Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Chlordecone: A highly chlorinated polycyclic hydrocarbon insecticide whose large number of chlorine atoms makes it resistant to degradation. It has been shown to be toxic to mammals and causes abnormal cellular changes in laboratory animals.Facial Asymmetry: Congenital or acquired asymmetry of the face.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Aotidae: A family of the New World monkeys inhabiting the forests of South and Central America. There is a single genus and several species occurring in this family, including AOTUS TRIVIRGATUS (Northern night monkeys).Candida albicans: A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).Bacterial Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.Streptococcus oralis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria that is numerous in the mouth and throat. It is a common cause of endocarditis and is also implicated in dental plaque formation.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Streptococcus mutans: A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Plasma Gases: Ionized gases, consisting of free electrons and ionized atoms or molecules which collectively behave differently than gas, solid, or liquid. Plasma gases are used in biomedical fields in surface modification; biological decontamination; dentistry (e.g., PLASMA ARC DENTAL CURING LIGHTS); and in other treatments (e.g., ARGON PLASMA COAGULATION).Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Brucea: A plant genus of the family SIMAROUBACEAE. Members contain bruceosides and bruceanols (quassinoids). The astringent seeds have been used to treat dysentery in southeastern Asia.Cetylpyridinium: Cationic bactericidal surfactant used as a topical antiseptic for skin, wounds, mucous membranes, instruments, etc.; and also as a component in mouthwash and lozenges.Quorum Sensing: A phenomenon where microorganisms communicate and coordinate their behavior by the accumulation of signaling molecules. A reaction occurs when a substance accumulates to a sufficient concentration. This is most commonly seen in bacteria.Peracetic Acid: A liquid that functions as a strong oxidizing agent. It has an acrid odor and is used as a disinfectant.Disinfectants: Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Dental Plaque: A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Chlorhexidine: A disinfectant and topical anti-infective agent used also as mouthwash to prevent oral plaque.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Anti-Infective Agents, Local: Substances used on humans and other animals that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. They are distinguished from DISINFECTANTS, which are used on inanimate objects.Mouth: The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Tobramycin: An aminoglycoside, broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by Streptomyces tenebrarius. It is effective against gram-negative bacteria, especially the PSEUDOMONAS species. It is a 10% component of the antibiotic complex, NEBRAMYCIN, produced by the same species.Equipment Contamination: The presence of an infectious agent on instruments, prostheses, or other inanimate articles.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Bioelectric Energy Sources: Electric power supply devices which convert biological energy, such as chemical energy of metabolism or mechanical energy of periodic movements, into electrical energy.Bioreactors: Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.Actinomyces: A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are nonmotile. Filaments that may be present in certain species are either straight or wavy and may have swollen or clubbed heads.Farnesol: A colorless liquid extracted from oils of plants such as citronella, neroli, cyclamen, and tuberose. It is an intermediate step in the biological synthesis of cholesterol from mevalonic acid in vertebrates. It has a delicate odor and is used in perfumery. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Brown Recluse Spider: A spider of the genus Loxosceles, found in the midwestern and other parts of the United States, which carries a hemolytic venom that produces local necrosis or ulceration.Stainless Steel: Stainless steel. A steel containing Ni, Cr, or both. It does not tarnish on exposure and is used in corrosive environments. (Grant & Hack's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Echinocandins: Cyclic hexapeptides of proline-ornithine-threonine-proline-threonine-serine. The cyclization with a single non-peptide bond can lead them to be incorrectly called DEPSIPEPTIDES, but the echinocandins lack ester links. Antifungal activity is via inhibition of 1,3-beta-glucan synthase production of BETA-GLUCANS.Fusobacterium nucleatum: A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the gingival margin and sulcus and from infections of the upper respiratory tract and pleural cavity.Bacterial Load: Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.Drug Resistance, Fungal: The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antifungal agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Silicones: A broad family of synthetic organosiloxane polymers containing a repeating silicon-oxygen backbone with organic side groups attached via carbon-silicon bonds. Depending on their structure, they are classified as liquids, gels, and elastomers. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)Catheter-Related Infections: Infections resulting from the use of catheters. Proper aseptic technique, site of catheter placement, material composition, and virulence of the organism are all factors that can influence possible infection.Silicone Elastomers: Polymers of silicone that are formed by crosslinking and treatment with amorphous silica to increase strength. They have properties similar to vulcanized natural rubber, in that they stretch under tension, retract rapidly, and fully recover to their original dimensions upon release. They are used in the encapsulation of surgical membranes and implants.Catheters: A flexible, tubular device that is used to carry fluids into or from a blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity.Polyvinyl Chloride: A polyvinyl resin used extensively in the manufacture of plastics, including medical devices, tubing, and other packaging. It is also used as a rubber substitute.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Tetrazolium Salts: Quaternary salts derived from tetrazoles. They are used in tests to distinguish between reducing sugars and simple aldehydes, for detection of dehydrogenase in tissues, cells, and bacteria, for determination of corticosteroids, and in color photography. (From Mall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed, p455)Erythrosine: A tetraiodofluorescein used as a red coloring in some foods (cherries, fish), as a disclosure of DENTAL PLAQUE, and as a stain of some cell types. It has structural similarity to THYROXINE.Streptococcus gordonii: A species of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family STREPTOCOCCACEAE. It is a normal inhabitant of the human oral cavity, and causes DENTAL PLAQUE and ENDOCARDITIS. It is being investigated as a vehicle for vaccine delivery.Alginates: Salts of alginic acid that are extracted from marine kelp and used to make dental impressions and as absorbent material for surgical dressings.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Fluconazole: Triazole antifungal agent that is used to treat oropharyngeal CANDIDIASIS and cryptococcal MENINGITIS in AIDS.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Candida: A genus of yeast-like mitosporic Saccharomycetales fungi characterized by producing yeast cells, mycelia, pseudomycelia, and blastophores. It is commonly part of the normal flora of the skin, mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina, but can cause a variety of infections, including CANDIDIASIS; ONYCHOMYCOSIS; vulvovaginal candidiasis (CANDIDIASIS, VULVOVAGINAL), and thrush (see CANDIDIASIS, ORAL). (From Dorland, 28th ed)Polystyrenes: Polymerized forms of styrene used as a biocompatible material, especially in dentistry. They are thermoplastic and are used as insulators, for injection molding and casting, as sheets, plates, rods, rigid forms and beads.Shewanella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic rods. It is a saprophytic, marine organism which is often isolated from spoiling fish.Antibiosis: A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.Amphotericin B: Macrolide antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nodosus obtained from soil of the Orinoco river region of Venezuela.

Resistance of artificial biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to imipenem and tobramycin. (1/4882)

Viable cells of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were entrapped in alginate gel layers and incubated in a minimal glucose (15 g/L)-yeast extract (2 g/L)-salt medium to form artificial biofilm-like structures. After cultivation for 2 days, the biomass distribution inside the polymer was highly heterogeneous. The cell number reached approximately 1011 cells/g gel in the outer regions of the gel structures whereas the inner areas were less colonized (c. 10(8) cells g/gel). Killing of immobilized organisms by imipenem and tobramycin were compared with free-cell experiments (inoculum c. 10(9) cells/mL). Sessile-like bacteria displayed a higher resistance to the two antibiotics used alone or in combination than did suspended cells. Exposure for 10 h to 20 x MIC imipenem and 15 x MIC tobramycin reduced the number of viable immobilized bacteria to 0.3% and 3%, respectively, of the initial cell population, whereas these antibiotic concentrations were much more efficient (bactericidal) against free-cell cultures (5 log kill in 6 h). A synergic effect of tobramycin and imipenem was detected on bacterial suspensions but not on biofilm-like structures. Effective diffusivity measurements showed that the diffusion of imipenem in the alginate layer was not hindered. A slight but significant enhancement of beta-lactamase induction in immobilized cells as compared with their suspended counterparts was insufficient to explain the high resistance of sessile-like bacteria.  (+info)

Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor: identification of a gene cluster required for the rugose colony type, exopolysaccharide production, chlorine resistance, and biofilm formation. (2/4882)

The rugose colony variant of Vibrio cholerae O1, biotype El Tor, is shown to produce an exopolysaccharide, EPSETr, that confers chlorine resistance and biofilm-forming capacity. EPSETr production requires a chromosomal locus, vps, that contains sequences homologous to carbohydrate biosynthesis genes of other bacterial species. Mutations within this locus yield chlorine-sensitive, smooth colony variants that are biofilm deficient. The biofilm-forming properties of EPSETr may enable the survival of V. cholerae O1 within environmental aquatic habitats between outbreaks of human disease.  (+info)

Surface-grafted, environmentally sensitive polymers for biofilm release. (3/4882)

Controlling bacterial biofouling is desirable for almost every human enterprise in which solid surfaces are introduced into nonsterile aqueous environments. One approach that is used to decrease contamination of manufactured devices by microorganisms is using materials that easily slough off accumulated material (i.e., fouling release surfaces). The compounds currently used for this purpose rely on low surface energy to inhibit strong attachment of organisms. In this study, we examined the possible use of environmentally responsive (or "smart") polymers as a new class of fouling release agents; a surface-grafted thermally responsive polymer, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAM), was used as a model compound. PNIPAAM is known to have a lower critical solubility temperature of approximately 32 degrees C (i.e., it is insoluble in water at temperatures above 32 degrees C and is soluble at temperatures below 32 degrees C). Under experimental conditions, >90% of cultured microorganisms (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Halomonas marina) and naturally occurring marine microorganisms that attached to grafted PNIPAAM surfaces during 2-, 18-, 36-, and 72-h incubations were removed when the hydration state of the polymer was changed from a wettability that was favorable for attachment to a wettability that was less favorable. Of particular significance is the observation that an organism known to attach in the greatest numbers to hydrophobic substrata (i.e., H. marina) was removed when transition of PNIPAAM to a more hydrated state occurred, whereas an organism that attaches in the greatest numbers to hydrophilic substrata (i.e., S. epidermidis) was removed when the opposite transition occurred. Neither solvated nor desolvated PNIPAAM exhibited intrinsic fouling release properties, indicating that the phase transition was the important factor in removal of organisms. Based on our observations of the behavior of this model system, we suggest that environmentally responsive polymers represent a new approach for controlling biofouling release.  (+info)

Ultrasonic enhancement of antibiotic action on Escherichia coli biofilms: an in vivo model. (4/4882)

Biofilm infections are a common complication of prosthetic devices in humans. Previous in vitro research has determined that low-frequency ultrasound combined with aminoglycoside antibiotics is an effective method of killing biofilms. We report the development of an in vivo model to determine if ultrasound enhances antibiotic action. Two 24-h-old Escherichia coli (ATCC 10798) biofilms grown on polyethylene disks were implanted subcutaneously on the backs of New Zealand White female rabbits, one on each side of the spine. Low-frequency (28.48-kHz) and low-power-density (100- and 300-mW/cm2) continuous ultrasound treatment was applied for 24 h with and without systemic administration of gentamicin. The disks were then removed, and the number of viable bacteria on each disk was determined. At the low ultrasonic power used in this study, exposure to ultrasound only (no gentamicin) caused no significant difference in bacterial viability. In the presence of antibiotic, there was a significant reduction due to 300-mW/cm2 ultrasound (P = 0.0485) but no significant reduction due to 100-mW/cm2 ultrasound. Tissue damage to the skin was noted at the 300-mW/cm2 treatment level. Further development of this technique has promise in treatment of clinical implant infections.  (+info)

Study of the response of a biofilm bacterial community to UV radiation. (5/4882)

We have developed a bioluminescent whole-cell biosensor that can be incorporated into biofilm ecosystems. RM4440 is a Pseudomonas aeruginosa FRD1 derivative that carries a plasmid-based recA-luxCDABE fusion. We immobilized RM4440 in an alginate matrix to simulate a biofilm, and we studied its response to UV radiation damage. The biofilm showed a protective property by physical shielding against UV C, UV B, and UV A. Absorption of UV light by the alginate matrix translated into a higher survival rate than observed with planktonic cells at similar input fluences. UV A was shown to be effectively blocked by the biofilm matrix and to have no detectable effects on cells contained in the biofilm. However, in the presence of photosensitizers (i.e., psoralen), UV A was effective in inducing light production and cell death. RM4440 has proved to be a useful tool to study microbial communities in a noninvasive manner.  (+info)

Characterization of the importance of polysaccharide intercellular adhesin/hemagglutinin of Staphylococcus epidermidis in the pathogenesis of biomaterial-based infection in a mouse foreign body infection model. (6/4882)

The production of biofilm is thought to be crucial in the pathogenesis of prosthetic-device infections caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis. An experimental animal model was used to assess the importance of biofilm production, which is mediated by polysaccharide intercellular adhesin/hemagglutinin (PIA/HA), in the pathogenesis of a biomaterial-based infection. Mice were inoculated along the length of a subcutaneously implanted intravenous catheter with either wild-type S. epidermidis 1457 or its isogenic PIA/HA-negative mutant. The wild-type strain was significantly more likely to cause a subcutaneous abscess than the mutant strain (P < 0.01) and was significantly less likely to be eradicated from the inoculation site by host defense (P < 0.05). In addition, the wild-type strain was found to adhere to the implanted catheters more abundantly than the PIA/HA-negative mutant (P < 0.05). The reliability of the adherence assay was assessed by scanning electron microscopy. To exclude contamination or spontaneous infection, bacterial strains recovered from the experimental animals were compared to inoculation strains by analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. In vitro binding of the wild-type strain and its isogenic mutant to a fibronectin-coated surface was similar. These results confirm the importance of biofilm production, mediated by PIA/HA, in the pathogenesis of S. epidermidis experimental foreign body infection.  (+info)

Characterization of Staphylococcus epidermidis polysaccharide intercellular adhesin/hemagglutinin in the pathogenesis of intravascular catheter-associated infection in a rat model. (7/4882)

Biofilm production is thought to be a crucial factor in the ability of Staphylococcus epidermidis to produce a biomaterial-based infection. A rat central venous catheter (CVC)-associated infection model was used to assess the importance of biofilm production, mediated by polysaccharide intercellular adhesin/hemagglutinin (PIA/HA), in the pathogenesis of intravascular catheter-associated infection. PIA/HA-positive S. epidermidis 1457 was significantly more likely to cause a CVC-associated infection (71 versus 14%, P < 0.03) resulting in bacteremia and metastatic disease than its isogenic PIA/HA-negative mutant. These results confirm the importance of biofilm production, mediated by PIA/HA, in the pathogenesis of S. epidermidis experimental CVC-associated infection.  (+info)

Characterization of the relationship between polysaccharide intercellular adhesin and hemagglutination in Staphylococcus epidermidis. (8/4882)

To determine whether a relationship exists between biofilm formation and hemagglutination in Staphylococcus epidermidis, 20 skin isolates and 19 prosthetic valve endocarditis isolates were characterized for biofilm formation, hemagglutination, and the presence of a 357-bp polymerase chain reaction product within icaA. A strong association existed between biofilm formation, which has been linked to strains that produce polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA), and hemagglutination. Strains that produced biofilm were significantly (P<.001) more likely to mediate hemagglutination (16 biofilm-positive/hemagglutination-positive strains and 19 biofilm-negative/hemagglutination-negative strains) within the 39 clinical strains tested. In addition, Staphylococcus carnosus TM300, a biofilm-negative, hemagglutination-negative strain, carrying the ica operon-containing plasmid pCN27, produced significant biofilm on glass and mediated hemagglutination (>/=1/128). It was concluded that production of PIA and hemagglutination are strongly associated and that PIA, at least in part, mediates hemagglutination in S. epidermidis.  (+info)

*Staphylococcus haemolyticus

Biofilm formation[edit]. The ability to adhere to medical devices and subsequently form biofilms is a major virulence factor ... Biofilm formation also appears to be influenced by the presence of glucose and NaCl. Biofilm formation is enhanced when ... haemolyticus biofilms. Biofilms formed in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of dicloxacillin contain less biomass ... Biofilm formation is influenced by a variety of factors including carbohydrates, proteins, and extracellular DNA. Detachment ...

*Corrosion

Biofilm coatings[edit]. A new form of protection has been developed by applying certain species of bacterial films to the ... Alternatively, antimicrobial-producing biofilms can be used to inhibit mild steel corrosion from sulfate-reducing bacteria.[6] ... "Inhibiting mild steel corrosion from sulfate-reducing bacteria using antimicrobial-producing biofilms in Three-Mile-Island ...

*Roberto Kolter

... a TED-ED animation on biofilms Biofilm Up Close, FASEB Bioart Award-winning image in The Scientist in 2016 Turning Point: ... but the genetics of biofilm formation was unexplored and most microbiologists did not view biofilm formation as a physiological ... living within communities called biofilms, and to consider biofilms as developmental and multicellular forms of microbes. The ... Before then, biofilms had been discovered and were studied in the context of biofouling and in engineering solutions to prevent ...

*Peptidoglycan

The peptidoglycan monomers are synthesized in the cytosol and are then attached to a membrane carrier bactoprenol. Bactoprenol transports peptidoglycan monomers across the cell membrane where they are inserted into the existing peptidoglycan.[6] In the first step of peptidoglycan synthesis, glutamine, which is an amino acid, donates an amino group to a sugar, fructose 6-phosphate. This turns fructose 6-phosphate into glucosamine-6-phosphate. In step two, an acetyl group is transferred from acetyl CoA to the amino group on the glucosamine-6-phosphate creating N-acetyl-glucosamine-6-phosphate.[7] In step three of the synthesis process, the N-acetyl-glucosamine-6-phosphate is isomerized, which will change N-acetyl-glucosamine-6-phosphate to N-acetyl-glucosamine-1-phosphate.[7] In step 4, the N-acetyl-glucosamine-1-phosphate, which is now a monophosphate, attacks UTP. Uridine triphosphate, which is a pyrimidine nucleotide, has the ability to act as an energy source. In this particular reaction, ...

*Bacterial phyla

The bacterial phyla are the major lineages, known as phyla or divisions, of the domain Bacteria. In the scientific classification established by Carl von Linné,[2] each bacterial strain has to be assigned to a species (binary nomenclature), which is a lower level of a hierarchy of ranks. Currently, the most accepted mega-classification system is under the three-domain system, which is based on molecular phylogeny. In that system, bacteria are members of the domain Bacteria[3] and "phylum" is the rank below domain, since the rank "kingdom" is disused at present in bacterial taxonomy.[4][Note 1] When bacterial nomenclature was controlled under the Botanical Code, the term division was used, but now that bacterial nomenclature (with the exception of cyanobacteria) is controlled under the Bacteriological Code, the term phylum is preferred. In this classification scheme, Bacteria is (unofficially)[Note 2] subdivided into 30 phyla with representatives cultured in a lab.[5][6][7] Many major clades of ...

*Catabolite repression

... was extensively studied in Escherichia coli. E. coli grows faster on glucose than on any other carbon source. For example, if E. coli is placed on an agar plate containing only glucose and lactose, the bacteria will use glucose first and lactose second. When glucose is available in the environment, the synthesis of β-galactosidase is under repression due to the effect of catabolite repression caused by glucose. The catabolite repression in this case is achieved through the utilization of phosphotransferase system. An important enzyme from the phosphotransferase system called Enzyme II A (EIIA) plays a central role in this mechanism. There are different catabolite-specific EIIA in a single cell, even though different bacterial groups have specificities to different sets of catabolites. In enteric bacteria one of the EIIA enzymes in their set is specific for glucose transport only. When glucose levels are high inside the bacteria, EIIA mostly exists in its unphosphorylated ...

*Gram-negative bacteria

Bacteria are traditionally divided into the two groups: gram-positive and gram-negative, based on their gram-staining response. Gram-positive bacteria are also referred to as monoderms having one membrane, and gram-negative bacteria are also referred to as diderms, having two membranes. These groups are often thought of as lineages, with gram-negative bacteria more closely related to one another than to gram-positive bacteria. While this is often true, the classification system breaks down in some cases. A given bacteria's staining result, bacterial membrane organization, and lineage groupings do not always match up.[6][7][8][9] Thus, gram-staining cannot be reliably used to assess familial relationships of bacteria. However, staining often gives reliable information about the composition of the cell membrane, distinguishing between the presence or absence of an outer lipid membrane.[6][10] Of these two structurally distinct groups of prokaryotic organisms, monoderm prokaryotes are indicated to ...

*GFAJ-1

NASA's announcement of a news conference "that will impact the search for evidence of extraterrestrial life" was criticized as sensationalistic and misleading; an editorial in New Scientist commented "although the discovery of alien life, if it ever happens, would be one of the biggest stories imaginable, this was light-years from that".[31][32] In addition, many experts who have evaluated the paper have concluded that the reported studies do not provide enough evidence to support the claims made by the authors.[33] In an online article on Slate, science writer Carl Zimmer discussed the skepticism of several scientists: "I reached out to a dozen experts ... Almost unanimously, they think the NASA scientists have failed to make their case".[34][35] Chemist Steven A. Benner has expressed doubts that arsenate has replaced phosphate in the DNA of this organism. He suggested that the trace contaminants in the growth medium used by Wolfe-Simon in her laboratory cultures are sufficient to supply the ...

*Arabinogalactan

The reducing end of microbial arabinogalactan consists of the terminal sequence →5)-D-Galf-(1→4)-L-Rhap-(1→3)-D-GlcNAc[citation needed]. A muramyl-6-P is also found within the peptidoglycan functional group. The mycolylarabinogalactan of mycobacteria is attached to the peptidoglycan by the actinomycete-specific diglycosylphosphoryl bridge, L-Rhap-(1→3)-D-GlcNAc-(1→P).[3]. Arabinogalactan contains a galactan chain, with alternating 5-linked β-D-galactofuranosyl (Galf) and 6-linked β-D-Galf residues. The arabinan chains are attached to C-5 of some of the 6-linked Galf residues. There are three major structural domains for arabinan. The first is a domain consisting of linear 5-linked α-D-Araf residues. The second is a domain with branched 3,5 linked α-D-Araf residues substituted with 5-linked α-D-Araf units at both branched positions, and the third is A terminal non-reducing domain for end arabinan consisting of a 3,5-linked α-D-Araf residue substituted at both branched positions ...

*Cis-2-Decenoic acid

It could be used to fight again Biofilm implied in infectious diseases, that are present in more than 60% of Hospital-acquired ... Marques, CN; Davies, DG; Sauer, K. "Control of Biofilms with the Fatty Acid Signaling Molecule cis-2-Decenoic Acid". ... Davies, DG; Marques, CN (2009). "A fatty acid messenger is responsible for inducing dispersion in microbial biofilms". Journal ... Bryers, JD (2008). "Medical biofilms". Biotechnol. Bioeng. 100: 1-18. doi:10.1002/bit.21838. PMC 2706312 . PMID 18366134. ...

*Protein adsorption in the food industry

A biofilm is a community of microorganisms adsorbed to a surface. Microorganisms in biofilms are enclosed in a polymeric matrix ... Biofilms on food processing surfaces can be a biological hazard to food safety. Increased chemical resistance in biofilms can ... Biofilms form on solid substrates such as stainless steel. A biofilm's enclosing polymeric matrix offers protection to its ... Tarver, Toni (2009). "Biofilms: A Threat to Food Safety". Food Technology. 63 (2): 46-52. Visser, J; Jeurnink, Th. J. M (1997 ...

*Candida albicans

Such C. albicans biofilms may form on the surface of implantable medical devices or organs. In these biofilms it is often found ... C. albicans is the most common fungal species isolated from biofilms either formed on (permanent) implanted medical devices or ... Donlan RM (2001). "Biofilm formation: a clinically relevant microbiological process". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 33 (8): ... ISBN 978-1-55581-539-4. Kumamoto CA (2002). "Candida biofilms". Current Opinion in Microbiology. 5 (6): 608-11. doi:10.1016/ ...

*Prokaryote

"Direct Observations". The Biofilm Primer. Springer Series on Biofilms. 1. 2007. pp. 3-4. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-68022-2_2. ISBN ... When such communities are encased in a stabilizing polymer matrix ("slime"), they may be called "biofilms". Cells in biofilms ... Bacterial biofilms may be 100 times more resistant to antibiotics than free-living unicells and may be nearly impossible to ... Biofilms may be highly heterogeneous and structurally complex and may attach to solid surfaces, or exist at liquid-air ...

*Bacteria

These biofilms and mats can range from a few micrometres in thickness to up to half a metre in depth, and may contain multiple ... Biofilms are also important in medicine, as these structures are often present during chronic bacterial infections or in ... Donlan RM (2002). "Biofilms: microbial life on surfaces". Emerg Infect Dis. 8 (9): 881-90. doi:10.3201/eid0809.020063. PMC ... Bacteria living in biofilms display a complex arrangement of cells and extracellular components, forming secondary structures, ...

*Phagoburn

"Bacteriophages and Biofilms". Antibiotics. 3 (3): 270-284. doi:10.3390/antibiotics3030270. Main website. ...

*Pseudomonas

Biofilm formationEdit. All species and strains of Pseudomonas have historically been classified as strict aerobes. Exceptions ... Some recent studies have shown phenotypic resistance associated to biofilm formation or to the emergence of small-colony- ... 2002). "Anaerobic metabolism and quorum sensing by Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in chronically infected cystic fibrosis ... Exopolysaccharide production also contributes to surface-colonising biofilms that are difficult to remove from food preparation ...

*Agent-based model in biology

Biofilm structures that are formed in simulation can be viewed as a movie using POV-Ray files that are generated as the ... This study explored the hypothesis that poor plasmid spread in biofilms is caused by a dependence of conjugation on the growth ... iDynoMiCS can be used to seek to understand how individual microbial dynamics lead to emergent population- or biofilm-level ... In the article titled "iDynoMiCS: next-generation individual-based modelling of biofilms", an agent-based model is presented ...

*Host tropism

For example, biofilm production allows bacteria to adhere to the host tissue surface, and it provides a protective environment ... Aparna, Madhu Sharma; Yadav, Sarita (2008-12-01). "Biofilms: microbes and disease". Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases. ...

*Sinusitis

Bacteria found in biofilms have their antibiotic resistance increased up to 1000 times when compared to free-living bacteria of ... Biofilms are complex aggregates of extracellular matrix and inter-dependent microorganisms from multiple species, many of which ... A recent study found that biofilms were present on the mucosa of 75% of people undergoing surgery for chronic sinusitis. Health ... Palmer JN (2005). "Bacterial biofilms: do they play a role in chronic sinusitis?". Otolaryngol. Clin. North Am. 38 (6): 1193- ...

*Endospore

Under conditions of starvation, especially the lack of carbon and nitrogen sources, a single endospore forms within some of the bacteria. The process is called sporulation.[13] When a bacterium detects environmental conditions are becoming unfavourable it may start the process of endosporulation, which takes about eight hours. The DNA is replicated and a membrane wall known as a spore septum begins to form between it and the rest of the cell. The plasma membrane of the cell surrounds this wall and pinches off to leave a double membrane around the DNA, and the developing structure is now known as a forespore. Calcium dipicolinate, the calcium salt of dipicolinic acid, is incorporated into the forespore during this time. The dipicolinic acid helps stabilize the proteins and DNA in the endospore.[14]:141 Next the peptidoglycan cortex forms between the two layers and the bacterium adds a spore coat to the outside of the forespore. In the final stages of endospore formation the newly forming ...

*Cellulase

Fleming, Derek; Rumbaugh, Kendra P. (2017-04-01). "Approaches to Dispersing Medical Biofilms". Microorganisms. 5 (2). doi: ... and it has exhibited efficacy in degrading polymicrobial bacterial biofilms by hydrolyzing the β(1-4) glycosidic linkages ... "Glycoside Hydrolases Degrade Polymicrobial Bacterial Biofilms in Wounds". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 61 (2). doi: ...

*Extracellular polymeric substance

These compounds are important in biofilm formation and cells attachment to surfaces. EPSs constitute 50% to 90% of a biofilm's ... Biofilms: Recent Advances in their Study and Control, CRC Press, p. 20, ISBN 978-9058230935 Donlan RM (2002). "Biofilms: ... Bacteria existing in biofilms are less vulnerable compared to planktonic bacteria, as the EPS matrix is able to act as a ... This can be useful in the treatment of wastewater systems, as biofilms are able to bind to and remove metals such as copper, ...

*Dokdonia donghaensis

Biofilm formation serves a purpose for marine bacteria in that it increases their resistance to antimicrobial agents, ... Biofilms allow the microbes to attach to surfaces by excreting extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Marine bacteria that ... D. donghaensis is able to form biofilms in marine habitats, which is a survival strategy that allows the organism to grow while ... 66 (3): 1301-5. Burmølle, M; Webb, JS; Rao, D; Hansen, LH; Sørensen, SJ; Kjelleberg, S (2006). "Enhanced biofilm formation and ...

*Alpha-amylase

α-Amylase has exhibited efficacy in degrading polymicrobial bacterial biofilms by hydrolyzing the α(1-4) glycosidic linkages ... Fleming, Derek; Rumbaugh, Kendra P. (2017-04-01). "Approaches to Dispersing Medical Biofilms". Microorganisms. 5 (2). doi: ... "Glycoside Hydrolases Degrade Polymicrobial Bacterial Biofilms in Wounds". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 61 (2). doi: ...

*Glycoside hydrolase

... of microbial biofilms. Medically, biofilms afford infectious microorganisms a variety of advantages over their planktonic, fre- ... Thus, degrading the biofilm may increase antibiotic efficacy, and potentiate host immune function and healing ability. For ... Fleming, Derek; Rumbaugh, Kendra P. (2017-04-01). "Approaches to Dispersing Medical Biofilms". Microorganisms. 5 (2). doi: ... "Glycoside Hydrolases Degrade Polymicrobial Bacterial Biofilms in Wounds". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 61 (2). doi: ...

*Oral ecology

Biofilms are communities of bacteria, or micro-organisms, attached to surfaces in the body. Oral biofilms are more commonly ... While in their prime, biofilms can cause major damage to a person's teeth and gums. Though damaging, biofilms can be partly ... "Biofilms, Microbial Ecology and Antoni Van Leeuwenhoek." Slavkin, HC. "Biofilms, Microbial Ecology and Antoni Van Leeuwenhoek ... Since bacteria can grow exponentially in short periods of time, it can quickly and easily create biofilms. Third, the biofilm ...
The fungal pathogen Candida albicans is a leading cause of device-associated and other nosocomial infections. The traits of biofilm formation and invasion into an underlying surface are important for Candida to cause disease. In this dissertation, I describe my work, which reveals a novel role for glycerol in C. albicans biofilm formation and hyphal invasion. Through genomewide expression profiling it was observed that glycerol biosynthetic genes were highly upregulated in biofilms relative to the planktonic (suspension) cultures. Consistent with this observation, cells in a biofilm also accumulated higher amounts of glycerol then non-biofilm cells. In order to study the impact of glycerol on biofilm formation I made a deletion mutant, rhr2Δ/Δ, in the gene encoding glycerol-3-phosphatase. Under in vitro conditions, the rhr2Δ/Δ mutant has reduced biofilm biomass and reduced adherence to silicone. The mutant is also severely defective in biofilm formation in the rat venous catheter model of biofilm
Biofilm formation on medical devices is a common cause of implant failure, especially regarding implants that breach the epithelial tissue, so-called transcutaneous implants. Nanotechnology and the development of new nanomaterials have given the opportunity to design nanotextured implant surfaces. Such surfaces have been studied using various in vitro methods showing that nanosized features strongly benefit bone cell growth. However, little is known on how nanostructured features affect biofilm formation. The aim of this study was therefore to examine the shape- and chemical-dependent effect of a nanostructured hydroxyapatite (HA) coating on the degree of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation. Three different types of nanosized HA particles having different shapes and calcium to phosphate ratios were compared to uncoated turned titanium using safranin stain in a biofilm assay and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) for assessment of biofilm biomass and bacterial volume, ...
Biofilm-associated infections are hard to treat because of their high antibiotic resistance and the presence of a very persistent subpopulation of bacteria. The second messenger molecule cyclic di-guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) plays a very important role in this biofilm physiology. Here, we evaluated the role of YddV, an enzyme with a c-di-GMP synthesis function, in the formation and maturation of Escherichia coli biofilms. Our results suggest that YddV stimulates biofilm growth via its role in the production of c-di-GMP and this likely by influencing the production of matrix (e.g. poly-N-acetylglucosamine (PGA)). However, lowering the YddV expression did not alter the biofilm formation since there was no significant difference between the biofilm phenotypes of WT E. coli and YddV-knockout bacteria. Additionally, YddV expression had no significant influence on the amount of persister cells within the biofilm population, questioning the use of YddV as therapeutic target. (C) 2016 Published ...
Biofilms have been implicated as an important reservoir for pathogens and commensal enteric bacteria such as Escherichia coli in natural and engineered water systems. However, the processes that regulate the survival of E. coli in aquatic biofilms have not been thoroughly studied. We examined the effects of hydrodynamic shear and nutrient concentrations on E. coli colonization of pre-established Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms, co-inoculation of E. coli and P. aeruginosa biofilms, and P. aeruginosa colonization of pre-established E. coli biofilms. In nutritionally-limited R2A medium, E. coli dominated biofilms when co-inoculated with P. aeruginosa, and successfully colonized and overgrew pre-established P. aeruginosa biofilms. In more enriched media, P. aeruginosa formed larger clusters, but E. coli still extensively overgrew and colonized the interior of P. aeruginosa clusters. In mono-culture, E. coli formed sparse and discontinuous biofilms. After P. aeruginosa was introduced to these biofilms, E.
Staphylococcus aureus extracellular DNA (eDNA) plays a crucial role in the structural stability of biofilms during bacterial colonization; on the contrary, host immune responses can be induced by bacterial eDNA. Previously, we observed production of S. aureus thermonuclease during the early stages of biofilm formation in a mammalian cell culture medium. Using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based assay, we detected thermonuclease activity of S. aureus biofilms grown in Iscoves modified Dulbeccos medium (IMDM) earlier than that of widely studied biofilms grown in tryptic soy broth (TSB). The thermonuclease found was Nuc1, confirmed by mass spectrometry and competitive Luminex assay. These results indicate that biofilm development in IMDM may not rely on eDNA for structural stability. A bacterial viability assay in combination with wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) staining confirmed the accumulation of dead cells and eDNA in biofilms grown in TSB. However, in biofilms grown in IMDM, ...
Biofilms are ubiquitous in aquatic environments. Biofilms have been shown to attract and harbor pathogens such as P. aeruginosa and Legionella pneumophila in premise plumbing system. The fact that biofilms can protect attached bacterial cells from disinfectants raises rudimentary questions regarding interactions of bacterial cells with biofilm surfaces. Consequently, the main objectives of this study were to: 1) investigate the mechanisms that govern E. coli S17, E. coli 14f and Legionella cells adhesion on clean PVC, copper and biofilms; 2) examine the role of disinfectants on biofilms structure and subsequent effect on bacterial adhesion. Mechanisms of three strains of bacteria attachment on biofilms grown on PVC and copper surfaces were investigated. Biofilms were grown in CDC reactors using different types of feed water such as groundwater, monochloramine-treated groundwater, dechlorinated tap water and tap water. Biofilm physical structure was characterized at micro- and meso-scales using ...
In the majority of cases, the surface-associated multicellular communities found in a wide variety of natural and pathogenic ecosystems are formed in the presence of multiple diverse species and genetically distinct strains. In recent years, well-controlled in vitro biofilm model systems have revealed a diversity of molecular mechanisms contributing to development and maturation of single-species biofilms. The mechanisms underlying the biofilm development in the presence of these multispecies consortia are expected to involve even higher degrees of complexity; however, our understanding of mixed-species biofilms is hampered by the limited number of model systems that have been applied to date. The goal of this study was to test the capacity of a simple in vitro model to reveal factors contributing to the formation of more complex biofilm communities. The suitability of this approach to high-throughput analyses was demonstrated with a systematic survey of a large collection of E. coli isolates ...
The oral microbial ecology is comprised of hundreds of bacterial species that co-exist as multispecies biofilms throughout a range of ecological niches in the oral cavity. However, little is known concerning the interactions of these complex biofilms with host cells. Objective: This study used a novel model of multispecies bacterial biofilms to stimulate oral epithelial cells and profile select cytokines and chemokines that contribute to the local inflammatory environment in the periodontium. Method: Three multispecies biofilms comprising Streptococcus gordonii/S. oralis/S. sanguinis, Sg/Fusobacterium nucleatum/Porphyromonas gingivalis and Sg/Actinomyces naeslundii/Fn were grown for 3 days on rigid gas permeable contact lens pre-coated with 1% fetal bovine serum. OKF4 oral epithelial cells were cultured in 48 well plates at 105 cells/well, which were challenged with the biofilms for 24 hrs. Controls included incubation of the epithelial cells alone or overlaid with contact lens alone. A profile ...
Cells in bacterial biofilms are often less susceptible to host immune responses and antibiotics than cells grown in suspension (18). Biofilms may also provide a protective environment for pathogens, which, when released from the biofilm, may result in contamination of drinking water and medical fluids in delivery devices such as dialysis machines, venous catheters, dental water lines, and airway ventilators. Life-threatening infection caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis patients is a well-known example (8). Since biofilm formation in itself can be considered a virulence factor, it is important to understand the mechanisms which influence biofilm accumulation, structure, and behavior. Both hydrodynamics and cell signaling have been found to influence the structure of P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilms. Stoodley et al. (27) reported that, under conditions of low-shear laminar flow, the biofilm consisted of a monolayer of cells with mound-shaped circular microcolonies but under high-shear, ...
S. aureus is a frequent etiological agent of biofilm infections on indwelling devices and orthopedic implants (9, 36), and recent reports by our group and others have demonstrated that biofilms can skew the immune response to favor anti-inflammatory and profibrotic pathways, which likely contribute to biofilm persistence (17, 18). To overcome this immune deviation and provide a novel treatment strategy for biofilm infections, we augmented antimicrobial activity through the local administration of classically activated M1 MΦs or treatment with the CD88 agonist EP67, which invokes MΦ proinflammatory responses. Early administration of M1-activated MΦs or EP67 limited biofilm formation, and treatment of established biofilm infections with M1-activated MΦs also significantly reduced catheter-associated biofilm burdens. Based on this evidence, we have identified a novel therapeutic strategy to limit S. aureus catheter-associated biofilm infections by targeting MΦ activation, which may extend to ...
Fluorescently labelled latex microbeads were used to study the interaction of particles with Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in a continuous flow annular reactor. Beads were readily distinguished and enumerated in both intact and disaggregated biofilm samples. The fraction of beads that attached to biofilm during a 24 h period ranged from 0.001 to 0.01 and was proportional to biofilm cell carbon and to the standard deviation of biofilm thickness. Microbeads added to biofilm of steady state thickness (30 μm) were observed to be located throughout the entire biofilm depth in 24 h. Many of the microbeads that attached to biofilm shortly after bacterial inoculation (thickness of 2 μm) remained near the substratum as cells grew past and covered them. Microbeads were observed near the biofilm-substratum interface for up to 5 days after bead addition. Beads formed aggregates on biofilms, but not in bulk water. Beads captured by biofilm remained in the reactor system longer than beads that never ...
S. mutans UA159 and its derivative mutant strain luxS- [54] were incubated in Brain Heart Infusion Broth (BHI, Difco Labs, Detroit, USA) at 37°C in 95% air/5% CO2 (v/v), with the addition of erythromycin (10 μg/ml) in the case of the luxS- strain. Cultures of S. mutans were diluted 1:50, inoculated into fresh BHI media and grown in polystyrene tubes for 24 h (37°C, 95% air/5% CO2 (v/v)) for planktonic culture generation. The biofilm of luxS- was grown in BHI with addition of erythromycin (10 μg/ml) in 20-mm diameter, 15-mm deep sterile polystyrene multidishes (NUNCLON-143982, Roskilde, Denmark), as described previously [14].. As biofilm thickness plays a crucial role in mature biofilm development, we generated biofilms of wild-type bacteria under controlled nutrition flow and controlled biofilm depth conditions, by using the constant depth film fermentor (CDFF) [55]. The rotating turntable in the CDFF contained 15 polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) pans, rotated under PTFE scraper bars that ...
It is clear from many investigations that biofilm-associated cells display high-level tolerance to many antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents, creating considerable problems in removing biofilms from both abiotic and biotic surfaces in various settings, including in patients with infections (6). However, it is less clear if antibiotic tolerance is a shared feature of all biofilm-associated cells or if this property is associated with only parts of the biofilm populations. It is also not clear whether the biofilm-associated antibiotic tolerance is a direct consequence of the biofilm lifestyle per se or whether indirect induction of tolerance occurs in ways similar to what may even be the case for planktonic cells grown under special conditions. In order to obtain a more direct identification of the survivors after antibiotic treatment of biofilms, it is necessary to visualize them in situ. In the present context, we found it particularly interesting to investigate whether the stalk- and ...
A key problem in understanding major transitions in evolution is the evolution of cooperation: how are mutants that exploit the benefits of cooperation without paying the costs (cheats) suppressed within populations? Biofilms, which display properties of both single cell and multicellular organisms, provide an excellent model system to address this question. Biofilms exhibit grouped population structure - they exist primarily as dense aggregates of cells called microcolonies. We aim to test the hypothesis that cell-grouping displayed by microcolonies in bacterial biofilms provides a mechanism to suppress cheats within the biofilm population. We are using the co-operative trait of siderophore production (an extracellular iron-chelating molecule) within Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms to investigate cooperation in biofilms. Under iron-limited conditions, production of siderophores enhanced wild type growth, but microcolonies containing GFP-tagged, pyoverdin-mutant cheats developed poorly. In ...
Introduction: The discovery of new antimicrobials derived from plants could aid in the management of biofilm-associated infections, including denture-induced stomatitis (DS). DS is an oral infection caused by Candida biofilms on the surfaces of poorly cleansed dentures. Effective treatment of DS requires the use of an appropriate denture cleanser and preferably one that exhibits antimicrobial properties. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the anti-Candida and anti-biofilm efficacy of two essential plant oils from Cymbopogon winterianus (citronella) and Cinnamon cassia (cinnamon). Materials and methods: Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) and Minimum Fungicidal Concentrations (MFCs) were determined by broth microdilution, whilst anti-biofilm activity was measured against mature (cultured for 72 h) biofilms on acrylic surfaces. Candida cell viability was assessed immediately (0 h) after treatment (T0) and 48 h after biofilm re-growth (T48). Biofilm structure was determined using Scanning ...
The third chapter aimed to study the role of persisters in determining the spatial and temporal pattern of biofilm formation following antibiotic treatment. A key feature of biofilms thought to play a role in antimicrobial tolerance is their ability to develop discrete, differentiated microcolony structures during colonization of a surface - these foci within biofilms are highly recalcitrant towards antimicrobials yet the factors that determine their differentiation and growth are poorly understood. This chapter therefore aimed to study the role of persisters in the initiation of microcolony foci and in mediating regrowth of biofilms. In this work, biofilm initiation was studied under a variety of conditions including with or without exposure to lethal or sub-lethal antibiotic challenge and as expected persister cell populations were able to generate significantly more biomass than in biofilms formed from non-persister populations. Dual labelling experiments were also carried out, where mixed ...
Neisseria gonorrhoeae has been shown to form biofilms during cervical infection. Thus, biofilm formation may play an important role in the infection of women. The ability of N. gonorrhoeae to form membrane blebs is crucial to biofilm formation. Blebs contain DNA and outer membrane structures, which have been shown to be major constituents of the biofilm matrix. The organism expresses a DNA thermonuclease that is involved in remodeling of the biofilm matrix. Comparison of the transcriptional profiles of gonococcal biofilms and planktonic runoff indicate that genes involved in anaerobic metabolism and oxidative stress tolerance are more highly expressed in biofilm. The expression of aniA, ccp, and norB, which encode nitrite reductase, cytochrome c peroxidase, and nitric oxide reductase respectively, is required for mature biofilm formation over glass and human cervical cells. In addition, anaerobic respiration occurs in the substratum of gonococcal biofilms and disruption of the norB gene required ...
Oral candidosis is common in patients with diabetes mellitus, as yeasts, particularly Candida albicans, have the propensity to colonise, form biofilms and release hydrolytic enzymes which cause inflammation. This study aimed to investigate these characteristics in isolates from three groups of patients with type 1 diabetes: individuals with better controlled diabetes (BCD; a parts per thousand yen6 , 8%), individuals with poorly controlled diabetes (PCD; a parts per thousand yen8%) and non-diabetics (ND; HbA(1c) , 5.9%). The biomass (Bm), phospholipase (P-z), haemolysin (H-z) and proteinase (Pr-z) were assessed using a microtitre biofilm assay and agar-based hydrolytic enzyme assays. Biofilm formation was significantly increased in the PCD group compared to ND and BCD groups (P , 0.05). No significant differences in P-z levels were observed between groups, whereas both H-z and Pr-z were significantly greater in the diabetes groups than in the healthy control group (P , 0.05). Statistically ...
Barsoukov E. and J.R. Macdonald (eds). 2005. Impedance Spectroscopy: Theory, Experiment and Applications, 2nded. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA.. Ben-Yoav H., A. Freemanb, M. Sternheimc and Y. Shacham-Dia-manda. 2011. An electrochemical impedance model for integrated bacterial biofilms. Electrochim. Acta. 56:7780-7786.. Bjarnsholt T., K. Kirketerp-Møller, P.Ø. Jensen, K.G. Madsen, R. Phipps, K. Krogfelt, N. Høibyand and M. Givskov. 2008. Why chronic wounds will not heal: a novel hypothesis. Wound Rep. Reg. 16:2-10.. Dominguez-Benetton X., S. Sevda, K. Vanbroekhovena. and D. Panta. 2012. The accurate use of impedance analysis for thestudy of microbial electrochemical systems. Chem. Soc. Rev. 41:7228-7246.. Flemming H., J. Wingender and U. Szewczyk (eds). 2008. Biofilm Highlights. Springer Series on Biofilm Vol. 5. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg.. Ge Y., T. Deng and X. Zheng. 2008. Dynamic monitoring of changes in endothelial cell-substrate adhesiveness during leukocyte adhesion ...
Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu*, Carmen Mariana Chifiriuc: Prevention of Microbial Biofilms - the Contribution of Micro and Nanostructured Materials, Current Medicinal Chemistry, accepted, 2014.. EDITORIAL. Microbial biofilms are associated with drastically enhanced resistance to most of the antimicrobial agents and with frequent treatment failures, generating the search for novel strategies which can eradicate infections by preventing the persistent colonization of the hospital environment, medical devices or human tissues. Some of the current approaches for fighting biofilms are represented by the development of novel biomaterials with increased resistance to microbial colonization and by the improvement of the current therapeutic solutions with the aid of nano(bio)technology. This special issues includes papers describing the applications of nanotechnology and biomaterials science for the development of improved drug delivery systems and nanostructured surfaces for the prevention and treatment of ...
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a gram positive pathogen known to cause multiple infectious diseases for both animal and humans, and is responsible for community-associated and nosocomial infections. S. aureus possess the ability to form biofilms, which have a profound ability to adapt and thrive in undesirable conditions as well as resist antibiotic treatment. Recent studies suggest that polymorphonuclear leukocytes are able to attack S. aureus biofilms, thus implying the innate immune system indeed has mechanisms to respond to S. aureus biofilms. We determined if shear affected both the structure of the biofilm as well as the number on PMNs adhering to the S. aureus biofilm, and quantify where these cells adhere with respect to the biofilm. We conclude that shear does not have a significant effect on the number of cells adhering, but affects the depth of penetration in a maturing S. aureus biofilm ...
Biofilm Eradication and Preventions presents the basics of biofilm formation on medical devices, diseases related to this formation, and approaches pharmaceutical researchers need to take to limit this problem. Split into three parts, the first deals with the development and characterization of biofilm on the surfaces of implanted or inserted medical devices. Questions as to why biofilms form over medical device surfaces and what triggers biofilm formation are addressed. In the second section, the author discusses biofilm-mediated chronic infections occurred in various organs (eyes, mouth, wounds) and pharmaceutical and drug delivery knowledge gained from research in these area. The third part explores pharmaceutical approaches like lipid-and polymer-based drug delivery carriers for eradicating biofilm on device-related infections. In addition, this section also explores the topic of novel small molecule (like iron and its complexes/metal chelators) and a quorum-sensing inhibitors to control ...
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Gregory Anderson, biology department at IUPUI, will present Molecular Insights into Bacterial Biofilm Formation in the Cystic Fibrosis Lung. Read more about Anderson at https://science.iupui.edu/people/anderson-gregory .
Biofilms can develop on almost any surface exposed to an aqueous environment. The biofilm systems that result can be used beneficially, as exemplified by fixed-film wastewater treatment processes (for example, trickling filters and rotating biological contactors). In addition, biofilms play a major positive role in stream purification processes. However, biofilms can be quite troublesome in certain engineering systems. In water distribution systems and heat transfer equipment, for example, biofilms can cause substantial energy losses resulting from increased fluid frictional resistance and increased heat transfer resistance. The significance of biofilm development on various processes is summarized ...
Biofilms have been found to be involved in large percentages of all infections in the body. Chronic sinusitis patients undergoing surgery present with biofilms most of the time. The NIH estimates that 80% of all human infections have biofilm involvment. Other infectious processes in which biofilms have been implicated include common problems such as urinary tract infections, catheter infections, middle-ear infections, endocarditis, infections in cystic fibrosis, and infections of permanent indwelling devices such as joint prostheses and heart valves. More recently it has been noted that bacterial biofilms may impair cutaneous wound healing and reduce topical antibacterial efficiency in healing or treating infected skin wounds. Biofilms can also be formed on the inert surfaces of implanted devices such as catheters, prosthetic cardiac valves and intrauterine devices ...
In science-fiction movies, force fields always come in handy when the good guys need protection from hostile aliens or bug-eyed monsters.. Of course, these miraculous devices dont really exist. But some of Earths simplest life forms protect themselves using a similar principle.. Many one-celled organisms secrete protein complexes called biofilms that serve as slimy barriers to the outside world.. Usually, biofilms dont pose any threat to human health. But theres increasing evidence that links them to antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections.. A recent study in the Journal of the American Medical Association suggests biofilms may help some middle-ear infections resist treatment efforts.. The study involved twenty-six children who suffered recurring bouts of otitis media [oh-TIGHT-iss MEE-dee-uh], one of the most common childhood ailments.. Researchers wanted to know if biofilms were protecting the bacteria that cause these infections. So they analyzed tissue samples collected from the middle ...
Fungal biofilms were more resistant to antimicrobial agents than planktonic cells. Four distinct growth phases in relation to antifungal susceptibility were examined. Our results demonstrated that all three strains became increasingly resistant to antifungal agents throughout morphological differentiation, which was consistent with the report by Imamura et al., 10 showing that Fusarium biofilms exhibited reduced susceptibility to lens care solutions in a time-dependent manner. Moreover, our results showed that the mature biofilms were intrinsically resistant to the azole antifungal drugs (FLU, VRC, and ITC). Multiple mechanisms have been proposed for the increased resistance of biofilms to antifungal agents. Our results indicate that ECM increased and a network of hyphal structures formed throughout the incubation time. The architecture of biofilms and the presence of ECM might reduce the diffusion of antifungal drugs, and they may be responsible for the increased resistance of biofilms to ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Organized within biofilm communities, bacteria exhibit resistance towards a broad spectrum of antibiotics. Thus, one might argue that bacteria isolated from biofilm-associated chronic infections should be subjected to resistance profiling under biofilm growth conditions. Various test systems have been developed to determine the biofilm-associated resistance; however, it is not clear to what extent the in vitro results reflect the situation in vivo, and whether the biofilm-resistance profile should guide clinicians in their treatment choice. To address this issue, we used confocal microscopy in combination with live/dead staining, and profiled biofilm-associated resistance of a large number (,130) of clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from overall 15 cystic fibrosis patients. Our results demonstrate that in addition to a general non-responsiveness of bacteria when grown under biofilm conditions, there is an isolate-specific and antibiotic-specific biofilm-resistance profile. This individual ...
During infection, fungi frequently transition to a biofilm lifestyle, proliferating as communities of surface-adherent aggregates of cells. Phenotypically, cells in a biofilm are distinct from free-floating cells. Their high tolerance of antifungals and ability to withstand host defenses are two characteristics that foster resilience. Biofilm infections are particularly difficult to eradicate, and most available antifungals have minimal activity. Therefore, the discovery of novel compounds and innovative strategies to treat fungal biofilms is of great interest. Although many fungi have been observed to form biofilms, the most well-studied is Candida albicans. Animal models have been developed to simulate common Candida device-associated infections, including those involving vascular catheters, dentures, urinary catheters, and subcutaneous implants. Models have also reproduced the most common mucosal biofilm infections: oropharyngeal and vaginal candidiasis. These models incorporate the ...
Bacterial biofilms have been documented on middle ear mucosa, tonsils, and cholesteatoma. We hypothesize that bacterial biofilms are present in mucosa of patients with chronic sinusitis. We believe that frontal sinus stents may serve as a reservoir f
The structural organization of four microbial communities was analysed by a novel computer program, COMSTAT, which comprises ten features for quantifying three-dimensional biofilm image stacks. Monospecies biofilms of each of the four bacteria, Pseudomonas putida, P. aureofaciens, P. fluorescens and P. aeruginosa, tagged with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) were grown in flow chambers with a defined minimal medium as substrate. Analysis by the COMSTAT program of four variables describing biofilm structure - mean thickness, roughness, substratum coverage and surface to volume ratio - showed that the four Pseudomonas strains represent different modes of biofilm growth. P. putida had a unique developmental pattern starting with single cells on the substratum growing into micro-colonies, which were eventually succeeded by long filaments and elongated cell clusters. P. aeruginosa colonized the entire substratum, and formed flat, uniform biofilms. P. aureofaciens resembled P. aeruginosa, but had a
... presents carefully refereed volumes on selected topics on this field of research. All volumes reflect the latest findings and developments. Once anchored to a surface, biofilm microorganisms carry out a ...
The presence or absence of virulence factors in pathogenic aetiological agent of a disease is an important variable that decides the course of the illness itself. The enzymes and toxins produced by bacteria or the ability of bacteria to produce biofilm help microorganisms survive in infected tissues either through direct impact on host stromal cells or by affecting host defence mechanisms [18]. In our experiment, most of the analysed isolates of Streptococcus spp. demonstrated an ability to produce biofilm (over 70%), many of which represented strains forming a weak structure. Such high abundance in this group can be explained by the fact that determinations in strains were made after a 24-h incubation period. Moliva et al. [19] recently showed that strains of S. uberis begin to form biofilm structure as early as after 2 h of incubation, but mature biofilm is not formed until after 48 h. It is possible that the relatively longer incubation of isolates in our study influenced the results. ...
Objective: To assess the volume of biofilm attached on composite materials of multi-species oral microcosms derived from children with a history of Early Childhood Caries. Method: Plaque and saliva samples were collected from multiple pediatric patients (n=8). After saliva coating (filtered sterilized) with matched donors, plaque microcosms were incubated on material circular coupons of Z100 and LS (3M ESPE) and hydroxyapatite. The disks were placed in a CDC based biofilm reactor system for 72 hours with sucrose pulsing occurring 4 times daily. After removal from reactor, biofilms were stained and incubated for 2 hours with FilmTracer SYPRO Ruby Biofilm Matrix Stain and FilmTracer Calcein Green Cell Viability Stain. A confocal laser scanning microscope (Olympus FluoView 1000) was used to analyze the stained biofilms and to construct 3D images of each sample. Average volume of each biofilm sample was then measured with custom software created in MATLAB. Result: The biofilm reactor system produced ...
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Dental restorative materials interact with their surrounding oral environment. Interaction factors can be release of toxic components and/or effects on biofilm formation and gingiva. In the end of the nineties, a calcium aluminate cement (CAC) was manufactured as a "bioceramic" alternative to resin composite. Dental ceramics are considered to be chemically stable and not to favour dental biofilm formation. Since the influence of aged, resin-bonded ceramic coverages is not fully investigated and the effect of CAC restorations on the dental biofilm formation and gingival response is unknown, those issues were evaluated in this thesis.. With or without oral hygiene, in clinical trials including cervical surfaces of CAC, and approximal surfaces of a leucite-reinforced bonded ceramic; biofilm growth, presence of caries-associated bacteria, clinical expressions of gingivitis, the amounts of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and its levels of IL-1α, IL-1β and IL-1 ra were investigated in comparison ...
Biofilms are adherent communities of bacteria contained within a complex matrix. Although host immune responses to planktonic staphylococcal species have been relatively well-characterized, less is known regarding immunity to staphylococcal biofilms and how they modulate anti-bacterial effector mechanisms when organized in this protective milieu. Previously, staphylococcal biofilms were thought to escape immune recognition on the basis of their chronic and indolent nature. Instead, we have proposed that staphylococcal biofilms skew the host immune response away from a proinflammatory bactericidal phenotype toward an anti-inflammatory, pro-fibrotic response that favors bacterial persistence. This possibility is supported by recent studies from our laboratory using a mouse model of catheter-associated biofilm infection, where S. aureus biofilms led to the accumulation of alternatively activated M2 macrophages that exhibit anti-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic properties. In addition, relatively few
Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm lung infection in cystic fibrosis patients is the best described biofilm infection in medicine. The initial focus can be the paranasal sinuses and then follows repeated colonization and infection of the lungs by aspiration. The matrix of the biofilms is dominated by alginate and the pathogenesis of tissue damage is immune complex-mediated chronic inflammation dominated by polymorphonuclear leukocytes and their products (DNA, oxygen radicals and proteases). The P. aeruginosa biofilm infection can be diagnosed by microscopy of lung tissue, sputum and mucus from the paranasal sinuses, where aggregates of the bacteria are found surrounded by the abundant alginate matrix. Specific PNA-FISH probes can be used to identify P. aeruginosa and other pathogens in situ in the biofilms. Growth of mucoid colonies from the locations mentioned above is also diagnostic for biofilm infection. Rise of specific anti-P. aeruginosa antibodies is likewise diagnostic, IgG in serum ...
Bacterial biofilms are sessile microbial communities that cause serious problems, such as antibiotic resistant chronic infections in humans, and persistent biofouling of engineering facilities. Biofilm formation is initiated by bacterial adhesion to a surface followed by the formation of microcolonies and further development of heterogeneous structures with water channels between cell clusters. The mechanism of biofilm structural heterogeneity and the bacterial genes involve in structural organization are still poorly understood. Nevertheless, once microbes adhere to a surface and form biofilm on it, they are up to 10-1,000 times more resistant to antimicrobial agents than their free-swimming counterparts. It is well accepted that biofilm formation involves multicellular behaviors, associated with major changes in microbial gene expression and protein synthesis. These changes are influenced by many environmental factors such as surface hydrophobicity, topography, chemistry, and charge. To better
Microbial biofilms are a major impediment to the use of indwelling medical devices, generating device-related infections with high morbidity and mortality. Major efforts directed towards preventing and eradicating the biofilm problem face difficulties because biofilms protect themselves very effectively by producing a polysaccharide coating, reducing biofilm sensitivity to antimicrobial agents. Techniques applied to combating biofilms have been primarily chemical. These have met with partial and limited success rates, leading to current trends of eradicating biofilms through physico-mechanical strategies. Here we review the different approaches that have been developed to control biofilm formation and removal, focusing on the utilization of acoustic energy to achieve these objectives.
University of Iowa researchers have succeeded in wiping out established biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus (staph) by hijacking one of the bacterias own regulatory systems. Although the discovery is not ready for clinical application, the findings offer insight into a dispersal mechanism for staph biofilms and might help identify therapeutic targets.. Biofilms are communities of bacteria that grow on moist surfaces, including heart valves, bone and medical implants. Encased in self-produced slime and highly resistant to antibiotic therapy and the bodys own immune defenses, biofilm infections represent a tough and dangerous medical problem. The findings were published in the journal Public Library of Science - Pathogens (PLoS-Pathogens) on April 25.. We have shown that activating the cells communication system, also known as quorum sensing, in established biofilms causes the biofilms to disperse rapidly, said Alexander Horswill, Ph.D., UI assistant professor of microbiology and senior study ...
Biofilms are now considered ubiquitous in the natural world. Bacterial biofilms have been observed to be extremely heterogeneous, both structurally and with regard to the physiology of the bacterial cells within them. The prevailing conceptual model depicts bacterial biofilms as being made up of microcolonies, which serve as the basic unit of the greater biofilm structure. A major concern with this approach is the frequently observed development of resistance to antimicrobial compounds. A number of elements in the process of biofilm formation have been studied as targets for novel drug delivery technologies. The present study aimed to penetrate biofilm by gram positive and gram negative bacteria by in-vitro culture technique, with developed nano emulsion containing photodynamic agents. The results of this study are encouraged and significantly prevent the formation of microcolonies, building blocks of biofilms.
Mucus-invasive bacterial biofilms are identified on the colon mucosa of approximately 50% of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients and approximately 13% of healthy subjects. Here, we test the hypothesis that human colon biofilms comprise microbial communities that are carcinogenic in CRC mouse models. Homogenates of human biofilm-positive colon mucosa were prepared from tumor patients (tumor and paired normal tissues from surgical resections) or biofilm-positive biopsies from healthy individuals undergoing screening colonoscopy; homogenates of biofilm-negative colon biopsies from healthy individuals undergoing screening colonoscopy served as controls. After 12 weeks, biofilm-positive, but not biofilm-negative, human colon mucosal homogenates induced colon tumor formation in 3 mouse colon tumor models (germ-free ApcMinΔ850/+;Il10-/- or ApcMinΔ850/+ and specific pathogen-free ApcMinΔ716/+ mice). Remarkably, biofilm-positive communities from healthy colonoscopy biopsies induced colon inflammation and ...
Most studies of biofilms have focused on single species and on genes that control or are regulated by life on a surface. As more information is uncovered by studies of pure cultures, these data can be applied towards understanding the roles of specific genes in multispecies interactions. This chapter focuses mostly on multi-species interactions among oral bacteria in biofilms: a few single-species biofilms are featured to discuss responses to environmental signals, including signals generated by the occupants within the biofilm. Signals involved in cell-to-cell communication among biofilm cells include acyl homoserine lactones, oligopeptides, and autoinducer-2 (AI-2). Importantly, an optimal concentration of 4,5-dihydroxy-2,3-pentanedione (DPD) was critical for maximal biofilm development. One site where natural multispecies biofilms are unusually accessible is the tooth surface in the human oral cavity. We use a retrievable enamel chip model system that permits us to place three pieces of enamel side
Recent anatomical evidence of a biofilm mode of growth in the airway of CF patients and rigorous biochemical data demonstrating biofilm quorum-sensing signals in the sputum of CF patients support the contention that biofilms are present in the airways of adult patients with CF (10, 13, 16, 18, 26). Autopsy immunohistopathologic studies of lungs from CF patients demonstrate biofilm-like aggregates of P. aeruginosa organisms enclosed by circular profiles of exudate arranged in colonies and, in some cases, adherent to the walls of airways (5). Electron microscopy studies of sputum from CF patients have shown clusters of aggregated P. aeruginosa encased in densely stained matrix, suggesting that small biofilm communities may be recoverable in the sputum of adults with CF (26). Physiologic evidence of a biofilm mode of growth of P. aeruginosa in the lungs of CF patients has also been demonstrated, and the magnitude and chemical profile of intercellular bacterial homoserine lactone signaling molecules ...
inbook{5875afa7-6468-4741-88b2-bd174329b39d, abstract = {,p,This manuscript presents novel approaches to grow and evaluate Streptococcal biofilm formation using the human respiratory pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) as the main model organism on biological surfaces in vitro and in vivo. Most biofilm models are based on growth on abiotic surfaces, which is relevant for many pathogens whose growth on surfaces or medical devices is a major cause of disease transmission and infections, especially in hospital environments. However, most infections with commensal organisms require biofilm formation on biological surfaces in the host at the site of colonization or infection. In vitro model systems incorporating biological components from the host and taking into account the host environment of the infectious site are not well described. In a series of publications, we have shown that S. pneumoniae form complex biofilms in the nasopharynx of mice and have devised methodology to ...
The aim of this study was to determine the surface physicochemical properties of L. monocytogenes LO28 and to investigate its ability to adhere and to form biofilm on abiotic surfaces at different temperatures and in the log and stationary phases. Stainless steel and PTFE were selected because of their common use in food-processing plants and because they have different physicochemical characteristics (3). The growth temperature and the phase of growth may influence the cell wall composition and thereby modify the surface electrical properties, hydrophobicity, and electron donor or electron acceptor character of the bacteria (13, 36).. The affinity of bacterial cells as determined by the comparison of the two pairs of solvents was higher for the electron acceptor solvent and weaker for the electron donor solvent under all conditions of the study, indicating a strong electron donor nature and a weak electron acceptor nature of the bacteria. Lewis acid-base interactions indicated that the cells ...
Author Summary Both in the wild and in the clinical setting many bacterial species live within surface-attached communities called biofilms. It is still unclear the extent to which the biofilm lifestyle and its associated phenotypes, such as hyper-tolerance to antimicrobial agents, can be attributed to structural characteristics of the biofilm community or to intrinsic biofilm-specific physiological programs. In order to address this longstanding question, we focused on poly-N-acetylglucosamine (PNAG)-based biofilms, a clinically relevant phenotype of many bacterial pathogens, including E. coli. Instead of working in a biofilm-permissive genetic background, in which the timescale of biofilm formation is slow, we applied the functionally active secreted version of the PNAG exo-polysaccharide (sPNAG) to wild-type E. coli cells, generating robust biofilms on the timescale of hours. In this way, we managed to uncouple upstream regulatory processes and matrix preparatory phase of biofilm formation, focusing
Cold-adapted marine bacteria represent an untapped reservoir of chemical-diversity able to synthesize a wide range of bioactive compounds, including antibiofilm molecules. The present research project aims to explore extreme marine environments and to exploit marine-derived biomolecules as a sustainable source of novel antibiofilm compounds. In this work, the antibiofilm activity of total organic extracts derived from cultures of Polar marine bacteria, belonging to Flavobacterium, Pseudoalteromonas, Pseudomonas, Psychrobacter and Psychromonas genera, were evaluated against some pathogenic bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Suitable purification protocols will be developed to purify and characterize the most promising antibiofilm molecules, and their possible clinical applications will be investigated.. ...
Biofilms of S. aureus accumulate cells resistant to the antibiotic rifampicin. We show here that the accumulation of rifampicin resistant mutants (RifR) in biofilms is not equable but rather is a local event, suggesting that the growth of a few locally emerged mutants is responsible for this. Competition assays demonstrated that, compared to wild-type bacteria, the isolated RifR mutants have a growth advantage in biofilms, but not in planktonic culture. To gain insight into the mechanism of the growth advantage, we tested the involvement of the two-component systems (TCS) that sense and respond to environmental changes. We found that a deletion of SrrAB or NreBC has a drastic effect on the growth advantage of RifR mutants, suggesting the importance of oxygen/respiration responses. All six of the RifR isolates tested showed increased resistance to at least one of the common stresses found in the biofilm environment (i.e., oxidative, nitric acid, and organic acid stress). The RifR mutants also had a
Hospital-acquired infections caused by enterococci have increased dramatically since the 1970s. Many nosocomial enterococcal bloodstream infections are associated with medical devices such as central venous catheters. The ability to form biofilm on medical devices is a potential virulence trait that may allow enterococci to cause infections in the expanding population of patients managed with such devices. In this study, the hypothesis that increased ability to form biofilm in vitro is associated with medical-device-related infection in vivo was tested. A microplate assay was employed to assess biofilm-forming characteristics of enterococci in 0.9 % (w/v) sodium chloride, an oligotrophic environment, and BHI, a nutrient-rich environment. Results were compared in isolates from different sources of infection. One hundred and nine enterococcal bloodstream isolates were assayed. Biofilm formation on microplates was demonstrated by all Enterococcus faecalis isolates and 16/38 (42 %) Enterococcus faecium
This resistance is adaptive in that it depends on the biofilm growth state and although many explanations have been provided to explain it, it is likely that changes in gene and/or protein expression in the biofilm state explain why organisms become resistant.. Intriguingly despite this problem, not a single antibiotic has been developed for treating biofilms. We have started to address this using as templates the cationic host defence (antimicrobial) peptides, which are produced by virtually all organisms as a major part of their innate defences against infection. They are a key component of innate immunity and have multiple mechanisms that enable them to deal with infections and inflammation, including selective modulation of innate immunity, activity against bacterial biofilms (the cause of 65% of all human infections) and direct antimicrobial activity. We made the breakthrough observation that human peptide LL-37 was able to inhibit Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms at one sixteenth of its MIC ...
Carbon removal strategies have gained popularity in the mitigation of biofouling in water reuse processes, but current biofilm-monitoring practices based on organic-carbon concentrations may not provide an accurate representation of the in situ biofilm problem. This study evaluated a submerged microtiter plate assay for direct and rapid monitoring of biofilm formation by subjecting the plates to a continuous flow of either secondary effluent (SE) or biofilter-treated secondary effluent (BF). This method was very robust, based on a high correlation (R2 = 0.92) between the biomass (given by the A600 in the microtiter plate assay) and the biovolume (determined from independent biofilms developed on glass slides under identical conditions) measurements, and revealed that the biomasses in BF biofilms were consistently lower than those in SE biofilms. The influence of the organic-carbon content on the biofilm community composition and succession was further evaluated using molecular tools. Terminal ...
Methods for treating patients in which damaged tissue or an indwelling prosthetic device or catheter has a bacterial biofilm growing thereon, to at least partially disrupt said biofilm, by administering at least one antibacterial enzyme that is lethal or damaging to the biofilm-forming bacteria in an amount that is effective to at least partially disrupt the biofilm upon contact therewith. Methods for prophylactically treating a patient, and methods for disinfecting or sterilizing a surface ex-vivo to remove a biofilm or prevent biofilm growth are also disclosed, as well as implantable articles susceptible to biofilm growth to which a prophylactic coating of an antibacterial enzyme has been applied.
We investigated the effects of pharmaceuticals and pesticides detected in a Mediterranean river, on fluvial biofilms by translocation experiments performed under controlled conditions. Water was sampled from three sites along a pollution gradient. Biofilms grown in mesocosms containing relatively clean water were translocated to heavily polluted water. Several biofilm descriptors were measured before and after translocations. Fifty-seven pharmaceuticals and sixteen pesticides compounds were detected in river waters. The translocation from less to more polluted site was the most effective. Autotrophic biomass and peptidase increased while phosphatase and photosynthetic efficiency decreased. Multivariate analysis revealed that analgesics and anti-inflammatories significantly affected biofilm responses. Ibuprofen and paracetamol were associated with negative effects on photosynthesis, and with the decrease of the green algae/cyanobacteria ratio, while diclofenac was associated with phosphatase ...
The flow cell biofilm system is an important and widely used tool for the in vitro cultivation and evaluation of bacterial biofilms under hydrodynamic conditions of flow. This paper provides an introduction to the background and use of such systems, accompanied by a detailed guide to the assembly of the apparatus including the description of new modifications which enhance its performance. As such, this is an essential guide for the novice biofilm researcher as well as providing valuable trouble-shooting techniques for even the most experienced laboratories. The adoption of a common and reliable methodology amongst researchers would enable findings to be shared and replicated amongst the biofilm research community, with the overall aim of advancing understanding and management of these complex and widespread bacterial communities.. ...
Biofilms are structurally, phenotypically, and compositionally diverse bacterial communities. Biofilm phenotypes observable by eye are often the result of complex interactions and interconnected chemical, physical, and genetic processes. Quantitative methods of assessing single-cell and population level behaviors tease out some of these intermediating phenomena and identify latent phenotypes. Developments in new quantitative techniques include new genetic tools, in situ chemical sensors, imaging technologies, microfabricated growth environments, population modeling techniques, and spectroscopic and mass spectrometry. These methods have all contributed to recent advances in the understanding of the factors determining bacterial behavior and function within biofilms.In this Research Topic, we aim to highlight groundbreaking work in the development and/or application of quantitative analysis methods to bacterial biofilms, with a focus on those studies resulting in the discovery of new phenomena regulating
The feedback between hydrodynamic flow conditions and biofilm spatial architecture drives competition in P. aeruginosa biofilms, and can explain variation in biofilm production observed among bacteria in natural environments.
Amanda Fuchs investigates the interactions between bacterial biofilms and human macrophages, a type of immune cell. Bacterial biofilms consist of densely packed communities of microbial cells that grow on living or inert surfaces. Biofilms are more resistant to antibiotic treatment and are known to evade the immune system. Bacteria residing within chronic wounds, such as diabetic foot ulcers, often form biofilms and have been shown to cause a significant delay in the healing time and closure of wounds due to excessive inflammation. A macrophage is a type of white blood cell found in most bodily tissues, where they survey the area for foreign substances, microbes and cellular debris. It is speculated that macrophages are primarily responsible for the resolution of inflammation in wounds. Fuchs is studying the metabolites and metabolic pathways involved in the interactions between Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms and human macrophages to gain insights into the cellular mechanisms contributing to ...
ePIC (electronic Publication Information Center) is the official repository for publications and presentations of Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI)
Platelets Enhance Biofilm Formation and Resistance of Endocarditis-Inducing Streptococci on the Injured Heart Valve. Chiau-Jing Jung; Chiou-Yueh Yeh; Chia-Tung Shun; Ron-Bin Hsu; Hung-Wei Cheng; Chi-Shuan Lin; Jean-San Chia // Journal of Infectious Diseases;4/1/2012, Vol. 205 Issue 7, p1066 Infective endocarditis is a typical biofilm-associated infectious disease frequently caused by commensal streptococci, but the contribution of host factors in biofilm formation is unclear. We found that platelets are essential for in vitro biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans or... ...
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) forms biofilms harbouring antibiotic-tolerant bacilli in vitro, but the factors that induce biofilm formation and the nature of the extracellular material that holds the cells together are poorly understood. Here we show that intracellular thiol reductive stress (TRS) induces formation of Mtb biofilms in vitro, which harbour drug-tolerant but metabolically active bacteria with unchanged levels of ATP/ADP, NAD(+)/NADH and NADP(+)/NADPH. The development of these biofilms requires DNA, RNA and protein synthesis. Transcriptional analysis suggests that Mtb modulates only ∼7% of its genes for survival in biofilms. In addition to proteins, lipids and DNA, the extracellular material in these biofilms is primarily composed of polysaccharides, with cellulose being a key component. Our results contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying Mtb biofilm formation, although the clinical relevance of Mtb biofilms in human tuberculosis remains ...
This work concerns the development of a flat plate perfusion model to study biofilms derived from human tongue biota. The model has been derived from a previous sorbarod model, via a flat plate model (used to study wound organisms), to the model described in this thesis. The specific technical objectives were; 1. To measure biofilm pH in real time, 2. To extend VOC analysis by SIFT-MS to six biofilms in parallel and 3. To enable photodynamic interventions and optical monitoring of bioluminescent and non-bioluminescent organisms. The specific scientific objectives were; 1. To validate the model by comparison of in vivo and in vitro case studies, 2. To characterise the in vivo biofilm ecology and compare with ecology in vitro, 3. To compare existing and novel anti-malodour preparations and biofilm disrupting agents (including D-amino acids) and 4. To assess and aid the development of a novel handheld surface plasmon resonance based device for measuring oral volatile compounds ...
Buy Microbial Biofilms (9780521542128): NHBS - Edited By: Hilary M Lappin-Scott and J William Costerton, Cambridge University Press
Many microbes grow in surface-associated, multicellular communities known as biofilms. These biofilms are the most abundant mode of microbial life outside the ocean.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen that forms biofilm infections in a wide variety of contexts. Biofilms initiate when bacteria attach to a surface, which triggers changes in gene expression leading to the biofilm phenotype. We have previously shown, for the P. aeruginosa lab strain PAO1, that the self-produced polymer Psl is the most dominant adhesive for attachment to the surface but that another self-produced polymer, Pel, controls the geometry of attachment of these rod-shaped bacteriastrains that make Psl but not Pel are permanently attached to the surface but adhere at only one end (tilting up off the surface), whereas wild-type bacteria that make both Psl and Pel are permanently attached and lie down flat with very little or no tilting (Cooley et al 2013 Soft Matter 9 38716). Here we show that the change in attachment geometry reflects a change in the distribution of Psl on the bacterial cell surface. Bacteria that make Psl and Pel have Psl evenly coating the ...
immune Uncategorized Bosutinib, LDHAL6A antibody Bacterial biofilm has been shown to play a role in delaying wound healing of chronic wounds, a major medical problem that results in significant healthcare burden. gradually cleared from your wounds while the presence of (part of the normal mouse pores and skin flora) improved. Scabs from all unhealed wounds contained 107 study of bacterial biofilm reactions to sponsor defenses and the effects of biofilms on sponsor wound healing pathways. It may also be used to test anti-biofilm strategies the treatment of chronic wounds. spp., and [5C7] have been isolated from chronic wounds, even though the wound may not display any medical indications of localized illness. Multiple bacterial varieties, usually two to five varieties, reside concurrently on a single ulcer [7C9]. The chronicity of unhealed wounds is definitely associated with higher proportion of colonization by anaerobic bacteria and greater variety of aerobic varieties [5]. More recent studies ...
At International Conference on Emerging Contaminants (EmCon), 2016, Sidney Mermaid fellow Elena Torresi received an award for Best Student Oral Presentation for her work in the mermaid project. The committee gave this reason for the award: "This study showed the impact of biofilm thickness on the removal of several micropollutants (pharmaceuticals) in Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR). Biofilm thickness influenced both microbial activity (nitrification and micropollutant biotransformation) as well as the microbial community. Thicker biofilms were more efficient for the removal of a major number of micropollutants and presented a higher microbial diversity compared to thinner biofilms." ...
In this study, we have begun to examine the complex interactions between two common environmental microorganisms, P.a. and A.t., in planktonic and biofilm growth modes. During exponential growth in dispersed, liquid culture, P.a. dominated A.t. because of a higher growth rate. Within biofilms grown on glass surfaces in the same defined medium, P.a. was also found to numerically dominate the population and to cover adherent A.t., a process requiring motility via flagella and type IV pili. Quorum-sensing mutants displayed an impaired competition phenotype in both liquid and flow-cell biofilm cultures. Motility was found to be important for both species in coculture biofilms. Although A.t. was outnumbered after the rapid-growth phase in both growth formats, its population remained viable, leading to a period of coexistence of these two microbes.. Quorum sensing appears to allow P.a. to achieve a slightly higher growth yield in liquid cocultures. Several quorum-sensing-regulated secreted functions ...
Since the serendipitous discovery of the first antibiotic, the wonder drug penicillin by Alexander Fleming, bacteria over time have slowly developed resistance to most antibiotics through three well coordinated processes. Firstly, bacteria can evolve their genetic makeup to become resistant against antibiotics; Secondly, bacteria can relay the modified antibiotic resistant genes to other bacteria and other species through a process called conjugation. Thirdly, bacteria quickly give up their individuality to become a part of a team to form surface attached multicellular communities known as biofilms. Bacteria residing within biofilms are protected by a layer of slime which renders the bacteria one thousand fold more resistant to the action of antibiotics. Nearly eighty percent of bacterial infections are associated with biofilms and therefore understandably, biofilms are considered as one of the seven most important health issues facing mankind in the 21st century. The focus of research work presented
Staphylococcus aureus, a major nosocomial pathogen, causes a wide variety of infections, from simple abscesses to fatal sepsis, plus toxinoses, such as food poisoning and toxic shock syndrome. S. aureus produces and secretes thirty or more specific pathogenicity factors, including superantigen toxins, hemolytic cytotoxins, tissue-component-degrading enzymes, and surface proteins, that interfere with host defenses. Its pathogenic versatility is compounded by its ability to form biofilms and develop resistance to new antibiotics almost as fast as they are introduced. Research in my lab centres on 2 main themes: 1. Staphylococcal biofilm formation. Biofilms are communities of microorganisms, which develop on surfaces in natural and artificial environments. In medical settings, biofilms are found in association with catheters and prosthetic devices and may constitute an important source of nosocomial infections. Bacterial biofilms display specific biological properties that distinguish them from ...
Research and innovation in recent years has led to a paradigm shift in the bioengineering community regarding biofilms. Rather than focusing on their negative impact in disease and materials fouling, we, and other groups, are re-conceptualizing biofilms as an engineering platform. Our group has developed a novel strategy for producing rationally designed biocatalytic surfaces based on Biofilm Integrated Nanofiber Display (BIND). BIND uses the E. coli curli system to create extracellular functional nanofiber networks. In this work, we used protein capture tags displayed on curli fibers to transform biofilms into biocatalytic surfaces. We wanted to address the issues that currently hinder the applicability of surface displayed enzyme catalysts - although genetically engineered and scalable, the enzymes displayed through genetic fusion to cell surface proteins are often improperly folded and have reduced activity. Our catalytic-BIND platform takes advantage of the scalability of biofilms and ...
Biosignal s anti-biofilm technology is based on a discovery that the eastern Australian seaweed Delisea pulchra produces natural furanones that disable bacterias ability to colonise
Red and green autofluorescence have been observed from dental plaque after excitation by blue light. It has been suggested that this red fluorescence is related to caries and the cariogenic potential of dental plaque. Recently, it was suggested that red fluorescence may be related to gingivitis. Little is known about green fluorescence from biofilms. Therefore, we assessed the dynamics of red and green fluorescence in real-time during biofilm formation. In addition, the fluorescence patterns of biofilm formed from saliva of eight different donors are described under simulated gingivitis and caries conditions. Biofilm formation was analysed for 12 hours under flow conditions in a microfluidic BioFlux flow system with high performance microscopy using a camera to allow live cell imaging. For fluorescence images dedicated excitation and emission filters were used. Both green and red fluorescence were linearly related with the total biomass of the biofilms. All biofilms displayed to some extent ...
At least 78% of chronic wounds have been found to contain a biofilm.. These communities of bacteria attach to the wound bed or each other and are protected by a matrix. Their presence in chronic wounds are linked to delayed wound healing.. Biofilms provide a complex treatment challenge to wound care clinicians because they are tolerant to antimicrobial treatments and the host immune response.. At Smith & Nephew we are leading a pioneering initiative to provide education and practical solutions to this problem in chronic wounds. The Wound Biofilm Expert Panel was formed in late 2015 and it has developed consensus recommendations across the themes of understanding and diagnosing biofilms, and treatment of biofilms. This will provide a strong platform towards a paradigm shift in biofilm treatment of chronic wounds.. Prof Gregory Schultz, University of Florida and chair of the panel stated "…this document will have a tremendous impact helping both researchers and clinicians understand biofilms, ...
What biofilms feed on is just as varied. Certain biofilms even thrive on petroleum oil. Interestingly, the capacity of this kind of biofilm to gobble oil has both a bad and a good side. Oil-eating biofilms can grow in and clog an oil pipeline; they can also be used to clean up an oil spill. ...
In aqueous systems, microbial cells are found as both planktonic (floating) cells and sessile (attached) cells on surfaces. For generations, microbiologists studied microbial cells only in their planktonic state or grown in laboratories as single-species colonies on nutrient media. Todays antibiotics, for example, were developed by testing their efficacy on cells in suspension or grown on agar. The research of recent years has revealed, however, that bacteria preferentially attach to a variety of surfaces, and that bacterial communities exhibit properties, behaviors and survival strategies that far exceed their capabilities as individual bacteria. For instance, microbial biofilms are naturally tolerant of antibiotic doses up to 1,000 times greater than doses that kill planktonic bacteria.. Aggregations of microbes were noticed long before people had the tools to study them in detail. In 1684 Anthony van Leewenhoek remarked on the vast accumulation of microorganisms in dental plaque in a ...
Microbial ecology is revealing the vast diversity of strains and species that coexist in many environments, ranging from free-living communities to the symbionts that compose the human microbiome. In parallel, there is growing evidence of the importance of cooperative phenotypes for the growth and behavior of microbial groups. Here we ask: How does the presence of multiple species affect the evolution of cooperative secretions? We use a computer simulation of spatially structured cellular groups that captures key features of their biology and physical environment. When nutrient competition is strong, we find that the addition of new species can inhibit cooperation by eradicating secreting strains before they can become established. When nutrients are abundant and many species mix in one environment, however, our model predicts that secretor strains of any one species will be surrounded by other species. This social insulation protects secretors from competition with nonsecretors of the same species
My primary research probes the role of structure in early biofilm formation. Using optical tweezers to manipulate cells, we are able to control spatial structure with single-cell precision and observe structure-specific effects during subsequent biofilm growth. My secondary research investigates mechanosensing in surface-associated cells of the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Using fluorescent reporters and high-resolution confocal scanning laser microscopy, we can quantify the surface-sensing signaling of cells on various substrates or subjected to various external forces.. ...
Definition, Description and Medical Implications of Biofilms What are biofilms and how to they resist normal treatments for sinusitis such as antibiotics? Biofilms are composed of microbal communities that are attached to an environmental surface. The microorganisms usually encase themselves in an extra-cellular polysaccharide or slime matrix. In other words, biofilms are a collection of bacteria and other microbes that encase themselves in a sort of slime. It is apparently the slime material that protects the bacteria from being destroyed by antibiotics, for example. Biofilms have been shown to play a major part in other medical conditions involving chronic infections, such as cystic fibrosis, Legionnaires Disease, and otitis media, the most common type of acute ear infection in children in the U.S., among others. In addition, they can also form on medical implanted products such as stents, implants, catheters, and other devices. They appear to destroy cilia when present in Sinusitis ...
Quick Link Final Program Meeting Location Hyatt Regency Chicago151 East Wacker DriveChicago, IL Biofilms, surface-associated microbial communiti...
Link to Pubmed [PMID] - 31098293. NPJ Biofilms Microbiomes 2019;5:14. is a major cause of nosocomial infections. Bacterial persistence in the gut is responsible for infection relapse; sporulation and other unidentified mechanisms contribute to this process. Intestinal bile salts cholate and deoxycholate stimulate spore germination, while deoxycholate kills vegetative cells. Here, we report that sub-lethal concentrations of deoxycholate stimulate biofilm formation, which protects . from antimicrobial compounds. The biofilm matrix is composed of extracellular DNA and proteinaceous factors that promote biofilm stability. Transcriptomic analysis indicates that deoxycholate induces metabolic pathways and cell envelope reorganization, and represses toxin and spore production. In support of the transcriptomic analysis, we show that global metabolic regulators and an uncharacterized lipoprotein contribute to deoxycholate-induced biofilm formation. Finally, enhances biofilm formation of by converting ...
The Shrout Research Group investigates "sociomicrobiology" and community actions of bacteria that are important to medicine and the environment. Much of our work researches the development of bacterial biofilms.. Biofilms are surface-associated communities of bacteria. Surprisingly, very few factors that regulate biofilm growth on various surfaces such as human tissue, medical implants, water intake pipes, teeth, soil particles, or even other microorganisms are understood even for "simple" bacteria. We use an interdisciplinary research approach to understand how physical and chemical environmental cues influence biological behavior of biofilms.. Relatedly, our group researches the motility of bacteria on surfaces. Many bacteria, such as the organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa, are capable of controlling their surface motility as an initial step in biofilm development. We are working to understand how bacteria orchestrate their response(s).. ...
ABSTRACT: Biofilms are a serious problem in breweries and beverage bottling plants. Biofilms are associations of various species of bacteria, yeasts, and molds. In contrast to planktonic microorganisms, a layer of extracellular substances protects the cells in biofilms, which makes them much more resistant against cleaning and disinfection solutions. Most biofilm starter organisms, such as acetic acid bacteria (AAB) or Enterobacteriaceae, are considered to not be product spoiling. For this reason, most breweries do not use cultivation media that are designed to detect them. Therefore a biofilm will not be detected until product spoiling organisms colonize it. Additionally, established cultivation media methods such as the NBB-B-AM swab test, according to Prof. Back (1994), do not specify the associated organisms. The composition of the associated organisms is very important for evaluation of the level of maturity and potential product spoiling risk of biofilms in breweries or beverage plants. ...
Bacteria love to colonize surfaces inside your body, but they have a hard time getting past your rugged, salty skin. Surgeries to implant medical devices often give such bacteria the opportunity needed to gain entry into ...
Evaluation of full scale plants show that both fixed bed media and moving bed media can work in IFAS systems, provided that the design and operating conditions account for the differences between the two types of media. With respect to MLSS, the operating conditions of fixed bed and moving bed media systems showed that while fixed bed systems tend to operate at MLSS levels of 3000 to 6000 mg/L, moving bed systems are typically operated at less than 3000 mg/L to reduce the formation of foam in the basin and entrapment at the screens used to retain the media. The two types of media have very different biofilm thickness and specific surface areas. The equations to compute biofilm thickness were modified to account for the effect of type of aeration and the hydrodynamic forces generated, the type of media surface, and the shape of the media. Once these corrections were made, the computations showed that the thicker biofilm in fixed bed media denitrified 25 to 50% of ammonia nitrified in the biofilm ...
species isolated from central venous catheters (CVC). Our results showed that the 41 strong and moderate-biofilm-producing isolates presented a higher MBEC/MIC ratio for vancomycin than the 24 weak-biofilm-producing isolates, illustrating the importance of biofilm production ability and the difficulty in treating biofilm-related infections. The MBEC was significantly higher in moderate-biofilm-producing isolates than in weak-biofilm-producing isolates (p < 0.001) and in strong-biofilm-producing isolates than in weak-biofilm-producing isolates (p = 0.001). The correlation between the MIC and the MBEC was poor. Based on our results, we recommend that bacterial biofilms be suspected in all cases of CVC infection ...
Overview. Bacterial adhesion and subsequent colonization of surfaces are the first steps toward forming biofilms, which are a major concern for implanted medical devices and in many diseases. Biofilms are resistant to innate host defences, mechanical removal and antibiotic treatments. It is therefore important to understand the physiological environment and mechanisms that lead to the spread of bacteria. Experimental conditions of biofilm formation on cardiovascular stents, tubing, different surfaces and in the intestines can easily be studied using Cellixs microfluidic pumps and biochips. The dimensions of the biochips facilitate both high and low shear stress conditions. The microcapillary walls of Cellixs biochips may be pre-coated with proteins of interest to promote adhesion and culture of biofilms under different shear stress conditions. Once the biofilm is cultured, it is then possible to flow different substances (e.g. antibiotics) over the biofilm to investigate detachment. There are ...
The roles of different extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) fractions in microbial communities, such as periphytic biofilms, are unclear. In this study, three EPS fractions extracted from a periphytic biofilm were employed to investigate their ability to affect Fe2O3 nanoparticle (IONP) toxicity. The addi
ABSTRACT: A new experiment was developed in which the growth rate of Escherichia coli bacterial colonies (biofilms) were studied under the effect of different flow velocities of growth medium. The phases of the experiment consisted of: i) the creation of the chip (microfabrication), ii) preparation of the bacteria inoculum and iii) the monitoring of their growth. All of the three phases exhibited difficulties, in which the sealing and the air bubbles can be singled out. Despite these problems, the simulation of the bacterial growth under the velocities of 0.02, 0.03, 0.04, 0.05, 0.07 and 0.10 mL/ min were recorded once and the bacterial growth of the 0.02, 0.04 and 0.10 mL/min chips were analyzed by measuring the density of the biofilms observing the grey scale throughout the trial and the statistical analysis in the last image that was recorded. This gave a general idea of what could be expected: high biofilm growth rates at low flows and low growth rate at large velocities. It was also noted ...
An in vitro assay is presented for culturing staphylococcal biofilms and biofilms of nonmotile Gram‐positive bacteria under static conditions in microtiter assay plates, and for the quantification of biofilm growth, using a simple staining procedure that measures amounts of bacterial cells and extracellular matrix
PAN, Xiangliang et al. A comparison of five extraction methods for extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from biofilm by using three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (3DEEM) fluorescence spectroscopy. Water SA [online]. 2010, vol.36, n.1, pp.111-116. ISSN 1816-7950.. Two physical methods (centrifugation and ultrasonication) and 3 chemical methods (extraction with EDTA, extraction with formaldehyde, and extraction with formaldehyde plus NaOH) for extraction of EPS from alga-bacteria biofilm were assessed. Pretreatment with ultrasound at low intensity doubled the EPS yield without significant modification of the composition of EPS. Extraction with EDTA or extraction with formaldehyde plus NaOH increased yield by about 1 order of magnitude compared with other methods. However, the protein and polysaccharide content in EPS prepared with EDTA or formaldehyde plus NaOH were low. Two fluorescence peaks belonging to protein-like peaks and 2 fluorescence peaks belonging to humic acid-like ...
A theory for analysis and prediction of spatial and temporal patterns of gene and protein expression within microbial biofilms is derived. The theory integrates phenomena of solute reaction and diffusion, microbial growth, mRNA or protein synthesis, biomass advection, and gene transcript or protein turnover. Case studies illustrate the capacity of the theory to simulate heterogeneous spatial patterns and predict microbial activities in biofilms that are qualitatively different from those of planktonic cells. Specific scenarios analyzed include an inducible GFP or fluorescent protein reporter, a denitrification gene repressed by oxygen, an acid stress response gene, and a quorum sensing circuit. It is shown that the patterns of activity revealed by inducible stable fluorescent proteins or reporter unstable proteins overestimate the region of activity. This is due to advective spreading and finite protein turnover rates. In the cases of a gene induced by either limitation for a metabolic substrate or
The present review will explore the most relevant findings on marine microbial biofilm, with particular attention towards its polysaccharide fraction, namely exopolysaccharide (EPS). EPSs of microbial origin are ubiquitous in nature, possess unique properties and can be isolated from the bacteria living in a variety of habitats, including fresh water or marine environments, extreme environments or different soil ecosystems. These biopolymers have many application in the field of biotechnology. Several studies showed that the biofilm formation is closely related to quorum sensing (QS) systems, which is a mechanism relying on the production of small molecules defined as "autoinducers" that bacteria release in the surrounding environment where they accumulate. In this review, the involvement of microbial chemical communication, by QS mechanism, in the formation of marine biofilm will also be discussed.. ...
To add structure, the bacteria recruit a protein found in blood called fibrinogen which they then convert to the protein fibrin. Because the fibrin gives structure, the bacteria in biofilms can rid themselves of their outer protein coverings making it harder for the immune system to react against them. In addition the slime layer covers the germs so the immune system cannot see them and antibiotics or antimicrobial supplements cannot reach the germs. Within the biofilms the germs establish highly organized structures and functions where they communicate using various chemical messengers, excrete waste through channels and perform other complex activities to promote the longevity of the community ...
Article Using biofilms for monitoring metal contamination in lotic ecosystems: The protective effects of hardness and pH on metal bioaccumulation. Biofilms can make good bioindicators and biomarkers, offering a convenient tool to monitor metal contam...
Biofilms are slimy, microbial strongholds that grow in aqueous environments and typically adhere to surfaces. If youve ever taken a microbiology lab, youve probably seen sticky glue-like substances grow in Petri dishes after performing a smear. The small slimy colonies smeared on plates are biofilms. Theyre inhabited by tiny individual microbial colonies of bacteria, yeast, or algae. Outside the lab, the types of surfaces biofilms stick to range from the interior of sink pipes to boat hulls, the exterior of rocks and leaves, and even areas of the body like your teeth and tissues. Some well-known examples you might be familiar with include pond scum, mildew, kombucha SCOBYs, and dental plaque ...
Genetic manage of candida albicans biofilm development. Genetic manipulate of candida albicans biofilm inside the improvement of candida albicans biofilms control in candida albicans and candida.. Plos one purpurin suppresses candida albicans biofilm. Purpurin suppresses candida albicans biofilm formation and hyphal development. Purpurin suppresses candida albicans genetic manage of candida albicans.. Genetics and genomics of candida albicans biofilm. Genetics and genomics of candida albicans biofilm formation. Genetic control of biofilm formation. Genes that govern candida albicans biofilm improvement.. Genetic control of candida albicans biofilm improvement. Genetic manipulate of candida albicans biofilm recognized the gene products that participate immediately inside the improvement of candida albicans biofilms,. Genetic manage of candida albicans biofilm development. Genetic manipulate of candida albicans biofilm improvement. (pmid21189476 pmcidpmc3891587) genetic control of candida albicans ...
To determine the long-term success of the recommended Yucca Mountain high-level nuclear waste repository, studies of bacterial colonization and biofilm development are needed. Bacteria involved in microbially-influenced corrosion and degradation are known to form biofilms with the potential to impact the integrity of repository packaging and structural materials. Temperature and humidity are environmental factors that can greatly affect biofilm formation. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the temperature and humidity conditions that affect biofilm formation. Microcosms, which simulated the repository environment of Yucca Mountain, were placed at temperatures ranging from 30° C to 70° C and in relative humidities ranging from 100% to 32%. The microcosms contained titanium, C22 nickel alloy, and N316 stainless steel coupons buried in crushed Yucca Mountain muckpile rock. The uniform-sized metal coupons were sacrificed at the following timepoints: day 0, 1 day, 1 month, 5 months,! year, and 18
purpose. To compare biofilm formation by Staphylococcus epidermidis on different intraocular lens (IOL) materials.. methods. The S. epidermidis strains, ATCC 12228 (American Type Culture Collection) and ATCC 35984 (biofilm-producer) were used. Biofilms were cultivated on disks of different IOL materials: silicone, PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate), acrylic, or MPC (2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) surface-modified acrylic. Biofilms were stained with crystal violet (CV) which served as an index of biofilm formation. The bacterial population was enumerated after biofilm homogenization. Biofilms were also examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).. results. Among the four materials tested, the least amount of biofilm formed on silicone. Biofilm production was significantly different between acrylic and MPC surface-modified acrylic lenses at 48 hours (P , 0.05-0.01). The bacterial populations were significantly different between acrylic and silicone over 72 hours (P , 0.05-0.01). The ...
S. lugdunensis is a recently described coagulase negative Staphylococcus species that has been determined by our group and others to be a virulent human pathogen, capable of causing diseases more akin to Staphylococcus aureus than a typical coagulase negative Staphylococcus species (e.g., native valve endocarditis). This suggests that this species has unique characteristics differentiating it from other coagulase negative Staphylococcus species. The types of infection caused by S. lugdunensis, supported by data generated in our laboratory demonstrating the ability of this organism to form biofilm, suggest that biofilm formation contributes to this species virulence.. We have identified a locus with homology to the S. aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis ica loci in S. lugdunensis. Interestingly, S. lugdunensis forms biofilm, but its biofilm extracellular matrix is predominantly proteinaceous. Understanding the mechanisms of biofilm formation in S. lugdunensis should enable new, more effective ...
Central venous catheters, often needed by cancer patients, can be the source of Nocardia bacteremia. We evaluated the clinical characteristics and outcomes of 17 cancer patients with Nocardia bacteremia. For 10 patients, the bacteremia was associated with the catheter; for the other 7, it was a disseminated infection. N. nova complex was the leading cause of bacteremia. Nocardia promoted heavy biofilm formation on the surface of central venous catheter segments tested in an in vitro biofilm model. Trimethoprim- and minocycline-based lock solutions had potent in vitro activity against biofilm growth. Patients with Nocardia central venous catheter-associated bloodstream infections responded well to catheter removal and antimicrobial drug therapy, whereas those with disseminated bacteremia had poor prognoses ...
TY - CONF. T1 - Paracentrin1, a synthetic antimicrobial peptide fragment of a beta-thymosin from the sea-urchin Paracentrotus lividus, interferes whith staphylococcal and Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation. AU - Schillaci, Domenico. AU - Arizza, Vincenzo. AU - Cascioferro, Stella Maria. AU - Cusimano, Maria Grazia. AU - Russo, Debora. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. KW - Peptidi antimicrobici, biofilms, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Paracentrotus lividus. UR - http://hdl.handle.net/10447/147666. M3 - Paper. ER - ...
Biological treatment of dairy wastewater was investigated using a laboratory scale aerobic sequencing batch flexible fibre biofilm reactor (SBFFBR). The SBFFBR system was modified from a typical sequencing batch reactor system by using eight flexible fibre bundles with a very high specific surface area, which served as support for microorganisms. The reactor was operated under different influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations (610, 2041 and 4382 mg l-1) and constant hydraulic retention times of 1.6 days. The results have shown successful applicability of the SBFFBR system to treat this dairy wastewater. High COD removal efficiencies between 89.7 and 97% were achieved at average organic loading rates of 0.4 and 2.74 kg COD m-3 d-1, respectively ...
METHODS:. A total of 19 S. hominis isolates were collected from children at the Childrens Medical Centre, Tehran, Iran, from March 2012 to February 2013. MRSHo susceptibility against 13 antimicrobial and 3 antiseptic agents was determined using disk diffusion (DAD) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), respectively. All isolates were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for 15 distinct resistance genes, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), and arginine catabolic mobile elements (ACMEs). Biofilm production of the isolates was determined using a colorimetric microtiter plate assay. ...
Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infections are a major cause of death in cystic fibrosis and hospitalized patients. Treating these infections is becoming difficult due to the emergence of conventional antimicrobial multiresistance. While monosaccharides have proved beneficial against such bacterial lung infection, the design of several multivalent glycosylated macromolecules has been shown to be also beneficial on biofilm dispersion. In this study, calix[4]arene-based glycoclusters functionalized with galactosides or fucosides have been synthesized. The characterization of their inhibitory properties on Pseudomonas aeruginosa aggregation, biofilm formation, adhesion on epithelial cells, and destruction of alveolar tissues were performed. The antiadhesive properties of the designed glycoclusters were demonstrated through several in vitro bioassays. An in vivo mouse model of lung infection provided an almost complete protection against Pseudomonas aeruginosa with the designed glycoclusters.. ...

BioGENEius 2015 National Winners - biotechinstitute.orgBioGENEius 2015 National Winners - biotechinstitute.org

Bioengineering a Novel Natural Pharmaceutical Composed of Umbelliferone and Resveratrol to Reduce Biofilms on Joint ...
more infohttp://biotechinstitute.org/go.cfm?do=winners.shownational&year=2015

biofilmsbiofilms

more on biofilm. so biofilms forming on food particles means that yogurt is a biofilm,. just devoid of large scale structural ... strep is a biofilm. ankylosing spondylitis is a biofilm condition. allergies can be caused by biofilm toxins pubmed. staph ... gallstones are biofilm. UTIS are biofilm. saccharomyces and clostridia. saccharomyces a poor biofilm former compared to ... franz xaver messerschmidt - biofilm sculpture usman on biofilm - the BCD still rules. the biofilm bandwagon slowly gathers ...
more infohttp://members.tripod.com/mueller_ranges/links/compendium/biofilms.html

More BiofilmsMore Biofilms

... Image: Red biofilms on the tunnel floor. Caption: BIOMINERALIZATION OF Fe OXIDES AND ZnS AT THE TENNYSON MINE, ...
more infohttps://www.nsf.gov/news/speeches/colwell/rc01_anatlesson/tsld011.htm

Biofilms - CompPhy@DoaneBiofilms - [email protected]

Biofilms Biofilms are bacterial colonies that are attached to a surface. They grow from suspended, or planktonic, cells ... We are investigating the dynamics of biofilm growth using experimental, simulation, and mathematical modeling methods. This ... attaching to the surface and by cell division and movement of existing attached cells. Biofilms are found naturally in many ...
more infohttps://sites.google.com/a/doane.edu/compphy-doane/projects/biofilms

Biofilms.  - PubMed - NCBIBiofilms. - PubMed - NCBI

Biofilms.. Stickler D1.. Author information. 1. Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, CF1 3TL, Wales, UK ... The past year has seen important advances in our understanding of how cells initiate biofilm formation. We have also begun to ... Outside of the laboratory, most microbes grow as organised biofilm communities on surfaces. ... appreciate how cells can co-ordinate their activities and build the complex structures of mature biofilms that afford ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10383861?dopt=Abstract

Egalitarianism in Biofilms | SpringerLinkEgalitarianism in Biofilms | SpringerLink

Microbial biofilms are multicellular communities of sessile microorganisms encased by the hydrated polymeric matrix. They have ... By measuring the biofilm growing rates under different evenness levels of communities, an evenly distributed community favors ... Microbial biofilms are multicellular communities of sessile microorganisms encased by the hydrated polymeric matrix. They have ... Humphries J, Xiong L, Liu J, Prindle A, Yuan F, Arjes HA et al (2017) Species-independent attraction to biofilms through ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00248-018-1173-5

Springer Series on BiofilmsSpringer Series on Biofilms

Once anchored to a surface, biofilm microorganisms carry out a ... ... Springer Series on Biofilms presents carefully refereed volumes on selected topics on this field of research. All volumes ... or the roles of biofilms in diseases. While based in microbiology, biofilms are of intense interest to many other scientists, ... Springer Series on Biofilms presents carefully refereed volumes on selected topics on this field of research. All volumes ...
more infohttps://www.springer.com/series/7142

Protein Disrupts Infectious Biofilms | CaltechProtein Disrupts Infectious Biofilms | Caltech

"In part, the reason these infections are hard to treat is because P. aeruginosa enters a biofilm mode of growth in these ... Now, a group of researchers at Caltech and the University of Oxford have made progress in the fight against biofilms. Led by ... Our research suggests a new approach to inhibiting P. aeruginosa biofilms.". The group targeted pyocyanin, a small molecule ... Many infectious pathogens are difficult to treat because they develop into biofilms, layers of metabolically active but slowly ...
more infohttp://www.caltech.edu/node/53219

The sociobiology of biofilms.  - PubMed - NCBIThe sociobiology of biofilms. - PubMed - NCBI

First, the appearance of organization in biofilms can emerge without active coordination. That is, biofilm properties such as ... The sociobiology of biofilms.. Nadell CD1, Xavier JB, Foster KR.. Author information. 1. Department of Ecology and Evolutionary ... and spontaneous mutation can generate conflict even within biofilms initiated by genetically identical cells. Biofilms will ... Biofilms are densely packed communities of microbial cells that grow on surfaces and surround themselves with secreted polymers ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19067751

Chlorhexidine Effective Against Candida auris BiofilmsChlorhexidine Effective Against Candida auris Biofilms

The study showed that C auris can form a biofilm that resists many antifungal agents. A biofilm also enables the fungus to use ... To better understand the fungus biofilm capabilities, the researchers compared the biofilm mass of four strains of C auris ... The C auris strains developed 1.5 to 3 times less biofilm mass than C albicans, but 3 to 6 times greater mass than C glabrata, ... The C auris biofilm is not as strong as those of some other clinically significant fungi, but has nonetheless contributed to C ...
more infohttps://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/874338

Biofilms: How microbial communities outfox antibioticsBiofilms: How microbial communities outfox antibiotics

So, when faced with biofilm infections, what can doctors do?. The battle against biofilms. Biofilms are a serious threat to ... What are biofilms?. "Biofilms are one of the most widely distributed and successful modes of life on Earth," says Prof. Hans- ... Biofilms can be made up of populations of the same bacteria or of communities, which, in turn, are made up of many different ... Biofilms are tricky beasts because they have a tendency to become resistant to all manner of efforts employed to eradicate them ...
more infohttps://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/319858.php

Opportunistic pathogens enriched in showerhead biofilms | PNASOpportunistic pathogens enriched in showerhead biofilms | PNAS

The biofilm assemblages were comprised of ubiquitous water and soil microbial groups, some known for biofilm formation. ... Showerhead biofilms and water are potential sources of aerosolized microorganisms. However, different microbes and biofilms ... Fluorescence and SEM images of showerhead biofilm. (A-C) Epifluorescence microscopy of biofilm samples stained with DAPI; scale ... Opportunistic pathogens enriched in showerhead biofilms. Leah M. Feazel, Laura K. Baumgartner, Kristen L. Peterson, Daniel N. ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/106/38/16393.full

Three-dimensional architecture of Vibrio cholera biofilms | PNASThree-dimensional architecture of Vibrio cholera biofilms | PNAS

The majority of biofilm studies involve simple microscopy experiments where bacteria are fluorescently labeled so that biofilms ... For example, in the largest biofilms observed in their paper, oriented cells "radiate" from the center of the biofilms basal ... The authors reconstructed the evolution of V. cholera biofilms by using ensemble averages of biofilm structure at various ... Three-dimensional architecture of Vibrio cholera biofilms. Gerard C. L. Wong. PNAS April 5, 2016 113 (14) 3711-3713; first ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/113/14/3711

Microbial Biofilms and Breast Tissue ExpandersMicrobial Biofilms and Breast Tissue Expanders

... Melissa J. Karau,1 Kerryl E. Greenwood-Quaintance,1 Suzannah M. Schmidt,1 Nho V ... We previously developed and validated a vortexing-sonication technique for detection of biofilm bacteria on the surface of ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2013/254940/abs/

Microphytobenthic Biofilms: Composition and Interactions | SpringerLinkMicrophytobenthic Biofilms: Composition and Interactions | SpringerLink

Microphytobenthic biofilms in mudflats are characterised by a wide variety of microorganisms and the production of large ... Flemming H-C, Wingender J (2010) The biofilm matrix. Nat Rev Microbiol 8:623-633PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Sutherland I (2001) Biofilm exopolysaccharides: a strong and sticky framework. Microbiology 147:3-9PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentral ... Branda SS, Vik S, Friedman L, Kolter R (2005) Biofilms: the matrix revisited. Trends Microbiol 13:20-26PubMedCrossRef ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-319-99194-8_4

Survival of the Slimiest: The Persistent Nature of BiofilmsSurvival of the Slimiest: The Persistent Nature of Biofilms

Biofilms are hardier than we imagined, playing an underappreciated role in nosocomial transmission. ... The Role of Biofilm in Nosocomial Transmission. Biofilms are sessile microbial communities growing on surfaces, frequently ... How Hidden Biofilms Escape Disinfection. Alfa and colleagues[2] looked at the impact of improper positioning of the elevator ... Biofilm formation and bacterial viability during the survival analysis were assessed. The culturability of the A pittii strains ...
more infohttps://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/894034

Host Defence against Bacterial Biofilms: Mission Impossible?Host Defence against Bacterial Biofilms: "Mission Impossible"?

biofilms," Journal of Bacteriology, vol. 182, no. 22, pp. 6482-6489, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ... "Gene transfer occurs with enhanced efficiency in biofilms and induces enhanced stabilisation of the biofilm structure," Current ... M. Otto, "Staphylococcal biofilms," Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology, vol. 322, pp. 207-228, 2008. View at Google ... A. S. Prince, "Biofilms, antimicrobial resistance, and airway infection," New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 347, no. 14, pp ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2012/853123/ref/

5:57 am5:57 am

"Ryser claimed that the bugs lay dormant in Megans body trapped in her biofilm and would spring out from time to time.. " ... biofilm, and would spring out from time to time," the family claims in court.. The Sutherland family sued Dr. Carol Ann Ryser ... including bugs in their biofilms.. "During the time that Dr. Ryser and HCAKC were treating Mr. and Mrs. Sutherland and their ... including bugs in their biofilm, and prescribed long lists of unnecessary, and expensive, treatments for all of them.. The ...
more infohttps://www.courthousenews.com/bugs-in-the-biofilm/

Control of Pathogens in BiofilmsControl of Pathogens in Biofilms

... March 2014. Various bacteria, including foodborne pathogens, can form biofilms on stainless ... Results of this study indicate that treatment of L. monocytogenes, S. Typhimurium, and STEC biofilms with lactic acid and ... Biofilms on treated and untreated coupons were subsequently enriched by immersing coupons in BHI or TSB, and in aqueous ... Populations of 8.6 to 9.2 log CFU of pathogen/coupon were recovered from biofilms after incubating in BHI and TSB for 72 h. ...
more infohttp://www.caes.uga.edu/research/centers-institutes/center-for-food-safety/research/research-project-highlights/control-of-pathogens-in-biofilms.html

Biofilms] Re: Surface energy - meaning?Biofilms] Re: Surface energy - meaning?

... Dev via biofilms%40net.bio.net (by microbesinaction At gmail.com). Fri Dec 1 01:33:15 ... It is also well known that hydrophobicity has a role in cell attachment to the surface and biofilm formation. As the biofilm ... www.bio.net/biomail/listinfo/biofilms , , brooksjd.vcf , 1KDownload * Messages sorted by: [ date ] [ thread ] [ subject ] [ ... Regards , John , , Alfred Ogola Okello wrote: , , Dear Sir, , , , Ref:http://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/biofilms/1998-September/ ...
more infohttp://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/biofilms/2006-December/000749.html

biofilms | Lab Managerbiofilms | Lab Manager

The Mechanics of Biofilms- Sacrifice of the Few for the Benefit of the Many. April 12, 2016 ... New Anti-Biofilm Compounds Show Promise Against Drug-Resistant Bacteria Linked to Hospital Infections. February 17, 2016 ... Researchers in China report that air plasma can be used to kill biofilms found on the surfaces of perishable fruits and foods ... New research has shown that a bacteriophage is critical to the formation of biofilms by Pseudomonas ...
more infohttp://www.labmanager.com/tag/biofilms

Bacterial biofilms, begoneBacterial biofilms, begone

... especially when they are allowed to form biofilms. "Biofilms are nasty once they form, and incredibly difficult to get rid of ... In particular, theyre devising new ways to keep harmful bacteria from forming sticky matrices called biofilms - and to do it ... In the lab, they demonstrated an 85 percent reduction in P. aeruginosa biofilm adhesion. They conducted extensive studies ... have created a new material that inhibits biofilm formation of the virulent superbug Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Their material, ...
more infohttp://www.engr.colostate.edu/sbme/2017/11/03/bacterial-biofilms-begone/

Small molecule may stop infectious biofilms growing on medical implantsSmall molecule may stop infectious biofilms growing on medical implants

... aureus biofilms, a cause of implant-related infections. ... Biofilms on medical devices pose huge challenge. Biofilms can ... it almost immediately begins to be covered with a bacterial biofilm. In fact, one of the first thorough studies of biofilms was ... Bacterial biofilms can develop on many surfaces in and on the body, such as in chronic wounds, on the skin, in the gut, and in ... As biofilms, bacteria can adhere to any natural or manmade surface. For example they can be found on submerged surfaces in ...
more infohttps://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/316545.php?iacp

The Biofilm Primer | J. William Costerton | SpringerThe Biofilm Primer | J. William Costerton | Springer

... the widely accepted hypothesis that the majority of bacteria in virtually all ecosystems grow in matrix-enclosed biofilms. The ... The Biofilm Primer. Authors. * J. William Costerton Series Title. Springer Series on Biofilms. Series Volume. 1. Copyright. ... In 2004, Bill was recruited by the University of Southern California to build a center for biofilms in the dental and medical ... J. William (Bill) Costerton directed the NSF-funded Center for Biofilm Engineering in Montana for more than a decade. ...
more infohttp://www.springer.com/us/book/9783540680215

BiofilmsBiofilms

... The development of sustainable and green technologies for the treatment and recovery of resources from wastes is ...
more infohttps://www.omicsonline.org/blog/2015/09/07/20152-Biofilms.html
  • As illustrated in the micrographs in Fig. 1 , microbes generally were clumped and embedded in extracellular material, consistent with biofilm morphology. (pnas.org)
  • Biofilms are sessile microbial communities growing on surfaces, frequently embedded in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (also known as slime). (medscape.com)
  • Biofilms, surface-associated microbial communities composed of aggregates of cells that are encased by an extracellular matrix, have a tremendous impact on industrial, clinical, and natural environments. (asm.org)
  • Biofilms are sessile microbial communities embedded in a self-produced extracellular polymeric matrix ( 12 , 44 ). (asm.org)
  • Biofilms are held together by sugary molecular strands, collectively termed 'extracellular polymeric substances' or 'EPS. (montana.edu)
  • In contrast, these biofilms had decreased levels of extracellular DNA (eDNA). (scirp.org)
  • Biofilm EPS, which is also referred to as slime (although not everything described as slime is a biofilm), is a polymeric conglomeration generally composed of extracellular DNA, proteins, and polysaccharides. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Biofilms are surface-attached communities of bacterial or fungal cells that are enmeshed in an extensive extracellular matrix which makes them more resistant to both antibiotics and the immune system. (news-medical.net)
  • Within the proprietary xCELLigence microtiter plates that contain gold biosensors, biofilms of S. aureus were established and then exposed to different bacteriophage-derived proteins that catalyze degradation of the key biofilm extracellular polymers peptidoglycan or exopolysaccharide. (news-medical.net)
  • Presence of Extracellular DNA in the Candida albicans Biofilm Matrix and its Contribution to Biofilms. (ebscohost.com)
  • DNA has been described as a structural component of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in bacterial biofilms. (ebscohost.com)
  • In Candida albicans, there is a scarce knowledge concerning the contribution of extracellular DNA (eDNA) to biofilm matrix and overall structure. (ebscohost.com)
  • During studies of alginate biosynthesis in P. aeruginosa , we discovered that the majority of the extracellular material that reacted in the carbazole colorimetric assay was not exopolysaccharide but DNA [as determined by its peak absorbance at 260 nm, by electrophoretic display, and by its deoxyribonuclease (DNase) but not ribonuclease sensitivity] and therefore hypothesized that this DNA may play a functional role in P. aeruginosa biofilms. (sciencemag.org)
  • At low cell density, biofilm genes, including Vibrio polysaccharide (VPS) biosynthesis genes and the major extracellular matrix genes RbmA, RbmC, and Bap1, are expressed. (genome.jp)
  • By being able to alter the composition of the extracellular biofilm material itself on-demand, the Wyss Institute team has essentially turned biofilms into self-replicating production platforms capable of churning out whatever material is desired. (harvard.edu)
  • It is now recognized that 65% of all human infections are caused by biofilms, which are defined as functional communities of organisms attached to an abiotic or a biotic surface and encased in an extracellular matrix. (sharjah.ac.ae)
  • Biofilms are one of the most widely distributed and successful modes of life on Earth," says Prof. Hans-Curt Flemming - director of the Institute for Interface Biotechnology at the University of Duisburg-Essen in Germany - in a 2016 article published in Nature Reviews Microbiology . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The author, who proposed this biofilm hypothesis, uses direct evidence from microscopy and from molecular techniques, presenting cogent reasons for moving beyond conventional culture methods that dominated microbiology throughout the last century. (springer.com)
  • Bill is widely regarded as the "grandfather" of biofilm microbiology. (springer.com)
  • Please go to URL http://www.bio.net and click on the 'Access the BIOSCI/bionet Newsgroups' option and then click on the BIOFILMS/bionet.microbiology.biofilms hyperlink. (bio.net)
  • If you do not see bionet.microbiology.biofilms in your newsreader within another day or two, ask your news system administrator to act on our 'newgroup' message to enable the group at your site. (bio.net)
  • You might also try the command 'g bionet.microbiology.biofilms' in rn-like newsreaders. (bio.net)
  • The complexity of biofilm activity and behavior requires research contributions from many disciplines such as biochemistry, engineering, mathematics and microbiology. (montana.edu)
  • Biofilms require a coordinated attack by researchers with expertise in everything from microbiology and immunology to materials science and mathematical modeling, Mangan explains. (sciencemag.org)
  • Citing that the techniques currently used to identify anti-biofilm activities in phage-derived proteins have the "important shortcomings" of being laborious endpoint assays that suffer from poor reproducibility, in the recent issue of Frontiers in Microbiology a team of scientists lead by Diana Gutierrez report a proof of concept study using an xCELLigence Real-Time Cell Analysis instrument to monitor the disruption of clinically important Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. (news-medical.net)
  • Furthermore, it has contributed to the field of biofilm microbiology by quantifying the BFP of each of the cultured isolates and' it has enhanced the clinical understanding of biofilms within veterinary wounds. (bl.uk)
  • Interestingly, antibiotics can actually enter a biofilm in many instances, but the EPS actively shields its inhabitants from such compounds, promoting antibiotic resistance. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • 2010. Antibiotic resistance of bacterial biofilms. (scirp.org)
  • Antibiotic [therapy] kills some cells, but biofilms hunkered down survive the onslaught," says Peter Greenberg of the Cystic Fibrosis Research Center at the University of Iowa, Iowa City. (sciencemag.org)
  • Genotypic and phenotypic methods including the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion assay and PCR-gel electrophoresis, were used to investigate the correlation between antibiotic resistance and bacterial biofilm formation. (bl.uk)
  • For instance, the antibiotic sensitivity profiles of the oral biofilm flora of these individuals are unknown. (sharjah.ac.ae)
  • Compiling such a data set will be invaluable for planning and delivery of future healthcare in the region, and the group will undertake a pathfinder, pilot study of the antibiotic profiles of oral biofilms of Sharjah and the Gulf region residents using plaque samples derived from patients attending the UoS Dental Hospital. (sharjah.ac.ae)
  • Now, a group of researchers at Caltech and the University of Oxford have made progress in the fight against biofilms. (caltech.edu)
  • To better understand the fungus' biofilm capabilities, the researchers compared the biofilm mass of four strains of C auris with that of two other fungi, Candida albicans and Candida glabrata . (medscape.com)
  • In future studies, the researchers aim to better understand the mechanisms involved in preventing biofilms. (innovations-report.com)
  • A team of researchers with members from the U.S., Germany and Sweden has discovered that the cellulose found in bacterial biofilms differs from the cellulose in plants. (phys.org)
  • The researchers assume that the added biofilm stimulates uniform crystal growth throughout the volume of the hybrid material. (tum.de)
  • We want researchers to know that we recognize the importance of biofilms and [want to] bring people together to work on the problem," says Dennis Mangan of the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR), who is spearheading the effort. (sciencemag.org)
  • The goal is to understand how and why biofilms form so that researchers can identify their Achilles' heel and devise better treatments, which are badly needed. (sciencemag.org)
  • In their work , published Dec. 11 in Physical Review Letters , the researchers were able to find predictable patterns of how fluids move based on the general shapes of biofilms, insights that could find applications in many fields. (stanford.edu)
  • Within organized biofilms, the researchers found two common patterns of movement: vortexes and asters. (stanford.edu)
  • By targeting a noninfectious viral cage to biofilms, researchers developed a system for early detection and eventual destruction of these bacterial communities. (ebscohost.com)
  • To probe the anti-biofilm properties of iron ions, the researchers exposed polycarbonate films to iron-ion beams of two different energies. (natureasia.com)
  • Enclosed in a matrix primarily consisting of polysaccharides, pathogens in biofilms are often more resistant to environmental stresses such as heat and chemical sanitizers than are their planktonic counterparts. (uga.edu)
  • Biofilm is a multidisciplinary, gold open access journal focused on hypothesis- or discovery-driven studies on microbial cells that grow in multicellular communities (including surface-attached biofilms and suspended aggregates) and demonstrate different gene expression, growth rate, behavior and appearance to those that are in planktonic (free-living) state. (elsevier.com)
  • The formation of a biofilm usually begins when a single planktonic microbe tenuously clings to a surface. (dreddyclinic.com)
  • Genetic studies of single-species biofilms have shown that they form in multiple steps ( 46 ), require intercellular signalling ( 7 ), and demonstrate a profile of gene transcription that is distinct from that of planktonic cells ( 35 ). (asm.org)
  • The planktonic bacterium was visualized by transmission electron microscopy (bar = 1 μM), the attached cells and microcolony were visualized by scanning electron microscopy (bar = 2 μM), and the biofilm micrograph represents a vertical section through a 20-μm biofilm taken by confocal scanning laser microscopy (bar = 10 μM). (asm.org)
  • The microbial cells growing in a biofilm are physiologically distinct from planktonic cells of the same organism, which, by contrast, are single-cells that may float or swim in a liquid medium. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Methods: Mutation frequencies to resistance against mupirocin and rifampicin were determined for planktonic cultures and for biofilms generated using either a novel static biofilm model. (ebscohost.com)
  • Our research suggests a new approach to inhibiting P. aeruginosa biofilms. (caltech.edu)
  • Adding PodA to growing cultures of P. aeruginosa , the team discovered, inhibits biofilm development. (caltech.edu)
  • In the lab, they demonstrated an 85 percent reduction in P. aeruginosa biofilm adhesion. (colostate.edu)
  • Herein we demonstrate that TAGE: (1) does not have selective toxicity against cells within the biofilm state, (2) will inhibit biofilm development under flow conditions, indicating that the CV staining protocol correlates with the ability to be active under biomimetic conditions, and (3) will disperse preformed P. aeruginosa biofilms. (rti.org)
  • Advanced derivatives of TAGE have generated compounds shown to be exceedingly effective as biofilm inhibitors against the g-proteobacteria in this study (P. aeruginosa strains PAO1, PA14, PDO300, and Acinetobacter baumannii). (rti.org)
  • For example, a quorum-sensing-defective mutant of P. aeruginosa is unable to form the highly differentiated biofilm structure associated with wild-type P. aeruginosa , at least under certain conditions ( 11 ). (asm.org)
  • Four flow-chamber channels were inoculated with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged P. aeruginosa PAO1, and two channels each were irrigated with minimal medium with or without DNase I. The presence of DNase I in the medium prevented biofilm formation. (sciencemag.org)
  • To this end, we inoculated five flow-chamber channels and irrigated them with minimal medium without DNase I to allow the establishment of P. aeruginosa biofilms of varying age. (sciencemag.org)
  • In simpler terms, biofilms are layers of slime that make it difficult to entirely clean and disinfect a surface. (neogen.com)
  • Oral biofilms are the etiological factor for dental caries and periodontal disease. (ebscohost.com)
  • Prevention should focus on the removal of existing oral biofilms and inhibition of new biofilm formation. (ebscohost.com)
  • The eco-biology of biofilms, formerly called dental plaque in the case of oral biofilms, is yet to be fully explored. (sharjah.ac.ae)
  • Biodegradation of crude oil was estimated by gas chromatography, and biofilm formation near oil-water interface was quantified by confocal laser scanning microscopy. (mendeley.com)
  • The structural and physiological complexity of biofilms has led to the idea that they are coordinated and cooperative groups, analogous to multicellular organisms. (nih.gov)
  • 3. The method of claim 1 wherein the step of providing a biofilm layer comprises introducing a gas into the gas compartment that diffuses through the membrane and selects gas degrading organisms in the biofilm layer. (google.com)
  • According to the US Navy's Office of Naval Research, micro-fouling in the form of adhesive surface biofilms can increase drag by up to 20%, while the macro-fouling caused by larger organisms - typically barnacles - can add more than 60% overall. (naval-technology.com)
  • Phototrophic biofilms can best be described as surface attached microbial communities (see also Biofilm and Chemistry of Biofilm Prevention) mainly driven by light as the energy source with phototrophic organisms clearly present. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Biofilm mode of growth provides such significant advantages to the members of the consortium that most organisms in important habitats are found in biofilms. (unt.edu)
  • Biofilm is a multidisciplinary, gold open access journal focused on hypothesis- or discovery-driven studies on microbial cells that grow in multicellular communities (including surface-attached biofilms and suspended aggregates) and demonstrate different gene expression, growth rate, behavior and appearance. (elsevier.com)
  • Mucin coatings may help prevent biofilm formation on medical devices and could also find applications in personal hygiene: Incorporating them into products such as toothpaste or mouthwash may supplement the body's own defenses, especially in people whose natural mucus has been depleted, Ribbeck says. (medindia.net)
  • and (2) evaluate the efficacy of heat and chemical sanitizer treatments on inactivation of pathogens in biofilms formed on stainless steel. (uga.edu)
  • When LA (3%) and 2% LVA+0.5% SDS were applied to biofilms following treatment at 80ºC, all three pathogens were reduced to undetectable levels, i.e., samples were negative by enrichment. (uga.edu)
  • Springer Series on Biofilms presents carefully refereed volumes on selected topics on this field of research. (springer.com)
  • Battin TJ, Besemer K, Bengtsson MM, Romani AM, Packmann AI (2016) The ecology and biogeochemistry of stream biofilms. (springer.com)
  • 2016) Toxin-Antitoxin systems eliminate defective cells and preserve symmetry in Bacillus subtilis biofilms. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • 2016) Eradication of Enterococcus faecalis biofilms on human dentin. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • 2016) Methodologies to study Bacillus subtilis biofilms as models for characterizing small molecule biofilm inhibitors. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • 2016) Not so simple, not so subtle: The interspecies competition between Bacillus simplex and Bacillus subtilis and its impact on the evolution of biofilms. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • 2016) Spatio-temporal Assembly of Functional Mineral Scaffolds within Microbial Biofilms. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • In fact, one of the first thorough studies of biofilms was carried out in an alpine stream. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • W. M. Dunne Jr., "Bacterial adhesion: seen any good biofilms lately? (hindawi.com)
  • As the biofilm progresses the adhesion is higher and chemical bonding is more hence lower the surface energy. (bio.net)
  • S. epidermidis biofilms were set up in vitro, erythromycin was acted as the positive control agent, XTT reduction assay was used to evaluate AG on the initial adhesion of S. epidermidis and bacterial metabolism within biofilm, microscope was applied to observe biofilm morphology, and Congo red assay was used to detect polysacchatide interc-ellular adhesion (PIA)formation when exposed to AG. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Studies that investigated anti-biofilm activities without describing the possible mechanisms were removed from the analysis. (mdpi.com)
  • This spells bad news for anyone with conditions such as cystic fibrosis , periodontitis , or chronic wounds as medical implants and catheters are hotspots for biofilm formation. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Direct detection of bacterial biofilms on the middle-ear mucosa of children with chronic otitis media," Journal of the American Medical Association , vol. 296, no. 2, pp. 202-211, 2006. (hindawi.com)
  • 60% of chronic wounds contain a biofilm 1 , which could delay healing. (smith-nephew.com)
  • Research shows 60% of chronic wounds contain a biofilm. (smith-nephew.com)
  • If you've treated a chronic wound that failed to progress, despite good wound care, it is possible you have been dealing with a biofilm. (smith-nephew.com)
  • Biofilms in chronic wounds, Wound Repair and Regeneration (2007). (smith-nephew.com)
  • Biofilms in human wounds are considered responsible for the non-healing nature of some chronic wounds. (bl.uk)
  • Recent advancements in chronic wound healing have resulted from an increased understanding and awareness of biofilms. (bl.uk)
  • These findings led to the hypothesis that bacterial biofilms were also present within the wound bed of non- healing equine wounds and could be responsible for the unexplained retardation of some chronic equine wounds. (bl.uk)
  • Secondly, the study examined chronic wounds for in-vivo evidence of biofilm material. (bl.uk)
  • This work supports the hypothesis that biofilms exist within chronic equine wounds and provides a sound basis for future work that can be used to guide and enhance the successful healing of chronic equine wounds. (bl.uk)
  • In one part of the study the investigators want to investigate the presence of biofilm in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis both with and without nasal polyps compared with a control group of subjects without chronic rhinosinusitis. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The 7th ASM Conference on Biofilms will provide a platform to discuss the latest research, covering topics that include molecular basis and regulation of biofilm formation, biofilms in natural and industrial systems, diagnosis and study of clinically-relevant biofilms, and emerging technologies and their application to biofilms. (asm.org)
  • And in the mid-1980s, Joseph Lam of the University of Calgary in Alberta, using the transmission electron microscope, confirmed that biofilms are present in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients. (sciencemag.org)
  • The past year has seen important advances in our understanding of how cells initiate biofilm formation. (nih.gov)
  • That is, biofilm properties such as phenotypic differentiation, species stratification and channel formation do not necessarily require that cells communicate with one another using specialized signaling molecules. (nih.gov)
  • Strong conflict can arise among multiple species and strains in a biofilm, and spontaneous mutation can generate conflict even within biofilms initiated by genetically identical cells. (nih.gov)
  • Although micafungin and caspofungin inhibited some of the fungus, neither worked against biofilms: voriconazole showed little activity against C auris cells, and fluconazole was altogether ineffective. (medscape.com)
  • 0.05) of cells in biofilms treated with LA (3%) were recovered on TSA than on selective media. (uga.edu)
  • The dry steam generated can easily break the barrier of biofilm structures and kill cells inside the biofilms. (prweb.com)
  • Only about 15% of a given biofilm is made up of cells. (dreddyclinic.com)
  • Underneath the protective biofilm, the cells are happily reproducing, damaging the tissue and producing toxins," said Suga. (scienceblog.com)
  • In some cases, loss of fluorescence appeared to coincide with detachment of cells from the biofilm. (asm.org)
  • We also suggest that detachment of cells expressing agr from biofilms may have important clinical implications. (asm.org)
  • 3. Biofilms can propagate through detachment of small or large clumps of cells, or by a type of 'seeding dispersal' that releases individual cells. (montana.edu)
  • We found that it was not possible to kill the Salmonella cells using any of the three disinfectants, if the biofilm was allowed to grow for seven days before the disinfectant was applied," says Mary Corcoran, a researcher on the study. (innovations-report.com)
  • Although these micrographs are static views of the steps in biofilm formation, a biofilm is not a motionless heap of cells. (asm.org)
  • In this frame, the pillars of a mature biofilm are visible, distributed on top of a monolayer of surface-associated cells. (asm.org)
  • Exposure of cells to the SPIONs at concentrations up to 200 μg/ml resulted in an increase in biofilm biomass by 16 h under static conditions and a corresponding increase in cell density in the bulk liquid. (scirp.org)
  • Fe(II) levels in the supernatants of biofilms formed in the presence of FeNPs exceeded 100 μM compared with 20 μM in control media without cells. (scirp.org)
  • The results of this study indicate a need to reconsider the effects of FeNPs on bacterial growth and biofilm formation and the effect the bacterial cells may have on the use and recovery of SPIONs. (scirp.org)
  • Bacterial biofilms are structured communities of cells enclosed in self-produced hydrated polymeric matrix adherent to an inert or living surface ( 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • The latter has been presumed to be derived from lysed cells and has not been thought to represent an important component of biofilm structure. (sciencemag.org)
  • The liposomes, being similar in composition to microbial membranes or cells, are readily incorporated into the existing biofilm. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • International experts will write, or edit, volumes on specific aspects of biofilms, like research methods, or the roles of biofilms in diseases. (springer.com)
  • The journal looks forward to receiving manuscripts discussing translational biofilm research, i.e. manuscripts dealing with various applied aspects of biofilms (including but not limited to) standardization of biofilm approaches, vaccine development, identification of novel anti-biofilm compounds, study of biomaterials, bioengineering, etc). (elsevier.com)
  • In fact, the Sutherlands say, Ryser eventually diagnosed the whole family with the same diseases, in virtually identical words, including bugs in their biofilm, and prescribed long lists of unnecessary, and expensive, treatments for all of them. (courthousenews.com)
  • One initial focus for research conducted at the Health Sciences Core Facility will be biofilms, which are implicated in 80 percent of infectious diseases. (eurekalert.org)
  • A revision of the new advances in biofilms research associated with infectious diseases, food industries, environmental and water biofilm as well as a vision of the new strategies to combat them will be compiled in this topic. (frontiersin.org)
  • Continuous and regular disruption of these biofilms is imperative for prevention and management of oral diseases. (ebscohost.com)
  • A team at the Wyss Institute sees biofilms as a robust new platform for designer nanomaterials that could treat inflammatory bowel diseases, clean up polluted rivers, manufacture pharmaceutical products, fabricate new textiles, and more. (harvard.edu)
  • Alfa and colleagues [ 2 ] looked at the impact of improper positioning of the elevator lever of a duodenoscope on bacterial persistence, biofilm formation, and endoscope contamination. (medscape.com)
  • In Biofilms, Infection, and Antimicrobial Therapy, Drs Pace, Rupp, and Finch assemble the contributions of more than 50 of the world's leading authorities on microbial biofilms who present recent findings on antibacterial tolerance and bacterial persistence associated with biofilms and discuses the implications of those findings with regard to human health. (waterstones.com)
  • But why are biofilms so persistent, and what are doctors and scientists doing to outsmart these clever microbial communities? (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In much the same way as human communities, biofilms have highly specialized areas: some of them are responsible for nutrient recycling, while others produce new EPS components or send messages from one area of the biofilm to another. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Although this also happens in free-living bacterial communities, it is significantly more efficient in biofilms. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Biofilm" aims to bring together different communities to significantly advance the knowledge of microbial communities, and specifically explore the interfaces between these disciplines. (elsevier.com)
  • This is an excerpt of a poster on stream biofilm communities created by Andrew Dopheide and Gillian Lewis, University of Auckland. (eurekalert.org)
  • Biofilms are structurally, phenotypically, and compositionally diverse bacterial communities. (frontiersin.org)
  • Today, these communities are called biofilms and they're found almost anywhere they can survive. (dreddyclinic.com)
  • Biofilms are currently defined as structured bacterial communities embedded in a self-produced exopolysaccharide matrix adherent to any abiotic or biological surface. (frontiersin.org)
  • Biofilm communities can develop within hours. (montana.edu)
  • It was not until the late decades of the 20th century, however, that scientists and engineers possessed adequate technology to effectively study microbial communities and began to understand the significant implications of the biofilm mode of growth. (montana.edu)
  • Here, we test the hypothesis that human colon biofilms comprise microbial communities that are carcinogenic in CRC mouse models. (jci.org)
  • Remarkably, biofilm-positive communities from healthy colonoscopy biopsies induced colon inflammation and tumors similarly to biofilm-positive tumor tissues. (jci.org)
  • 16S rRNA gene sequencing and RNA-Seq analyses identified compositional and functional microbiota differences between mice colonized with biofilm-positive and biofilm-negative communities. (jci.org)
  • In their paper, they note that there is growing evidence that these interactions contribute to biofilm formation, but the underlying mechanisms are not clear. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Biofilm phenotypes observable by eye are often the result of complex interactions and interconnected chemical, physical, and genetic processes. (frontiersin.org)
  • We especially encourage the submission of work applying physical, analytical, and modeling methods to generate insights into the interactions that shape biofilms and determine their function and biological outcomes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Moreover, this book also provides a comprehensive account on microbial interactions in biofilms, pyocyanin, and. (intechopen.com)
  • biofilms can use simple sugars in their construction quite well, and may, by anchoring themselves to the gut walls, be able to inhibit the bodies absorbtion of simple sugars and cherry pick them for themselves which is why scd takes so long to get results and is unstable in effect. (tripod.com)
  • Pyocyanin has been used in the clinical identification of this strain for over a century, but several years ago the Newman group demonstrated that the molecule also supports biofilm growth, raising the possibility that its degradation might offer a new route to inhibit biofilm development. (caltech.edu)
  • AG could remarkably inhibit biofilm formation of S. epidermidis, although it was less potent than erythromycin. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The second messenger c-di-GMP is a key signalling molecule controlling motility and biofilm matrix production. (genome.jp)
  • The work, Costa says, is relevant to anyone interested in manipulating microbial biofilms, which are common in natural, clinical, and industrial settings. (caltech.edu)
  • The journal will cover biofilms in various (micro)environments, including clinical settings, the natural environment, and industrial settings (including but not limited to food industry, waste management, agriculture, energy etc). (elsevier.com)
  • There is increasing awareness that biofilms have a special clinical relevance. (asm.org)
  • An increase in red fluorescence from the in vitro biofilms appeared to be related to the clinical inflammatory response of the respective saliva donors, which was previously assessed during an in vivo period of performing no-oral hygiene. (uva.nl)
  • An overview of biofilm and its detection in clinical samples. (ebscohost.com)
  • This review summarises the accumulated knowledge of biofilm and addresses the unmet need of biofilm detection in clinical wound. (ebscohost.com)
  • Infective endocarditis is a typical biofilm-associated infectious disease frequently caused by commensal streptococci, but the contribution of host factors in biofilm formation is unclear. (ebscohost.com)