Receptors, Biogenic Amine
Amine Oxidase (Copper-Containing)
Vesicular Biogenic Amine Transport Proteins
Norepinephrine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins
Chromatography, Micellar Electrokinetic Capillary
Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins
Dopamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors
Lysergic Acid Diethylamide
Membrane Transport Proteins
Equilibrative Nucleoside Transport Proteins
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
Agonistic behaviour and biogenic amines in shore crabs Carcinus maenas. (1/250)To investigate the role of certain neurohormones in agonistic behaviour, fights were staged between pairs of size-matched male shore crabs Carcinus maenas, and blood samples were taken immediately after the contests had been resolved. Samples were also taken from these crabs at rest (before and after fighting) and after walking on a treadmill. A control group of crabs also had samples taken on each experimental day. Concentrations of tyramine, dopamine, octopamine, serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine were determined in each blood sample using a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) system. Norepinephrine was not detectable in any of the samples, but the standards were recovered. Tyramine values were not significantly different between the control group and the fought group, so tyramine does not appear to be important in agonistic behaviour. A comparison between the control and fought groups shows that fighting had an effect on the concentrations of octopamine, dopamine and 5-HT, but exercise only had an effect on octopamine levels, which showed a reduction from resting values in both winners and losers. Resting and post-fight concentrations of octopamine, dopamine and 5-HT were higher in winners than in losers. 5-HT concentration increased in the blood of fought crabs from resting values, whereas dopamine concentration decreased. In winners, octopamine concentrations decreased from resting values, but in losers octopamine levels increased from resting concentrations. The escalatory behaviour or intensity of fighting performed by winners and losers was related to dopamine levels but not to those of octopamine or 5-HT. Therefore, there appears to be a link between relative concentrations of these three amines (dopamine, octopamine and 5-HT) and fighting ability; the effects are not simply a result of activity. The better competitors have higher concentrations of these three amines at rest and after fighting. (+info)
Postsynaptic 5-hydroxytryptamine(1A) receptor activation increases in vivo dopamine release in rat prefrontal cortex. (2/250)5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) plays a role in the regulation of 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylethylamine (dopamine) neurons in the brain, but the precise mechanism of regulation by 5-HT(1A) receptors of dopamine release has not been defined. The present study describes the effect of 5- inverted question mark3-[[(2S)-1,4-benzodioxan-2ylmethyl]amino]propoxy inverted question mark-1, 3-benzodioxole HCl (MKC-242), a highly potent and selective 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist, on dopamine release in the prefrontal cortex using microdialysis in the freely moving rat. Subcutaneous injection of MKC-242 (0.3 - 1.0 mg kg(-1)) increased extracellular levels of dopamine in the prefrontal cortex. The effect of MKC-242 in the prefrontal cortex was antagonized by pretreatment with the selective 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist, N-[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-N-(2-pyridinyl)cyclohe xanecarboxamide (WAY100635; 1 mg kg(-1), i.p.). Local application of WAY100635 (10 microM) via a microdialysis probe antagonized the effect of systemic MKC-242 in an increasing dopamine release, and locally infused 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (10 microM) increased dopamine release in the prefrontal cortex. MKC-242 increased cortical dopamine release in the rats pretreated with 5, 7-dihydroxytryptamine (150 microgram, i.c.v.) that caused an almost complete reduction in cortical 5-HT content. The effect of MKC-242 to increase dopamine release was also observed in the hippocampus, but not in the striatum or nucleus accumbens. Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, increased dopamine release in the prefrontal cortex, but not in the nucleus accumbens, while buspirone, a 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist, increased dopamine release in both brain regions. The present results indicate that activation of postsynaptic 5-HT(1A) receptors increases dopamine release in a brain region-specific manner. (+info)
Cocaine and antidepressant-sensitive biogenic amine transporters exist in regulated complexes with protein phosphatase 2A. (3/250)Presynaptic transporter proteins regulate the clearance of extracellular biogenic amines after release and are important targets for multiple psychoactive agents, including amphetamines, cocaine, and antidepressant drugs. Recent studies reveal that dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), and serotonin (5-HT) transporters (DAT, NET, and SERT, respectively) are rapidly regulated by direct or receptor-mediated activation of cellular kinases, particularly protein kinase C (PKC). With SERTs, PKC activation results in activity-dependent transporter phosphorylation and sequestration. Protein phosphatase 1/2A (PP1/PP2A) inhibitors, such as okadaic acid (OA) and calyculin A, also promote SERT phosphorylation and functional downregulation. How kinase, phosphatase, and transporter activities are linked mechanistically is unclear. In the present study, we found that okadaic acid-sensitive phosphatase activity is enriched in SERT immunoprecipitates from human SERT stably transfected cells. Moreover, blots of these immunoprecipitates reveal the presence of PP2A catalytic subunit (PP2Ac), findings replicated using brain preparations. Whole-cell treatments with okadaic acid or calyculin A diminished SERT/PP2Ac associations. Phorbol esters, which trigger SERT phosphorylation, also diminish SERT/PP2Ac associations, effects that can be blocked by PKC antagonists as well as the SERT substrate 5-HT. Similar transporter/PP2Ac complexes were also observed in coimmunoprecipitation studies with NETs and DATs. Our findings provide evidence for the existence of regulated heteromeric assemblies involving biogenic amine transporters and PP2A and suggest that the dynamic stability of these complexes may govern transporter phosphorylation and sequestration. (+info)
Neurochemical and metabolic aspects of antidepressants: an overview. (4/250)Antidepressants, in addition to being effective therapeutic agents for depression, have also proved to be multifaceted drugs useful for treating a number of other psychiatric and neurologic disorders. Despite the widespread use of these drugs, much remains to be understood about their mechanisms of action and other important aspects, such as their metabolism and potential interactions with other drugs. This article reviews research conducted in the authors' laboratories on various aspects of antidepressants, including trace amines and antidepressants, gamma-aminobutyric acid and antidepressants, drug metabolism, development and application of rapid, sensitive assay procedures for antidepressants and their metabolites; and drug development based on analogues of the antidepressants phenelzine and tranylcypromine. The significance of this work to future drug development is also discussed. (+info)
Sodium-potassium-adenosinetriphosphatase-dependent sodium transport in the kidney: hormonal control. (5/250)Tubular reabsorption of filtered sodium is quantitatively the main contribution of kidneys to salt and water homeostasis. The transcellular reabsorption of sodium proceeds by a two-step mechanism: Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase-energized basolateral active extrusion of sodium permits passive apical entry through various sodium transport systems. In the past 15 years, most of the renal sodium transport systems (Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, channels, cotransporters, and exchangers) have been characterized at a molecular level. Coupled to the methods developed during the 1965-1985 decades to circumvent kidney heterogeneity and analyze sodium transport at the level of single nephron segments, cloning of the transporters allowed us to move our understanding of hormone regulation of sodium transport from a cellular to a molecular level. The main purpose of this review is to analyze how molecular events at the transporter level account for the physiological changes in tubular handling of sodium promoted by hormones. In recent years, it also became obvious that intracellular signaling pathways interacted with each other, leading to synergisms or antagonisms. A second aim of this review is therefore to analyze the integrated network of signaling pathways underlying hormone action. Given the central role of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase in sodium reabsorption, the first part of this review focuses on its structural and functional properties, with a special mention of the specificity of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase expressed in renal tubule. In a second part, the general mechanisms of hormone signaling are briefly introduced before a more detailed discussion of the nephron segment-specific expression of hormone receptors and signaling pathways. The three following parts integrate the molecular and physiological aspects of the hormonal regulation of sodium transport processes in three nephron segments: the proximal tubule, the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop, and the collecting duct. (+info)
A transplantable human carcinoid as model for somatostatin receptor-mediated and amine transporter-mediated radionuclide uptake. (6/250)A human midgut carcinoid tumor was successfully transplanted into nude mice and propagated for five consecutive generations (30 months) with well-preserved phenotype. Tumor cells in nude mice expressed identical neuroendocrine markers as the original tumor, including somatostatin receptors (somatostatin receptors 1 to 5) and vesicular monoamine transporters (VMAT1 and VMAT2). Because of the expression of somatostatin receptors and VMAT1 and VMAT2 the grafted tumors could be visualized scintigraphically using the somatostatin analogue 111In-octreotide and the catecholamine analogue 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine. The biokinetics of the somatostatin analogue 111In-octreotide in the tumors was studied and showed a high retention 7 days after administration. Cell cultures were re-established from transplanted tumors. Immunocytochemical and ultrastructural studies confirmed the neuroendocrine differentiation. The human origin of transplanted tumor cells was confirmed by cytogenetic and fluorescence it situ hybridization analyses. Spontaneous secretion of serotonin and its metabolite, 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid, from tumor cells was demonstrated. The tumor cells increased their [Ca2+]i in response to beta-adrenoceptor stimulation (isoproterenol) and K+-depolarization. All somatostatin receptor subtypes could be demonstrated in cultured cells. This human transplantable carcinoid tumor, designated GOT1, grafted to nude mice, will give unique possibilities for studies of somatostatin receptor- and VMAT-mediated radionuclide uptake as well as for studies of secretory mechanisms. (+info)
Biogenic amines in Drosophila virilis under stress conditions. (7/250)The effect of heat stress (38 degrees C) on the content of DL-beta-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)alanine (DOPA), dopamine, tyramine, octopamine, and their precursor Tyr was studied in adults of two lines of Drosophila virilis contrasting in their stress response. In individuals of line 101 responding to stress by a hormonal stress reaction, the contents of DOPA, dopamine, octopamine, and Tyr were lower than those of line 147 that did not respond to the stress. However, heat stress caused an increase in the contents of DOPA, dopamine, octopamine, and Tyr in line 101, whereas the equivalent titers in line 147 remain unchanged. (+info)
Cerebrospinal fluid biogenic amine metabolites, plasma-rich platelet serotonin and [3H]imipramine reuptake in the primary fibromyalgia syndrome. (8/250)BACKGROUND: Primary fibromyalgia syndrome (PFS) is a chronic disorder commonly seen in rheumatological practice. The pathophysiological disturbances of this syndrome, which was defined by the American College of Rheumatology in 1990, are poorly understood. This study evaluated, in 30 patients, the hypothesis that PFS is a pain modulation disorder induced by deregulation of serotonin metabolism. OBJECTIVES: To compare platelet [(3)H]imipramine binding sites and serotonin (5-HT) levels in plasma-rich platelets (PRP) of PFS patients with those of matched healthy controls and to compare the levels of biogenic amine metabolites in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of PFS patients with those of matched controls. METHODS: Platelet [(3)H]imipramine binding sites were defined by two criteria, B(max) for their density and K(d) for their affinity. PRP 5-HT and CSF metabolites of 5-HT (5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, 5-HIAA), norepinephrine (3-methoxy, 4-hydroxy phenylglycol, MHPG) and dopamine (homovanillic acid, HVA) were assayed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with coulometric detection. RESULTS: [(3)H]Imipramine platelet binding was similar (P=0.43 for B(max) and P=0.30 for K(d)) in PFS patients (B(max)=901+/-83 fmol/mg protein, K(d)=0.682+/-0.046) and in matched controls (B(max)=1017+/-119 fmol/mg protein, K(d)=0.606+/-0.056). PRP 5-HT was significantly higher (P=0.0009) in PFS patients (955+/-101 ng/10(9) platelets) than in controls (633+/-50 ng/10(9) platelets). When adjusted for age, the levels of all CSF metabolites were lower in PFS patients. The CSF metabolite of norepinephrine (MHPG) was lower (P:=0.003) in PFS patients (8.33+/-0.33 ng/ml) than in matched controls (9.89+/-0.31 ng/ml) and 5-HIAA was lower (P=0.042) in PFS female patients (22.34+/-1.78 ng/ml) than in matched controls (25.75+/-1.75 ng/ml). For HVA in females, the difference between PFS patients (36.32+/-3.20 ng/ml) and matched controls (38.32+/-2.90 ng/ml) approached statistical significance (P=0.054). CONCLUSION: Changes in metabolites of CSF biogenic amines appear to be partially correlated to age but remained diagnosis-dependent. High levels of PRP 5-HT in PFS patients were associated with low CSF 5-HIAA levels in female patients but were not accompanied by any change in serotonergic uptake as assessed by platelet [(3)H]imipramine binding sites. These findings do not allow us to confirm that serotonin metabolism is deregulated in PFS patients. (+info)
Biogenic amines are organic compounds that are produced by living organisms, including humans. They are derived from amino acids and are involved in a variety of physiological processes, including neurotransmission, hormone release, and regulation of blood pressure. In the medical field, biogenic amines are often studied in relation to various diseases and disorders. For example, high levels of certain biogenic amines, such as dopamine and norepinephrine, have been linked to conditions such as Parkinson's disease and hypertension. On the other hand, low levels of certain biogenic amines, such as serotonin, have been associated with depression and anxiety disorders. In addition, biogenic amines are also used as diagnostic tools in medical testing. For example, the measurement of levels of certain biogenic amines in the blood or urine can be used to help diagnose and monitor certain diseases, such as pheochromocytoma (a tumor of the adrenal gland) or carcinoid syndrome (a condition caused by the overproduction of certain hormones). Overall, biogenic amines play important roles in many physiological processes and are the subject of ongoing research in the medical field.
Receptors, biogenic amine are proteins found on the surface of cells that bind to biogenic amines, which are neurotransmitters and hormones that are produced in the body. These receptors play a crucial role in regulating various physiological processes, including mood, appetite, and blood pressure. There are several different types of biogenic amine receptors, including dopamine receptors, serotonin receptors, and norepinephrine receptors, each of which has a specific function and can be targeted by drugs to treat various medical conditions.
Octopamine is a biogenic amine that is found in a variety of organisms, including insects, crustaceans, and cephalopods. In the medical field, octopamine is primarily studied for its role in the regulation of various physiological processes, including metabolism, heart rate, and muscle contraction. In insects, octopamine is involved in the control of flight and other behaviors, and it has been shown to play a role in the regulation of feeding and digestion. In crustaceans, octopamine is involved in the control of movement and has been shown to play a role in the regulation of heart rate and blood pressure. In cephalopods, octopamine is involved in the control of muscle contraction and has been shown to play a role in the regulation of feeding and digestion. It is also thought to play a role in the control of behavior and may be involved in the regulation of mood and anxiety. Overall, octopamine is a complex molecule that has a wide range of effects on various physiological processes in different organisms. Further research is needed to fully understand its role in the body and to develop potential therapeutic applications.
In the medical field, amines are organic compounds that contain a nitrogen atom bonded to one or more carbon atoms. They are often used as drugs, either as medications or as intermediates in the synthesis of other drugs. Amines can be classified into several categories based on their chemical structure and properties. Some common types of amines include primary amines, secondary amines, and tertiary amines. Primary amines have one nitrogen atom bonded to one hydrogen atom and two carbon atoms. Examples of primary amines include histamine, which is involved in allergic reactions, and dopamine, which plays a role in the regulation of movement and mood. Secondary amines have one nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms and one carbon atom. Examples of secondary amines include epinephrine, which is used to treat severe allergic reactions and asthma, and norepinephrine, which is involved in the regulation of blood pressure and heart rate. Tertiary amines have one nitrogen atom bonded to three carbon atoms. Examples of tertiary amines include trimethoprim, which is used to treat bacterial infections, and procainamide, which is used to treat certain types of heart arrhythmias. Amines can also be classified based on their physical properties, such as their solubility in water and their ability to form salts with acids. Some amines are water-soluble and can be used as electrolytes in intravenous solutions, while others are insoluble and are used as local anesthetics.
Tyramine is a naturally occurring amino acid that is found in many foods, including cheese, chocolate, cured meats, and fermented foods. In the medical field, tyramine is known to increase the production of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the brain, which can lead to a range of symptoms, including headache, nausea, flushing, and rapid heartbeat. Tyramine is also a precursor to the neurotransmitter norepinephrine, which is involved in the body's "fight or flight" response. As a result, high levels of tyramine can cause symptoms such as anxiety, agitation, and increased heart rate. People with certain medical conditions, such as high blood pressure or a history of migraines, may need to avoid foods that are high in tyramine to prevent symptoms from occurring. In some cases, medications may be prescribed to help manage the effects of tyramine on the body.
Serotonin is a neurotransmitter, a chemical messenger that transmits signals between nerve cells in the brain and throughout the body. It plays a crucial role in regulating mood, appetite, sleep, and other bodily functions. In the medical field, serotonin is often studied in relation to mental health conditions such as depression, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Low levels of serotonin have been linked to these conditions, and medications such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are often prescribed to increase serotonin levels in the brain and improve symptoms. Serotonin is also involved in the regulation of pain perception, blood pressure, and other bodily functions. Imbalances in serotonin levels have been implicated in a variety of medical conditions, including migraines, fibromyalgia, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).
Biogenic monoamines are a group of neurotransmitters that are synthesized from amino acids in the brain and other tissues. They include dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and histamine. These neurotransmitters play important roles in regulating mood, motivation, attention, and other cognitive and emotional processes. Imbalances in the levels of biogenic monoamines have been implicated in a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia.
Polyphloretin phosphate (PPP) is a chemical compound that is used in various medical applications. It is a derivative of phlorizin, which is a natural compound found in apples. PPP is a white, odorless, and tasteless powder that is soluble in water and alcohol. In the medical field, PPP is used as a diuretic, which means it helps to increase urine production and reduce fluid retention in the body. It is also used to treat high blood pressure and edema (swelling caused by excess fluid in the body). PPP is also used in the treatment of certain types of cancer, such as breast cancer and ovarian cancer. It works by inhibiting the growth of cancer cells and promoting their death. In addition to its medical uses, PPP is also used in the production of cosmetics and personal care products, such as shampoos and toothpaste, due to its ability to improve the texture and stability of these products.
Vesicular biogenic amine transport proteins (VBATs) are a family of proteins that play a crucial role in the transport of biogenic amines, such as dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine, into synaptic vesicles in neurons. These vesicles are small sacs that store neurotransmitters and release them into the synaptic cleft when a nerve impulse reaches the end of a neuron. VBATs are responsible for loading these neurotransmitters into the vesicles, which is a critical step in the process of neurotransmitter release. They are found in a variety of organisms, including humans, and are encoded by several different genes. Mutations in these genes can lead to neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. Overall, VBATs play a critical role in the regulation of neurotransmitter release and are an important target for the development of new treatments for neurological disorders.
Norepinephrine plasma membrane transport proteins (NETs) are a group of proteins that are responsible for regulating the levels of norepinephrine (also known as noradrenaline) in the body. These proteins are located on the surface of cells in the sympathetic nervous system, which is responsible for the body's "fight or flight" response. NETs work by pumping norepinephrine out of the cell and into the surrounding fluid. This helps to regulate the levels of norepinephrine in the body and ensures that it is available when it is needed. In the absence of NETs, norepinephrine would build up inside the cell and could cause problems. NETs are also important in the treatment of certain medical conditions, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depression. Medications that block the action of NETs, such as atomoxetine (Strattera) and reboxetine (Edronax), are used to treat these conditions by increasing the levels of norepinephrine in the brain.
Kynuramine is a compound that is produced from the amino acid tryptophan through the kynurenine pathway. It is a metabolite of the kynurenine pathway, which is a series of enzymatic reactions that occur in the body and are involved in the metabolism of tryptophan. Kynuramine has been studied in the context of various medical conditions, including depression, anxiety, and addiction. Some research has suggested that kynuramine may play a role in the development of these conditions, and that modulating the levels of kynuramine in the body may be a potential therapeutic approach. However, more research is needed to fully understand the role of kynuramine in these conditions and to determine its potential as a treatment.
Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that plays a crucial role in the brain's reward and pleasure centers. It is also involved in regulating movement, motivation, and emotional responses. In the medical field, dopamine is often used to treat conditions such as Parkinson's disease, which is characterized by a lack of dopamine in the brain. It can also be used to treat high blood pressure, as well as to manage symptoms of depression and schizophrenia. Dopamine is typically administered through injections or intravenous infusions, although it can also be taken orally in some cases.
Monoamine oxidase (MAO) is an enzyme that is responsible for breaking down certain neurotransmitters in the brain, including serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine. These neurotransmitters play important roles in regulating mood, appetite, and other bodily functions. MAO inhibitors are a class of drugs that block the activity of this enzyme, allowing these neurotransmitters to remain in the brain for longer periods of time. This can lead to an increase in their effects and may be used to treat conditions such as depression and anxiety.
Histamine is a chemical substance that is produced by certain cells in the body, including immune cells and cells in the digestive system. It plays a role in a variety of physiological processes, including the contraction of smooth muscles, the dilation of blood vessels, and the stimulation of nerve endings. In the medical field, histamine is often used as a diagnostic tool to help identify conditions such as allergies, asthma, and certain types of infections. It is also used as a treatment for certain conditions, such as allergic reactions and certain types of digestive disorders.
Tyrosine decarboxylase is an enzyme that catalyzes the decarboxylation of tyrosine to produce phenylalanine and carbon dioxide. This enzyme plays a crucial role in the biosynthesis of the neurotransmitter dopamine, which is involved in the regulation of mood, motivation, and reward. Tyrosine decarboxylase is also involved in the production of other neurotransmitters, such as norepinephrine and epinephrine, which are important for the body's response to stress and the regulation of the cardiovascular system. In the medical field, tyrosine decarboxylase is often studied in the context of neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, which is characterized by a deficiency in dopamine production.
Chromatography, Micellar Electrokinetic Capillary (MEKC) is a type of analytical technique used in the medical field to separate and analyze complex mixtures of molecules based on their charge, size, and hydrophobicity. It is a variant of capillary electrophoresis, which uses an electric field to drive charged molecules through a narrow capillary filled with a solution containing micelles, which are small spherical aggregates of surfactant molecules. In MEKC, the sample mixture is introduced into the capillary and an electric field is applied across the capillary. The charged molecules in the sample are attracted to the oppositely charged micelles and form complexes with them. The complexes then migrate through the capillary due to the electric field, with the migration rate depending on the charge, size, and hydrophobicity of the molecules. MEKC is particularly useful for the separation and analysis of small molecules, such as drugs, metabolites, and peptides, in biological samples. It has a high resolution and sensitivity, and can be used to determine the purity, identity, and concentration of these molecules. It is also a relatively fast and simple technique, making it a popular choice in the medical field for a wide range of applications, including drug discovery, quality control, and clinical diagnosis.
Chlorpheniramine is an antihistamine medication that is used to treat allergy symptoms such as runny nose, sneezing, itching, and watery eyes. It works by blocking the action of histamine, a chemical that is released by the body in response to an allergic reaction. Chlorpheniramine is available over-the-counter in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and liquids. It is also available by prescription in higher strengths or in combination with other medications. Chlorpheniramine may cause drowsiness, so it is generally not recommended for use by people who need to be alert, such as drivers or operators of heavy machinery.
Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (HIAA) is a metabolite of the amino acid tryptophan. It is produced in the body by the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), which is primarily found in immune cells and the liver. HIAA is excreted in the urine and can be measured in laboratory tests. In the medical field, HIAA is often used as a diagnostic marker for pheochromocytoma, a rare tumor of the adrenal gland that produces excess catecholamines (such as adrenaline and noradrenaline). Pheochromocytoma can cause symptoms such as high blood pressure, rapid heartbeat, and sweating, and can be difficult to diagnose. Measuring HIAA levels in the urine can help confirm the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma, especially when other diagnostic tests are inconclusive. HIAA is also sometimes used as a biomarker for other conditions, such as depression and certain types of cancer. However, more research is needed to fully understand the role of HIAA in these conditions.
Norepinephrine, also known as noradrenaline, is a neurotransmitter and hormone that plays a crucial role in the body's "fight or flight" response. It is produced by the adrenal glands and is also found in certain neurons in the brain and spinal cord. In the medical field, norepinephrine is often used as a medication to treat low blood pressure, shock, and heart failure. It works by constricting blood vessels and increasing heart rate, which helps to raise blood pressure and improve blood flow to vital organs. Norepinephrine is also used to treat certain types of depression, as it can help to increase feelings of alertness and energy. However, it is important to note that norepinephrine can have side effects, including rapid heartbeat, high blood pressure, and anxiety, and should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional.
Metiamide is a medication that is used to treat ulcers in the stomach and duodenum (the first part of the small intestine). It works by reducing the amount of acid that is produced by the stomach, which can help to heal ulcers and prevent them from coming back. Metiamide is usually taken in combination with other medications, such as antibiotics and antacids, to treat ulcers caused by the bacteria Helicobacter pylori. It is available in tablet form and is usually taken once or twice a day, with or without food. Side effects of metiamide may include headache, dizziness, nausea, and diarrhea.
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Biogenic polyamines are a group of naturally occurring organic compounds that are synthesized in living organisms. They are primarily composed of three amino acids: ornithine, lysine, and arginine. Biogenic polyamines play important roles in various biological processes, including cell growth and division, DNA synthesis and repair, and regulation of gene expression. In the medical field, biogenic polyamines have been studied for their potential therapeutic applications. For example, some studies have suggested that biogenic polyamines may have anti-cancer properties, as they can inhibit the growth and proliferation of cancer cells. Additionally, biogenic polyamines have been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects, which may be useful in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases. Overall, biogenic polyamines are an important class of compounds that have a wide range of potential applications in the medical field.
Salsoline alkaloids are a group of organic compounds that are naturally occurring in certain plants, particularly in the genus Salsola. These alkaloids have a variety of biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-microbial properties. In the medical field, salsoline alkaloids have been studied for their potential therapeutic applications. For example, some salsoline alkaloids have been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects, which could make them useful for treating conditions such as arthritis and other inflammatory diseases. Other salsoline alkaloids have been found to have anti-cancer properties, which could make them useful for treating various types of cancer. Overall, salsoline alkaloids are a promising area of research in the medical field, and further studies are needed to fully understand their potential therapeutic applications.
Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins (SERTs) are a group of proteins that are responsible for regulating the levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin in the brain and other tissues. These proteins are located on the surface of nerve cells (neurons) and are involved in the process of reuptake, which is the process by which neurotransmitters are taken back up into the neuron that released them. SERTs play a critical role in regulating mood, appetite, and other physiological processes, and imbalances in SERT activity have been linked to a number of mental health conditions, including depression and anxiety disorders.
Mazindol is a medication that is used to treat obesity. It is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that works by reducing appetite and increasing energy expenditure. It is typically used in combination with diet and exercise to help people lose weight. Mazindol is available by prescription only and is usually taken once or twice a day. It can cause side effects such as nervousness, insomnia, and increased heart rate.
Mianserin is a medication that is used to treat depression and anxiety disorders. It is a type of antidepressant called a tetracyclic antidepressant, which means that it contains four rings of atoms in its chemical structure. Mianserin works by affecting the levels of certain neurotransmitters in the brain, including serotonin and norepinephrine, which are involved in mood regulation. It is typically prescribed to people who have not responded well to other antidepressants or who have side effects from those medications. Mianserin may also be used to treat other conditions, such as insomnia and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). It is important to note that mianserin can have side effects, and it may not be suitable for everyone. It is always important to talk to a healthcare provider before starting any new medication.
Phenylacetates are a group of organic compounds that are formed by the reaction of phenylalanine with acetic acid. They are commonly found in the human body and are involved in various metabolic processes. In the medical field, phenylacetates are used as a source of energy for patients who are unable to produce energy from other sources, such as those with liver or kidney failure. They are also used to treat certain types of brain injury and to prevent the accumulation of toxic substances in the brain.
Methylhistamines are a group of compounds that are formed by the methylation of histamine. Histamine is a naturally occurring amine that is produced by various cells in the body, including immune cells, and plays a role in a number of physiological processes, including allergic reactions, inflammation, and neurotransmission. Methylhistamines are formed by the addition of a methyl group to the histamine molecule. There are several different methylhistamines, including methylhistamine, 2-methylhistamine, and 3-methylhistamine. These compounds have similar properties to histamine and can also act as neurotransmitters and immune system modulators. In the medical field, methylhistamines are sometimes used as diagnostic tools to help identify the cause of certain conditions. For example, the presence of methylhistamines in the urine or blood can be an indication of an allergic reaction or other inflammatory condition. They may also be used as therapeutic agents to treat certain conditions, such as allergies or asthma.
Phenethylamines are a class of organic compounds that contain a phenyl ring and an ethylamine group. They are naturally occurring chemicals that can be found in a variety of plants and animals, including some species of insects and mammals. In the medical field, phenethylamines are sometimes used as research tools to study the brain and behavior. Some phenethylamines, such as amphetamines, have been used as stimulants to treat conditions such as narcolepsy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the use of phenethylamines as medications is generally limited due to their potential for abuse and side effects.
Synephrine is a chemical compound that is found in certain plants, including citrus fruits and some herbs. It is also synthesized in the human body as a neurotransmitter, and is involved in the regulation of various physiological processes, including heart rate, blood pressure, and metabolism. In the medical field, synephrine is sometimes used as a dietary supplement or ingredient in weight loss products. It is believed to increase metabolism and fat burning, and may also have a stimulant effect on the central nervous system. However, the safety and effectiveness of synephrine as a weight loss supplement are not well-established, and it may have potential side effects, including increased heart rate and blood pressure. As with any dietary supplement, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional before using synephrine.
Dopamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins (DATs) are a group of proteins that are responsible for regulating the levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter, in the brain. These proteins are located on the surface of neurons and are involved in the reuptake of dopamine from the synaptic cleft back into the neuron. This process is important for maintaining the proper balance of dopamine in the brain and for regulating mood, motivation, and reward. Dysfunction of DATs has been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, including Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and addiction.
Reserpine is a natural alkaloid that was originally isolated from the plant Rauvolfia serpentina, also known as the Indian snakeroot. It is a potent antagonist of the sympathetic nervous system, which means it blocks the effects of norepinephrine, a neurotransmitter that plays a key role in the body's "fight or flight" response. In the medical field, reserpine is primarily used as a medication to treat high blood pressure. It works by reducing the production of norepinephrine in the body, which can help lower blood pressure and reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke. Reserpine is also sometimes used to treat anxiety, depression, and other conditions that are thought to be related to imbalances in the sympathetic nervous system. Reserpine can cause a number of side effects, including dizziness, weakness, fatigue, and dry mouth. It can also cause more serious side effects, such as low blood pressure, rapid heart rate, and depression. As with any medication, it is important to talk to your doctor about the potential risks and benefits of taking reserpine, and to follow their instructions carefully.
Decarboxylation is a chemical reaction in which a carboxyl group (-COOH) is removed from a molecule, resulting in the release of carbon dioxide (CO2) and the formation of a new compound. In the medical field, decarboxylation is often used to refer to the conversion of certain amino acids, such as tryptophan and tyrosine, into their corresponding neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and dopamine, respectively. This process is important for the proper functioning of the nervous system and is often disrupted in certain medical conditions, such as Parkinson's disease and depression. Decarboxylation can also occur naturally in the body as a result of metabolic processes, and it is also used in certain medical treatments, such as the use of synthetic cannabinoids for the treatment of certain types of pain.
Methyltyrosines are a group of amino acids that have a methyl group (CH3) attached to the tyrosine residue. In the medical field, methyltyrosines are often used as markers for the presence of certain diseases or conditions, such as neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson's disease or Alzheimer's disease. They are also used as markers for the presence of certain types of cancer, such as glioblastoma multiforme, a type of brain cancer. In addition, methyltyrosines have been shown to play a role in the regulation of various cellular processes, including cell growth and differentiation.
Catecholamines are a group of neurotransmitters that are produced by the adrenal glands and certain neurons in the brain. They include norepinephrine (also known as noradrenaline), epinephrine (also known as adrenaline), and dopamine. Catecholamines play a crucial role in the body's "fight or flight" response, which is triggered in response to stress or danger. They are released by the adrenal glands in response to stress, and by certain neurons in the brain in response to certain stimuli. Norepinephrine and epinephrine are primarily responsible for the physical effects of the fight or flight response, such as increased heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration. Dopamine, on the other hand, is primarily responsible for the psychological effects of the response, such as increased alertness and focus. Catecholamines are also involved in a number of other physiological processes, including the regulation of blood sugar levels, the control of blood vessel diameter, and the regulation of mood and motivation. They are often used as medications to treat a variety of conditions, including hypertension, heart disease, and depression.
Putrescine is a polyamine compound that is naturally produced in the body and is also found in many plants and animals. It is a colorless, odorless, and water-soluble compound that is synthesized from the amino acid ornithine and decarboxylation of arginine. In the medical field, putrescine has been studied for its potential therapeutic effects in various diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and inflammatory conditions. It has been shown to have anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-apoptotic effects, and may also have a role in regulating cell growth and differentiation. Putrescine has also been used as a food additive and preservative, and is found in some natural products such as mushrooms and fermented foods. However, excessive consumption of putrescine may have adverse effects on health, including nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.
Brain chemistry refers to the chemical processes that occur within the brain, including the production, release, and regulation of neurotransmitters, hormones, and other chemical messengers. These chemical processes play a critical role in regulating mood, behavior, cognition, and other aspects of brain function. In the medical field, brain chemistry is often studied in the context of neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and addiction. By understanding the underlying chemical imbalances or abnormalities in the brain, researchers and healthcare providers can develop more effective treatments for these conditions. Some common neurotransmitters and hormones involved in brain chemistry include dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, acetylcholine, and cortisol. Medications such as antidepressants, antipsychotics, and mood stabilizers often work by altering the levels of these chemicals in the brain to improve symptoms of various disorders.
Imipramine is a tricyclic antidepressant medication that is used to treat depression, anxiety disorders, and other conditions such as chronic pain, insomnia, and enuresis (bedwetting). It works by increasing the levels of certain neurotransmitters in the brain, such as serotonin and norepinephrine, which can help to improve mood and reduce symptoms of depression and anxiety. Imipramine is usually taken orally in tablet form and may take several weeks to start working. It can cause side effects such as dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, dizziness, and drowsiness.
Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD) is a powerful hallucinogenic drug that is derived from a fungus found in rye and other grains. It is a synthetic chemical that is typically taken orally, either as a tablet or a liquid, and its effects can last for several hours. In the medical field, LSD is sometimes used in research settings to study its effects on the brain and to explore its potential therapeutic applications. For example, some studies have suggested that LSD may be effective in treating anxiety, depression, and addiction. However, the use of LSD as a therapeutic agent is still experimental and has not been approved by regulatory agencies. LSD is also used recreationally, and its use can be dangerous and potentially harmful. The drug can cause intense hallucinations, altered perceptions of time and space, and other adverse effects, including anxiety, paranoia, and psychosis. Long-term use of LSD can also lead to physical and psychological dependence, as well as cognitive impairment and memory loss.
In the medical field, the brain is the most complex and vital organ in the human body. It is responsible for controlling and coordinating all bodily functions, including movement, sensation, thought, emotion, and memory. The brain is located in the skull and is protected by the skull bones and cerebrospinal fluid. The brain is composed of billions of nerve cells, or neurons, which communicate with each other through electrical and chemical signals. These neurons are organized into different regions of the brain, each with its own specific functions. The brain is also divided into two hemispheres, the left and right, which are connected by a bundle of nerve fibers called the corpus callosum. Damage to the brain can result in a wide range of neurological disorders, including stroke, traumatic brain injury, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and epilepsy. Treatment for brain disorders often involves medications, surgery, and rehabilitation therapies to help restore function and improve quality of life.
Phenelzine is a medication that is used to treat depression. It is a type of antidepressant called a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI). MAOIs work by increasing the levels of certain neurotransmitters in the brain, such as serotonin and norepinephrine, which can help to improve mood and reduce symptoms of depression. Phenelzine is typically used to treat severe depression that has not responded to other treatments, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs). It is usually taken once or twice a day, and the dosage may need to be adjusted based on the individual's response to the medication. Phenelzine can cause side effects, such as dizziness, nausea, and dry mouth, and it may interact with other medications, so it is important to talk to a healthcare provider before taking it.
In the medical field, "cheese" is not a commonly used term. However, there are some medical conditions that may be referred to as "cheese-like" or "cheesy" in appearance or texture. One example is a condition called "cheesy pustules," which is a type of skin lesion that can occur in certain skin infections, such as impetigo or folliculitis. These lesions are characterized by a yellowish-white, pus-filled bump that may be surrounded by redness and swelling. Another example is "cheesy brain," which is a term used to describe a type of brain injury called diffuse axonal injury. This type of injury occurs when the brain is subjected to a sudden, violent force, such as a car accident or a sports injury. The injury can cause damage to the brain's axons, which are the long, slender fibers that transmit signals between nerve cells. The damaged axons can become tangled and twisted, creating a "cheesy" appearance on an MRI scan of the brain. Overall, while "cheese" is not a commonly used term in the medical field, there are some medical conditions that may be referred to as "cheesy" in appearance or texture.
Dihydroxyphenylalanine, also known as DOPA, is a chemical compound that is a precursor to the neurotransmitter dopamine. It is produced in the body from the amino acid tyrosine, which is found in many foods, including meat, dairy products, and some vegetables. In the medical field, DOPA is used to treat certain neurological conditions, such as Parkinson's disease, which is characterized by a deficiency of dopamine in the brain. DOPA is given orally or intravenously to increase the levels of dopamine in the brain and improve symptoms such as tremors, stiffness, and difficulty with movement. DOPA is also used to treat other conditions, such as Huntington's disease and some forms of depression. It is important to note that DOPA can have side effects, including nausea, vomiting, and dizziness, and it should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional.
Agmatine is a naturally occurring compound that is found in the human body and some plants. It is an endogenous amine that is structurally related to putrescine and has been shown to have a variety of physiological effects. In the medical field, agmatine has been studied for its potential therapeutic effects in a number of conditions, including anxiety, depression, and pain. It has also been shown to have anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties, and may have potential applications in the treatment of neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential therapeutic effects of agmatine and to determine its safety and efficacy in the treatment of various medical conditions.
Membrane transport proteins are proteins that span the cell membrane and facilitate the movement of molecules across the membrane. These proteins play a crucial role in maintaining the proper balance of ions and molecules inside and outside of cells, and are involved in a wide range of cellular processes, including nutrient uptake, waste removal, and signal transduction. There are several types of membrane transport proteins, including channels, carriers, and pumps. Channels are pore-forming proteins that allow specific ions or molecules to pass through the membrane down their concentration gradient. Carriers are proteins that bind to specific molecules and change shape to transport them across the membrane against their concentration gradient. Pumps are proteins that use energy to actively transport molecules across the membrane against their concentration gradient. Membrane transport proteins are essential for the proper functioning of cells and are involved in many diseases, including cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, and certain types of cancer. Understanding the structure and function of these proteins is important for developing new treatments for these diseases.
5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) is a naturally occurring amino acid that is a precursor to the neurotransmitter serotonin. Serotonin plays a role in regulating mood, appetite, sleep, and other bodily functions. In the medical field, 5-HTP is sometimes used as a dietary supplement to increase levels of serotonin in the brain. It is believed to be effective in treating conditions such as depression, anxiety, and insomnia. However, the use of 5-HTP as a supplement is not regulated by the FDA, and its safety and efficacy have not been extensively studied. 5-HTP is also used in the treatment of conditions such as fibromyalgia, restless leg syndrome, and migraine headaches. It is typically taken in pill form, and the recommended dosage varies depending on the condition being treated. As with any supplement, it is important to speak with a healthcare provider before taking 5-HTP to ensure that it is safe and appropriate for your individual needs.
Equilibrative nucleoside transport proteins (ENTs) are a family of membrane transport proteins that are responsible for the bidirectional transport of nucleosides and nucleobases across cell membranes. These proteins are found in a variety of tissues and cells throughout the body, including the brain, spinal cord, heart, and immune system. ENTs are important for the regulation of nucleoside metabolism and the maintenance of nucleotide pools within cells. They are also involved in the transport of certain drugs and toxins across cell membranes, and have been implicated in a number of diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, and viral infections. There are several different subtypes of ENTs, each with its own specific substrate preferences and tissue distribution. Some of the most well-known subtypes include ENT1, ENT2, and ENT4.
High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a technique used in the medical field to separate and analyze complex mixtures of compounds. It involves the use of a liquid mobile phase that is forced through a column packed with a stationary phase under high pressure. The compounds in the mixture interact with the stationary phase to different extents, causing them to separate as they pass through the column. The separated compounds are then detected and quantified using a detector, such as a UV detector or a mass spectrometer. HPLC is commonly used in the analysis of drugs, biological samples, and other complex mixtures in the medical field.
Epinephrine, also known as adrenaline, is a hormone and neurotransmitter that plays a crucial role in the body's "fight or flight" response. It is produced by the adrenal glands and is released into the bloodstream in response to stress or danger. In the medical field, epinephrine is used as a medication to treat a variety of conditions, including anaphylaxis (a severe allergic reaction), cardiac arrest, and asthma. It works by constricting blood vessels, increasing heart rate and contractility, and relaxing smooth muscles in the bronchial tubes, which can help to open airways and improve breathing. Epinephrine is typically administered via injection, either intravenously or subcutaneously (under the skin). It is a powerful medication and should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional.
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- To be sure: what many psychiatrists in the 1980s and 1990s did promote was some version of the biogenic amine (or catecholamine) hypothesis of mood disorders, focusing mainly on the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and serotonin. (psychiatrictimes.com)
- Taken together, our results support the hypothesis that the unique actions of aripiprazole in humans are likely a combination of 'functionally selective' activation of D2 (and possibly D3)-dopamine receptors, coupled with important interactions with selected other biogenic amine receptors-particularly 5-HT receptor subtypes (5-HT1A, 5-HT2A). (rti.org)
- The biogenic amine transporters (BATs) regulate endogenous neurotransmitter concentrations and are targets for a broad range of therapeutic agents including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs). (cornell.edu)
- Yohimbine HCL is also thought to create monoamine oxidase (MAO), an enzyme that inhibits the intracellular processing of norepinephrine, serotonin, and other biogenic amines. (buyyohimbine.com)
- The MIP had the highest affinity towards histamine, but recognized also the structurally similar biogenic amines tyramine and tryptamine, as well as spermine and spermidine, providing simultaneous analysis and assessment of the total amount of biogenic amines. (utc.fr)
- Biogenic amine -producing bacteria are responsible for the production of basic nitrogenous compounds ( histamine , cadaverine , tyramine , and putrescine ) following the spoilage of food due to microorganisms. (bvsalud.org)
- Some people are sensitive to histamine and other amines, and may experience headaches after eating fermented foods. (theconversation.com)
- Shotgun Proteomics Analysis, Functional Networks, and Peptide Biomarkers for Seafood-Originating Biogenic-Amine-Producing Bacteria. (bvsalud.org)
- In this study, we adopted a shotgun proteomics strategy to characterize 15 foodborne strains of biogenic- amine -producing bacteria . (bvsalud.org)
- Amines are created by certain bacteria to break down the amino acids in fermented foods. (theconversation.com)
- I certainly would have also asked if he employs any microbial testing to determine that the wine isn't full of biogenic amine producing bacteria. (1winedude.com)
- In conventional winemaking, you add a healthy dose of either sodium or potassium metabisulfite to knock out the bacteria that, among other spoilage concerns, make biogenic amines. (1winedude.com)
- Its unique dual mode of action prolongs the freshness and quality of these materials by reducing biogenic amine formation, controlling microbial degradation and protecting against oxidative deterioration. (kemin.com)
- Remarkably, this leads to exposure of the fetal forebrain to increased concentrations of this biogenic amine and to specific alterations of crucially important 5-HT-dependent neurogenic processes. (jneurosci.org)
- Association of functional genes polymorphisms of key enzymes in the metabolism of biogenic amines with paranoid schizophrenia susceptibility and the influence of these polymorphisms on PANSS results in antipsychotic treatment]. (nih.gov)
- Meat decay is associated with elevated levels of both pathogenic and nonpathogenic microorganisms, leading to increased levels of biogenic amines and free fatty acids, resulting in a negative impact on palatability. (kemin.com)
- These amines are not great for some people and the EU has danced about the actual regulation of some of these compounds. (1winedude.com)
- McAdoo, DJ & Coggeshall, RE 1976, ' GAS CHROMATOGRAPHIC-MASS SPECTROMETRIC ANALYSIS OF BIOGENIC AMINES IN IDENTIFIED NEURONS AND TISSUES OF HIRUDO MEDICINALIS ', Journal of neurochemistry , vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 163-167. (utmb.edu)