Biogenic amines having only one amine moiety. Included in this group are all natural monoamines formed by the enzymatic decarboxylation of natural amino acids.
Cell surface proteins that bind biogenic amines with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the behavior of cells. Biogenic amine is a chemically imprecise term which, by convention, includes the catecholamines epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine, the indoleamine serotonin, the imidazolamine histamine, and compounds closely related to each of these.
A group of naturally occurring amines derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of the natural amino acids. Many have powerful physiological effects (e.g., histamine, serotonin, epinephrine, tyramine). Those derived from aromatic amino acids, and also their synthetic analogs (e.g., amphetamine), are of use in pharmacology.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
An alpha-adrenergic sympathomimetic amine, biosynthesized from tyramine in the CNS and platelets and also in invertebrate nervous systems. It is used to treat hypotension and as a cardiotonic. The natural D(-) form is more potent than the L(+) form in producing cardiovascular adrenergic responses. It is also a neurotransmitter in some invertebrates.
A family of vesicular amine transporter proteins that catalyze the transport and storage of CATECHOLAMINES and indolamines into SECRETORY VESICLES.
Integral membrane proteins of the LIPID BILAYER of SECRETORY VESICLES that catalyze transport and storage of biogenic amine NEUROTRANSMITTERS such as ACETYLCHOLINE; SEROTONIN; MELATONIN; HISTAMINE; and CATECHOLAMINES. The transporters exchange vesicular protons for cytoplasmic neurotransmitters.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
An indirect sympathomimetic. Tyramine does not directly activate adrenergic receptors, but it can serve as a substrate for adrenergic uptake systems and monoamine oxidase so it prolongs the actions of adrenergic transmitters. It also provokes transmitter release from adrenergic terminals. Tyramine may be a neurotransmitter in some invertebrate nervous systems.
An alkaloid found in the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina and R. vomitoria. Reserpine inhibits the uptake of norepinephrine into storage vesicles resulting in depletion of catecholamines and serotonin from central and peripheral axon terminals. It has been used as an antihypertensive and an antipsychotic as well as a research tool, but its adverse effects limit its clinical use.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
A deaminated metabolite of LEVODOPA.
A selective and irreversible inhibitor of tryptophan hydroxylase, a rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of serotonin (5-HYDROXYTRYPTAMINE). Fenclonine acts pharmacologically to deplete endogenous levels of serotonin.
A group of compounds that are methyl derivatives of the amino acid TYROSINE.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. It is a flavin-containing enzyme that is localized in mitochondrial membranes, whether in nerve terminals, the liver, or other organs. Monoamine oxidase is important in regulating the metabolic degradation of catecholamines and serotonin in neural or target tissues. Hepatic monoamine oxidase has a crucial defensive role in inactivating circulating monoamines or those, such as tyramine, that originate in the gut and are absorbed into the portal circulation. (From Goodman and Gilman's, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p415) EC 1.4.3.4.
A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Biogenic amines having more than one amine group. These are long-chain aliphatic compounds that contain multiple amino and/or imino groups. Because of the linear arrangement of positive charge on these molecules, polyamines bind electrostatically to ribosomes, DNA, and RNA.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
A chemically heterogeneous group of drugs that have in common the ability to block oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. (From Gilman, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p414)
A genus in the subfamily CALLITRICHINAE consisting of 12 species and found in Panama as well as South America. Species seen most frequently in the literature are S. oedipus (cotton-top marmoset), S. nigricollis, and S. fusicollis.
A group of metabolites derived from THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE via the peripheral enzymatic removal of iodines from the thyroxine nucleus. Thyronine is the thyroxine nucleus devoid of its four iodine atoms.
The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.
Amphetamine metabolite with sympathomimetic effects. It is sometimes called alpha-methyltyramine, which may also refer to the meta isomer, gepefrine.
The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)
Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized CONNECTIVE TISSUE located outside the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
Clusters of neuronal cell bodies in invertebrates. Invertebrate ganglia may also contain neuronal processes and non-neuronal supporting cells. Many invertebrate ganglia are favorable subjects for research because they have small numbers of functional neuronal types which can be identified from one animal to another.
A plant genus of the family MORACEAE. It is the source of the familiar fig fruit and the latex from this tree contains FICAIN.
The external and internal organs related to reproduction.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.
The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.
Drugs that act locally on cutaneous or mucosal surfaces to produce inflammation; those that cause redness due to hyperemia are rubefacients; those that raise blisters are vesicants and those that penetrate sebaceous glands and cause abscesses are pustulants; tear gases and mustard gases are also irritants.
A pathological condition manifested by failure to perfuse or oxygenate vital organs.
Sepsis associated with HYPOTENSION or hypoperfusion despite adequate fluid resuscitation. Perfusion abnormalities may include, but are not limited to LACTIC ACIDOSIS; OLIGURIA; or acute alteration in mental status.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of dopaminergic neurons. They remove DOPAMINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS and are the target of DOPAMINE UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Toxic asphyxiation due to the displacement of oxygen from oxyhemoglobin by carbon monoxide.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.

Ethanol exposure differentially alters central monoamine neurotransmission in alcohol-preferring versus -nonpreferring rats. (1/446)

Individual differences in ethanol preference may be linked to differences in the functional activity of forebrain monoamine systems or their sensitivity to modification by ethanol. To test this hypothesis, basal extracellular concentrations of dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) in the nucleus accumbens as well as the effects of repeated ethanol pretreatment on the basal release of these transmitters were examined in alcohol-preferring (P), alcohol-nonpreferring (NP), and genetically heterogeneous Wistar rats. All animals received i.p. injections of ethanol (1.0 g/kg) or saline for 5 consecutive days. Fifteen hours after the final pretreatment, basal extracellular concentrations and "in vivo extraction fraction" values for DA and 5-HT were determined by no-net-flux in vivo microdialysis. In ethanol-naive rats, significant line differences were observed with high basal 5-HT release in P rats, low 5-HT release in NP rats, and intermediate 5-HT levels in Wistar rats. No differences among groups were noted in basal DA release. Ethanol pretreatment decreased basal extracellular 5-HT levels in P rats whereas increasing 5-HT efflux was seen in the Wistar and NP lines. In addition, ethanol pretreatment increased extracellular DA concentrations in Wistar and P rats, but not in NP rats. The results confirm a relationship between the functional status of forebrain DA and 5-HT systems and ethanol preference or aversion. Moreover, the data suggest that ethanol exposure can alter basal DA and 5-HT in the nucleus accumbens and that vulnerability to ethanol-induced changes in monoamine neurotransmission may be a factor in genetically determined ethanol preference.  (+info)

Improvement by nefiracetam of beta-amyloid-(1-42)-induced learning and memory impairments in rats. (2/446)

1. We have previously demonstrated that continuous i.c.v. infusion of amyloid beta-peptide (A beta), the major constituent of senile plaques in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease, results in learning and memory deficits in rats. 2. In the present study, we investigated the effects of nefiracetam [N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-2-(2-oxo-1-pyrrolidinyl) acetamide, DM-9384] on A beta-(1-42)-induced learning and memory deficits in rats. 3. In the A beta-(1-42)-infused rats, spontaneous alternation behaviour in a Y-maze task, spatial reference and working memory in a water maze task, and retention of passive avoidance learning were significantly impaired as compared with A beta-(40-1)-infused control rats. 4. Nefiracetam, at a dose range of 1-10 mg kg(-1), improved learning and memory deficits in the A beta-(1-42)-infused rats when it was administered p.o. 1 h before the behavioural tests. 5. Nefiracetam at a dose of 3 mg kg(-1) p.o. increased the activity of choline acetyltransferase in the hippocampus of A beta-(1-42)-infused rats. 6. Nefiracetam increased dopamine turnover in the cerebral cortex and striatum of A beta-(1-42)-infused rats, but failed to affect the noradrenaline, serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid content. 7. These results suggest that nefiracetam may be useful for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer's disease.  (+info)

Dissociable deficits in the decision-making cognition of chronic amphetamine abusers, opiate abusers, patients with focal damage to prefrontal cortex, and tryptophan-depleted normal volunteers: evidence for monoaminergic mechanisms. (3/446)

We used a novel computerized decision-making task to compare the decision-making behavior of chronic amphetamine abusers, chronic opiate abusers, and patients with focal lesions of orbital prefrontal cortex (PFC) or dorsolateral/medial PFC. We also assessed the effects of reducing central 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) activity using a tryptophan-depleting amino acid drink in normal volunteers. Chronic amphetamine abusers showed suboptimal decisions (correlated with years of abuse), and deliberated for significantly longer before making their choices. The opiate abusers exhibited only the second of these behavioral changes. Importantly, both sub-optimal choices and increased deliberation times were evident in the patients with damage to orbitofrontal PFC but not other sectors of PFC. Qualitatively, the performance of the subjects with lowered plasma tryptophan was similar to that associated with amphetamine abuse, consistent with recent reports of depleted 5-HT in the orbital regions of PFC of methamphetamine abusers. Overall, these data suggest that chronic amphetamine abusers show similar decision-making deficits to those seen after focal damage to orbitofrontal PFC. These deficits may reflect altered neuromodulation of the orbitofrontal PFC and interconnected limbic-striatal systems by both the ascending 5-HT and mesocortical dopamine (DA) projections.  (+info)

Differential c-Fos expression in cholinergic, monoaminergic, and GABAergic cell groups of the pontomesencephalic tegmentum after paradoxical sleep deprivation and recovery. (4/446)

Multiple lines of evidence indicate that neurons within the pontomesencephalic tegmentum are critically involved in the generation of paradoxical sleep (PS). From single-unit recording studies, evidence suggests that unidentified but "possibly" cholinergic tegmental neurons discharge at higher rates during PS than during slow wave sleep or even waking and would thus play an active role, whereas "presumed" monoaminergic neurons cease firing during PS and would thus play a permissive role in PS generation. In the present study performed on rats, c-Fos immunostaining was used as a reflection of neuronal activity and combined with immunostaining for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), serotonin (Ser), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), or glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) for immunohistochemical identification of active neurons during PS recovery ( approximately 28% of recording time) as compared with PS deprivation (0%) and PS control (approximately 15%) conditions. With PS recovery, there was a significant increase in ChAT+/c-Fos+ cells, a significant decrease in Ser+/c-Fos+ and TH+/c-Fos+ cells, and a significant increase in GAD+/c-Fos+ cells. Across conditions, the percent PS was correlated positively with tegmental cholinergic c-Fos+ cells, negatively with raphe serotonergic and locus coeruleus noradrenergic c-Fos+ cells, and positively with codistributed and neighboring GABAergic c-Fos+ cells. These results support the hypothesis that cholinergic neurons are active, whereas monoaminergic neurons are inactive during PS. They moreover indicate that GABAergic neurons are active during PS and could thus be responsible for inhibiting neighboring monoaminergic neurons that may be essential in the generation of PS.  (+info)

Behavioral and neurochemical alterations evoked by p-Chlorophenylalanine application in rats examined in the light-dark crossing test. (5/446)

The aim of the present study is to examine the effects of serotonin synthesis inhibition with p-Chlorophenylalanine (p-CPA) in rats on (1) anxiety behavior examined in the light-dark crossing test and, (2) regional brain concentration of monoamines (NA, DA and 5-HT) and their metabolites (MHPG, DOPAC, HVA and 5-HIAA) as well as GABA in the hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, midbrain central gray matter and the frontal cortex. Treatment of animals with p-CPA produced a significant increase in time out from the illuminated part of the chamber and in time of locomotor activity in the illuminated part of the chamber. HPLC analysis showed a significant reduction of 5-HT and 5-HIAA concentration in all examined brain regions with the exception of the frontal cortex. Additionally, a significant decrease in DA and its metabolites, DOPAC and HVA occurred in the hypothalamus and amygdala. Moreover, we observed a significant decrease in frontal cortex NA concentration after p-CPA administration. The results of our study suggest that administration of p-CPA is effective in reduction of anxiety through depletion of 5-HT accompanied by diminution of catecholamines, especially DA and its metabolites in the main emotional brain regions.  (+info)

Cerebrospinal fluid monoaminergic metabolites differ in wild anubis and hybrid (Anubis hamadryas) baboons: possible relationships to life history and behavior. (6/446)

The article reports monoaminergic metabolite [homovanillic acid (HVA), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG)], values from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 27 wild baboons (Papio hamadryas) aged 40 to 140 months. Animals were either anubis, or anubis with hamadryas admixture; males of the latter subspecies generally have a reduced tendency to disperse from their natal groups. Overall, the values and interrelationships among the CSF monoamine metabolites resembled data reported from closely related, captive-housed animals. For example, age was significantly correlated with HVA concentrations (r = -60, p < .05), but not with the other metabolites. Notably, males characterized by hamadryas admixture had significantly higher concentrations of HVA, 5-HIAA, and MHPG (p < .05, respectively), a result possibly driven by differences in serotonergic activity. These data provide initial evidence that variation in central monoaminergic activity, as indicated by CSF monoamine metabolite concentrations, may reflect differences in behavior and life history that have taxonomic and, perhaps, evolutionary significance.  (+info)

Heat shock protein expression protects against cerebral ischemia and monoamine overload in rat heatstroke. (7/446)

This study attempted to ascertain whether the ischemic damage to neurons and monoamine overload in brain that occur during rat heatstroke can be attenuated by heat shock protein (HSP) 72 induction. Effects of heatstroke on mean arterial pressure (MAP), cerebral blood flow (CBF), brain dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) release, and neural damage score were assayed in rats 0, 16, or 48 h after heat shock (42 degrees C for 15 min) or chemical stress (5 mg/kg sodium arsenite ip). Brain HSP 72 in rats after heat shock or chemical stress was detected by Western blot, and brain monoamine was determined by a microdialysis probe combined with high-performance liquid chromatography. Heatstroke was induced by exposing the animal to a high ambient temperature (43 degrees C); the moment at which MAP and CBF decreased from their peak values was taken as the time of heatstroke onset. Prior heat shock or chemical stress conferred significant protection against heatstroke-induced hyperthermia, arterial hypotension, cerebral ischemia, cerebral DA and 5-HT overload, and neural damage and correlated with expression of HSP 72 in brain at 16 h. However, at 48 h, when HSP 72 expression returned to basal values, the above responses that occurred during the onset of heatstroke were indistinguishable between the two groups (0 h vs. 48 h). These results lead to the hypothesis that the brain can be preconditioned by thermal or chemical injury, that this preconditioning will induce HSP 72, and that HSP 72 induction will correlate quite well with anatomic, histochemical, and hemodynamic protection in rat heatstroke.  (+info)

Sensitization to the effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha: neuroendocrine, central monoamine, and behavioral variations. (8/446)

Consistent with the proposition that cytokines act as immunotransmitters between the immune system and the brain, systemic administration of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha; 1.0-4.0 microg) induced mild illness in CD-1 mice, increased plasma corticosterone concentrations, and altered central norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin turnover. The actions of TNF-alpha were subject to a time-dependent sensitization effect. After reexposure to a subeffective dose of the cytokine (1.0 microgram) 14-28 d after initial treatment, marked illness was evident (reduced consumption of a palatable substance and diminished activity and social exploration), coupled with an elevation of plasma corticosterone levels. In contrast, cytokine reexposure 1-7 d after initial treatment did not elicit illness, and at the 1 d interval the corticosterone response to the cytokine was reduced. The increase of norepinephrine release within the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, as reflected by elevated accumulation of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol, was augmented at the longer reexposure intervals. In contrast, within the central amygdala and the prefrontal cortex TNF-alpha reexposure at the 1 d interval was associated with a pronounced sensitization-like effect, which was not apparent at longer intervals. Evidently, systemic TNF-alpha proactively influences the response to subsequent treatment; however, the nature of the effects (i.e., the behavioral, neuroendocrine, and central transmitter alterations) vary over time after initial cytokine treatment. It is suggested that the sensitization may have important repercussions with respect to cognitive effects of TNF-alpha and may also be relevant to analyses of the neuroprotective or neurodestructive actions of cytokines.  (+info)

Although tricyclic antidepressants quickly activate monoaminergic neurotransmission, these drugs should be administered chronically to ease symptoms of depression. KI mice in compelled swim was decreased by severe administration of imipramine, demonstrating that lack of pMeCP2 will not impair severe pharmacological sensitivity to the drug. Pursuing chronic social beat tension, chronic administration of AZD2014 imipramine considerably improved social connections in the MeCP2 WT mice. In comparison, the MeCP2 KI mice didnt respond to persistent imipramine administration. These data recommend novel assignments for pMeCP2 in the awareness to tense stimuli and show that pMeCP2 is necessary for the consequences of persistent imipramine on depressive-like behaviors induced by persistent public defeat stress. INTRODUCTION Activation of monoamine receptors is vital towards the mechanism where tricyclic antidepressants and selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) alleviate symptoms of depression ...
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Regenerative Properties of Central Monoamine Neurons Studies in the Adult Rat Using Cerebral Iris Implants as Targets - 9783540072997 By A. Bjarklund, U. Stenevi, N. A. Svendgaard: Buy its Paperback Edition at lowest price online for Rs 1963 at BuyHatke.com.
Letters to the editor: This research was originally published in Journal of Biological Chemistry. Nuvolone M et al; Altered Monoaminergic Systems and Depressive-like Behavior in Congenic Prion Protein Knock-out Mice. J Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2015; 290:26350 © the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology ...
Trace amines are an endogenous group of trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) agonists - and hence, monoaminergic neuromodulators - that are structurally and metabolically related to classical monoamine neurotransmitters. Compared to the classical monoamines, they are present in trace concentrations. They are distributed heterogeneously throughout the mammalian brain and peripheral nervous tissues and exhibit high rates of metabolism. Although they can be synthesized within parent monoamine neurotransmitter systems, there is evidence that suggests that some of them may comprise their own independent neurotransmitter systems. Trace amines play significant roles in regulating the quantity of monoamine neurotransmitters in the synaptic cleft of monoamine neurons with co-localized TAAR1. They have well-characterized presynaptic amphetamine-like effects on these monoamine neurons via TAAR1 activation; specifically, by activating TAAR1 in neurons they promote the release and prevent reuptake of ...
PD is a neurodegenerative disorder that results from DAergic neuronal death in the SNpc (Dauer and Przedborski, 2003), resulting in motor deficits as well as non-motor symptoms, such as mood dysregulation. DAergic neuron degeneration is more concentrated in the SNpc ventral tier than the SNpc dorsal tier and VTA, suggesting that SN and VTA DAergic neurons have different susceptibilities to degeneration in PD (Brichta and Greengard, 2014). Ventral SNpc DAergic neurons innervate not only the striatum (Cebrián and Prensa, 2010) but also the PFC (Björklund and Dunnett, 2007), which is implicated in PD with depression (Aarsland et al., 2011). Thus, the SNpc ventral tier may be implicated in both the motor and non-motor symptoms of PD. Approximately 45% of patients with PD experience depression (Burn, 2002; Chaudhuri and Schapira, 2009), and 50% have comorbid anxiety (Brown et al., 2011). Although the etiology of mood disorders in PD is unclear, dysfunctional monoaminergic neurotransmission is ...
Dopamine (DA) is a central monoamine neurotransmitter involved in many physiological and pathological processes. A longstanding yet largely unmet goal is to measure DA changes reliably and specifically with high spatiotemporal precision, particularly in animals executing complex behaviors. Here, we …
The SSRIs, although principally targeting serotonin transporter, are complex drugs that might work on other neurotransmitter and receptor systems. It is likely worthwhile to look at the effects of other monoamine and neuropeptide systems on the enzymatic machinery cleaving the amyloid precursor protein.
Obter este item de uma biblioteca Endocannabinoid regulation of monoamines in psychiatric and neurological disorders. [Elisabeth J Van Bockstaele;] -- The past two decades have seen a tremendous growth in knowledge related to cannabinoid receptor signaling in brain. In addition, the impact and consequences of cannabinoid modulation of monoaminergic ...
Two types of gonadotropin: gonadotropin I (GTH-I) and gonadotropin II (GTH-II) have been demonstrated in many teleosts (Kawauchi et al, 1989, (Swanson and Dittman, 1997). (Prat et al. (1996) and (Swan...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Brain biogenic amine levels after methanol administration. T2 - Possible mechanism of action of central monoaminergic neurons in discrete areas of brain in Wistar rats. AU - Jeganathan, P. S.. AU - Namasivayam, A.. PY - 1989/1/1. Y1 - 1989/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0024396801&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0024396801&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 2592039. AN - SCOPUS:0024396801. VL - 33. SP - 151. EP - 156. JO - Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology. JF - Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology. SN - 0019-5499. IS - 3. ER - ...
Previous studies suggest that sodium fluoride (NaF) can impair performance in some memory tasks, such as open-field habituation and two-way active avoidanc
The purpose of the present study was to examine the combined effects of aging and lifelong ethanol exposure on the levels of monoamine neurotransmitters in different regions of the brain. This work is part of a project addressing interactions of aging and lifelong ethanol consumption in alcohol-preferring AA (Alko Alcohol) line of rats, selected for high voluntary consumption of ethanol. Intake of ethanol on the level of 4.5-5 g/kg/day for about 20 months induced only limited changes in the neurotransmitter levels; the concentration of noradrenaline was significantly reduced in the frontal cortex. There was also a trend towards lower levels of dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the frontal cortex, and towards a lower noradrenaline level in the dorsal cortex. Aging was associated with a decreased concentration of dopamine in the dorsal cortex and with a declining trend in the striatum. The levels of 5-HT in the limbic forebrain were higher in the aged than in the young animals, and in the
Triple reuptake inhibitors (TRIs) are compounds designed to block the serotonin, noradrenaline, and dopamine transporters, enhancing monoaminergic neurotransmission, and are seen as a promising advance in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders (Marks et al., 2008). GSK1360707 is a novel TRI that has been shown to be potent and selective, with excellent in vitro and in vivo profiles [see compound 17 in Micheli et al. (2010); for structure, see Teller and Furstner (2011)].. Until recently, GSK1360707 was being developed for the treatment of major depressive disorder. Current therapies for major depressive disorders typically have response rates of 50-65% (Weinmann et al., 2008) and clinically meaningful activity only after 2 to 4 weeks (Montgomery, 1997). It is hypothesized that the blockade of the three monoamine transporters will improve tolerability, speed of onset, response, and remission rates. An effective TRI could reduce the need to use multiple psychoactive medications in individual ...
This review summarizes the major discussion points of a symposium on stress modulation of cognitive and affective processes, which was held during the 2010 workshop on the neurobiology of stress (Boulder, CO, USA). The four discussants addressed a number of specific cognitive and affective factors that are modulated by exposure to acute or repeated stress. Dr David Morilak discussed the effects of various repeated stress situations on cognitive flexibility, as assessed with a rodent model of attentional set-shifting task, and how performance on slightly different aspects of this test is modulated by different prefrontal regions through monoaminergic neurotransmission. Dr Serge Campeau summarized the findings of several studies exploring a number of factors and brain regions that regulate habituation of various autonomic and neuroendocrine responses to repeated audiogenic stress exposures. Dr Kerry Ressler discussed a body of work exploring the modulation and extinction of fear memories in ...
Altered concentrations of monoamine neurotransmitters and metabolites have been repeatedly found in people with Down syndrome (DS, trisomy 21). Because of the limited availability of human post-mortem tissue, DS mouse models are of great interest to study these changes and the underlying neurobiological mechanisms. Although previous studies have shown the potential of Ts65Dn mice - the most widely used mouse model of DS to model noradrenergic changes, a comprehensive monoaminergic characterization in multiple brain regions has not been performed so far. Here, we used RP-HPLC with electrochemical detection to quantify (nor)adrenergic (NA, adrenaline and MHPG), dopaminergic (DA, HVA and DOPAC), and serotonergic compounds (tryptophan, 5-HT and 5-HIAA) in ten regionally dissected brain regions of Ts65Dn mice, as well as in Dp1Tyb mice - a novel DS mouse model. Comparing young adult aneuploid mice (2.5-5.5 months) with their euploid WT litter mates did not reveal generalized monoaminergic ...
Our present neurochemical and behavioral data show, for the first time, that (1) insulin enhances cocaine-sensitive monoamine transporter function in rat NAc, thereby displaying brain-region specificity, and (2) NAc insulin reduces impulsive behavior and enhances cocaine-induced impulsivity, in agreement with the crucial role of monoamine neurotransmission in the NAc in inhibitory response control. Therefore, the pancreatic hormone insulin may play a role in inhibitory control deficits such as that observed in drug abuse, obesity, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).. Considering the involvement of insulin in cognitive and motivational processes that depend on DA neurotransmission, insulin receptors and their downstream substrates (IRS-2 and PI3K) in rat brain are densely expressed in DA neurons within the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and activation of these receptors enhances PI3K activity and DAT mRNA expression (Figlewicz et al., 1994; Pardini et al., 2006; Figlewicz and ...
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a chronic condition that affects one in six adults in the US during their lifetime. The current practice of antidepressant medication prescription is a trial-and-error process. Additionally, over a third of patients with MDD fail to respond to two or more antidepressant treatments. There are no valid clinical markers to personalize currently available antidepressant medications, all of which have similar mechanisms targeting monoamine neurotransmission. The goal of this review is to summarize the recent findings of immune dysfunction in patients with MDD, the utility of inflammatory markers to personalize treatment selection, and the potential of targeting inflammation to develop novel antidepressant treatments ...
Theories about the aetiology of unipolar depression have been dominated by biological formulations which stress the role of abnormal neurotransmitter pathways in its development and maintenance. Among the brain neurotransmitters involved in depression, serotonin (5-HT), noradrenalin (NA) and dopamine (DA; the monoamine neurotransmitter) remain the main ones which are also implicated in the regulation of sleep cycles, motivation and appetite. Recent theories about neurotransmitter dysfunction have asserted that abnormalities in receptor density and sensitivity results in changes in neurotransmitter availability. Other recent theories have implicated hyperactivity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in the development of depression. Overactivity of the HPA axis, which results in the over-production of stress hormones such as cortisol, affects the way in which monoamine neurotransmitters work in the brain. These are intriguing ideas that warrant further investigation for developing ...
The monoamine neurotransmitters (dopamine [DA], norepinephrine [NE], epinephrine, serotonin, and histamine), the related small molecule neurotransmitter, acetylcholine (ACh), and the neuropeptides, orexin A and B, have an unusual but functionally significant organization in the brain. Their cell bodies are restricted to a small number of nuclei in the brainstem, hypothalamus, and basal forebrain, but their axons project widely throughout the central nervous system. This widely projecting organization permits each of these neurotransmitters to modulate activity in diverse circuits, sometimes in a coordinated fashion. ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Serotonin (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter found in the peripheral and central nervous system. It is responsible for regulating a wide variety of physiological processes and higher CNS functions. 5-HT neurons project diffusely throughout the brain, innervating the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, midbrain, brainstem and cerebellum, and play a prominent role in regulating physiological and behavioral responses such as arousal, thermoregulation, anxiety, and affect.. All subjects will undergo written informed consent and a screening evaluation including baseline clinical laboratory testing, and a baseline physical and neurological evaluation. healthy subjects will undergo a baseline 123-I MZINT injection and SPECT imaging described below. At baseline, healthy subjects will be started on either no treatment (n=4), or one of three different doses of sertraline (25 mg/day n=2, 50 mg/day n=2 or 150 mg/day n=2), which will be administered over a 14 day period. Fourteen days following ...
A monoamine neurotransmitter, serotonin involves many sensory and higher centers in the brain including memory, appetite, sleep, and learning.
The importance of ventral midbrain (VM) dopamine (DA) synaptic activity is clear from their roles in motor, learning and behavioral disorders, including drug de...
FALLING in love can be addictive. When we are smitten our brains surge with chemicals called monoamines which make us excited, happy and contented.
OBJECTIVES: To serially assess changes in lumbar CSF biogenic amines, radiographic characteristics, and neurological signs in 34 patients with dominantly inherited ataxia. METHODS: Mutational analysis was used to identify genetic subgroups. Annual assessment of lumbar CSF monoamine metabolites using a gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric method and morphometric measurements of the cerebellum, pons, and the cervical spinal cord on MRI were analysed for each patient and compared with normal controls. RESULTS: Patients with CAG trinucleotide repeat expansions on chromosome 6p (mutSCA1) and chromosome 14q (mutSCA3) had only about one half the normal concentrations of lumbar CSF homovanillic acid (HVA) whereas, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) concentrations were similar to those in age matched normal subjects. The HVA and 5-HIAA concentrations in clinically similar patients without mutSCA1 or mutSCA3 were normal. One year after the first study, HVA concentrations were reduced by a mean of 22% ...
Spinal cord neurons active during locomotion are innervated by descending axons that release the monoamines serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) and these neurons express monoaminergic receptor subtypes implicated in the control of locomotion. The timing, level and spinal locations of release of these two substances during centrally-generated locomotor activity should therefore be critical to this control. These variables were measured in real time by fast-cyclic voltammetry in the decerebrate cats lumbar spinal cord during fictive locomotion, which was evoked by electrical stimulation of the mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) and registered as integrated activity in bilateral peripheral nerves to hindlimb muscles. Monoamine release was observed in dorsal horn (DH), intermediate zone/ventral horn (IZ/VH) and adjacent white matter (WM) during evoked locomotion. Extracellular peak levels (all sites) increased above baseline by 138 ± 232.5 nM and 35.6 ± 94.4 nM (mean ± SD) for NE and 5-HT,
The primary research focus of my laboratory is to understand the role of the central monoaminergic systems in brain function and behavior. More specifically we are concerned with the anatomy, physiology, and molecular biology of the brainstem noradrenergic and serotonergic efferent systems as they relate to executive functions and the sensory processing capabilities of the organism. These studies employ a broad spectrum of neuroanatomical, electrophysiological, and molecular profiling techniques including single and multi-unit extracellular recording from anesthetized and waking animals, computer based acquisition and analysis of spike train data, mapping of monoamine projections from source nuclei using retrograde tracer substances, single cell laser capture and qRT-PCR profiling of specific neuronal sub-types. The underlying theme of this work is that synaptically released norepinephrine and serotonin operate in mammalian brain as complimentary neuromodulatory substances; regulating the ...
A neurochemical is a small organic molecule or peptide that participates in neural activity. The science of neurochemistry studies the functions of neurochemicals. Glutamate is the most common neurotransmitter. Most neurons secrete with glutamate or GABA. Glutamate is excitatory, meaning that the release of glutamate by one cell usually causes adjacent cells to fire an action potential. (Note: Glutamate is chemically identical to the MSG commonly used to flavor food.) GABA is an example of an inhibitory neurotransmitter. Monoamine neurotransmitters: Dopamine is a monoamine neurotransmitter. It plays a key role in the functioning of the limbic system, which is involved in emotional function and control. It also is involved in cognitive processes associated with movement, arousal, executive function, body temperature regulation, and pleasure and reward, and other processes. Norepinephrine, also known as noradrenaline, is a monoamine neurotransmitter that is involved in arousal, pain perception, ...
Clinical studies have shown that lamotrigine has some beneficial antidepressant effects in major depressive episodes (Normann et al., 2002; Barbosa et al., 2003; Barbee et al., 2011), whereas currently there are no clinical studies for the use of carisbamate in mood disorders. However, carisbamate and lamotrigine present some similarities in that their main mechanism of action is at VGSCs, and they both have antidepressant-like effects in the FST model of depression; hence their comparison may allow a better understanding of their preclinical and clinical effects.. Carisbamate and lamotrigine administration for both 2 and 14 days resulted in a decrease in DRN 5-HT neuronal firing activity. The latter result may not be due to an acute increase in 5-HT, as it was reported that lamotrigine (20 mg/kg), when administered systemically, dose-dependently decreases the extracellular 5-HT levels in the DRN (Tanahashi et al., 2012). Alternatively, previous in vitro evidence indicates that ionotropic ...
Milnacipran, an antidepressant that inhibits monoamine reuptake, is widely used in the treatment of depression and fibromyalgia. In this study, we sou
During exercise, there is a progressive reduction in the ability to produce muscle force. Processes within the nervous system as well as within the muscles contribute to this fatigue. In addition to impaired function of the motor system, sensations associated with fatigue and impairment of homeostasis can contribute to the impairment of performance during exercise. This review discusses some of the neural changes that accompany exercise and the development of fatigue. The role of brain monoaminergic neurotransmitter systems in whole-body endurance performance is discussed, particularly with regard to exercise in hot environments. Next, fatigue-related alterations in the neuromuscular pathway are discussed in terms of changes in motor unit firing, motoneuron excitability, and motor cortical excitability. These changes have mostly been investigated during single-limb isometric contractions. Finally, the small-diameter muscle afferents that increase firing with exercise and fatigue are discussed. ...
Neurotransmitter transporters terminate synaptic neurotransmission by accumulating neurotransmitters once again after release in a sodium- and chloride-dependent fashion. The availability of the cloned neurotransmitter transporters has allowed investigation into the roles of these transporters in neuronal function. Molecular biological and protein engineering studies including in vitro site-directed mutagenesis, chimera formation of several transporter clones, or epitope-tagging various regions of transporter proteins, have revealed the topology and functionally mapped the transporter proteins. Monoamine neurotransmitter transporters such as those for dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin are of interest, since they are a target of drugs of abuse and are involved in neuronal disorders including Parkinsons disease and depression. Therefore, elucidating the molecular basis of these transporters may clarify these problems and help develop treatments with which to combat these disorders and drug ...
The dopamine-derived tetrahydroisoquinolines (TIQ) synthesized endogeneously from aldehydes and catecholamines have shown to modulate neurotransmission, central metabolism and motor activity. Converging evidence has implicated abnormalities of the dopamine metabolism to the pathophysiology of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Therefore, four TIQ derivatives involved in central dopamine metabolism (salsolinol, N-methyl-salsolinol, norsalsolinol, N-methyl-norsalsolinol) have been analyzed for the first time in children and adolescents with ADHD and healthy controls. 42 children and adolescents with ADHD and 24 controls from three sites participated in this pilot study. Free and bound amounts of salsolinol, N-methyl-salsolinol, norsalsolinol, N-methyl-norsalsolinol have been analyzed in urine. In the ADHD group, free and total amounts of the four TIQ derivatives in urine were significantly higher compared to urine levels of healthy controls. For N-methyl-salsolinolfree, most of the ADHD
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of exercise and bryostatin-1 on serotonin dynamics after cerebral infarction. AU - Mizutani, Kenmei. AU - Sonoda, Shigeru. AU - Wakita, Hideaki. AU - Okazaki, Hideto. AU - Katoh, Yoshimitsu. AU - Chihara, Takeshi. AU - Shimpo, Kan. PY - 2016/6/15. Y1 - 2016/6/15. N2 - Although it has been suggested that the combination of exercise and bryostatin-1 administration may induce greater functional recovery than exercise alone, the detailed molecular mechanisms are not well known. Here, we examined the relationship between this combination treatment and monoamine dynamics in the cerebral cortex peri-infarction area to promote our understanding of these molecular mechanisms. Experimental cerebral cortex infarctions were produced by photothrombosis in rats. Voluntary exercise was initiated 2 days after surgery. Motor performance was then measured using the rotarod test. Monoamine concentrations in the perilesional cortex were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. In ...
Dopamine D1 and D2 Receptors in Chronic Mild Stress: Analysis of Dynamic Receptor Changes in an Animal Model of Depression Using In Situ Hybridization and Autoradiography Depression is a multifaceted illness that involves altered monoamine neurotransmission. Many monoamine receptor subtypes (e.g., dopamine D1 and D2) demonstrate altered expression levels in depressed patients and animal models of depression. Currently, there are an increasing number of molecular and biochemical studies on the mechanism of stress resilience. In this chapter, we describe a chronic mild stress (CMS) procedure along with in situ hybridization and autoradiography protocols to study changes in brain dopamine receptor expression of rats subjected to CMS. Chronic mild stress procedure (CMS) is one of few behavioral animal models of depression, and this model has good construct, face, and predictive validity. Moreover, approximately 30 % of rats exposed to stress regimen are stress resilient. There are numerous ...
IPED2015 is a novel drug candidate in preclinical phase for treatment of Erectile Dysfunction (ED). IPED2015 has a unique dual monoamine (serotonin-dopamine) reuptake inhibition profile distinct from the known monoamine reuptake inhibitors. IPED2015 is one out of about 200 analogues that showed unique erectile properties. The knowledge about Structure Activity Relationship (SAR) within the field of monoamine reuptake inhibitors was built from about 2000 chemical structures and the range of diversity was partly illustrated in a scientific publication (Jørgensen et al. 2008). In agreement with both in vitro and in vivo measures of the ability to inhibit DA transporter function, IPED2015 induced slow-on/slow-off increases in locomotor activity when tested in mice habituated to the test environment that support a non-abuse profile. IPED2015 was found to be selective for the relevant molecular targets in the MDS LeadProfilingScreen, consisting of 67 different receptors, transporters and ion ...
Nerve cells are organized into complex networks that comprise the building blocks of our nervous system. Neurons communicate by transmitting messenger molecules released from synaptic vesicles. Alterations in neuronal circuitry and synaptic signaling contribute to a wide range of neurological conditions, often with consequences for movement. Intrinsic neuronal networks in the spinal cord serve to coordinate vital rhythmic motor functions. In spite of extensive efforts to address the organization of these neural circuits, much remains to be revealed regarding the identity and function of specific interneuron cell types and how neuromodulation tune network activity. In this thesis, two novel genes initially identified as markers for spinal neuronal populations were investigated: Slc10a4 and Dmrt3.. The orphan transporter SLC10A4 was found to be expressed on synaptic vesicles of the cholinergic system, including motor neurons, as well as in the monoaminergic system, including dopaminergic, ...
Serotonin (also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT), is a monoamine neurotransmitter affecting the serotonin receptors (5-HT1-7). Serotonin is primarily found in the gastrointestinal tract, platelets, and in the central nervous system of animals including humans.[citation needed] It is popularly thought to be a contributor to feelings of well-being and happiness.
When a medical professional hears the word depression, the first thought that often comes to mind is serotonin. In fact, most clinicians interpret depression as a monoamine neurotransmitter imbalance, making serotonin, dopamine and/or adrenaline the primary targets for most conventional first-line antidepressant treatments. Although these treatments have been shown to be effective, very little thought is put into the mechanisms by which these so-called neurotransmitter imbalances occur. At the extreme end of evaluation are expensive urine, saliva and blood tests that can be ordered to determine these imbalances. Yet most would still agree that the delicate interplay of neurotransmitters in an individual patient suffering from depression is not always easy to interpret or treat.. The reality is that depression is one of the most prevalent dis-ease states in North America. Diagnosed depression affects roughly 17.5 to 20 million North Americans; in a 2005 study, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control ...
Millan MJ, Newman-Tancredi A, Rivet JM, Brocco M, Lacroix P, Audinot V, Cistarelli L, Gobert A. (1997). S 15535, a novel benzodioxopiperazine ligand of serotonin (5-HT)1A receptors: I. Interaction with cloned human (h)5-HT1A, dopamine hD2/hD3 and h alpha2A-adrenergic receptors in relation to modulation of cortical monoamine release and activity in models of potential antidepressant activity. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 282 (1): 132-147. PMID 9223549. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Individual differences in amphetamine sensitization, behavior and central monoamines. AU - Scholl, Jamie L.. AU - Feng, Na. AU - Watt, Michael J.. AU - Renner, Kenneth J.. AU - Forster, Gina L.. PY - 2009/3/2. Y1 - 2009/3/2. N2 - Repeated amphetamine treatment results in behavioral sensitization in a high percentage of rats. Alterations to plasma corticosterone, neural monoamines and stress behavior can accompany amphetamine sensitization. Whether these changes occur following repeated amphetamine treatment in the absence of behavioral sensitization is not known. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with amphetamine (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline once daily for 6 days. Amphetamine-induced locomotion and stereotypy, open-field anxiety behavior, plasma corticosterone and limbic monoamines were measured during withdrawal. Sixty-two percent of amphetamine-treated rats showed behavioral sensitization over the test periods. Only amphetamine-sensitized rats showed increased latency to ...
After Golgi-Cajal mapped neural circuits, the discovery and mapping of the central monoamine neurons opened up for a new understanding of interneuronal communication by indicating that another form of communication exists. For instance, it was found that dopamine may be released as a prolactin inhibitory factor from the median eminence, indicating an alternative mode of dopamine communication in the brain. Subsequently, the analysis of the locus coeruleus noradrenaline neurons demonstrated a novel type of lower brainstem neuron that monosynaptically and globally innervated the entire CNS. Furthermore, the ascending raphe serotonin neuron systems were found to globally innervate the forebrain with few synapses, and where deficits in serotonergic function appeared to play a major role in depression. We propose that serotonin reuptake inhibitors may produce antidepressant effects through increasing serotonergic neurotrophism in serotonin nerve cells and their targets by transactivation of receptor tyrosine
Serotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter that plays important roles in physiological functions such as learning and memory, emotion, sleep, pain, motor function and endocrine secretion, as well as in pathological states including abnormal mood and cognition. Once released from presynaptic axonal terminals, 5-HT binds to receptors, which have been divided into 7 subfamilies on the basis of conserved structures and signaling mechanisms. These families include the ionotropic 5-HT3 receptors and G-protein-coupled 5-HT receptors, the 5-HT1 (Gi /Go -coupled), 5-HT2(Gq-coupled), 5-HT4/6/7 (Gs-coupled) and 5-HT5 receptors. Presynaptically localized 5-HT1B receptors are thought to be the autoreceptors that suppress excess 5-HT release. 5-HTs actions are terminated by transporter- mediated reuptake into neurons, leading to catabolism by monoamine oxidase ...
Serotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter that plays important roles in physiological functions such as learning and memory, emotion, sleep, pain, motor function and endocrine secretion, as well as in pathological states including abnormal mood and cognition. Once released from presynaptic axonal terminals, 5-HT binds to receptors, which have been divided into 7 subfamilies on the basis of conserved structures and signaling mechanisms. These families include the ionotropic 5-HT3 receptors and G-protein-coupled 5-HT receptors, the 5-HT1 (Gi /Go -coupled), 5-HT2(Gq-coupled), 5-HT4/6/7 (Gs-coupled) and 5-HT5 receptors. Presynaptically localized 5-HT1B receptors are thought to be the autoreceptors that suppress excess 5-HT release. 5-HTs actions are terminated by transporter- mediated reuptake into neurons, leading to catabolism by monoamine oxidase ...
Monoamine oxidase or MAO, an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of monoamines, has been correlated with the regulation of various neurochemicals, such as norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine, which in turn, reflect behavior. A defect in the MAO-A gene, leading to a shorter version of the gene and less expression of the enzyme is linked to higher levels of norepinephrine and serotonin, since these monoamine neurotransmitters cannot be broken down at the post-synaptic cell. High levels of norepinephrine and serotonin, combined with maltreatment, lead to individuals with higher anxiety, agitation, aggression, and anti-social behavior. These behavioral disorders caused by the shorter MAO gene, also known as the warrior gene, have been associated with an increase in criminal behaviors in individuals³. Studies using animal models have shown a correlation between higher norepinephrine and serotonin levels and increased aggression when the MAO enzyme is inhibited¹. Other experiments held out on ...
Introduction: This study was conducted against a background of the following four points: a) increased drinking behavior in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), b) the parallel between some behaviours associated with ADHD and with hypertension, c) the use of the spontaneously hypertensive rat as a model for ADHD, and d) similarities in the changes of neuropeptide-Y (NPY) and catecholamine in the studies of hypertension and drinking, Methods: Measures of NPY, catecholamines and electrolyte balance were compared in the plasma and urine of healthy children and those with ADHD. Drinking was monitored during three hours of neuropsychological tests over two days in 14 ADHD (mean 9.8 years-of-age) and 9 healthy children (10.6 years-of-age). Results: Patients drank 4 times more water and showed twice the levels of NPY in controls. In controls there were positive and in patients there were negative relationships for NPY with drinking and restless behavior. Patients plasma ...
Introduction: This study was conducted against a background of the following four points: a) increased drinking behavior in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), b) the parallel between some behaviours associated with ADHD and with hypertension, c) the use of the spontaneously hypertensive rat as a model for ADHD, and d) similarities in the changes of neuropeptide-Y (NPY) and catecholamine in the studies of hypertension and drinking, Methods: Measures of NPY, catecholamines and electrolyte balance were compared in the plasma and urine of healthy children and those with ADHD. Drinking was monitored during three hours of neuropsychological tests over two days in 14 ADHD (mean 9.8 years-of-age) and 9 healthy children (10.6 years-of-age). Results: Patients drank 4 times more water and showed twice the levels of NPY in controls. In controls there were positive and in patients there were negative relationships for NPY with drinking and restless behavior. Patients plasma ...
Serotonin (/ˌsɛrəˈtoʊnᵻn, ˌsɪərə-/) or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter. Biochemically derived from tryptophan, serotonin is primarily found in the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract), blood platelets, and the central nervous system (CNS) of animals, including humans. It is popularly thought to be a contributor to feelings of well-being and happiness. Approximately 90% of the human bodys total serotonin is located in the enterochromaffin cells in the GI tract, where it is used to regulate intestinal movements. The serotonin is secreted luminally and basolaterally which ...
Serotonin (/ˌsɛrəˈtoʊnᵻn, ˌsɪərə-/) or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter. Biochemically derived from tryptophan, serotonin is primarily found in the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract), blood platelets, and the central nervous system (CNS) of animals, including humans. It is popularly thought to be a contributor to feelings of well-being and happiness. Approximately 90% of the human bodys total serotonin is located in the enterochromaffin cells in the GI tract, where it is used to regulate intestinal movements. The serotonin is secreted luminally and basolaterally which ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Autoradiography of monoamine uptake in Molluscan ganglia. AU - Elekes, K.. PY - 1978/1/1. Y1 - 1978/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0018084061&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0018084061&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0018084061. VL - 10. SP - S268. JO - Neuroscience Letters. JF - Neuroscience Letters. SN - 0304-3940. IS - suppl. 1. ER - ...
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PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
5-HIAA is a metabolite of serotonin, a chemical/neurotransmitter that is needed by the nervous system, mainly the brain, and also needed by special cells in the lung and gastrointestinal tract. After the body uses serotonin, it is degraded in the liver and is broken down to its metabolites, including 5-HIAA, which is excreted in the urine.
Data also have demonstrated that inflammatory cytokines can interact with multiple pathways known to be involved in the development of depression, including monoamine metabolism, neuroendocrine function, synaptic plasticity, and neurocircuits relevant to mood regulation …. Psychosocial stress, diet, obesity, a leaky gut and an imbalance between regulatory and pro-inflammatory T cells also contribute to inflammation and may serve as a focus for preventative strategies relevant to both the development of depression and its recurrence.. This indicates that depression occurs as a result of the attempt of the body to protect against inflammation, and this involves hormones and neurotransmitters.. Depressive symptoms linked to chronic inflammation include metabolic changes, flat mood, slowed thinking, avoidance, and alterations in perception.. Cytokines in the blood or inflammatory messengers like CRP, interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and TNF-alpha predict and correlate to ...
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. taltirelin ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
5-HIAA is a urine test that measures the amount of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). 5-HIAA is a breakdown product of a hormone called serotonin. Learn more.
Asenapine- యొక్క ఉపయోగాలు, మోతాదు, దుష్ప్రభావాలు, ప్రయోజనాలు, పరస్పర చర్యలు మరియు హెచ్చరికను కనుగొనండి
Biogenic amines: Monoamines: 6-OHM. *Dopamine. *Epinephrine (adrenaline). *NAS (normelatonin). *Norepinephrine (noradrenaline) ...
Biogenic amines: Monoamines: 6-OHM. *Dopamine. *Epinephrine (adrenaline). *NAS (normelatonin). *Norepinephrine (noradrenaline) ...
Biogenic amines: Monoamines: 6-OHM. *Dopamine. *Epinephrine (adrenaline). *NAS (normelatonin). *Norepinephrine (noradrenaline) ...
Biogenic amines: Monoamines: 6-OHM. *Dopamine. *Epinephrine (adrenaline). *NAS (normelatonin). *Norepinephrine (noradrenaline) ...
Biogenic amines: Monoamines: 6-OHM. *Dopamine. *Epinephrine (adrenaline). *NAS (normelatonin). *Norepinephrine (noradrenaline) ... Small: Monoamine (Phe/Tyr). Norepinephrine (noradrenaline). NE, NAd. Adrenergic receptors. -. Small: Monoamine (Phe/Tyr). ... Small: Monoamine (His). Histamine. H. Histamine receptors. -. Small: Trace amine (Phe). Phenethylamine. PEA. Human trace amine- ... a type of monoamine transporter located on synaptic vesicles within monoamine neurons.[22][23] ...
The biogenic amine hypothesis posits general dysregulation of monoamines underlies bipolar and affective disorders. The ... The role of monoamines in bipolar have been studied using neurotransmitter metabolites. Reduced concentration of homovanillic ... One more line of evidence that suggests a role of monoamines in bipolar is the process of antidepressant related affective ... Various hypotheses related to monoamines have been proposed. ... as indicating that more extensive perturbation in monoamine ...
I. Effect on Uptake and Release of Biogenic Monoamines and on Monoamine Oxidase in the Mouse Brain". Acta Pharmacologica et ... para-Chloroamphetamine (PCA), also known as 4-chloroamphetamine (4-CA), is a substituted amphetamine and monoamine releaser ...
S. Tanaka and N. Takeda (1997). "Biogenic monoamines in the brain and the corpus cardiacum between albino and normal strains of ...
Sepiapterin is not detected by the regularly used methods applied in the investigation of biogenic monoamines metabolites in ... The diagnosis of SR deficiency is based on the analysis of the pterins and biogenic amines found in the cerebrospinal fluid ( ... The pterin compound functions as a cofactor in enzyme catalysis and biogenic amines which include adrenaline, dopamine, and ... The Biogenic Amines. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK11035/. Echenne, B., Roubertie, A., Assmann, B., ...
"Plasma sex hormones and urinary biogenic amine metabolites during treatment of male depressed patients with the monoamine ... A single 300 mg dose of moclobemide inhibits 80% of monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) and 30% of monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B), ... reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A (RIMA),[9] a type of monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI), and increases levels of ... Moclobemide (sold as Amira, Aurorix,[7] Clobemix , Depnil and Manerix[8]) is a reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A ( ...
"Modulation of Monoamine Transporters by Common Biogenic Amines via Trace Amine-Associated Receptor 1 and Monoamine ... Xie z, W. S. (2007). "Rhesus Monkey Trace Amine-Associated Receptor 1 Signaling: Enhancement by Monoamine Transporters and ... The presence of two Postsynaptic receptors with opposite abilities to regulate monoamine transporter function allows for ...
"Modulation of monoamine transporters by common biogenic amines via trace amine-associated receptor 1 and monoamine ... If monoamine metabolism is compromised by the use of monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) and foods high in tyramine are ... Tyramine is physiologically metabolized by monoamine oxidases (primarily MAO-A), FMO3, PNMT, DBH, and CYP2D6. Human monoamine ... A hypertensive crisis can result, however, from ingestion of tyramine-rich foods in conjunction with the use of monoamine ...
... biogenic monoamines MeSH D02.092.211.215.311 - catecholamines MeSH D02.092.211.215.311.342 - dopamine MeSH D02.092.211.215. ... biogenic polyamines MeSH D02.092.211.415.261 - cadaverine MeSH D02.092.211.415.701 - putrescine MeSH D02.092.211.415.701.801 - ...
Based on the uptake of tritiated biogenic monoamine radiotracers it can be confirmed by observing the figures in the attached ...
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors allow reuptake of biogenic amine neurotransmitters from the synapse, but inhibit an enzyme which ... Tricyclic antidepressants also block reuptake of biogenic amines from the synapse, but may primarily effect serotonin or ... Bender, KJ; Walker, SE (8 October 2012). "Irreversible Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors Revisited". Psychiatric Times. Retrieved 7 ... and deprenyl inhibits monoamine oxidase (MAO)-B and thus increases dopamine levels. The serotonin created by the brain ...
Some prominent examples of biogenic monoamines include: Monoamine neurotransmitters Imidazoleamines Histamine - a substance ... Monoamine oxidase (MAO) breaks down biogenic amines and prevents excessive resorption. MAO inhibitors (MAOIs) are also used as ... Monoamine neurotransmitter Trace amine Santos, M.H.Silla. "Biogenic amines: their importance in foods". International Journal ... A biogenic amine is a biogenic substance with one or more amine groups. They are basic nitrogenous compounds formed mainly by ...
The biogenic amine receptors include the monoamine receptors. Lawrence I. Gilbert (18 September 2009). Insect development: ... Biogenic amine receptor are a variety of neurotransmitter receptors that are sensitive to biogenic amine neurotransmitters. ... "Biogenic amines in neural signaling". Institute for Biological Information Processing. Archived from the original on 2006-07-15 ...
Biogenic+monoamines at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... Specific transporter proteins called monoamine transporters that transport monoamines in or out of a cell exist. These are the ... Monoamine nuclei. References[edit]. *^ Mele, Tina; Čarman-Kržan, Marija; Jurič, Damijana Mojca (2010). "Regulatory role of ... All monoamines are derived from aromatic amino acids like phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan by the action of aromatic ...
ISBN 978-0-443-06911-6. Vianello R, Repič M, Mavri J (2012-10-25). "How are Biogenic Amines Metabolized by Monoamine Oxidases ... Monoamine oxidases (MAO) (EC 1.4.3.4) are a family of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of monoamines, employing oxygen to ... Monoamine oxidases catalyze the oxidative deamination of monoamines. Oxygen is used to remove an amine group (plus the adjacent ... November 2006). "Elevated monoamine oxidase a levels in the brain: an explanation for the monoamine imbalance of major ...
Monoamine reuptake inhibitor Monoamine receptor Monoamine oxidase Monoamine transporter Monoamine Hypothesis Biogenic amine ... Biogenic+monoamines at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ... which is a target of monoamine oxidase inhibitors, a class of antidepressants.[citation needed] Monoamine neurotransmitter ... All monoamines are derived from aromatic amino acids like phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan by the action of aromatic ...
Rothman RB, Partilla JS, Baumann MH, Lightfoot-Siordia C, Blough BE (2012). "Studies of the biogenic amine transporters. 14. ... A monoamine releasing agent (MRA), or simply monoamine releaser, is a drug that induces the release of a monoamine ... Once inside the presynaptic neuron, they may inhibit the reuptake of monoamine neurotransmitters through vesicular monoamine ... these transporters transport monoamines in reverse (i.e., they move monoamines from the neuronal cytoplasm into the synaptic ...
Biogenic amines: Monoamines: Dopamine. *Epinephrine (adrenaline). *Histamine. *Melatonin. *NAS (normelatonin). *Norepinephrine ...
It catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and plays an important role in the catabolism of ... Similarly to monoamine oxidase A (MAOA), it also degrades dopamine. Monoamine oxidase B has a hydrophobic bipartite elongated ... Monoamine oxidase A inhibitors have been typically used in the treatment of depression, and monoamine oxidase B inhibitors are ... Monoamine oxidase B, also known as MAOB, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAOB gene. The protein encoded by this ...
VMAT2 is the CNS vesicular transporter for not only the biogenic amines DA, NE, EPI, 5-HT, and HIS, but likely also for the ... VMAT uses the same transport mechanism for all types of monoamines. VMATs transport monoamines from the cytosol into high- ... Vesicular monoamine transporter 2#Binding sites and ligands Fleckenstein AE, Volz TJ, Riddle EL, Gibb JW, Hanson GR (2007). " ... The vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT) is a transport protein integrated into the membrane of synaptic vesicles of ...
Cozzi, N. V.; Sievert, M. K.; Shulgin, A. T.; Jacob 3rd, P.; Ruoho, A. E. (1999). "Inhibition of plasma membrane monoamine ... Furthermore, they may cause release of biogenic amines from intracellular stores. It appears that N-ethylhexedrone has high ... These molecules are able to inhibit monoamine reuptake transporters producing a decreased clearance of the neurotransmitters ... substituted cathinones and benzofurans at biogenic amine transporters". Psychopharmacology. 236 (3): 939-952. doi:10.1007/ ...
MeSH Biogenic+monoamines. *v. *r. *u. Neurotransmiteri. Aminokiseline. Alanin • Aspartat • Cikloserin • DMG • GABA • Glutamat ...
The glycoproteins bind biogenic amines present in the CSF such as dopamine, serotonin or noradrenaline, thereby controlling the ... All findings obtained indicate that RF binds monoamines present in the ventricular CSF and then transports them along the ... The concentration of these monoamines in the CSF in Reissner's fiber-deprived animals was investigated, concluding that this ... In the absence of RF, the CSF concentration of monoamines increased sharply. Butler, Ann; William Hodos (Aug 23, 2005). ...
Thus, it is the blockade of neuronal VMAT2 by reserpine that inhibits uptake and reduces stores of the monoamine ... Reserpine was also highly influential in promoting the thought of a biogenic amine hypothesis of depression. Reserpine-mediated ... Yaffe D, Forrest LR, Schuldiner S (May 2018). "The ins and outs of vesicular monoamine transporters". J. Gen. Physiol. 150 (5 ... Reserpine irreversibly blocks the H+-coupled vesicular monoamine transporters, VMAT1 and VMAT2. VMAT1 is mostly expressed in ...
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors allow reuptake of biogenic amine neurotransmitters from the synapse, but inhibit an enzyme which ... Tricyclic antidepressants also block reuptake of biogenic amines from the synapse, but may primarily effect serotonin or ... and deprenyl inhibits monoamine oxidase (MAO)-B and thus increases dopamine levels. ... "Irreversible Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors Revisited". Psychiatric Times. Retrieved 7 November 2016 ...
... vesicular monoamine transport proteins MeSH D12.776.543.585.562.750.625 - vesicular glutamate transport proteins MeSH D12.776. ... biogenic amine MeSH D12.776.543.750.720.300.300 - receptors, catecholamine MeSH D12.776.543.750.720.300.300.300 - receptors, ... vesicular monoamine transport proteins MeSH D12.776.543.585.450.162.887.625 - vesicular glutamate transport proteins MeSH ... vesicular biogenic amine transport proteins MeSH D12.776.543.585.562.750.500.249 - vesicular acetylcholine transport proteins ...
The actions of monoamine oxidases MAO-A and MAO-B from rat brain mitochondria on N-methylphenylethanolamine were characterized ... biogenic amine, phenylethanolamine, to the adrenergic drug synephrine, and to the alkaloid ephedrine. The pharmacological ... "Characterization of N-methylphenylethylamine and N-methylphenylethanolamine as substrates for type A and type B monoamine ...
Biogenic amines. Monoamines. *6-OHM. *Dopamine. *Epinephrine (adrenaline). *NAS (normelatonin). *Norepinephrine (noradrenaline) ...
... monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A),[5][6] monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B),[3][4][5][14] the semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidases (SSAOs ... Similarly, urinary biogenic trace amine PEA levels could be a biomarker for the diagnosis of ADHD,20,57,58 for treatment ... Phenethylamine[note 1] (PEA) is an organic compound, natural monoamine alkaloid, and trace amine which acts as a central ... The biogenic amines, phenethylamine and tyramine, are N-oxygenated by FMO to produce the N-hydroxy metabolite, followed by a ...
See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Monoamine releasing agents • Adrenergics • Dopaminergics • Serotonergics • Monoamine ... This structural motif has potential for high affinity binding to biogenic amine transports.[28] Drugs containing an ... Due to the monoamine hypothesis of depression, which asserts that decreased concentrations of monoamine neurotransmitters leads ... Monoamine reuptake inhibitor. References[edit]. *^ Cashman JR, Ghirmai S (October 2009). "Inhibition of serotonin and ...
Many stimulants exert their effects through manipulations of monoamine neurotransmission. Monoamines are a class of ... increases biogenic amine and excitatory neurotransmitter activity in the brain, with its most pronounced effects targeting the ... Khat contains a monoamine alkaloid called cathinone, a "keto-amphetamine", that is said to cause excitement, loss of appetite, ... Interference with vesicular storage, activating TAAR1, and reversing the flow of monoamine transporters may play a mechanism in ...
The original monoamine hypothesis postulates that depression is caused by a deficiency or imbalances in the monoamine ... "Use of synthesis inhibitors in defining a role for biogenic amines during imipramine treatment in depressed patients". ... Reserpine's effect on monoamine concentrations results from blockade of the vesicular monoamine transporter, leading to their ... Further support for the monoamine hypothesis came from monoamine depletion studies: Alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (AMPT) is a ...
Nishimura M, Sato K, Okada T, Schloss P, Shimada S, Tohyama M (1998). "MK-801 blocks monoamine transporters expressed in HEK ... 1994). "Studies of the biogenic amine transporters. IV. Demonstration of a multiplicity of binding sites in rat caudate ... Nishimura M, Sato K, Okada T, Yoshiya I, Schloss P, Shimada S, Tohyama M (1998). "Ketamine inhibits monoamine transporters ... In addition to their high affinity for the main site of the monoamine transporters, several competitive transporter substrates ...
Selective inhibition of monoamine oxidase in monoa...[Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 1983] - PubMed Result Jaehne EJ, ... Tseng LF, Menon MK, Loh HH (May 1976). "Comparative actions of monomethoxyamphetamines on the release and uptake of biogenic ... Green AL, El Hait MA (April 1980). "p-Methoxyamphetamine, a potent reversible inhibitor of type-A monoamine oxidase in vitro ... Ask AL, Fagervall I, Ross SB (September 1983). "Selective inhibition of monoamine oxidase in monoaminergic neurons in the rat ...
O. Suzuki, T. Matsumoto, M. Oya, and Y. Katsumata (1979). "Oxidation of synephrine by type A and type B monoamine oxidase." ... "Analysis of biogenic amines and their metabolites in biological tissues and fluids by gas chromatography-negative ion chemical ... Studies of the metabolism of synephrine by monoamine oxidases derived from rat brain mitochondria showed that synephrine was a ...
See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Monoamine releasing agents • Adrenergics • Dopaminergics • Serotonergics • Monoamine ... "Long-Acting Blockade of Biogenic Amine Transporters in Rat Brain by Administration of the Potent Novel Tropane 2β-Propanoyl-3β ...
Due to the monoamine hypothesis of depression, which asserts that decreased concentrations of monoamine neurotransmitters leads ... This structural motif has potential for high affinity binding to biogenic amine transports.[28] Drugs containing an ... SSNRIs are monoamine reuptake inhibitors; specifically, they are inhibitors of the reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine. ... Monoamines are connected to the pathophysiology of depression. Symptoms are thought to appear because concentrations of ...
Monoamine releasing agent. References[edit]. *^ Marona-Lewicka D, Nichols DE (June 1994). "Behavioral effects of the highly ... "Interaction of psychoactive tryptamines with biogenic amine transporters and serotonin receptor subtypes". Psychopharmacology ... See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Monoamine reuptake inhibitors • Adrenergics • Dopaminergics • Serotonergics • ... is an SRA with less significant or no efficacy in producing neurotransmitter efflux at other types of monoamine neurons.[1] ...
Nishimura M, Sato K, Okada T, Schloss P, Shimada S, Tohyama M (1998). "MK-801 blocks monoamine transporters expressed in HEK ... 1994). "Studies of the biogenic amine transporters. IV. Demonstration of a multiplicity of binding sites in rat caudate ... Reserpine (Serpasil) is an irreversible inhibitor of the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2), and is a prototypical ... Most known reuptake inhibitors affect the monoamine neurotransmitters serotonin, norepinephrine (and epinephrine), and dopamine ...
See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Monoamine releasing agents • Adrenergics • Dopaminergics • Serotonergics • Monoamine ... and alpha-methyltyrosine on brain biogenic amines". Federation Proceedings. 35 (14): 2558-2562. PMID 11134.. .mw-parser-output ...
Based on the monoamine hypothesis of depression, which asserts that decreased concentrations of monoamine neurotransmitters ... This structural motif has potential for high affinity binding to biogenic amine transports.[35] Drugs containing an ... SNRIs are monoamine reuptake inhibitors; specifically, they inhibit the reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine. These ... For this reason, this class of drugs became known as monoamine oxidase inhibitors, or MAOIs. During this time development of ...
... (T1AM) is an endogenous thyronamine. T1AM is a high-affinity ligand for the trace amine-associated receptor TAAR1 (TAR1, TA1), a recently discovered G protein-coupled receptor.[1][2] T1AM is the most potent endogenous TAAR1 agonist yet discovered.[3] Activation of TAAR1 by T1AM results in the production of large amounts of cAMP. This effect is coupled with decreased body temperature and cardiac output.[4] Wu et al. have pointed out that this relationship is not typical of the endocrine system, indicating that TAAR1 activity may not be coupled to G-proteins in some tissues, or that T1AM may interact with other receptor subtypes.[3] T1AM may be part of a signaling pathway to modulate cardiac function, as the compound can induce negative inotropic effects and decrease cardiac output.[5] ...
"The pictet-spengler reaction and biogenic tryptamines: Formation of tetrahydro-β-carbolines at physiologicalpH". Journal of ... and as a monoamine oxidase A inhibitor.[4] ...
... biogenic amine receptor - bioinformatics - biological membrane - biologist - biology - biomechanics - biomedical model - ... Monoamine - monoclonal antibody - Monomer - Monosaccharide - monosaccharide transport protein - morphogenesis - Morphogenetic ...
In humans, PEA is metabolized by phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT), monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A), monoamine oxidase ... The biogenic amines, phenethylamine and tyramine, are N-oxygenated by FMO to produce the N-hydroxy metabolite, followed by a ... and inhibiting vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) in monoamine neurons. To a lesser extent, it also acts as a ... Similarly, urinary biogenic trace amine PEA levels could be a biomarker for the diagnosis of ADHD,20,57,58 for treatment ...
Huisman H, Wynveen P, Nichkova M, Kellermann G (August 2010). "Novel ELISAs for screening of the biogenic amines GABA, glycine ... Agmatine specific-selective uptake sites, organic cation transporters (mostly OCT2 subtype), extraneuronal monoamine ...
Sánchez C, Hyttel J (1999). "Comparison of the effects of antidepressants and their metabolites on reuptake of biogenic amines ... "Pharmacological profile of antidepressants and related compounds at human monoamine transporters". Eur. J. Pharmacol. 340 (2-3 ... as it can lower the seizure threshold TCAs should not be used concomitantly or within 14 days of treatment with monoamine ...
Common Biogenic Amines Modulate [3H]Monoamine Efflux in Brain Synaptosomes. To evaluate [3H]monoamine efflux, synaptosomes were ... Common Biogenic Amines Modulate [3H]Monoamine Uptake in Brain Synaptosomes. To investigate whether the common biogenic amines ... Common Biogenic Amines Modulate Monoamine Transporter Function via TAAR1 and Monoamine Autoreceptors in Transfected Cells. In ... Modulation of Monoamine Transporters by Common Biogenic Amines via Trace Amine-Associated Receptor 1 and Monoamine ...
Simultaneous quantification of monoamine neurotransmitters and their biogenic metabolites intracellularly and extracellularly ... but only the biogenic metabolites could be detected extracellularly. Distinct differences in monoamine concentrations were ... In the present paper, we describe a validated chromatographic method for the simultaneous quantification of monoamine ... The analytical method was applicable for quantification of intracellular and extracellular amounts of monoamine ...
Biogenic Monoamines. Grant support. *R01-AG-09297/AG/NIA NIH HHS/United States ... Depletion of brain monoamine levels in young animals can induce changes in the responsiveness of the circadian clock to ...
Biogenic Monoamines. Grant support. *DA 07390/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/United States ... Biogenic amine transporters: regulation in flux.. Blakely RD1, Bauman AL.. Author information. 1. Department of Pharmacology, ... Following vesicular release, the biogenic amine neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin are actively cleared ...
A monoamine-accumulating ganglion cell type has been identified in an in vitro preparation of the cats retina by a ... Biogenic Monoamines / pharmacokinetics* * Cats / anatomy & histology * Cats / metabolism* * Cell Count * Dendrites / ... Monoamine-accumulating ganglion cell type of the cats retina J Comp Neurol. 1989 Oct 1;288(1):59-80. doi: 10.1002/cne. ... A monoamine-accumulating ganglion cell type has been identified in an in vitro preparation of the cats retina by a ...
Monoamine, in particular serotonergic neurotransmission has long been recognized as an important factor in the aetiology of ... Biogenic Monoamines * Cytokines * Nerve Growth Factors * Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins * Serotonin Uptake ... Integrating the monoamine, neurotrophin and cytokine hypotheses of depression--a central role for the serotonin transporter? ... Monoamine, in particular serotonergic neurotransmission has long been recognized as an important factor in the aetiology of ...
Effect of high fat diet on biogenic monoamine levels of rhesus monkeys. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. 1984 Nov; 22(11 ... Effect of high fat diet on biogenic monoamine levels of rhesus monkeys. ...
Biogenic amines: Monoamines: 6-OHM. *Dopamine. *Epinephrine (adrenaline). *NAS (normelatonin). *Norepinephrine (noradrenaline) ...
Biogenic amines: Monoamines: 6-OHM. *Dopamine. *Epinephrine (adrenaline). *NAS (normelatonin). *Norepinephrine (noradrenaline) ...
0 (Adrenergic Antagonists); 0 (Antidepressive Agents); 0 (Biogenic Monoamines); 0 (Muscarinic Antagonists); 0 (Plant Extracts ... Rats receiving treatment for 28 days were decapitated and brains were analyzed for monoamine levels. It may be concluded that ...
0 (Biogenic Monoamines); 0 (RNA, Messenger); 0 (Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT1B); 0 (Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-2); 0 (Receptors ... despite the absence of monoamines. This monoamine-receptor activity causes pericytes to locally constrict capillaries, which ... Here we examined how vessel tone adapts to the loss of neuron-derived monoamines after spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats. We ... Receptor activation in the absence of monoamines results from the production of trace amines (such as tryptamine) by pericytes ...
The supernatant was removed for biogenic monoamines analysis. Biogenic amine concentrations were determined utilizing an Antec ... We measured the striatal tissue content of biogenic amines and their metabolites in WT and DAT T356M+/+ mice. The concentration ... Measures of the concentration of biogenic amines were obtained by the Neurochemistry Core Facility at Vanderbilt University. ... Using this HPLC solvent, the following biogenic amines eluted in the following order: norepinephrine, epinephrine, DOPAC, DA, 5 ...
ISBN 978-0-443-06911-6. Vianello R, Repič M, Mavri J (2012-10-25). "How are Biogenic Amines Metabolized by Monoamine Oxidases ... Monoamine oxidases (MAO) (EC 1.4.3.4) are a family of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of monoamines, employing oxygen to ... Monoamine oxidases catalyze the oxidative deamination of monoamines. Oxygen is used to remove an amine group (plus the adjacent ... November 2006). "Elevated monoamine oxidase a levels in the brain: an explanation for the monoamine imbalance of major ...
monoamine, catecholamines, biogenic amine. awaking from sleep, dreaming, reg. moods. memories of single events, adrenergic ...
The biogenic amine receptors include the monoamine receptors. Lawrence I. Gilbert (18 September 2009). Insect development: ... Biogenic amine receptor are a variety of neurotransmitter receptors that are sensitive to biogenic amine neurotransmitters. ... "Biogenic amines in neural signaling". Institute for Biological Information Processing. Archived from the original on 2006-07-15 ...
Biogenic Monoamines in Hydra attenuata Markova, L.N.; Ostroumova, T.V.. * Effects of Arachidonoyl Dopamine, Haloperidol, and ...
Corrodi, H., Jonsson, G.: The formaldehyde fluorescence method for the histochemical demonstration of biogenic monoamines. A ... Falck, B.: Observations on the possibilities of the cellular localization of monoamines by fluorescence method. Acta physiol. ... Corrodi, H., Hillarp, N.-A., Jonsson, G.: Fluorescence methods for the histochemical demonstration of monoamines. 3. Sodium ... Angelakos, E. T.: The formaldehyde condensation method for the histochemical demonstration for tissue monoamines. J. Histochem ...
... brain monoamines, cortisol, rainbow trout, Animals, Benzo(a)pyrene, Biogenic Monoamines, Blood Glucose, Brain Chemistry, ... Brain monoamines, Cortisol, Rainbow trout, Aquatic Science, Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis, 3,4 dihydroxyphenylacetic acid ... monoamine, noradrenalin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, serotonin, vegetable oil, brain, PAH, pollution effect, pollution ... and the possible involvement of brain monoamines in those responses. Two experiments (acute and prolonged stress) were ...
... a new fluorescence method for the histochemical demonstration of biogenic monoamines. Acta Physiol Scand., 87, 57-62.. az-Torga ... Ungerstedt, U. (1971). Stereotaxic mapping of the monoamine pathways in the rat brain. Acta Physiol Scand.Suppl, 367, 1-48. ... Felten, D. L., Laties, A. M., & Carpenter, M. B. (1974). Monoamine-containing cell bodies in the squirrel monkey brain. Am.J. ... 1983). Monoamine distribution in primate brain V. Monoaminergic nuclei: anatomy, pathways and local organization. Brain Res. ...
31 Biogenic monoamine disorders. Emmanuel Roze and Nenad Blau. 32 Brain Serotonin Deficiency. Angeles Garcia Cazorla and Rafael ...
The release of biogenic amines from large dense core vesicles (LDCVs) depends on localization of the vesicular monoamine ... The release of biogenic amines from large dense core vesicles (LDCVs) depends on localization of the vesicular monoamine ... An acidic motif retains vesicular monoamine transporter 2 on large dense core vesicles. ... An acidic motif retains vesicular monoamine transporter 2 on large dense core vesicles. ...
Decreased CSF levels of biogenic monoamines (products of serotonin, norepinephrine). Term. For a FM patient, which therapies ...
9. Straub H & Kuhlmann D (1984). Identification and quantitative measurements of biogenic monoamines in the central nervous ... Osborne NN & Cottrell GA (1971). Distribution of biogenic amines in the slug, Limax maximus. Zeitschrift für Zellforschung und ... Salimova NB, Sakharov DA, Milosevic I, Turpaev TM & Rakic L (1987). Monoamine-containing neurons in the Aplysia brain. Brain ... Croll CP (1988). Distribution of monoamines within the central nervous system of the juvenile pulmonate snail Achatina fulica. ...
Catecholamines plus indoleamine 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) are known as monoamines or "biogenic" amines. ... This protects from degradation by monoamine oxidases. Catecholamines are released when nerve stimulation causes Ca influx ( ... b/c it protects from monoamine oxidase in liver ...
Biogenic amines: Monoamines: 6-OHM. *Dopamine. *Epinephrine (adrenaline). *NAS (normelatonin). *Norepinephrine (noradrenaline) ...
Biogenic amines: Monoamines: 6-OHM. *Dopamine. *Epinephrine (adrenaline). *NAS (normelatonin). *Norepinephrine (noradrenaline) ...
Wang, J., Fitzpatrick, D., and Wilson, J. (1993). Effect of dietary T-2 toxin on biogenic monoamines in discrete areas of the ... It was suggested that the increased metabolism of amino acid may be detrimental due to the formation of biogenic amines and ... ochratoxin A and biogenic amines. Front. Microbiol. 7:482. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2016.00482 ...
Monoamine oxidase is a mitochondrial enzyme involved in the catabolism of biogenic amines. Monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A), the ... Monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B), the primary type in platelets and in the brain, preferentially degrades phenylethylamine and ... Reported benefit has been noted in a subset of patients with monoamine oxidase inhibitors, dopamine receptor agonists, ... Urine studies revealed marked disturbance of monoamine metabolism. Normal platelet MAO-B activity suggested that the unusual ...
Publications] Yamada et al.: Antidepressant research in the era of functional genomics-Farewell to the monoamine hypothesis- ... Biogenic Amines. in press. (2004). *. Description. 「研究成果報告書概要(和文)」より ... Publications] Yamada et al.: Antidepressant research in the era of functional genomics - Farewell to the monoamine hypothesis ... Publications] Yamada et al.: Antidepressant research in the era of functional genomics - Farewell to the monoamine hypothesis ...
Inclusion Body Monoamine Oxidase Biogenic Amine Diaminobenzidine Tetrahydrochloride Immunoreactive Neuron These keywords were ... Nagatsu, L, 1983, Immunohistocytochemistry of biogenic amines and immunoenzyme-histocytochemistry of catecholamine-synthesizing ... 4-tetrahydroisoquinoline into the N-methyl-isoquinolinium ion by monoamine oxidase, J. Neurochem. 52: 653.PubMedCrossRefGoogle ... NMTIQ is oxidized by both type A and B monoamine oxidases, and the N-methylisoquinolinium ion (NMIQ+), the oxidative product, ...
  • We confirmed that TAAR1 was activated by dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin and demonstrated that TAAR1 signaling was attenuated by monoamine autoreceptors at exposure to dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin. (aspetjournals.org)
  • By comparing the effects of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin in monkey and wild-type mouse synaptosomes to their effects in TAAR1 knockout mouse synaptosomes, we deduced that TAAR1 activity inhibited uptake and promoted efflux by monoamine transporters and that monoamine autoreceptors exerted opposite effects. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Noradrenaline, dopamine and serotonin were found to be in a range from 0.31 to 1.7 pmol per 2 million cells intracellularly, but only the biogenic metabolites could be detected extracellularly. (ku.dk)
  • Following vesicular release, the biogenic amine neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin are actively cleared from extracellular spaces by presynaptic transporters. (nih.gov)
  • Both GABA and glutamate are present in both interneurons and motoneurons, whereas biogenic amines such as serotonin, dopamine and histamine are found primarily in interneurons (although some cases of sensory cells and efferent neurons are known). (nih.gov)
  • The biogenic monoamine transporters are integral membrane proteins that perform active transport of extracellular dopamine , serotonin and norepinephrine into cells. (rsc.org)
  • Involved in the transport of biogenic monoamines, such as serotonin, from the cytoplasm into the secretory vesicles of neuroendocrine and endocrine cells. (genecards.org)
  • The biogenic monoamines serotonin (5-HT), histamine (HA), dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) act as neurotransmitters and hormones in controlling crucial functions of the mammalian organism. (fu-berlin.de)
  • The NE transporter (NET) is a member of the Na + - and Cl − -coupled cotransporter gene family, which includes the transporters for biogenic monoamines (dopamine, NE, and serotonin) and transporters for amino acids GABA and glycine ( Barker and Blakely, 1995 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Serotonin (5-HT) is a biogenic monoamine that is synthesized from hydroxylation of tryptophan and acts by three ways, dissemination, metabolism, and reuptake in synaptic cleft through specific systems of the membrane. (molvis.org)
  • The serotonin transporter (SERT) regulates neurotransmission by the biogenic monoamine neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT, 5-hydroxytryptamine) in the central nervous system, and drugs inhibiting SERT are widely used for the treatment of a variety of central nervous system diseases. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Since dopamine and serotonin neurons can also release glutamate in vitro and in vivo , we have used the vesicular monoamine transporter VMAT2 and the vesicular glutamate transporter VGLUT1 to compare the localization and recycling of synaptic vesicles that store, respectively, monoamines and glutamate. (jneurosci.org)
  • Monoamine autoreceptors provide feedback regulation in neurotransmitter release, and monoamine transporters clear the released neurotransmitters to control synaptic signaling. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Common biogenic amines are neurotransmitters in brain that are synthesized and packaged in monoaminergic neurons and released into synaptic clefts to interact with presynaptic and postsynaptic receptors. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In the present paper, we describe a validated chromatographic method for the simultaneous quantification of monoamine neurotransmitters and their biogenic metabolites intracellularly and extracellularly in primary neuronal cell culture and in sub-regions of the guinea pig brain. (ku.dk)
  • The analytical method was applicable for quantification of intracellular and extracellular amounts of monoamine neurotransmitters and their metabolites in guinea pig frontal cortex and hippocampal primary neuronal cell cultures. (ku.dk)
  • MAOs are important in the breakdown of monoamines ingested in food, and also serve to inactivate monoamine neurotransmitters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both MAOs are also vital to the inactivation of monoamine neurotransmitters, for which they display different specificities. (wikipedia.org)
  • The present review summarizes what is known about the distribution of neurotransmitters, monoamines and neuropeptides in the abdominal ganglia of different insect species. (nih.gov)
  • Biogenic amine receptor are a variety of neurotransmitter receptors that are sensitive to biogenic amine neurotransmitters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amphetamines also inhibit monoamine oxidase, which degrades biogenic amine neurotransmitters intracellularly. (medscape.com)
  • Conventional antidepressants increase the efflux of biogenic amine neurotransmitters (the monoamine hypothesis of depression) in the central nervous system (CNS) and are the principle drugs used to treat major depressive disorder (MDD). (springer.com)
  • The initial response of extracellular fluid levels of the biogenic monoamine neurotransmitters in the anterior cingulate cortex (aCC) was assessed in drug rats with in vivo microdialysis following administration of morphine. (scirp.org)
  • The neurotransmitters that are not sequestered in the storage vesicle are readily metabolized by monoamine oxidase (MAO) causing a reduction in catecholamines. (hmdb.ca)
  • Distinct differences in monoamine concentrations were observed when comparing concentrations in guinea pig frontal cortex and cerebellum tissue with higher amounts of dopamine and its metabolites, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid in frontal cortex, as compared to cerebellum. (ku.dk)
  • A monoamine-accumulating ganglion cell type has been identified in an in vitro preparation of the cat's retina by a catecholamine-like fluorescence that appears following intravitreal injections of dopamine and the indoleaminergic transmitter analog, 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT). (nih.gov)
  • MA releases dopamine and other biogenic amines, and inhibit monoamine transporters (5). (prolekare.cz)
  • We have searched for association between 119 SNPs in genes implicated in monoaminergic pathways [tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1), TPH2, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), DOPA decarboxylase (DDC), dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH), catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) and MAOB] and monoamine metabolite concentrations in CSF in 74 patients with psychotic disorder. (cdc.gov)
  • Since most monoamines including dopamine do not activate ionotropic receptors, however, we know remarkably little about the properties of monoamine release. (jneurosci.org)
  • This study used transfected cells and brain synaptosomes to evaluate the interaction of common biogenic amines with TAAR1 and monoamine autoreceptors and explore their modulatory effects on monoamine transporters. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Biogenic amine transporters: regulation in flux. (nih.gov)
  • The first lumenal domain of vesicular monoamine transporters mediates G-protein-dependent regulation of transmitter uptake. (mpg.de)
  • They inhibit specific transporters responsible for reuptake of biogenic amines from the synaptic nerve ending and presynaptic vesicles. (medscape.com)
  • Furthermore, eight cell lines of different origin were characterized in respect of the expression of four monoamine transporters and seven TGM, and monoamine uptake as well as protein incorporation were measured. (fu-berlin.de)
  • Monoamine neurotransmitter transporters are membrane proteins responsible for the clearing of biogenic amines from a synapse. (purdue.edu)
  • NMTIQ is oxidized by both type A and B monoamine oxidases, and the N-methylisoquinolinium ion (NMIQ + ), the oxidative product, inhibits activities of enzymes related to catecholamine metabolism (Naoi et al. (springer.com)
  • Lithium ion alters the metabolism of BIOGENIC MONOAMINES in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, and affects multiple neurotransmission systems. (bioportfolio.com)
  • 12. Y.O. Fedotova, N.E. Ordayn Effects of 8-OH-DPAT and NAN-190 on anxiety behavior, Monoamine Metabolism, and the level of sex hormones in female rats during the estrus cycle. (famous-scientists.ru)
  • In previous studies, we have shown the impact of monoamine oxidase A and cytochrome P450 2D6 enzymes on 5-MeO-DMT metabolism and pharmacokinetics. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The biogenic amine receptors include the monoamine receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Seventeen putative biogenic amine receptors have been identified based on sequence similarity to mammalian receptors, and mutants for most of these are available (see Table 2 ). (wormbook.org)
  • Although the specific biogenic amine that activates a given receptor homolog cannot be accurately predicted based purely on sequence analysis, in a growing number of cases pharmacological analysis of cloned C. elegans receptors has been used to determine their likely physiological ligands (see Table 2 ). (wormbook.org)
  • Finally, a variety of drugs that target biogenic amine receptors are available and their effects on behavior can be helpful in determining the physiological roles of the receptors (see Table 3 ). (wormbook.org)
  • It is noteworthy that the majority of GPCR-targeted drugs elicit their biological activity by selective agonism or antagonism of biogenic monoamine receptors, while the development status of peptide-binding GPCR- adressing compounds is still in its infancy. (eurekaselect.com)
  • 5. The method according to claim 1 , wherein the alcohol extract of tobacco is administered in an amount effective to inhibit monoamine oxidase A (MAO A) activity. (google.com)
  • An acidic motif retains vesicular monoamine transporter 2 on large dense core vesicles. (nih.gov)
  • The release of biogenic amines from large dense core vesicles (LDCVs) depends on localization of the vesicular monoamine transporter VMAT2 to LDCVs. (nih.gov)
  • The vesicular monoamine transporter acts to accumulate cytosolic monoamines into vesicles, using the proton gradient maintained across the vesicular membrane. (genecards.org)
  • Monoamine oxidases catalyze the oxidative deamination of monoamines. (wikipedia.org)
  • MAO-B (Monoamine oxidase B) is a flavin-containing mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic monoamines. (prospecbio.com)
  • Phenylacetaldehyde is formed when the xenobiotic and biogenic amine 2-phenylethylamine is inactivated by a monoamine oxidase-catalyzed oxidative deamination. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Putrescine oxidase from Rhodococcus erythropolis (PuO) is a flavin-containing amine oxidase from the monoamine oxidase family that performs oxidative deamination of aliphatic diamines. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Previous work has characterized the properties of neurotransmitter release at excitatory and inhibitory synapses, but we know remarkably little about the properties of monoamine release, because these neuromodulators do not generally produce a fast ionotropic response. (jneurosci.org)
  • Monoamine oxidases (MAO) (EC 1.4.3.4) are a family of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of monoamines, employing oxygen to clip off their amine group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regional distribution of the monoamine oxidases is characterized by extremely high levels of both MAOs in the hypothalamus and hippocampal uncus, as well as a large amount of MAO-B with very little MAO-A in the striatum and globus pallidus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Monoamine oxidases contain the covalently bound cofactor FAD and are, thus, classified as flavoproteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Monoamine oxidases (MAO B and MAO A) are well-known targets for antidepressant drugs and for drugs used to treat neurological disorders and aging diseases, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Molecular and mechanistic properties of the membrane-bound mitochondrial monoamine oxidases. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Monoamine oxidase, which degrades biogenic amines, has decreased activity in noradrenergic murine neuroblastoma cell lines lacking hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase activity and in skin fibroblasts from patients with the Lesch-Nyhan syndrome. (sciencemag.org)
  • Antidepressant research in the era of functional genomics - Farewell to the monoamine hypothesis-'Biogenic Amines. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The biogenic amine (monoamine) hypothesis of depression states that depression is the result of a functional deficiency of NE and/or 5-HT at central synapses. (oreilly.com)
  • These data provide the first evidence that common biogenic amines modulate monoamine transporter function via both TAAR1 and monoamine autoreceptors, which may balance monoaminergic activity. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Biogenic amines modulate a variety of C. elegans behaviors including locomotion, egg laying (see Egg laying ), defecation, and foraging. (wormbook.org)
  • Amphetamine compounds cause a general efflux of biogenic amines from neuronal synaptic terminals (indirect sympathomimetics). (medscape.com)
  • Thus, monoamine neuronal innervations of the aCC respond to an initial dose of morphine that is predictive of the later propensity to self-administration and the resistance and predisposition to the formation of opiate dependence, but there is no relationship between these two indices in individual animals. (scirp.org)
  • Cerebrospinal fluid was collected at the beginning and end of the trial and analyzed for monoamines and metabolites using High Performance Liquid Chromatography. (sun.ac.za)
  • Their cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations, reflecting the monoamine turnover rates in CNS, are partially under genetic influence and have been associated with schizophrenia. (cdc.gov)
  • Homovanillic acid (HVA), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) are the major monoamine metabolites in the central nervous system (CNS). (cdc.gov)
  • The present study aimed at evaluating the possible potential of DDB to affect behavior and exploring the corresponding changes in brain monoamines levels. (bvsalud.org)
  • Because of the latter, they are involved in a number of psychiatric and neurological diseases, some of which can be treated with monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) which block the action of MAOs. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Monoamine oxidase inhibitors are one of the major classes of drug prescribed for the treatment of depression, although they are often last-line treatment due to risk of the drug's interaction with diet or other drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are well known enzymes in pharmacology, since they are the target for the action of a number of monoamine oxidase inhibitor drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • CYP450 enzymes are monooxygenases functionally related to other oxygenases, such as monoamine oxygenase and the lipoxygenase family [23, 24]. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • هستامين Histamine عبارة عن مركب أميني أحادي حيوي فعال Biogenic monoamine ينتج من فعل إنزيمات بكتيريا روث الإنسان والحيوان Fecal bacteria على المواد البروتينية وأخص الحمض الأميني الأساسي المسمى الهستيدين Histidine. (marefa.org)
  • The present invention provides a group of tobacco alkaloids, tobacco extract, Yerbamat extract, and an extract of chewing gum and lozenges which are modulators of monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity (i.e., compounds and substances which inhibit MAO enzyme and prevent its biological activity). (google.com)
  • The present invention relates to the novel use of compounds and substances which are capable of modulating monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity by inhibiting the MAO enzyme. (google.com)
  • Rats receiving treatment for 28 days were decapitated and brains were analyzed for monoamine levels. (bireme.br)
  • 11. Y.O. Fedotova, O.O. Masalova Specific monoamine exchange in the brains of young and aged male rats with hypothyroidism. (famous-scientists.ru)
  • MAO inhibition by other inhibitors have been shown to increase monoamine content in the brain and body. (google.com)
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: Homovanillamine is a biogenic amine that it is catalyzed to homovanillyl aldehyde by monoamine oxidase A and B, but the oxidation of its aldehyde to the acid derivative is usually ascribed to aldehyde dehydrogenase and a potential contribution of aldehyde oxidase and xanthine oxidase is usually ignored. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Characterization of eight biogenic indoleamines as substrates for type A and type B monoamine oxidase. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Depletion of brain monoamine levels in young animals can induce changes in the responsiveness of the circadian clock to environmental stimuli which are similar to those which occur spontaneously in old animals, suggesting that aging alters monoaminergic inputs to the clock. (nih.gov)
  • [ 5 ] Long-term use can lead to a depletion of biogenic amine stores and a paradoxical reverse effect of the drug-a wash out. (medscape.com)
  • As this knowledge is essential for our experimental model, the pulmonate gastropod Megalobulimus oblongus , the aim of the present study was to investigate monoamines in the pedal plexus of this snail using two procedures: glyoxylic acid histofluorescence to identify monoaminergic structures, and the unlabeled antibody peroxidase anti-peroxidase method using antiserum to detect the serotonergic component of the plexus. (scielo.br)
  • We have hypothesized that CSF monoamine metabolite concentrations represent intermediate steps between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes implicated in monoaminergic pathways and psychosis. (cdc.gov)
  • Biosynthetic pathways for biogenic amines. (wormbook.org)
  • Novel roles for biogenic monoamines: from monoamines in transglutaminase-mediated post-translational protein modification to monoaminylation deregulation diseases. (mpg.de)
  • Eight small and two heterotrimeric GTPases, as well as phospholipase A2 (PLA2), were analysed in combination with TGM1, 2, 3 and fXIIIA as well as four monoamines revealing that the TGM-dependent incorporation of monoamines (monoaminylation) is a specific reaction. (fu-berlin.de)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Effect of high fat diet on biogenic monoamine levels of rhesus monkeys. (who.int)
  • In addition, DDB possessed a positive effect on the animals ' aggressiveness and hostility , which was correlated with significant modifications of monoamines levels in various brain regions, especially DA and NE levels. (bvsalud.org)
  • Dithiocarb (N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate, DEDTC) decreases levels of biogenic monoamines in the adult mouse brain. (bio-protocol.org)
  • He kicks off with Francisco Moreno on the neurochemistry, covering obviously the biogenic monoamines involved, tightly again, in 16 pages. (centersite.net)
  • Recently, trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) has been found to be expressed in brain monoaminergic nuclei and activated by common biogenic amines in vitro. (aspetjournals.org)
  • suggests that common biogenic amines may modulate monoamine transporter function via interacting with monoamine autoreceptors in the brain. (aspetjournals.org)
  • These findings have led us to hypothesize that TAAR1 serves as a neuromodulator of monoamine transporter function in brain. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In conclusion, the present analytical method shows high precision, accuracy and sensitivity and is broadly applicable to monoamine measurements in cell cultures as well as brain biopsies from animal models used in preclinical neurochemistry. (ku.dk)
  • We have investigated if treatment with two different PAHs such as naphthalene (NAP) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), and the PAH-like Compound beta-naphthoflavone (BNF), may modify the stress responses elicited in rainbow trout by acute or prolonged stress stimuli, and the possible involvement of brain monoamines in those responses. (dtu.dk)
  • In this study, we used transfected cells to evaluate the interaction of the common biogenic amines with TAAR1 and monoamine autoreceptors and clarify whether TAAR1 function is influenced by monoamine autoreceptors at exposure to the common biogenic amines. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The monoamine-accumulating ganglion cell and the outer (OFF-center) alpha cell occupy distinct strata within sublamina a of the inner plexiform layer separated by a gap of about 5 microns. (nih.gov)
  • Corrodi, H., Jonsson, G.: The formaldehyde fluorescence method for the histochemical demonstration of biogenic monoamines. (springer.com)
  • The formaldehyde fluorescence method for the histochemical demonstration of biogenic monoamines. (springer.com)
  • There were 42 nominally significant associations between SNPs and CSF monoamine metabolite concentrations, which exceeded the expected number (20) of nominal associations given the total number of tests performed. (cdc.gov)
  • Construction of a bifunctional enzyme fusion for the combined determination of biogenic amines in foods. (semanticscholar.org)