Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.
A species of STAPHYLOCOCCUS that is a spherical, non-motile, gram-positive, chemoorganotrophic, facultative anaerobe. Mainly found on the skin and mucous membrane of warm-blooded animals, it can be primary pathogen or secondary invader.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).
Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria that is numerous in the mouth and throat. It is a common cause of endocarditis and is also implicated in dental plaque formation.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Ionized gases, consisting of free electrons and ionized atoms or molecules which collectively behave differently than gas, solid, or liquid. Plasma gases are used in biomedical fields in surface modification; biological decontamination; dentistry (e.g., PLASMA ARC DENTAL CURING LIGHTS); and in other treatments (e.g., ARGON PLASMA COAGULATION).
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
The inter- and intra-relationships between various microorganisms. This can include both positive (like SYMBIOSIS) and negative (like ANTIBIOSIS) interactions. Examples include virus - bacteria and bacteria - bacteria.
Cationic bactericidal surfactant used as a topical antiseptic for skin, wounds, mucous membranes, instruments, etc.; and also as a component in mouthwash and lozenges.
A phenomenon where microorganisms communicate and coordinate their behavior by the accumulation of signaling molecules. A reaction occurs when a substance accumulates to a sufficient concentration. This is most commonly seen in bacteria.
A liquid that functions as a strong oxidizing agent. It has an acrid odor and is used as a disinfectant.
Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.
Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.
A disinfectant and topical anti-infective agent used also as mouthwash to prevent oral plaque.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
Substances used on humans and other animals that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. They are distinguished from DISINFECTANTS, which are used on inanimate objects.
The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
An aminoglycoside, broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by Streptomyces tenebrarius. It is effective against gram-negative bacteria, especially the PSEUDOMONAS species. It is a 10% component of the antibiotic complex, NEBRAMYCIN, produced by the same species.
The presence of an infectious agent on instruments, prostheses, or other inanimate articles.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Electric power supply devices which convert biological energy, such as chemical energy of metabolism or mechanical energy of periodic movements, into electrical energy.
Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.
A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are nonmotile. Filaments that may be present in certain species are either straight or wavy and may have swollen or clubbed heads.
A colorless liquid extracted from oils of plants such as citronella, neroli, cyclamen, and tuberose. It is an intermediate step in the biological synthesis of cholesterol from mevalonic acid in vertebrates. It has a delicate odor and is used in perfumery. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A group of different species of microorganisms that act together as a community.
Stainless steel. A steel containing Ni, Cr, or both. It does not tarnish on exposure and is used in corrosive environments. (Grant & Hack's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Cyclic hexapeptides of proline-ornithine-threonine-proline-threonine-serine. The cyclization with a single non-peptide bond can lead them to be incorrectly called DEPSIPEPTIDES, but the echinocandins lack ester links. Antifungal activity is via inhibition of 1,3-beta-glucan synthase production of BETA-GLUCANS.
A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the gingival margin and sulcus and from infections of the upper respiratory tract and pleural cavity.
Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.
The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antifungal agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
A broad family of synthetic organosiloxane polymers containing a repeating silicon-oxygen backbone with organic side groups attached via carbon-silicon bonds. Depending on their structure, they are classified as liquids, gels, and elastomers. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)
Infections resulting from the use of catheters. Proper aseptic technique, site of catheter placement, material composition, and virulence of the organism are all factors that can influence possible infection.
Polymers of silicone that are formed by crosslinking and treatment with amorphous silica to increase strength. They have properties similar to vulcanized natural rubber, in that they stretch under tension, retract rapidly, and fully recover to their original dimensions upon release. They are used in the encapsulation of surgical membranes and implants.
A flexible, tubular device that is used to carry fluids into or from a blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity.
A polyvinyl resin used extensively in the manufacture of plastics, including medical devices, tubing, and other packaging. It is also used as a rubber substitute.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Quaternary salts derived from tetrazoles. They are used in tests to distinguish between reducing sugars and simple aldehydes, for detection of dehydrogenase in tissues, cells, and bacteria, for determination of corticosteroids, and in color photography. (From Mall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed, p455)
A tetraiodofluorescein used as a red coloring in some foods (cherries, fish), as a disclosure of DENTAL PLAQUE, and as a stain of some cell types. It has structural similarity to THYROXINE.
A species of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family STREPTOCOCCACEAE. It is a normal inhabitant of the human oral cavity, and causes DENTAL PLAQUE and ENDOCARDITIS. It is being investigated as a vehicle for vaccine delivery.
Salts of alginic acid that are extracted from marine kelp and used to make dental impressions and as absorbent material for surgical dressings.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Triazole antifungal agent that is used to treat oropharyngeal CANDIDIASIS and cryptococcal MENINGITIS in AIDS.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A genus of yeast-like mitosporic Saccharomycetales fungi characterized by producing yeast cells, mycelia, pseudomycelia, and blastophores. It is commonly part of the normal flora of the skin, mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina, but can cause a variety of infections, including CANDIDIASIS; ONYCHOMYCOSIS; vulvovaginal candidiasis (CANDIDIASIS, VULVOVAGINAL), and thrush (see CANDIDIASIS, ORAL). (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Polymerized forms of styrene used as a biocompatible material, especially in dentistry. They are thermoplastic and are used as insulators, for injection molding and casting, as sheets, plates, rods, rigid forms and beads.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic rods. It is a saprophytic, marine organism which is often isolated from spoiling fish.
A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.
Macrolide antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nodosus obtained from soil of the Orinoco river region of Venezuela.

Resistance of artificial biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to imipenem and tobramycin. (1/4882)

Viable cells of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were entrapped in alginate gel layers and incubated in a minimal glucose (15 g/L)-yeast extract (2 g/L)-salt medium to form artificial biofilm-like structures. After cultivation for 2 days, the biomass distribution inside the polymer was highly heterogeneous. The cell number reached approximately 1011 cells/g gel in the outer regions of the gel structures whereas the inner areas were less colonized (c. 10(8) cells g/gel). Killing of immobilized organisms by imipenem and tobramycin were compared with free-cell experiments (inoculum c. 10(9) cells/mL). Sessile-like bacteria displayed a higher resistance to the two antibiotics used alone or in combination than did suspended cells. Exposure for 10 h to 20 x MIC imipenem and 15 x MIC tobramycin reduced the number of viable immobilized bacteria to 0.3% and 3%, respectively, of the initial cell population, whereas these antibiotic concentrations were much more efficient (bactericidal) against free-cell cultures (5 log kill in 6 h). A synergic effect of tobramycin and imipenem was detected on bacterial suspensions but not on biofilm-like structures. Effective diffusivity measurements showed that the diffusion of imipenem in the alginate layer was not hindered. A slight but significant enhancement of beta-lactamase induction in immobilized cells as compared with their suspended counterparts was insufficient to explain the high resistance of sessile-like bacteria.  (+info)

Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor: identification of a gene cluster required for the rugose colony type, exopolysaccharide production, chlorine resistance, and biofilm formation. (2/4882)

The rugose colony variant of Vibrio cholerae O1, biotype El Tor, is shown to produce an exopolysaccharide, EPSETr, that confers chlorine resistance and biofilm-forming capacity. EPSETr production requires a chromosomal locus, vps, that contains sequences homologous to carbohydrate biosynthesis genes of other bacterial species. Mutations within this locus yield chlorine-sensitive, smooth colony variants that are biofilm deficient. The biofilm-forming properties of EPSETr may enable the survival of V. cholerae O1 within environmental aquatic habitats between outbreaks of human disease.  (+info)

Surface-grafted, environmentally sensitive polymers for biofilm release. (3/4882)

Controlling bacterial biofouling is desirable for almost every human enterprise in which solid surfaces are introduced into nonsterile aqueous environments. One approach that is used to decrease contamination of manufactured devices by microorganisms is using materials that easily slough off accumulated material (i.e., fouling release surfaces). The compounds currently used for this purpose rely on low surface energy to inhibit strong attachment of organisms. In this study, we examined the possible use of environmentally responsive (or "smart") polymers as a new class of fouling release agents; a surface-grafted thermally responsive polymer, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAM), was used as a model compound. PNIPAAM is known to have a lower critical solubility temperature of approximately 32 degrees C (i.e., it is insoluble in water at temperatures above 32 degrees C and is soluble at temperatures below 32 degrees C). Under experimental conditions, >90% of cultured microorganisms (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Halomonas marina) and naturally occurring marine microorganisms that attached to grafted PNIPAAM surfaces during 2-, 18-, 36-, and 72-h incubations were removed when the hydration state of the polymer was changed from a wettability that was favorable for attachment to a wettability that was less favorable. Of particular significance is the observation that an organism known to attach in the greatest numbers to hydrophobic substrata (i.e., H. marina) was removed when transition of PNIPAAM to a more hydrated state occurred, whereas an organism that attaches in the greatest numbers to hydrophilic substrata (i.e., S. epidermidis) was removed when the opposite transition occurred. Neither solvated nor desolvated PNIPAAM exhibited intrinsic fouling release properties, indicating that the phase transition was the important factor in removal of organisms. Based on our observations of the behavior of this model system, we suggest that environmentally responsive polymers represent a new approach for controlling biofouling release.  (+info)

Ultrasonic enhancement of antibiotic action on Escherichia coli biofilms: an in vivo model. (4/4882)

Biofilm infections are a common complication of prosthetic devices in humans. Previous in vitro research has determined that low-frequency ultrasound combined with aminoglycoside antibiotics is an effective method of killing biofilms. We report the development of an in vivo model to determine if ultrasound enhances antibiotic action. Two 24-h-old Escherichia coli (ATCC 10798) biofilms grown on polyethylene disks were implanted subcutaneously on the backs of New Zealand White female rabbits, one on each side of the spine. Low-frequency (28.48-kHz) and low-power-density (100- and 300-mW/cm2) continuous ultrasound treatment was applied for 24 h with and without systemic administration of gentamicin. The disks were then removed, and the number of viable bacteria on each disk was determined. At the low ultrasonic power used in this study, exposure to ultrasound only (no gentamicin) caused no significant difference in bacterial viability. In the presence of antibiotic, there was a significant reduction due to 300-mW/cm2 ultrasound (P = 0.0485) but no significant reduction due to 100-mW/cm2 ultrasound. Tissue damage to the skin was noted at the 300-mW/cm2 treatment level. Further development of this technique has promise in treatment of clinical implant infections.  (+info)

Study of the response of a biofilm bacterial community to UV radiation. (5/4882)

We have developed a bioluminescent whole-cell biosensor that can be incorporated into biofilm ecosystems. RM4440 is a Pseudomonas aeruginosa FRD1 derivative that carries a plasmid-based recA-luxCDABE fusion. We immobilized RM4440 in an alginate matrix to simulate a biofilm, and we studied its response to UV radiation damage. The biofilm showed a protective property by physical shielding against UV C, UV B, and UV A. Absorption of UV light by the alginate matrix translated into a higher survival rate than observed with planktonic cells at similar input fluences. UV A was shown to be effectively blocked by the biofilm matrix and to have no detectable effects on cells contained in the biofilm. However, in the presence of photosensitizers (i.e., psoralen), UV A was effective in inducing light production and cell death. RM4440 has proved to be a useful tool to study microbial communities in a noninvasive manner.  (+info)

Characterization of the importance of polysaccharide intercellular adhesin/hemagglutinin of Staphylococcus epidermidis in the pathogenesis of biomaterial-based infection in a mouse foreign body infection model. (6/4882)

The production of biofilm is thought to be crucial in the pathogenesis of prosthetic-device infections caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis. An experimental animal model was used to assess the importance of biofilm production, which is mediated by polysaccharide intercellular adhesin/hemagglutinin (PIA/HA), in the pathogenesis of a biomaterial-based infection. Mice were inoculated along the length of a subcutaneously implanted intravenous catheter with either wild-type S. epidermidis 1457 or its isogenic PIA/HA-negative mutant. The wild-type strain was significantly more likely to cause a subcutaneous abscess than the mutant strain (P < 0.01) and was significantly less likely to be eradicated from the inoculation site by host defense (P < 0.05). In addition, the wild-type strain was found to adhere to the implanted catheters more abundantly than the PIA/HA-negative mutant (P < 0.05). The reliability of the adherence assay was assessed by scanning electron microscopy. To exclude contamination or spontaneous infection, bacterial strains recovered from the experimental animals were compared to inoculation strains by analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. In vitro binding of the wild-type strain and its isogenic mutant to a fibronectin-coated surface was similar. These results confirm the importance of biofilm production, mediated by PIA/HA, in the pathogenesis of S. epidermidis experimental foreign body infection.  (+info)

Characterization of Staphylococcus epidermidis polysaccharide intercellular adhesin/hemagglutinin in the pathogenesis of intravascular catheter-associated infection in a rat model. (7/4882)

Biofilm production is thought to be a crucial factor in the ability of Staphylococcus epidermidis to produce a biomaterial-based infection. A rat central venous catheter (CVC)-associated infection model was used to assess the importance of biofilm production, mediated by polysaccharide intercellular adhesin/hemagglutinin (PIA/HA), in the pathogenesis of intravascular catheter-associated infection. PIA/HA-positive S. epidermidis 1457 was significantly more likely to cause a CVC-associated infection (71 versus 14%, P < 0.03) resulting in bacteremia and metastatic disease than its isogenic PIA/HA-negative mutant. These results confirm the importance of biofilm production, mediated by PIA/HA, in the pathogenesis of S. epidermidis experimental CVC-associated infection.  (+info)

Characterization of the relationship between polysaccharide intercellular adhesin and hemagglutination in Staphylococcus epidermidis. (8/4882)

To determine whether a relationship exists between biofilm formation and hemagglutination in Staphylococcus epidermidis, 20 skin isolates and 19 prosthetic valve endocarditis isolates were characterized for biofilm formation, hemagglutination, and the presence of a 357-bp polymerase chain reaction product within icaA. A strong association existed between biofilm formation, which has been linked to strains that produce polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA), and hemagglutination. Strains that produced biofilm were significantly (P<.001) more likely to mediate hemagglutination (16 biofilm-positive/hemagglutination-positive strains and 19 biofilm-negative/hemagglutination-negative strains) within the 39 clinical strains tested. In addition, Staphylococcus carnosus TM300, a biofilm-negative, hemagglutination-negative strain, carrying the ica operon-containing plasmid pCN27, produced significant biofilm on glass and mediated hemagglutination (>/=1/128). It was concluded that production of PIA and hemagglutination are strongly associated and that PIA, at least in part, mediates hemagglutination in S. epidermidis.  (+info)

The fungal pathogen Candida albicans is a leading cause of device-associated and other nosocomial infections. The traits of biofilm formation and invasion into an underlying surface are important for Candida to cause disease. In this dissertation, I describe my work, which reveals a novel role for glycerol in C. albicans biofilm formation and hyphal invasion. Through genomewide expression profiling it was observed that glycerol biosynthetic genes were highly upregulated in biofilms relative to the planktonic (suspension) cultures. Consistent with this observation, cells in a biofilm also accumulated higher amounts of glycerol then non-biofilm cells. In order to study the impact of glycerol on biofilm formation I made a deletion mutant, rhr2Δ/Δ, in the gene encoding glycerol-3-phosphatase. Under in vitro conditions, the rhr2Δ/Δ mutant has reduced biofilm biomass and reduced adherence to silicone. The mutant is also severely defective in biofilm formation in the rat venous catheter model of biofilm
Biofilm formation on medical devices is a common cause of implant failure, especially regarding implants that breach the epithelial tissue, so-called transcutaneous implants. Nanotechnology and the development of new nanomaterials have given the opportunity to design nanotextured implant surfaces. Such surfaces have been studied using various in vitro methods showing that nanosized features strongly benefit bone cell growth. However, little is known on how nanostructured features affect biofilm formation. The aim of this study was therefore to examine the shape- and chemical-dependent effect of a nanostructured hydroxyapatite (HA) coating on the degree of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation. Three different types of nanosized HA particles having different shapes and calcium to phosphate ratios were compared to uncoated turned titanium using safranin stain in a biofilm assay and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) for assessment of biofilm biomass and bacterial volume, ...
Biofilm-associated infections are hard to treat because of their high antibiotic resistance and the presence of a very persistent subpopulation of bacteria. The second messenger molecule cyclic di-guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) plays a very important role in this biofilm physiology. Here, we evaluated the role of YddV, an enzyme with a c-di-GMP synthesis function, in the formation and maturation of Escherichia coli biofilms. Our results suggest that YddV stimulates biofilm growth via its role in the production of c-di-GMP and this likely by influencing the production of matrix (e.g. poly-N-acetylglucosamine (PGA)). However, lowering the YddV expression did not alter the biofilm formation since there was no significant difference between the biofilm phenotypes of WT E. coli and YddV-knockout bacteria. Additionally, YddV expression had no significant influence on the amount of persister cells within the biofilm population, questioning the use of YddV as therapeutic target. (C) 2016 Published ...
Biofilms have been implicated as an important reservoir for pathogens and commensal enteric bacteria such as Escherichia coli in natural and engineered water systems. However, the processes that regulate the survival of E. coli in aquatic biofilms have not been thoroughly studied. We examined the effects of hydrodynamic shear and nutrient concentrations on E. coli colonization of pre-established Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms, co-inoculation of E. coli and P. aeruginosa biofilms, and P. aeruginosa colonization of pre-established E. coli biofilms. In nutritionally-limited R2A medium, E. coli dominated biofilms when co-inoculated with P. aeruginosa, and successfully colonized and overgrew pre-established P. aeruginosa biofilms. In more enriched media, P. aeruginosa formed larger clusters, but E. coli still extensively overgrew and colonized the interior of P. aeruginosa clusters. In mono-culture, E. coli formed sparse and discontinuous biofilms. After P. aeruginosa was introduced to these biofilms, E.
Staphylococcus aureus extracellular DNA (eDNA) plays a crucial role in the structural stability of biofilms during bacterial colonization; on the contrary, host immune responses can be induced by bacterial eDNA. Previously, we observed production of S. aureus thermonuclease during the early stages of biofilm formation in a mammalian cell culture medium. Using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based assay, we detected thermonuclease activity of S. aureus biofilms grown in Iscoves modified Dulbeccos medium (IMDM) earlier than that of widely studied biofilms grown in tryptic soy broth (TSB). The thermonuclease found was Nuc1, confirmed by mass spectrometry and competitive Luminex assay. These results indicate that biofilm development in IMDM may not rely on eDNA for structural stability. A bacterial viability assay in combination with wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) staining confirmed the accumulation of dead cells and eDNA in biofilms grown in TSB. However, in biofilms grown in IMDM, ...
Biofilms are ubiquitous in aquatic environments. Biofilms have been shown to attract and harbor pathogens such as P. aeruginosa and Legionella pneumophila in premise plumbing system. The fact that biofilms can protect attached bacterial cells from disinfectants raises rudimentary questions regarding interactions of bacterial cells with biofilm surfaces. Consequently, the main objectives of this study were to: 1) investigate the mechanisms that govern E. coli S17, E. coli 14f and Legionella cells adhesion on clean PVC, copper and biofilms; 2) examine the role of disinfectants on biofilms structure and subsequent effect on bacterial adhesion. Mechanisms of three strains of bacteria attachment on biofilms grown on PVC and copper surfaces were investigated. Biofilms were grown in CDC reactors using different types of feed water such as groundwater, monochloramine-treated groundwater, dechlorinated tap water and tap water. Biofilm physical structure was characterized at micro- and meso-scales using ...
In the majority of cases, the surface-associated multicellular communities found in a wide variety of natural and pathogenic ecosystems are formed in the presence of multiple diverse species and genetically distinct strains. In recent years, well-controlled in vitro biofilm model systems have revealed a diversity of molecular mechanisms contributing to development and maturation of single-species biofilms. The mechanisms underlying the biofilm development in the presence of these multispecies consortia are expected to involve even higher degrees of complexity; however, our understanding of mixed-species biofilms is hampered by the limited number of model systems that have been applied to date. The goal of this study was to test the capacity of a simple in vitro model to reveal factors contributing to the formation of more complex biofilm communities. The suitability of this approach to high-throughput analyses was demonstrated with a systematic survey of a large collection of E. coli isolates ...
Microtiter plate-based bacterial biofilm assay is frequently used to study bacterial biofilm development and growth. While this assay is simple and relatively high-throughput, it frequently shows difficulty in establishing robust biofilm attachment in the wells. We report that the consistency of bacterial biofilm a
The oral microbial ecology is comprised of hundreds of bacterial species that co-exist as multispecies biofilms throughout a range of ecological niches in the oral cavity. However, little is known concerning the interactions of these complex biofilms with host cells. Objective: This study used a novel model of multispecies bacterial biofilms to stimulate oral epithelial cells and profile select cytokines and chemokines that contribute to the local inflammatory environment in the periodontium. Method: Three multispecies biofilms comprising Streptococcus gordonii/S. oralis/S. sanguinis, Sg/Fusobacterium nucleatum/Porphyromonas gingivalis and Sg/Actinomyces naeslundii/Fn were grown for 3 days on rigid gas permeable contact lens pre-coated with 1% fetal bovine serum. OKF4 oral epithelial cells were cultured in 48 well plates at 105 cells/well, which were challenged with the biofilms for 24 hrs. Controls included incubation of the epithelial cells alone or overlaid with contact lens alone. A profile ...
Cells in bacterial biofilms are often less susceptible to host immune responses and antibiotics than cells grown in suspension (18). Biofilms may also provide a protective environment for pathogens, which, when released from the biofilm, may result in contamination of drinking water and medical fluids in delivery devices such as dialysis machines, venous catheters, dental water lines, and airway ventilators. Life-threatening infection caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis patients is a well-known example (8). Since biofilm formation in itself can be considered a virulence factor, it is important to understand the mechanisms which influence biofilm accumulation, structure, and behavior. Both hydrodynamics and cell signaling have been found to influence the structure of P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilms. Stoodley et al. (27) reported that, under conditions of low-shear laminar flow, the biofilm consisted of a monolayer of cells with mound-shaped circular microcolonies but under high-shear, ...
S. aureus is a frequent etiological agent of biofilm infections on indwelling devices and orthopedic implants (9, 36), and recent reports by our group and others have demonstrated that biofilms can skew the immune response to favor anti-inflammatory and profibrotic pathways, which likely contribute to biofilm persistence (17, 18). To overcome this immune deviation and provide a novel treatment strategy for biofilm infections, we augmented antimicrobial activity through the local administration of classically activated M1 MΦs or treatment with the CD88 agonist EP67, which invokes MΦ proinflammatory responses. Early administration of M1-activated MΦs or EP67 limited biofilm formation, and treatment of established biofilm infections with M1-activated MΦs also significantly reduced catheter-associated biofilm burdens. Based on this evidence, we have identified a novel therapeutic strategy to limit S. aureus catheter-associated biofilm infections by targeting MΦ activation, which may extend to ...
Fluorescently labelled latex microbeads were used to study the interaction of particles with Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in a continuous flow annular reactor. Beads were readily distinguished and enumerated in both intact and disaggregated biofilm samples. The fraction of beads that attached to biofilm during a 24 h period ranged from 0.001 to 0.01 and was proportional to biofilm cell carbon and to the standard deviation of biofilm thickness. Microbeads added to biofilm of steady state thickness (30 μm) were observed to be located throughout the entire biofilm depth in 24 h. Many of the microbeads that attached to biofilm shortly after bacterial inoculation (thickness of 2 μm) remained near the substratum as cells grew past and covered them. Microbeads were observed near the biofilm-substratum interface for up to 5 days after bead addition. Beads formed aggregates on biofilms, but not in bulk water. Beads captured by biofilm remained in the reactor system longer than beads that never ...
S. mutans UA159 and its derivative mutant strain luxS- [54] were incubated in Brain Heart Infusion Broth (BHI, Difco Labs, Detroit, USA) at 37°C in 95% air/5% CO2 (v/v), with the addition of erythromycin (10 μg/ml) in the case of the luxS- strain. Cultures of S. mutans were diluted 1:50, inoculated into fresh BHI media and grown in polystyrene tubes for 24 h (37°C, 95% air/5% CO2 (v/v)) for planktonic culture generation. The biofilm of luxS- was grown in BHI with addition of erythromycin (10 μg/ml) in 20-mm diameter, 15-mm deep sterile polystyrene multidishes (NUNCLON-143982, Roskilde, Denmark), as described previously [14].. As biofilm thickness plays a crucial role in mature biofilm development, we generated biofilms of wild-type bacteria under controlled nutrition flow and controlled biofilm depth conditions, by using the constant depth film fermentor (CDFF) [55]. The rotating turntable in the CDFF contained 15 polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) pans, rotated under PTFE scraper bars that ...
It is clear from many investigations that biofilm-associated cells display high-level tolerance to many antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents, creating considerable problems in removing biofilms from both abiotic and biotic surfaces in various settings, including in patients with infections (6). However, it is less clear if antibiotic tolerance is a shared feature of all biofilm-associated cells or if this property is associated with only parts of the biofilm populations. It is also not clear whether the biofilm-associated antibiotic tolerance is a direct consequence of the biofilm lifestyle per se or whether indirect induction of tolerance occurs in ways similar to what may even be the case for planktonic cells grown under special conditions. In order to obtain a more direct identification of the survivors after antibiotic treatment of biofilms, it is necessary to visualize them in situ. In the present context, we found it particularly interesting to investigate whether the stalk- and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Signaling factor interactions with polysaccharide aggregates of bacterial biofilms. AU - Desalvo, Stephen C.. AU - Liu, Yating. AU - Choudhary, Geetika Sanjay. AU - Ren, Dacheng. AU - Nangia, Shikha. AU - Sureshkumar, Radhakrishna. PY - 2015/2/17. Y1 - 2015/2/17. N2 - Biofilms are surface-attached colonies of bacteria embedded in an extracellular polymeric substance (EPS). Inside the eukaryotic hosts, bacterial biofilms interact with the host cells through signaling factors (SFs). These signaling processes play important roles in the interaction between bacteria and host cells and the outcome of infections and symbiosis. However, how host immune factors diffuse through biofilms is not well understood. Here, we describe synergistic molecular dynamics and experimental approaches for studying the translocation of signaling factors through polysaccharide chain aggregates present in the extracellular matrix of bacterial biofilms. The effect of polysaccharide chain degradation on the ...
A key problem in understanding major transitions in evolution is the evolution of cooperation: how are mutants that exploit the benefits of cooperation without paying the costs (cheats) suppressed within populations? Biofilms, which display properties of both single cell and multicellular organisms, provide an excellent model system to address this question. Biofilms exhibit grouped population structure - they exist primarily as dense aggregates of cells called microcolonies. We aim to test the hypothesis that cell-grouping displayed by microcolonies in bacterial biofilms provides a mechanism to suppress cheats within the biofilm population. We are using the co-operative trait of siderophore production (an extracellular iron-chelating molecule) within Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms to investigate cooperation in biofilms. Under iron-limited conditions, production of siderophores enhanced wild type growth, but microcolonies containing GFP-tagged, pyoverdin-mutant cheats developed poorly. In ...
Kesel, Sara (2020): Contribution of biofilm matrix components to physical properties of Bacillus subtilis biofilms at all phases of biofilm-formation. Dissertation, LMU München: Faculty of Physics ...
Introduction: The discovery of new antimicrobials derived from plants could aid in the management of biofilm-associated infections, including denture-induced stomatitis (DS). DS is an oral infection caused by Candida biofilms on the surfaces of poorly cleansed dentures. Effective treatment of DS requires the use of an appropriate denture cleanser and preferably one that exhibits antimicrobial properties. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the anti-Candida and anti-biofilm efficacy of two essential plant oils from Cymbopogon winterianus (citronella) and Cinnamon cassia (cinnamon). Materials and methods: Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) and Minimum Fungicidal Concentrations (MFCs) were determined by broth microdilution, whilst anti-biofilm activity was measured against mature (cultured for 72 h) biofilms on acrylic surfaces. Candida cell viability was assessed immediately (0 h) after treatment (T0) and 48 h after biofilm re-growth (T48). Biofilm structure was determined using Scanning ...
Biofilms are often responsible for the difficulties in the treatment of infectious diseases due to their properties that facilitate escape from antibiotic effect and their antiphagocytic effects. At least 65% of all infectious diseases are associated with biofilm-forming bacteria. As Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are among the most common agents of hospital infections and the infections are mostly biofilm-related, they pose an important problem. In infectious isolates, the minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEK) values of biofilm forms are much higher than the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) values of planktonic forms. This situation requires the use of much higher doses of antibiotics in the treatment of infections and causes an increase in antibiotic resistance. The N-acetylcysteine (NAC) molecule is known to be effective against biofilm by disrupting mature biofilms and reducing the adhesion of bacteria to surfaces. In this study, it was aimed to ...
The third chapter aimed to study the role of persisters in determining the spatial and temporal pattern of biofilm formation following antibiotic treatment. A key feature of biofilms thought to play a role in antimicrobial tolerance is their ability to develop discrete, differentiated microcolony structures during colonization of a surface - these foci within biofilms are highly recalcitrant towards antimicrobials yet the factors that determine their differentiation and growth are poorly understood. This chapter therefore aimed to study the role of persisters in the initiation of microcolony foci and in mediating regrowth of biofilms. In this work, biofilm initiation was studied under a variety of conditions including with or without exposure to lethal or sub-lethal antibiotic challenge and as expected persister cell populations were able to generate significantly more biomass than in biofilms formed from non-persister populations. Dual labelling experiments were also carried out, where mixed ...
Neisseria gonorrhoeae has been shown to form biofilms during cervical infection. Thus, biofilm formation may play an important role in the infection of women. The ability of N. gonorrhoeae to form membrane blebs is crucial to biofilm formation. Blebs contain DNA and outer membrane structures, which have been shown to be major constituents of the biofilm matrix. The organism expresses a DNA thermonuclease that is involved in remodeling of the biofilm matrix. Comparison of the transcriptional profiles of gonococcal biofilms and planktonic runoff indicate that genes involved in anaerobic metabolism and oxidative stress tolerance are more highly expressed in biofilm. The expression of aniA, ccp, and norB, which encode nitrite reductase, cytochrome c peroxidase, and nitric oxide reductase respectively, is required for mature biofilm formation over glass and human cervical cells. In addition, anaerobic respiration occurs in the substratum of gonococcal biofilms and disruption of the norB gene required ...
Oral candidosis is common in patients with diabetes mellitus, as yeasts, particularly Candida albicans, have the propensity to colonise, form biofilms and release hydrolytic enzymes which cause inflammation. This study aimed to investigate these characteristics in isolates from three groups of patients with type 1 diabetes: individuals with better controlled diabetes (BCD; a parts per thousand yen6 , 8%), individuals with poorly controlled diabetes (PCD; a parts per thousand yen8%) and non-diabetics (ND; HbA(1c) , 5.9%). The biomass (Bm), phospholipase (P-z), haemolysin (H-z) and proteinase (Pr-z) were assessed using a microtitre biofilm assay and agar-based hydrolytic enzyme assays. Biofilm formation was significantly increased in the PCD group compared to ND and BCD groups (P , 0.05). No significant differences in P-z levels were observed between groups, whereas both H-z and Pr-z were significantly greater in the diabetes groups than in the healthy control group (P , 0.05). Statistically ...
UC Los Angeles. Staphyloccocus epidermidis is a significant cause of hospital-acquired infections, specifically blood stream infections (BSI) that result from the use of long-term central catheter lines. The ability to form biofilms is a key factor in the pathogenesis of these infections, with significant variation of biofilm phenotype amongst clinically isolated strains. The catheter lumen is a dynamic microenvironment inherently characterized by fluidic forces, however, little is understood regarding their effects on biofilm formation. Using a parallel microfluidic bioreactor shear array we show that fluid shear stress induces formation of significantly more biofilm than static conditions in a subset of clinically isolated strains, implicating catheter operation as a factor in bacterial pathogenesis.. Analysis of well-defined laboratory ATCC strains showed that the microfluidic biofilm assay could differentiate between biofilm+ (strain 35984) and biofilm- (strain 12228) genotypes with high ...
Biofilms are communities of surface-adherent bacteria surrounded by secreted polymers known as the extracellular polymeric substance. Biofilms are harmful in many industries, and thus it is of great interest to understand their mechanical properties and structure to determine ways to destabilize them. By performing single particle tracking with beads of varying surface functionalization it was found that charge interactions play a key role in mediating mobility within biofilms. With a combination of single particle tracking and microrheological concepts, it was found that Escherichia coli biofilms display height dependent charge density that evolves over time. Statistical analyses of bead trajectories and confocal microscopy showed inter-connecting micron scale channels that penetrate throughout the biofilm, which may be important for nutrient transfer through the system. This methodology provides significant insight into a particular biofilm system and can be applied to many others to provide ...
Barsoukov E. and J.R. Macdonald (eds). 2005. Impedance Spectroscopy: Theory, Experiment and Applications, 2nded. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA.. Ben-Yoav H., A. Freemanb, M. Sternheimc and Y. Shacham-Dia-manda. 2011. An electrochemical impedance model for integrated bacterial biofilms. Electrochim. Acta. 56:7780-7786.. Bjarnsholt T., K. Kirketerp-Møller, P.Ø. Jensen, K.G. Madsen, R. Phipps, K. Krogfelt, N. Høibyand and M. Givskov. 2008. Why chronic wounds will not heal: a novel hypothesis. Wound Rep. Reg. 16:2-10.. Dominguez-Benetton X., S. Sevda, K. Vanbroekhovena. and D. Panta. 2012. The accurate use of impedance analysis for thestudy of microbial electrochemical systems. Chem. Soc. Rev. 41:7228-7246.. Flemming H., J. Wingender and U. Szewczyk (eds). 2008. Biofilm Highlights. Springer Series on Biofilm Vol. 5. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg.. Ge Y., T. Deng and X. Zheng. 2008. Dynamic monitoring of changes in endothelial cell-substrate adhesiveness during leukocyte adhesion ...
Biofilms are sessile communities of bacteria typically embedded in an extracellular polymeric matrix. Bacterial cells embedded in biofilms are inherently recalcitrant to antimicrobials, compared to cells existing in a planktonic state, and are notoriously difficult to eradicate once formed. Avenues to tackle biofilms thus far have largely focussed on attempting to disrupt the initial stages of biofilm formation, including adhesion and maturation of the biofilm. Such an approach is advantageous as the concentrations required to inhibit formation of biofilms are generally much lower than removing a fully established biofilm. The crisis of antibiotic resistance in clinical settings worldwide has been further exacerbated by the ability of certain pathogenic bacteria to form biofilms. Perhaps the most notorious biofilm formers described from a clinical viewpoint have been methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Gardnerella vaginalis and ...
Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu*, Carmen Mariana Chifiriuc: Prevention of Microbial Biofilms - the Contribution of Micro and Nanostructured Materials, Current Medicinal Chemistry, accepted, 2014.. EDITORIAL. Microbial biofilms are associated with drastically enhanced resistance to most of the antimicrobial agents and with frequent treatment failures, generating the search for novel strategies which can eradicate infections by preventing the persistent colonization of the hospital environment, medical devices or human tissues. Some of the current approaches for fighting biofilms are represented by the development of novel biomaterials with increased resistance to microbial colonization and by the improvement of the current therapeutic solutions with the aid of nano(bio)technology. This special issues includes papers describing the applications of nanotechnology and biomaterials science for the development of improved drug delivery systems and nanostructured surfaces for the prevention and treatment of ...
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a gram positive pathogen known to cause multiple infectious diseases for both animal and humans, and is responsible for community-associated and nosocomial infections. S. aureus possess the ability to form biofilms, which have a profound ability to adapt and thrive in undesirable conditions as well as resist antibiotic treatment. Recent studies suggest that polymorphonuclear leukocytes are able to attack S. aureus biofilms, thus implying the innate immune system indeed has mechanisms to respond to S. aureus biofilms. We determined if shear affected both the structure of the biofilm as well as the number on PMNs adhering to the S. aureus biofilm, and quantify where these cells adhere with respect to the biofilm. We conclude that shear does not have a significant effect on the number of cells adhering, but affects the depth of penetration in a maturing S. aureus biofilm ...
Angela Costa, Filipe Mergulhão, Romain Briandet, Nuno Azevedo. It is all about location: how to pinpoint microorganisms and their functions in multispecies biofilms. Future Microbiology, Future Medicine, 2017, 12 (11), pp.987-999. ⟨10.2217/fmb-2017-0053⟩. ⟨hal-03031230⟩ ...
Elucidation of the communal behavior of microbes in mixed species biofilms may have a major impact on understanding infectious diseases and for the therapeutics. Although, the structure and the properties of monospecies biofilms and their role in disease have been extensively studied during the last decade, the interactions within mixed biofilms consisting of bacteria and fungi such as Candida spp. have not been illustrated in depth. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate the interspecies interactions of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and six different species of Candida comprising C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, and C. dubliniensis in dual species biofilm development. A significant reduction in colony forming units (CFU) of C. parapsilosis (90 min), C. albicans and C. tropicalis (90 min, 24 h and 48 h), C. dubliniensis and C. glabrata, (24 h and 48 h) was noted when co-cultured with P. aeruginosa in comparison to their monospecies counterparts (P | 0.05). A
Despite considerable research, the biofilm-forming capabilities of Nitrosomonas europaea are poorly understood for both mono and mixed-species communities. This study combined biofilm assays and molecular techniques to demonstrate that N. europaea makes very little biofilm on its own, and relies on the activity of associated heterotrophic bacteria to establish a biofilm. However, N. europaea has a vital role in the proliferation of mixed-species communities under carbon-limited conditions, such as in drinking water distribution systems, through the provision of organic carbon via ammonia oxidation. Results show that the addition of nitrification inhibitors to mixed-species nitrifying cultures under carbon-limited conditions disrupted biofilm formation and caused the dispersal of pre-formed biofilms. This dispersal effect was not observed when an organic carbon source, glucose, was included in the medium. Interestingly, inhibition of nitrification activity of these mixed-species biofilms in the presence
Biofilm Eradication and Preventions presents the basics of biofilm formation on medical devices, diseases related to this formation, and approaches pharmaceutical researchers need to take to limit this problem. Split into three parts, the first deals with the development and characterization of biofilm on the surfaces of implanted or inserted medical devices. Questions as to why biofilms form over medical device surfaces and what triggers biofilm formation are addressed. In the second section, the author discusses biofilm-mediated chronic infections occurred in various organs (eyes, mouth, wounds) and pharmaceutical and drug delivery knowledge gained from research in these area. The third part explores pharmaceutical approaches like lipid-and polymer-based drug delivery carriers for eradicating biofilm on device-related infections. In addition, this section also explores the topic of novel small molecule (like iron and its complexes/metal chelators) and a quorum-sensing inhibitors to control ...
TY - CONF. T1 - Incorporation of chitosan in acrylic bone cement: effect on antibiotic release and bacterial biofilm formation.. AU - Brady, Aaron. AU - Tunney, Michael. AU - Dunne, Nicholas. PY - 2007. Y1 - 2007. KW - biofilm. KW - bone cement. M3 - Poster. T2 - Society for General Microbiology. Y2 - 1 March 2012 through 1 March 2012. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The small molecule DAM inhibitor, pyrimidinedione, disrupts Streptococcus pneumoniae biofilm growth in vitro. AU - Yadav, Mukesh Kumar. AU - Go, Yoon Young. AU - Chae, Sung Won. AU - Song, Jae Jun. N1 - Publisher Copyright: © 2015 Yadav et al.. PY - 2015/10/2. Y1 - 2015/10/2. N2 - Streptococcus pneumoniae persist in the human nasopharynx within organized biofilms. However, expansion to other tissues may cause severe infections such as pneumonia, otitis media, bacteremia, and meningitis, especially in children and the elderly. Bacteria within biofilms possess increased tolerance to antibiotics and are able to resist host defense systems. Bacteria within biofilms exhibit different physiology, metabolism, and gene expression profiles than planktonic cells. These differences underscore the need to identify alternative therapeutic targets and novel antimicrobial compounds that are effective against pneumococcal biofilms. In bacteria, DNA adenine methyltransferase (Dam) alters ...
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Gregory Anderson, biology department at IUPUI, will present Molecular Insights into Bacterial Biofilm Formation in the Cystic Fibrosis Lung. Read more about Anderson at https://science.iupui.edu/people/anderson-gregory .
Biofilms can develop on almost any surface exposed to an aqueous environment. The biofilm systems that result can be used beneficially, as exemplified by fixed-film wastewater treatment processes (for example, trickling filters and rotating biological contactors). In addition, biofilms play a major positive role in stream purification processes. However, biofilms can be quite troublesome in certain engineering systems. In water distribution systems and heat transfer equipment, for example, biofilms can cause substantial energy losses resulting from increased fluid frictional resistance and increased heat transfer resistance. The significance of biofilm development on various processes is summarized ...
Escherichia coli C forms more robust biofilms than other laboratory strains. Biofilm formation and cell aggregation under a high shear force depend on temperature and salt concentrations. It is the last of five E. coli strains (C, K12, B, W, Crooks) designated as safe for laboratory purposes whose genome has not been sequenced. Here we present the complete genomic sequence of this strain in which we utilized both long-read PacBio-based sequencing and high resolution optical mapping to confirm a large inversion in comparison to the other laboratory strains. Notably, DNA sequence comparison revealed the absence of several genes thought to be involved in biofilm formation, including antigen 43, waaSBOJYZUL for lipopolysaccharide (LPS) synthesis, and cpsB for curli synthesis. The first main difference we identified that likely affects biofilm formation is the presence of an IS3-like insertion sequence in front of the carbon storage regulator csrA gene. This insertion is located 86 bp upstream of the csrA
Biofilms have been found to be involved in large percentages of all infections in the body. Chronic sinusitis patients undergoing surgery present with biofilms most of the time. The NIH estimates that 80% of all human infections have biofilm involvment. Other infectious processes in which biofilms have been implicated include common problems such as urinary tract infections, catheter infections, middle-ear infections, endocarditis, infections in cystic fibrosis, and infections of permanent indwelling devices such as joint prostheses and heart valves. More recently it has been noted that bacterial biofilms may impair cutaneous wound healing and reduce topical antibacterial efficiency in healing or treating infected skin wounds. Biofilms can also be formed on the inert surfaces of implanted devices such as catheters, prosthetic cardiac valves and intrauterine devices ...
The influence of growth history on biofilm morphology and microbial community structure is poorly studied despite its important role for biofilm development. Here, biofilms were exposed to a change in hydrodynamic conditions at different growth stages and we observed how biofilm age affected the change in morphology and bacterial community structure. Biofilms were developed in two bubble column reactors, one operated under constant shear stress and one under variable shear stress. Biofilms were transferred from one reactor to the other at different stages in their development by withdrawing and inserting the support medium from one reactor to the other. The developments of morphology and microbial community structure were followed by image analysis and molecular tools. When transferred early in biofilm development, biofilms adapted to the new hydrodynamic conditions and adopted features of the biofilm already developed in the receiving reactor. Biofilms transferred at a late state of biofilm development
In science-fiction movies, force fields always come in handy when the good guys need protection from hostile aliens or bug-eyed monsters.. Of course, these miraculous devices dont really exist. But some of Earths simplest life forms protect themselves using a similar principle.. Many one-celled organisms secrete protein complexes called biofilms that serve as slimy barriers to the outside world.. Usually, biofilms dont pose any threat to human health. But theres increasing evidence that links them to antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections.. A recent study in the Journal of the American Medical Association suggests biofilms may help some middle-ear infections resist treatment efforts.. The study involved twenty-six children who suffered recurring bouts of otitis media [oh-TIGHT-iss MEE-dee-uh], one of the most common childhood ailments.. Researchers wanted to know if biofilms were protecting the bacteria that cause these infections. So they analyzed tissue samples collected from the middle ...
Dr. Eva Sapi sent us her teams new study that was partially funded by Lyme Warrior!In the past, solutions to Lyme disease have been limited partially because we cannot see or understand how biofilms react to treatment. Sapis team has uncovered a way to study the effect of ALL treatment methods on biofilms to help patients…
Fungal biofilms were more resistant to antimicrobial agents than planktonic cells. Four distinct growth phases in relation to antifungal susceptibility were examined. Our results demonstrated that all three strains became increasingly resistant to antifungal agents throughout morphological differentiation, which was consistent with the report by Imamura et al., 10 showing that Fusarium biofilms exhibited reduced susceptibility to lens care solutions in a time-dependent manner. Moreover, our results showed that the mature biofilms were intrinsically resistant to the azole antifungal drugs (FLU, VRC, and ITC). Multiple mechanisms have been proposed for the increased resistance of biofilms to antifungal agents. Our results indicate that ECM increased and a network of hyphal structures formed throughout the incubation time. The architecture of biofilms and the presence of ECM might reduce the diffusion of antifungal drugs, and they may be responsible for the increased resistance of biofilms to ...
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Organized within biofilm communities, bacteria exhibit resistance towards a broad spectrum of antibiotics. Thus, one might argue that bacteria isolated from biofilm-associated chronic infections should be subjected to resistance profiling under biofilm growth conditions. Various test systems have been developed to determine the biofilm-associated resistance; however, it is not clear to what extent the in vitro results reflect the situation in vivo, and whether the biofilm-resistance profile should guide clinicians in their treatment choice. To address this issue, we used confocal microscopy in combination with live/dead staining, and profiled biofilm-associated resistance of a large number (,130) of clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from overall 15 cystic fibrosis patients. Our results demonstrate that in addition to a general non-responsiveness of bacteria when grown under biofilm conditions, there is an isolate-specific and antibiotic-specific biofilm-resistance profile. This individual ...
Micafungin (MFG) demonstrates potent activity against biofilms of Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis, the most frequent opportunistic fungal pathogens. Little is known about its immunopharmacologic effect on antibiofilm activity of phagocytic cells following exposure to Candida biofilms. In this study, we investigated the effects of MFG on human neutrophil-mediated damage of C. albicans and C. parapsilosis biofilms by XTT [2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide] and the potential mechanisms underlying the immunomodulatory MFG activities on cultured monocyte-derived THP-1 cells in response to these biofilms by reverse transcription-PCR and sandwich and multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Preexposure of C. albicans to subinhibitory MFG concentrations significantly enhanced neutrophil-mediated biofilm damage, an effect that appears to be species specific since a comparable effect was not observed with drug-pretreated C. parapsilosis biofilms. Human ...
Genetic manage of candida albicans biofilm development. Genetic manipulate of candida albicans biofilm inside the improvement of candida albicans biofilms control in candida albicans and candida.. Plos one purpurin suppresses candida albicans biofilm. Purpurin suppresses candida albicans biofilm formation and hyphal development. Purpurin suppresses candida albicans genetic manage of candida albicans.. Genetics and genomics of candida albicans biofilm. Genetics and genomics of candida albicans biofilm formation. Genetic control of biofilm formation. Genes that govern candida albicans biofilm improvement.. Genetic control of candida albicans biofilm improvement. Genetic manipulate of candida albicans biofilm recognized the gene products that participate immediately inside the improvement of candida albicans biofilms,. Genetic manage of candida albicans biofilm development. Genetic manipulate of candida albicans biofilm improvement. (pmid21189476 pmcidpmc3891587) genetic control of candida albicans ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Accumulation-associated protein enhances Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation under dynamic conditions and is required for infection in a rat catheter model. AU - Schaeffer, Carolyn R.. AU - Woods, Keith M.. AU - Longo, G. Matt. AU - Kiedrowski, Megan R.. AU - Paharik, Alexandra E.. AU - Büttner, Henning. AU - Christner, Martin. AU - Boissy, Robert J.. AU - Horswill, Alexander R.. AU - Rohde, Holger. AU - Fey, Paul D.. N1 - Publisher Copyright: © 2015, American Society for Microbiology.. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - Biofilm formation is the primary virulence factor of Staphylococcus epidermidis. S. epidermidis biofilms preferentially form on abiotic surfaces and may contain multiple matrix components, including proteins such as accumulation-associated protein (Aap). Following proteolytic cleavage of the A domain, which has been shown to enhance binding to host cells, B domain homotypic interactions support cell accumulation and biofilm formation. To further define the ...
Objective(s): Bacterial biofilm formation causes many persistent and chronic infections. The matrix protects biofilm bacteria from exposure to innate immune defenses and antibiotic treatments. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biofilm formation of clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) on biofilm. Materials and Methods: After collecting bacteria from clinical samples of hospitalized patients, the ability of organisms were evaluated to create biofilm by tissue culture plate (TCP) assay. ZnO NPs were synthesized by sol gel method and the efficacy of different concentrations (50- 350 µg/ml) of ZnO NPs was assessed on biofilm formation and also elimination of pre-formed biofilm by using TCP method.Results:The average diameter of synthesized ZnO NPs was 20 nm. The minimum inhibitory concentration of nanoparticles was 150- 158 μg/ml and the minimum bactericidal concentration was higher (325 µg/ml). All 15 clinical isolates of ...
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of silver nanoparticles (SN) and nystatin on pre-formed biofilms (single and dual species combinations of Candida glabrata and Candida albicans). Thus, adhesion and biofilm assays were performed on acrylic surface in presence of artificial saliva (AS), during 2 h and 48 h, respectively. Candida glabrata and C. albicans adhered cells were determined by counting recovered colony forming units (CFUs) on CHROMagar® Candida. In addition, crystal violet (CV) staining, as an indicator of biomass, was used to quantify biofilm formation ability. Furthermore, pre-formed biofilms were treated either with SN or nystatin and its effects on biofilms evaluated after 24 h. The results showed that both Candidia species adhered to, and formed biofilms on acrylic. Candida glabrata biofilms had significantly higher CFUs compared with biofilms of C. albicans (P,0.05). In the case of dual species biofilms, the number of CFUs for each species was equivalent to that ...
This in vitro study evaluated the influence of chlorhexidine diacetate (CDA) when blended within dentin bonding systems (DBSs) on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) biofilm formation. One commercially available 0.2% wt CDA-containing DBS (Peak Universal Bond) and five experimental 0.2% wt CDA-containing DBS formulations (experimental Adper Scotchbond 1XT plus experimental resins, R2, R3, R4, R5) were assessed vs their no-CDA containing counterparts. Twenty-eight DBSs disks were prepared for each group (6.4 mm×1.0 mm) and cured for 80 s at 800 mW/cm2 in a nitrogen atmosphere. A modified Drip-Flow Reactor was used to grow S. mutans biofilms on specimen surfaces for 24 h and adherent, viable biomass was evaluated using a tetrazolium salt assay (MTT). Two specimens from each of the tested materials were processed with LIVE/DEAD stain and observed using laser confocal microscopy (CLSM) while two disks from each group were examined by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). MTT assay, CLSM and SEM ...
Corrigendum: Anti-quorum Sensing and Anti-biofilm Activity of Delftia tsuruhatensis Extract by Attenuating the Quorum Sensing-Controlled Virulence Factor Production in Pseudomonas aeruginosaVijay K. Singh, Avinash Mishra* and Bhavanath Jha*Marine Biotechnology and Ecology Division, CSIR-Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Bhavnagar, India* Correspondence: Avinash Mishra, [email protected]; [email protected]; [email protected] Bhavanath Jha, [email protected]: anti-biofilm, anti-quorum, microarray, quorum network, quorum quenching, quorum sensing, virulence factorsCorrigendum on: Singh VK, Mishra A and Jha B (2017) Anti-quorum Sensing and Anti-biofilm Activity of Delftia tsuruhatensis Extract by Attenuating the Quorum Sensing-Controlled Virulence Factor Production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Front. Cell. Infect. Microbiol. 7:337. doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2017.00337 Text CorrectionIn the original article, there was an error. ** SJ16 (1.0 mg/ml) **.A correction has
Biofilms are formed by a complex bacterial community encapsulated by a polymeric matrix, with strong adherent properties and persistent phenotype. Biofilms are considered one of the most challenging areas of modern medicine. Existing antibiotics have been developed against free-floating bacterial cells, and thus, many treatments of biofilm-related infection fail. In this study, we compared the effects of different media on biofilm growth of clinical reference strains of Staphylococci and Enterococci, including multi-drug resistant representatives. Further, we optimized the resazurin-based assay for determining the minimal biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC) of standard antibiotics, and evaluated its use for the determination of minimal biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC). We showed that tryptic soy broth supplemented with 1% glucose was an optimal media for maximum biofilm growth of all strains tested, with an extended incubation time for Enterococci. A range of parameters were tested for the
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, an opportunistic pathogen usually connected with healthcare-associated infections, is an environmental bacterium. Intrinsic resistance to multiple antibiotics, with different virulence determinants in the last decade classified this bacterium in the group of global multiple drug resistant (MDR) organism. S. maltophilia clinical isolates, were collected from tertiary care pediatric hospital in Belgrade, Serbia to investigate influence of different factors on biofilm formation, kinetics of biofilm formation for strong biofilm producers and effect of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) on formed biofilm. Most of the isolates (89.8%) were able to form a biofilm. Analysis of biofilm formation in different growth conditions showed that changing of temeperature and pH had the stronggest effect on biofilm formation almost equally in group of cystic fibrosis (CF) and non-CF strains. TMP/SMX in concentration of 50 μg/ml reduced completely 24 h old biofilms while ...
The success of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis (CF) and other chronic infections is largely attributed to its ability to grow in antibiotic-resistant biofilm communities. This study investigated the effects of limiting iron levels as a strategy for preventing/disrupting P. aeruginosa biofilms. A range of synthetic and naturally occurring iron-chelating agents were examined. Biofilm development by P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 and CF sputum isolates from chronically infected individuals was significantly decreased by iron removal under aerobic atmospheres. CF strains formed poor biofilms under anaerobic conditions. Strain PAO1 was also tested under anaerobic conditions. Biofilm formation by this model strain was almost totally prevented by several of the chelators tested. The ability of synthetic chelators to impair biofilm formation could be reversed by iron addition to cultures, providing evidence that these effective chelating compounds functioned by directly reducing availability of iron to P.
Owing to their massive use, Staphylococcus epidermidis has recently developed significant resistance to several antibiotics, and became one of the leading causes of hospital-acquired infections. Current antibiotics are typically ineffective in the eradication of bacteria in biofilm-associated persistent infections. Accordingly, the paucity of effective treatment against cells in this mode of growth is a key factor that potentiates the need for new agents active in the prevention or eradication of biofilms. Daptomycin and linezolid belong to the novel antibiotic therapies that are active against gram-positive cocci. on the other hand, rifampicin has been shown to be one of the most potent, prevalent antibiotics against S. epidermidis biofilms. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to study the susceptibility of S. epidermidis biofilm cells to the two newer antimicrobial agents previously mentioned, and compare the results obtained with the antimicrobial effect of rifampicin, widely used in ...
July 19, 2017 at 6:53 pm Front. Microbiol. 23 January 2017 Cristian Dotto1, Andrea Lombarte Serrat1, Natalia Cattelan2, María S. Barbagelata1†, Osvaldo M. Yantorno2, Daniel O. Sordelli1, Monika Ehling-Schulz3, Tom Grunert3 and Fernanda R. Buzzola1*. 1 Departamento de Microbiología, Parasitología e Inmunología, Facultad de Medicina, Instituto de Investigaciones en Microbiología y Parasitología Médica, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina. 2 Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo de Fermentaciones Industriales (CINDEFI), Centro Científico Technológico Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Tócnicas (CTT CONICET La Plata), Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata, Argentina. 3 Functional Microbiology, Institute for Microbiology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna, Austria. Aspirin has provided clear benefits to human health. But salicylic acid (SAL) ...
To evaluate the ability of the broad-spectrum lantibiotic, lacticin 3147, to prevent Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation and disrupt existing biofilms. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum biofilm inhibitory concentrations of purified lacticin 3147 were determined using a microdilution method. Lacticin 3147 effectively inhibited planktonic Strep. mutans, with MIC of 1.9-3.8 μmol l(-1). Time-kill kinetic studies confirmed that lacticin 3147 exhibited bactericidal activity against Strep. mutans at 38 μmol l(-1) (or 10× MIC). The effect of lacticin 3147 on biofilm formation and reduction was also determined. Exposure to 6.3-μmol l(-1) lacticin 3147 (2× MIC) resulted in substantial reductions in Strep. mutans biofilm formation while lacticin 3147 was less effective against 1-day-old biofilms. Culture-based analyses revealed that lacticin 3147 (50 μmol l(-1)) significantly inhibited Streptococcus spp. present in human saliva (P < 0.05) with an approximate 4-log reduction in ...
Cronobacter sakazakii is an important foodborne pathogen that causes neonatal meningitis and sepsis, with high mortality in neonates. However, very little information is available regarding the pathogenesis of C. sakazakii at the genetic level. In our previous study, a cellulose biosynthesis-related gene (bcsR) was shown to be involved in C. sakazakii adhesion/invasion into epithelial cells. In this study, the detailed functions of this gene were investigated using a gene knockout technique. A bcsR knockout mutant (ΔbcsR) of C. sakazakii ATCC BAA-894 showed decreased adhesion/invasion (3.9-fold) in human epithelial cell line HCT-8. Biofilm formation by the mutant was reduced to 50% of that exhibited by the wild-type (WT) strain. Raman spectrometry was used to detect variations in biofilm components caused by bcsR knockout, and certain components, including carotenoids, fatty acids and amides, were significantly reduced. However, another biofilm component, cellulose, was increased in ΔbcsR, suggesting
Background and objectives: Quercus brantii subsp. persica is used in folk medicine to treat infections in Iran. There is not available report on the anti-biofilm activity of Quercus brantii subsp. persica. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Quercus brantii subsp. persica against bacterial biofilms. Methods: Eighty biofilm producing strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were collected. Quercus brantii subsp. persica fruits aqueous extraction (QBAE) was prepared though maceration method. Chemical analysis to distinguish the main components of the QBAE was carried out using thin-layer chromatography. The antibacterial effects of QBAE on bacterial isolates were determined by the Kirby-Bauer and broth microdilution methods. The antibiofilm effects of QBAE on bacterial isolates were determined using a microtiter assay. Results: The Quercus brantii subsp. persica exhibited bacterial growth inhibition and
Streptococcus pneumoniae forms biofilms, but little is known about its extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) or the kinetics of biofilm formation. A system was developed to enable the simultaneous measurement of cells and the EPS of biofilm-associated S. pneumoniae in situ over time. A biofilm reactor containing germanium coupons was interfaced to an attenuated total reflectance (ATR) germanium cell of a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) laser spectrometer. Biofilm-associated cells were recovered from the coupons and quantified by total and viable cell count methods. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy of biofilms formed on the germanium internal reflection element (IRE) of the ATR cell provided a continuous spectrum of biofilm protein and polysaccharide (a measure of the EPS). Staining of the biofilms on the IRE surface with specific fluorescent probes provided confirmatory evidence for the biofilm structure and the presence of biofilm polysaccharides. Biofilm protein and polysaccharides were detected ...
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most important causes of morbidity and health care spending affecting persons of all ages. Bacterial biofilms play an important role in UTIs, responsible for persistent infections leading to recurrences and relapses. UTIs associated with microbial biofilms developed on catheters account for a high percentage of all nosocomial infections and are the most common source of Gram-negative bacteremia in hospitalized patients. The purpose of this mini-review is to present the role of microbial biofilms in the etiology of female UTI and different male prostatitis syndromes, their consequences, as well as the challenges for therapy
Surface colonization and subsequent biofilm formation and development provide numerous advantages to microorganisms. On the other hand, biofilm formation is an energetically costly process and therefore must be tightly regulated and plastic, enabling biofilm bacteria to be responsive to the various environmental cues. The quorum sensing (QS) pathway of Vibrio cholerae activates the expression of VpsR, VpsT and AphA (the main activators of biofilm formation) at low cell density and HapR (the main repressor) at high cell density. At low cell density, biofilm genes, including Vibrio polysaccharide (VPS) biosynthesis genes and the major extracellular matrix genes RbmA, RbmC, and Bap1, are expressed. The QS pathway also leads to induction of virulence factors such as toxin coregulated pilus (TCP) and cholera toxin (CTX), essential for colonization of the host and enterotoxicity, respectively. The VarS/VarA signaling system responds to an unknown environmental cue and represses biofilm production by ...
This study aimed to select an isolate of Lactobacillus spp. from the leaves of Pandanus amaryllifolius with the potential for biofilm development to inhibit various types of food-borne spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. The applicability and usefulness of the newly isolated strain, denoted as Lb. plantarum PA21, were extended via its capacity to express heterologous protein. The imaged biofilms and cell count results showed differences during the biofilm maturation periods. The ability of bacteria to adhere to the abiotic surface in plastic microtiter plates was measured using a conventional biofilm assay. The method offers some advantages compared to the study of biofilm formation in flow cells, which is an alternative widely used method. Watnick and Kotler [29] showed that the microtiter plate assay can be utilized to distinguish true biofilm formation similar to the biofilm grown in flow cells. This method appeared attractive for obtaining quantitative results based on CFU and optical ...
The study of biofilm function, structure and microbial interactions might help to improve our understanding of biofilm wastewater treatment processes. However, few reports specifically address the influence of interactions within multispecies biofilms on microbial activity and biofilm composition. Thus, the relationship between biofilm formation, denitrification activity, phosphorus removal and the composition of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), exopolysaccharides and the bacterial community was investigated using biofilms of denitrifying and phosphorus removing strains Comamonas denitrificans 110, Brachymonas denitrificans B79, Aeromonas hydrophila L6 and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus ATCC23055. Denitrification activity within the biofilms generally increased with the amount of biofilm while phosphorus removal depended on bacterial growth rate. Synergistic effects of co-growth on denitrification (B. denitrificans B79 and A. hydrophila L6) and phosphorus removal (C. denitrificans 110 with ...
Biofilms and Disease== Bacteria make biofilms, which contain a heterogeneous mixture of microorganisms attached to a surface [[#References,[12]]]. Biofilms offer bacteria protection from hostile environments [[#References,[3]]], promote efficient food storage and nutrient acquisition mechanisms, and encourage synergistic relationships for community benefit. Biofilms are involved in a variety of infectious diseases, causing persistent problems such as cystic fibrosis pneumonia, otitis media, urinary tract infections, and dental plaque formation [[#References,[12]]]. ===Dental Plaque and Disease=== Dental plaque is a biofilm of diverse bacteria and extracellular polymeric substances. It builds up over time and leads to dental caries and periodontal diseases such as gingivitis, a gum inflammation. As many as 400 species of bacteria have been associated with dental plaques, the most common being Streptococcus and Lactobacillus, which are associated with acid formation leading to tooth decay ...
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TY - BOOK. T1 - Biofilms, infection, and antimicrobial therapy. AU - Pace, John L.. AU - Rupp, Mark E.. AU - Finch, Roger G.. PY - 2005/1/1. Y1 - 2005/1/1. N2 - Rather than existing in a planktonic or free-living form, evidence indicates that microbes show a preference for living in a sessile form within complex communities called biofilms. Biofilms appear to afford microbes a survival advantage by optimizing nutrition, offering protection against hostile elements, and providing a network for cell-to-cell signaling and genetic exchange. Biofilms, Infection, and Antimicrobial Therapy provides an in-depth exploration of biofilms, offering broad background information, as well a detailed look at the serious concerns to which biofilm-associated infections give rise. Prosthetic device infections, such as those involving artificial heart valves, intravascular catheters, or prosthetic joints, are prime examples of biofilm-associated infections. With the increasing use of such devices in the modern ...
This study aimed to develop improved cleaning strategies for controlling biofilms on the surfaces of membranes used in dairy ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) plants. Eleven UF / RO membrane modules from 7 different New Zealand dairy membrane processing plants were received after typical cleaning-in-place (CIP) procedures. Microorganisms were isolated from both the retentate and permeate sides of these membrane surfaces and from the liquids collected from a UF membrane plant. Also some foulants scraped from a RO membrane were tested. The routine CIP currently used in the dairy plants was not adequate to completely remove organic material, including microbial cells, proteins and carbohydrates from the membrane surfaces. These residues may influence the surface characteristics and interactions between microorganisms and membranes and thus affect biofilm formation. Thirteen isolates including both bacteria and yeast were identified using biochemical techniques. Klebsiella oxytoca were ...
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Antibiotic resistance is an ever-growing topic of concern within the medical field causing researchers to examine the mechanisms of resistance to develop new antimicrobials. Bacterias ability to form biofilms is one mechanism which aids in antimicrobial resistance. Staphylococcus aureus is of special interest as it is one of the most frequent biofilm-forming bacteria found on medical devices causing infections and posing dangerous threats in a clinical setting. A recently developed antimicrobial gel has been shown to have profound effects on treating bacterial infections and wound healing. This research is centered upon examining the antimicrobial effects of this gel on the three different stages of biofilm formation in clinical and laboratory strains of S. aureus. Through a series of experiments examining the effects this gel has on S. aureus at the stages of biofilm attachment, maturation, and dispersion, the gel has shown significant levels of inhibition. These findings indicate that the novel gel
Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus are ubiquitous upper respiratory opportunistic pathogens. Individually, these Gram-positive microbes are two of the most common causative agents of secondary bacterial pneumonia following influenza A virus infection, and they constitute a significant source of morbidity and mortality. Since the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, rates of cocolonization with both of these bacterial species have increased, despite the traditional view that they are antagonistic and mutually exclusive. The interactions between S. pneumoniae and S. aureus in the context of colonization and the transition to invasive disease have not been characterized. In this report, we show that S. pneumoniae and S. aureus form stable dual-species biofilms on epithelial cells in vitro. When these biofilms are exposed to physiological changes associated with viral infection, S. pneumoniae disperses from the biofilm, whereas S. aureus dispersal is inhibited. These ...
A team of researchers from the National University of Ireland in Galway has been investigating the effect of commonly used sanitising chemicals on Salmonella bacteria contained in biofilms on surfaces.. The researchers used a biofilm reactor to grow Salmonella biofilms and then tested the efficacy of three disinfectants, sodium hypochlorite, sodium hydroxide and benzalkonium chloride, against them. They tested both early (48 hours) and more established (168 hours) biofilms.. They found that all three chemicals reduced the viable count of Salmonella cells, but only sodium hydroxide could completely eradicate the early biofilm and none of the disinfectants could eradicate the mature biofilms, even after a 90-minute contact time. The ability to form resistant biofilms was shared by all the strains of Salmonella tested and they were able to colonise all surfaces, including glass, stainless steel and plastic.. The research team suggest that disinfectants used in food processing areas should be tested ...
This study distinguishes itself by comparing antibiotic activity against staphylococcal biofilms using not only an in vitro static model but also a dynamic model that takes into account the human pharmacokinetics of the drugs under study. Its originality also resides in the evaluation of antibiotic combinations in such a setting. The generated data highlight the possible interest of combining fusidic acid with daptomycin or linezolid in the context of biofilm-related infections.. Considering first the activity of antibiotics alone in the static biofilm model, we show here that it is globally rather poor, with a ,40% reduction in the viability signal being observed in most of the cases with drugs tested at clinically relevant concentrations. This is consistent with previous data obtained in the same model (28, 34). Since the intrinsic potency of the drugs against planktonic cultures (MIC values) are essentially of the same order of magnitude against all strains, the huge variation in activity of ...
Bacterial resistance to conventional antibiotics combined with an increasing acknowledgement of the role of biofilms in chronic infections has led to a growing interest in new antimicrobial strategies that target the biofilm mode of growth. In the aggregated biofilm mode, cell-to-cell communication systems involved in the process known as quorum sensing regulate coordinated expression of virulence with immune shielding mechanisms and antibiotic resistance. For two decades, the potential of interference with quorum sensing by small chemical compounds has been investigated with the aim of developing alternative antibacterial strategies. Here, we review state of the art research of quorum sensing inhibitors against the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is found in a number of biofilm-associated infections and identified as the predominant organism infecting the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients ...
article{3186904, abstract = {Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a main cause of bacterial food-borne diseases. As Salmonella can form biofilms in which it is better protected against antimicrobial agents on a wide diversity of surfaces, it is of interest to explore ways to inhibit biofilm formation. Brominated furanones, originally extracted from the marine alga Delisea pulchra, are known to interfere with biofilm formation in several pathogens. In this study, we have synthesized a small focused library of brominated furanones and tested their activity against S. enterica serovar Typhimurium biofilm formation. We show that several furanones inhibit Salmonella biofilm formation at non-growth-inhibiting concentrations. The most interesting compounds are (Z)-4-bromo-5-(bromomethylene)3- alkyl-2(5H)-furanones with chain lengths of two to six carbon atoms. A microarray study was performed to analyze the gene expression profiles of Salmonella in the presence of (Z)-4-bromo-5-(bromomethylene)3- ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Microcontainer Delivery of Antibiotic Improves Treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms. AU - Birk, Stine Egebro. AU - Haagensen, Janus Anders Juul. AU - Johansen, Helle Krogh. AU - Molin, Søren. AU - Nielsen, Line Hagner. AU - Boisen, Anja. PY - 2020. Y1 - 2020. N2 - Biofilm-associated infections are difficult to treat effectively with antibiotics despite repeated treatments. Polymeric microdevices (microcontainers) have previously been shown to engulf in mucus layers and to provide tunable release. Such devices may overcome the challenge of delivering antibiotics into the biofilm, increasing the local drug concentration and hence improve local bacterial killing. In this work, microcontainers are loaded with the antibiotic, ciprofloxacin hydrochloride, and functionalized with polymeric lids of polyethylene glycol (PEG), chitosan, or Eudragit S100. The PEG lid gives rise to a drug release comparable to uncoated microcontainers showing complete release after 8 h, whereas ...
Background & Objective: Staphylococcus aureus, especially methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), represent serious nosocomial and community infections. Biofilm formation as an important virulence factor may be affected by sub-inhibitory levels of antibiotics. Few studies examined the effects of all therapeutic antimicrobial agents on clinical S.aureus. The current study aimed at observing the inducing and reducing effects of antibiotics, commonly used to treat staphylococcal infections on the production of staphylococcal biofilm. Methods: Four MRSA (1ATCC and 3 clinical) and 1 methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) strains with biofilm forming ability, evaluated by the Congo red agar (CRA) plate test, were employed. Biofilm formation was measured by crystal violet microtiter plate assay. Cefazolin, rifampicin, vancomycin, oxacillin, clindamycin, cotrimoxazole, minocycline, linezolid, azithromycin, and clarithromycin were added to wells ranging from 0.06to 128 µg/mL (1× to 1/1024 MIC
Paenibacillus polymyxa is a common soil bacterium with broad range of practical applications. An important group of secondary metabolites in P polymyxa are non-ribosomal peptide and polyketide derived metabolites (NRPs/PKs). Modular non-ribosomal peptide synthetases catalyze main steps in the biosynthesis of the complex secondary metabolites. Here we report on the inactivation of an A26 Sfp-type 4-phosphopantetheinyl transferase (Sfp-type PPTase). The inactivation of the gene resulted in loss of NRPs/PKs production. In contrast to the former Bacillus spp. model the mutant strain compared to wild type showed greatly enhanced biofilm formation ability. A26 Delta sfp biofilm promotion is directly mediated by NRPs/PKs, as exogenous addition of the wild type metabolite extracts restores its biofilm formation level. Wheat inoculation with bacteria that had lost their Sfp-type PPTase gene resulted in two times higher plant survival and about three times increased biomass under severe drought stress ...
Surface colonization and subsequent biofilm formation and development provide numerous advantages to microorganisms. On the other hand, biofilm formation is an energetically costly process and therefore must be tightly regulated and plastic, enabling biofilm bacteria to be responsive to the various environmental cues. The quorum sensing (QS) pathway of Vibrio cholerae activates the expression of VpsR, VpsT and AphA (the main activators of biofilm formation) at low cell density and HapR (the main repressor) at high cell density. At low cell density, biofilm genes, including Vibrio polysaccharide (VPS) biosynthesis genes and the major extracellular matrix genes RbmA, RbmC, and Bap1, are expressed. The QS pathway also leads to induction of virulence factors such as toxin coregulated pilus (TCP) and cholera toxin (CTX), essential for colonization of the host and enterotoxicity, respectively. The VarS/VarA signaling system responds to an unknown environmental cue and represses biofilm production by ...
Surface colonization and subsequent biofilm formation and development provide numerous advantages to microorganisms. On the other hand, biofilm formation is an energetically costly process and therefore must be tightly regulated and plastic, enabling biofilm bacteria to be responsive to the various environmental cues. The quorum sensing (QS) pathway of Vibrio cholerae activates the expression of VpsR, VpsT and AphA (the main activators of biofilm formation) at low cell density and HapR (the main repressor) at high cell density. At low cell density, biofilm genes, including Vibrio polysaccharide (VPS) biosynthesis genes and the major extracellular matrix genes RbmA, RbmC, and Bap1, are expressed. The QS pathway also leads to induction of virulence factors such as toxin coregulated pilus (TCP) and cholera toxin (CTX), essential for colonization of the host and enterotoxicity, respectively. The VarS/VarA signaling system responds to an unknown environmental cue and represses biofilm production by ...
Imbalances within the dental biofilm trigger dental caries, currently considered a dysbiosis and the most prevalent noncommunicable disease. There is still a gap in knowledge about the dynamics of enamel colonization by bacteria from the dental biofilm in caries. The aim, therefore, was to test whether the sequence of enamel colonization by a typically commensal and a cariogenic species modifies biofilms cariogenicity. Dual-species biofilms of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis on saliva-coated enamel slabs were inoculated in different sequences: S. mutans followed by S. sanguinis (Sm-Ss), S. sanguinis followed by S. mutans (Ss-Sm), S. mutans and S. sanguinis inoculated at the same time (Sm=Ss), and the single-species controls S. mutans followed by S. mutans (Sm-Sm) and S. sanguinis followed by S. sanguinis (Ss-Ss). Biofilms were exposed to 10% sucrose 3 times per day for 5 days, and the slabs/biofilms were retrieved to assess demineralization, viable cells, biomass, proteins, ...
While studying virulence gene regulation in Vibrio cholerae during infection of the host small intestine, we identified VieA as a two-component response regulator that contributes to activating expression of cholera toxin. Here we report that VieA represses transcription of Vibrio exopolysaccharide …
A characteristic feature of biofilm formation is the production of a protective extracellular polymeric matrix. In the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis, the biofilm matrix is synthesized by the products of the epsABCDEFGHIJKLMNO operon (hereafter called the eps operon) and yqxM-sipW-tasA loci. Transcription from these operons is repressed by two key regulators, AbrB and SinR. Relief of inhibition is necessary to allow biofilm formation to proceed. Here we present data indicating that Abh, a sequence and structural homologue of AbrB, regulates biofilm architecture by B. subtilis when colony morphology and pellicle formation are assessed. Data indicating that abh expression is dependent on the environmental signals that stimulate the activity of the extracytoplasmic function sigma-factor sigma(X) are shown. We demonstrate that expression of slrR, the proposed activator of yqxM transcription, is positively controlled by Abh. Furthermore, Abh is shown to activate transcription from the ...
A biofilm is a complex community of cells enveloped in a self-produced polymeric matrix. Entry into a biofilm is exquisitely controlled at the level of transcription and in the Gram-positive organism Bacillus subtilis it requires the concerted efforts of three major transcription factors. Here, we demonstrate that in addition to transcriptional control, B. subtilis utilizes post-translational modifications to control biofilm formation; specifically through phosphorylation of tyrosine residues. Through our work we have assigned novel roles during biofilm formation to two proteins; the protein tyrosine kinase PtkA and the protein tyrosine phosphatase PtpZ. Furthermore by introducing amino acid point mutations within the catalytic domains of PtkA and PtpZ we have identified that the kinase and phosphatase activities, respectively, are essential for function. PtkA contains a conserved C-terminal tyrosine cluster that is the site of autophosphorylation; however, our in vivo analysis demonstrates that ...
Adhesion is a crucial initial step in microbial biofilm formation. Firm attachment to a target surface subsequently ensures successful colonization and survival despite turbulent conditions. In the laboratory, polystyrene plates are commonly used in biofilm experiments and the washing/rinse steps before staining are critical for assaying biofilm viability. However, these rinse steps risk the removal (partially or entirely) of the formed biofilm, resulting in inconsistent results. The aim of the present study was to optimize conditions for firmer biofilms, less prone to disruption and thus significantly reducing well-to-well variability. Candida albicans SC5314 was used in five different polystyrene 96-well plates from four different manufacturers. Irrespective of how gently we performed the rinse, biofilms came off certain polystyrene plates more easily compared to others. Importantly, preconditioning the polystyrene surfaces with foetal bovine serum (FBS) had a negative impact on firm biofilm ...
Biofilm formation by Staphylococcus epidermidis is a cause of infections related to peritoneal dialysis (PD). We have used a PD catheter flow-cell model in combination with confocal scanning laser microscopy and atomic force microscopy to study biofilm formation by S. epidermidis. Adherence to serum-coated catheters was four times greater than to uncoated ones, suggesting that S. epidermidis binds to serum proteins on the catheter surface. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm supernatant interfered with the formation of a serum protein coat thereby reducing the capacity for biofilm formation in S. epidermidis. Supernatants from ΔpelA, ΔpslBCD and ΔrhlAB strains of P. aeruginosa showed no differences from the wild-type supernatant indicating that the effect on serum coat formation was not due to rhamnolipids or the PelA and PslBCD polysaccharides. Supernatant from P. aeruginosa also dispersed established S. epidermidis biofilms. Supernatants lacking PelA or PslBCD showed no differences from the wild ...
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of cranberry extracts on saliva-derived polymicrobial biofilms with regards to biofilm biomass, acidogenicity, exopolysaccharide (EPS)/microbial biovolumes, colony forming unit (CFU) counts, and the relative abundance of specific caries- and health-associated bacteria.METHODS: Saliva-derived polymicrobial biofilms were grown for 96 h in a cariogenic environment and treated for 2 min every 12 h over the entire biofilm growth period with 500 mug/mL cranberry extract or vehicle control. The effect of the cranberry extract on biofilm behaviour was evaluated using different assays and its influence on key cariogenic and health-associated bacterial populations was assessed with a microarray real-time quantitative PCR method.RESULTS: Cranberry-treated biofilms showed significant drops in biomass (38% reduction, P , 0.001), acidogenicity (44% reduction, P , 0.001), EPS/microbial biovolume ratios (P = 0.033), and CFU counts (51% reduction, P = 0.001). Furthermore, the ...
Oxaran, V.; Dittmann, K.Kiesbye.; Lee, S.H.I.; Chaul, Líza.Toubas.; Fernandes de Oliveira, C.Augusto.; Corassin, C.Humberto.; Alves, Vínia.Farias.; De Martinis, E.Cristina.Pereira.; Gram, L., 2018: Behavior of Foodborne Pathogens Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus in Mixed-Species Biofilms Exposed to Biocides
Acinetobacter baumannii is an emerging nosocomial pathogen, responsible for infection outbreaks worldwide. The pathogenicity of this bacterium is mainly due to its multidrug-resistance and ability to form biofilm on abiotic surfaces, which facilitate long-term persistence in the hospital setting. Given the crucial role of iron in A. baumannii nutrition and pathogenicity, iron metabolism has been considered as a possible target for chelation-based antibacterial chemotherapy. In this study, we investigated the effect of iron restriction on A. baumannii growth and biofilm formation using different iron chelators and culture conditions. We report substantial inter-strain variability and growth medium-dependence for biofilm formation by A. baumannii isolates from veterinary and clinical sources. Neither planktonic nor biofilm growth of A. baumannii was affected by exogenous chelators. Biofilm formation was either stimulated by iron or not responsive to iron in the majority of isolates tested, ...
1. Ajdic D, McShan WM, McLaughlin RE, Savic G, Chang J, Carson MB. 2002. Genome sequence of Streptococcus mutans UA159, a cariogenic dental pathogen. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 99:14434-14439. 2. Banas JA, Vickerman MM. 2003. Glucan-binding proteins of the oral streptococci. Critical Reviews in Oral Biology & Medicine. 14:89-99. 3. Costerton JW, Steward PS, Greenberg EP. 1999. Bacterial biofilms: a common cause of persistent infections. Science. 284:1318-1322. 4. Gross EL, Beall CJ, Kutsch SR, Firestone ND, Leys EJ, Griffen AL. 2012. Beyond Streptococcus mutans: dental caries onset linked to multiple species by 16S rRNA community analysis. PloS one. 7:e47722. 5. Hajishengallis G, Koga and T, Russell MW. 1994. Affinity and Specificity of the Interactions between Streptococcus mutans Antigen I/II and Salivary Components. J. Dent Res. 73:1943-1502. 6. Hossain MS, Biswas I. 2011. Mutacins from Streptococcus mutans UA159 are active against multiple streptococcal species. Applied and environmental ...
For other species in disease-associated biofilms and biofilms arising from eukaryotes, see below. Biofilms have been found to ... may contribute to biofilm dispersal. Enzymes that degrade the biofilm matrix may be useful as anti-biofilm agents. Evidence has ... Drip Flow Biofilm Reactor® rotary devices (such as the CDC Biofilm Reactor®, the Rotating Disk Reactor, the Biofilm Annular ... Documentary on Biofilms: The Silent Role of Biofilms in Chronic Disease HD Video Interviews on biofilms, antibiotics, etc. with ...
In moving-bed biofilm reactors, biofilms grow on small plastic or sponge-based carriers that circulate in the bioreactors using ... Current challenges for biofilm-mediated bioremediation include difficulties in controlling the structure of the biofilm and, in ... Much research has been done on methods to remove biofilms in clinical and food manufacturing processes, but biofilms are also ... One method for treating dairy wastewater is using anaerobic biofilm reactors. The biofilm grows on a support material which can ...
... many of which can be attributed to bacterial biofilms. There is much research into the prevention of biofilms. Biofilm ... They prevent biofilm formation by interfering with the attachment and expansion of immature biofilms. Typically, these coatings ... Other than chemicals, enzymes have been used to degrade the biofilm matrix and eject biofilm cells forcibly. First shown in P. ... C2D is a medium of fatty acid chain that effect on staphylococcus aureus biofilm and dispersion of these biofilm. Pseudomonas ...
These biofilms occur on contact surfaces in a range of terrestrial and aquatic environments. The formation of biofilms is a ... Additionally, because biofilm response to pollutants during initial exposure suggested acute toxicity, biofilms can be used as ... While some of the organisms contributing to the formation of the biofilms can be identified, exact composition of the biofilms ... using biofilms as compared to other floc materials. There are also many other benefits to using phototrophic biofilms in ...
A floc is a type of microbial aggregate that may be contrasted with biofilms and granules, or else considered a specialized ... Yeast flocculation#Process Davey ME, O'toole GA (December 2000). "Microbial biofilms: from ecology to molecular genetics". ... rather than attached to and growing on a surface like most biofilms. The floc typically is held together by a matrix of ... type of biofilm. Flocs appear as cloudy suspensions of cells floating in water, ...
Biofilm prevention Biofilm factory Phototrophic biofilms Report on Research 1990, Montana State University (Report). pp. 10-11 ... to co-sponsor a one-day workshop on biofilms. The resulting workshop, "Biofilms, Medical Devices and Anti-Biofilm Technology: ... "Public Workshop - Biofilms, Medical Devices and Anti-Biofilm Technology - Challenges and Opportunities, February 20, 2014". ... The center's industrial focus expanded from biofilm control and mitigation to include positive use of biofilm processes to ...
The MBBR system is considered a biofilm process. Other conventional biofilm processes for wastewater treatment are called ... Moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) is a type of wastewater treatment process that was first invented by Prof. Hallvard Ødegaard ... Moving bed biofilm reactors have shown promising results to remove micropollutations (MPs) from wastewater. MPs fall into ... Falås, P.; Baillon-Dhumez, A.; Andersen, H. R.; Ledin, A.; la Cour Jansen, J. (2012-03-15). "Suspended biofilm carrier and ...
The rotating cell biofilm reactor (RCBR) is a new type of biological process based on biofilm active sludge used in wastewaters ... This biofilm system does not need any blower to oxygenate the bacteria colonies. It's the simple cell rotation to produce the ...
Genetic approaches to study of biofilms". Biofilms. Methods in Enzymology. Biofilms. Vol. 310. Academic Press. pp. 91-109. doi: ... a TED-ED animation on biofilms Biofilm Up Close, FASEB Bioart Award-winning image in The Scientist in 2016 Turning Point: ... but the genetics of biofilm formation was unexplored and most microbiologists did not view biofilm formation as a physiological ... living within communities called biofilms). The lab popularized the concept of bacterial biofilm formation as developmental or ...
Biofilm is an aggregate of microorganisms in which cells adhere to each other or a surface. Bacteria in the biofilm community ... This system functions optimally when the S. mutans cells are in crowded biofilms. S. mutans cells growing in a biofilm are ... mutans in dental biofilms can be reduced or eliminated, the acidification potential of dental biofilms and later cavity ... This decreases the biofilm pathogenesis, and therefore its caries promoting potential. This offers the potential for an anti- ...
Biofilms. Bacteria often attach to surfaces and form dense aggregations called biofilms, and larger formations known as ... These biofilms and mats can range from a few micrometres in thickness to up to half a metre in depth, and may contain multiple ... Biofilms are also important in medicine, as these structures are often present during chronic bacterial infections or in ... Bacteria living in biofilms display a complex arrangement of cells and extracellular components, forming secondary structures, ...
Some species of bacteria secrete it to form biofilms. Cellulose is the most abundant organic polymer on Earth. The cellulose ... Romeo, Tony (2008). Bacterial biofilms. Berlin: Springer. pp. 258-263. ISBN 978-3-540-75418-3. Klemm, Dieter; Heublein, ...
Pellicle is a variety of biofilm that is formed between the air and the liquid in which bacteria grow. In a biofilm, bacterial ... The biofilm needs bacterial cells to move in a certain manner, while flagella is the organelle which has locomotive function. ... Lemon, KP; Earl, AM; Vlamakis, HC; Aguilar, C; Kolter, R (2008). "Biofilm development with an emphasis on Bacillus subtilis". ... Bacterial Biofilms. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. 2008: 1-16. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-75418-3_1. ISBN 978-3-540- ...
It may have potential in fighting biofilm implied in infectious diseases that are present in more than 60% of Hospital-acquired ... Marques, CN; Davies, DG; Sauer, K (2015). "Control of Biofilms with the Fatty Acid Signaling Molecule cis-2-Decenoic Acid". ... Davies, DG; Marques, CN (2009). "A fatty acid messenger is responsible for inducing dispersion in microbial biofilms". Journal ... Bryers, JD (2008). "Medical biofilms". Biotechnol. Bioeng. 100 (1): 1-18. doi:10.1002/bit.21838. PMC 2706312. PMID 18366134. v ...
A biofilm is a community of microorganisms adsorbed to a surface. Microorganisms in biofilms are enclosed in a polymeric matrix ... Biofilms on food processing surfaces can be a biological hazard to food safety. Increased chemical resistance in biofilms can ... Biofilms form on solid substrates such as stainless steel. A biofilm's enclosing polymeric matrix offers protection to its ... Tarver, Toni (2009). "Biofilms: A Threat to Food Safety". Food Technology. 63 (2): 46-52. Visser, J; Jeurnink, Th. J. M (1997 ...
biofilm. December 15, 2012. "Dr. Bill Costerton: Diagnosing and Treating Biofilm Infections". YouTube. biofilm. April 16, 2013 ... Bill Costerton - The "Father" of Biofilms". YouTube. biofilm. April 24, 2012. "Doctors' Bill Costerton and Randy Wolcott: The ... There he and his team did research on biofilms involved in periodontal disease. In 2008 he became the director of biofilm ... He is sometimes referred to as the "Father of Biofilms" or the "King of Slime". J. William Costerton grew up in Vernon, British ...
Kumamoto, Carol A. (2006). "Candida albicans Biofilms Produce Antifungal-Tolerant Persister Cells". Antimicrobial Agents and ... "Candida biofilms". Current Opinion in Microbiology. 5 (6): 608-611. doi:10.1016/S1369-5274(02)00371-5. PMID 12457706. ...
Such C. albicans biofilms may form on the surface of implantable medical devices or organs. In these biofilms it is often found ... The biofilm of C. albicans is formed in four steps. First, there is the initial adherence step, where the yeast-form cells ... Zago CE, Silva S, Sanitá PV, Barbugli PA, Dias CM, Lordello VB, Vergani CE (2015). "Dynamics of biofilm formation and the ... Zap1 controls the equilibrium of yeast and hyphal cells, the zinc transporters and zinc regulated genes in biofilms of C. ...
When such communities are encased in a stabilizing polymer matrix ("slime"), they may be called "biofilms". Cells in biofilms ... Costerton JW (2007). "Direct Observations". The Biofilm Primer. Springer Series on Biofilms. Vol. 1. Berlin, Heidelberg: ... Bacterial biofilms may be 100 times more resistant to antibiotics than free-living unicells and may be nearly impossible to ... Biofilms may be highly heterogeneous and structurally complex and may attach to solid surfaces, or exist at liquid-air ...
Coli Biofilms". ACS Nano. 11 (10): 9968-9978. doi:10.1021/acsnano.7b04128. hdl:2445/123493. PMID 28933815. Akolpoglu, Mukrime ...
Coli Biofilms". ACS Nano. 11 (10): 9968-9978. doi:10.1021/acsnano.7b04128. hdl:2445/123493. PMID 28933815. Harris, Elizabeth H ...
The biofilm formation is the main cause of Staphylococcus implant infections. Biofilms are groups of microorganisms, such as ... A class of enzymes have been found to have biofilm matrix-degrading ability, thus may be used as biofilm dispersal agents in ... A higher mortality is linked with multispecies biofilms. S. aureus biofilm is the predominant cause of orthopedic implant- ... aureus biofilms contain PIA. S. aureus biofilms are important in disease pathogenesis, as they can contribute to antibiotic ...
"Bacteriophages and Biofilms". Antibiotics. 3 (3): 270-284. doi:10.3390/antibiotics3030270. PMC 4790368. Patrick Jault; Thomas ...
It allows other bacteria to bind to the already existing biofilm, creating a multilayer biofilm. Such biofilms decrease the ... Biofilms Microbiology Staphylococcus Schleifer, K. H.; Kloos, W. E. (1 January 1975). "Isolation and Characterization of ... As mentioned above, S. epidermidis causes biofilms to grow on plastic devices placed within the body. This occurs most commonly ... Moreover, S. epidermidis biofilm formation by releasing the exopolysaccharide intercellular adhesion (PIA) provides the ...
... npj Biofilms and Microbiomes. 8 (1): 1-11. doi:10.1038/s41522-022-00338-4. ISSN 2055-5008. PMC 9576740. PMID 36253412. Caputo, ...
Silveira CB, Rohwer FL (2016-07-06). "Piggyback-the-Winner in host-associated microbial communities". npj Biofilms and ...
NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes. 4 (1): 14. doi:10.1038/s41522-018-0057-2. PMC 6031612. PMID 30002868. Bergquist PR (1998). " ...
... npj Biofilms and Microbiomes. 4 (1): 14. doi:10.1038/s41522-018-0057-2. PMC 6031612. PMID 30002868. Into the Brain of Comb ...
Biofilm structures that are formed in simulation can be viewed as a movie using POV-Ray files that are generated as the ... This study explored the hypothesis that poor plasmid spread in biofilms is caused by a dependence of conjugation on the growth ... iDynoMiCS can be used to seek to understand how individual microbial dynamics lead to emergent population- or biofilm-level ... Through simulation, the paper suggests that plasmid invasion into a resident biofilm is only limited when plasmid transfer ...
2016). "Spatio-temporal assembly of functional mineral scaffolds within microbial biofilms". npj Biofilms and Microbiomes. 2: ... The term biofilm refers to complex heterogeneous structures comprising different populations of microorganisms that attach and ... It uses the polymers produced by single cells during biofilm formation as a physical cue to coordinate ECM production by the ... Palmer J, Flint S, Brooks J (September 2007). "Bacterial cell attachment, the beginning of a biofilm". Journal of Industrial ...
This review emphasizes Candida spp.-bacteria biofilms, the epidemiology of this community, the challenges in the eradication of ... This refractory effect is particularly critical in polymicrobial biofilms involving both fungi and bacteria. ... The ability to form biofilms is a common feature of microorganisms, such as bacteria or fungi. These consortiums can colonize a ... albicans biofilms were inferior than that in the mixed biofilms. Plus, the growth speed in the mixed biofilms was greater than ...
See the BIOFILMS homepage at http://www.im.dtu.dk/biofilms for info on how to (un)subscribe and post to the Biofilms newsgroup ... Dear All, As a first pass at Bob MacLeans challenge for a definition of a biofilm.... Biofilm is useful as a general ... Biofilms definition?. Tim Charlton t.charlton at unsw.edu.au Tue Jul 20 10:06:22 EST 1999 *Previous message: Hiding the ... I think that it would be a red herring to try and give biofilm a definition that is narrow, being restricted to just one or a ...
Biofilms are a well-characterized mode of microbial growth of both single and multi-species populations. They are associated ... Biofilms and the Skin Microbiome: A Hot Spot for Personal Care. Jan 3rd, 2020 ... The following is a collection of insights from academic partners of the UK-based National Biofilms Innovation Centre (NBIC), ... A combined, more holistic understanding of the interaction between the microbiome and biofilms will, in the future, strengthen ...
... to be highly effective in killing bacteria that create harmful biofilms in pools, spas and jetted tubs and are a health risk in ... Biofilms. Bacterial biofilms are slime that may consist of several types of bacteria. One common example of a biofilm is the ... There is a complex method, or order, in the formation of a bacterial biofilm. Biofilms start with an individual bacterium or ... Polysaccharide matrixes also form a protective barrier for organisms within the biofilm. Biofilms are not just limited to ...
Here we investigate such an internal conflict within a microbial (Bacillus subtilis) biofilm community: cells in the biofilm ... suggesting new strategies to control biofilm growth. The emergence of long-range metabolic co-dependence within a biofilm ... As a result, biofilm growth halts periodically, increasing nutrient availability for the sheltered interior cells. We show that ... During growth in a biofilm, cells at the periphery protect interior cells from external attack but can also starve them through ...
Structural insights into the periplasmic sensor domain of the GacS histidine kinase controlling biofilm formation in ... A gacS mutant devoid of the periplasmic detector domain is severely defective in biofilm formation. Functional assays indicate ... Structural insights into the periplasmic sensor domain of the GacS histidine kinase controlling biofilm formation in ... Structural and functional insights into the periplasmic detector domain of the GacS histidine kinase controlling biofilm ...
The emphasis on the role of biofilms in the pathogenesis of various microbial diseases, as well as discussions of biofilm ... Perez E, Williams M, Jacob JT, Reyes MD, Chernetsky Tejedor S, Steinberg JP, Microbial biofilms on needleless connectors for ... and dispersal of fungal and bacterial biofilms. The target audience is biofilm researchers, but this second edition of the book ... Microbial Biofilms is a useful compendium suitable for students and a practical guide for researchers investigating new biofilm ...
Pharmaceuticals suppress algal growth and microbial respiration and alter bacterial communities of stream biofilms. ... Pharmaceuticals suppress algal growth and microbial respiration and alter bacterial communities of stream biofilms. ...
The overall goal of their research is to identify factors to control and manage biofilms and their extraordinary resistance to ... They are specifically interested in differential gene expressions coinciding with the formation and dispersion of biofilms, the ... and the mechanism by which biofilm cells gain their heightened resistance to antimicrobial agents. ... elucidate regulatory and signaling events underlying the formation and development of highly antimicrobial resistant biofilms. ...
Chapter Four focuses on biofilm development, its impact on human health and the problems that are associated with biofilm ... Biofilms are naturally occurring clusters of microorganisms that stick to non-biological surfaces, like rocks in a stream. This ... Chapter 4. Microbial Biofilm: Serious Threat to Human Health. (Aisha Waheed Qurashi, Beenish Sarfraz, Iram Liaqat, Mehwish ... Home / Shop / Newly Published Books / Engineering & Technology / Biofilms: Advances in Research and Applications. ...
The UKs world-class expertise in the research of biofilms has been recognised through the launch of a new National Biofilms ... National Biofilms Innovation Centre. The UKs world-class expertise in the research of biofilms has been recognised through the ... The UKs world-class expertise in the research of biofilms has been recognised through the launch of a new National Biofilms ... Research here ranges from studying biofilms in rivers, through using biofilms to improve stress resistance of biocatalysis, to ...
We measured DIN uptake by biofilms in artificial flumes in each stream, using separate 15N-NO3− and 15N-NH4 additions in a ... Our study also shows that DIN uptake by benthic biofilms varies with DIN availability and with DIN speciation, which often is ... We aimed to evaluate how biofilms from 2 streams differing in background DIN concentration would respond to increases in ... Together, these results indicate that the response capacity of biofilm communities to short-term increases of DIN concentration ...
... aeruginosa biofilms. To determine this capability, transport efficiencies of fluorescent-labeled magnetic nanoparticles on the ... aeurginosa biofilm can be achieved. Thicker biofilms will decrease the diffusion of antibiotics, in turn exposing the ... Biofilms represent formidable barriers to both the bodys own defenses and anti-microbial therapeutic agents. These polymeric ... The function of the biofilm for the inhabiting bacteria is multifaceted but includes the ability to reduce opsonization and ...
... whereas PIA-independent biofilms showed enhanced biofilm formation. There was no correlation between the extent of biofilm ... the majority of isolates were categorized as moderate biofilm producers. Twelve isolates displayed PIA-independent biofilm ... In conclusion, nucleic acids and proteins formed the main components of the MRSA clone t127 biofilm matrix, and there seems to ... The presence of exopolysaccharides, proteins, and extracellular DNA and RNA in biofilms was assessed by a dispersal assay. In ...
... substrate metabolism by biofilm-bound cells and transport of products our of the biofilm 9)biofilm removal by detachment or ... Biofilm Ecosystem Development Coaggregation and Aggregation. Subsection 1a. Subsection 1b. Quorum Sensing. Subsection 1a. ... Intercellular Communication within Biofilm Communities. Cell-to-Cell Communication. Subsection 1b. Extrcellular Polymeric ... Biofilm formation 1)pre-conditioning of the adhesion surface 2)transport of planktonic celss from the bilk liquid to the ...
Moving Bed Biofilm Reactors upgrade existing industrial wastewater treatment facilities for overloaded, non-performing, and/or ... IDEAL MBBR™ Moving Bed Biofilm Reactors World Water Works, Inc.s IDEAL MBBR™ Moving Bed Biofilm Reactors upgrade existing ... IDEAL MBBR™ Moving Bed Biofilm Reactors -- Environmental Protection" /> .footer .footerProductLogos li {margin: 0px;display: ...
Biofilm formation by bacteria protects them against environmental stresses such as desiccation, shear forces and antimicrobial ... The Effects of Subcellular Nanograting Geometry on the Formation and Growth of Bacterial Biofilms. ... The Effects of Subcellular Nanograting Geometry on the Formation and Growth of Bacterial Biofilms https://www.embs.org/tnb/wp- ...
... the role of bacteriocins in shaping oral biofilms will be investigated by moving a Spanish researcher currently working in ... The role of bacteriocins in biofilm formation. Bacteriocins are a group of antimicrobial peptides produced by bacteria as a ... researchers will explore the role of bacteriocin immunity genes in bacteria interacting during biofilm formation. Moreover, ...
A study of the interactions between glass-ionomer cement and S. sanguis biofilms. ...
... J Leukoc Biol. 2019 ... Conversely, topical application of α-mannosidases reduced bacterial biofilms and burden of infected corneas. Cumulatively, ... these data suggest novel therapeutic approaches to control bacterial biofilm assembly and improve bacterial clearance via ...
Menaquinones effect on biofilm formation on fibronectin-coated surfaces appears to be regulated by sarA. These findings are ... Menaquinone at physiologic levels (0.01 μg/ml MH) significantly increased (p 0.05) biofilm formation on plastic in a manner ... In addition, menaquinone (0.05 - 4 μg/ml) significantly increased (p 0.05) biofilm formation on fibronectin-coated surfaces for ... biofilm formation (plastic and fibronectin-coated microtiter plates) and carotenoid levels were determined ...
New enzyme technology that prevents formation of and causes breakdown of microbial biofilm in tissues could help combat ... Addressing Microbial Biofilm to Combat Infections - The Way Forward. The biofilm forms a sticky coating on the surface of ... What is Biofilm?. Microbial biofilm is a slimy sticky substance secreted by microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi to ... Biofilms May Be Responsible for Skin Diseases Becoming Chronic. Research into the molecular mechanism of biofilm formation, ...
Biofilms -- microbial communities that form slimy layers on surfaces -- are difficult to treat and remove, often because the ... The team then added the T-Budbots to bacterial biofilms in dishes and magnetically steered them. The microbots penetrated the ... Degraded remnants of the biofilm adhered to the microbots surfaces. The researchers note that this was a proof-of-concept ... "Magnetotactic T-Budbots to Kill-n-Clean Biofilms". ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces ...
MagWeb presents Camille Keaton bio, films, age, & posts in twitter. Camille Keaton profile updated daily
Biofilm Buster Pro is the answer to your biofilm problems. It uses bio-enzymes to actively digest all the layers of biofilm and ... Biofilm Buster Pro can rid you of your slimy mess and restore your system to 100% capacity. In addition, because extended ... When the system is turned off, the biofilm settles and forms clumps. When the system is turned back on, the process begins ... Acid treatments kill the biofilm, but they also kill beneficial bacteria and can harm the plants, meaning they can only be used ...
Disturbance During Biofilm Community Succession Promotes Cooperation and Diversity. James P. Stratford, Douglas M. Hodgson, ... Disturbance During Biofilm Community Succession Promotes Cooperation and Diversity Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a ...
Biofilm formation - Pseudomonas aeruginosa - Reference pathway [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Show ... Titration of RsmA induces the production of sessile and biofilm determinants, whereas free RsmA leads to a planktonic and more ... It is demonstrated that the accumulation of cAMP inhibits the attachment phase of biofilm formation. The QS systems are ... The main key actors relevant in the regulation of biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa include cAMP/Vfr signaling, ...
This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in any form without prior authorization ...
... forming a slimy and slippery layer known as biofilm. Bacterial biofilms are complex microbial communities protected by an ... The extracellular matrix improves biofilm cohesion and its adhesion to surfaces. ... Understanding biofilms is necessary to prevent infections. Studying biofilms is necessary in order to find innovative and more ... Biofilms forming on catheters can provoke urinary-tract infections. Biofilms on joint implants pose a particular threat, since ...
Persons tagged with «Biofilm». Name. Phone. E-mail. Tags. Junges, Roger Associate Professor +47 22840340 [email protected] ... microbiology, streptococci, genetic competence, signalling, biofilm, commensals, pathogens Simm, Roger Head of Department +47 ... Biofilm, microbial diagnostics, protein purification, Microbiology, DNA-isolation, signalling, 16S rRNA sequencing ... Biofilm, Antimicrobial resistance, Host-microbe interactions, Microbe-microbe interactions, Virulence, Molecular microbiology, ...
  • Point mutations in a putative ligand binding pocket lined by positively-charged residues originating primarily from the major loop impaired biofilm formation. (rcsb.org)
  • The ability to form biofilms is a common feature of microorganisms, such as bacteria or fungi. (mdpi.com)
  • Twenty-five methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates were characterized by staphylococcal protein A gene typing and the ability to form biofilms. (hindawi.com)
  • We examined this issue in terms of observation of the growth properties and ability to form biofilms in sensitive S. aureus and MRSA after the application of antibiotics (ATBs)-ampicillin, oxacillin and penicillin-and complexes of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) with these ATBs. (muni.cz)
  • C. albicans has the ability to form biofilms and morphogenetic conversions between yeast and hyphal morphologies contribute to biofilm development and represent an essential virulence factor. (altmetric.com)
  • There is a complex method, or order, in the formation of a bacterial biofilm. (wcponline.com)
  • Within a short time, bacteria may accumulate in the plumbing of any improperly sanitized pool, spa or tub, thus resulting in the formation of a biofilm. (wcponline.com)
  • Microbial Biofilms provides an overview of the formation, structure/architecture, cell-to-cell interactions, and dispersal of fungal and bacterial biofilms. (cdc.gov)
  • A new approach to mitigate biofilm formation on totally implantable venous access ports. (cdc.gov)
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogenic bacterium responsible for both acute and chronic infections and has developed resistance mechanisms due to its ability to promote biofilm formation and evade host adaptive immune responses. (rcsb.org)
  • A gacS mutant devoid of the periplasmic detector domain is severely defective in biofilm formation. (rcsb.org)
  • These results demonstrate the functional role of GacS PD , evidence critical residues involved in GacS/GacA signal transduction system that regulates biofilm formation, and document the evolutionary diversity of the PDC/PAS domain fold in bacteria. (rcsb.org)
  • Sauer's research group utilizes the model organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa to elucidate regulatory and signaling events underlying the formation and development of highly antimicrobial resistant biofilms. (binghamton.edu)
  • They are specifically interested in differential gene expressions coinciding with the formation and dispersion of biofilms, the role of posttranslational modifications in enabling bacteria to sense and respond to environmental conditions, and the mechanism by which biofilm cells gain their heightened resistance to antimicrobial agents. (binghamton.edu)
  • At the University of Birmingham, we will use the Centre to develop a number of products that could be revolutionary, from new smart nanomaterials that release antimicrobials when triggered by environmental conditions, to novel light and photonic therapies and laser texturing of surfaces to prevent biofilm formation. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • Twelve isolates displayed PIA-independent biofilm formation, while the remaining 13 isolates were PIA-dependent. (hindawi.com)
  • PIA-dependent biofilms showed variable dispersal after sodium metaperiodate treatment, whereas PIA-independent biofilms showed enhanced biofilm formation. (hindawi.com)
  • There was no correlation between the extent of biofilm formation or biofilm components and the adhesion or cohesion abilities of the bacteria, but the efficiency of adherence to glass beads increased after biofilm depletion. (hindawi.com)
  • These infections can complicate treatments involving in-dwelling catheters and medical implants through biofilm formation [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • 18 ] observed that although the ica locus is present and expressed in PIA-independent biofilms, the genes do not appear to be involved in their formation. (hindawi.com)
  • By combining experimental methods and bioinformatics, researchers will explore the role of bacteriocin immunity genes in bacteria interacting during biofilm formation. (europa.eu)
  • Menaquinone at physiologic levels (0.01 μg/ml MH) significantly increased (p 0.05) biofilm formation on plastic in a manner that was bacterial population size dependent. (scirp.org)
  • In addition, menaquinone (0.05 - 4 μg/ml) significantly increased (p 0.05) biofilm formation on fibronectin-coated surfaces for four MSSA strains and one MRSA strain by two to six-fold as compared to medium controls. (scirp.org)
  • Menaquinone's effect on biofilm formation on fibronectin-coated surfaces appears to be regulated by sarA . (scirp.org)
  • Kirby, D. , Savage, J. and Plotkin, B. (2014) Menaquinone (Vitamin K2) Enhancement of Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Formation. (scirp.org)
  • New enzyme technique that prevents formation as well as destroys formed biofilm improves treatment efficacy by exposing the organisms to antibiotics and host defense. (medindia.net)
  • Taking a cue from their observations, the team of scientists developed a technique to use the very same enzymes used by the bacteria to remodel the sugar armor, but to prevent formation and cause degradation of the biofilm and expose the organism to antibiotics and host defense in patients. (medindia.net)
  • Earlier attempts in combating biofilms were only partially successful in that they prevented biofilm formation. (medindia.net)
  • Surface colonization and subsequent biofilm formation and development provide numerous advantages to microorganisms. (genome.jp)
  • The main key actors relevant in the regulation of biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa include cAMP/Vfr signaling, quorum sensing (QS) systems, Gac/Rsm pathway, and c-di-GMP signaling. (genome.jp)
  • It is demonstrated that the accumulation of cAMP inhibits the attachment phase of biofilm formation. (genome.jp)
  • In order to prevent infection, it is important to design surfaces that discourage bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. (oup.com)
  • However, even a small number of bacteria adhering on a surface can initiate biofilm formation. (oup.com)
  • One important approach to studying bacterial adhesion and subsequent biofilm formation is the concept of bacterial surface sensing, i.e. the mechanisms that bacteria use to become aware of their adhering state. (oup.com)
  • A better understanding of bacterial surface sensing might suggest new ways to design "smart" surfaces that can't be sensed by bacteria and prevent or inhibit biofilm formation. (oup.com)
  • Skewness' is a roughness parameter that describes asymmetry in surface feature distribution and is thought to affect biofilm formation. (flow3d.com)
  • A fascinating thing about biofilm formation has to do with how the bacteria communicate. (zmescience.com)
  • However, the contributions of mechanics, while being central to the process of biofilm formation, have been overlooked as a factor influencing host physiology. (elifesciences.org)
  • Peipoch and fellow Associate Research Scientist Jinjun Kan, Ph.D. , who leads the Microbiology Group , are curious about the formation and function of biofilms. (stroudcenter.org)
  • Bacteria secrete proteins, polysaccharides, and other components to assemble a macromolecular matrix that surrounds cells to promote the formation of protective communities termed biofilms. (oist.jp)
  • This mini-symposium aims to provide a scientific platform and building opportunity, inviting the most prominent researchers to discuss their transformative new tools and unique approaches to manipulate biofilms, measure biofilm parameters, and leverage their emerging discoveries to influence biofilm formation. (oist.jp)
  • Importantly, each of the more biological researchers, for example, are eager to collaborate further with the more chemical and engineering-savvy researchers to define important biophysical aspects of bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. (oist.jp)
  • The biofilm formation was intensely inhibited (up to 99% ± 7% for S. aureus and up to 94% ± 4% for MRSA) after application of SeNPs in comparison with bacteria without antibacterial compounds whereas ATBs without SeNPs inhibited S. aureus up to 79% ± 5% and MRSA up to 16% ± 2% only. (muni.cz)
  • Understanding the mechanisms of multi-species biofilm formation will facilitate the development of methods for combating bacterial biofilms in clinical, environmental, industrial, and agricultural areas. (dtu.dk)
  • This project will demonstrate how combination therapy can be used to effectively disrupt the formation of biofilm and eradicate underlying bacteria found in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients, chronic urinary tract infections, diabetic leg wounds, burn wounds, dry and wet surfaces, the food industry and industrial oil, gas and water pipes," he said. (edu.au)
  • A phenotypic assay of C. albicans demonstrated a potent dose-dependent inhibitory effect of silver nanoparticles on biofilm formation, with an IC50 of 0.089 ppm. (altmetric.com)
  • Our results demonstrate that silver nanoparticles are potent inhibitors of C. albicans biofilm formation. (altmetric.com)
  • Furthermore, it was found that the antibacterial effect of TCDs lies in its ability to impair toxicity by inhibiting the major virulence factors and related genes involved in the biofilm formation of P. gingivalis , thus affecting the self-assembly of biofilm-related proteins. (dovepress.com)
  • The high-coverage approach allowed us to analyze over 398 million reads, revealing that microbial communities are individual-specific and no bacterial species was detected as key player at any time during biofilm formation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The bacteria changing activity during biofilm formation and after meal ingestion were person-specific. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, characterizing the composition of whole bacterial communities that actively engage in biofilm formation and sugar fermentation after the ingestion of food is vital for understanding community dynamics under health and disease conditions [ 7 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although the set of species present in the human oral biofilm is almost fully depicted, new efforts have to be conducted to establish microbial agonistic or antagonistic associations, to distinguish actively-growing bacteria from inactive or transient species, as well as to outline the role of individual species during biofilm formation on tooth surfaces. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The co-aggregation detected to occur between streptococci and Actinomyces species has been proposed to be a major promoter of human oral biofilm formation [ 8 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In experiments with infectious Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium , which forms biofilms in the human intestinal tract and on medical devices, Tukel's team found that amyloid binding by 3H3 disrupted biofilm formation, causing the separation of bacterial cells within the film. (drugtargetreview.com)
  • Favorable conditions for biofilm formation are present if these structures and equipment are not cleaned for extended periods of time. (cdc.gov)
  • Heterotrophic plate counts and coliform counts, both of which are routinely run by the municipal water utility, will at least provide in indication of the potential for biofilm formation. (cdc.gov)
  • 1450 Therefore, an increase in heterotrophic plate count would suggest a greater rate and extent of biofilm formation in a health-care facility water system. (cdc.gov)
  • The researchers have begun testing the technology on the surfaces of other metals and polymers that are used to reduce risks of bacterial growth and biofilm formation on devices such as orthopedic implants or wearable patches for chronic wounds. (techbriefs.com)
  • Together, they effectively inhibit odor-causing bacteria and reduce plaque biofilm formation by rendering plaque water soluable and unable to bind to the tooth. (entirelypets.com)
  • 1-5 Dental units have unique characteristics that make them prone to biofilm formation. (cdc.gov)
  • ABSTRACT Objective to identify in the literature the biofilm formation and its behavior when faced with interventions in cutaneous wounds. (bvsalud.org)
  • Biofilms are naturally occurring clusters of microorganisms that stick to non-biological surfaces, like rocks in a stream. (novapublishers.com)
  • Microbial biofilm is a slimy sticky substance secreted by microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi to colonize and establish themselves on the surface of tissues, as well as on devices introduced into the body such as catheters, tubes, and implants such as heart valves, and artificial joints. (medindia.net)
  • The microorganisms that form biofilms include bacteria, fungi, and protists. (zmescience.com)
  • This slime - what scientists call biofilm - is a matrix of freshwater microorganisms, sand, and silt, and it makes up much of the biomass covering underwater surfaces in streams and rivers. (stroudcenter.org)
  • Kan explains, "We don't know how these microorganisms that make up biofilms form temporally and spatially and under what conditions. (stroudcenter.org)
  • Direct observation of a wide range of natural microorganisms has revealed the fact that the majority of microbes persist as surface-attached communities surrounded by matrix materials, called biofilms. (dtu.dk)
  • Microorganisms compete, cooperate, and communicate with each other in multi-species biofilms. (dtu.dk)
  • This graphic illustrates how swimming microorganisms cause the stretching of polymers in a mucus-like substance, attracting the motile cells to surfaces in biofilms. (medicaldesignbriefs.com)
  • Algae, protozoa, and fungi may be present in biofilms, but the predominant microorganisms of water system biofilms are gram-negative bacteria. (cdc.gov)
  • Biofilms are surface- adherent populations of microorganisms consisting of cells, water and extracellular matrix material Nanotechnology is promising field of science which can guide our understanding of the role of interspecies interaction in the development of biofilm. (who.int)
  • The following is a collection of insights from academic partners of the UK-based National Biofilms Innovation Centre (NBIC), which explores "hot spots" and opportunities related to this field. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • The UK's world-class expertise in the research of biofilms has been recognised through the launch of a new National Biofilms Innovation Centre (NBIC). (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • This new National Biofilms Innovation Centre is poised to create a fusion of world-class interdisciplinary research and industry partnerships to deliver breakthrough science and technologies to control and exploit biofilms," said Jeremy Webb, Principal Investigator and Co-Director for NBIC. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • Chapter 3 provides several animal models for the evaluation of fungal biofilms (primarily Candida spp. (cdc.gov)
  • I'd like to take something to speed the removal of biofilm, but per my anti-candida diet, I am not supposed to have any fermented foods. (planetthrive.com)
  • The opportunistic microbial pathogens Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus are among the most frequent causative agents of healthcare-acquired infections and are often co-isolated forming mixed biofilms, especially from contaminated catheters. (earthclinic.com)
  • Denture stomatitis: a role for Candida biofilms. (medscape.com)
  • Investigating dual-species candida auris and staphylococcal biofilm antiseptic challenge. (gcu.ac.uk)
  • Background: Candida infections are responsible for increased morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients, particularly when the Candida biofilm is composed of drug-resistant species. (uwc.ac.za)
  • In most cases, biofilm-associated infections are detected after the biofilms are already formed and can no longer be eliminated because of the tolerance of the biofilm to most antimicrobial treatments [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Obviously the biofilm acts both as a physical and chemical barrier and poses a major challenge for successful eradication of hospital acquired infections such as urinary tract infections , lung infections ( pneumonia ) and bloodstream infections. (medindia.net)
  • Biofilm associated infections are associated with high rates of mortality and cause numerous deaths across North America each year. (medindia.net)
  • The biofilm consists of a matrix of sugar molecules such as galactosaminogalactan and Pel secreted by opportunistic pathogens such as Pseudomonas spp and Aspergillus spp which are associated with recurrent respiratory infections in persons with chronic lung diseases. (medindia.net)
  • Many hospital-acquired infections involve bacterial biofilms that form on catheters, joint prostheses, pacemakers and other implanted devices. (acs.org)
  • Medical-device related infections are often caused by biofilms forming on biomaterials inserted or implanted in the human body, such as catheters or joint implants. (oup.com)
  • Biofilms forming on catheters can provoke urinary-tract infections. (oup.com)
  • Studying biofilms is necessary in order to find innovative and more effective strategies to treat or prevent infections and bacterial persistence. (oup.com)
  • During chronic infections and in microbiota, bacteria predominantly colonize their hosts as multicellular structures called biofilms. (elifesciences.org)
  • It has been estimated that billions of dollars are spent every year worldwide to deal with damage to equipment, contaminations of products, energy losses, and infections in human beings resulted from microbial biofilms. (dtu.dk)
  • Novel solutions for biofilm infections are the focus of a collaborative research agreement between the University of Sydney, Whiteley Corporation and the Innovative Manufacturing Cooperative Research Centre. (edu.au)
  • As many important pathogenic bacteria produce curli or curli-like amyloids in their biofilms, including Escherichia coli , Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa , this novel immunotherapy has the potential to be applied to a wide variety of infections. (drugtargetreview.com)
  • Although the association of biofilms and medical devices provides a plausible explanation for a variety of health-care associated infections, it is not clear how the presence of biofilms in the water system may influence the rates of health-care- associated waterborne infection. (cdc.gov)
  • They are also learning more about colonies of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, called biofilms, that are in the middle ears of most children who have multiple ear infections. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Here we show that biofilms of the pathogens Vibrio cholerae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa can induce large deformations of soft synthetic hydrogels. (elifesciences.org)
  • In this case, they illustrate how CA can interact with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a bacteria (Germ), and together they can create an even stronger biofilm than either one alone! (earthclinic.com)
  • Polisacárido y copolímero lineal constituido principalmente por ácido D-manurónico con enlaces beta-1,4 y ácido L-glucurónico con enlaces alfa-1,4, presente en algas marinas tales como LAMINARIA y en BIOPELÍCULAS producidas por PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA. (bvsalud.org)
  • A polysaccharide and linear copolymer, consisting mainly of beta-1,4-linked D-mannuronic acid and alpha-1,4-linked L-glucuronic acid, that occurs in marine algae such as LAMINARIA , and in BIOFILMS produced by PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA . (bvsalud.org)
  • A vast number of pathogens are grouped as biofilms. (zmescience.com)
  • Dear Stephen, Do you feel that lyme bacterium and other pathogens are protected by biofilm layers and that must be treated simultaneously with herbs and/or antibiotics? (planetthrive.com)
  • Nanotechnology application includes 16 O/ 18 O reverse proteolytic labeling,use of quantum dots for labeling of bacterial cells, selective removal of cariogenic bacteria while preserving the normal oral flora and silver antimicrobial nanotechnology against pathogens associated with biofilms. (who.int)
  • In January 2021, the Department of Internal pathogens characterized as strong biofilm producers that Medicine - Infectious Disease and Infection Prevention are resistant to most antimicrobials. (who.int)
  • Biofilms -- microbial communities that form slimy layers on surfaces -- are difficult to treat and remove, often because the microbes release molecules that block the entry of antibiotics and other therapies. (acs.org)
  • Degraded remnants of the biofilm adhered to the microbots' surfaces. (acs.org)
  • It has been known for centuries that bacteria tend to adhere to solid surfaces, forming a slimy and slippery layer known as biofilm. (oup.com)
  • The extracellular matrix improves biofilm cohesion and its adhesion to surfaces. (oup.com)
  • In order to quantify the effects of skewness, well-defined positive and negative skew surfaces (Fig. 1, bottom right) were compared against the biofilm growth on a flat (non-skewed) surface. (flow3d.com)
  • Experimentally, it was found that negative skew surfaces show the highest rates of complete nitrification during biofilm growth. (flow3d.com)
  • Using DNA technology, Kan is measuring biofilm structure to see what kind of microbes assemble and when: "There are so many different types of bacteria, and probably only some of them, along with some algal cells, can attach to surfaces to begin creating a biofilm. (stroudcenter.org)
  • Biofilms can also be found on non-medical surfaces such as in pipes and on boat hulls, are expensive to remove and cause damage to surfaces. (edu.au)
  • Bacteria secrete a slimy substance that forms biofilms, allowing bacterial colonies to thrive on surfaces, including catheters, prosthetic valves, and other devices. (medicaldesignbriefs.com)
  • The engineers' findings reveal specifics about interactions that induce bacteria to swim close to surfaces, where they remain long enough to attach and form biofilms. (medicaldesignbriefs.com)
  • Micro-organisms inhabiting teeth surfaces grow on biofilms where a specific and complex succession of bacteria has been described by co-aggregation tests and DNA-based studies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • But can they be assured staff are consistently cleaning surfaces to remove stubborn biofilm that can hide harmful bugs residing within the biofilm? (healthybuildingsaustralia.com)
  • Most biofilms are formed within water, however recent studies have shown that biofilms also can be formed on dry surfaces, where they have quite different characteristics and survival performance. (healthybuildingsaustralia.com)
  • Research and testing has found biofilms (mostly containing superbugs) on nearly 90% of all high-touch objects and surfaces within intensive care units. (healthybuildingsaustralia.com)
  • The biofilms created by these microbes, on all sorts of surfaces, demonstrate a remarkable resistance to cleaning and disinfecting. (healthybuildingsaustralia.com)
  • We can train your staff to efficiently and effectively clean surfaces to reduce the likelihood of bugs hiding within a biofilm. (healthybuildingsaustralia.com)
  • it may produce a biofilm that promotes adhesion to the outer and inner surfaces of an urethral catheter. (medscape.com)
  • This refractory effect is particularly critical in polymicrobial biofilms involving both fungi and bacteria. (mdpi.com)
  • Biofilms are not just limited to bacteria: yeasts, fungi and protozoa are also common inhabitants. (wcponline.com)
  • A combined, more holistic understanding of the interaction between the microbiome and biofilms will, in the future, strengthen our understanding of the link between certain microbes and disease states. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • Microbes use these enzymes to move sugar molecules around and cut them into pieces in order to build and remodel the biofilm matrix," says Dr. Sheppard, who is also a professor in the departments of Medicine and Microbiology and Immunology at McGill University. (medindia.net)
  • The outcome of the study indicates that glycoside hydrolases enzymes can break down the sugar matrix of the biofilm of diverse microbes and could be used as possible therapeutic agents to increase antibiotic efficacy and to weaken the virulence of the organism. (medindia.net)
  • Microbes too - they group together into communities called biofilms . (zmescience.com)
  • Essentially, how do the microbes get together to form biofilms? (stroudcenter.org)
  • In the field, microbes form synergistic biofilm consortia. (frontiersin.org)
  • Bacterial biofilms cause both human disease and death, and these microbes are also responsible for contamination in industrial and institutional settings," he said. (edu.au)
  • Protocols to evaluate biofilm control strategies in vivo are needed, since in vitro methods may not predict performance under the more robust conditions provided in an animal model ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Shayna McGill, an INCBN IGERT Trainee at the University of New Mexico, is investigating whether magnetic nanoparticles, under the influence of a static magnetic field, may be used to penetrate through an in vitro model of P. aeruginosa biofilms. (igert.org)
  • The biofilm dispersion is investigated in vitro using enzymatic detachment methods [ 20 ] and treatment with chemicals such as periodate (HIO 4 or NaIO 4 ). (hindawi.com)
  • Therefore, the purpose of this project was to establish an in vitro model of infective endocarditis to allow growth of bacterial biofilms on porcine aortic valves, serving as baseline for further research. (fu-berlin.de)
  • Conclusion: These results demonstrate the establishment of a novel in vitro model for bacterial biofilm growth on porcine aortic roots mimicking IE. (fu-berlin.de)
  • Several interventions were able to reduce and eliminate biofilm in in vitro and in vivo models. (bvsalud.org)
  • Polysaccharide matrixes also form a protective barrier for organisms within the biofilm. (wcponline.com)
  • The presence of deteriorating temporary soft denture lining material and an improperly matched cleanser (which generally is the case) is associated with an increased presence of candidal organisms within the biofilm. (medscape.com)
  • In conclusion, nucleic acids and proteins formed the main components of the MRSA clone t127 biofilm matrix, and there seems to be an association between adhesion and cohesion in the biofilms tested. (hindawi.com)
  • Polysaccharide intercellular adhesion- (PIA-) dependent biofilms are composed of poly- β -1,6-N-acetylglucosamine- (PNAG-) based matrices. (hindawi.com)
  • Moreover, bacteria within biofilms are significantly affected by matrix components that influence adhesion of the cells to solid substrata and cohesion between bacterial cells [ 23 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • By combining mechanical measurements and mutations in matrix components, we found that biofilms deform by buckling, and that adhesion transmits these forces to their substrates. (elifesciences.org)
  • The model will allow to identify predilection sites of valves for bacterial adhesion and biofilm growth and it may serve as baseline for further research on IE therapy and prevention, e.g. the development of antimicrobial transcatheter approaches to IE. (fu-berlin.de)
  • For example, bacteria within biofilms become aggregated together and are protected by a self-produced, slimy extracellular matrix comprised of various biopolymers. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • Biofilm Buster Pro can rid you of your slimy mess and restore your system to 100% capacity. (arbico-organics.com)
  • I found particularly helpful the use of tolerance factors to compare reduced susceptibility of different biofilm-associated organisms toward biocides, antiseptics, and antibiotic drugs. (cdc.gov)
  • By drug loading these magnetic nanoparticles and causing triggered drug release from the nanoparticle surface, antibiotic penetration of P. aeurginosa biofilm can be achieved. (igert.org)
  • Therefore, distinct matrix layers representing subpopulations of bacteria are found in biofilms, resulting in different selective pressures and the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains [ 6 - 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Now, researchers reporting in ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces have made magnetically propelled microbots derived from tea buds, which they call "T-Budbots," that can dislodge biofilms, release an antibiotic to kill bacteria, and clean away the debris. (acs.org)
  • Combating biofilms using antibiotics and toxic chemicals can lead to the growth of antibiotic-resistant strains. (medicaldesignbriefs.com)
  • In these animals, 3H3 injections also led to biofilm dissociation and when followed by antibiotic therapy, allowed for the swift eradication of individual bacterial cells from the animals. (drugtargetreview.com)
  • This mini-symposium will bring together researchers from the fields of Biochemistry, Chemistry, Engineering, and Microbiology, all tackling major questions in bacterial biofilms. (oist.jp)
  • Other areas of strength include magnetic resonance imaging of molecular transport in biofilms, mixed fungal and bacterial biofilms, computational modelling and synthesis of peptides, polymers and nanomaterials to visualize or combat biofilms. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • Another interesting observation was that the enzymes found in the bacteria were used against fungal biofilm, it successfully degraded the fungal biofilm as well, indicating cross-species activity . (medindia.net)
  • On the fungal pre-formed biofilm true hyphae was mostly absent, as filamentation was inhibited. (altmetric.com)
  • SEM observations are consistent with an overall loss of structure of biofilms mostly due to disruption of the outer cell membrane/wall and inhibition of filamentation.TEM indicates the permeabilization of the cell wall and subsequent disruption of the structural layers of the outer fungal cell wall. (altmetric.com)
  • Although the personal care industry focuses on healthy skin, understanding the role of biofilms in the pathogenesis and progression of acne and eczema should be of interest. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • several of the contributions in this book specifically focus on the role of biofilms in disease processes (Chapters 6, 7, 8, 14, and 19) or biofilm susceptibility to antimicrobial agents (Chapters 2 and 13). (cdc.gov)
  • The emphasis on the role of biofilms in the pathogenesis of various microbial diseases, as well as discussions of biofilm tolerance and antimicrobial resistance should also be helpful and interesting to anyone working in the field of healthcare delivery. (cdc.gov)
  • Recently, specific types of biofilms containing ammonia-oxidizing bacteria have been identified in wastewater systems. (flow3d.com)
  • This study showed that NAC had fungistatic effects (inhibited the growth of the fungus) against both types of biofilms at high dose, but at a low dose, NAC actually had biofilm enhancing effects. (earthclinic.com)
  • This finding raises reflection on the part of nurses regarding the interventions adopted for the removal of biofilm. (bvsalud.org)
  • Most bacteria are present in biofilms, not as single-acting cells. (fruitofspirit.com)
  • Biofilm technology studies using modern scientific methods and equipment have resulted in a substantial improvement in understanding of the biological processes, structure, and function of biofilms. (elsevier.com)
  • Biofilms start with an individual bacterium or planktonic cell. (wcponline.com)
  • These planktonic cells may be thought of as the building blocks for biofilms. (wcponline.com)
  • Titration of RsmA induces the production of sessile and biofilm determinants, whereas free RsmA leads to a planktonic and more virulent lifestyle. (genome.jp)
  • High intracellular levels of c-di-GMP evoke the processes leading to the production of biofilm matrix, while a decrease in its level causes an increase in cell motility and transition into the planktonic forms of growth. (genome.jp)
  • Due to the protective role of the extracellular matrix, bacteria in a biofilm are more resistant to mechanical and chemical attacks than planktonic bacteria. (oup.com)
  • Experiments show that bacteria that are protected by biofilm are up to 1,000 times less susceptible to antibiotics than planktonic bacteria. (oup.com)
  • bacterial gene expression changes radically once bacteria form a biofilm, compared to the planktonic state. (oup.com)
  • It is well known that biofilm cells (sessile cells) are far more recalcitrant than planktonic cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Organisms within biofilms behave quite differently than their planktonic (i.e., free floating) counterparts. (cdc.gov)
  • Research has shown that biofilm-associated organisms are more resistant to antibiotics and disinfectants than are planktonic organisms, either because the cells are protected by the polymer matrix, or because they are physiologically different. (cdc.gov)
  • In this way, most bacteria do not have this planktonic structure in the human body, but in small networks called biofilms. (fruitofspirit.com)
  • Bacterial biofilms are slime that may consist of several types of bacteria. (wcponline.com)
  • That slime on the surface of water, particularly ponds, is also biofilm. (zmescience.com)
  • Biofilms, especially in water systems, are not present as a continuous slime or film, but are more often scanty and heterogeneous in nature. (cdc.gov)
  • Operating and maintaining equipment to prevent slime (biofilm), organic debris, and corrosion. (cdc.gov)
  • Even though the individual that are on the move are not attached it is probably useful to consider them still part of the biofilm and the detachment/reattachment behaviour as a biofilm process. (bio.net)
  • However, many facets of biofilms remain poorly understood, namely the fate or particulate organic matter, dynamics and rate of biofilm detachment, and factors influencing concentration gradients external to the biofilm surface, to name a few. (elsevier.com)
  • Improved biofilm models can also lead to the development of strategies to prevent and inhibit biofilms associated with infectious disease or to harness advantages of the bacterial community lifestyle for biofilm-associated environmental and industrial applications. (oist.jp)
  • Importantly, the TCDs could penetrate the biofilms to further effectively inhibit the growth of P. gingivalis under the biofilms. (dovepress.com)
  • The anti-biofilm effects are via cell wall disruption. (altmetric.com)
  • Specific Anti-biofilm Activity of Carbon Quantum Dots by Destroying P. (dovepress.com)
  • Carbon quantum dots with various biomedical properties are considered to have great application potential in antibacterial and anti-biofilm treatment. (dovepress.com)
  • What Is An Anti Biofilm Supplement? (fruitofspirit.com)
  • Although the composition of oral biofilms is well established, the active portion of the bacterial community and the patterns of gene expression in vivo have not been studied. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We could identify some gene expression patterns characteristic for early and mature oral biofilms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition to the specific set of gene functions overexpressed in early and mature oral biofilms, as detected through the short-reads dataset, the long-reads approach detected specific changes when comparing the metatranscriptome of the same individual before and after a meal, which can narrow down the list of organisms responsible for acid production and therefore potentially involved in dental caries. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Streptococcus mutans with other species of bacteria has been known to form dental biofilm. (who.int)
  • Objective: This study quantified dental biofilm through the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S), by Greene and Vermillion, in children with dental erosion, comparing them with children without this oral health condition. (bvsalud.org)
  • Dental biofilm. (bvsalud.org)
  • We will bring products to market through the development and application of innovative manufacturing technologies that improve biofilm removal - both in areas of medical importance to improve the lives of people worldwide, and in industry to achieve less waste in food production and savings in the cost of transported liquids. (edu.au)
  • Nevertheless, process designers exploit our newfound understanding to improve biofilm reactor and supporting control system designs. (elsevier.com)
  • Chapter Two discusses how to manage oral microbial biofilm using chemical and herbal medicine. (novapublishers.com)
  • Microbial biofilm research is now a feature of many scientific disciplines including biological sciences, medicine, chemistry, physics, computational modelling, engineering and ocean science. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • Revolutionary enzymatic mechanism to tackle microbial biofilm has been developed by a research team led by the Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre (RI-MUHC) and The Hospital for Sick Children. (medindia.net)
  • Biofilms on joint implants pose a particular threat, since it is difficult to eradicate biofilms with antibiotics, often necessitating additional surgery for implant removal and replacement. (oup.com)
  • There is great need for an immunotherapy that can be used alongside lower dose antibiotics or other antimicrobials to safely and effectively eradicate biofilms in infectious settings. (drugtargetreview.com)
  • The findings demonstrate a promising new method for improving the efficiency of periodontitis treatment by penetrating the P. gingivalis biofilm with preparations of nano-level antibacterial drugs. (dovepress.com)
  • World Water Works, Inc.'s IDEAL MBBR™ Moving Bed Biofilm Reactors upgrade existing industrial wastewater treatment facilities for overloaded, non-performing, and/or undersized systems. (eponline.com)
  • Researchers at the University of New Mexico conducted a series of experiments to understand the effects of surface roughness on annular nitrifying biofilm reactors (Roveto et al. (flow3d.com)
  • 2011) and moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBRs, Song et al. (flow3d.com)
  • Annular biofilm reactors are made up of a cylindrical reactor with a submerged rotating inner cylinder - a standard Taylor-Couette flow setup (Fig. 1, bottom left). (flow3d.com)
  • 2014). Because of this research, annular biofilm reactors are used with added skew to the inner cylinder of the reactor. (flow3d.com)
  • The application of biofilm mechanics and fundamental principles to understand biofilms and design biofilm reactors represents a paradigm shift from the historical approach, which was based on empirical criteria and design formulations. (elsevier.com)
  • While it is expected that the results of these studies can be used to improve the design and operation of biofilm reactors, there is a need to guide future research to the same end. (elsevier.com)
  • A basis for addressing this disconnection is presented by (1) describing the fundamental biofilm principles that can be uniformly applied to biofilms in several disciplines extending from medicine to environmental biotechnology, and (2) the presentation of a fundamental-based approach to understanding and applying biofilms in reactors. (elsevier.com)
  • 19 ] found that deletion of the major autolysin ( atl ) gene in MRSA strains impaired their ability to form FnBP-dependent biofilms. (hindawi.com)
  • Oral bacteria form dental plaque, a biofilm discovered for the first time in the 17th century, when Antonie van Leeuwenhoek observed it with his rudimental microscope. (oup.com)
  • What are biofilms and how do they form? (zmescience.com)
  • Specifically, how biofilms form on soft, tissue-like materials remains unknown. (elifesciences.org)
  • By learning how biofilms form, scientists can also determine how they recover after destruction from flooding, how long it takes them to recover, and how to encourage recovery. (stroudcenter.org)
  • A form of amyloid called curli is secreted by bacterial cells and is a major component of biofilms. (drugtargetreview.com)
  • 1438 It is inevitable that biofilms will form in most water systems. (cdc.gov)
  • 1439 Biofilms may form under stagnant as well as flowing conditions, so storage tanks, in addition to water system piping, may be vulnerable to the development of biofilm, especially if water temperatures are low enough to allow the growth of thermophilic bacteria (e.g. (cdc.gov)
  • Because of the potential to form biofilm, CDC recommends that all dental unit waterlines be treated regularly with disinfectants to meet the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulatory standards for drinking water (i.e., ≤500 colony forming units (CFU)/mL of heterotrophic water bacteria). (cdc.gov)
  • To form a biofilm, the bacteria first bind quickly to the surface and then build a polysaccharide structure that also. (fruitofspirit.com)
  • Here, we have expanded our observations to demonstrate that silver nanoparticles display dose-dependent activity against dual-species C. albicans/S. Aureus biofilms. (earthclinic.com)
  • Pilot tests for biofilm growth showed monospecies colonization consisting of cocci with time- and inocula-dependent increase after 24 h and 40 h (n = 4). (fu-berlin.de)
  • In n = 3 experiments for 24 h, with the same inocula, FISH visualized biofilms with ribosome-containing, and thus metabolic active cocci, tissue infiltration and similar colonization pattern as observed by the FISH in human IE heart valves infected by S. epidermidis. (fu-berlin.de)
  • The presence of exopolysaccharides, proteins, and extracellular DNA and RNA in biofilms was assessed by a dispersal assay. (hindawi.com)
  • Bacterial biofilms are complex microbial communities protected by an extracellular matrix composed of polysaccharides, proteins, and nucleic acids. (oup.com)
  • In this kind of MIC, cross-cell wall electron transport is required for SRB to utilize extracellular electrons released by Fe 0 oxidation in their cytoplasm for sulfate reduction, meaning that the biofilm must be electrogenic ( Gu, 2012 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • To create biofilms on porcine aortic valves the system was inoculated with Staphylococcus epidermidis PIA 8400. (fu-berlin.de)
  • With the exception of a brief discussion in Chapter 1, very little information is provided on the benefits and drawbacks of culture-independent methods to characterize clinically relevant biofilm communities. (cdc.gov)
  • These communities are called biofilms. (zmescience.com)
  • One of these complex communities is that found in the human oral dental plaque (hereinafter, human oral biofilm). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Biofilm microbial communities of denture stomatitis. (medscape.com)
  • In essence, the microbiome is the community of organisms present, and biofilms represent the habitat and biological environment in which the cells grow, evolve and adapt to their surroundings. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • We were able to use the microbe's own tools against them to attack and destroy the sugar molecules that hold the biofilm together," says the study's co-principal investigator, Dr. Don Sheppard, director of the Division of Infectious Diseases at the MUHC and scientist from the Infectious Diseases and Immunity in Global Health Program at the RI-MUHC. (medindia.net)
  • Dr Manos, a Senior Lecturer in Infectious Diseases at the University, thanked the IMCRC and Whiteley Corporation and said the partnership would expand on the work of Dr Das, a University postdoctoral fellow who developed a three-part treatment to tackle bacterial biofilms called combination therapy. (edu.au)
  • Bacterial and infectious biofilms can be the reason. (fruitofspirit.com)
  • IE is characterized by bacterial biofilms of the endocardium, especially of the aortic and mitral valve leading to their destruction. (fu-berlin.de)
  • A biofilm is a community of bacterial cells in which cells stick to each other and to a surface. (flow3d.com)
  • According to this paper , a bacterial biofilm is defined as "a structured community of bacterial cells enclosed in a self-produced polymeric matrix and adherent to an inert or living surface. (zmescience.com)
  • Chapter 1 provides a balanced comparison of static and continuous flow methods for growing biofilms that should be beneficial for researchers investigating biofilm development or dispersion, and for applied studies evaluating new treatment strategies for biofilm prevention and control. (cdc.gov)
  • Biofilms are a well-characterized mode of microbial growth of both single and multi-species populations. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • However, most natural biofilms are actually formed by multiple bacterial species. (dtu.dk)
  • The most recent advances in the understanding of multi-species biofilms are summarized and discussed in the review. (dtu.dk)
  • The permeability of the magnetic nanoparticles through the model alginate biofilm was enhanced 13.6 fold using an external magnetic field relative to the control (no magnetic field). (igert.org)
  • Fluorescent magnetic nanoparticles possessing different surface functional groups were individually evaluated for transport behavior in the alginate biofilm model. (igert.org)
  • Significant increases in transport rates of iron oxide nanoparticles through alginate biofilm were observed in the presence of a magnetic field. (igert.org)
  • Also silver nanoparticles demonstrated efficacy when tested against pre-formed C. albicans biofilms resulting in an IC50 of 0.48 ppm. (altmetric.com)
  • But in the wastewater treatment industry, biofilms can be harnessed to extract and digest organic compounds from sewage. (flow3d.com)
  • These nitrifying biofilms are used to improve the efficiency of the nitrification process in wastewater treatment systems. (flow3d.com)
  • This research suggests a method of increasing the efficiency of nitrifying biofilms in wastewater treatment plants. (flow3d.com)
  • However, to our knowledge this is the first study that has looked at the potential for magnetic nanoparticle to penetrate biofilms as carriers for drugs. (igert.org)
  • For instance, researchers are trying to develop antimicrobials that can penetrate deeper into a biofilm and for which antimicrobial resistance is less likely to arise. (oup.com)
  • For example, a search using PubMed for 2004-2016 identified 488 publications when using the search terms "biofilm and healthcare-associated infection" and 7,303 publications using the search terms "biofilm and public health," compared to 73 and 1,459 publications, respectively, for 1992-2003. (cdc.gov)
  • The research team studied the ways by which these two organisms formed the biofilm during the course of the infection. (medindia.net)
  • Biofilms can cause chronic infection and disease, and are difficult to eradicate, and are a problem in agriculture and medicine. (flow3d.com)
  • Finally, we demonstrate that V. cholerae biofilms can generate sufficient mechanical stress to deform and even disrupt soft epithelial cell monolayers, suggesting a mechanical mode of infection. (elifesciences.org)
  • If an epidemiologic investigation points to the water supply system as a possible source of infection, then water sampling for biofilm organisms should be considered so that prevention and control strategies can be developed. (cdc.gov)
  • Alarmingly the bugs hidden within the biofilms demonstrate an even greater capacity to resist antimicrobial treatments including antibiotics and disinfectants. (healthybuildingsaustralia.com)
  • In technical terms, bacterial biofilms are highly interactive, ubiquitous ecosystems consisting of individual bacterium bound to a foreign surface by a complex matrix. (wcponline.com)
  • The cells on the surface of the biofilm are aerobic, whereas those located deeper, where the oxygen concentration is low, are fermentative and dormant [ 4 , 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The biofilm forms a sticky coating on the surface of tissues or implants and protects the underlying organisms from being acted on by host immune mechanisms or antimicrobial agents. (medindia.net)
  • Sometimes clumps of biofilm can break away from the main mass and establish themselves on a new surface. (zmescience.com)
  • When we go and clean the surface using normal cleaning methods, most of the transient bugs will be removed, but not the biofilm and not the resident bugs within the biofilm. (healthybuildingsaustralia.com)
  • This finding of the presence of dry surface biofilms has proved to be a worldwide problem. (healthybuildingsaustralia.com)
  • Independent tests have shown that bacteria in a dry surface biofilm have more than 1,000 times more resistance to chlorine disinfectants. (healthybuildingsaustralia.com)
  • Conclusion(s): the smartphones can serve as a fomite, considering that biofilms were detected on the surface of the films. (bvsalud.org)
  • The overall goal of their research is to identify factors to control and manage biofilms and their extraordinary resistance to antimicrobial agents. (binghamton.edu)
  • This book contains eight chapters that examine biofilms from a variety of perspectives, including the latest research in this field. (novapublishers.com)
  • Supported by a commitment of £26 million over the next 5 years, including £12.5M funding from the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) and Innovate UK, with additional support from universities and industry, NBIC will bring the best of UK biofilm research together with UK companies from across multiple industry sectors to accelerate the adoption of new technologies into live products and services. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • NBIC's inclusive model means that other universities and companies conducting biofilm research can participate and benefit from partnership with the NBIC consortium. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • The UK is home to some of the most advanced research and commercial opportunities for the exploitation of biofilms so combining our talents gives us the best opportunity to establish a national, and international, agenda to tackle some of the world's biggest challenges and work seamlessly across academia and industry to stimulate growth in this vital area. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • The University of Birmingham is already a major player in biofilm research in many different disciplines. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • Research here ranges from studying biofilms in rivers, through using biofilms to improve stress resistance of biocatalysis, to investigating new ways to combat biofilms on medical devices or on human tissues, where they can cause serious health problems. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • Without healthy biofilms, we don't have healthy streams," says Marc Peipoch, Ph.D. , who in February joined the Stroud Center as an assistant research scientist and the principal investigator of the Ecosystem Ecology Group . (stroudcenter.org)
  • In July, the research team placed sterilized rocks in several flumes in the Stroud Center's stream house and ran stream water from White Clay Creek through the flumes over the course of three weeks - the amount of time previous studies have shown it takes for biofilms to mature. (stroudcenter.org)
  • Through research at the interface of Biology, Chemistry, and Engineering, major advances are being introduced to transform qualitative descriptors of biofilms into fundamental and quantitative parameters connecting biofilm composition, structure, assembly and function. (oist.jp)
  • This chapter describes unifying biofilm principles that are of importance to both research as well as modern biofilm reactor design and operation. (elsevier.com)
  • Fundamental principles describing biofilms exist as a result of focused research. (elsevier.com)
  • Part I is dedicated to basic research and communicating the state of the art with respect to understanding biofilms. (elsevier.com)
  • New research by mechanical engineers at Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, aims at fighting bacterial biofilms that can foul implantable medical devices. (medicaldesignbriefs.com)
  • The monoclonal antibody treatment detailed in this research loosens up the compact biofilms allowing for combination treatment. (drugtargetreview.com)
  • Chapter Four focuses on biofilm development, its impact on human health and the problems that are associated with biofilm control. (novapublishers.com)
  • Chapter Seven explains the concepts of biofilm development and the importance of honey and its implications in human health and disease control. (novapublishers.com)
  • Biofilm may be a potential protection factor against acid attacks and the development of dental erosion. (bvsalud.org)
  • In general, two biofilm phenotypes have been identified. (hindawi.com)
  • Some MRSA clinical isolates even produce biofilms of both phenotypes. (hindawi.com)
  • These three QS systems are involved in the regulation of virulence factor production, biofilm maturation, and motility phenotypes. (genome.jp)
  • In this subsequent study, they tested two different types of CA biofilms, one resistant to the antifungal, Fluconazole and one susceptible to Fluconazole. (earthclinic.com)
  • Biofilms protect bacteria from antibiotics and this can produce drug-resistant strains, especially the main pathogen of periodontitis, Porphyromonas gingivalis . (dovepress.com)
  • Bacteria within a biofilm can be 200 times more resistant to antibiotics. (healthybuildingsaustralia.com)
  • bacteria biofilms, the epidemiology of this community, the challenges in the eradication of such biofilms, and the most relevant treatments. (mdpi.com)
  • Acid treatments kill the biofilm, but they also kill beneficial bacteria and can harm the plants, meaning they can only be used before planting and after harvest. (arbico-organics.com)