentrations. Overall, our results indicate the importance of the polyamine pathway in the gene regulatory function of estradiol in breast cancer cells. (+info)
Influence of polyamines on DNA binding of heat shock and activator protein 1 transcription factors induced by heat shock. (4/216)Polyamine depletion, obtained in FAO cells with specific inhibitors of biosynthetic enzymes, prevents or decreases the accumulation of hsp 70 mRNA following heat shock [Desiderio et al., Hepatology 24 (1996) 150-156]. The present study shows that under conditions of spermidine depletion caused by alpha-difluoromethylornithine, the DNA binding capacity of the transcription factor HSF induced by heat shock undergoes a severe and prompt deactivation. Replenishment of the spermidine pool before heat shock re-establishes the DNA binding activity of HSF and the inducibility of hsp 70 mRNA. Similar to HSF, but with a different time-course, the DNA binding of the transcription factor AP-1 activated by heat shock is also impaired in spermidine-depleted cells and reversed by exogenous spermidine. STAT3 provides an example of a transcription factor slightly activated by heat shock but insensitive to polyamine decrease. (+info)
Inhibition of polyamine synthesis arrests trichomonad growth and induces destruction of hydrogenosomes. (5/216)Trichomonad parasites such as Tritrichomonas foetus produce large amounts of putrescine (1,4-diaminobutane), which is transported out of the cell via an antiport mechanism which results in the uptake of a molecule of spermine. The importance of putrescine to the survival of the parasite and its role in the biology of T. foetus was investigated by use of the putrescine analogue 1, 4-diamino-2-butanone (DAB). Growth of T. foetus in vitro was significantly inhibited by 20 mM DAB, which was reversed by the addition of exogenous 40 mM putrescine. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of 20 mM DAB-treated T. foetus revealed that putrescine, spermidine, and spermine levels were reduced by 89, 52, and 43%, respectively, compared to those in control cells. The DAB treatment induced several ultrastructural alterations, which were primarily observed in the redox organelles termed hydrogenosomes. These organelles were progressively degraded, giving rise to large vesicles that displayed material immunoreactive with an antibody to beta-succinyl-coenzyme A synthetase, a hydrogenosomal enzyme. A protective role for polyamines as stabilizing agents in the trichomonad hydrogenosomal membrane is proposed. (+info)
Antizyme2 is a negative regulator of ornithine decarboxylase and polyamine transport. (6/216)The antizyme family consists of closely homologous proteins believed to regulate cellular polyamine pools. Antizyme1, the first described, negatively regulates ornithine decarboxylase, the initial enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway for polyamines. Antizyme1 targets ornithine decarboxylase for degradation and inhibits polyamine transport into cells, thereby diminishing polyamine pools. A polyamine-stimulated ribosomal frameshift is required for decoding antizyme1 mRNA. Recently, additional novel conserved members of the antizyme family have been described. We report here the properties of one of these, antizyme2. Antizyme2, like antizyme1, binds to ornithine decarboxylase and inhibits polyamine transport. Using a baculovirus expression system in cultured Sf21 insect cells, both antizymes were found to accelerate ornithine decarboxylase degradation. Expression of either antizyme1 or 2 in Sf21 cells also diminished their uptake of the polyamine spermidine. Both forms of antizyme can therefore function as negative regulators of polyamine production and transport. However, in contrast to antizyme1, antizyme2 has negligible ability to stimulate degradation of ornithine decarboxylase in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate. (+info)
The non-enzymatic hydrolysis of oligoribonucleotides VI. The role of biogenic polyamines. (7/216)Single-stranded oligoribonucleotides containing UA and CA phosphodiester bonds can be hydrolyzed specifically under non-enzymatic conditions in the presence of spermidine, a biogenic amine found in a wide variety of organisms. In the present study, the rate of oligonucleotide and tRNA(i)(Met)hydrolysis was measured in the presence of spermidine and other biogenic amines. It was found that spermine [H(3)N(+)(CH(2))(3)(+)NH(2)(CH(2))(4)(+)NH(2)(CH(2))(3)(+)NH(3)] and putrescine [H(3)N(+)(CH(2))(4)(+)NH(3)] can replace spermidine [H(3)N(+)-(CH(2))(4)(+)NH(2)(CH(2))(3)(+)NH(3)] to induce the hydrolysis. For all three polyamines, a bell-shaped cleavage rate versus concentration relationship was observed. The maximum rate of hydrolysis was achieved at 0.1, 1.0 and 10 mM spermine, spermidine and putrescine, respectively. Moreover, we found that the hydrolysis requires at least two linked amino groups since two aminoalcohols, 2-aminoethanol and 3-aminopropanol, were not able to induce the cleavage of the phospho-diester bond. The optimal cleavage rate of the oligo-ribonucleotides was observed when amino groups were separated by tri- or tetramethylene linkers. The methylation of the amino groups reduced the ability of diamines to induce oligoribonucleotide hydrolysis. Non-enzymatic cleavage of tRNA(i)(Met)from Lupinus luteus and tRNA(i)(Met)from Escherichia coli demonstrate that both RNAs hydrolyze as expected from principles derived from oligoribonucleotide models. (+info)
Polyamine regulation of plasma membrane phospholipid flip-flop during apoptosis. (8/216)During apoptosis, phosphatidylserine (PS) is moved from the plasma membrane inner leaflet to the outer leaflet where it triggers recognition and phagocytosis of the apoptotic cell. Although the mechanisms of PS appearance during apoptosis are not well understood, it is thought that declining activity of the aminophospholipid translocase and calcium-mediated, nonspecific flip-flop of phospholipids play a role. As previous studies in the erythrocyte ghost have shown that polyamines can alter flip-flop of phospholipids, we asked whether alterations in cellular polyamines in intact cells undergoing apoptosis would affect PS appearance, either by altering aminophospholipid translocase activity or phospholipid flip-flop. Cells of the human leukemic cell line, HL-60, were incubated with or without the ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor, difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), and induced to undergo apoptosis by ultraviolet irradiation. Whereas DFMO treatment resulted in profound depletion of putrescine and spermidine (but not spermine), it had no effect on caspase activity, DNA fragmentation, or plasma membrane vesiculation, typical characteristics of apoptosis. Notably, DFMO treatment prior to ultraviolet irradiation did not alter the decline in PS inward movement by the aminophospholipid translocase as measured by the uptake of 6-[(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)aminocaproyl] (NBD)-labeled PS detected in the flow cytometer. Conversely, the appearance of endogenous PS in the plasma membrane outer leaflet detected with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled annexin V and enhanced phospholipid flip-flop detected by the uptake of 1-palmitoyl-1-[6-[(7-nitro-2-1, 3-benzoxadiazol-4-yl)aminocaproyl]-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (NBD-PC) seen during apoptosis were significantly inhibited by prior DFMO treatment. Importantly, replenishment of spermidine, by treatment with exogenous putrescine to bypass the metabolic blockade by DFMO, restored both enhanced phospholipid flip-flop and appearance of PS during apoptosis. Such restoration was seen even in the presence of cycloheximide but was not seen when polyamines were added externally just prior to assay. Taken together, these data show that intracellular polyamines can modulate PS appearance resulting from nonspecific flip-flop of phospholipids across the plasma membrane during apoptosis. (+info)
Biogenic polyamines are organic compounds that contain multiple amino groups and are produced by living organisms. The most common biogenic polyamines found in mammalian cells include putrescine, spermidine, and spermine. These molecules play important roles in various cellular processes such as gene expression, cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). They are derived from the decarboxylation of amino acids, particularly ornithine and arginine, through enzymatic reactions involving polyamine biosynthetic pathways. Abnormal levels of biogenic polyamines have been associated with several diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative disorders.
Polyamines are organic compounds with more than one amino group (-NH2) and at least one carbon atom bonded to two or more amino groups. They are found in various tissues and fluids of living organisms and play important roles in many biological processes, such as cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). Polyamines are also involved in the regulation of ion channels and transporters, DNA replication and gene expression. The most common polyamines found in mammalian cells are putrescine, spermidine, and spermine. They are derived from the decarboxylation of amino acids such as ornithine and methionine. Abnormal levels of polyamines have been associated with various pathological conditions, including cancer and neurodegenerative diseases.
Spermine is a polyamine compound that is involved in various biological processes, including cell growth and differentiation, DNA packaging, and gene expression. It is synthesized from the amino acid ornithine through a series of enzymatic reactions and is found in high concentrations in tissues such as the prostate gland, liver, and brain. Spermine has been shown to have antioxidant properties and may play a role in protecting cells against oxidative stress. In addition, spermine has been implicated in the regulation of ion channels and receptors, and may be involved in the modulation of neuronal excitability.
Putrescine is an organic compound with the chemical formula NH2(CH2)4NH2. It is a colorless, viscous liquid that is produced by the breakdown of amino acids in living organisms and is often associated with putrefaction, hence its name. Putrescine is a type of polyamine, which is a class of organic compounds that contain multiple amino groups.
Putrescine is produced in the body through the decarboxylation of the amino acid ornithine by the enzyme ornithine decarboxylase. It is involved in various cellular processes, including the regulation of gene expression and cell growth. However, at high concentrations, putrescine can be toxic to cells and has been implicated in the development of certain diseases, such as cancer.
Putrescine is also found in various foods, including meats, fish, and some fruits and vegetables. It contributes to the unpleasant odor that develops during spoilage, which is why putrescine is often used as an indicator of food quality and safety.
Spermidine is a polycationic polyamine that is found in various tissues and fluids, including semen, from which it derives its name. It is synthesized in the body from putrescine, another polyamine, through the action of the enzyme spermidine synthase.
In addition to its role as a metabolic intermediate, spermidine has been shown to have various cellular functions, including regulation of gene expression, DNA packaging and protection, and modulation of enzymatic activities. It also plays a role in the process of cell division and differentiation.
Spermidine has been studied for its potential anti-aging effects, as it has been shown to extend the lifespan of various organisms, including yeast, flies, and worms, by activating autophagy, a process by which cells break down and recycle their own damaged or unnecessary components. However, more research is needed to determine whether spermidine has similar effects in humans.
Biogenic amines are organic compounds that are derived from the metabolic pathways of various biological organisms, including humans. They are formed by the decarboxylation of amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins. Some examples of biogenic amines include histamine, serotonin, dopamine, and tyramine.
Histamine is a biogenic amine that plays an important role in the immune system's response to foreign invaders, such as allergens. It is also involved in regulating stomach acid production and sleep-wake cycles. Serotonin is another biogenic amine that acts as a neurotransmitter, transmitting signals between nerve cells in the brain. It is involved in regulating mood, appetite, and sleep.
Dopamine is a biogenic amine that functions as a neurotransmitter and is involved in reward and pleasure pathways in the brain. Tyramine is a biogenic amine that is found in certain foods, such as aged cheeses and fermented soy products. It can cause an increase in blood pressure when consumed in large quantities.
Biogenic amines can have various effects on the body, depending on their type and concentration. In general, they play important roles in many physiological processes, but high levels of certain biogenic amines can be harmful and may cause symptoms such as headache, nausea, and hypertension.
Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a laboratory technique used to separate and analyze charged particles such as proteins, nucleic acids, and other molecules based on their size and charge. In CE, the sample is introduced into a narrow capillary tube filled with a buffer solution, and an electric field is applied. The charged particles in the sample migrate through the capillary towards the electrode with the opposite charge, and the different particles become separated as they migrate based on their size and charge.
The separation process in CE is monitored by detecting the changes in the optical properties of the particles as they pass through a detector, typically located at the end of the capillary. The resulting data can be used to identify and quantify the individual components in the sample. Capillary electrophoresis has many applications in research and clinical settings, including the analysis of DNA fragments, protein identification and characterization, and the detection of genetic variations.
Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is a type of infrared spectroscopy that uses the Fourier transform mathematical technique to convert the raw data obtained from an interferometer into a more interpretable spectrum. This technique allows for the simultaneous collection of a wide range of wavelengths, resulting in increased sensitivity and speed compared to traditional dispersive infrared spectroscopy.
FTIR spectroscopy measures the absorption or transmission of infrared radiation by a sample as a function of frequency, providing information about the vibrational modes of the molecules present in the sample. This can be used for identification and quantification of chemical compounds, analysis of molecular structure, and investigation of chemical interactions and reactions.
In summary, FTIR spectroscopy is a powerful analytical technique that uses infrared radiation to study the vibrational properties of molecules, with increased sensitivity and speed due to the use of Fourier transform mathematical techniques and an interferometer.
Biogenic amine receptors are a type of cell surface receptor that bind and respond to biogenic amines, which are naturally occurring compounds that function as neurotransmitters or hormones in the human body. These receptors play crucial roles in various physiological processes, including regulation of mood, appetite, sleep, and cognition.
Examples of biogenic amines include:
1. Dopamine (DA): Dopamine receptors are involved in motor control, reward processing, and motivation. They are divided into two main classes: D1-like (D1 and D5) and D2-like (D2, D3, and D4).
2. Serotonin (5-HT): Serotonin receptors regulate mood, appetite, sleep, and pain perception. There are seven distinct families of serotonin receptors (5-HT1 to 5-HT7), with multiple subtypes within each family.
3. Norepinephrine (NE): Also known as noradrenaline, norepinephrine receptors play a role in the "fight or flight" response, attention, and arousal. They are divided into two main classes: α-adrenergic (α1 and α2) and β-adrenergic (β1, β2, and β3).
4. Histamine (HA): Histamine receptors regulate allergic responses, wakefulness, and appetite. There are four types of histamine receptors (H1 to H4), with distinct functions and signaling pathways.
5. Acetylcholine (ACh): While not a biogenic amine, acetylcholine is often included in this category due to its similar role as a neurotransmitter. Acetylcholine receptors are involved in learning, memory, and muscle contraction. They can be further divided into muscarinic (M1-M5) and nicotinic (α and β subunits) receptor classes.
Biogenic amine receptors typically function through G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling pathways, although some can also activate ion channels directly. Dysregulation of biogenic amine systems has been implicated in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, depression, and schizophrenia.
Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is a medical/biochemical term that refers to an enzyme (EC 126.96.36.199) involved in the metabolism of amino acids, particularly ornithine. This enzyme catalyzes the decarboxylation of ornithine to form putrescine, which is a precursor for the synthesis of polyamines, such as spermidine and spermine. Polyamines play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and gene expression.
Ornithine decarboxylase is a rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis, meaning that its activity regulates the overall production of these molecules. The regulation of ODC activity is tightly controlled at multiple levels, including transcription, translation, and post-translational modifications. Dysregulation of ODC activity has been implicated in several pathological conditions, such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and inflammatory diseases.
Inhibitors of ornithine decarboxylase have been explored as potential therapeutic agents for various diseases, including cancer, due to their ability to suppress polyamine synthesis and cell proliferation. However, the use of ODC inhibitors in clinical settings has faced challenges related to toxicity and limited efficacy.
Eflornithine is a antiprotozoal medication, which is used to treat sleeping sickness (human African trypanosomiasis) caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in adults and children. It works by inhibiting the enzyme ornithine decarboxylase, which is needed for the growth of the parasite. By doing so, it helps to control the infection and prevent further complications.
Eflornithine is also used as a topical cream to slow down excessive hair growth in women due to a condition called hirsutism. It works by interfering with the growth of hair follicles.
It's important to note that Eflornithine should be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional, and it may have side effects or interactions with other medications.
Octopamine is not primarily used in medical definitions, but it is a significant neurotransmitter in invertebrates, including insects. It is the equivalent to noradrenaline (norepinephrine) in vertebrates and has similar functions related to the "fight or flight" response, arousal, and motivation. Insects use octopamine for various physiological processes such as learning, memory, regulation of heart rate, and modulation of muscle contraction. It also plays a role in the social behavior of insects like aggression and courtship.
Cadaverine is a foul-smelling organic compound that is produced by the breakdown of certain amino acids in dead bodies. It is formed through the decarboxylation of lysine, an essential amino acid, and is characterized by its strong, unpleasant odor. Cadaverine is often used as a forensic indicator of decomposition and is also being studied for its potential role in various physiological processes, such as inflammation and cancer.
Adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the biosynthesis of polyamines, which are essential molecules for cell growth and differentiation. The enzyme catalyzes the decarboxylation of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) to produce decarboxylated SAM, also known as deoxyadenosylcobalamin or coenzyme M.
Decarboxylated SAM serves as an aminopropyl group donor in the biosynthesis of polyamines such as spermidine and spermine. These polyamines are involved in various cellular processes, including DNA replication, transcription, translation, protein synthesis, and cell signaling.
AdoMetDC is a pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme that requires the cofactor vitamin B12 for its activity. It is found in various organisms, including bacteria, yeast, plants, and animals. In humans, AdoMetDC is encoded by the AMD1 gene and is localized mainly in the cytosol of cells.
Dysregulation of AdoMetDC activity has been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, targeting AdoMetDC with inhibitors or activators has emerged as a potential therapeutic strategy for treating these conditions.
'Diamines' are organic compounds containing two amino groups (-NH2) in their molecular structure. The term 'diamine' itself does not have a specific medical definition, but it is used in the context of chemistry and biochemistry.
Diamines can be classified based on the number of carbon atoms between the two amino groups. For example, ethylenediamine and propylenediamine are diamines with one and two methylene (-CH2-) groups, respectively.
In medicine, certain diamines may have biological significance. For instance, putrescine and cadaverine are polyamines that are produced during the decomposition of animal tissues and can be found in necrotic or infected tissues. These compounds have been implicated in various pathological processes, including inflammation, oxidative stress, and cancer progression.
It is important to note that while some diamines may have medical relevance, the term 'diamines' itself does not have a specific medical definition.
Biogenic monoamines are a type of neurotransmitter, which are chemical messengers that transmit signals in the brain and other parts of the nervous system. They are called "biogenic" because they are derived from biological substances, and "monoamines" because they contain one amine group (-NH2) and are derived from the aromatic amino acids: tryptophan, tyrosine, and phenylalanine.
Examples of biogenic monoamines include:
1. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT): synthesized from the amino acid tryptophan and plays a crucial role in regulating mood, appetite, sleep, memory, and learning.
2. Dopamine: formed from tyrosine and is involved in reward, motivation, motor control, and reinforcement of behavior.
3. Norepinephrine (noradrenaline): also derived from tyrosine and functions as a neurotransmitter and hormone that modulates attention, arousal, and stress responses.
4. Epinephrine (adrenaline): synthesized from norepinephrine and serves as a crucial hormone and neurotransmitter in the body's fight-or-flight response to stress or danger.
5. Histamine: produced from the amino acid histidine, it acts as a neurotransmitter and mediates allergic reactions, immune responses, and regulates wakefulness and appetite.
Imbalances in biogenic monoamines have been linked to various neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as depression, anxiety, Parkinson's disease, and schizophrenia. Therefore, medications that target these neurotransmitters, like selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for depression or levodopa for Parkinson's disease, are often used in the treatment of these conditions.
Ornithine is not a medical condition but a naturally occurring alpha-amino acid, which is involved in the urea cycle, a process that eliminates ammonia from the body. Here's a brief medical/biochemical definition of Ornithine:
Ornithine (NH₂-CH₂-CH₂-CH(NH₃)-COOH) is an α-amino acid without a carbon atom attached to the amino group, classified as a non-proteinogenic amino acid because it is not encoded by the standard genetic code and not commonly found in proteins. It plays a crucial role in the urea cycle, where it helps convert harmful ammonia into urea, which can then be excreted by the body through urine. Ornithine is produced from the breakdown of arginine, another amino acid, via the enzyme arginase. In some medical and nutritional contexts, ornithine supplementation may be recommended to support liver function, wound healing, or muscle growth, but its effectiveness for these uses remains a subject of ongoing research and debate.
Tyramine is not a medical condition but a naturally occurring compound called a biogenic amine, which is formed from the amino acid tyrosine during the fermentation or decay of certain foods. Medically, tyramine is significant because it can interact with certain medications, particularly monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), used to treat depression and other conditions.
The interaction between tyramine and MAOIs can lead to a hypertensive crisis, a rapid and severe increase in blood pressure, which can be life-threatening if not treated promptly. Therefore, individuals taking MAOIs are often advised to follow a low-tyramine diet, avoiding foods high in tyramine, such as aged cheeses, cured meats, fermented foods, and some types of beer and wine.
List of MeSH codes (D02)
Ligation (molecular biology)
Monoamine oxidase B
Spermine | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard Catalyst
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- Biogenic amines are organic bases with low molecular weight and are synthesized by microbial, vegetable and animal metabolisms. (wikipedia.org)
- Monoamine oxidase (MAO) breaks down biogenic amines and prevents excessive resorption. (wikipedia.org)
- Biogenic amines can be found in all foods containing proteins or free amino acids and are found in a wide range of food products including fish products, meat products, dairy products, wine, beer, vegetables, fruits, nuts and chocolate. (wikipedia.org)
- In non-fermented foods the presence of biogenic amines is mostly undesired and can be used as indication for microbial spoilage. (wikipedia.org)
- In fermented foods, one can expect the presence of many kinds of microorganisms, some of them being capable of producing biogenic amines. (wikipedia.org)
- Some lactic acid bacteria isolated from commercial bottled yoghurt have been shown to produce biogenic amines. (wikipedia.org)
- However, food containing high amounts of biogenic amines may have toxicological effects. (wikipedia.org)
- Biogenic amines are naturally present in grapes or can occur during the vinification and aging processes, essentially due to the microorganism's activity. (wikipedia.org)
- When present in wines in high amount, biogenic amines may cause not only organoleptic defects but also adverse effects in sensitive human individuals, namely due to the toxicity of histamine, tyramine and putrescine. (wikipedia.org)
- Even though there are no legal limits for the concentration of biogenic amines in wines, some European countries only recommend maximum limits for histamine. (wikipedia.org)
- In this sense, biogenic amines in wines have been widely studied. (wikipedia.org)
- What Are Biogenic Amines? (kemin.com)
- Biogenic amines are compounds formed during the normal metabolic functions of plants and animals. (kemin.com)
- 1 Many amines play important roles in human and animal physiological functions, 2,3 but a high accumulation of biogenic amines ingested from food can become a health hazard. (kemin.com)
- Not all biogenic amines have toxic effects and toxicity can vary based on the person or animal affected. (kemin.com)
- 1 However, high levels of biogenic amines in food can indicate microbial spoilage. (kemin.com)
- Once biogenic amines are formed, they are heat stable and cannot be destroyed by processing methods such as cooking, baking or canning. (kemin.com)
- 6 Histamine, tyramine, cadaverine, putrescine, spermine and spermidine are biogenic amines with potential toxicity effects in animals when ingested at high levels. (kemin.com)
- Due to this, it appears they have developed adaptive mechanisms to metabolize and detoxify biogenic amines, and domestic dogs and cats may still maintain some of these mechanisms. (kemin.com)
- There is a shortage of literature evaluating the precise effect of biogenic amines on dogs and cats due to ethical reasons. (kemin.com)
- However, studies have shown elevated levels of biogenic amines can cause food poisoning and detrimental effects on palatability and nutrition. (kemin.com)
- Impact of biogenic amines on food quality and safety. (kemin.com)
- Polyamines (PAs) are ubiquitous, polycationic biogenic amines that are implicated in many biological processes, including plant growth and development, but their precise roles remain to be determined. (ox.ac.uk)
- Most of the previous studies have involved three biogenic amines: putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm), and their derivatives. (ox.ac.uk)
- Basic principle involved in Biogenic amines biosensor is the action of diamine oxidase (DAO) that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of primary amines to the corresponding aldehydes, hydrogen peroxide and ammonia. (ijpsr.com)
- Biogenic amines concentration can be measured by monitoring either the decrease in oxygen or the increase of hydrogen peroxide concentration. (ijpsr.com)
- Nature of Biogenic amines is aliphatic, alicylic and heterocylic organic bases of low molecular weight. (ijpsr.com)
- To estimate bacterial spoilage, biogenic amines, especially putrescine, cadaverine and histamine, have been confirmed as useful chemical indicators 1 . (ijpsr.com)
- Biogenic amines (BAs) are a class of biologically-produced compounds that are found in plant and animal products such as cheeses, cured meats, and other fermented foods. (horscategoriebrewing.com)
- Biogenic amines seem to be produced in two different phases in spontaneously fermented beer - one from enterobacteria in the initial weeks and one from lactic acid bacteria after about 6 months. (horscategoriebrewing.com)
- A biogenic polyamine formed from spermidine. (harvard.edu)
- Spermidine is one of the most popular polyamine supplements to take. (com-fastleanpro.com)
- Spermidine is a natural substance that belongs to the class of biogenic polyamines and is found in all cells. (sunday.de)
- They also confirmed that nutritional intervention with the natural polyamine spermidine can prevent memory loss in aging model organisms. (springermedizin.at)
- Some biogenic amine like Histamine, cadaverine and putrescine have been confirmed as useful chemical indicators to estimate bacterial spoilage of foods, particularly fish and fish products, cheese, meat and fermented foods. (ijpsr.com)
- Quality assessment of fresh meat from several species based on free amino acid and biogenic amine contents during chilled storage. (kemin.com)
- Seif El-Yazal MA, Rady MM. Foliar-applied DormexTM or thiourea-enhanced proline and biogenic amine contents and hastened breaking bud dormancy in ''Ain Shemer'' apple trees. (innovareacademics.in)
- Some prominent examples of biogenic monoamines include: Monoamine neurotransmitters Imidazoleamines Histamine - a substance derived from the amino acid histidine that acts as a neurotransmitter mediating arousal and attention, as well as a pro-inflammatory signal released from mast cells in response to allergic reactions or tissue damage. (wikipedia.org)
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- 8 This index shows biogenic amine content in a food product and can be used to indicate freshness or spoilage. (kemin.com)
- Seif El-Yazal MA, Rady MM. Changes in nitrogen and polyamines during breaking bud dormancy in "Anna" apple trees with foliar application some compounds. (innovareacademics.in)
- For example, a 2021 study published in Medical Sciences found polyamines could help balance food, intestinal bacteria, and other body processes. (com-fastleanpro.com)
- Abnormal polyamine metabolism is unique to the neuropathic forms of MPS: potential for biomarker development and insight into pathogenesis. (harvard.edu)
- Diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D) demonstrated shifts in the metatranscriptome and metabolome including increased bile acids, polyamines, succinate pathway intermediates (malate, fumarate), and transcripts involved in fructose, mannose, and polyol metabolism compared to constipation-predominant IBS (IBS-C). A classifier incorporating metabolites and gene-normalized transcripts differentiated IBS-D from IBS-C with high accuracy (AUC 0.86). (biomedcentral.com)
- This compound belongs to the polyamines. (drugbank.com)
- In a 2022 study published in Cells, researchers found polyamine supplements could help promote a healthy, long human life. (com-fastleanpro.com)
- 13 C NMR quantification of polyamine syntheses in rat prostate. (harvard.edu)
- Researchers found polyamine supplements improved DNA methylation, which is associated with healthy aging. (com-fastleanpro.com)
- A biogenic amine is a biogenic substance with one or more amine groups. (wikipedia.org)
- Pet food manufacturers should control biogenic amine formation in raw materials and finished products to avoid detrimental effects to the food or pet consuming it. (kemin.com)
- Numerous positive effects of this polyamine on memory performance with respect to age-related memory loss were observed. (springermedizin.at)
- It really is converted to S-adenosylmethionine (John) that works as a precursor for most metabolites which include glycinebetaine, methylated polyols, polyamines and also ethylene which in turn accumulate inside plant life as a result of salinity. (mrt10inhibitor.com)
- To evaluate product freshness, pet food manufacturers can use the Biogenic Amine Index. (kemin.com)
- ALLINSUR™ FS has been shown to effectively control biogenic amine formation in raw materials. (kemin.com)
- A phase I dose-escalation study of the polyamine analog PG-11047 in patients with advanced solid tumors. (harvard.edu)
- Polyamines were first discovered in human sperm, which is also where spermadine's distinctive name comes from. (sunday.de)
- It has been reported since 2009 that polyamines extend animals' healthy lifespans by inducing autophagy. (com-fastleanpro.com)
- Biologically active polyamines in beef, pork and meat product: A review. (kemin.com)