Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).
Materials or phenomena which can provide energy directly or via conversion.
A non-taxonomic term for unicellular microscopic algae which are found in both freshwater and marine environments. Some authors consider DIATOMS; CYANOBACTERIA; HAPTOPHYTA; and DINOFLAGELLATES as part of microalgae, even though they are not algae.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A common name (but used formally) for a group of organisms that are mostly kinds of algae including BACILLARIOPHYTA; OOMYCETES; PHAEOPHYCEAE; and CHRYSOPHYCEAE. They all contain CHLOROPLASTS that are thought to have been derived from the endosymbiosis of ancient RED ALGAE.
Forms of energy that are constantly and rapidly renewed by natural processes such as solar, ocean wave, and wind energy. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the EDIBLE GRAINS used in millet cereals and in feed for birds and livestock (ANIMAL FEED). It contains diosgenin (SAPONINS).
Devices for generating biological products that use light as the energy source. They are used for controlled BIOMASS production such as growing cyanobacteria, mosses, or algae.
Methods and techniques used to genetically modify cells' biosynthetic product output and develop conditions for growing the cells as BIOREACTORS.
A family of glycosidases that hydrolyse crystalline CELLULOSE into soluble sugar molecules. Within this family there are a variety of enzyme subtypes with differing substrate specificities that must work together to bring about complete cellulose hydrolysis. They are found in structures called CELLULOSOMES.
Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.
Volative flammable fuel (liquid hydrocarbons) derived from crude petroleum by processes such as distillation reforming, polymerization, etc.
A species of gram-positive, thermophilic, cellulolytic bacteria in the family Clostridaceae. It degrades and ferments CELLOBIOSE and CELLULOSE to ETHANOL in the CELLULOSOME.
Planned management, use, and preservation of energy resources.
Electric power supply devices which convert biological energy, such as chemical energy of metabolism or mechanical energy of periodic movements, into electrical energy.
A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.
The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.
Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.
Salts that melt below 100 C. Their low VOLATILIZATION can be an advantage over volatile organic solvents.
An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE, lichenin, and cereal beta-glucans.
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
The application of engineering principles and methods to living organisms or biological systems.
A four carbon linear hydrocarbon that has a hydroxy group at position 1.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of butanol (C4H9OH).
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
Compounds consisting of glucosamine and lactate joined by an ether linkage. They occur naturally as N-acetyl derivatives in peptidoglycan, the characteristic polysaccharide composing bacterial cell walls. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Extracellular structures found in a variety of microorganisms. They contain CELLULASES and play an important role in the digestion of CELLULOSE.
A field of biological research combining engineering in the formulation, design, and building (synthesis) of novel biological structures, functions, and systems.
The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.
Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.
Xylose is a monosaccharide, a type of sugar, that is commonly found in woody plants and fruits, and it is used in medical testing to assess the absorptive capacity of the small intestine.
Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.
A form-genus of unicellular CYANOBACTERIA in the order Chroococcales. None of the strains fix NITROGEN, there are no gas vacuoles, and sheath layers are never produced.
Polysaccharides consisting of xylose units.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
A mitosporic fungal genus frequently found in soil and on wood. It is sometimes used for controlling pathogenic fungi. Its teleomorph is HYPOCREA.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.

Strategy for adapting wine yeasts for bioethanol production. (1/418)

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Airborne fungal and bacterial components in PM1 dust from biofuel plants. (2/418)

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Rate and peak concentrations of off-gas emissions in stored wood pellets--sensitivities to temperature, relative humidity, and headspace volume. (3/418)

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Protein engineering in designing tailored enzymes and microorganisms for biofuels production. (4/418)

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Emission of volatile aldehydes and ketones from wood pellets under controlled conditions. (5/418)

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Digestible and metabolizable energy content of crude glycerin originating from different sources in nursery pigs. (6/418)

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Effects of headspace and oxygen level on off-gas emissions from wood pellets in storage. (7/418)

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Properties of ethanol fermentation by Flammulina velutipes. (8/418)

Basidiomycetes have the ability to degrade lignocellulosic biomass, and some basidiomycetes produce alcohol dehydrogenase. These characteristics may be useful in the direct production of ethanol from lignocellulose. Ethanol fermentation by basidiomycetes was investigated to examine the possibility of ethanol production by consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) using Flammulina velutipes. F. velutipes converted D-glucose to ethanol with a high efficiency (a theoretical ethanol recovery rate of 88%), but ethanol production from pentose was not observed. These properties of F. velutipes are similar to those of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but the basidiomycete converted not only sucrose, but also maltose, cellobiose, cellotriose, and cellotetraose to ethanol, with almost the same efficiency as that for D-glucose. From these results, we concluded that F. velutipes possesses advantageous characteristics for use in CBP.  (+info)

Biofuels are defined as fuels derived from organic materials such as plants, algae, and animal waste. These fuels can be produced through various processes, including fermentation, esterification, and transesterification. The most common types of biofuels include biodiesel, ethanol, and biogas.

Biodiesel is a type of fuel that is produced from vegetable oils or animal fats through a process called transesterification. It can be used in diesel engines with little or no modification and can significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions compared to traditional fossil fuels.

Ethanol is a type of alcohol that is produced through the fermentation of sugars found in crops such as corn, sugarcane, and switchgrass. It is typically blended with gasoline to create a fuel known as E85, which contains 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline.

Biogas is a type of fuel that is produced through the anaerobic digestion of organic materials such as food waste, sewage sludge, and agricultural waste. It is composed primarily of methane and carbon dioxide and can be used to generate electricity or heat.

Overall, biofuels offer a renewable and more sustainable alternative to traditional fossil fuels, helping to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and decrease dependence on non-renewable resources.

"Energy-generating resources" is a broad term that refers to various methods and technologies used to convert different forms of energy into electricity or other useful forms. While there isn't a specific medical definition for this term, it is often discussed in the context of public health and environmental medicine due to its impact on air quality, climate change, and human health. Here are some examples of energy-generating resources:

1. Fossil fuels: These include coal, oil, and natural gas, which are non-renewable resources. They are burned to produce heat, which is then converted into electricity. The combustion process releases greenhouse gases and pollutants, contributing to climate change and air pollution-related health issues.
2. Nuclear power: This energy source involves the fission of atomic nuclei to generate heat, which is used to produce steam and drive turbines for electricity generation. While nuclear power itself does not emit greenhouse gases, it poses potential risks associated with radioactive waste disposal, accidents, and proliferation.
3. Renewable resources: These are sustainable energy sources that can be replenished naturally over time. Examples include solar power (photovoltaic or concentrated), wind power, hydroelectric power, geothermal energy, and biomass. These resources have lower environmental impacts and contribute less to air pollution and climate change compared to fossil fuels.
4. Hydrogen fuel cells: These devices convert chemical energy from hydrogen into electricity through an electrochemical reaction with oxygen or another oxidizing agent. They are clean energy sources, as the only byproducts are water and heat. However, the production of hydrogen can have environmental impacts depending on the method used (e.g., steam methane reforming vs. electrolysis powered by renewable energy).
5. Energy storage systems: While not a primary source of energy generation, energy storage technologies like batteries and capacitors play an essential role in optimizing the use of energy-generating resources. They can store excess energy produced during periods of low demand or high resource availability (e.g., solar power during the day) and release it during peak demand or resource scarcity, improving overall system efficiency and reducing the need for backup generation from fossil fuels.

In summary, "energy-generating resources" refer to various methods used to convert different forms of energy into electricity or other useful forms. The environmental and health impacts of these resources vary significantly, with renewable sources generally having lower impacts compared to fossil fuel-based options.

Microalgae are microscopic, simple, thalloid, often unicellular organisms that belong to the kingdom Protista. They can be found in freshwater and marine environments, and they are capable of photosynthesis, which allows them to convert light energy, carbon dioxide, and water into organic compounds such as carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.

Microalgae are a diverse group of organisms that include various taxonomic groups such as cyanobacteria (also known as blue-green algae), diatoms, dinoflagellates, and euglenoids. They have important ecological roles in the global carbon cycle, oxygen production, and nutrient recycling.

In addition to their ecological significance, microalgae have gained attention for their potential applications in various industries, including food and feed, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, biofuels, and environmental bioremediation. Some species of microalgae contain high levels of valuable compounds such as omega-3 fatty acids, antioxidants, pigments, and bioactive molecules that have potential health benefits for humans and animals.

Biomass is defined in the medical field as a renewable energy source derived from organic materials, primarily plant matter, that can be burned or converted into fuel. This includes materials such as wood, agricultural waste, and even methane gas produced by landfills. Biomass is often used as a source of heat, electricity, or transportation fuels, and its use can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions and dependence on fossil fuels.

In the context of human health, biomass burning can have both positive and negative impacts. On one hand, biomass can provide a source of heat and energy for cooking and heating, which can improve living standards and reduce exposure to harmful pollutants from traditional cooking methods such as open fires. On the other hand, biomass burning can also produce air pollution, including particulate matter and toxic chemicals, that can have negative effects on respiratory health and contribute to climate change.

Therefore, while biomass has the potential to be a sustainable and low-carbon source of energy, it is important to consider the potential health and environmental impacts of its use and implement appropriate measures to minimize any negative effects.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Lignin" is not a medical term. It is a term used in the field of biology and chemistry, particularly in botany and wood science. Lignin is a complex organic polymer that binds cellulose fibers together, providing strength and rigidity to the cell walls of plants. It is a major component of wood and bark.

If you have any medical terms you would like defined or any other questions, please let me know!

Stramenopiles is a group of primarily heterotrophic (i.e., organisms that obtain nutrition by consuming other organisms) eukaryotic microorganisms, including many algae and some parasites. The name "Stramenopiles" comes from the Latin words "stria" meaning "stripe" and "pilus" meaning "hair," which refer to the unique structure of their flagella (whip-like structures used for movement).

Members of this group have two distinct types of flagella, one with tripartite hairs (tinsel flagellum) and the other with smooth or finely haired surfaces (whiplash flagellum). Stramenopiles include a diverse range of organisms such as diatoms, brown algae, golden algae, water molds, and oomycetes.

Some stramenopiles are unicellular and exist as free-living plankton in aquatic environments, while others form complex multicellular structures and can be found in both freshwater and marine ecosystems. Some stramenopiles have evolved to become parasites or pathogens of plants, animals, and other microorganisms.

It is worth noting that the taxonomy and classification of Stramenopiles are still subjects of ongoing research and debate among scientists.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Renewable Energy" is not a term that has a medical definition. It is a concept in the field of energy policy and environmental science. Renewable energy refers to energy sources that are naturally replenished and can be harnessed without causing long-term damage to the environment. Examples include solar power, wind power, hydroelectric power, geothermal energy, and biomass. These energy sources are considered important for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and promoting sustainable development.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Panicum" is not a medical term. It is the name of a genus of plants, including many types of grasses, commonly known as panicgrass or switchgrass. If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you!

A photobioreactor is not a medical term, but rather a term used in the fields of biology, engineering, and environmental science. It refers to a device or system designed for the cultivation of photosynthetic organisms such as algae, cyanobacteria, and other microorganisms using light as an energy source.

In simple terms, a photobioreactor is a bioreactor that uses light to drive the growth of photosynthetic organisms. These systems are often used in research, biotechnology, and wastewater treatment applications to produce valuable products such as biofuels, nutraceuticals, pharmaceuticals, and other high-value compounds.

While photobioreactors may not have a direct medical application, they can contribute to medical research and healthcare through the production of biomass or specific compounds that can be used in medical treatments, diagnostics, or therapeutic interventions.

Metabolic engineering is a branch of biotechnology that involves the modification and manipulation of metabolic pathways in organisms to enhance their production of specific metabolites or to alter their flow of energy and carbon. This field combines principles from genetics, molecular biology, biochemistry, and chemical engineering to design and construct novel metabolic pathways or modify existing ones with the goal of optimizing the production of valuable compounds or improving the properties of organisms for various applications.

Examples of metabolic engineering include the modification of microorganisms to produce biofuels, pharmaceuticals, or industrial chemicals; the enhancement of crop yields and nutritional value in agriculture; and the development of novel bioremediation strategies for environmental pollution control. The ultimate goal of metabolic engineering is to create organisms that can efficiently and sustainably produce valuable products while minimizing waste and reducing the impact on the environment.

Cellulases are a group of enzymes that break down cellulose, which is a complex carbohydrate and the main structural component of plant cell walls. These enzymes are produced by various organisms, including bacteria, fungi, and protozoa. They play an important role in the natural decomposition process and have various industrial applications, such as in the production of biofuels, paper, and textiles.

Cellulases work by hydrolyzing the beta-1,4 glycosidic bonds between the glucose molecules that make up cellulose, breaking it down into simpler sugars like glucose. This process is known as saccharification. The specific type of cellulase enzyme determines where on the cellulose molecule it will cleave the bond.

There are three main types of cellulases: endoglucanases, exoglucanases, and beta-glucosidases. Endoglucanases randomly attack internal bonds in the amorphous regions of cellulose, creating new chain ends for exoglucanases to act on. Exoglucanases (also known as cellobiohydrolases) cleave cellobiose units from the ends of the cellulose chains, releasing cellobiose or glucose. Beta-glucosidases convert cellobiose into two molecules of glucose, which can then be further metabolized by the organism.

In summary, cellulases are a group of enzymes that break down cellulose into simpler sugars through hydrolysis. They have various industrial applications and play an essential role in natural decomposition processes.

Biotechnology is defined in the medical field as a branch of technology that utilizes biological processes, organisms, or systems to create products that are technologically useful. This can include various methods and techniques such as genetic engineering, cell culture, fermentation, and others. The goal of biotechnology is to harness the power of biology to produce drugs, vaccines, diagnostic tests, biofuels, and other industrial products, as well as to advance our understanding of living systems for medical and scientific research.

The use of biotechnology has led to significant advances in medicine, including the development of new treatments for genetic diseases, improved methods for diagnosing illnesses, and the creation of vaccines to prevent infectious diseases. However, it also raises ethical and societal concerns related to issues such as genetic modification of organisms, cloning, and biosecurity.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "gasoline" is not a medical term. It is a petroleum-derived liquid used as fuel in internal combustion engines. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

'Clostridium thermocellum' is a type of anaerobic, gram-positive bacterium that is known for its ability to produce cellulases and break down cellulose. It is thermophilic, meaning it grows optimally at higher temperatures, typically between 55-70°C. This organism is of interest in the field of bioenergy because of its potential to convert plant biomass into useful products such as biofuels. However, it's important to note that this bacterium can also produce harmful metabolic byproducts and can be potentially pathogenic to humans.

The principle of "Conservation of Energy Resources" is not a medical term or concept, but rather it is a fundamental principle in the field of physics and environmental science. It refers to the need to manage and use energy resources in a sustainable way, by avoiding waste and finding ways to reuse or recycle them. This principle has important implications for public health, as the depletion of non-renewable energy sources and the negative impacts of energy production on the environment can have significant effects on human health. For example, air pollution from fossil fuel combustion can contribute to respiratory diseases and other health problems, while climate change caused by greenhouse gas emissions can exacerbate a range of health risks. Therefore, conserving energy resources is an important aspect of promoting public health and preventing disease.

Bioelectric energy sources refer to the electrical energy generated through biological processes within living organisms. This energy is produced by the conversion of chemical energy into electrical energy, typically through the use of cell membranes and ions. A common example of a bioelectric energy source is the action potential generated by nerve cells, or neurons, in order to communicate signals throughout the body. Another example is the electrical energy generated by cardiac muscle cells during each heartbeat. These endogenous electrical signals can be harnessed and used for various medical and therapeutic purposes, such as in the use of pacemakers and cochlear implants. Additionally, there is ongoing research into developing bioelectric devices that can interface with living tissues to monitor or manipulate biological processes, such as tissue regeneration and cancer treatment.

Cellulose is a complex carbohydrate that is the main structural component of the cell walls of green plants, many algae, and some fungi. It is a polysaccharide consisting of long chains of beta-glucose molecules linked together by beta-1,4 glycosidic bonds. Cellulose is insoluble in water and most organic solvents, and it is resistant to digestion by humans and non-ruminant animals due to the lack of cellulase enzymes in their digestive systems. However, ruminants such as cows and sheep can digest cellulose with the help of microbes in their rumen that produce cellulase.

Cellulose has many industrial applications, including the production of paper, textiles, and building materials. It is also used as a source of dietary fiber in human food and animal feed. Cellulose-based materials are being explored for use in biomedical applications such as tissue engineering and drug delivery due to their biocompatibility and mechanical properties.

Fossil fuels are not a medical term, but rather a term used in the field of earth science and energy production. They refer to fuels formed by natural processes such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms. The age of the organisms and their resulting fossil fuels is typically millions of years, and sometimes even hundreds of millions of years.

There are three main types of fossil fuels: coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Coal is primarily composed of carbon and hydrogen, and it is formed from the remains of plants that lived hundreds of millions of years ago in swamps and peat bogs. Petroleum, also known as crude oil, is a liquid mixture of hydrocarbons and other organic compounds, formed from the remains of marine organisms such as algae and zooplankton. Natural gas is primarily composed of methane and other light hydrocarbons, and it is found in underground reservoirs, often in association with petroleum deposits.

Fossil fuels are a major source of energy for transportation, heating, and electricity generation, but their combustion also releases large amounts of carbon dioxide and other pollutants into the atmosphere, contributing to climate change and air pollution.

The greenhouse effect is not a medical term, but rather a term used in the field of environmental science and meteorology. However, I can certainly provide a definition for you:

The greenhouse effect refers to the warming of Earth's surface and lower atmosphere caused by the trapping of heat by certain gases in the atmosphere, known as greenhouse gases. These gases include carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and fluorinated gases.

When sunlight reaches Earth's surface, it is absorbed and then re-emitted as heat energy, which would normally escape back into space. However, some of this heat is trapped by greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, causing the planet to warm up. This process is essential for life on Earth, as it helps to maintain a stable temperature that supports plant and animal growth.

However, human activities such as burning fossil fuels, deforestation, and agriculture have led to an increase in greenhouse gas emissions, which has caused the natural greenhouse effect to become amplified. This has resulted in global warming and climate change, with potentially serious consequences for both human health and the environment.

Agricultural crops refer to plants that are grown and harvested for the purpose of human or animal consumption, fiber production, or other uses such as biofuels. These crops can include grains, fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, and legumes, among others. They are typically cultivated using various farming practices, including traditional row cropping, companion planting, permaculture, and organic farming methods. The choice of crop and farming method depends on factors such as the local climate, soil conditions, and market demand. Proper management of agricultural crops is essential for ensuring food security, promoting sustainable agriculture, and protecting the environment.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Wood" is not a medical term. It is a common name for various hard, fibrous tissues that make up the trunks and branches of trees and shrubs, as well as a term used for a wide range of items made from these materials. If you have any medical concerns or questions, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

Ionic liquids are not a medical term, but rather a term used in the field of chemistry and physics. They refer to salts that exist in the liquid state at temperatures below 100 degrees Celsius. Ionic liquids are composed entirely of ions and have unique properties such as low volatility, high thermal stability, and good conductivity, making them useful in various applications including chemical reactions, energy storage, and biomedical devices. However, they do not have a direct relation to medical definitions or healthcare.

Cellulase is a type of enzyme that breaks down cellulose, which is a complex carbohydrate and the main structural component of plant cell walls. Cellulases are produced by certain bacteria, fungi, and protozoans, and are used in various industrial applications such as biofuel production, food processing, and textile manufacturing. In the human body, there are no known physiological roles for cellulases, as humans do not produce these enzymes and cannot digest cellulose.

Metabolic networks and pathways refer to the complex interconnected series of biochemical reactions that occur within cells to maintain life. These reactions are catalyzed by enzymes and are responsible for the conversion of nutrients into energy, as well as the synthesis and breakdown of various molecules required for cellular function.

A metabolic pathway is a series of chemical reactions that occur in a specific order, with each reaction being catalyzed by a different enzyme. These pathways are often interconnected, forming a larger network of interactions known as a metabolic network.

Metabolic networks can be represented as complex diagrams or models, which show the relationships between different pathways and the flow of matter and energy through the system. These networks can help researchers to understand how cells regulate their metabolism in response to changes in their environment, and how disruptions to these networks can lead to disease.

Some common examples of metabolic pathways include glycolysis, the citric acid cycle (also known as the Krebs cycle), and the pentose phosphate pathway. Each of these pathways plays a critical role in maintaining cellular homeostasis and providing energy for cellular functions.

Bioengineering, also known as biological engineering, is defined as the application of principles and methods from engineering to study, modify, and control biological systems, often with the goal of creating new technologies or improving existing ones. This field combines knowledge and expertise from various disciplines, including biology, chemistry, physics, mathematics, and computer science, to solve complex problems related to health, medicine, agriculture, and the environment.

Bioengineers may work on a wide range of projects, such as developing new medical devices or therapies, designing synthetic biological systems for industrial applications, creating biosensors for environmental monitoring, or engineering tissues and organs for transplantation. They use a variety of tools and techniques, including genetic engineering, biomaterials, computational modeling, and nanotechnology, to design and build novel biological systems that can perform specific functions or solve practical problems.

Bioengineering has the potential to transform many areas of science and technology, with significant implications for human health, sustainability, and innovation. As such, it is an exciting and rapidly growing field that offers many opportunities for interdisciplinary collaboration and discovery.

1-Butanol, also known as n-butanol or butyl alcohol, is a primary alcohol with a chemical formula of C4H9OH. It is a colorless liquid that is used as a solvent and in the manufacture of other chemicals. 1-Butanol has a wide range of applications including use as a paint thinner, in the production of rubber, and as a fuel additive. It is also found naturally in some foods and beverages.

In medical terms, 1-butanol may be used as an ingredient in topical medications or as a solvent for various pharmaceutical preparations. However, it is not typically used as a therapeutic agent on its own. Exposure to high levels of 1-butanol can cause irritation to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract, and prolonged exposure may lead to more serious health effects.

Butanols are a family of alcohols with four carbon atoms and a chemical formula of C4H9OH. They are commonly used as solvents, intermediates in chemical synthesis, and fuel additives. The most common butanol is n-butanol (normal butanol), which has a straight chain of four carbon atoms. Other forms include secondary butanols (such as isobutanol) and tertiary butanols (such as tert-butanol). These compounds have different physical and chemical properties due to the differences in their molecular structure, but they all share the common characteristic of being alcohols with four carbon atoms.

Genetic engineering, also known as genetic modification, is a scientific process where the DNA or genetic material of an organism is manipulated to bring about a change in its characteristics. This is typically done by inserting specific genes into the organism's genome using various molecular biology techniques. These new genes may come from the same species (cisgenesis) or a different species (transgenesis). The goal is to produce a desired trait, such as resistance to pests, improved nutritional content, or increased productivity. It's widely used in research, medicine, and agriculture. However, it's important to note that the use of genetically engineered organisms can raise ethical, environmental, and health concerns.

Muramic acids are not a medical condition or diagnosis. They are actually a type of chemical compound that is found in the cell walls of certain bacteria. Specifically, muramic acid is a derivative of amino sugars and forms a part of peptidoglycan, which is a major component of bacterial cell walls.

Peptidoglycan provides structural support and protection to bacterial cells, helping them maintain their shape and resist osmotic pressure. Muramic acids are unique to bacteria and are not found in the cell walls of human or animal cells, making them potential targets for antibiotic drugs that can selectively inhibit bacterial growth without harming host cells.

Cellulosomes are large, complex enzymatic structures produced by certain anaerobic bacteria that allow them to break down and consume cellulose, a major component of plant biomass. These structures are composed of multiple enzymes that work together in a coordinated manner to degrade cellulose into simpler sugars, which the bacteria can then use as a source of energy and carbon.

The individual enzymes in a cellulosome are non-covalently associated with a central scaffoldin protein, forming a multi-enzyme complex. The scaffoldin protein contains cohesin modules that bind to dockerin modules on the enzyme subunits, creating a highly organized and stable structure.

Cellulosomes have been identified in several species of anaerobic bacteria, including members of the genera Clostridium and Ruminococcus. They are thought to play a key role in the global carbon cycle by breaking down plant material and releasing carbon dioxide back into the atmosphere.

Synthetic biology is not a medical term per se, but rather it falls under the broader field of biology and bioengineering. Synthetic biology is an interdisciplinary field that combines principles from biology, engineering, chemistry, physics, and computer science to design and construct new biological parts, devices, and systems that do not exist in nature or re-design existing natural biological systems for useful purposes.

In simpler terms, synthetic biology involves the creation of artificial biological components such as genes, proteins, and cells, or the modification of existing ones to perform specific functions. These engineered biological systems can be used for a wide range of applications, including medical research, diagnostics, therapeutics, and environmental remediation.

Examples of synthetic biology in medicine include the development of synthetic gene circuits that can detect and respond to disease-causing agents or the creation of artificial cells that can produce therapeutic proteins or drugs. However, it's important to note that while synthetic biology holds great promise for improving human health, it also raises ethical, safety, and regulatory concerns that need to be carefully considered and addressed.

Industrial microbiology is not strictly a medical definition, but it is a branch of microbiology that deals with the use of microorganisms for the production of various industrial and commercial products. In a broader sense, it can include the study of microorganisms that are involved in diseases of animals, humans, and plants, as well as those that are beneficial in industrial processes.

In the context of medical microbiology, industrial microbiology may involve the use of microorganisms to produce drugs, vaccines, or other therapeutic agents. For example, certain bacteria and yeasts are used to ferment sugars and produce antibiotics, while other microorganisms are used to create vaccines through a process called attenuation.

Industrial microbiology may also involve the study of microorganisms that can cause contamination in medical settings, such as hospitals or pharmaceutical manufacturing facilities. These microorganisms can cause infections and pose a risk to patients or workers, so it is important to understand their behavior and develop strategies for controlling their growth and spread.

Overall, industrial microbiology plays an important role in the development of new medical technologies and therapies, as well as in ensuring the safety and quality of medical products and environments.

'Plant development' is not a term typically used in medical definitions, as it is more commonly used in the field of botany to describe the growth and differentiation of plant cells, tissues, and organs over time. However, in a broader context, plant development can be defined as the series of changes and processes that occur from the fertilization of a plant seed to the formation of a mature plant, including germination, emergence, organ formation, growth, and reproduction.

In medicine, terms related to plant development may include "phytotherapy" or "herbal medicine," which refer to the use of plants or plant extracts as medicinal treatments for various health conditions. The study of how these plants develop and produce their active compounds is an important area of research in pharmacology and natural products chemistry.

I apologize for any confusion, but "agriculture" is not a term that has a medical definition. Agriculture refers to the cultivation and breeding of animals, plants, and fungi for food, fiber, biofuel, medicinal plants, and other products used to sustain and enhance human life. It is an important industry and practice that has been developed over thousands of years and continues to play a critical role in global food production and security.

Ethanol is the medical term for pure alcohol, which is a colorless, clear, volatile, flammable liquid with a characteristic odor and burning taste. It is the type of alcohol that is found in alcoholic beverages and is produced by the fermentation of sugars by yeasts.

In the medical field, ethanol is used as an antiseptic and disinfectant, and it is also used as a solvent for various medicinal preparations. It has central nervous system depressant properties and is sometimes used as a sedative or to induce sleep. However, excessive consumption of ethanol can lead to alcohol intoxication, which can cause a range of negative health effects, including impaired judgment, coordination, and memory, as well as an increased risk of accidents, injuries, and chronic diseases such as liver disease and addiction.

Fermentation is a metabolic process in which an organism converts carbohydrates into alcohol or organic acids using enzymes. In the absence of oxygen, certain bacteria, yeasts, and fungi convert sugars into carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and various end products, such as alcohol, lactic acid, or acetic acid. This process is commonly used in food production, such as in making bread, wine, and beer, as well as in industrial applications for the production of biofuels and chemicals.

In the context of medical definitions, 'carbon' is not typically used as a standalone term. Carbon is an element with the symbol C and atomic number 6, which is naturally abundant in the human body and the environment. It is a crucial component of all living organisms, forming the basis of organic compounds, such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids (DNA and RNA).

Carbon forms strong covalent bonds with various elements, allowing for the creation of complex molecules that are essential to life. In this sense, carbon is a fundamental building block of life on Earth. However, it does not have a specific medical definition as an isolated term.

Petroleum is not a medical term, but it is a term used in the field of geology and petrochemicals. It refers to a naturally occurring liquid found in rock formations, which is composed of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons, organic compounds consisting primarily of carbon and hydrogen.

Petroleum is not typically associated with medical definitions; however, it's worth noting that petroleum and its derivatives are widely used in the production of various medical supplies, equipment, and pharmaceuticals. Some examples include plastic syringes, disposable gloves, catheters, lubricants for medical devices, and many active ingredients in medications.

In a broader sense, environmental or occupational exposure to petroleum and its byproducts could lead to health issues, but these are not typically covered under medical definitions of petroleum itself.

Xylose is a type of sugar that is commonly found in plants and wood. In the context of medical definitions, xylose is often used in tests to assess the function of the small intestine. The most common test is called the "xylose absorption test," which measures the ability of the small intestine to absorb this sugar.

In this test, a patient is given a small amount of xylose to drink, and then several blood and/or urine samples are collected over the next few hours. The amount of xylose that appears in these samples is measured and used to determine how well the small intestine is absorbing nutrients.

Abnormal results on a xylose absorption test can indicate various gastrointestinal disorders, such as malabsorption syndromes, celiac disease, or bacterial overgrowth in the small intestine.

In chemistry, an alcohol is a broad term that refers to any organic compound characterized by the presence of a hydroxyl (-OH) functional group attached to a carbon atom. This means that alcohols are essentially hydrocarbons with a hydroxyl group. The simplest alcohol is methanol (CH3OH), and ethanol (C2H5OH), also known as ethyl alcohol, is the type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages.

In the context of medical definitions, alcohol primarily refers to ethanol, which has significant effects on the human body when consumed. Ethanol can act as a central nervous system depressant, leading to various physiological and psychological changes depending on the dose and frequency of consumption. Excessive or prolonged use of ethanol can result in various health issues, including addiction, liver disease, neurological damage, and increased risk of injuries due to impaired judgment and motor skills.

It is important to note that there are other types of alcohols (e.g., methanol, isopropyl alcohol) with different chemical structures and properties, but they are not typically consumed by humans and can be toxic or even lethal in high concentrations.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "trees" is not a medical term. It is a common term used in various fields, including biology, ecology, and dendrology, to refer to a woody perennial plant with a single stem or trunk that supports branches and leaves in most species.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, please provide more context so I can offer an accurate and helpful response.

I apologize for any confusion, but "plants" is not a term that has a medical definition. The term "plants" refers to a large and diverse group of organisms that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, which is the process of converting sunlight into chemical energy. Plants are typically characterized by having cells with cell walls containing cellulose, chloroplasts containing the pigment chlorophyll, and the ability to synthesize their own food through photosynthesis.

In a medical or biological context, you might be thinking of "plant-based" or "phytomedicine," which refer to the use of plants or plant extracts as a form of medicine or treatment. Phytomedicines have been used for thousands of years in many traditional systems of medicine, and some plant-derived compounds have been found to have therapeutic benefits in modern medicine as well. However, "plants" itself does not have a medical definition.

The conservation of natural resources refers to the responsible use and management of natural resources, such as water, soil, minerals, forests, and wildlife, in a way that preserves their availability for future generations. This may involve measures such as reducing waste and pollution, promoting sustainable practices, protecting habitats and ecosystems, and engaging in careful planning and decision-making to ensure the long-term sustainability of these resources. The goal of conservation is to balance the needs of the present with the needs of the future, so that current and future generations can continue to benefit from the many goods and services that natural resources provide.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Synechocystis" is not a medical term. It is actually a genus of cyanobacteria (also known as blue-green algae), which are gram-negative bacteria capable of photosynthesis. The most studied species, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, is often used as a model organism in research related to photosynthesis, carbon metabolism, and bioenergy.

If you have any medical terms or concepts that you would like me to define or explain, please let me know!

Xylans are a type of complex carbohydrate, specifically a hemicellulose, that are found in the cell walls of many plants. They are made up of a backbone of beta-1,4-linked xylose sugar molecules and can be substituted with various side groups such as arabinose, glucuronic acid, and acetyl groups. Xylans are indigestible by humans, but they can be broken down by certain microorganisms in the gut through a process called fermentation, which can produce short-chain fatty acids that have beneficial effects on health.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "soil" is not a term that has a medical definition. Soil is defined as the top layer of earth in which plants grow, a mixture of organic material, clay, sand, and silt. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you.

Trichoderma is a genus of fungi that are commonly found in soil, decaying wood, and other organic matter. While there are many different species of Trichoderma, some of them have been studied for their potential use in various medical and industrial applications. For example, certain Trichoderma species have been shown to have antimicrobial properties and can be used to control plant diseases. Other species are being investigated for their ability to produce enzymes and other compounds that may have industrial or medicinal uses.

However, it's important to note that not all Trichoderma species are beneficial, and some of them can cause infections in humans, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems. These infections can be difficult to diagnose and treat, as they often involve multiple organ systems and may require aggressive antifungal therapy.

In summary, Trichoderma is a genus of fungi that can have both beneficial and harmful effects on human health, depending on the specific species involved and the context in which they are encountered.

Fungi, in the context of medical definitions, are a group of eukaryotic organisms that include microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. The study of fungi is known as mycology.

Fungi can exist as unicellular organisms or as multicellular filamentous structures called hyphae. They are heterotrophs, which means they obtain their nutrients by decomposing organic matter or by living as parasites on other organisms. Some fungi can cause various diseases in humans, animals, and plants, known as mycoses. These infections range from superficial, localized skin infections to systemic, life-threatening invasive diseases.

Examples of fungal infections include athlete's foot (tinea pedis), ringworm (dermatophytosis), candidiasis (yeast infection), histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, and aspergillosis. Fungal infections can be challenging to treat due to the limited number of antifungal drugs available and the potential for drug resistance.

... was a Silverlake, California operation that claimed typical diesel engines could run on vegetable oil using ... With the success of converting diesel engines to using biofuels, home-made scam conversion kits of questionable quality were ... Henein, Maryam (February 2006). "Fill 'er Up for Free - Lovecraft Biofuels turns aging autos into eco-smart bargains". Whole ...
Kenyan biofuel dream proves elusive for Alberta firm[permanent dead link] Investors clamour to be heard[permanent dead link] " ... Bedford Biofuels was a green energy company headquartered in Edmonton, Alberta. The company intended to produce biodiesel from ...
... launches greenhouse for world's largest jatropha collection Biofuels Digest, 5 August 2010. SG Biofuels Launches ... SG Biofuels grows Jatropha in greenhouses and on plantations in Latin and Central America for sustainable biofuel production ... SG Biofuels Cultivates $9.4 Million Series A Investment TechCrunch, 14 Sept 2010. Lisa Gibson. SG Biofuels grows jatropha in ... SG Biofuels was founded in 2007 and is based in San Diego, California. The company was officially introduced to the public at ...
... was a subsidiary of BP developing cellulosic ethanol project in Florida. It was formerly known as ... "BP Biofuels Highlands". bp.com company web site. Archived from the original on 19 August 2012. Retrieved 29 August 2012. Neff, ... Retrieved 29 August 2012.[permanent dead link] "BP and Verenium Announce Vercipia Biofuels to Advance the Commercialization of ... Sims, Bryan (2012-03-22). "Mendel Biotechnology, BP Biofuels to conduct miscanthus trials". Ethanol Producer Magazine. ...
The BioFuels Security Act is a proposed legislative Act of Congress intended to phase out current single-fueled vehicles in ... "Biofuels Security Act of 2006 (2006 - S. 2817)". GovTrack S 2817 Richard Lugar's Senate Website (Wikipedia articles in need of ... Biofuels, Proposed legislation of the 109th United States Congress, Proposed legislation of the 110th United States Congress). ...
European Biofuels Technology Platform List of algal fuel producers Biofuel advocacy groups List of biofuel companies and ... The use of biofuels varies by region. The world leaders in biofuel development and use are Brazil, United States, France, ... To regulate the biofuel industry and promote its further development, the Lower House of the Parliament passed the Biofuel ... "Gateway to the Biofuel Industry in India". www.renewableenergyworld.com. pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PNADJ690.pdf "Biofuels country ...
One marine Nannochloropsis species has been shown to be suitable for algal biofuel production due to its ease of growth and ... Nannochloropsis is a genus of alga within the heterokont line of eukaryotes, that is being investigated for biofuel production ... Algae fuels Choricystis Gouveia, L; Oliveira (4 Nov 2009). "Microalgae as a raw material for biofuels production". J Ind ... Several different technologies were reported to convert algal culture into biofuel or biodiesel. A direct transesterification ...
... , also known as advanced biofuels, are fuels that can be manufactured from various types of non-food ... Second-generation biofuel technologies have been developed to enable the use of non-food biofuel feedstocks because of concerns ... The goal of second-generation biofuel processes is to extend the amount of biofuel that can be produced sustainably by using ... The following second-generation biofuels are under development, although most or all of these biofuels are synthesized from ...
... notes that these energies can be deployed today. "American Biofuels Now Coalition Calls for Real American ... Biofuels plants generate millions in tax revenues. Biofuels operations generate additional jobs in the feedstock supply chain, ... American Biofuels Now is a broad coalition of local biofuels producers, feedstock growers, suppliers, trade groups, ... More simply, an investment in biofuels is an investment in national and energy security.[citation needed] American Biofuels ...
Biofuels no panacea Archived 2008-04-10 at the Wayback Machine (PDF). Biofuels - Transporting Us to a Fossil-Free Future? ... do not provide adequate support for their claim that biofuels cause high emissions due to land-use change. The U.S. biofuel ... Roundtable on Sustainable Biofuels - The Roundtable on Sustainable Biofuels Announces Version Zero of our Sustainability ... Several well-to-wheel analysis for biofuels has shown that first generation biofuels can reduce carbon emissions, with savings ...
European Technology Platform Vision report Biofuels Technology Platform European Biofuels Technology Platform v t e (Articles ... The European Biofuels Technology Platform (BiofuelsTP) is a European Seventh Framework Programme initiative to improve the ... competitive situation of the European Union in the field of biofuel. The programme is a joint initiative (Public-Private ... lacking reliable references from April 2019, All articles lacking reliable references, Bioenergy organizations, Biofuels, ...
... (ISSN 1932-1031) is a bimonthly peer-reviewed review and commentary journal published by ... About Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining Official website v t e (Articles with short description, Short description is ...
The Biofuels Wiki The Biofuels Center Facebook Page North Carolina's Strategic Plan for Biofuels Leadership Archived September ... The Biofuels Center intends on being a resource in biofuels education and training to help people wanting a career in the ... The Biofuels Center of North Carolina is a private, nonprofit corporate facility located on a 426-acre (1.72 km2) Biofuels ... The Biofuels Wiki is a one-stop, collaborative, open-source, industry-led site where knowledge about liquid renewable biofuels ...
An aviation biofuel or bio-jet fuel or bio-aviation fuel (BAF) is a biofuel used to power aircraft and is said to be a ... Biofuel production, processing and transport however emit greenhouse gases, reducing the emissions savings. Biofuels with most ... The first test flight using blended biofuel was in 2008, and in 2011 blended fuels with 50% biofuels were allowed in commercial ... Virgin Atlantic flew the first flight by a commercial airline to be powered partly by biofuel, while commercial biofuel flights ...
Biofuel development and use is a complex issue because there are many biofuel options which are available. Biofuels, such as ... Sustainable biofuel is biofuel produced in a sustainable manner. It is not based on petroleum or other fossil fuels. It ... Growing Sustainable Biofuels: Common Sense on Biofuels, part 2 Archived 2008-03-18 at the Wayback Machine World Changing, March ... Biofuel production shall not impair food security. Biofuel production shall avoid negative impacts on biodiversity, ecosystems ...
A biofuel cell uses living organisms to produce electricity. It may refer to: Microbial fuel cell, a bio-electrochemical system ... that drives a current by using bacteria and mimicking bacterial interactions found in nature Enzymatic biofuel cell, a type of ... metals as a catalyst to oxidize its fuel Biobattery This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Biofuel ...
Biofuels Digest. Retrieved 28 April 2017. "Denmark announces plans for new advanced biofuels' transportation target". Biofuels ... Biofuels play a major part in the renewable energy strategy of Denmark. Denmark is using biofuel to achieve its target of using ... Biofuel use in Europe must be certified by the EU commission before biofuels can be recorded as sustainable resources and used ... "Analysis of Biofuels Policy in the Nordic Countries" (PDF). www.topnest.no. Retrieved 2017-05-09. "Analysis of Biofuels Policy ...
Algal fuel Biofuel Biopetroleum Bioplastic "BLUE PETROLEUM ONE,S.L: Inicio". 2016-02-20. Archived from the original on 20 ... International Congress "Bio-mass and biofuels production from algae oil" : Airemar prototype. "Spanish Firm Claims it Can Make ...
Because sugars and other biofuels can be grown and harvested on a massive scale, the fuel for enzymatic biofuel cells is ... Research on using enzymes directly for oxidation in biofuel cells began in the early 1960s, with the first enzymatic biofuel ... An enzymatic biofuel cell is a specific type of fuel cell that uses enzymes as a catalyst to oxidize its fuel, rather than ... Enzymatic biofuel cells work on the same general principles as all fuel cells: use a catalyst to separate electrons from a ...
Biofuel District heating Energy content of biofuel Sustainable biofuel List of renewable energy topics by country Biofuels by ... Biofuels are renewable fuels that are produced by living organisms (biomass). Biofuels can be solid, gaseous or liquid, which ... "Biofuels for transport , Svebio". Svebio. Retrieved 2017-05-15. "E85 - how Sweden got the most biofuel in Europe - SEKAB". ... Many countries now use biofuels as energy sources, including Sweden. Sweden has one of the highest usages of biofuel in all of ...
"Lufthansa Wraps up Biofuel Test on German Flights". January 12, 2012. "Finnair's scheduled commercial biofuel flight marks a ... List of Aviation biofuel demonstration flights. Dunn, Graham (24 February 2008). "Partners carry out first biofuel flight using ... "Biofuel Airbus A320 completes first successful test flight". December 2010. Retrieved 25 September 2015. "PARIS: 747-8F biofuel ... Lane, Jim (2009-01-08). "Continental Airlines tests aviation biofuel; first use of algae; first US biofuel test flight; first ...
"G20 leaders launch Global Biofuel Alliance". BusinessLine. Retrieved 2023-09-10. "Launch of the Global Biofuel Alliance (GBA ... Global Biofuel Alliance (GBA) is a multilateral alliance launched at the sidelines of 2023 G20 New Delhi summit on 10 September ... 2023 to promote the development and adoption of sustainable biofuels, and set relevant standards and certification. The ...
"Biodiesel Blends". Biofuels Association of Australia. Retrieved 2018-05-03. "How is ethanol made?". Biofuels Association of ... Also, when crop-based biofuels contribute to deforestation or fragmentation, the pollution benefits of biofuels can be ... "Biodiesel use around the world". Biofuels Association of Australia. Retrieved 2018-05-03. "Biodiesel". Biofuels Association of ... "What Are Biofuels?". Biofuels Association of Australia. Retrieved 2018-05-03. Cochran, Mike (September 2017). "Australian ...
Mark Kinver (2010-06-10). "EU biofuels 'need to be certified for sustainability'EU biofuels 'need to be certified for ... "EU report signals U-turn on biofuels target". AlertNet. Reuters. 2010-03-25. Retrieved 2010-03-29. "Broken biofuel policies ... 437.101 Alexander E. Farrell (2008-02-13). "Better biofuels before more biofuels". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2009-06- ... "Difficult EPA Public Hearing on Biofuels Mandate". SugarcaneBlog.com. 2009-06-09. Retrieved 2009-06-17. "Biofuel Producers Give ...
"Biofuel goes mainstream in Aklnd". "New blend of biofuel to sell for less than $2/L". "Tallow biofuel plant plans scrapped". ... "Introduction of Biofuel Bill in New Zealand". Biofuel Bill in New Zealand "Biofuel Bill - Second Reading". New Zealand ... biofuels page Bioenergy Association of New Zealand Text of the Biofuel Bill (Webarchive template wayback links, Biofuel in New ... The Biofuels Bill did not restrict the importation of biofuels and this would lead to potential societal and environmental harm ...
A biofuel is a fuel produced from recently living organisms. Biofuels include bioethanol, an alcohol made by fermentation-often ... The energy content of biofuel is the chemical energy contained in a given biofuel, measured per unit mass of that fuel, as ...
... is a waste-to-energy plant in Vilnius, Lithuania. The plant produces 40% of all annual heating ... Biofuel power stations in Lithuania, Waste power stations in Lithuania, All stub articles, Power station stubs, Lithuanian ...
The biofuel policy of Malaysia is documented in Malaysia's National Biofuel Policy document. Yanmar, a Japan-based global ... v t e v t e (CS1 maint: archived copy as title, Ministry of Primary Industries (Malaysia), Biofuel in Malaysia, Energy policy ...
Biofuels on the other hand, do not require new pumping infrastructure. With slight modifications, biofuels, which are a liquid ... Advanced Biofuels: Part of the Total Renewable Fuels, this category includes biofuels produced from non-corn feedstocks. This ... Cellulosic biofuels must reduce lifecycle GHG emissions by at least 60% to qualify. Cellulosic biofuels are renewable fuels ... advanced biofuels, biomass-based diesel, and cellulosic ethanol-each with its own volume requirement. (3) Biofuels qualifying ...
"The new specific volume standards for cellulosic biofuel, biomass-based diesel, advanced biofuel, and total renewable fuel by ... "Biofuel Fizzle". Star Tribune. Minneapolis, Minnesota. p. D5. "Jury returns $10.4M verdict in biofuel suit". Pensacola News ... biofuel, and advanced biofuel. The reassessed statutory requirements also incorporate new criteria for both renewable fuels and ... Ethanol Renewable diesel Cellulosic biofuels Presentations on biofuel sponsored by The Center for Global Studies, University of ...
Lovecraft Biofuels was a Silverlake, California operation that claimed typical diesel engines could run on vegetable oil using ... With the success of converting diesel engines to using biofuels, home-made scam conversion kits of questionable quality were ... Henein, Maryam (February 2006). "Fill er Up for Free - Lovecraft Biofuels turns aging autos into eco-smart bargains". Whole ...
"biofuel.org.uk. Archived from the original on 1 February 2016.. *^ "Biofuels - Types of Biofuels - Bioethers". Archived from ... This section is an excerpt from Aviation biofuel.[edit]. Refueling an Airbus A320 with biofuel in 2011. An aviation biofuel or ... "Biofuels - Second Generation Biofuels". biofuel.org.uk. Archived from the original on 15 July 2019. Retrieved 18 January 2018. ... Conventional biofuels (first generation) [edit]. First-generation biofuels (also denoted as "conventional biofuels") are made ...
Advanced biofuels are liquid fuels that are generally derived from non-food-based feedstocks and yield a lifecycle reduction in ... Learn the basics of advanced biofuels through Advanced Biofuels USA.. The advanced biofuels of tomorrow depend on biochemical ... Clean Energy Biofuels Act The Clean Energy Biofuels Act was signed on July 28, 2008, to encourage the growth of an advanced ... About Advanced Biofuels Biofuels are substitutes for liquid petroleum fuels (such as gasoline, diesel, and heating oil) and are ...
Biofuels play a particularly important role in decarbonising transport by providing a low-carbon solution for hard-to-abate ... Nearly 60% of biofuel demand is in advanced economies and 40% in emerging economies. Biofuel demand is expected to increase by ... In 2022 biofuels represented over 3.5% of global transport energy demand, mainly for road transport. Use of biofuels has ... Implement biofuels sustainability frameworks. Sustainability governance is essential to ensure that higher biofuel consumption ...
... Greenhouse gas control. Ronald Bailey , From the February 2010 issue. ... By the end of the 21st century, the amount of land devoted to biofuels may be greater than the total area currently used to ... But a study published in the October issue of Science finds that these advanced "cellulosic" biofuels could emit more ... Melillo told Reuters, "In the near term, I think, irrespective of how you go about the cellulosic biofuels program, youre ...
Biofuels may be creating twice the carbon emissions of fossil fuels they are replacing, Friends of the Earth claim. ... Green biofuels double CO2. Biofuels may be creating twice the carbon emissions of fossil fuels they are replacing, Friends of ... Biofuels may be creating twice the carbon emissions of fossil fuels they are replacing, Friends of the Earth claim. ... Calling on the government to drop laws forcing transport to use 3.3 per cent biofuels, the campaign group said: It's like ...
Biofuels. Definition:. Biofuels are non-fossil fuels. They are energy carriers that store the energy derived from organic ... Often the term biofuel is used in a narrow sense to refer to liquid biofuels for transport. ... 3.2 How are liquid biofuels produced?. *4.3 How do different biofuels compare in terms of competitiveness and greenhouse gas ... Second-generation biofuels are under development and will be derived from non-food plant matter such as crop residues and ...
... biofuels have never made a significant dent in our need for oil. That hasnt stopped the... ... As Fehrenbacher notes in her article, not a single biofuel startup has "managed to produce a next-generation biofuel at ... the words that have been used to justify the biofuel madness for more than a decade: Biofuels, claimed Mabus, prevent "fuel ... On Earth Day 2010, the Navy flew an F/A-18 using a mixture of conventional jet fuel and biofuel derived from camelina, a plant ...
Algae cultivation technique could advance biofuels. Production could take days, not weeks. Date:. July 24, 2017. Source:. ... Vampire Algae Killers Genetic Diversity Poses Threat to Biofuels. July 22, 2019 New DNA analysis has revealed surprising ... "Algae cultivation technique could advance biofuels." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com. /. releases. /. 2017. /. 07. /. ... "Algae cultivation technique could advance biofuels." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 24 July 2017. ,www.sciencedaily.com. /. ...
Microalgae are showing huge potential as a sustainable source of biofuels. ... Producing biofuels from algae. Microalgae are showing huge potential as a sustainable source of biofuels. ... Producing biofuels from renewable sources. Due to concerns about peak oil, energy security, fuel diversity and sustainability, ... Microalgae are great candidates for sustainable production of biofuels and associated bioproducts:. *they naturally form oils ...
... Edited by: Dr. H.A. Romijn, Dr. A.J.K. Pols and E. de Hoop ... Proponents of biofuels claim that this is all the more reason to continue with investments and innovation: new sources of ... The impacts of biofuels tumultuous history have been felt particularly in the Global South, where land grabbing and ... Understanding the expansion of energy crops beyond the global biofuel boom: evidence from oil palm expansion in Colombia The ...
... more effective biofuels, report scientists writing in the November 22 edition of the journal Nature. Termites harbor stomach ... Termites may produce cleaner biofuels Termites may produce cleaner biofuels mongabay.com November 23, 2007 Termites may be the ... Alternative Energy, Bioenergy, Biofuels, Biomimicry, Ecological Beauty, Energy, Environment, Ethanol, Green, Green Design, ... Termites may be the key to greener, more effective biofuels, report scientists writing in the November 22 edition of the ...
A UN report warns that hasty introduction of biofuels could damage livelihoods and the environment. ... A UN report warns that a hasty switch to biofuels could have major impacts on livelihoods and the environment. Produced by a ... And it concludes that biofuels are more effective when used for heat and power rather than in transport. "Current research ... The European Union and the US have recently set major targets for the expansion of biofuels in road vehicles, for which ethanol ...
... to the extent that export of biofuel from special economic zones/export oriented units, are allowed for fuel as well as non- ... A licence is required for both exports and imports of biofuels. Biofuels include ethyl alcohol, petroleum oil and oils obtained ... The government on Wednesday said the export of biofuel from special economic zones and export oriented units are allowed for ... The Directorate General of Foreign Trade (DGFT) has amended that notification of 2018 "to the extent that export of biofuel ...
Biofuels a commercial reality: UN report. Biofuel: a cost-effective indigenous option. ... Energy security through biofuels Khalid Saeed Wattoo , Rahema Hasan. Published September 18, 2023 ... Biofuel has already captured the attention of policymakers in many countries as a viable solution to improve energy security, ... Given the prevailing circumstances, biofuel - a renewable energy source - emerges as a promising alternative to reduce our ...
Biofuels are generally made by using chemicals, fermentation, and heat to break down the starches, sugars, and other molecules ... there has been increasing interest in biofuels due to growing concerns about global warming and rising oil prices. ... and processing the plants into biofuel requires so much energy that its questionable whether biofuels are really as ... Biofuel is one of those feel-good projects that you just really want to have succeed. And it does sometimes. Ive heard that ...
Introduction The United States has one of the worlds most burdensome, time-consuming, and unpredictable systems for authorizing major infrastructure projects. The centerpiece of that system…. Energy and Environment ...
2008 Biofuels will make up 10 percent of Indonesias fuel transport consumption by 2010 under a plan announced Monday by a ... Indonesia seeks to cut fuel subsidies via biofuels Indonesia seeks to cut fuel subsidies via biofuels Rhett A. Butler, mongabay ... secretary at the National Biofuel Development Team, as saying at the Reuters Global Agriculture and Biofuel Summit. ... Biofuels will make up 10 percent of Indonesias fuel transport consumption by 2010 under a plan announced Monday by a senior ...
The transition to more sustainable fuels is driving increasing demand for biofuels, with market interest expected to grow over ... Waste biofuel markets such as used cooking oils and animal fats have also been trading at close to record levels. Part of the ... The demand for biofuels is changing the relationship between meal and oil, a key indicator for the soybean oil refiners. ... The IEA expects biofuel production could increase to 162 billion litres in 2021, rising to over 175 billion litres or just over ...
... the production and consumption of biofuels is on the rise around the world. As a leading provider of measurement and control ... To combat global warming, the production and consumption of biofuels is on the rise around the world. As a leading provider of ...
You might remember the OECD report called "Biofuels: Is the cure worse than the disease?" The first actual International ... International Transport Forum: Why Biofuels When Much Cheaper Measures are Available for Climate Protection? PARIS, December 13 ... We are putting too much hope in expensive options like biofuels that are neither cost effective nor necessarily good ... We are putting too much hope in expensive options like biofuels that are neither cost effective nor necessarily good ...
Re: [biofuel] $7.5 Million Feedstock Subsidy for S... steve spence. * *Re: [biofuel] $7.5 Million Feedstock Subsidy ... George ... biofuel] Re: $7.5 Million Feedstock Subsidy for SSPC fatguy1966 Mon, 25 Feb 2002 20:19:17 -0700 ... journeytoforever.org/biofuel.html Please do NOT send unsubscribe messages to the list address. To unsubscribe, send an email ... biofuel] Re: $7.5 Million Feedstock Subsidy for SSPC , , , , Harmon, , , , , Please keep in mind that most evil retards work in ...
Applied sciences and engineering/Engineering/Bioengineering/Biochemical engineering/Biofuels/Biofuels production * /Applied ... The article points out that biofuel feedstocks need not grow on land currently being farmed for food and animal feed. Some ... When it comes to selecting the right plant source for future cellulosic biofuel production, the solution wont be one-size-fits ... The diversity and geographic adaptability of crops available as potential biofuel feedstocks can be used to support ecosystem ...
Biofuel Facts. A biofuel is any fuel source thats made from biological materials. The two most common kinds of biofuels right ... Biodiesel is a biofuel made from plant- or animal-based fats and can run in a regular diesel engine. In fact, Rudolf Diesels ... auto.howstuffworks.com/fuel-efficiency/biofuels/biofuel-fossil-fuel.htm, 4 October 2023 ... Brazil, the worlds second-largest ethanol producer, makes its biofuel from sugarcane. ...
... but it is also used for clean and affordable biofuels that lower costs for consumers while cutting both carbon and toxic ...
As doubts grow about biofuel support in the U.S., a bi-national project takes off in Mexico. ... From Ethanol to Advanced Biofuels" session. "I urge you to reject the naysayers on advanced biofuels," he said "They simply are ... As doubts grow about biofuel support in the U.S., a bi-national project takes off in Mexico.. by ADAM BRUNS ... ichael McAdams, president of the Advanced Biofuels Association (ABFA), testified on April 13 to the U.S. Senate Environment and ...
Biofuel process development and scale-up. Bio-advantaged fuels. Taek Soon Lee is the director of Pathway and Metabolic ... His research focuses on identifying potential drop-in biofuels and building and optimizing the metabolic pathway to produce ... lignin surrounds valuable plant fibers and other molecules that could be converted into biofuels and other commodity chemicals ... Sundstrom is a staff scientist within the Biosciences Area and leader of the fermentation team within the Advanced Biofuels and ...
Deploying effective carbon capture and storage at biofuels plants will cement ethanol and biodiesel as the lowest carbon liquid ... wells has the potential to become the most consequential technological deployment in the history of the broader biofuels ...
Could biofuels address the environmental concerns of air travel? ... Biofuels in Brazil. Once the KLM has flown biofuel flights in ... One such fuel type that could facilitate these goals is biofuel. What are biofuels?Biofuels are produced from biomass, the bio- ... first and second generation biofuels are the most feasible for the production of biofuels. However, first generation biofuels ... Second generation biofuels are made from agricultural residues from food crops, dedicated non-food biofuel crops, or food waste ...
Gevo and Los Alamos To Collaborate on High Energy Denisity Biofuels. Biofuels guest - October 12, 2017. ... Billionaire Bailouts v. Biofuels. Ethanol guest - May 17, 2018. Trump in a pickle: support his beleaguered EPA Administrator ...
  • Biofuel is a fuel that is produced over a short time span from biomass , rather than by the very slow natural processes involved in the formation of fossil fuels , such as oil. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also last month, Reuters reporter David Alexander noted that the Navy has "awarded $210 million to help three firms build refineries to make biofuels using woody biomass, municipal waste, and used cooking grease and oil. (dallasnews.com)
  • Termites harbor stomach microbes that produce enzymes which may be useful in converting wood or waste biomass to biofuels. (mongabay.com)
  • Scaling up this process so that biomass factories can produce biofuels more efficiently and economically is another story. (mongabay.com)
  • As electronic media and paper recycling gain in popularity, the reduced demand for pulp woods could provide opportunities for large amounts of woody biomass to contribute to biofuel production, the authors state. (eurekalert.org)
  • Nevertheless, production of these biofuels is dependent on the availability of sufficient viable biomass given that one cannot demand more residues from the food market. (tudelft.nl)
  • Unfortunately, that has been a reality for many scientists working to develop catalysts used to upgrade waste or biomass resources into climate-friendly biofuels. (energy.gov)
  • In biofuels research, that joint effort has yielded promising breakthroughs in the design of catalysts-materials, often based on transition metals, that are used to speed up the conversion of biomass into biofuels. (energy.gov)
  • It is possible to allow a smaller portion of the biomass, usually those carbohydrates which are difficult to break down, to be used for the production of biofuels, whilst the main production consists of more valuable products. (lu.se)
  • First-generation biofuels (also denoted as "conventional biofuels") are made from food crops grown on arable land. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the Net Zero Scenario, the use of biofuels for transport rises significantly to 2030, with a much larger share produced from waste, residues and nonfood crops. (iea.org)
  • Advanced feedstock usage must also expand: biofuels produced from waste and residues and nonfood energy crops meet over 40% of total biofuel demand by 2030, up from around a 9% share in 2021. (iea.org)
  • By the end of the 21st century, the amount of land devoted to biofuels may be greater than the total area currently used to grow food crops. (reason.com)
  • First-generation biofuels are currently produced from food crops such as sugar cane and rapeseed. (greenfacts.org)
  • Proponents of Jatropha curcas portrayed the crop as a 'sustainable biofuel' that was less threatening to food security and forests than other energy crops, creating a reputation that helped jatropha projects to m. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The expanding world population and the on-going switch towards consumption of meat and dairy produce as incomes rise are already putting pressure on freshwater supplies, which increased growing of biofuel crops could exacerbate. (bbc.co.uk)
  • However, growing crops, making fertilizers and pesticides, and processing the plants into biofuel requires so much energy that it's questionable whether biofuels are really as environmentally friendly as they might seem on the surface. (techdirt.com)
  • When it comes to selecting the right plant source for future cellulosic biofuel production, the solution won't be one-size-fits-all, and it certainly doesn't have to involve food and feed crops. (eurekalert.org)
  • The article, "Feedstocks for Lignocellulosic Biofuels," discusses the sustainability of current and future crops that may be used to produce advanced biofuels with emerging technologies that use non-edible parts of plants. (eurekalert.org)
  • The diversity and geographic adaptability of crops available as potential biofuel feedstocks can be used to support ecosystem health throughout the world, the EBI researchers conclude. (eurekalert.org)
  • First generation biofuels are derived from traditional food crops. (tudelft.nl)
  • Second generation biofuels are made from agricultural residues from food crops, dedicated non-food biofuel crops, or food waste such as cooking oils. (tudelft.nl)
  • However, first generation biofuels are controversial given that they rely on food crops and therefore could interfere with food security. (tudelft.nl)
  • Current LCAs assume that the carbon offset of growing the feedstock is 100%, that the crops pull enough carbon out of the air to 100% offset the carbon released during burning of the biofuel. (theness.com)
  • We extend earlier studies by incorporating the effects of land use change on crop water use, and the opportunity costs of using scarce agricultural resources for biofuels rather than other export crops. (who.int)
  • The European Union has raised the standards expected of biofuel producers, but it should "level the playing field" by applying similar standards to other export crops from developing countries. (who.int)
  • What consequences will the increased cultivation and use of biofuels (crops and forests) have for CC, AQ, BD and ES? (lu.se)
  • In 2012, the Navy paid $424 per gallon for biofuel derived from algae. (dallasnews.com)
  • One of the companies that got a lucrative biofuel contract from the military was San Francisco-based Solazyme Inc. According to the Congressional Research Service , in 2009 Solazyme got a $223,000 contract for 1,500 gallons of algae-based motor fuel. (dallasnews.com)
  • Washington State University researchers have developed a way to grow algae more efficiently -- in days instead of weeks -- and make the algae more viable for several industries, including biofuels. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Proponents of biofuels claim that this is all the more reason to continue with investments and innovation: new sources of biofuels, such as plant residues and algae, will eventually solve all our problems. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Researchers at UC San Diego have demonstrated for the first time that marine algae can also be used to produce biofuels like fresh water algae. (techdirt.com)
  • Third generation biofuels can be produced from algae while fourth generation biofuels are made from genetically modified feedstocks. (tudelft.nl)
  • Duffy was addressing a gathering of a couple dozen scientists, engineers and industrialists gathered in the Alumni House in January to discuss how to make biofuel from algae-and how to make it profitable. (wm.edu)
  • Algae-based biofuel is a hot research topic. (wm.edu)
  • Duffy pointed out that ChAP's use of wild algae has a number of advantages over other biofuel approaches. (wm.edu)
  • This analysis, for example, would not apply if we figure out a way of using algae for feedstock and bacteria to convert it to biofuels. (theness.com)
  • Advanced biofuels are liquid fuels that are generally derived from non-food-based feedstocks and yield a lifecycle reduction in greenhouse gas emissions of at least 50% compared with fossil fuels. (mass.gov)
  • The advanced biofuels of tomorrow depend on biochemical research, technological entrepreneurship, and feedstocks that are derived from waste products or can be grown without undue displacement of productive land. (mass.gov)
  • Cellulosic biofuels refer to gasoline substitutes made from the fibrous matter (cellulose) of feedstocks, such as switchgrass, agricultural wastes, and forest products, rather than corn. (mass.gov)
  • Most biofuel production currently uses so-called conventional feedstocks, such as sugar cane, corn and soybeans. (iea.org)
  • Expanding biofuel production to advanced feedstocks is critical to ensuring minimal impact on land-use, food and feed prices and other environmental factors. (iea.org)
  • The article points out that biofuel feedstocks need not grow on land currently being farmed for food and animal feed. (eurekalert.org)
  • Climate change and the rapid depletion of fossil fuel sources globally has injected new motivation into the pursuit of producing efficient, renewable feedstocks or biofuels for modern transportation. (lu.se)
  • To avoid a " food versus fuel " dilemma, second-generation biofuels (also called advanced biofuels or sustainable biofuels ) are made from waste products. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microalgae are showing huge potential as a sustainable source of biofuels. (www.csiro.au)
  • Rather, we should realise that biofuels as a case study raise fundamental questions with regard to policy and governance, responsible innovation and sustainable development. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The UN report, Sustainable Bioenergy: A Framework for Decision Makers, suggests that biofuels can be a force for good if they are planned well, but can bring adverse consequences if not. (bbc.co.uk)
  • The so-called Soybean Oil futures share of the soybean crush margin has recently hit the highest level in over five years, driven in part by the demand for feedstock for the biofuel industry as governments looks to more sustainable energy sources for the future. (cmegroup.com)
  • ASA's leadership and commitment to identifying local and sustainable sources of aviation biofuel for Mexico have been instrumental in making this flight a reality," said Jim Rekoske, vice president and general manager of Renewable Energy and Chemicals for Honeywell's UOP. (siteselection.com)
  • Biofuel motivation The principal motivation for using SAFs on flights is to reduce the overall carbon footprint of the aviation industry and to establish a sustainable and renewable fuel option for the industry. (tudelft.nl)
  • This paper seeks to provide a preliminary identification of the main sustainable development issues involved in the debate around production and trade of biofuels. (iied.org)
  • This is no recipe for rapidly growing the biofuel industry, a key part of ambitious targets to decarbonize aviation with net-zero and carbon-negative sustainable aviation fuel. (energy.gov)
  • Biofuel cells (BFCs) that utilize enzymes as catalysts represent a new sustainable and renewable energy technology . (bvsalud.org)
  • The two most common types of biofuel are bioethanol and biodiesel . (wikipedia.org)
  • We are discovering the potential of different strains for biodiesel through lipid profiling and assessing biofuel production potential. (www.csiro.au)
  • The European Union and the US have recently set major targets for the expansion of biofuels in road vehicles, for which ethanol and biodiesel are seen as the only currently viable alternative to petroleum fuels. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Biofuel is produced mostly in the form of ethanol, biodiesel, and biogas. (dawn.com)
  • The two most common kinds of biofuels right now are both gasoline alternatives: ethanol and biodiesel. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Biodiesel is a biofuel made from plant- or animal-based fats and can run in a regular diesel engine. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Marine biofuel is made from combining biodiesel and bunker fuel waste material. (upi.com)
  • cellulosic ethanol , green biodiesel and other new, low-carbon biofuels - which are different from starch- or sugar-based ethanol and not simple replacements for traditional liquid fuels. (chinadialogue.net)
  • Here we examine biofuels, primarily biofuels used for transportation (e.g., ethanol and biodiesel), through the lens of modern resource economics and address fundamental questions, such as: Why biofuels? (nowpublishers.com)
  • Deploying effective carbon capture and storage at biofuels plants will cement ethanol and biodiesel as the lowest carbon liquid fuels commercially available in the marketplace. (ethanolproducer.com)
  • Using this to produce advanced biofuels would not only replace a significant proportion of crude oil consumption, but also slash carbon dioxide emissions and energy use in the process of fuel manufacturing. (chinadialogue.net)
  • However, a significant increase in biofuel production is needed to get on track with the Net Zero Emissions by 2050 (NZE) Scenario and deliver the associated emission reductions. (iea.org)
  • Biofuel production reaches over 10 EJ by 2030 in the NZE Scenario, requiring an average growth of around 11% per year. (iea.org)
  • The United States Inflation Reduction Act (IRA) provides production and investment support for biofuels estimated at USD 9.4 billion to 2031. (iea.org)
  • That money has been spent despite research showing that production of cellulosic biofuels likely results in carbon-dioxide emissions that are higher than those from conventional gasoline. (dallasnews.com)
  • Since the early 2000s, biofuel production has been developed in West Africa with the encouragement and support of notably Europe, Brazil, and China. (biomedcentral.com)
  • While the findings have potential, the scientists say they are still a long way from commercialization of termite gut enzymes for biofuel production. (mongabay.com)
  • Plenty of research is already under way to figure out ways to make biofuel production more efficient with the help of microorganisms. (techdirt.com)
  • Researchers at Purdue University are studying how termite digestion could help improve biofuel production. (techdirt.com)
  • Further research could lead to finding enzymes that could one day be used to help improve biofuel production. (techdirt.com)
  • I wonder how many biofuel production plants are in states that don't provide tax breaks for them? (techdirt.com)
  • Think about this for a while: biofuel production as it currently is implemented only makes sense for corporate, commodity export agriculture. (techdirt.com)
  • To combat global warming, the production and consumption of biofuels is on the rise around the world. (yokogawa.com)
  • Currently, first and second generation biofuels are the most feasible for the production of biofuels. (tudelft.nl)
  • Third and fourth generation biofuels would overcome this issue, but both are in development and it will be years before their production becomes widespread. (tudelft.nl)
  • Syngenta and Diversa are restructuring a four-year-old R&D collaboration, shifting its focus to the development of enzymes used in the production of biofuels. (acs.org)
  • The CPD advances that mission by making it faster and cheaper to identify the right catalyst formula for specific biofuel production processes. (energy.gov)
  • JBEI enzyme discovery enables first-time microbial production of an aromatic biofuel. (berkeley.edu)
  • The production of renewable diesel typically involves hydrotreating or hydroprocessing, where triglycerides or hydrocarbons from organic materials are refined into a renewable biofuel that is chemically identical to petroleum diesel. (biofuels-news.com)
  • Visit also to the Colabit company that has a pilot plant for HVO production and plans for large-scale biofuels production at industrial site. (svebio.se)
  • Researchers analyzed real-world crop data from the Department of Agriculture on crop and biofuel production and compared the amount of CO2 generated relative to fossil fuel production and vehicle emissions. (dailycaller.com)
  • America's National Academy of Science has been extremely skeptical of the environmental benefits of American biofuel production and has found that the programs "may be an ineffective policy for reducing global [greenhouse gas] emissions. (dailycaller.com)
  • Biofuel production can have conflicting impacts on economic growth, food and energy security, and natural resources. (who.int)
  • We find that biofuel production is generally pro-poor and reduces food insecurity by raising household incomes. (who.int)
  • Producing biofuels can be the main process of a biorefinery, for example the production of different alcohols by fermentation of sugars from the biobased raw material. (lu.se)
  • The future of efficient biofuel production is within reach. (lu.se)
  • Occupational health and biofuels production. (cdc.gov)
  • Thus marginal or abandoned agricultural lands may be developed specifically as biofuel feedstock plantations without competing with food and feed. (eurekalert.org)
  • The study tries to address a very narrow question - how much of the carbon that is released into the atmosphere when biofuels are burned was offset by the taking up of carbon from the atmosphere when the plants used to create the biofuels (feedstock) were grown? (theness.com)
  • The authors essentially analysed the increase in carbon capture by farms growing feedstock for biofuels from 2005-2013 and compared that to the amount of biofuel created and the amount of CO2 that would release. (theness.com)
  • However, this analysis found that the gains in CO 2 uptake by feedstock were enough to offset biofuel-related biogenic CO 2 emissions by only 37 % over 2005-2013, showing that biofuel use fell well short of being carbon neutral even before considering process emissions. (theness.com)
  • Second-generation biofuels are under development and will be derived from non-food plant matter such as crop residues and agricultural or municipal wastes. (greenfacts.org)
  • Hence, second generation biofuels represents a more responsible approach. (tudelft.nl)
  • Aviation market Today, first and second generation biofuels are widely used in many industries including the aviation industry. (tudelft.nl)
  • We now have several new plants operating both in the United States and around the world which are producing advanced drop-in biofuels," he said. (siteselection.com)
  • His research focuses on identifying potential drop-in biofuels and building and optimizing the metabolic pathway to produce these target fuels in microbes. (lbl.gov)
  • Due to concerns about peak oil, energy security, fuel diversity and sustainability, there is great interest around the world in renewable sources of biofuels. (www.csiro.au)
  • In recent years, there has been increasing interest in biofuels due to growing concerns about global warming and rising oil prices. (techdirt.com)
  • The threat of global warming, high oil prices and concerns about energy security have all contributed to a renewed global interest in biofuels as an alternative to oil for transport. (iied.org)
  • Policymakers should reconsider their support for biofuels. (dailycaller.com)
  • A new study suggests that biofuels may be the latest entry in the book of unintended consequences. (theness.com)
  • The term "biofuel" is used in different ways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other publications reserve the term biofuel for liquid or gaseous fuels, used for transportation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Often the term biofuel is used in a narrow sense to refer to liquid biofuels for transport . (greenfacts.org)
  • The USGC was invited by the Latin American Energy Organization to participate in a panel focused on liquid biofuels and their role in decarbonizing transportation during the VIII Energy Week event held in Uruguay. (ethanolproducer.com)
  • Also recently, Fortune reporter Katie Fehrenbacher wrote about the spate of failed cellulosic-biofuel companies that have been backed by Silicon Valley promoter Vinod Khosla. (dallasnews.com)
  • Brazil, the world's second-largest ethanol producer, makes its biofuel from sugarcane. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Bioethanol can also be produced from corn and sugarcane (first-generation biofuels), however, there are ethical concerns due to competition between growing food for consumption and growing food for fuel, thus raising the fuel vs food debate. (rte.ie)
  • That was the answer for corn ethanol, but sugarcane biofuels were likely efficient due to the higher energy density of the plants. (theness.com)
  • Biofuel demand in 2022 reached a record high of 4.3 EJ (170 000 million litres), surpassing levels seen in 2019 prior to the Covid-19 pandemic. (iea.org)
  • In 2022 biofuels represented over 3.5% of global transport energy demand, mainly for road transport. (iea.org)
  • Officially open to external uploads in September 2021, the CPD stands to accelerate biofuels research even more. (energy.gov)
  • In conclusion, UN Energy suggests policymakers should take a holistic look before embarking on drives to boost biofuel use. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Biofuel has already captured the attention of policymakers in many countries as a viable solution to improve energy security, reduce greenhouse gas emissions to mitigate climate change and decrease import bills. (dawn.com)
  • : 173 [2] Biofuels (and bioenergy in general) are regarded as a renewable energy source. (wikipedia.org)
  • The climate change mitigation potential of biofuel varies considerably, from emission levels comparable to fossil fuels in some scenarios to negative emissions in others. (wikipedia.org)
  • In nation-leading provisions, this law gives preferential tax treatment to non-corn-based alternatives to ethanol, requires biofuel content in all the diesel and home-heating fuel sold in the state, and proposes a new fuel standard for the region that will encourage a range of emissions-reducing technologies for cars and trucks. (mass.gov)
  • All biofuels must meet at least a 50% reduction of greenhouse gas emissions over their entire lifecycles (growing, processing, and combustion) in order to qualify for the content mandate. (mass.gov)
  • Melillo told Reuters, "In the near term, I think, irrespective of how you go about the cellulosic biofuels program, you're going to have greenhouse gas emissions exacerbating the climate change problem. (reason.com)
  • Biofuels may be creating twice the carbon emissions of fossil fuels they are replacing, Friends of the Earth claim. (mirror.co.uk)
  • The corn we produce is not only helping feed the world during a very difficult time, but it is also used for clean and affordable biofuels that lower costs for consumers while cutting both carbon and toxic tailpipe emissions. (ncga.com)
  • Will biofuels reduce aviation emissions? (tudelft.nl)
  • Taxpayer-supported biofuels emit more carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions than gasoline, according to a new study, challenging the benefits of mixing ethanol into the U.S. fuel supply. (dailycaller.com)
  • When it comes to the emissions that cause global warming, it turns out that biofuels are worse than gasoline," Dr. John DeCicco of the University of Michigan and lead author of the study, said in a press release. (dailycaller.com)
  • Researchers found that rising biofuel use has resulted in increasing CO2 emissions, even though the programs were justified by claiming ethanol would reduce CO2 emissions. (dailycaller.com)
  • Research sponsored by the government of Finland found also that regulations intended to fight global warming with biofuels were almost certainly increasing CO2 emissions. (dailycaller.com)
  • Another study published in late April by an environmental group found that Europe's biofuel regulations created 80 percent more CO2 emissions than the conventional oil they replaced. (dailycaller.com)
  • The environmental group estimated that the European Union's biofuel regulations will increase the continent's CO2 emissions from transportation by almost four percent compared to conventional sources of oil. (dailycaller.com)
  • On August 28, 2018, the government had imposed restrictions on export of biofuels within days of putting similar conditions for its imports. (indiatimes.com)
  • Their finding suggests that algal biofuels could also be produced in the ocean, in the brackish water of tidelands, or even on otherwise unusable agricultural land with high salt content in the soil. (techdirt.com)
  • As Dennis Manos sees it, algal biofuel could be part of the answer to the question posed by the world's appetite for petroleum. (wm.edu)
  • ChAP differs from other algal biofuel initiatives in two ways. (wm.edu)
  • Biofuels are non-fossil fuels. (greenfacts.org)
  • Dave Roos "Biofuels vs. Fossil Fuels" 20 August 2012. (howstuffworks.com)
  • The literature reviewed indicates that the effects of policies promoting conversion from fossil fuels to biofuels do not necessarily promote welfare. (nowpublishers.com)
  • When they plug their 37% figure into current LCAs for biofuel efficiency they find that the use of biofuels has resulted in a net increase in carbon release, and in fact is worse than just burning fossil fuels. (theness.com)
  • There is a great need for society to decrease our reliance on fossil fuels (from, for example, coal or natural gas) in order to reduce the quantity of carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere, and the use of biofuels is one opportunity to do so. (lu.se)
  • However, recent technological advancements have presented an opportunity to convert food waste into renewable biofuels, such as bioethanol which can be used in automobiles and aircraft engines. (rte.ie)
  • Bioethanol from plant sources (also known as second-generation biofuel) is a renewable fuel that can be produced from a variety of cellulosic and industrial food waste, such as distillers' spent grain. (rte.ie)
  • Eric Sundstrom is a staff scientist within the Biosciences Area and leader of the fermentation team within the Advanced Biofuels and Bioproducts Process Development Unit (ABPDU). (lbl.gov)
  • Biofuels are generally made by using chemicals, fermentation, and heat to break down the starches, sugars, and other molecules in plants to produce a fuel that can be used by vehicles. (techdirt.com)
  • Despite decades of hype, as well as years of mandates and subsidies, biofuels have never made a significant dent in our need for oil. (dallasnews.com)
  • On the environmental side, it notes that demand for biofuels has accelerated the clearing of primary forest for palm plantations, particularly in southeast Asia. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Biofuels are substitutes for liquid petroleum fuels (such as gasoline, diesel, and heating oil) and are derived from renewable organic matter such as corn, soy, switchgrass, agricultural waste, wood, and waste vegetable oil. (mass.gov)
  • Massachusetts was the first state in the nation to give a tax incentive for the use of cellulosic biofuels rather than corn-based ethanol. (mass.gov)
  • High corn prices are driving next-generation biofuel startups out of the country, and that could be a good thing. (technologyreview.com)
  • Roughly 45 percent of American corn is now used to produce biofuels like ethanol due to enormous levels of taxpayer support. (dailycaller.com)
  • The study, however, raises some very serious questions about dedicating farmland to growing corn for ethanol for biofuels. (theness.com)
  • Could biofuels address the environmental concerns of air travel? (tudelft.nl)
  • During their minor in Responsible Innovation, students Marinde Vos, Nino van der Hooft, Merel Pot, Carmen Grotenhuis, Sinan Kula, and Claudia de Koning and their mentor Barry Fitzgerald investigated how the aviation industry in both in the Netherlands and Brazil is looking at a biofuels future to address environmental concerns. (tudelft.nl)
  • Environmental benefits aside, marine biofuel is regarded as a cost-effective option for meeting carbon reduction standards because a ship's engine does not have to be replaced or reconfigured. (upi.com)
  • Tommy Lundgren, Per-Olov Marklund, Runar Brännlund and Bengt Kriström (2008), "The Economics of Biofuels", International Review of Environmental and Resource Economics: Vol. 2: No. 3, pp 237-280. (nowpublishers.com)
  • Biofuels are increasingly regarded as energy sources with the potential to solve diverse problems related to serious concerns, including climate change, environmental degradation, energy supply, and energy security. (nowpublishers.com)
  • To this end, we develop an integrated modeling framework to simultaneously assess the economic and environmental impacts of producing biofuels in Malawi. (who.int)
  • We also find that the economic and environmental impacts of biofuels are preferable to those of tobacco or soybeans. (who.int)
  • Biofuel can be produced from plants or from agricultural, domestic or industrial biowaste. (wikipedia.org)
  • This research will advance our knowledge of risks or benefits from placing large biofuel crop monocultures into established agricultural landscapes in the Midwest. (k-state.edu)
  • Use of biofuels has expanded at nearly 6% a year for the past 5 years, except in 2020 when use declined due to the impacts of the Covid-19 pandemic. (iea.org)
  • The impacts of biofuels' tumultuous history have been felt particularly in the Global South, where land grabbing and opportunistic behaviour of investors have caused great social and ecological problems. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A UN report warns that a hasty switch to biofuels could have major impacts on livelihoods and the environment. (bbc.co.uk)
  • The assumption that biofuels are inherently carbon neutral is a premise of most climate-related fuel policies promulgated to date, including measures such as the LCFS and RFS that evaluate GHG impacts using lifecycle modeling. (theness.com)
  • But a study published in the October issue of Science finds that these advanced "cellulosic" biofuels could emit more greenhouse gases during the next few decades than burning gasoline will. (reason.com)
  • Biofuels are one of the many different types of products that can be made in biorefineries. (lu.se)
  • With measurements from MAX IV's SPECIES beamline, a group from Lund University and RISE , Research Institutes of Sweden, has successfully developed a model catalyst that, once tuned, holds potential to significantly improve the treatment process for the large-scale manufacture of viable biofuels from lignin. (lu.se)
  • Ethanol fuel is the most common biofuel worldwide, particularly in Brazil . (wikipedia.org)
  • Waste biofuel markets such as used cooking oils and animal fats have also been trading at close to record levels. (cmegroup.com)
  • That same year, in another much-hyped example of the Great Green Fleet, it spent about $27 per gallon for 450,000 gallons of biofuel. (dallasnews.com)
  • As a result, the amount of ethanol and other biofuels used in America increased from 4.2 billion gallons in 2005 to 14.6 billion gallons in 2013. (dailycaller.com)
  • We can then synthesize the novel enzymes discovered through this project to accelerate the delivery of the next generation of cellulosic biofuels. (mongabay.com)
  • Part of this increase can be attributed to the demand for biofuels and HVO, but part is also due to the strong level of exports for soybeans 3 resulting in less supply being available to be crushed into oil 4 . (cmegroup.com)
  • The Clean Energy Biofuels Act was signed on July 28, 2008, to encourage the growth of an advanced biofuels industry, as part of the growing clean energy technology sector in Massachusetts. (mass.gov)
  • We also work with industry to select appropriate microalgae for different biofuel applications. (www.csiro.au)
  • In addition, other sectors of the renewable energy sector were afforded provisions such as a refundable investment tax credit which were not afforded the biofuels industry. (siteselection.com)
  • This conference gathers leading actors and stakeholders in the global biofuels industry. (svebio.se)
  • Capturing and storing carbon dioxide in underground wells has the potential to become the most consequential technological deployment in the history of the broader biofuels industry. (ethanolproducer.com)
  • On Earth Day 2010, the Navy flew an F/A-18 using a mixture of conventional jet fuel and biofuel derived from camelina, a plant in the mustard family . (dallasnews.com)
  • With the success of converting diesel engines to using biofuels, home-made scam conversion kits of questionable quality were installed in old, inexpensive diesel cars and resold in more favorable alternative fuel markets. (wikipedia.org)
  • A biofuel is any fuel source that's made from biological materials. (howstuffworks.com)
  • One of the most abundant terrestrial polymers (large molecules made of repeating subunits called monomers) on Earth, lignin surrounds valuable plant fibers and other molecules that could be converted into biofuels and other commodity chemicals - if we could only get past that rigid plant cell wall. (lbl.gov)
  • The disadvantage of marine biofuel is its high price tag, but it is still less costly than those made with methanol or ammonia, according to experts. (upi.com)
  • Biofuels are fuels made from plant and animals usually used for transportation. (exploringnature.org)
  • What's driving the demand for biofuels is the high price of oil, said Brown, which has made biofuels economically attractive. (sustainablog.org)
  • At the UN conference on climate change that's going on in Bali this week, the Secretary General of the International Transport Forum is asking why should the world be looking to biofuels when there are cheaper ways to protect the environment and climate. (autoblog.com)
  • The nexus of biofuels, climate change, and human health: workshop summary. (cdc.gov)
  • The Department of Energy Resources (DOER) has announced a suspension of the formal requirements of the Advanced Biofuels Mandate for heating oil and transportation diesel fuel and instead will establish a voluntary program. (mass.gov)
  • Requires a minimum percentage of advanced biofuel as a component of all diesel fuel and home-heating fuel sold in the Commonwealth , starting at 2% in 2010 and ramping up to 5% by 2013. (mass.gov)
  • As of 2008, when the Clean Energy Biofuels Act was issued, only California had committed to developing a Low Carbon Fuel Standard, which could be met by a range of possible technologies - more and better biofuels, plug-in hybrids, all-electric cars, or other innovations. (mass.gov)
  • In the NZE Scenario, the contribution of biofuels to transport more than doubles to 9% in 2030, accounting for a similar share of fuel demand for road vehicles alone. (iea.org)
  • The two officials flew out to sea in a helicopter so they could watch the USS William P. Lawrence , a guided-missile destroyer, get refueled with a blend of diesel fuel and biofuel. (dallasnews.com)
  • Biofuels, claimed Mabus , prevent "fuel from being used as a weapon against us. (dallasnews.com)
  • From the food vs. fuel discussion to indirect land use change, wicked problems have plagued biofuel developments and continue to provoke disagreement between societal actors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The government on Wednesday said the export of biofuel from special economic zones and export oriented units are allowed for fuel as well as non-fuel purposes without any restriction, if the biofuel is produced by using imported feed stock. (indiatimes.com)
  • Biofuels will make up 10 percent of Indonesia's fuel transport consumption by 2010 under a plan announced Monday by a senior government official, according to Reuters. (mongabay.com)
  • One such fuel type that could facilitate these goals is biofuel. (tudelft.nl)
  • Climate reduction is a challenge but for the transportation sector, biofuels have remerged as one of the available now alternatives to address both short-term fuel shortages, and medium-term greenhouse gas reduction. (svebio.se)
  • Iowa Secretary of Agriculture Mike Naig is encouraging Iowans to nominate fuel marketers in their communities for the Renewable Fuels Marketing Awards, which recognize retailers that go above and beyond in their efforts to promote biofuels. (ethanolproducer.com)
  • Biofuels include ethyl alcohol , petroleum oil and oils obtained from bituminous minerals, bio-diesel and mixtures. (indiatimes.com)
  • [4] Demand for aviation biofuel is forecast to increase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biofuels play a particularly important role in decarbonising transport by providing a low-carbon solution for hard-to-abate sectors such as trucking, shipping and aviation. (iea.org)
  • Aviation biofuels, also known as biojet kerosene, would need to make the most dramatic strides between now and 2030 to align with the Net Zero Scenario. (iea.org)
  • Our research has focused on the Dutch aviation market where KLM is the market leader with regard to both the provision of flights and the use of biofuels. (tudelft.nl)
  • Lovecraft Biofuels was a Silverlake, California operation that claimed typical diesel engines could run on vegetable oil using what is known as a "single tank" conversion. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is the first study to carefully examine the carbon on farmland when biofuels are grown, instead of just making assumptions about it," DeCicco concluded. (dailycaller.com)
  • But we may be able to cut consumption and replace it with biofuel," Reuters quoted Evita Legowo, secretary at the National Biofuel Development Team, as saying at the Reuters Global Agriculture and Biofuel Summit. (mongabay.com)
  • The demand for biofuels is changing the relationship between meal and oil, a key indicator for the soybean oil refiners. (cmegroup.com)
  • the growing demand for biofuels is beginning to adversely affect food supplies worldwide, and could eventually lead to serious economic and political instability, warned Brown, president of the [Earth] Policy Institute . (sustainablog.org)
  • Some 14 million tons of that demand is expected to be for biofuels for cars in the United States. (sustainablog.org)