Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.
A species of STAPHYLOCOCCUS that is a spherical, non-motile, gram-positive, chemoorganotrophic, facultative anaerobe. Mainly found on the skin and mucous membrane of warm-blooded animals, it can be primary pathogen or secondary invader.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).
Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria that is numerous in the mouth and throat. It is a common cause of endocarditis and is also implicated in dental plaque formation.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Ionized gases, consisting of free electrons and ionized atoms or molecules which collectively behave differently than gas, solid, or liquid. Plasma gases are used in biomedical fields in surface modification; biological decontamination; dentistry (e.g., PLASMA ARC DENTAL CURING LIGHTS); and in other treatments (e.g., ARGON PLASMA COAGULATION).
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
The inter- and intra-relationships between various microorganisms. This can include both positive (like SYMBIOSIS) and negative (like ANTIBIOSIS) interactions. Examples include virus - bacteria and bacteria - bacteria.
Cationic bactericidal surfactant used as a topical antiseptic for skin, wounds, mucous membranes, instruments, etc.; and also as a component in mouthwash and lozenges.
A phenomenon where microorganisms communicate and coordinate their behavior by the accumulation of signaling molecules. A reaction occurs when a substance accumulates to a sufficient concentration. This is most commonly seen in bacteria.
A liquid that functions as a strong oxidizing agent. It has an acrid odor and is used as a disinfectant.
Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.
Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.
A disinfectant and topical anti-infective agent used also as mouthwash to prevent oral plaque.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
Substances used on humans and other animals that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. They are distinguished from DISINFECTANTS, which are used on inanimate objects.
The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
An aminoglycoside, broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by Streptomyces tenebrarius. It is effective against gram-negative bacteria, especially the PSEUDOMONAS species. It is a 10% component of the antibiotic complex, NEBRAMYCIN, produced by the same species.
The presence of an infectious agent on instruments, prostheses, or other inanimate articles.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Electric power supply devices which convert biological energy, such as chemical energy of metabolism or mechanical energy of periodic movements, into electrical energy.
Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.
A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are nonmotile. Filaments that may be present in certain species are either straight or wavy and may have swollen or clubbed heads.
A colorless liquid extracted from oils of plants such as citronella, neroli, cyclamen, and tuberose. It is an intermediate step in the biological synthesis of cholesterol from mevalonic acid in vertebrates. It has a delicate odor and is used in perfumery. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A group of different species of microorganisms that act together as a community.
Stainless steel. A steel containing Ni, Cr, or both. It does not tarnish on exposure and is used in corrosive environments. (Grant & Hack's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Cyclic hexapeptides of proline-ornithine-threonine-proline-threonine-serine. The cyclization with a single non-peptide bond can lead them to be incorrectly called DEPSIPEPTIDES, but the echinocandins lack ester links. Antifungal activity is via inhibition of 1,3-beta-glucan synthase production of BETA-GLUCANS.
A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the gingival margin and sulcus and from infections of the upper respiratory tract and pleural cavity.
Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.
The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antifungal agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
A broad family of synthetic organosiloxane polymers containing a repeating silicon-oxygen backbone with organic side groups attached via carbon-silicon bonds. Depending on their structure, they are classified as liquids, gels, and elastomers. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)
Infections resulting from the use of catheters. Proper aseptic technique, site of catheter placement, material composition, and virulence of the organism are all factors that can influence possible infection.
Polymers of silicone that are formed by crosslinking and treatment with amorphous silica to increase strength. They have properties similar to vulcanized natural rubber, in that they stretch under tension, retract rapidly, and fully recover to their original dimensions upon release. They are used in the encapsulation of surgical membranes and implants.
A flexible, tubular device that is used to carry fluids into or from a blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity.
A polyvinyl resin used extensively in the manufacture of plastics, including medical devices, tubing, and other packaging. It is also used as a rubber substitute.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Quaternary salts derived from tetrazoles. They are used in tests to distinguish between reducing sugars and simple aldehydes, for detection of dehydrogenase in tissues, cells, and bacteria, for determination of corticosteroids, and in color photography. (From Mall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed, p455)
A tetraiodofluorescein used as a red coloring in some foods (cherries, fish), as a disclosure of DENTAL PLAQUE, and as a stain of some cell types. It has structural similarity to THYROXINE.
A species of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family STREPTOCOCCACEAE. It is a normal inhabitant of the human oral cavity, and causes DENTAL PLAQUE and ENDOCARDITIS. It is being investigated as a vehicle for vaccine delivery.
Salts of alginic acid that are extracted from marine kelp and used to make dental impressions and as absorbent material for surgical dressings.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Triazole antifungal agent that is used to treat oropharyngeal CANDIDIASIS and cryptococcal MENINGITIS in AIDS.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A genus of yeast-like mitosporic Saccharomycetales fungi characterized by producing yeast cells, mycelia, pseudomycelia, and blastophores. It is commonly part of the normal flora of the skin, mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina, but can cause a variety of infections, including CANDIDIASIS; ONYCHOMYCOSIS; vulvovaginal candidiasis (CANDIDIASIS, VULVOVAGINAL), and thrush (see CANDIDIASIS, ORAL). (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Polymerized forms of styrene used as a biocompatible material, especially in dentistry. They are thermoplastic and are used as insulators, for injection molding and casting, as sheets, plates, rods, rigid forms and beads.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic rods. It is a saprophytic, marine organism which is often isolated from spoiling fish.
A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.
Macrolide antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nodosus obtained from soil of the Orinoco river region of Venezuela.

Resistance of artificial biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to imipenem and tobramycin. (1/4882)

Viable cells of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were entrapped in alginate gel layers and incubated in a minimal glucose (15 g/L)-yeast extract (2 g/L)-salt medium to form artificial biofilm-like structures. After cultivation for 2 days, the biomass distribution inside the polymer was highly heterogeneous. The cell number reached approximately 1011 cells/g gel in the outer regions of the gel structures whereas the inner areas were less colonized (c. 10(8) cells g/gel). Killing of immobilized organisms by imipenem and tobramycin were compared with free-cell experiments (inoculum c. 10(9) cells/mL). Sessile-like bacteria displayed a higher resistance to the two antibiotics used alone or in combination than did suspended cells. Exposure for 10 h to 20 x MIC imipenem and 15 x MIC tobramycin reduced the number of viable immobilized bacteria to 0.3% and 3%, respectively, of the initial cell population, whereas these antibiotic concentrations were much more efficient (bactericidal) against free-cell cultures (5 log kill in 6 h). A synergic effect of tobramycin and imipenem was detected on bacterial suspensions but not on biofilm-like structures. Effective diffusivity measurements showed that the diffusion of imipenem in the alginate layer was not hindered. A slight but significant enhancement of beta-lactamase induction in immobilized cells as compared with their suspended counterparts was insufficient to explain the high resistance of sessile-like bacteria.  (+info)

Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor: identification of a gene cluster required for the rugose colony type, exopolysaccharide production, chlorine resistance, and biofilm formation. (2/4882)

The rugose colony variant of Vibrio cholerae O1, biotype El Tor, is shown to produce an exopolysaccharide, EPSETr, that confers chlorine resistance and biofilm-forming capacity. EPSETr production requires a chromosomal locus, vps, that contains sequences homologous to carbohydrate biosynthesis genes of other bacterial species. Mutations within this locus yield chlorine-sensitive, smooth colony variants that are biofilm deficient. The biofilm-forming properties of EPSETr may enable the survival of V. cholerae O1 within environmental aquatic habitats between outbreaks of human disease.  (+info)

Surface-grafted, environmentally sensitive polymers for biofilm release. (3/4882)

Controlling bacterial biofouling is desirable for almost every human enterprise in which solid surfaces are introduced into nonsterile aqueous environments. One approach that is used to decrease contamination of manufactured devices by microorganisms is using materials that easily slough off accumulated material (i.e., fouling release surfaces). The compounds currently used for this purpose rely on low surface energy to inhibit strong attachment of organisms. In this study, we examined the possible use of environmentally responsive (or "smart") polymers as a new class of fouling release agents; a surface-grafted thermally responsive polymer, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAM), was used as a model compound. PNIPAAM is known to have a lower critical solubility temperature of approximately 32 degrees C (i.e., it is insoluble in water at temperatures above 32 degrees C and is soluble at temperatures below 32 degrees C). Under experimental conditions, >90% of cultured microorganisms (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Halomonas marina) and naturally occurring marine microorganisms that attached to grafted PNIPAAM surfaces during 2-, 18-, 36-, and 72-h incubations were removed when the hydration state of the polymer was changed from a wettability that was favorable for attachment to a wettability that was less favorable. Of particular significance is the observation that an organism known to attach in the greatest numbers to hydrophobic substrata (i.e., H. marina) was removed when transition of PNIPAAM to a more hydrated state occurred, whereas an organism that attaches in the greatest numbers to hydrophilic substrata (i.e., S. epidermidis) was removed when the opposite transition occurred. Neither solvated nor desolvated PNIPAAM exhibited intrinsic fouling release properties, indicating that the phase transition was the important factor in removal of organisms. Based on our observations of the behavior of this model system, we suggest that environmentally responsive polymers represent a new approach for controlling biofouling release.  (+info)

Ultrasonic enhancement of antibiotic action on Escherichia coli biofilms: an in vivo model. (4/4882)

Biofilm infections are a common complication of prosthetic devices in humans. Previous in vitro research has determined that low-frequency ultrasound combined with aminoglycoside antibiotics is an effective method of killing biofilms. We report the development of an in vivo model to determine if ultrasound enhances antibiotic action. Two 24-h-old Escherichia coli (ATCC 10798) biofilms grown on polyethylene disks were implanted subcutaneously on the backs of New Zealand White female rabbits, one on each side of the spine. Low-frequency (28.48-kHz) and low-power-density (100- and 300-mW/cm2) continuous ultrasound treatment was applied for 24 h with and without systemic administration of gentamicin. The disks were then removed, and the number of viable bacteria on each disk was determined. At the low ultrasonic power used in this study, exposure to ultrasound only (no gentamicin) caused no significant difference in bacterial viability. In the presence of antibiotic, there was a significant reduction due to 300-mW/cm2 ultrasound (P = 0.0485) but no significant reduction due to 100-mW/cm2 ultrasound. Tissue damage to the skin was noted at the 300-mW/cm2 treatment level. Further development of this technique has promise in treatment of clinical implant infections.  (+info)

Study of the response of a biofilm bacterial community to UV radiation. (5/4882)

We have developed a bioluminescent whole-cell biosensor that can be incorporated into biofilm ecosystems. RM4440 is a Pseudomonas aeruginosa FRD1 derivative that carries a plasmid-based recA-luxCDABE fusion. We immobilized RM4440 in an alginate matrix to simulate a biofilm, and we studied its response to UV radiation damage. The biofilm showed a protective property by physical shielding against UV C, UV B, and UV A. Absorption of UV light by the alginate matrix translated into a higher survival rate than observed with planktonic cells at similar input fluences. UV A was shown to be effectively blocked by the biofilm matrix and to have no detectable effects on cells contained in the biofilm. However, in the presence of photosensitizers (i.e., psoralen), UV A was effective in inducing light production and cell death. RM4440 has proved to be a useful tool to study microbial communities in a noninvasive manner.  (+info)

Characterization of the importance of polysaccharide intercellular adhesin/hemagglutinin of Staphylococcus epidermidis in the pathogenesis of biomaterial-based infection in a mouse foreign body infection model. (6/4882)

The production of biofilm is thought to be crucial in the pathogenesis of prosthetic-device infections caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis. An experimental animal model was used to assess the importance of biofilm production, which is mediated by polysaccharide intercellular adhesin/hemagglutinin (PIA/HA), in the pathogenesis of a biomaterial-based infection. Mice were inoculated along the length of a subcutaneously implanted intravenous catheter with either wild-type S. epidermidis 1457 or its isogenic PIA/HA-negative mutant. The wild-type strain was significantly more likely to cause a subcutaneous abscess than the mutant strain (P < 0.01) and was significantly less likely to be eradicated from the inoculation site by host defense (P < 0.05). In addition, the wild-type strain was found to adhere to the implanted catheters more abundantly than the PIA/HA-negative mutant (P < 0.05). The reliability of the adherence assay was assessed by scanning electron microscopy. To exclude contamination or spontaneous infection, bacterial strains recovered from the experimental animals were compared to inoculation strains by analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. In vitro binding of the wild-type strain and its isogenic mutant to a fibronectin-coated surface was similar. These results confirm the importance of biofilm production, mediated by PIA/HA, in the pathogenesis of S. epidermidis experimental foreign body infection.  (+info)

Characterization of Staphylococcus epidermidis polysaccharide intercellular adhesin/hemagglutinin in the pathogenesis of intravascular catheter-associated infection in a rat model. (7/4882)

Biofilm production is thought to be a crucial factor in the ability of Staphylococcus epidermidis to produce a biomaterial-based infection. A rat central venous catheter (CVC)-associated infection model was used to assess the importance of biofilm production, mediated by polysaccharide intercellular adhesin/hemagglutinin (PIA/HA), in the pathogenesis of intravascular catheter-associated infection. PIA/HA-positive S. epidermidis 1457 was significantly more likely to cause a CVC-associated infection (71 versus 14%, P < 0.03) resulting in bacteremia and metastatic disease than its isogenic PIA/HA-negative mutant. These results confirm the importance of biofilm production, mediated by PIA/HA, in the pathogenesis of S. epidermidis experimental CVC-associated infection.  (+info)

Characterization of the relationship between polysaccharide intercellular adhesin and hemagglutination in Staphylococcus epidermidis. (8/4882)

To determine whether a relationship exists between biofilm formation and hemagglutination in Staphylococcus epidermidis, 20 skin isolates and 19 prosthetic valve endocarditis isolates were characterized for biofilm formation, hemagglutination, and the presence of a 357-bp polymerase chain reaction product within icaA. A strong association existed between biofilm formation, which has been linked to strains that produce polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA), and hemagglutination. Strains that produced biofilm were significantly (P<.001) more likely to mediate hemagglutination (16 biofilm-positive/hemagglutination-positive strains and 19 biofilm-negative/hemagglutination-negative strains) within the 39 clinical strains tested. In addition, Staphylococcus carnosus TM300, a biofilm-negative, hemagglutination-negative strain, carrying the ica operon-containing plasmid pCN27, produced significant biofilm on glass and mediated hemagglutination (>/=1/128). It was concluded that production of PIA and hemagglutination are strongly associated and that PIA, at least in part, mediates hemagglutination in S. epidermidis.  (+info)

The fungal pathogen Candida albicans is a leading cause of device-associated and other nosocomial infections. The traits of biofilm formation and invasion into an underlying surface are important for Candida to cause disease. In this dissertation, I describe my work, which reveals a novel role for glycerol in C. albicans biofilm formation and hyphal invasion. Through genomewide expression profiling it was observed that glycerol biosynthetic genes were highly upregulated in biofilms relative to the planktonic (suspension) cultures. Consistent with this observation, cells in a biofilm also accumulated higher amounts of glycerol then non-biofilm cells. In order to study the impact of glycerol on biofilm formation I made a deletion mutant, rhr2Δ/Δ, in the gene encoding glycerol-3-phosphatase. Under in vitro conditions, the rhr2Δ/Δ mutant has reduced biofilm biomass and reduced adherence to silicone. The mutant is also severely defective in biofilm formation in the rat venous catheter model of biofilm
Biofilm formation on medical devices is a common cause of implant failure, especially regarding implants that breach the epithelial tissue, so-called transcutaneous implants. Nanotechnology and the development of new nanomaterials have given the opportunity to design nanotextured implant surfaces. Such surfaces have been studied using various in vitro methods showing that nanosized features strongly benefit bone cell growth. However, little is known on how nanostructured features affect biofilm formation. The aim of this study was therefore to examine the shape- and chemical-dependent effect of a nanostructured hydroxyapatite (HA) coating on the degree of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation. Three different types of nanosized HA particles having different shapes and calcium to phosphate ratios were compared to uncoated turned titanium using safranin stain in a biofilm assay and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) for assessment of biofilm biomass and bacterial volume, ...
Biofilm-associated infections are hard to treat because of their high antibiotic resistance and the presence of a very persistent subpopulation of bacteria. The second messenger molecule cyclic di-guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) plays a very important role in this biofilm physiology. Here, we evaluated the role of YddV, an enzyme with a c-di-GMP synthesis function, in the formation and maturation of Escherichia coli biofilms. Our results suggest that YddV stimulates biofilm growth via its role in the production of c-di-GMP and this likely by influencing the production of matrix (e.g. poly-N-acetylglucosamine (PGA)). However, lowering the YddV expression did not alter the biofilm formation since there was no significant difference between the biofilm phenotypes of WT E. coli and YddV-knockout bacteria. Additionally, YddV expression had no significant influence on the amount of persister cells within the biofilm population, questioning the use of YddV as therapeutic target. (C) 2016 Published ...
Biofilms have been implicated as an important reservoir for pathogens and commensal enteric bacteria such as Escherichia coli in natural and engineered water systems. However, the processes that regulate the survival of E. coli in aquatic biofilms have not been thoroughly studied. We examined the effects of hydrodynamic shear and nutrient concentrations on E. coli colonization of pre-established Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms, co-inoculation of E. coli and P. aeruginosa biofilms, and P. aeruginosa colonization of pre-established E. coli biofilms. In nutritionally-limited R2A medium, E. coli dominated biofilms when co-inoculated with P. aeruginosa, and successfully colonized and overgrew pre-established P. aeruginosa biofilms. In more enriched media, P. aeruginosa formed larger clusters, but E. coli still extensively overgrew and colonized the interior of P. aeruginosa clusters. In mono-culture, E. coli formed sparse and discontinuous biofilms. After P. aeruginosa was introduced to these biofilms, E.
Staphylococcus aureus extracellular DNA (eDNA) plays a crucial role in the structural stability of biofilms during bacterial colonization; on the contrary, host immune responses can be induced by bacterial eDNA. Previously, we observed production of S. aureus thermonuclease during the early stages of biofilm formation in a mammalian cell culture medium. Using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based assay, we detected thermonuclease activity of S. aureus biofilms grown in Iscoves modified Dulbeccos medium (IMDM) earlier than that of widely studied biofilms grown in tryptic soy broth (TSB). The thermonuclease found was Nuc1, confirmed by mass spectrometry and competitive Luminex assay. These results indicate that biofilm development in IMDM may not rely on eDNA for structural stability. A bacterial viability assay in combination with wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) staining confirmed the accumulation of dead cells and eDNA in biofilms grown in TSB. However, in biofilms grown in IMDM, ...
Biofilms are ubiquitous in aquatic environments. Biofilms have been shown to attract and harbor pathogens such as P. aeruginosa and Legionella pneumophila in premise plumbing system. The fact that biofilms can protect attached bacterial cells from disinfectants raises rudimentary questions regarding interactions of bacterial cells with biofilm surfaces. Consequently, the main objectives of this study were to: 1) investigate the mechanisms that govern E. coli S17, E. coli 14f and Legionella cells adhesion on clean PVC, copper and biofilms; 2) examine the role of disinfectants on biofilms structure and subsequent effect on bacterial adhesion. Mechanisms of three strains of bacteria attachment on biofilms grown on PVC and copper surfaces were investigated. Biofilms were grown in CDC reactors using different types of feed water such as groundwater, monochloramine-treated groundwater, dechlorinated tap water and tap water. Biofilm physical structure was characterized at micro- and meso-scales using ...
In the majority of cases, the surface-associated multicellular communities found in a wide variety of natural and pathogenic ecosystems are formed in the presence of multiple diverse species and genetically distinct strains. In recent years, well-controlled in vitro biofilm model systems have revealed a diversity of molecular mechanisms contributing to development and maturation of single-species biofilms. The mechanisms underlying the biofilm development in the presence of these multispecies consortia are expected to involve even higher degrees of complexity; however, our understanding of mixed-species biofilms is hampered by the limited number of model systems that have been applied to date. The goal of this study was to test the capacity of a simple in vitro model to reveal factors contributing to the formation of more complex biofilm communities. The suitability of this approach to high-throughput analyses was demonstrated with a systematic survey of a large collection of E. coli isolates ...
Microtiter plate-based bacterial biofilm assay is frequently used to study bacterial biofilm development and growth. While this assay is simple and relatively high-throughput, it frequently shows difficulty in establishing robust biofilm attachment in the wells. We report that the consistency of bacterial biofilm a
The oral microbial ecology is comprised of hundreds of bacterial species that co-exist as multispecies biofilms throughout a range of ecological niches in the oral cavity. However, little is known concerning the interactions of these complex biofilms with host cells. Objective: This study used a novel model of multispecies bacterial biofilms to stimulate oral epithelial cells and profile select cytokines and chemokines that contribute to the local inflammatory environment in the periodontium. Method: Three multispecies biofilms comprising Streptococcus gordonii/S. oralis/S. sanguinis, Sg/Fusobacterium nucleatum/Porphyromonas gingivalis and Sg/Actinomyces naeslundii/Fn were grown for 3 days on rigid gas permeable contact lens pre-coated with 1% fetal bovine serum. OKF4 oral epithelial cells were cultured in 48 well plates at 105 cells/well, which were challenged with the biofilms for 24 hrs. Controls included incubation of the epithelial cells alone or overlaid with contact lens alone. A profile ...
Cells in bacterial biofilms are often less susceptible to host immune responses and antibiotics than cells grown in suspension (18). Biofilms may also provide a protective environment for pathogens, which, when released from the biofilm, may result in contamination of drinking water and medical fluids in delivery devices such as dialysis machines, venous catheters, dental water lines, and airway ventilators. Life-threatening infection caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis patients is a well-known example (8). Since biofilm formation in itself can be considered a virulence factor, it is important to understand the mechanisms which influence biofilm accumulation, structure, and behavior. Both hydrodynamics and cell signaling have been found to influence the structure of P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilms. Stoodley et al. (27) reported that, under conditions of low-shear laminar flow, the biofilm consisted of a monolayer of cells with mound-shaped circular microcolonies but under high-shear, ...
S. aureus is a frequent etiological agent of biofilm infections on indwelling devices and orthopedic implants (9, 36), and recent reports by our group and others have demonstrated that biofilms can skew the immune response to favor anti-inflammatory and profibrotic pathways, which likely contribute to biofilm persistence (17, 18). To overcome this immune deviation and provide a novel treatment strategy for biofilm infections, we augmented antimicrobial activity through the local administration of classically activated M1 MΦs or treatment with the CD88 agonist EP67, which invokes MΦ proinflammatory responses. Early administration of M1-activated MΦs or EP67 limited biofilm formation, and treatment of established biofilm infections with M1-activated MΦs also significantly reduced catheter-associated biofilm burdens. Based on this evidence, we have identified a novel therapeutic strategy to limit S. aureus catheter-associated biofilm infections by targeting MΦ activation, which may extend to ...
Fluorescently labelled latex microbeads were used to study the interaction of particles with Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in a continuous flow annular reactor. Beads were readily distinguished and enumerated in both intact and disaggregated biofilm samples. The fraction of beads that attached to biofilm during a 24 h period ranged from 0.001 to 0.01 and was proportional to biofilm cell carbon and to the standard deviation of biofilm thickness. Microbeads added to biofilm of steady state thickness (30 μm) were observed to be located throughout the entire biofilm depth in 24 h. Many of the microbeads that attached to biofilm shortly after bacterial inoculation (thickness of 2 μm) remained near the substratum as cells grew past and covered them. Microbeads were observed near the biofilm-substratum interface for up to 5 days after bead addition. Beads formed aggregates on biofilms, but not in bulk water. Beads captured by biofilm remained in the reactor system longer than beads that never ...
S. mutans UA159 and its derivative mutant strain luxS- [54] were incubated in Brain Heart Infusion Broth (BHI, Difco Labs, Detroit, USA) at 37°C in 95% air/5% CO2 (v/v), with the addition of erythromycin (10 μg/ml) in the case of the luxS- strain. Cultures of S. mutans were diluted 1:50, inoculated into fresh BHI media and grown in polystyrene tubes for 24 h (37°C, 95% air/5% CO2 (v/v)) for planktonic culture generation. The biofilm of luxS- was grown in BHI with addition of erythromycin (10 μg/ml) in 20-mm diameter, 15-mm deep sterile polystyrene multidishes (NUNCLON-143982, Roskilde, Denmark), as described previously [14].. As biofilm thickness plays a crucial role in mature biofilm development, we generated biofilms of wild-type bacteria under controlled nutrition flow and controlled biofilm depth conditions, by using the constant depth film fermentor (CDFF) [55]. The rotating turntable in the CDFF contained 15 polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) pans, rotated under PTFE scraper bars that ...
It is clear from many investigations that biofilm-associated cells display high-level tolerance to many antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents, creating considerable problems in removing biofilms from both abiotic and biotic surfaces in various settings, including in patients with infections (6). However, it is less clear if antibiotic tolerance is a shared feature of all biofilm-associated cells or if this property is associated with only parts of the biofilm populations. It is also not clear whether the biofilm-associated antibiotic tolerance is a direct consequence of the biofilm lifestyle per se or whether indirect induction of tolerance occurs in ways similar to what may even be the case for planktonic cells grown under special conditions. In order to obtain a more direct identification of the survivors after antibiotic treatment of biofilms, it is necessary to visualize them in situ. In the present context, we found it particularly interesting to investigate whether the stalk- and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Signaling factor interactions with polysaccharide aggregates of bacterial biofilms. AU - Desalvo, Stephen C.. AU - Liu, Yating. AU - Choudhary, Geetika Sanjay. AU - Ren, Dacheng. AU - Nangia, Shikha. AU - Sureshkumar, Radhakrishna. PY - 2015/2/17. Y1 - 2015/2/17. N2 - Biofilms are surface-attached colonies of bacteria embedded in an extracellular polymeric substance (EPS). Inside the eukaryotic hosts, bacterial biofilms interact with the host cells through signaling factors (SFs). These signaling processes play important roles in the interaction between bacteria and host cells and the outcome of infections and symbiosis. However, how host immune factors diffuse through biofilms is not well understood. Here, we describe synergistic molecular dynamics and experimental approaches for studying the translocation of signaling factors through polysaccharide chain aggregates present in the extracellular matrix of bacterial biofilms. The effect of polysaccharide chain degradation on the ...
A key problem in understanding major transitions in evolution is the evolution of cooperation: how are mutants that exploit the benefits of cooperation without paying the costs (cheats) suppressed within populations? Biofilms, which display properties of both single cell and multicellular organisms, provide an excellent model system to address this question. Biofilms exhibit grouped population structure - they exist primarily as dense aggregates of cells called microcolonies. We aim to test the hypothesis that cell-grouping displayed by microcolonies in bacterial biofilms provides a mechanism to suppress cheats within the biofilm population. We are using the co-operative trait of siderophore production (an extracellular iron-chelating molecule) within Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms to investigate cooperation in biofilms. Under iron-limited conditions, production of siderophores enhanced wild type growth, but microcolonies containing GFP-tagged, pyoverdin-mutant cheats developed poorly. In ...
Kesel, Sara (2020): Contribution of biofilm matrix components to physical properties of Bacillus subtilis biofilms at all phases of biofilm-formation. Dissertation, LMU München: Faculty of Physics ...
Introduction: The discovery of new antimicrobials derived from plants could aid in the management of biofilm-associated infections, including denture-induced stomatitis (DS). DS is an oral infection caused by Candida biofilms on the surfaces of poorly cleansed dentures. Effective treatment of DS requires the use of an appropriate denture cleanser and preferably one that exhibits antimicrobial properties. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the anti-Candida and anti-biofilm efficacy of two essential plant oils from Cymbopogon winterianus (citronella) and Cinnamon cassia (cinnamon). Materials and methods: Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) and Minimum Fungicidal Concentrations (MFCs) were determined by broth microdilution, whilst anti-biofilm activity was measured against mature (cultured for 72 h) biofilms on acrylic surfaces. Candida cell viability was assessed immediately (0 h) after treatment (T0) and 48 h after biofilm re-growth (T48). Biofilm structure was determined using Scanning ...
Biofilms are often responsible for the difficulties in the treatment of infectious diseases due to their properties that facilitate escape from antibiotic effect and their antiphagocytic effects. At least 65% of all infectious diseases are associated with biofilm-forming bacteria. As Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are among the most common agents of hospital infections and the infections are mostly biofilm-related, they pose an important problem. In infectious isolates, the minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEK) values of biofilm forms are much higher than the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) values of planktonic forms. This situation requires the use of much higher doses of antibiotics in the treatment of infections and causes an increase in antibiotic resistance. The N-acetylcysteine (NAC) molecule is known to be effective against biofilm by disrupting mature biofilms and reducing the adhesion of bacteria to surfaces. In this study, it was aimed to ...
The third chapter aimed to study the role of persisters in determining the spatial and temporal pattern of biofilm formation following antibiotic treatment. A key feature of biofilms thought to play a role in antimicrobial tolerance is their ability to develop discrete, differentiated microcolony structures during colonization of a surface - these foci within biofilms are highly recalcitrant towards antimicrobials yet the factors that determine their differentiation and growth are poorly understood. This chapter therefore aimed to study the role of persisters in the initiation of microcolony foci and in mediating regrowth of biofilms. In this work, biofilm initiation was studied under a variety of conditions including with or without exposure to lethal or sub-lethal antibiotic challenge and as expected persister cell populations were able to generate significantly more biomass than in biofilms formed from non-persister populations. Dual labelling experiments were also carried out, where mixed ...
Neisseria gonorrhoeae has been shown to form biofilms during cervical infection. Thus, biofilm formation may play an important role in the infection of women. The ability of N. gonorrhoeae to form membrane blebs is crucial to biofilm formation. Blebs contain DNA and outer membrane structures, which have been shown to be major constituents of the biofilm matrix. The organism expresses a DNA thermonuclease that is involved in remodeling of the biofilm matrix. Comparison of the transcriptional profiles of gonococcal biofilms and planktonic runoff indicate that genes involved in anaerobic metabolism and oxidative stress tolerance are more highly expressed in biofilm. The expression of aniA, ccp, and norB, which encode nitrite reductase, cytochrome c peroxidase, and nitric oxide reductase respectively, is required for mature biofilm formation over glass and human cervical cells. In addition, anaerobic respiration occurs in the substratum of gonococcal biofilms and disruption of the norB gene required ...
Oral candidosis is common in patients with diabetes mellitus, as yeasts, particularly Candida albicans, have the propensity to colonise, form biofilms and release hydrolytic enzymes which cause inflammation. This study aimed to investigate these characteristics in isolates from three groups of patients with type 1 diabetes: individuals with better controlled diabetes (BCD; a parts per thousand yen6 , 8%), individuals with poorly controlled diabetes (PCD; a parts per thousand yen8%) and non-diabetics (ND; HbA(1c) , 5.9%). The biomass (Bm), phospholipase (P-z), haemolysin (H-z) and proteinase (Pr-z) were assessed using a microtitre biofilm assay and agar-based hydrolytic enzyme assays. Biofilm formation was significantly increased in the PCD group compared to ND and BCD groups (P , 0.05). No significant differences in P-z levels were observed between groups, whereas both H-z and Pr-z were significantly greater in the diabetes groups than in the healthy control group (P , 0.05). Statistically ...
UC Los Angeles. Staphyloccocus epidermidis is a significant cause of hospital-acquired infections, specifically blood stream infections (BSI) that result from the use of long-term central catheter lines. The ability to form biofilms is a key factor in the pathogenesis of these infections, with significant variation of biofilm phenotype amongst clinically isolated strains. The catheter lumen is a dynamic microenvironment inherently characterized by fluidic forces, however, little is understood regarding their effects on biofilm formation. Using a parallel microfluidic bioreactor shear array we show that fluid shear stress induces formation of significantly more biofilm than static conditions in a subset of clinically isolated strains, implicating catheter operation as a factor in bacterial pathogenesis.. Analysis of well-defined laboratory ATCC strains showed that the microfluidic biofilm assay could differentiate between biofilm+ (strain 35984) and biofilm- (strain 12228) genotypes with high ...
Biofilms are communities of surface-adherent bacteria surrounded by secreted polymers known as the extracellular polymeric substance. Biofilms are harmful in many industries, and thus it is of great interest to understand their mechanical properties and structure to determine ways to destabilize them. By performing single particle tracking with beads of varying surface functionalization it was found that charge interactions play a key role in mediating mobility within biofilms. With a combination of single particle tracking and microrheological concepts, it was found that Escherichia coli biofilms display height dependent charge density that evolves over time. Statistical analyses of bead trajectories and confocal microscopy showed inter-connecting micron scale channels that penetrate throughout the biofilm, which may be important for nutrient transfer through the system. This methodology provides significant insight into a particular biofilm system and can be applied to many others to provide ...
Barsoukov E. and J.R. Macdonald (eds). 2005. Impedance Spectroscopy: Theory, Experiment and Applications, 2nded. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA.. Ben-Yoav H., A. Freemanb, M. Sternheimc and Y. Shacham-Dia-manda. 2011. An electrochemical impedance model for integrated bacterial biofilms. Electrochim. Acta. 56:7780-7786.. Bjarnsholt T., K. Kirketerp-Møller, P.Ø. Jensen, K.G. Madsen, R. Phipps, K. Krogfelt, N. Høibyand and M. Givskov. 2008. Why chronic wounds will not heal: a novel hypothesis. Wound Rep. Reg. 16:2-10.. Dominguez-Benetton X., S. Sevda, K. Vanbroekhovena. and D. Panta. 2012. The accurate use of impedance analysis for thestudy of microbial electrochemical systems. Chem. Soc. Rev. 41:7228-7246.. Flemming H., J. Wingender and U. Szewczyk (eds). 2008. Biofilm Highlights. Springer Series on Biofilm Vol. 5. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg.. Ge Y., T. Deng and X. Zheng. 2008. Dynamic monitoring of changes in endothelial cell-substrate adhesiveness during leukocyte adhesion ...
Biofilms are sessile communities of bacteria typically embedded in an extracellular polymeric matrix. Bacterial cells embedded in biofilms are inherently recalcitrant to antimicrobials, compared to cells existing in a planktonic state, and are notoriously difficult to eradicate once formed. Avenues to tackle biofilms thus far have largely focussed on attempting to disrupt the initial stages of biofilm formation, including adhesion and maturation of the biofilm. Such an approach is advantageous as the concentrations required to inhibit formation of biofilms are generally much lower than removing a fully established biofilm. The crisis of antibiotic resistance in clinical settings worldwide has been further exacerbated by the ability of certain pathogenic bacteria to form biofilms. Perhaps the most notorious biofilm formers described from a clinical viewpoint have been methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Gardnerella vaginalis and ...
Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu*, Carmen Mariana Chifiriuc: Prevention of Microbial Biofilms - the Contribution of Micro and Nanostructured Materials, Current Medicinal Chemistry, accepted, 2014.. EDITORIAL. Microbial biofilms are associated with drastically enhanced resistance to most of the antimicrobial agents and with frequent treatment failures, generating the search for novel strategies which can eradicate infections by preventing the persistent colonization of the hospital environment, medical devices or human tissues. Some of the current approaches for fighting biofilms are represented by the development of novel biomaterials with increased resistance to microbial colonization and by the improvement of the current therapeutic solutions with the aid of nano(bio)technology. This special issues includes papers describing the applications of nanotechnology and biomaterials science for the development of improved drug delivery systems and nanostructured surfaces for the prevention and treatment of ...
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a gram positive pathogen known to cause multiple infectious diseases for both animal and humans, and is responsible for community-associated and nosocomial infections. S. aureus possess the ability to form biofilms, which have a profound ability to adapt and thrive in undesirable conditions as well as resist antibiotic treatment. Recent studies suggest that polymorphonuclear leukocytes are able to attack S. aureus biofilms, thus implying the innate immune system indeed has mechanisms to respond to S. aureus biofilms. We determined if shear affected both the structure of the biofilm as well as the number on PMNs adhering to the S. aureus biofilm, and quantify where these cells adhere with respect to the biofilm. We conclude that shear does not have a significant effect on the number of cells adhering, but affects the depth of penetration in a maturing S. aureus biofilm ...
Angela Costa, Filipe Mergulhão, Romain Briandet, Nuno Azevedo. It is all about location: how to pinpoint microorganisms and their functions in multispecies biofilms. Future Microbiology, Future Medicine, 2017, 12 (11), pp.987-999. ⟨10.2217/fmb-2017-0053⟩. ⟨hal-03031230⟩ ...
Elucidation of the communal behavior of microbes in mixed species biofilms may have a major impact on understanding infectious diseases and for the therapeutics. Although, the structure and the properties of monospecies biofilms and their role in disease have been extensively studied during the last decade, the interactions within mixed biofilms consisting of bacteria and fungi such as Candida spp. have not been illustrated in depth. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate the interspecies interactions of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and six different species of Candida comprising C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, and C. dubliniensis in dual species biofilm development. A significant reduction in colony forming units (CFU) of C. parapsilosis (90 min), C. albicans and C. tropicalis (90 min, 24 h and 48 h), C. dubliniensis and C. glabrata, (24 h and 48 h) was noted when co-cultured with P. aeruginosa in comparison to their monospecies counterparts (P | 0.05). A
Despite considerable research, the biofilm-forming capabilities of Nitrosomonas europaea are poorly understood for both mono and mixed-species communities. This study combined biofilm assays and molecular techniques to demonstrate that N. europaea makes very little biofilm on its own, and relies on the activity of associated heterotrophic bacteria to establish a biofilm. However, N. europaea has a vital role in the proliferation of mixed-species communities under carbon-limited conditions, such as in drinking water distribution systems, through the provision of organic carbon via ammonia oxidation. Results show that the addition of nitrification inhibitors to mixed-species nitrifying cultures under carbon-limited conditions disrupted biofilm formation and caused the dispersal of pre-formed biofilms. This dispersal effect was not observed when an organic carbon source, glucose, was included in the medium. Interestingly, inhibition of nitrification activity of these mixed-species biofilms in the presence
Biofilm Eradication and Preventions presents the basics of biofilm formation on medical devices, diseases related to this formation, and approaches pharmaceutical researchers need to take to limit this problem. Split into three parts, the first deals with the development and characterization of biofilm on the surfaces of implanted or inserted medical devices. Questions as to why biofilms form over medical device surfaces and what triggers biofilm formation are addressed. In the second section, the author discusses biofilm-mediated chronic infections occurred in various organs (eyes, mouth, wounds) and pharmaceutical and drug delivery knowledge gained from research in these area. The third part explores pharmaceutical approaches like lipid-and polymer-based drug delivery carriers for eradicating biofilm on device-related infections. In addition, this section also explores the topic of novel small molecule (like iron and its complexes/metal chelators) and a quorum-sensing inhibitors to control ...
TY - CONF. T1 - Incorporation of chitosan in acrylic bone cement: effect on antibiotic release and bacterial biofilm formation.. AU - Brady, Aaron. AU - Tunney, Michael. AU - Dunne, Nicholas. PY - 2007. Y1 - 2007. KW - biofilm. KW - bone cement. M3 - Poster. T2 - Society for General Microbiology. Y2 - 1 March 2012 through 1 March 2012. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The small molecule DAM inhibitor, pyrimidinedione, disrupts Streptococcus pneumoniae biofilm growth in vitro. AU - Yadav, Mukesh Kumar. AU - Go, Yoon Young. AU - Chae, Sung Won. AU - Song, Jae Jun. N1 - Publisher Copyright: © 2015 Yadav et al.. PY - 2015/10/2. Y1 - 2015/10/2. N2 - Streptococcus pneumoniae persist in the human nasopharynx within organized biofilms. However, expansion to other tissues may cause severe infections such as pneumonia, otitis media, bacteremia, and meningitis, especially in children and the elderly. Bacteria within biofilms possess increased tolerance to antibiotics and are able to resist host defense systems. Bacteria within biofilms exhibit different physiology, metabolism, and gene expression profiles than planktonic cells. These differences underscore the need to identify alternative therapeutic targets and novel antimicrobial compounds that are effective against pneumococcal biofilms. In bacteria, DNA adenine methyltransferase (Dam) alters ...
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Gregory Anderson, biology department at IUPUI, will present Molecular Insights into Bacterial Biofilm Formation in the Cystic Fibrosis Lung. Read more about Anderson at https://science.iupui.edu/people/anderson-gregory .
Biofilms can develop on almost any surface exposed to an aqueous environment. The biofilm systems that result can be used beneficially, as exemplified by fixed-film wastewater treatment processes (for example, trickling filters and rotating biological contactors). In addition, biofilms play a major positive role in stream purification processes. However, biofilms can be quite troublesome in certain engineering systems. In water distribution systems and heat transfer equipment, for example, biofilms can cause substantial energy losses resulting from increased fluid frictional resistance and increased heat transfer resistance. The significance of biofilm development on various processes is summarized ...
Escherichia coli C forms more robust biofilms than other laboratory strains. Biofilm formation and cell aggregation under a high shear force depend on temperature and salt concentrations. It is the last of five E. coli strains (C, K12, B, W, Crooks) designated as safe for laboratory purposes whose genome has not been sequenced. Here we present the complete genomic sequence of this strain in which we utilized both long-read PacBio-based sequencing and high resolution optical mapping to confirm a large inversion in comparison to the other laboratory strains. Notably, DNA sequence comparison revealed the absence of several genes thought to be involved in biofilm formation, including antigen 43, waaSBOJYZUL for lipopolysaccharide (LPS) synthesis, and cpsB for curli synthesis. The first main difference we identified that likely affects biofilm formation is the presence of an IS3-like insertion sequence in front of the carbon storage regulator csrA gene. This insertion is located 86 bp upstream of the csrA
Biofilms have been found to be involved in large percentages of all infections in the body. Chronic sinusitis patients undergoing surgery present with biofilms most of the time. The NIH estimates that 80% of all human infections have biofilm involvment. Other infectious processes in which biofilms have been implicated include common problems such as urinary tract infections, catheter infections, middle-ear infections, endocarditis, infections in cystic fibrosis, and infections of permanent indwelling devices such as joint prostheses and heart valves. More recently it has been noted that bacterial biofilms may impair cutaneous wound healing and reduce topical antibacterial efficiency in healing or treating infected skin wounds. Biofilms can also be formed on the inert surfaces of implanted devices such as catheters, prosthetic cardiac valves and intrauterine devices ...
The influence of growth history on biofilm morphology and microbial community structure is poorly studied despite its important role for biofilm development. Here, biofilms were exposed to a change in hydrodynamic conditions at different growth stages and we observed how biofilm age affected the change in morphology and bacterial community structure. Biofilms were developed in two bubble column reactors, one operated under constant shear stress and one under variable shear stress. Biofilms were transferred from one reactor to the other at different stages in their development by withdrawing and inserting the support medium from one reactor to the other. The developments of morphology and microbial community structure were followed by image analysis and molecular tools. When transferred early in biofilm development, biofilms adapted to the new hydrodynamic conditions and adopted features of the biofilm already developed in the receiving reactor. Biofilms transferred at a late state of biofilm development
In science-fiction movies, force fields always come in handy when the good guys need protection from hostile aliens or bug-eyed monsters.. Of course, these miraculous devices dont really exist. But some of Earths simplest life forms protect themselves using a similar principle.. Many one-celled organisms secrete protein complexes called biofilms that serve as slimy barriers to the outside world.. Usually, biofilms dont pose any threat to human health. But theres increasing evidence that links them to antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections.. A recent study in the Journal of the American Medical Association suggests biofilms may help some middle-ear infections resist treatment efforts.. The study involved twenty-six children who suffered recurring bouts of otitis media [oh-TIGHT-iss MEE-dee-uh], one of the most common childhood ailments.. Researchers wanted to know if biofilms were protecting the bacteria that cause these infections. So they analyzed tissue samples collected from the middle ...
Dr. Eva Sapi sent us her teams new study that was partially funded by Lyme Warrior!In the past, solutions to Lyme disease have been limited partially because we cannot see or understand how biofilms react to treatment. Sapis team has uncovered a way to study the effect of ALL treatment methods on biofilms to help patients…
Fungal biofilms were more resistant to antimicrobial agents than planktonic cells. Four distinct growth phases in relation to antifungal susceptibility were examined. Our results demonstrated that all three strains became increasingly resistant to antifungal agents throughout morphological differentiation, which was consistent with the report by Imamura et al., 10 showing that Fusarium biofilms exhibited reduced susceptibility to lens care solutions in a time-dependent manner. Moreover, our results showed that the mature biofilms were intrinsically resistant to the azole antifungal drugs (FLU, VRC, and ITC). Multiple mechanisms have been proposed for the increased resistance of biofilms to antifungal agents. Our results indicate that ECM increased and a network of hyphal structures formed throughout the incubation time. The architecture of biofilms and the presence of ECM might reduce the diffusion of antifungal drugs, and they may be responsible for the increased resistance of biofilms to ...
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Organized within biofilm communities, bacteria exhibit resistance towards a broad spectrum of antibiotics. Thus, one might argue that bacteria isolated from biofilm-associated chronic infections should be subjected to resistance profiling under biofilm growth conditions. Various test systems have been developed to determine the biofilm-associated resistance; however, it is not clear to what extent the in vitro results reflect the situation in vivo, and whether the biofilm-resistance profile should guide clinicians in their treatment choice. To address this issue, we used confocal microscopy in combination with live/dead staining, and profiled biofilm-associated resistance of a large number (,130) of clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from overall 15 cystic fibrosis patients. Our results demonstrate that in addition to a general non-responsiveness of bacteria when grown under biofilm conditions, there is an isolate-specific and antibiotic-specific biofilm-resistance profile. This individual ...
Micafungin (MFG) demonstrates potent activity against biofilms of Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis, the most frequent opportunistic fungal pathogens. Little is known about its immunopharmacologic effect on antibiofilm activity of phagocytic cells following exposure to Candida biofilms. In this study, we investigated the effects of MFG on human neutrophil-mediated damage of C. albicans and C. parapsilosis biofilms by XTT [2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide] and the potential mechanisms underlying the immunomodulatory MFG activities on cultured monocyte-derived THP-1 cells in response to these biofilms by reverse transcription-PCR and sandwich and multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Preexposure of C. albicans to subinhibitory MFG concentrations significantly enhanced neutrophil-mediated biofilm damage, an effect that appears to be species specific since a comparable effect was not observed with drug-pretreated C. parapsilosis biofilms. Human ...
Genetic manage of candida albicans biofilm development. Genetic manipulate of candida albicans biofilm inside the improvement of candida albicans biofilms control in candida albicans and candida.. Plos one purpurin suppresses candida albicans biofilm. Purpurin suppresses candida albicans biofilm formation and hyphal development. Purpurin suppresses candida albicans genetic manage of candida albicans.. Genetics and genomics of candida albicans biofilm. Genetics and genomics of candida albicans biofilm formation. Genetic control of biofilm formation. Genes that govern candida albicans biofilm improvement.. Genetic control of candida albicans biofilm improvement. Genetic manipulate of candida albicans biofilm recognized the gene products that participate immediately inside the improvement of candida albicans biofilms,. Genetic manage of candida albicans biofilm development. Genetic manipulate of candida albicans biofilm improvement. (pmid21189476 pmcidpmc3891587) genetic control of candida albicans ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Accumulation-associated protein enhances Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation under dynamic conditions and is required for infection in a rat catheter model. AU - Schaeffer, Carolyn R.. AU - Woods, Keith M.. AU - Longo, G. Matt. AU - Kiedrowski, Megan R.. AU - Paharik, Alexandra E.. AU - Büttner, Henning. AU - Christner, Martin. AU - Boissy, Robert J.. AU - Horswill, Alexander R.. AU - Rohde, Holger. AU - Fey, Paul D.. N1 - Publisher Copyright: © 2015, American Society for Microbiology.. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - Biofilm formation is the primary virulence factor of Staphylococcus epidermidis. S. epidermidis biofilms preferentially form on abiotic surfaces and may contain multiple matrix components, including proteins such as accumulation-associated protein (Aap). Following proteolytic cleavage of the A domain, which has been shown to enhance binding to host cells, B domain homotypic interactions support cell accumulation and biofilm formation. To further define the ...
Objective(s): Bacterial biofilm formation causes many persistent and chronic infections. The matrix protects biofilm bacteria from exposure to innate immune defenses and antibiotic treatments. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biofilm formation of clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) on biofilm. Materials and Methods: After collecting bacteria from clinical samples of hospitalized patients, the ability of organisms were evaluated to create biofilm by tissue culture plate (TCP) assay. ZnO NPs were synthesized by sol gel method and the efficacy of different concentrations (50- 350 µg/ml) of ZnO NPs was assessed on biofilm formation and also elimination of pre-formed biofilm by using TCP method.Results:The average diameter of synthesized ZnO NPs was 20 nm. The minimum inhibitory concentration of nanoparticles was 150- 158 μg/ml and the minimum bactericidal concentration was higher (325 µg/ml). All 15 clinical isolates of ...
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of silver nanoparticles (SN) and nystatin on pre-formed biofilms (single and dual species combinations of Candida glabrata and Candida albicans). Thus, adhesion and biofilm assays were performed on acrylic surface in presence of artificial saliva (AS), during 2 h and 48 h, respectively. Candida glabrata and C. albicans adhered cells were determined by counting recovered colony forming units (CFUs) on CHROMagar® Candida. In addition, crystal violet (CV) staining, as an indicator of biomass, was used to quantify biofilm formation ability. Furthermore, pre-formed biofilms were treated either with SN or nystatin and its effects on biofilms evaluated after 24 h. The results showed that both Candidia species adhered to, and formed biofilms on acrylic. Candida glabrata biofilms had significantly higher CFUs compared with biofilms of C. albicans (P,0.05). In the case of dual species biofilms, the number of CFUs for each species was equivalent to that ...
This in vitro study evaluated the influence of chlorhexidine diacetate (CDA) when blended within dentin bonding systems (DBSs) on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) biofilm formation. One commercially available 0.2% wt CDA-containing DBS (Peak Universal Bond) and five experimental 0.2% wt CDA-containing DBS formulations (experimental Adper Scotchbond 1XT plus experimental resins, R2, R3, R4, R5) were assessed vs their no-CDA containing counterparts. Twenty-eight DBSs disks were prepared for each group (6.4 mm×1.0 mm) and cured for 80 s at 800 mW/cm2 in a nitrogen atmosphere. A modified Drip-Flow Reactor was used to grow S. mutans biofilms on specimen surfaces for 24 h and adherent, viable biomass was evaluated using a tetrazolium salt assay (MTT). Two specimens from each of the tested materials were processed with LIVE/DEAD stain and observed using laser confocal microscopy (CLSM) while two disks from each group were examined by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). MTT assay, CLSM and SEM ...
Corrigendum: Anti-quorum Sensing and Anti-biofilm Activity of Delftia tsuruhatensis Extract by Attenuating the Quorum Sensing-Controlled Virulence Factor Production in Pseudomonas aeruginosaVijay K. Singh, Avinash Mishra* and Bhavanath Jha*Marine Biotechnology and Ecology Division, CSIR-Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Bhavnagar, India* Correspondence: Avinash Mishra, [email protected]; [email protected]; [email protected] Bhavanath Jha, [email protected]: anti-biofilm, anti-quorum, microarray, quorum network, quorum quenching, quorum sensing, virulence factorsCorrigendum on: Singh VK, Mishra A and Jha B (2017) Anti-quorum Sensing and Anti-biofilm Activity of Delftia tsuruhatensis Extract by Attenuating the Quorum Sensing-Controlled Virulence Factor Production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Front. Cell. Infect. Microbiol. 7:337. doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2017.00337 Text CorrectionIn the original article, there was an error. ** SJ16 (1.0 mg/ml) **.A correction has
Biofilms are formed by a complex bacterial community encapsulated by a polymeric matrix, with strong adherent properties and persistent phenotype. Biofilms are considered one of the most challenging areas of modern medicine. Existing antibiotics have been developed against free-floating bacterial cells, and thus, many treatments of biofilm-related infection fail. In this study, we compared the effects of different media on biofilm growth of clinical reference strains of Staphylococci and Enterococci, including multi-drug resistant representatives. Further, we optimized the resazurin-based assay for determining the minimal biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC) of standard antibiotics, and evaluated its use for the determination of minimal biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC). We showed that tryptic soy broth supplemented with 1% glucose was an optimal media for maximum biofilm growth of all strains tested, with an extended incubation time for Enterococci. A range of parameters were tested for the
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, an opportunistic pathogen usually connected with healthcare-associated infections, is an environmental bacterium. Intrinsic resistance to multiple antibiotics, with different virulence determinants in the last decade classified this bacterium in the group of global multiple drug resistant (MDR) organism. S. maltophilia clinical isolates, were collected from tertiary care pediatric hospital in Belgrade, Serbia to investigate influence of different factors on biofilm formation, kinetics of biofilm formation for strong biofilm producers and effect of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) on formed biofilm. Most of the isolates (89.8%) were able to form a biofilm. Analysis of biofilm formation in different growth conditions showed that changing of temeperature and pH had the stronggest effect on biofilm formation almost equally in group of cystic fibrosis (CF) and non-CF strains. TMP/SMX in concentration of 50 μg/ml reduced completely 24 h old biofilms while ...
The success of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis (CF) and other chronic infections is largely attributed to its ability to grow in antibiotic-resistant biofilm communities. This study investigated the effects of limiting iron levels as a strategy for preventing/disrupting P. aeruginosa biofilms. A range of synthetic and naturally occurring iron-chelating agents were examined. Biofilm development by P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 and CF sputum isolates from chronically infected individuals was significantly decreased by iron removal under aerobic atmospheres. CF strains formed poor biofilms under anaerobic conditions. Strain PAO1 was also tested under anaerobic conditions. Biofilm formation by this model strain was almost totally prevented by several of the chelators tested. The ability of synthetic chelators to impair biofilm formation could be reversed by iron addition to cultures, providing evidence that these effective chelating compounds functioned by directly reducing availability of iron to P.
Owing to their massive use, Staphylococcus epidermidis has recently developed significant resistance to several antibiotics, and became one of the leading causes of hospital-acquired infections. Current antibiotics are typically ineffective in the eradication of bacteria in biofilm-associated persistent infections. Accordingly, the paucity of effective treatment against cells in this mode of growth is a key factor that potentiates the need for new agents active in the prevention or eradication of biofilms. Daptomycin and linezolid belong to the novel antibiotic therapies that are active against gram-positive cocci. on the other hand, rifampicin has been shown to be one of the most potent, prevalent antibiotics against S. epidermidis biofilms. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to study the susceptibility of S. epidermidis biofilm cells to the two newer antimicrobial agents previously mentioned, and compare the results obtained with the antimicrobial effect of rifampicin, widely used in ...
July 19, 2017 at 6:53 pm Front. Microbiol. 23 January 2017 Cristian Dotto1, Andrea Lombarte Serrat1, Natalia Cattelan2, María S. Barbagelata1†, Osvaldo M. Yantorno2, Daniel O. Sordelli1, Monika Ehling-Schulz3, Tom Grunert3 and Fernanda R. Buzzola1*. 1 Departamento de Microbiología, Parasitología e Inmunología, Facultad de Medicina, Instituto de Investigaciones en Microbiología y Parasitología Médica, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina. 2 Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo de Fermentaciones Industriales (CINDEFI), Centro Científico Technológico Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Tócnicas (CTT CONICET La Plata), Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata, Argentina. 3 Functional Microbiology, Institute for Microbiology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna, Austria. Aspirin has provided clear benefits to human health. But salicylic acid (SAL) ...
To evaluate the ability of the broad-spectrum lantibiotic, lacticin 3147, to prevent Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation and disrupt existing biofilms. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum biofilm inhibitory concentrations of purified lacticin 3147 were determined using a microdilution method. Lacticin 3147 effectively inhibited planktonic Strep. mutans, with MIC of 1.9-3.8 μmol l(-1). Time-kill kinetic studies confirmed that lacticin 3147 exhibited bactericidal activity against Strep. mutans at 38 μmol l(-1) (or 10× MIC). The effect of lacticin 3147 on biofilm formation and reduction was also determined. Exposure to 6.3-μmol l(-1) lacticin 3147 (2× MIC) resulted in substantial reductions in Strep. mutans biofilm formation while lacticin 3147 was less effective against 1-day-old biofilms. Culture-based analyses revealed that lacticin 3147 (50 μmol l(-1)) significantly inhibited Streptococcus spp. present in human saliva (P < 0.05) with an approximate 4-log reduction in ...
Cronobacter sakazakii is an important foodborne pathogen that causes neonatal meningitis and sepsis, with high mortality in neonates. However, very little information is available regarding the pathogenesis of C. sakazakii at the genetic level. In our previous study, a cellulose biosynthesis-related gene (bcsR) was shown to be involved in C. sakazakii adhesion/invasion into epithelial cells. In this study, the detailed functions of this gene were investigated using a gene knockout technique. A bcsR knockout mutant (ΔbcsR) of C. sakazakii ATCC BAA-894 showed decreased adhesion/invasion (3.9-fold) in human epithelial cell line HCT-8. Biofilm formation by the mutant was reduced to 50% of that exhibited by the wild-type (WT) strain. Raman spectrometry was used to detect variations in biofilm components caused by bcsR knockout, and certain components, including carotenoids, fatty acids and amides, were significantly reduced. However, another biofilm component, cellulose, was increased in ΔbcsR, suggesting
Background and objectives: Quercus brantii subsp. persica is used in folk medicine to treat infections in Iran. There is not available report on the anti-biofilm activity of Quercus brantii subsp. persica. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Quercus brantii subsp. persica against bacterial biofilms. Methods: Eighty biofilm producing strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were collected. Quercus brantii subsp. persica fruits aqueous extraction (QBAE) was prepared though maceration method. Chemical analysis to distinguish the main components of the QBAE was carried out using thin-layer chromatography. The antibacterial effects of QBAE on bacterial isolates were determined by the Kirby-Bauer and broth microdilution methods. The antibiofilm effects of QBAE on bacterial isolates were determined using a microtiter assay. Results: The Quercus brantii subsp. persica exhibited bacterial growth inhibition and
Streptococcus pneumoniae forms biofilms, but little is known about its extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) or the kinetics of biofilm formation. A system was developed to enable the simultaneous measurement of cells and the EPS of biofilm-associated S. pneumoniae in situ over time. A biofilm reactor containing germanium coupons was interfaced to an attenuated total reflectance (ATR) germanium cell of a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) laser spectrometer. Biofilm-associated cells were recovered from the coupons and quantified by total and viable cell count methods. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy of biofilms formed on the germanium internal reflection element (IRE) of the ATR cell provided a continuous spectrum of biofilm protein and polysaccharide (a measure of the EPS). Staining of the biofilms on the IRE surface with specific fluorescent probes provided confirmatory evidence for the biofilm structure and the presence of biofilm polysaccharides. Biofilm protein and polysaccharides were detected ...
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most important causes of morbidity and health care spending affecting persons of all ages. Bacterial biofilms play an important role in UTIs, responsible for persistent infections leading to recurrences and relapses. UTIs associated with microbial biofilms developed on catheters account for a high percentage of all nosocomial infections and are the most common source of Gram-negative bacteremia in hospitalized patients. The purpose of this mini-review is to present the role of microbial biofilms in the etiology of female UTI and different male prostatitis syndromes, their consequences, as well as the challenges for therapy
Surface colonization and subsequent biofilm formation and development provide numerous advantages to microorganisms. On the other hand, biofilm formation is an energetically costly process and therefore must be tightly regulated and plastic, enabling biofilm bacteria to be responsive to the various environmental cues. The quorum sensing (QS) pathway of Vibrio cholerae activates the expression of VpsR, VpsT and AphA (the main activators of biofilm formation) at low cell density and HapR (the main repressor) at high cell density. At low cell density, biofilm genes, including Vibrio polysaccharide (VPS) biosynthesis genes and the major extracellular matrix genes RbmA, RbmC, and Bap1, are expressed. The QS pathway also leads to induction of virulence factors such as toxin coregulated pilus (TCP) and cholera toxin (CTX), essential for colonization of the host and enterotoxicity, respectively. The VarS/VarA signaling system responds to an unknown environmental cue and represses biofilm production by ...
This study aimed to select an isolate of Lactobacillus spp. from the leaves of Pandanus amaryllifolius with the potential for biofilm development to inhibit various types of food-borne spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. The applicability and usefulness of the newly isolated strain, denoted as Lb. plantarum PA21, were extended via its capacity to express heterologous protein. The imaged biofilms and cell count results showed differences during the biofilm maturation periods. The ability of bacteria to adhere to the abiotic surface in plastic microtiter plates was measured using a conventional biofilm assay. The method offers some advantages compared to the study of biofilm formation in flow cells, which is an alternative widely used method. Watnick and Kotler [29] showed that the microtiter plate assay can be utilized to distinguish true biofilm formation similar to the biofilm grown in flow cells. This method appeared attractive for obtaining quantitative results based on CFU and optical ...
The study of biofilm function, structure and microbial interactions might help to improve our understanding of biofilm wastewater treatment processes. However, few reports specifically address the influence of interactions within multispecies biofilms on microbial activity and biofilm composition. Thus, the relationship between biofilm formation, denitrification activity, phosphorus removal and the composition of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), exopolysaccharides and the bacterial community was investigated using biofilms of denitrifying and phosphorus removing strains Comamonas denitrificans 110, Brachymonas denitrificans B79, Aeromonas hydrophila L6 and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus ATCC23055. Denitrification activity within the biofilms generally increased with the amount of biofilm while phosphorus removal depended on bacterial growth rate. Synergistic effects of co-growth on denitrification (B. denitrificans B79 and A. hydrophila L6) and phosphorus removal (C. denitrificans 110 with ...
Biofilms and Disease== Bacteria make biofilms, which contain a heterogeneous mixture of microorganisms attached to a surface [[#References,[12]]]. Biofilms offer bacteria protection from hostile environments [[#References,[3]]], promote efficient food storage and nutrient acquisition mechanisms, and encourage synergistic relationships for community benefit. Biofilms are involved in a variety of infectious diseases, causing persistent problems such as cystic fibrosis pneumonia, otitis media, urinary tract infections, and dental plaque formation [[#References,[12]]]. ===Dental Plaque and Disease=== Dental plaque is a biofilm of diverse bacteria and extracellular polymeric substances. It builds up over time and leads to dental caries and periodontal diseases such as gingivitis, a gum inflammation. As many as 400 species of bacteria have been associated with dental plaques, the most common being Streptococcus and Lactobacillus, which are associated with acid formation leading to tooth decay ...
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TY - BOOK. T1 - Biofilms, infection, and antimicrobial therapy. AU - Pace, John L.. AU - Rupp, Mark E.. AU - Finch, Roger G.. PY - 2005/1/1. Y1 - 2005/1/1. N2 - Rather than existing in a planktonic or free-living form, evidence indicates that microbes show a preference for living in a sessile form within complex communities called biofilms. Biofilms appear to afford microbes a survival advantage by optimizing nutrition, offering protection against hostile elements, and providing a network for cell-to-cell signaling and genetic exchange. Biofilms, Infection, and Antimicrobial Therapy provides an in-depth exploration of biofilms, offering broad background information, as well a detailed look at the serious concerns to which biofilm-associated infections give rise. Prosthetic device infections, such as those involving artificial heart valves, intravascular catheters, or prosthetic joints, are prime examples of biofilm-associated infections. With the increasing use of such devices in the modern ...
This study aimed to develop improved cleaning strategies for controlling biofilms on the surfaces of membranes used in dairy ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) plants. Eleven UF / RO membrane modules from 7 different New Zealand dairy membrane processing plants were received after typical cleaning-in-place (CIP) procedures. Microorganisms were isolated from both the retentate and permeate sides of these membrane surfaces and from the liquids collected from a UF membrane plant. Also some foulants scraped from a RO membrane were tested. The routine CIP currently used in the dairy plants was not adequate to completely remove organic material, including microbial cells, proteins and carbohydrates from the membrane surfaces. These residues may influence the surface characteristics and interactions between microorganisms and membranes and thus affect biofilm formation. Thirteen isolates including both bacteria and yeast were identified using biochemical techniques. Klebsiella oxytoca were ...
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Antibiotic resistance is an ever-growing topic of concern within the medical field causing researchers to examine the mechanisms of resistance to develop new antimicrobials. Bacterias ability to form biofilms is one mechanism which aids in antimicrobial resistance. Staphylococcus aureus is of special interest as it is one of the most frequent biofilm-forming bacteria found on medical devices causing infections and posing dangerous threats in a clinical setting. A recently developed antimicrobial gel has been shown to have profound effects on treating bacterial infections and wound healing. This research is centered upon examining the antimicrobial effects of this gel on the three different stages of biofilm formation in clinical and laboratory strains of S. aureus. Through a series of experiments examining the effects this gel has on S. aureus at the stages of biofilm attachment, maturation, and dispersion, the gel has shown significant levels of inhibition. These findings indicate that the novel gel
Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus are ubiquitous upper respiratory opportunistic pathogens. Individually, these Gram-positive microbes are two of the most common causative agents of secondary bacterial pneumonia following influenza A virus infection, and they constitute a significant source of morbidity and mortality. Since the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, rates of cocolonization with both of these bacterial species have increased, despite the traditional view that they are antagonistic and mutually exclusive. The interactions between S. pneumoniae and S. aureus in the context of colonization and the transition to invasive disease have not been characterized. In this report, we show that S. pneumoniae and S. aureus form stable dual-species biofilms on epithelial cells in vitro. When these biofilms are exposed to physiological changes associated with viral infection, S. pneumoniae disperses from the biofilm, whereas S. aureus dispersal is inhibited. These ...
A team of researchers from the National University of Ireland in Galway has been investigating the effect of commonly used sanitising chemicals on Salmonella bacteria contained in biofilms on surfaces.. The researchers used a biofilm reactor to grow Salmonella biofilms and then tested the efficacy of three disinfectants, sodium hypochlorite, sodium hydroxide and benzalkonium chloride, against them. They tested both early (48 hours) and more established (168 hours) biofilms.. They found that all three chemicals reduced the viable count of Salmonella cells, but only sodium hydroxide could completely eradicate the early biofilm and none of the disinfectants could eradicate the mature biofilms, even after a 90-minute contact time. The ability to form resistant biofilms was shared by all the strains of Salmonella tested and they were able to colonise all surfaces, including glass, stainless steel and plastic.. The research team suggest that disinfectants used in food processing areas should be tested ...
This study distinguishes itself by comparing antibiotic activity against staphylococcal biofilms using not only an in vitro static model but also a dynamic model that takes into account the human pharmacokinetics of the drugs under study. Its originality also resides in the evaluation of antibiotic combinations in such a setting. The generated data highlight the possible interest of combining fusidic acid with daptomycin or linezolid in the context of biofilm-related infections.. Considering first the activity of antibiotics alone in the static biofilm model, we show here that it is globally rather poor, with a ,40% reduction in the viability signal being observed in most of the cases with drugs tested at clinically relevant concentrations. This is consistent with previous data obtained in the same model (28, 34). Since the intrinsic potency of the drugs against planktonic cultures (MIC values) are essentially of the same order of magnitude against all strains, the huge variation in activity of ...
Bacterial resistance to conventional antibiotics combined with an increasing acknowledgement of the role of biofilms in chronic infections has led to a growing interest in new antimicrobial strategies that target the biofilm mode of growth. In the aggregated biofilm mode, cell-to-cell communication systems involved in the process known as quorum sensing regulate coordinated expression of virulence with immune shielding mechanisms and antibiotic resistance. For two decades, the potential of interference with quorum sensing by small chemical compounds has been investigated with the aim of developing alternative antibacterial strategies. Here, we review state of the art research of quorum sensing inhibitors against the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is found in a number of biofilm-associated infections and identified as the predominant organism infecting the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients ...
article{3186904, abstract = {Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a main cause of bacterial food-borne diseases. As Salmonella can form biofilms in which it is better protected against antimicrobial agents on a wide diversity of surfaces, it is of interest to explore ways to inhibit biofilm formation. Brominated furanones, originally extracted from the marine alga Delisea pulchra, are known to interfere with biofilm formation in several pathogens. In this study, we have synthesized a small focused library of brominated furanones and tested their activity against S. enterica serovar Typhimurium biofilm formation. We show that several furanones inhibit Salmonella biofilm formation at non-growth-inhibiting concentrations. The most interesting compounds are (Z)-4-bromo-5-(bromomethylene)3- alkyl-2(5H)-furanones with chain lengths of two to six carbon atoms. A microarray study was performed to analyze the gene expression profiles of Salmonella in the presence of (Z)-4-bromo-5-(bromomethylene)3- ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Microcontainer Delivery of Antibiotic Improves Treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms. AU - Birk, Stine Egebro. AU - Haagensen, Janus Anders Juul. AU - Johansen, Helle Krogh. AU - Molin, Søren. AU - Nielsen, Line Hagner. AU - Boisen, Anja. PY - 2020. Y1 - 2020. N2 - Biofilm-associated infections are difficult to treat effectively with antibiotics despite repeated treatments. Polymeric microdevices (microcontainers) have previously been shown to engulf in mucus layers and to provide tunable release. Such devices may overcome the challenge of delivering antibiotics into the biofilm, increasing the local drug concentration and hence improve local bacterial killing. In this work, microcontainers are loaded with the antibiotic, ciprofloxacin hydrochloride, and functionalized with polymeric lids of polyethylene glycol (PEG), chitosan, or Eudragit S100. The PEG lid gives rise to a drug release comparable to uncoated microcontainers showing complete release after 8 h, whereas ...
Background & Objective: Staphylococcus aureus, especially methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), represent serious nosocomial and community infections. Biofilm formation as an important virulence factor may be affected by sub-inhibitory levels of antibiotics. Few studies examined the effects of all therapeutic antimicrobial agents on clinical S.aureus. The current study aimed at observing the inducing and reducing effects of antibiotics, commonly used to treat staphylococcal infections on the production of staphylococcal biofilm. Methods: Four MRSA (1ATCC and 3 clinical) and 1 methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) strains with biofilm forming ability, evaluated by the Congo red agar (CRA) plate test, were employed. Biofilm formation was measured by crystal violet microtiter plate assay. Cefazolin, rifampicin, vancomycin, oxacillin, clindamycin, cotrimoxazole, minocycline, linezolid, azithromycin, and clarithromycin were added to wells ranging from 0.06to 128 µg/mL (1× to 1/1024 MIC
Paenibacillus polymyxa is a common soil bacterium with broad range of practical applications. An important group of secondary metabolites in P polymyxa are non-ribosomal peptide and polyketide derived metabolites (NRPs/PKs). Modular non-ribosomal peptide synthetases catalyze main steps in the biosynthesis of the complex secondary metabolites. Here we report on the inactivation of an A26 Sfp-type 4-phosphopantetheinyl transferase (Sfp-type PPTase). The inactivation of the gene resulted in loss of NRPs/PKs production. In contrast to the former Bacillus spp. model the mutant strain compared to wild type showed greatly enhanced biofilm formation ability. A26 Delta sfp biofilm promotion is directly mediated by NRPs/PKs, as exogenous addition of the wild type metabolite extracts restores its biofilm formation level. Wheat inoculation with bacteria that had lost their Sfp-type PPTase gene resulted in two times higher plant survival and about three times increased biomass under severe drought stress ...
Surface colonization and subsequent biofilm formation and development provide numerous advantages to microorganisms. On the other hand, biofilm formation is an energetically costly process and therefore must be tightly regulated and plastic, enabling biofilm bacteria to be responsive to the various environmental cues. The quorum sensing (QS) pathway of Vibrio cholerae activates the expression of VpsR, VpsT and AphA (the main activators of biofilm formation) at low cell density and HapR (the main repressor) at high cell density. At low cell density, biofilm genes, including Vibrio polysaccharide (VPS) biosynthesis genes and the major extracellular matrix genes RbmA, RbmC, and Bap1, are expressed. The QS pathway also leads to induction of virulence factors such as toxin coregulated pilus (TCP) and cholera toxin (CTX), essential for colonization of the host and enterotoxicity, respectively. The VarS/VarA signaling system responds to an unknown environmental cue and represses biofilm production by ...
Surface colonization and subsequent biofilm formation and development provide numerous advantages to microorganisms. On the other hand, biofilm formation is an energetically costly process and therefore must be tightly regulated and plastic, enabling biofilm bacteria to be responsive to the various environmental cues. The quorum sensing (QS) pathway of Vibrio cholerae activates the expression of VpsR, VpsT and AphA (the main activators of biofilm formation) at low cell density and HapR (the main repressor) at high cell density. At low cell density, biofilm genes, including Vibrio polysaccharide (VPS) biosynthesis genes and the major extracellular matrix genes RbmA, RbmC, and Bap1, are expressed. The QS pathway also leads to induction of virulence factors such as toxin coregulated pilus (TCP) and cholera toxin (CTX), essential for colonization of the host and enterotoxicity, respectively. The VarS/VarA signaling system responds to an unknown environmental cue and represses biofilm production by ...
Imbalances within the dental biofilm trigger dental caries, currently considered a dysbiosis and the most prevalent noncommunicable disease. There is still a gap in knowledge about the dynamics of enamel colonization by bacteria from the dental biofilm in caries. The aim, therefore, was to test whether the sequence of enamel colonization by a typically commensal and a cariogenic species modifies biofilms cariogenicity. Dual-species biofilms of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis on saliva-coated enamel slabs were inoculated in different sequences: S. mutans followed by S. sanguinis (Sm-Ss), S. sanguinis followed by S. mutans (Ss-Sm), S. mutans and S. sanguinis inoculated at the same time (Sm=Ss), and the single-species controls S. mutans followed by S. mutans (Sm-Sm) and S. sanguinis followed by S. sanguinis (Ss-Ss). Biofilms were exposed to 10% sucrose 3 times per day for 5 days, and the slabs/biofilms were retrieved to assess demineralization, viable cells, biomass, proteins, ...
While studying virulence gene regulation in Vibrio cholerae during infection of the host small intestine, we identified VieA as a two-component response regulator that contributes to activating expression of cholera toxin. Here we report that VieA represses transcription of Vibrio exopolysaccharide …
A characteristic feature of biofilm formation is the production of a protective extracellular polymeric matrix. In the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis, the biofilm matrix is synthesized by the products of the epsABCDEFGHIJKLMNO operon (hereafter called the eps operon) and yqxM-sipW-tasA loci. Transcription from these operons is repressed by two key regulators, AbrB and SinR. Relief of inhibition is necessary to allow biofilm formation to proceed. Here we present data indicating that Abh, a sequence and structural homologue of AbrB, regulates biofilm architecture by B. subtilis when colony morphology and pellicle formation are assessed. Data indicating that abh expression is dependent on the environmental signals that stimulate the activity of the extracytoplasmic function sigma-factor sigma(X) are shown. We demonstrate that expression of slrR, the proposed activator of yqxM transcription, is positively controlled by Abh. Furthermore, Abh is shown to activate transcription from the ...
A biofilm is a complex community of cells enveloped in a self-produced polymeric matrix. Entry into a biofilm is exquisitely controlled at the level of transcription and in the Gram-positive organism Bacillus subtilis it requires the concerted efforts of three major transcription factors. Here, we demonstrate that in addition to transcriptional control, B. subtilis utilizes post-translational modifications to control biofilm formation; specifically through phosphorylation of tyrosine residues. Through our work we have assigned novel roles during biofilm formation to two proteins; the protein tyrosine kinase PtkA and the protein tyrosine phosphatase PtpZ. Furthermore by introducing amino acid point mutations within the catalytic domains of PtkA and PtpZ we have identified that the kinase and phosphatase activities, respectively, are essential for function. PtkA contains a conserved C-terminal tyrosine cluster that is the site of autophosphorylation; however, our in vivo analysis demonstrates that ...
Adhesion is a crucial initial step in microbial biofilm formation. Firm attachment to a target surface subsequently ensures successful colonization and survival despite turbulent conditions. In the laboratory, polystyrene plates are commonly used in biofilm experiments and the washing/rinse steps before staining are critical for assaying biofilm viability. However, these rinse steps risk the removal (partially or entirely) of the formed biofilm, resulting in inconsistent results. The aim of the present study was to optimize conditions for firmer biofilms, less prone to disruption and thus significantly reducing well-to-well variability. Candida albicans SC5314 was used in five different polystyrene 96-well plates from four different manufacturers. Irrespective of how gently we performed the rinse, biofilms came off certain polystyrene plates more easily compared to others. Importantly, preconditioning the polystyrene surfaces with foetal bovine serum (FBS) had a negative impact on firm biofilm ...
Biofilm formation by Staphylococcus epidermidis is a cause of infections related to peritoneal dialysis (PD). We have used a PD catheter flow-cell model in combination with confocal scanning laser microscopy and atomic force microscopy to study biofilm formation by S. epidermidis. Adherence to serum-coated catheters was four times greater than to uncoated ones, suggesting that S. epidermidis binds to serum proteins on the catheter surface. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm supernatant interfered with the formation of a serum protein coat thereby reducing the capacity for biofilm formation in S. epidermidis. Supernatants from ΔpelA, ΔpslBCD and ΔrhlAB strains of P. aeruginosa showed no differences from the wild-type supernatant indicating that the effect on serum coat formation was not due to rhamnolipids or the PelA and PslBCD polysaccharides. Supernatant from P. aeruginosa also dispersed established S. epidermidis biofilms. Supernatants lacking PelA or PslBCD showed no differences from the wild ...
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of cranberry extracts on saliva-derived polymicrobial biofilms with regards to biofilm biomass, acidogenicity, exopolysaccharide (EPS)/microbial biovolumes, colony forming unit (CFU) counts, and the relative abundance of specific caries- and health-associated bacteria.METHODS: Saliva-derived polymicrobial biofilms were grown for 96 h in a cariogenic environment and treated for 2 min every 12 h over the entire biofilm growth period with 500 mug/mL cranberry extract or vehicle control. The effect of the cranberry extract on biofilm behaviour was evaluated using different assays and its influence on key cariogenic and health-associated bacterial populations was assessed with a microarray real-time quantitative PCR method.RESULTS: Cranberry-treated biofilms showed significant drops in biomass (38% reduction, P , 0.001), acidogenicity (44% reduction, P , 0.001), EPS/microbial biovolume ratios (P = 0.033), and CFU counts (51% reduction, P = 0.001). Furthermore, the ...
Oxaran, V.; Dittmann, K.Kiesbye.; Lee, S.H.I.; Chaul, Líza.Toubas.; Fernandes de Oliveira, C.Augusto.; Corassin, C.Humberto.; Alves, Vínia.Farias.; De Martinis, E.Cristina.Pereira.; Gram, L., 2018: Behavior of Foodborne Pathogens Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus in Mixed-Species Biofilms Exposed to Biocides
Acinetobacter baumannii is an emerging nosocomial pathogen, responsible for infection outbreaks worldwide. The pathogenicity of this bacterium is mainly due to its multidrug-resistance and ability to form biofilm on abiotic surfaces, which facilitate long-term persistence in the hospital setting. Given the crucial role of iron in A. baumannii nutrition and pathogenicity, iron metabolism has been considered as a possible target for chelation-based antibacterial chemotherapy. In this study, we investigated the effect of iron restriction on A. baumannii growth and biofilm formation using different iron chelators and culture conditions. We report substantial inter-strain variability and growth medium-dependence for biofilm formation by A. baumannii isolates from veterinary and clinical sources. Neither planktonic nor biofilm growth of A. baumannii was affected by exogenous chelators. Biofilm formation was either stimulated by iron or not responsive to iron in the majority of isolates tested, ...
1. Ajdic D, McShan WM, McLaughlin RE, Savic G, Chang J, Carson MB. 2002. Genome sequence of Streptococcus mutans UA159, a cariogenic dental pathogen. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 99:14434-14439. 2. Banas JA, Vickerman MM. 2003. Glucan-binding proteins of the oral streptococci. Critical Reviews in Oral Biology & Medicine. 14:89-99. 3. Costerton JW, Steward PS, Greenberg EP. 1999. Bacterial biofilms: a common cause of persistent infections. Science. 284:1318-1322. 4. Gross EL, Beall CJ, Kutsch SR, Firestone ND, Leys EJ, Griffen AL. 2012. Beyond Streptococcus mutans: dental caries onset linked to multiple species by 16S rRNA community analysis. PloS one. 7:e47722. 5. Hajishengallis G, Koga and T, Russell MW. 1994. Affinity and Specificity of the Interactions between Streptococcus mutans Antigen I/II and Salivary Components. J. Dent Res. 73:1943-1502. 6. Hossain MS, Biswas I. 2011. Mutacins from Streptococcus mutans UA159 are active against multiple streptococcal species. Applied and environmental ...
Biofilm formation[edit]. The ability to adhere to medical devices and subsequently form biofilms is a major virulence factor ... Biofilm formation also appears to be influenced by the presence of glucose and NaCl. Biofilm formation is enhanced when ... haemolyticus biofilms. Biofilms formed in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of dicloxacillin contain less biomass ... Biofilm formation is influenced by a variety of factors including carbohydrates, proteins, and extracellular DNA. Detachment ...
Biofilm coatings[edit]. A new form of protection has been developed by applying certain species of bacterial films to the ... Alternatively, antimicrobial-producing biofilms can be used to inhibit mild steel corrosion from sulfate-reducing bacteria.[6] ... "Inhibiting mild steel corrosion from sulfate-reducing bacteria using antimicrobial-producing biofilms in Three-Mile-Island ...
Genetic approaches to study of biofilms". Biofilms. Methods in Enzymology. Biofilms. 310. Academic Press. pp. 91-109. doi: ... a TED-ED animation on biofilms Biofilm Up Close, FASEB Bioart Award-winning image in The Scientist in 2016 Turning Point: ... but the genetics of biofilm formation was unexplored and most microbiologists did not view biofilm formation as a physiological ... living within communities called biofilms). The lab popularized the concept of bacterial biofilm formation as developmental or ...
Biofilm is an aggregate of microorganisms in which cells adhere to each other or a surface. Bacteria in the biofilm community ... This system functions optimally when the S. mutans cells are in crowded biofilms. S. mutans cells growing in a biofilm are ... mutans in dental biofilms can be reduced or eliminated, the acidification potential of dental biofilms and later cavity ... This decreases the biofilm pathogenesis, and therefore its caries promoting potential. This offers the potential for an anti- ...
Some species of bacteria secrete it to form biofilms. Cellulose is the most abundant organic polymer on Earth. The cellulose ... Romeo, Tony (2008). Bacterial biofilms. Berlin: Springer. pp. 258-263. ISBN 978-3-540-75418-3. Klemm, Dieter; Heublein, ...
Pellicle is a variety of biofilm that is formed between the air and the liquid in which bacteria grow. In a biofilm, bacterial ... The biofilm needs bacterial cells to move in a certain manner, while flagella is the organelle which has locomotive function. ... Lemon, KP; Earl, AM; Vlamakis, HC; Aguilar, C; Kolter, R. "Biofilm development with an emphasis on Bacillus subtilis". ... Bacterial Biofilms. 2008: 1-16. PMID 18453269. Pratt, Leslie A.; Kolter, Roberto (1998). "Genetic analysis ofEscherichia ...
It may have potential in fighting biofilm implied in infectious diseases that are present in more than 60% of Hospital-acquired ... Marques, CN; Davies, DG; Sauer, K (2015). "Control of Biofilms with the Fatty Acid Signaling Molecule cis-2-Decenoic Acid". ... Davies, DG; Marques, CN (2009). "A fatty acid messenger is responsible for inducing dispersion in microbial biofilms". Journal ... Bryers, JD (2008). "Medical biofilms". Biotechnol. Bioeng. 100 (1): 1-18. doi:10.1002/bit.21838. PMC 2706312. PMID 18366134. v ...
A biofilm is a community of microorganisms adsorbed to a surface. Microorganisms in biofilms are enclosed in a polymeric matrix ... Biofilms on food processing surfaces can be a biological hazard to food safety. Increased chemical resistance in biofilms can ... Biofilms form on solid substrates such as stainless steel. A biofilm's enclosing polymeric matrix offers protection to its ... Tarver, Toni (2009). "Biofilms: A Threat to Food Safety". Food Technology. 63 (2): 46-52. Visser, J; Jeurnink, Th. J. M (1997 ...
Kumamoto, Carol A. (2006). "Candida albicans Biofilms Produce Antifungal-Tolerant Persister Cells". Antimicrobial Agents and ... "Candida biofilms". Current Opinion in Microbiology. 5 (6): 608-611. doi:10.1016/S1369-5274(02)00371-5. PMID 12457706. ...
Such C. albicans biofilms may form on the surface of implantable medical devices or organs. In these biofilms it is often found ... "Candida albicans biofilm development is governed by cooperative attachment and adhesion maintenance proteins". NPJ Biofilms and ... The biofilm of C. albicans is formed in four steps. First, there is the initial adherence step, where the yeast-form cells ... Zap1 controls the equilibrium of yeast and hyphal cells, the zinc transporters and zinc regulated genes in biofilms of C. ...
When such communities are encased in a stabilizing polymer matrix ("slime"), they may be called "biofilms". Cells in biofilms ... Costerton JW (2007). "Direct Observations". The Biofilm Primer. Springer Series on Biofilms. 1. pp. 3-4. doi:10.1007/978-3-540- ... Bacterial biofilms may be 100 times more resistant to antibiotics than free-living unicells and may be nearly impossible to ... Biofilms may be highly heterogeneous and structurally complex and may attach to solid surfaces, or exist at liquid-air ...
These biofilms and mats can range from a few micrometres in thickness to up to half a metre in depth, and may contain multiple ... Biofilms are also important in medicine, as these structures are often present during chronic bacterial infections or in ... Bacteria living in biofilms display a complex arrangement of cells and extracellular components, forming secondary structures, ... In natural environments, such as soil or the surfaces of plants, the majority of bacteria are bound to surfaces in biofilms. ...
The biofilm formation is the main cause of Staphylococcus implant infections. Biofilms are groups of microorganisms, such as ... A class of enzymes have been found to have biofilm matrix-degrading ability, thus may be used as biofilm dispersal agents in ... A higher mortality is linked with multispecies biofilms. S. aureus biofilm is the predominant cause of orthopedic implant- ... aureus biofilms contain PIA. S. aureus biofilms are important in disease pathogenesis, as they can contribute to antibiotic ...
"Bacteriophages and Biofilms". Antibiotics. 3 (3): 270-284. doi:10.3390/antibiotics3030270. PMC 4790368. Patrick Jault; Thomas ...
It allows other bacteria to bind to the already existing biofilm, creating a multilayer biofilm. Such biofilms decrease the ... The ability to form biofilms on plastic devices is a major virulence factor for S. epidermidis. One probable cause is surface ... Biofilms Microbiology Staphylococcus Schleifer, K. H.; Kloos, W. E. (1 January 1975). "Isolation and Characterization of ... As mentioned above, S. epidermidis causes biofilms to grow on plastic devices placed within the body. This occurs most commonly ...
The peptidoglycan monomers are synthesized in the cytosol and are then attached to a membrane carrier bactoprenol. Bactoprenol transports peptidoglycan monomers across the cell membrane where they are inserted into the existing peptidoglycan.[6] In the first step of peptidoglycan synthesis, glutamine, which is an amino acid, donates an amino group to a sugar, fructose 6-phosphate. This turns fructose 6-phosphate into glucosamine-6-phosphate. In step two, an acetyl group is transferred from acetyl CoA to the amino group on the glucosamine-6-phosphate creating N-acetyl-glucosamine-6-phosphate.[7] In step three of the synthesis process, the N-acetyl-glucosamine-6-phosphate is isomerized, which will change N-acetyl-glucosamine-6-phosphate to N-acetyl-glucosamine-1-phosphate.[7] In step 4, the N-acetyl-glucosamine-1-phosphate, which is now a monophosphate, attacks UTP. Uridine triphosphate, which is a pyrimidine nucleotide, has the ability to act as an energy source. In this particular reaction, ...
The bacterial phyla are the major lineages, known as phyla or divisions, of the domain Bacteria. In the scientific classification established by Carl von Linné,[2] each bacterial strain has to be assigned to a species (binary nomenclature), which is a lower level of a hierarchy of ranks. Currently, the most accepted mega-classification system is under the three-domain system, which is based on molecular phylogeny. In that system, bacteria are members of the domain Bacteria[3] and "phylum" is the rank below domain, since the rank "kingdom" is disused at present in bacterial taxonomy.[4][Note 1] When bacterial nomenclature was controlled under the Botanical Code, the term division was used, but now that bacterial nomenclature (with the exception of cyanobacteria) is controlled under the Bacteriological Code, the term phylum is preferred. In this classification scheme, Bacteria is (unofficially)[Note 2] subdivided into 30 phyla with representatives cultured in a lab.[5][6][7] Many major clades of ...
... was extensively studied in Escherichia coli. E. coli grows faster on glucose than on any other carbon source. For example, if E. coli is placed on an agar plate containing only glucose and lactose, the bacteria will use glucose first and lactose second. When glucose is available in the environment, the synthesis of β-galactosidase is under repression due to the effect of catabolite repression caused by glucose. The catabolite repression in this case is achieved through the utilization of phosphotransferase system. An important enzyme from the phosphotransferase system called Enzyme II A (EIIA) plays a central role in this mechanism. There are different catabolite-specific EIIA in a single cell, even though different bacterial groups have specificities to different sets of catabolites. In enteric bacteria one of the EIIA enzymes in their set is specific for glucose transport only. When glucose levels are high inside the bacteria, EIIA mostly exists in its unphosphorylated ...
Bacteria are traditionally divided into the two groups: gram-positive and gram-negative, based on their gram-staining response. Gram-positive bacteria are also referred to as monoderms having one membrane, and gram-negative bacteria are also referred to as diderms, having two membranes. These groups are often thought of as lineages, with gram-negative bacteria more closely related to one another than to gram-positive bacteria. While this is often true, the classification system breaks down in some cases. A given bacteria's staining result, bacterial membrane organization, and lineage groupings do not always match up.[6][7][8][9] Thus, gram-staining cannot be reliably used to assess familial relationships of bacteria. However, staining often gives reliable information about the composition of the cell membrane, distinguishing between the presence or absence of an outer lipid membrane.[6][10] Of these two structurally distinct groups of prokaryotic organisms, monoderm prokaryotes are indicated to ...
NASA's announcement of a news conference "that will impact the search for evidence of extraterrestrial life" was criticized as sensationalistic and misleading; an editorial in New Scientist commented "although the discovery of alien life, if it ever happens, would be one of the biggest stories imaginable, this was light-years from that".[31][32] In addition, many experts who have evaluated the paper have concluded that the reported studies do not provide enough evidence to support the claims made by the authors.[33] In an online article on Slate, science writer Carl Zimmer discussed the skepticism of several scientists: "I reached out to a dozen experts ... Almost unanimously, they think the NASA scientists have failed to make their case".[34][35] Chemist Steven A. Benner has expressed doubts that arsenate has replaced phosphate in the DNA of this organism. He suggested that the trace contaminants in the growth medium used by Wolfe-Simon in her laboratory cultures are sufficient to supply the ...
The reducing end of microbial arabinogalactan consists of the terminal sequence →5)-D-Galf-(1→4)-L-Rhap-(1→3)-D-GlcNAc[citation needed]. A muramyl-6-P is also found within the peptidoglycan functional group. The mycolylarabinogalactan of mycobacteria is attached to the peptidoglycan by the actinomycete-specific diglycosylphosphoryl bridge, L-Rhap-(1→3)-D-GlcNAc-(1→P).[3]. Arabinogalactan contains a galactan chain, with alternating 5-linked β-D-galactofuranosyl (Galf) and 6-linked β-D-Galf residues. The arabinan chains are attached to C-5 of some of the 6-linked Galf residues. There are three major structural domains for arabinan. The first is a domain consisting of linear 5-linked α-D-Araf residues. The second is a domain with branched 3,5 linked α-D-Araf residues substituted with 5-linked α-D-Araf units at both branched positions, and the third is A terminal non-reducing domain for end arabinan consisting of a 3,5-linked α-D-Araf residue substituted at both branched positions ...
NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes. 4 (1): 14. doi:10.1038/s41522-018-0057-2. PMC 6031612. PMID 30002868. Bergquist PR (1998). " ...
NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes. 4 (1): 14. doi:10.1038/s41522-018-0057-2. PMC 6031612. PMID 30002868. Whelan, Nathan V.; Kocot, ...
Biofilm structures that are formed in simulation can be viewed as a movie using POV-Ray files that are generated as the ... This study explored the hypothesis that poor plasmid spread in biofilms is caused by a dependence of conjugation on the growth ... iDynoMiCS can be used to seek to understand how individual microbial dynamics lead to emergent population- or biofilm-level ... In the article titled "iDynoMiCS: next-generation individual-based modelling of biofilms", an agent-based model is presented ...
"Spatio-temporal assembly of functional mineral scaffolds within microbial biofilms". NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes. 2: 15031. ... The term biofilm refers to complex heterogeneous structures comprising different populations of microorganisms that attach and ... It uses the polymers produced by single cells during biofilm formation as a physical cue to coordinate ECM production by the ... A common principle of all biofilms is the production of extracellular matrix (ECM) composed of different organic substances, ...
Some species from Sphingomonadaceae family are dominant components of biofilms. There are eighteen genera in Sphingomonadaceae ... 2019-01-25). "Sphingomonadaceae from fouled membranes". NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes. 5 (1): 6. doi:10.1038/s41522-018-0074-1. ... May 2016). Besser TE (ed.). "Biofilms on Hospital Shower Hoses: Characterization and Implications for Nosocomial Infections". ... "Dynamics of the physiochemical and community structures of biofilms under the influence of algal organic matter and humic ...
"The insect antimicrobial peptide cecropin A disrupts uropathogenic Escherichia coli biofilms". NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes. 6 ... Cecropin A can destroy planktonic and sessile biofilm-forming uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) cells, either alone or when combined ... The multi-target mechanism of action involves outer membrane permeabilization followed by biofilm disruption triggered by the ...
NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes. 3 (1): 10. doi:10.1038/s41522-017-0019-0. ISSN 2055-5008. PMC 5460203. PMID 28649411. "Microbial ...
"Komodo dragon-inspired synthetic peptide DRGN-1 promotes wound-healing of a mixed-biofilm infected wound". NPJ Biofilms and ... It has the added observed benefit of significantly promoting wound healing in both uninfected and mixed biofilm infected wounds ...
... npj Biofilms and Microbiomes. 6 (1): 14. doi:10.1038/s41522-020-0123-4. ISSN 2055-5008. PMC 7093434. PMID 32210237. Xiong, ...
more on biofilm. so biofilms forming on food particles means that yogurt is a biofilm,. just devoid of large scale structural ... strep is a biofilm. ankylosing spondylitis is a biofilm condition. allergies can be caused by biofilm toxins pubmed. staph ... gallstones are biofilm. UTIS are biofilm. saccharomyces and clostridia. saccharomyces a poor biofilm former compared to ... franz xaver messerschmidt - biofilm sculpture usman on biofilm - the BCD still rules. the biofilm bandwagon slowly gathers ...
Biofilms Biofilms are bacterial colonies that are attached to a surface. They grow from suspended, or planktonic, cells ... We are investigating the dynamics of biofilm growth using experimental, simulation, and mathematical modeling methods. This ... attaching to the surface and by cell division and movement of existing attached cells. Biofilms are found naturally in many ...
Biofilms.. Stickler D1.. Author information. 1. Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, CF1 3TL, Wales, UK ... The past year has seen important advances in our understanding of how cells initiate biofilm formation. We have also begun to ... Outside of the laboratory, most microbes grow as organised biofilm communities on surfaces. ... appreciate how cells can co-ordinate their activities and build the complex structures of mature biofilms that afford ...
IBMs Warmth-Activated Gel Can Break Up Tough Bacterial Biofilms And Kill Superbugs. And it is not vulnerable to evolved ... Researchers have discovered a marine microbe may help inhibit pathogen biofilm formation ...
Microbial biofilms are multicellular communities of sessile microorganisms encased by the hydrated polymeric matrix. They have ... By measuring the biofilm growing rates under different evenness levels of communities, an evenly distributed community favors ... Microbial biofilms are multicellular communities of sessile microorganisms encased by the hydrated polymeric matrix. They have ... Humphries J, Xiong L, Liu J, Prindle A, Yuan F, Arjes HA et al (2017) Species-independent attraction to biofilms through ...
Once anchored to a surface, biofilm microorganisms carry out a ... ... Springer Series on Biofilms presents carefully refereed volumes on selected topics on this field of research. All volumes ... or the roles of biofilms in diseases. While based in microbiology, biofilms are of intense interest to many other scientists, ... Springer Series on Biofilms presents carefully refereed volumes on selected topics on this field of research. All volumes ...
"In part, the reason these infections are hard to treat is because P. aeruginosa enters a biofilm mode of growth in these ... Now, a group of researchers at Caltech and the University of Oxford have made progress in the fight against biofilms. Led by ... Our research suggests a new approach to inhibiting P. aeruginosa biofilms.". The group targeted pyocyanin, a small molecule ... Many infectious pathogens are difficult to treat because they develop into biofilms, layers of metabolically active but slowly ...
Community participation in biofilm matrix assembly and function Kaitlin F. Mitchell, Robert Zarnowski, Hiram Sanchez, Jessica A ... Differential RNA-seq of Vibrio cholerae identifies the VqmR small RNA as a regulator of biofilm formation Kai Papenfort, Konrad ...
First, the appearance of organization in biofilms can emerge without active coordination. That is, biofilm properties such as ... The sociobiology of biofilms.. Nadell CD1, Xavier JB, Foster KR.. Author information. 1. Department of Ecology and Evolutionary ... and spontaneous mutation can generate conflict even within biofilms initiated by genetically identical cells. Biofilms will ... Biofilms are densely packed communities of microbial cells that grow on surfaces and surround themselves with secreted polymers ...
The study showed that C auris can form a biofilm that resists many antifungal agents. A biofilm also enables the fungus to use ... To better understand the fungus biofilm capabilities, the researchers compared the biofilm mass of four strains of C auris ... The C auris strains developed 1.5 to 3 times less biofilm mass than C albicans, but 3 to 6 times greater mass than C glabrata, ... The C auris biofilm is not as strong as those of some other clinically significant fungi, but has nonetheless contributed to C ...
So, when faced with biofilm infections, what can doctors do?. The battle against biofilms. Biofilms are a serious threat to ... What are biofilms?. "Biofilms are one of the most widely distributed and successful modes of life on Earth," says Prof. Hans- ... Biofilms can be made up of populations of the same bacteria or of communities, which, in turn, are made up of many different ... Biofilms are tricky beasts because they have a tendency to become resistant to all manner of efforts employed to eradicate them ...
Biofilms are surface-attached communities of bacterial or fungal cells that are enmeshed in an extensive ... the minimum biofilm eradicating concentration that removes 50% of the biofilm) for each treatment. In the ongoing effort to ... Biofilms are surface-attached communities of bacterial or fungal cells that are enmeshed in an extensive extracellular matrix ... With biofilms estimated to be responsible for ,60% of microbial infections, and 80% of chronic infections in humans, finding ...
The biofilm assemblages were comprised of ubiquitous water and soil microbial groups, some known for biofilm formation. ... Showerhead biofilms and water are potential sources of aerosolized microorganisms. However, different microbes and biofilms ... Fluorescence and SEM images of showerhead biofilm. (A-C) Epifluorescence microscopy of biofilm samples stained with DAPI; scale ... Opportunistic pathogens enriched in showerhead biofilms. Leah M. Feazel, Laura K. Baumgartner, Kristen L. Peterson, Daniel N. ...
The findings can give us clues about the physical rules guiding biofilm architecture, but also about the social dynamics that ... EPFL biophysicists have taken a systematic look into how bacterial biofilms are affected by fluid flow. ... How flow shapes bacterial biofilms EPFL biophysicists have taken a systematic look into how bacterial biofilms are affected by ... Bacteria form biofilms by attaching to each other on a wide variety of surfaces: the bottom of oceans, lakes or rivers, medical ...
Many infections contracted in hospital are linked to the formation of biofilms. How do these sticky layers of bacteria form on ... What is biofilm?. Indeed, bacteria such as staphylococcus aureus can attach themselves to medical device surfaces (. catheter. ... This can entail grave complications for the patient, which is why its so important to study bacterial biofilms and find a way ... Many infections contracted in hospital are linked to the formation of biofilms. How do these sticky layers of bacteria form on ...
... Melissa J. Karau,1 Kerryl E. Greenwood-Quaintance,1 Suzannah M. Schmidt,1 Nho V ... We previously developed and validated a vortexing-sonication technique for detection of biofilm bacteria on the surface of ...
Microphytobenthic biofilms in mudflats are characterised by a wide variety of microorganisms and the production of large ... Flemming H-C, Wingender J (2010) The biofilm matrix. Nat Rev Microbiol 8:623-633PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Sutherland I (2001) Biofilm exopolysaccharides: a strong and sticky framework. Microbiology 147:3-9PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentral ... Branda SS, Vik S, Friedman L, Kolter R (2005) Biofilms: the matrix revisited. Trends Microbiol 13:20-26PubMedCrossRef ...
Scientists develop a slippery surface for medical implants that prevents formation of infectious bacterial biofilm while ... SLIPS resisted biofilms and preserved immune response. In the new study, the team started with lab tests to find the teflon ... In medicine, biofilms are a hazard because they can form on living surfaces, such as heart and lung tissue, and on medical ... The study of biofilms has increased rapidly in recent years as we have become more aware of their pervasiveness and impact. The ...
Biofilms are hardier than we imagined, playing an underappreciated role in nosocomial transmission. ... The Role of Biofilm in Nosocomial Transmission. Biofilms are sessile microbial communities growing on surfaces, frequently ... How Hidden Biofilms Escape Disinfection. Alfa and colleagues[2] looked at the impact of improper positioning of the elevator ... Biofilm formation and bacterial viability during the survival analysis were assessed. The culturability of the A pittii strains ...
The life cycle of biofilms is explained in this section. Learn about the life cycle of biofilms. ... Life Cycle of Biofilms: Before Attachment. Before we delve into the life cycle of a biofilm, its important to get a sense of ... Biofilms in Space. Trying to study biofilms on Earth is one thing, but what about in space? Researchers at the Rensselaer ... Different species of bacteria, protozoans, algae, yeasts and fungi can form biofilms. With most biofilms ranging from a few ...
biofilms," Journal of Bacteriology, vol. 182, no. 22, pp. 6482-6489, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ... "Gene transfer occurs with enhanced efficiency in biofilms and induces enhanced stabilisation of the biofilm structure," Current ... M. Otto, "Staphylococcal biofilms," Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology, vol. 322, pp. 207-228, 2008. View at Google ... A. S. Prince, "Biofilms, antimicrobial resistance, and airway infection," New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 347, no. 14, pp ...
... dynamics of a matrix protein ofVibrio choleraebiofilms and examined how this protein modulates the architecture of the biofilm. ... Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, can switch between single cell and biofilm lifestyles. Biofilm formation has ... To test whether the structural binary switch regulated biofilm formation, the authors analysed biofilm development and ... Living in the matrix: assembly and control of Vibrio cholerae biofilms. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 13, 255-268 (2015) ...
As biofilms influence both potable water quality as well as stability, it is important to generate a deeper insight on factors ... Predicting and Managing Biofilms. Materials in contact with potable water variably influence the existing microbiome due to ... Therefore, biofilms on the inner surface of several toys, used under either real or controlled conditions, have been ... The goal of this SNF-funded project is to properly characterize biofilms on materials in contact with potable water and to ...
... March 2014. Various bacteria, including foodborne pathogens, can form biofilms on stainless ... Results of this study indicate that treatment of L. monocytogenes, S. Typhimurium, and STEC biofilms with lactic acid and ... Biofilms on treated and untreated coupons were subsequently enriched by immersing coupons in BHI or TSB, and in aqueous ... Populations of 8.6 to 9.2 log CFU of pathogen/coupon were recovered from biofilms after incubating in BHI and TSB for 72 h. ...
... Dev via biofilms%40net.bio.net (by microbesinaction At gmail.com). Fri Dec 1 01:33:15 ... It is also well known that hydrophobicity has a role in cell attachment to the surface and biofilm formation. As the biofilm ... www.bio.net/biomail/listinfo/biofilms , , brooksjd.vcf , 1KDownload * Messages sorted by: [ date ] [ thread ] [ subject ] [ ... Regards , John , , Alfred Ogola Okello wrote: , , Dear Sir, , , , Ref:http://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/biofilms/1998-September/ ...
For other species in disease-associated biofilms and biofilms arising from eukaryotes see below. Biofilms have been found to be ... may contribute to biofilm dispersal. Enzymes that degrade the biofilm matrix may be useful as anti-biofilm agents. Evidence has ... Documentary on Biofilms: The Silent Role of Biofilms in Chronic Disease HD Video Interviews on biofilms, antibiotics, etc. with ... biofilms can grow in showers very easily since they provide a moist and warm environment for the biofilm to thrive. Biofilms ...
The Mechanics of Biofilms- Sacrifice of the Few for the Benefit of the Many. April 12, 2016 ... New Anti-Biofilm Compounds Show Promise Against Drug-Resistant Bacteria Linked to Hospital Infections. February 17, 2016 ... Researchers in China report that air plasma can be used to kill biofilms found on the surfaces of perishable fruits and foods ... New research has shown that a bacteriophage is critical to the formation of biofilms by Pseudomonas ...
... especially when they are allowed to form biofilms. "Biofilms are nasty once they form, and incredibly difficult to get rid of ... In particular, theyre devising new ways to keep harmful bacteria from forming sticky matrices called biofilms - and to do it ... In the lab, they demonstrated an 85 percent reduction in P. aeruginosa biofilm adhesion. They conducted extensive studies ... have created a new material that inhibits biofilm formation of the virulent superbug Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Their material, ...
... the widely accepted hypothesis that the majority of bacteria in virtually all ecosystems grow in matrix-enclosed biofilms. The ... The Biofilm Primer. Authors. * J. William Costerton Series Title. Springer Series on Biofilms. Series Volume. 1. Copyright. ... In 2004, Bill was recruited by the University of Southern California to build a center for biofilms in the dental and medical ... J. William (Bill) Costerton directed the NSF-funded Center for Biofilm Engineering in Montana for more than a decade. ...
... The development of sustainable and green technologies for the treatment and recovery of resources from wastes is ...
  • Microbial biofilms are multicellular communities of sessile microorganisms encased by the hydrated polymeric matrix. (springer.com)
  • Once anchored to a surface, biofilm microorganisms carry out a variety of detrimental (like the plaque on teeth) or beneficial (bioremediating hazardous waste sites) reactions. (springer.com)
  • Biofilms form on interior showerhead surfaces and potentially expose the user to a cohort of unknown, aerosolized microorganisms. (pnas.org)
  • They grow wide and thick, forming a new, social dynamic among their member microorganisms, while also defending them: biofilms can be notoriously inaccessible to antibiotics, which is why they have drawn a lot of medical research. (eurekalert.org)
  • Microphytobenthic biofilms in mudflats are characterised by a wide variety of microorganisms and the production of large quantities of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). (springer.com)
  • Microorganisms , or organisms too small to see with the naked eye , are the building blocks for biofilms. (howstuffworks.com)
  • A biofilm is composed of living, reproducing microorganisms, such as bacteria, which exist as a colony, or community. (wikiversity.org)
  • A biofilm forms when microorganisms adhere to the surface of some object in a moist environment and begin to reproduce. (wikiversity.org)
  • Throughout our discussion, we provide detailed lists and summaries of some of the most prominent and extensively researched dispersal agents that have shown promise against the biofilms of clinically relevant pathogens, and we catalog which specific microorganisms they have been shown to be effective against. (mdpi.com)
  • Donlan, R. M. & Costerton, J. W. Biofilms: survival mechanisms of clinically relevant microorganisms. (nature.com)
  • The findings will contribute towards a better understanding of the growth of microorganisms in space, which is also key to bioregenerative life support systems, the formation of biofilms and microbial ore extraction. (lifeboat.com)
  • A biofilm is a structured community of microorganisms on a surface, encapsulated in a self-formed matrix made of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). (lifeboat.com)
  • This EPS matrix holds the microorganisms together in their three-dimensional arrangement and enables the biofilm to adhere to surfaces. (lifeboat.com)
  • The properties of microorganisms living within a biofilm generally differ substantially from those of microorganisms of the same species existing independently. (lifeboat.com)
  • This means that microorganisms in biofilms are highly resistant to various chemical and physical effects and can be used for a range of applications in space. (lifeboat.com)
  • A biofilm comprises any syntrophic consortium of microorganisms in which cells stick to each other and often also to a surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biofilms can attach to a surface such as a tooth or rock, and may include a single species or a diverse group of microorganisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The formation of a biofilm begins with the attachment of free-floating microorganisms to a surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • A biofilm is formed when numerous living microorganisms, such as bacteria or fungi, group together and then evolve and grow as a collective. (lboro.ac.uk)
  • However, beneficial applications in which biofilms can be exploited also exist - for example, ' Bioremediation' , a cost-effective eco-friendly process of degrading harmful pollutants from the air, soil, and water into non-toxic substances using microorganisms. (lboro.ac.uk)
  • Figure caption: Most microorganisms do not float individually in water but live together in organised communities called biofilms. (lboro.ac.uk)
  • Many microorganisms can naturally grow together on surfaces to form complex aggregations called biofilms. (wikipedia.org)
  • One distinctive characteristic of biofilm formation is that microorganisms within biofilms are often much tougher and more recalcitrant compared to individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • This phenomenon of enhanced resistance can potentially be beneficial in industrial chemical production, where microorganisms within biofilms may tolerate higher chemical concentration and act as robust manufacturing "factories" for various products. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biofilm-forming microorganisms are characterized by high invasiveness, the ability to cause dangerous and difficult to treat infections. (intechopen.com)
  • Biofilm, also called as the biological membrane, is a complex, multicellular, and multifunctional structure of one or more species of microorganisms, surrounded by a layer of organic and inorganic substances produced by these microorganisms adhering to both biotic and abiotic surfaces. (intechopen.com)
  • Biofilm microorganisms have been associated with several human diseases, including valve endocarditis - an infection that settles in the heart - and cystic fibrosis - the biofilm protects the bacteria that can cause this disease. (cleanlink.com)
  • Biofilms are dense aggregates of surface-adherent microorganisms embedded in an exopolysaccharide matrix. (jci.org)
  • A biofilm community can be formed by a single bacterial species, but in nature biofilms almost always consist of rich mixtures of many species of bacteria, as well as fungi, algae, yeasts, protozoa, other microorganisms, debris and corrosion products. (montana.edu)
  • The formulation uses multiple chemical and physical actions to penetrate a biofilm, kill the microorganisms, and remove the biofilm from surfaces. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • A biofilm is an aggregate of microorganisms in which cells adhere to each other on a surface. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Biofilms are a consortium of microorganisms and extracellular substances in association with a solid surface in contact with liquid. (kenyon.edu)
  • To test whether the structural binary switch regulated biofilm formation, the authors analysed biofilm development and architecture for each of the mutants. (nature.com)
  • While based in microbiology, biofilms are of intense interest to many other scientists, because they affect whole ecosystems, and lie at the root of chronic bacterial infections. (springer.com)
  • Led by Dianne Newman , the Gordon M. Binder/Amgen Professor of Biology and Geobiology, the group identified a protein that degrades and inhibits biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa , the primary pathogen in cystic fibrosis (CF) infections. (caltech.edu)
  • While there is precedent for the use of enzymes to treat bacterial infections, the novelty of this study lies in our observation that selectively degrading a small pigment that supports the biofilm lifestyle can inhibit biofilm expansion," says Costa, the first author on the study. (caltech.edu)
  • While it will take several years of experimentation to determine whether the laboratory findings can be translated to a clinical context, the work has promise for the utilization of proteins like PodA to treat antibiotic-resistant biofilm infections, the researchers say. (caltech.edu)
  • The C auris biofilm is not as strong as those of some other clinically significant fungi, but has nonetheless contributed to C auris ' ability to survive in hospital environments and cause outbreaks and infections. (medscape.com)
  • So, when faced with biofilm infections, what can doctors do? (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • 60% of microbial infections, and 80% of chronic infections in humans, finding ways to disrupt established biofilms is of critical importance. (prweb.com)
  • Concepts for the prevention of obstinate polymer-associated infections include the search for new anti-infectives active in biofilms and new biocompatible materials that complicate biofilm formation and the development of vaccines. (nih.gov)
  • Whether in oceans, lung infections skin, gut microbiota - the physics of fluids are ubiquitous to biofilms," says Rossy. (eurekalert.org)
  • Many infections contracted in hospital are linked to the formation of biofilms. (uclouvain.be)
  • Then they multiply and form what are called biofilms, multicellular communities that can cause nosocomial infections that are especially difficult to treat because biofilms make their bacteria even more resistant to antibiotics. (uclouvain.be)
  • The equipment damage, product contamination, energy losses, and medical infections caused by biofilms cost the United States billions of dollars every year. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Three recent articles [ 1 , 2 , 3 ] highlight how our understanding of bacterial persistence and recent advances in disinfection modalities may provide a means for control of biofilms and nosocomial infections. (medscape.com)
  • Biofilm infections normally blocked by a healthy person's immune system on Earth may pose problems to astronauts in space, said Cynthia Collins, a professor at Rensselaer involved in the study. (howstuffworks.com)
  • She said examining biofilm growth beyond Earth's gravity can lead to better treatment for astronauts who may be at higher risks of developing biofilm-related infections while away from Earth. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Many biofilms are quite harmful (for example, when they produce infections in wounds) and must be treated or controlled. (wikiversity.org)
  • Biofilms have been found to be involved in a wide variety of microbial infections in the body. (wikiversity.org)
  • Over 60% of all microbial infections are caused by biofilms. (wikiversity.org)
  • Biofilms have been implicated in such common problems as urinary tract infections, catheter infections, middle-ear infections, formation of dental plaque, gingivitis and coating contact lenses [5] . (wikiversity.org)
  • While acute infections can be removed after a short treatment of antibiotics, biofilm infections usually are never completely eliminated, resulting in recurrent episodes. (wikiversity.org)
  • Biofilm-associated infections pose a complex problem to the medical community, in that residence within the protection of a biofilm affords pathogens greatly increased tolerances to antibiotics and antimicrobials, as well as protection from the host immune response. (mdpi.com)
  • Since as much as 80% of human bacterial infections are biofilm-associated, many researchers have begun investigating therapies that specifically target the biofilm architecture, thereby dispersing the microbial cells into their more vulnerable, planktonic mode of life. (mdpi.com)
  • Biofilms are often detrimental, with biofilm infections estimated to be responsible for up to 80% of all infections in humans and animals . (lboro.ac.uk)
  • Gaining a greater understanding of the composition of biofilms and how to prevent, detect, manage and engineer them, would present benefits across a range of sectors, particularly in the healthcare industry where managing infections effectively is a growing issue globally. (lboro.ac.uk)
  • Biofilm-related infections are among the top four leading causes of death in hospitals so everything researchers can learn about the early phases of a biofilm could become a tool to eradicate them. (lboro.ac.uk)
  • Figuring out a way to prevent the bacteria from forming biofilms could make infections easier to treat. (newscientist.com)
  • Biofilms, which are resistant to antibiotics and disinfectants, corrode pipes and cause diseases such as lung infections, but they can be used beneficially to treat sewage, industrial waste, and contaminated soil. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • By severely curtailing the effects of antibiotics, the formation of organized communities of bacterial cells known as biofilms can be deadly during surgeries and in urinary tract infections. (phys.org)
  • Bacterial biofilm infections are particularly problematic because sessile bacteria can withstand host immune responses and are drastically more resistant to antibiotics, biocides and hydrodynamic shear forces than their planktonic counterparts. (frontiersin.org)
  • Treatment of biofilm-associated infections is a field that requires further study, in part due to the high levels of antibiotic resistance exhibited by biofilm structures conferred in part by the exopolysaccharide matrix. (frontiersin.org)
  • Several serious diseases are caused by biofilm-associated Staphylococcus aureus , infections in which the accessory gene regulator ( agr ) quorum-sensing system is thought to play an important role. (asm.org)
  • Many of these diseases, including endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and foreign-body related infections, appear to be caused by biofilm-associated S. aureus ( 12 , 18 , 30 , and 44 ). (asm.org)
  • These properties likely contribute to the persistence and recalcitrance to treatment of staphylococcal biofilm infections. (asm.org)
  • The agr system contributes to virulence in model biofilm-associated infections, including endocarditis ( 7 , 50 ) and osteomyelitis ( 3 , 15 ), although the precise role of the agr system varies with the type of infection model used ( 16 , 17 , 54 ). (asm.org)
  • This has arisen, in part, because of the estimate by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that 65% of human bacterial infections involve biofilms. (jci.org)
  • Enterococcus faecalis is a common cause of health care-associated infections in humans, largely due to its ability to persist in the hospital environment, colonize patients, acquire antimicrobial resistance, and form biofilms. (asm.org)
  • Biofilms cost the U.S. literally billions of dollars every year in energy losses, equipment damage, product contamination and medical infections. (montana.edu)
  • Respiratory and related structures provide ideal environments for the development of bacterial biofilms, which predispose patients to recurrent and chronic infections. (scribd.com)
  • Biofilms are important for the persistence of chronic rhinosinusitis, pulmonary infections in cystic fibrosis, chronic otitis media, and device-related infections. (scribd.com)
  • Understanding the nature of biofilms in common pediatric infections is essential to comprehending the expected course of bacterial illness and identifying treatments that are most likely to be beneficial against more resistant biofilms. (scribd.com)
  • Indeed, infectious disease experts at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimate that 65% of human bacterial infections involve biofilms. (sciencemag.org)
  • Such biofilms often lead to infections of the bladder or other organs. (sciencemag.org)
  • Since then, biofilms have been implicated in numerous infections. (sciencemag.org)
  • Biofilms, Infection, and Antimicrobial Therapy provides an in-depth exploration of biofilms, offering broad background information, as well a detailed look at the serious concerns to which biofilm-associated infections give rise. (waterstones.com)
  • Prosthetic device infections, such as those involving artificial heart valves, intravascular catheters, or prosthetic joints, are prime examples of biofilm-associated infections. (waterstones.com)
  • As biofilm-associated infections are particularly difficult to treat, they result in significant mortality, morbidity, and increased economic burden. (waterstones.com)
  • They explore the molecular mechanisms of bacterial adherence, biofilm formation, regulation of biofilm maintenance, and cell-to-cell communication and present the latest information on various treatment protocols that should aid physicians in the treatment of these refractory and often difficult-to-treat infections. (waterstones.com)
  • Other biofilms are "bad" when they cause fouling and infections of humans and plants. (iwapublishing.com)
  • Formation of these sessile communities and their inherent resistance to antibiotics and host immune attack are at the root of many persistent and chronic bacterial infections ( 1 ), including those caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa , which has been intensively studied as a model for biofilm formation ( 2 , 3 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • In a clinical rabbit model of contact lens-related P. aeruginosa infection, our scientists have shown that the use of polyaspartic acid disrupt pathogenic biofilms formed on contact lenses and reduce corneal infections. (nationaljewish.org)
  • Using the state grant to identify the most effective charged poly(amino acids) at disrupting biofilms and testing such compounds on infected contact lenses, and in animal models of eye and skin infections. (nationaljewish.org)
  • Jennings LK, Storek KM, Ledvina HE, Coulon C, Marmont LS, Sadovskaya I et al (2015) Pel is a cationic exopolysaccharide that cross-links extracellular DNA in the Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm matrix. (springer.com)
  • Researchers in the laboratory of Melissa Reynolds, associate professor in the Department of Chemistry and core faculty in the School of Biomedical Engineering, have created a new material that inhibits biofilm formation of the virulent superbug Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (colostate.edu)
  • Aizenberg and her collaborators reported that SLIPS reduced by 96% the formation of three of the most notorious, disease-causing biofilms-Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus-over a 7-day period. (innovations-report.com)
  • Moreover, this book also provides a comprehensive account on microbial interactions in biofilms, pyocyanin, and extracellular DNA in facilitating Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation, atomic force microscopic studies of biofilms, and biofilms in beverage industry. (intechopen.com)
  • Biofilm supported batches of the isolated Pseudomonas species were able to degrade crude oil much readily and extensively than the planktonic counterparts. (mendeley.com)
  • We have recently reported the synthesis of a small molecule, denoted TAGE, based on the natural product bromoageliferin and demonstrated that TAGE has anti-biofilm activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (rti.org)
  • In this study we looked at the effect of three different sets of Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles (FeNPs) on the development of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 biofilms. (scirp.org)
  • C. Haney, J. Rowe and J. Robinson, "Spions Increase Biofilm Formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa ," Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology , Vol. 3 No. 4A, 2012, pp. 508-518. (scirp.org)
  • Quorum sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. (scirp.org)
  • 2005. Iron salts perturb biofilm formation and disrupt existing biofilms of Pseudomonas aeru-ginosa. (scirp.org)
  • 2008. Influence of quorum sensing and iron on twitching motility and biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (scirp.org)
  • 2009. Iron-binding compounds impair Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation, especially under anaerobic conditions. (scirp.org)
  • 2007. Effects of iron on DNA release and biofilm development by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (scirp.org)
  • 2005. Iron availability influences aggregation, biofilm, adhesion and invasion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cenocepacia. (scirp.org)
  • More recent studies by Nels Hoiby of the University of Copenhagen in Denmark show that biofilms containing the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa clog the lungs of 80% to 90% of these patients. (sciencemag.org)
  • Enhanced Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Biofilm Development Mediated by Human Neutrophils. (nationaljewish.org)
  • Neutrophil Enhancement of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Biofilm Development: Human F-actin and DNA as Targets for Therapy. (nationaljewish.org)
  • Disruption of Contact Lens-Associated Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Biofilms Formed in the Presence of Neutrophils. (nationaljewish.org)
  • Outside of the laboratory, most microbes grow as organised biofilm communities on surfaces. (nih.gov)
  • Biofilms are densely packed communities of microbial cells that grow on surfaces and surround themselves with secreted polymers. (nih.gov)
  • The C auris strains developed 1.5 to 3 times less biofilm mass than C albicans , but 3 to 6 times greater mass than C glabrata , suggesting C auris biofilm has enough strength to adhere to hospital surfaces and instruments. (medscape.com)
  • Found all over the planet - from desert rocks to the surfaces of buildings - biofilms are an integral part of nature. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • As described in Methods and Materials , biofilms were obtained by swab of interior surfaces of 45 showerheads from nine cities in the United States. (pnas.org)
  • the cells are biofilm and haemagglutination negative, less virulent and less adhesive on hydrophilic surfaces. (nih.gov)
  • Bacteria form biofilms by attaching to each other on a wide variety of surfaces: the bottom of oceans, lakes or rivers, medical equipment and even internal organs, like the intestine, lungs, and teeth - the latter is the familiar dental plaque, a large source of income for dentists. (eurekalert.org)
  • She chose two different clones of the bacterium Caulobacter crescentus , which is commonly found in freshwater lakes and streams, and undergoes a "stalked" cell stage that allows it to anchor on surfaces, colonize them, and form biofilms. (eurekalert.org)
  • Biofilms form when bacteria stick to surfaces and establish communities held together by a slimy, glue-like substance made of sugary molecular strands that they excrete to form an extracellular matrix. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Biofilms grow on all kinds of surfaces, both natural and man-made. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In medicine, biofilms are a hazard because they can form on living surfaces, such as heart and lung tissue, and on medical devices and implants. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Biofilms are sessile microbial communities growing on surfaces, frequently embedded in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (also known as slime). (medscape.com)
  • These findings are consistent with a tendency of other Acinetobacter species to survive on dry surfaces, form biofilms, and contribute to nosocomial outbreaks. (medscape.com)
  • Various bacteria, including foodborne pathogens, can form biofilms on stainless steel surfaces, potentially leading to contamination of foods. (uga.edu)
  • Researchers in China report that air plasma can be used to kill biofilms found on the surfaces of perishable fruits and foods. (labmanager.com)
  • People have tried all sorts of things to deter biofilm build-up-textured surfaces, chemical coatings, and antibiotics, for example," says Aizenberg, Amy Smith Berylson Professor of Materials Science at the Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) and a Core Faculty Member at the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard. (innovations-report.com)
  • The tenacity with which biofilms adhere to surfaces is the property which makes cleaning difficult. (wikiversity.org)
  • Biofilms may form on living or non-living surfaces and can be prevalent in natural, industrial, and hospital settings. (wikipedia.org)
  • Given the chance, the bacteria will spread across surfaces such as human tissue to form a biofilm that may resist treatment with antibiotics. (newscientist.com)
  • Microbes are known to colonize surfaces and form biofilms. (mdpi.com)
  • Naturally occurring or synthetic antimicrobial peptides have been shown to prevent microbial colonization of surfaces, to kill bacteria in biofilms and to disrupt the biofilm structure. (mdpi.com)
  • strains are characterized by their ability to form a biofilm structure on biotic and abiotic surfaces, causing significant problems in many industrial branches and threatening human health. (intechopen.com)
  • Biofilm is most commonly formed on solid surfaces staying in contact with water, living tissues, and liquid-air interface. (intechopen.com)
  • The attachment of planktonic cells to surfaces is the first and most crucial step in biofilm formation. (asm.org)
  • Biofilm forms when bacteria adhere to surfaces in moist environments by excreting a slimy, glue-like substance. (montana.edu)
  • Sites for biofilm formation include all kinds of surfaces: natural materials above and below ground, metals, plastics, medical implant materials-even plant and body tissue. (montana.edu)
  • The Effects of Sugars on the Biofilm Formation of Escherichia coli 185p on Stainless Steel and Polyethylene Terephthalate Surfaces in a Laboratory Model. (pearltrees.com)
  • Once Salmonella bacteria get into a food processing facility and have an opportunity to form a biofilm on surfaces, it is likely to be extraordinarily difficult, if not impossible, to kill it, according to research published ahead of print in the journal Applied and Environmental Microbiology. (innovations-report.com)
  • Researchers from National University of Ireland, Galway conducted a study in which they attempted to kill Salmonella biofilms on a variety of hard surfaces, using three types of disinfectant. (innovations-report.com)
  • This image shows photos of biofilms on surfaces at low magnification (300) and high magnification (3000) using electron microscope. (innovations-report.com)
  • We found that all of the types of Salmonella we looked at were able to adopt the specialized biofilm lifestyle on all of the surfaces we looked at, including glass, stainless steel, glazed tile, and plastic, and that the biofilm of Salmonella gets more dense over time, and becomes more firmly attached to the surface," she says. (innovations-report.com)
  • Biofilms are protective layers of proteins and polysaccharides that surround bacteria and stick to equipment surfaces. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Evidence supporting the idea that bacteria attach themselves to surfaces throughout the body began appearing about a decade later when Thomas Marrie of Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia, using the then recently developed scanning electron microscope, detected a biofilm coating a heart pacemaker removed from a patient. (sciencemag.org)
  • On the other hand, biofilms forming on food-contact surfaces can lead to hygienic problems and economical losses due to food spoilage. (kenyon.edu)
  • Biofilm formation can occur on any submerged surfaces in any environment with the present of bacteria. (kenyon.edu)
  • The ability of bacteria to attach to surfaces and to form biofilms often is an important competitive advantage for them over bacteria growing in suspension. (iwapublishing.com)
  • Researchers have discovered that exposing polycarbonate polymer films to beams of iron ions can prevent biofilms of microbial cells forming on the film surfaces 1 . (natureasia.com)
  • Humphries J, Xiong L, Liu J, Prindle A, Yuan F, Arjes HA et al (2017) Species-independent attraction to biofilms through electrical signaling. (springer.com)
  • Cite this: Chlorhexidine Effective Against Candida auris Biofilms - Medscape - Jan 12, 2017. (medscape.com)
  • Martyn Dade-Robertson, Alona Keren-Paz, Meng Zhang and Ilana Kolodkin-Gal (2017) Architects of nature: growing buildings with bacterial biofilms. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • Many infectious pathogens are difficult to treat because they develop into biofilms, layers of metabolically active but slowly growing bacteria embedded in a protective layer of slime, which are inherently more resistant to antibiotics. (caltech.edu)
  • biofilms tolerate conventional antibiotics much better than other modes of bacterial growth. (caltech.edu)
  • The protective dome of a biofilm shields bacteria from antibiotics. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Interestingly, antibiotics can actually enter a biofilm in many instances, but the EPS actively shields its inhabitants from such compounds, promoting antibiotic resistance. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Such treatments include surgically removing the area that is infected with a biofilm or using high-velocity water sprays to physically disrupt the biofilm, often in combination with antibiotics. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Biofilms are surface-attached communities of bacterial or fungal cells that are enmeshed in an extensive extracellular matrix which makes them more resistant to both antibiotics and the immune system. (prweb.com)
  • This is because the bacteria in the biofilm can be up to 1,000 times more resistant to antibiotics than the same bacteria grown in liquid medium. (wikiversity.org)
  • Biofilms -- communities of bacteria in self-produced slime -- pose a major challenge in healthcare because of their extraordinary resistance to antibiotics. (eurekalert.org)
  • Microbes form a biofilm in response to a number of different factors, which may include cellular recognition of specific or non-specific attachment sites on a surface, nutritional cues, or in some cases, by exposure of planktonic cells to sub-inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics. (wikipedia.org)
  • The biofilm bacteria can share nutrients and are sheltered from harmful factors in the environment, such as desiccation, antibiotics, and a host body's immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Three other aminoglycoside antibiotics also stimulated biofilm formation. (sciencemag.org)
  • Thus, the authors conclude that biofilm formation is a defensive response to aminoglycoside antibiotics that involves changes in bacterial c-di-GMP content. (sciencemag.org)
  • Interestingly, the Marshall Protocol does just that - although it uses pulsed, low-dose antibiotics - which have been shown to effectively destroy biofilms - and Benicar to get the job done with more vigor than a flossing addict could ever achieve. (bacteriality.com)
  • Biofilms result in microbial resistance so that the microbes are resistant to prescription antibiotics and antifungals. (rainbow.coop)
  • The form of biofilm enhances the effectiveness of microbial protection against the adverse environmental factors, including antibiotics, reduces the effectiveness of host defense mechanisms, facilitates the acquisition of nutrients, creates the possibility of horizontal gene transfer by providing evolutionary and genetic diversity, and enables the transmission of information between microbial cells [ 1 , 2 , 3 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • They're Tough: The bacteria within biofilm are as much as 1,000 times more resistant to antibiotics and disinfectants than bacteria found outside of biofilm. (cleanlink.com)
  • Bacteria sequestered in biofilms are shielded from attack by the host's immune system and are often much harder to kill with antibiotics than their free-floating or "planktonic" counterparts, says William Costerton, director of the Center for Biofilm Engineering at Montana State University in Bozeman. (sciencemag.org)
  • An Institut Pasteur-CNRS research team has characterized a Staphylococcus aureus gene involved in virulence, biofilm formation and resistance to certain antibiotics. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Objectives: To investigate the development of mutational resistance to antibiotics in staphylococcal biofilms. (ebscohost.com)
  • Biofilms are one of the most widely distributed and successful modes of life on Earth," says Prof. Hans-Curt Flemming - director of the Institute for Interface Biotechnology at the University of Duisburg-Essen in Germany - in a 2016 article published in Nature Reviews Microbiology . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Citing that the techniques currently used to identify anti-biofilm activities in phage-derived proteins have the "important shortcomings" of being laborious endpoint assays that suffer from poor reproducibility, in the recent issue of Frontiers in Microbiology a team of scientists lead by Diana Gutierrez have reported a proof of concept study using an xCELLigence Real-Time Cell Analysis instrument to monitor the disruption of clinically important Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. (prweb.com)
  • The author, who proposed this biofilm hypothesis, uses direct evidence from microscopy and from molecular techniques, presenting cogent reasons for moving beyond conventional culture methods that dominated microbiology throughout the last century. (springer.com)
  • Bacteria grow predominantly in biofilms in all natural, engineered, and pathogenic ecosystems, and this book provides a solid basis for the understanding of bacterial processes in environmental, industrial, agricultural, dental and medical microbiology. (springer.com)
  • Bill is widely regarded as the "grandfather" of biofilm microbiology. (springer.com)
  • Please go to URL http://www.bio.net and click on the 'Access the BIOSCI/bionet Newsgroups' option and then click on the BIOFILMS/bionet.microbiology.biofilms hyperlink. (bio.net)
  • If you do not see bionet.microbiology.biofilms in your newsreader within another day or two, ask your news system administrator to act on our 'newgroup' message to enable the group at your site. (bio.net)
  • You might also try the command 'g bionet.microbiology.biofilms' in rn-like newsreaders. (bio.net)
  • The study of biofilms represents a new way of understanding the microbiology of virtually everything around us, from problems which affect industries to serious public health issues. (wikiversity.org)
  • The complexity of biofilm activity and behavior requires research contributions from many disciplines such as biochemistry, engineering, mathematics and microbiology. (montana.edu)
  • Biofilms require a coordinated attack by researchers with expertise in everything from microbiology and immunology to materials science and mathematical modeling, Mangan explains. (sciencemag.org)
  • From this soil, Costa isolated a bacterium that disrupts biofilms. (caltech.edu)
  • They measured the bacterial and tissue responses to the implants after infecting the animals with Staphylococcus aureus , a common bacterium found in biofilms. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A biofilm usually begins to form when a free-swimming bacterium attaches to a surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Joao Xavier from the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York and colleagues placed colonies of the bacterium at the centre of nutrient plates and let them spread to form such biofilms. (newscientist.com)
  • The key ingredient in the new material is biofilm produced by the bacterium Bacillus subtilis. (tum.de)
  • The culprit turned out to be chunks of biofilm containing the bacterium Legionella pneumoniae that had wafted out of air conditioners. (sciencemag.org)
  • The scientists tested the anti-biofilm properties of ion-treated polymer films and compared them with those of untreated polymer films by growing Salmonella typhi , a disease-causing bacterium, on both films. (natureasia.com)
  • Enclosed in a matrix primarily consisting of polysaccharides, pathogens in biofilms are often more resistant to environmental stresses such as heat and chemical sanitizers than are their planktonic counterparts. (uga.edu)
  • Biofilms are defined as sessile communities characterized by cells that are irreversibly attached to a surface or to each other, embedded in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), and that exhibit differential phenotypic characteristics with respect to their planktonic counterparts [2] . (wikiversity.org)
  • Biofilm is a multidisciplinary, gold open access journal focused on hypothesis- or discovery-driven studies on microbial cells that grow in multicellular communities (including surface-attached biofilms and suspended aggregates) and demonstrate different gene expression, growth rate, behavior and appearance to those that are in planktonic (free-living) state. (elsevier.com)
  • The microbial cells growing in a biofilm are physiologically distinct from planktonic cells of the same organism, which, by contrast, are single-cells that may float or swim in a liquid medium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Candida biofilm is a heterogeneous, spatially well-organized structure consisting of planktonic and mycelial yeast forms which are interdependent in the quorum sensing system and surrounded by an extracellular polysaccharide substance. (intechopen.com)
  • Furthermore, the cells in the biofilm, compared to planktonic forms, show reduced sensitivity to chemical compounds with antifungal activity and increased survival under unfavorable environmental conditions. (intechopen.com)
  • The study of bacteria residing in biofilms as an interactive community rather than free-living planktonic cells has recently gained a great deal of attention. (jci.org)
  • For instance, microbial biofilms are naturally tolerant of antibiotic doses up to 1,000 times greater than doses that kill planktonic bacteria. (montana.edu)
  • Bacteria can grow as free-floating, planktonic bacteria or complex communities called biofilms. (scribd.com)
  • Antimicrobial therapy that is proven effective against planktonic bacteria is often insufficiently effective against the defenses of biofilms. (scribd.com)
  • Rather than existing in a planktonic or free-living form, evidence indicates that microbes show a preference for living in a sessile form within complex communities called biofilms. (waterstones.com)
  • Methods: Mutation frequencies to resistance against mupirocin and rifampicin were determined for planktonic cultures and for biofilms generated using either a novel static biofilm model. (ebscohost.com)
  • Iwase T, Uehara Y, Shinji H, Tajima A, Seo H, Takada K et al (2010) Staphylococcus epidermidis Esp inhibits Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation and nasal colonization. (springer.com)
  • Zinc-dependent mechanical properties of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm-forming surface protein SasG', PNAS, 2015. (uclouvain.be)
  • In all, at least a dozen proteins are responsible for staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation. (uclouvain.be)
  • Now, a group of researchers at Caltech and the University of Oxford have made progress in the fight against biofilms. (caltech.edu)
  • To better understand the fungus' biofilm capabilities, the researchers compared the biofilm mass of four strains of C auris with that of two other fungi, Candida albicans and Candida glabrata . (medscape.com)
  • Researchers have developed a new biomaterial that creates a "slippery surface" and stops infectious bacterial biofilms forming on implanted medical devices. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The researchers, including a team from the Wyss Institute at Harvard University in Boston, MA, report their findings in the journal Biofilms . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In future studies, the researchers aim to better understand the mechanisms involved in preventing biofilms. (innovations-report.com)
  • For years, researchers have focused on developing antimicrobial treatments to stop the formation of biofilms, but as the statistics indicate, they have yet to find an affordable, effective solution. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • A team of researchers with members from the U.S., Germany and Sweden has discovered that the cellulose found in bacterial biofilms differs from the cellulose in plants. (phys.org)
  • The researchers assume that the added biofilm stimulates uniform crystal growth throughout the volume of the hybrid material. (tum.de)
  • We want researchers to know that we recognize the importance of biofilms and [want to] bring people together to work on the problem," says Dennis Mangan of the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR), who is spearheading the effort. (sciencemag.org)
  • The goal is to understand how and why biofilms form so that researchers can identify their Achilles' heel and devise better treatments, which are badly needed. (sciencemag.org)
  • The first inklings that biofilms could be a health problem came in the mid-1960s when dental researchers Johannes Van Houte and Ronald Gibbons of the Forsyth Dental Center in Boston, Massachusetts, recognized that bacteria living in the mouth synthesize gummy adhesives that accumulate on the teeth, gums, and tongue. (sciencemag.org)
  • Leading an international team of researchers in creating simulations of how fluids move, Mathijssen, a postdoctoral scholar in bioengineering at Stanford, found that individual bacteria and biofilms can generate currents strong enough to draw in distant nutrients. (stanford.edu)
  • In their work , published Dec. 11 in Physical Review Letters , the researchers were able to find predictable patterns of how fluids move based on the general shapes of biofilms, insights that could find applications in many fields. (stanford.edu)
  • Within organized biofilms, the researchers found two common patterns of movement: vortexes and asters. (stanford.edu)
  • The researchers were able to combine vortex and aster patterns within a single biofilm to determine how the bacteria would push, pull and whirl the fluids around them. (stanford.edu)
  • Mathematical Modeling of Biofilms gives a state-of-the-art overview that is especially valuable for educating students, new biofilm researchers, and design engineers. (iwapublishing.com)
  • The report provides the foundation for researchers seeking to use biofilm modeling or to develop new biofilm models. (iwapublishing.com)
  • By targeting a noninfectious viral cage to biofilms, researchers developed a system for early detection and eventual destruction of these bacterial communities. (ebscohost.com)
  • Researchers at National Jewish Health have determined that actin originating from necrotized human neutrophils serve as a biological matrix in the formation of microbial biofilms in the airways of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. (nationaljewish.org)
  • Researchers at MIT have identified new polymers found in mucus, known as mucins, that can provide protection against biofilm formation, the slimy layers of bacterial growth that are very difficult to remove, by trapping the bacteria and preventing them from clumping together on a surface. (medindia.net)
  • To probe the anti-biofilm properties of iron ions, the researchers exposed polycarbonate films to iron-ion beams of two different energies. (natureasia.com)
  • The nanopores on the polycarbonate surface prevented the bacteria from forming biofilms by generating bacteria-repelling effects such as repulsive, electrostatic and acid-base forces, the researchers say. (natureasia.com)
  • J. William (Bill) Costerton directed the NSF-funded Center for Biofilm Engineering in Montana for more than a decade. (springer.com)
  • Rossy imaged the formation of biofilms at the level of single bacteria to monitor the effects of each flow rate on the bacterial colonies. (eurekalert.org)
  • The study of biofilms has increased rapidly in recent years as we have become more aware of their pervasiveness and impact. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The study of biofilms has skyrocketed in recent years due to increased awareness of the pervasiveness and impact of biofilms on natural and industrial systems, as well as human health. (montana.edu)
  • Our research suggests a new approach to inhibiting P. aeruginosa biofilms. (caltech.edu)
  • Adding PodA to growing cultures of P. aeruginosa , the team discovered, inhibits biofilm development. (caltech.edu)
  • In the lab, they demonstrated an 85 percent reduction in P. aeruginosa biofilm adhesion. (colostate.edu)
  • Low concentrations of tobramycin, which failed to inhibit the growth rate or alter global protein synthesis, induced the formation of biofilms (adherent communities of bacteria that contribute to antibiotic resistance and persistent infection) in P. aeruginosa and Escherichia coli . (sciencemag.org)
  • Herein we demonstrate that TAGE: (1) does not have selective toxicity against cells within the biofilm state, (2) will inhibit biofilm development under flow conditions, indicating that the CV staining protocol correlates with the ability to be active under biomimetic conditions, and (3) will disperse preformed P. aeruginosa biofilms. (rti.org)
  • Advanced derivatives of TAGE have generated compounds shown to be exceedingly effective as biofilm inhibitors against the g-proteobacteria in this study (P. aeruginosa strains PAO1, PA14, PDO300, and Acinetobacter baumannii). (rti.org)
  • For example, a quorum-sensing-defective mutant of P. aeruginosa is unable to form the highly differentiated biofilm structure associated with wild-type P. aeruginosa , at least under certain conditions ( 11 ). (asm.org)
  • IODOSORB has been shown to disrupt and substantially eradicate mature biofilms of P. aeruginosa ( in-vitro ). (smith-nephew.com)
  • During studies of alginate biosynthesis in P. aeruginosa , we discovered that the majority of the extracellular material that reacted in the carbazole colorimetric assay was not exopolysaccharide but DNA [as determined by its peak absorbance at 260 nm, by electrophoretic display, and by its deoxyribonuclease (DNase) but not ribonuclease sensitivity] and therefore hypothesized that this DNA may play a functional role in P. aeruginosa biofilms. (sciencemag.org)
  • Four flow-chamber channels were inoculated with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged P. aeruginosa PAO1, and two channels each were irrigated with minimal medium with or without DNase I. The presence of DNase I in the medium prevented biofilm formation. (sciencemag.org)
  • To this end, we inoculated five flow-chamber channels and irrigated them with minimal medium without DNase I to allow the establishment of P. aeruginosa biofilms of varying age. (sciencemag.org)
  • These results indicate that extracellular DNA is required for the initial establishment of P. aeruginosa biofilms and perhaps biofilms formed by other bacteria that specifically release DNA. (sciencemag.org)
  • Our scientists have developed charged poly amino acids that promotes the depolymerization of actin and reduced biofilm development of P. aeruginosa in vitro. (nationaljewish.org)
  • Read on to understand why starting a biofilm is a slimy affair. (howstuffworks.com)
  • If someone has ever walked in a stream or river, they may have slipped on rocks that were slimy with biofilm. (wikiversity.org)
  • These include bacterial biofilms, such as dental plaque and the slimy black coating that forms in sewage pipes. (tum.de)
  • Until recently, the slimy conglomerations of bacteria known as biofilms were recognized mostly for their propensity to coat-and corrode-pipes. (sciencemag.org)
  • We have also begun to appreciate how cells can co-ordinate their activities and build the complex structures of mature biofilms that afford protection for their inhabitants. (nih.gov)
  • Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been used to control the formation and to eradicate mature biofilms. (mdpi.com)
  • have found that d -amino acids found in conditioned medium from mature biofilms of Bacillus subtilis prevent biofilm formation and trigger existing biofilm disassembly. (sciencemag.org)
  • Mature biofilms are very destructive to the teeth and surrounding gums, and many other varieties can actually provoke other significant medical health problems as well. (colgate.com)
  • This suggests that the matrix in mature biofilms may be strengthened by other substances or that mature biofilms may produce sufficient proteolytic exoenzymes to locally inactivate the DNase I ( 7 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Previous microbiological studies of showerhead biofilms have used culture methodology to detect and identify microbes, and have focused primarily on Legionella pneumophilia ( 7 , 8 , 9 ) and Mycobacterium avium ( 10 - 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • As illustrated in the micrographs in Fig. 1 , microbes generally were clumped and embedded in extracellular material, consistent with biofilm morphology. (pnas.org)
  • A key factor in the microbes' success on mudflats is that they live together in neighborhoods: the biofilms. (scientificamerican.com)
  • These biofilms are communities of microbes encased in a self-produced matrix that often contains polysaccharides, DNA and proteins. (mdpi.com)
  • Oral diseases, including caries and periodontitis, consist of biofilms* produced by microbes. (rainbow.coop)
  • The study of factors that allow manipulation of biofilm microbes in the biofilm growth state requires that reproducible biofilms by generated. (unt.edu)
  • And when pathogenic microbes form biofilms, they are. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Biofilms appear to afford microbes a survival advantage by optimizing nutrition, offering protection against hostile elements, and providing a network for cell-to-cell signaling and genetic exchange. (waterstones.com)
  • Unfortunately, one of the most troubling characteristics of microbes found in biofilms is a profound resistance to antimicrobial agents. (waterstones.com)
  • In this microscopy image, some bacteria (bright particles) are shown as they take the first steps in the formation of a biofilm. (lboro.ac.uk)
  • Biofilm is a multidisciplinary, gold open access journal focused on hypothesis- or discovery-driven studies on microbial cells that grow in multicellular communities (including surface-attached biofilms and suspended aggregates) and demonstrate different gene expression, growth rate, behavior and appearance. (elsevier.com)
  • Through collaborations with experimentalists, the group are trying to understand the early phase in the life of a biofilm, that is, the transition from the very beginning, when there is no biofilm and simply some microbial cells are swimming in a fluid, to the phase when the cells find a surface to colonise, and start reproducing on it. (lboro.ac.uk)
  • Most bacteria can form complex, matrix-containing multicellular communities known as biofilms, which protect residents from environmental stresses such as antibiotic exposure. (sciencemag.org)
  • Biofilms are tricky beasts because they have a tendency to become resistant to all manner of efforts employed to eradicate them. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Biofilm residence also affords the bacteria with antibiotic-resistant genes the ability to easily share these among their neighbors using a process called horizontal gene transfer . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A cell sorter will enable us to tackle the problem of biofilm resistance by allowing us to separate resistant and virulent bacteria from the general population and determine what genetic and regulatory mechanisms these bacteria use to survive and grow within the host," said David Davies, an associate professor of biological sciences at Binghamton. (eurekalert.org)
  • Chuanwu Xi, PhD, Assistant Professor in the Department of Environmental Health at the University of Michigan and his research team found that treated steam from a novel steam disinfection system utilizing TANCS® technology rapidly kills highly resistant biofilms with greater than 99.95 % killing efficiency in a 3 second treatment, and to a non-detectable level in a less than 10 second treatment. (prweb.com)
  • Was it better at forming a dense biofilm or was it more resistant to disinfectants than other Salmonella? (innovations-report.com)
  • This form of graphene is extremely resistant to biofilm formation, which has promise for places like water-treatment plants, oil-drilling operations, hospitals and ocean applications like underwater pipes that are sensitive to fouling," Tour said in a statement. (theengineer.co.uk)
  • Onder andere met FISH, een genetische analysetechniek, bracht Buijssen de architectuur van de biofilm en interactie tussen Candida en lactobacillen gedetailleerd in kaart. (rug.nl)
  • Fulvic Acid and Candida Albicans Biofilms. (rainbow.coop)
  • Presence of Extracellular DNA in the Candida albicans Biofilm Matrix and its Contribution to Biofilms. (ebscohost.com)
  • In Candida albicans, there is a scarce knowledge concerning the contribution of extracellular DNA (eDNA) to biofilm matrix and overall structure. (ebscohost.com)
  • Many bacterial species form biofilms, and their study has revealed them to be complex and diverse. (nih.gov)
  • The study showed that C auris can form a biofilm that resists many antifungal agents. (medscape.com)
  • Although unable to form biofilms equivalent to C. albicans , C. auris has a noteworthy virulence capacity that merits further exploration," report Leighann Sherry, PhD, from the University of Glasgow in Scotland, and colleagues. (medscape.com)
  • When bacteria flock together and form a community, this is called a biofilm. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The ability to form a biofilm affords at least two properties: the adherence of cells to a surface and accumulation to form multilayered cell clusters. (nih.gov)
  • About ninety percent of bacterial life at the surface of Earth is found in the form of biofilms" he says. (eurekalert.org)
  • Little by little, these bacteria form a bacterial community that becomes a biofilm. (uclouvain.be)
  • Bravo and colleagues [ 1 ] investigated the ability of Acinetobacter pittii strains to form biofilms after long-term desiccation if they were fed with nutrient media. (medscape.com)
  • Despite the reduction in culturability over time, all strains that recovered from starvation on solid-surface experiments retained their capacity to form biofilms after rehydration, an addition of nutrients, and changing temperature. (medscape.com)
  • Mutants that locked RbmA in the closed O-loop dimer state were substantially defective in biofilm formation, whereas mutants that were locked in the monomeric D-loop state were able to form biofilms that closely resembled wild-type biofilms, which suggests that the switch regulates biofilm development. (nature.com)
  • The authors propose a model in which the switch and oligomerization state of a single component of the V. cholerae biofilm matrix (RbmA) determines the architecture and plasticity of the biofilm by influencing its ability to form higher-order structures with VPS. (nature.com)
  • Bella Neufeld, the first author and graduate student who led the research, explained that her passion for finding new ways to fight superbugs is motivated by how adaptive and impenetrable they are, especially when they are allowed to form biofilms. (colostate.edu)
  • Biofilms are nasty once they form, and incredibly difficult to get rid of," Neufeld said. (colostate.edu)
  • As a result, biofilms cannot cling to the material, and even if they do form, they easily 'slip' off under mild flow conditions," adds Wong, a researcher at SEAS and a Croucher Foundation Postdoctoral Fellow at the Wyss Institute. (innovations-report.com)
  • Microbial biofilms are widely present in nature where this kind of growth is the usual form of bacterial growth . (wikiversity.org)
  • Biofilms are a form of collective life with emergent properties that confer many advantages on their inhabitants, and they represent a much higher level of organization than single cells do. (nature.com)
  • Biofilms: an emergent form of microbial life. (nature.com)
  • Biofilms can form on the teeth of most animals as dental plaque, where they may cause tooth decay and gum disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrophobicity can also affect the ability of bacteria to form biofilms. (wikipedia.org)
  • They form in pipes, in water systems, on living organisms-the first biofilm discovered was on a person's teeth-and, of course, on mud. (scientificamerican.com)
  • One form of the present invention is a fabricated biofilm storage device with a biologic material applied to a substrate to form, e.g., a dry thin film stable at room temperature for extended periods of time. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Another form of the present invention is a method of fabricating a biofilm storage device in which a biologic material is applied to a substrate under conditions that promote alignment of the biologic material on the substrate. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • But although growing several flagella allowed the bacteria to efficiently cover the entire surface, the adaptation also left them less able to stick together tightly and form biofilms. (newscientist.com)
  • According to the US Navy's Office of Naval Research, micro-fouling in the form of adhesive surface biofilms can increase drag by up to 20%, while the macro-fouling caused by larger organisms - typically barnacles - can add more than 60% overall. (naval-technology.com)
  • Generally, they form organized, settled structures taking the form of multicellular clusters forming biofilm. (intechopen.com)
  • Many Streptococci use quorum-sensing systems to regulate several physiological properties, including the ability to incorporate foreign DNA, tolerate acid, form biofilms, and become virulent. (jci.org)
  • People need to question whether disinfectants that are promoted as killing various types of bacteria are really as effective in real life situations where biofilms can form as they are claimed to be based on experiments that do not use biofilms. (innovations-report.com)
  • Under threat of being scrubbed away with disinfectant, individual bacteria can improve their odds of survival by joining together to form colonies, called biofilms. (stanford.edu)
  • Biofilms can be beneficial or detrimental to the environment on which they form. (kenyon.edu)
  • Over 90% of bacterial biomass exists in the form of biofilms. (iwapublishing.com)
  • Dr. Duraj-Thatte reviews the means that the bacteria she works with can be used for creating biofilms that can have rigid form and could be used to create synthetic biological building materials. (harvard.edu)
  • Dispersal: finally, after biofilms have reached maturity, they can propagate through detachment of small or large clumps of cells, which allows bacteria to attach to a surface or to a biofilm away from the original community. (wikiversity.org)
  • This review addresses the current state of research into medical biofilm dispersal. (mdpi.com)
  • Lastly, we discuss some of the main hurdles to development of biofilm dispersal agents, and contemplate what needs to be done to overcome them. (mdpi.com)
  • In this Research Topic, we aim to highlight groundbreaking work in the development and/or application of quantitative analysis methods to bacterial biofilms, with a focus on those studies resulting in the discovery of new phenomena regulating biofilm initiation, development, function, or dispersal. (frontiersin.org)
  • This includes cell motility within biofilm and biofilms dispersal. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • 3. Biofilms can propagate through detachment of small or large clumps of cells, or by a type of 'seeding dispersal' that releases individual cells. (montana.edu)
  • The ability to attach and implant devices in the human body is crucial in modern medicine but a big problem with their use is that they provide a surface for bacteria to colonize on and turn into infectious biofilms. (lboro.ac.uk)
  • Many years of research on biofilm and migratory shorebirds at Roberts Bank and other areas illustrate the covert yet vital role that the slime plays in the ecosystem. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Without realising it, you actually see biofilms every day - examples include dental plaque, slime on rocks in streams, and pond scum. (lboro.ac.uk)
  • Biofilm EPS, which is also referred to as slime (although not everything described as slime is a biofilm), is a polymeric conglomeration generally composed of extracellular DNA, proteins, and polysaccharides. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Biofilms are sessile microbial communities embedded in a self-produced extracellular polymeric matrix ( 12 , 44 ). (asm.org)
  • The Biofilm mode of growth provides such significant advantages to the members of the consortium that most organisms in important habitats are found in biofilms. (unt.edu)
  • Cite this: Survival of the Slimiest: The Persistent Nature of Biofilms - Medscape - Mar 22, 2018. (medscape.com)
  • 2018. "Action of Antimicrobial Peptides against Bacterial Biofilms. (mdpi.com)
  • Once the cells "sense" that a quorum has been reached, they begin to communicate, a process that in turn "throws the switch" for manufacturing virulence factors, such as biofilms. (scienceblog.com)
  • The structural and physiological complexity of biofilms has led to the idea that they are coordinated and cooperative groups, analogous to multicellular organisms. (nih.gov)
  • 3. The method of claim 1 wherein the step of providing a biofilm layer comprises introducing a gas into the gas compartment that diffuses through the membrane and selects gas degrading organisms in the biofilm layer. (google.com)
  • The engineers of mudflat biofilms are single-celled photosynthesizing organisms called diatoms. (scientificamerican.com)
  • While classically bacteria are thought of as unicellular organisms in nature they exist in complex "multicellular" states - biofilms. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • Since biofilm formation allows for the survival of microbial organisms in the airways and is also associated with increased morbidity and mortality, targeting actin could be the basis for the development of a potential therapy for CF. (nationaljewish.org)
  • Numerous challenges call for novel solutions and concepts of analytics, biofilm reactor design, product recovery, and scale-up strategies. (nih.gov)
  • In this review, we highlight recent advancements in spatiotemporal biofilm characterization and new biofilm reactor developments for the production of value-added fine chemicals as well as current challenges and future scenarios. (nih.gov)
  • MBBR (Moving bed biofilm reactor) is now the common name for biological treatment process invented by Professor Halvard Odegaard in Trondheim in the late eighties. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) is one of the most advanced wastewater treatment technologies available in the world today as it combines the benefits of both the suspended and the attached growth process. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The TBR™ is an advanced MBBR™ biofilm technology is based on specially designed plastic biofilm carriers or biocarriers that are suspended and in continuous movement within a tank or reactor of specified volume. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor or MBBR process is based on the aerobic biofilm principle and utilizes activated sludge and other biofilm systems. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Such limitation of bioavailability can be overcome by steady-state biofilm-based reactor. (mendeley.com)
  • By disrupting the communication process, he explained, the new compound could lead to drugs that will prevent the formation of biofilms, restoring the potency of antibiotic treatments and limiting the development of antibiotic resistance. (scienceblog.com)
  • 2010. Antibiotic resistance of bacterial biofilms. (scirp.org)
  • Biodegradation of crude oil was estimated by gas chromatography, and biofilm formation near oil-water interface was quantified by confocal laser scanning microscopy. (mendeley.com)
  • Optical sectioning of microbial biofilms. (asm.org)
  • The 7th ASM Conference on Biofilms will provide a platform to discuss the latest research, covering topics that include molecular basis and regulation of biofilm formation, biofilms in natural and industrial systems, diagnosis and study of clinically-relevant biofilms, and emerging technologies and their application to biofilms. (asm.org)
  • Biofilm Formation: A Clinically Relevant Microbiological Process. (ebscohost.com)
  • The final stage of biofilm formation is known as dispersion, and is the stage in which the biofilm is established and may only change in shape and size. (wikipedia.org)
  • This stage of biofilm formation is likely to be mediated in part by cell wall-associated adhesins, including the microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules. (asm.org)
  • To date, this may be the first successful test of a nontoxic synthetic surface that can almost completely prevent the formation of biofilms over an extended period of time. (innovations-report.com)
  • Importantly, this real-time biofilm disruption data correlated well with the data from traditional end point assays such as the labor intensive crystal violet staining technique. (prweb.com)
  • Under some conditions, disruption of agr expression had no discernible influence on biofilm formation, while under others it either inhibited or enhanced biofilm formation. (asm.org)
  • Stage 2 requires disruption with a toothbrush, such as a Colgate® Enamel Health™ 360® Toothbrush , and floss to dislodge the attachment created by the biofilm. (colgate.com)
  • Continuous and regular disruption of these biofilms is imperative for prevention and management of oral diseases. (ebscohost.com)
  • By measuring the biofilm growing rates under different evenness levels of communities, an evenly distributed community favors the formation of biofilms was observed. (springer.com)
  • But why are biofilms so persistent, and what are doctors and scientists doing to outsmart these clever microbial communities? (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Biofilms can be made up of populations of the same bacteria or of communities, which, in turn, are made up of many different species, all living together under a protective dome. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In much the same way as human communities, biofilms have highly specialized areas: some of them are responsible for nutrient recycling, while others produce new EPS components or send messages from one area of the biofilm to another. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Although this also happens in free-living bacterial communities, it is significantly more efficient in biofilms. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • With this knowledge we attempt to engineer desirable biofilm communities on specific materials. (eawag.ch)
  • Biofilm" aims to bring together different communities to significantly advance the knowledge of microbial communities, and specifically explore the interfaces between these disciplines. (elsevier.com)
  • Biofilms are structurally, phenotypically, and compositionally diverse bacterial communities. (frontiersin.org)
  • Biofilms, surface-associated microbial communities composed of aggregates of cells that are encased by an extracellular matrix, have a tremendous impact on industrial, clinical, and natural environments. (asm.org)
  • Biofilms are currently defined as structured bacterial communities embedded in a self-produced exopolysaccharide matrix adherent to any abiotic or biological surface. (frontiersin.org)
  • Biofilms are dynamic communities of bacteria and fungi living within a protective self-secreted matrix of sugars and proteins. (smith-nephew.com)
  • Biofilm communities can develop within hours. (montana.edu)
  • It was not until the late decades of the 20th century, however, that scientists and engineers possessed adequate technology to effectively study microbial communities and began to understand the significant implications of the biofilm mode of growth. (montana.edu)
  • Here, we test the hypothesis that human colon biofilms comprise microbial communities that are carcinogenic in CRC mouse models. (jci.org)
  • Remarkably, biofilm-positive communities from healthy colonoscopy biopsies induced colon inflammation and tumors similarly to biofilm-positive tumor tissues. (jci.org)
  • 16S rRNA gene sequencing and RNA-Seq analyses identified compositional and functional microbiota differences between mice colonized with biofilm-positive and biofilm-negative communities. (jci.org)
  • Bacterial biofilms are structured communities of cells enclosed in self-produced hydrated polymeric matrix adherent to an inert or living surface ( 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • For example, over 500 bacterial species have been identified in typical dental plaque biofilms [4] . (wikiversity.org)
  • Then, the link between biofilms and dental plaque and calculus was discovered. (colgate.com)
  • however, the relationship between the pathogenic state and the biofilm mode of growth has been most clearly established with the oral streptococci, which are known to initiate dental caries when the bacteria are living in the biofilm environment of dental plaque. (jci.org)
  • Dental plaque is biofilm. (montana.edu)
  • Alfa and colleagues [ 2 ] looked at the impact of improper positioning of the elevator lever of a duodenoscope on bacterial persistence, biofilm formation, and endoscope contamination. (medscape.com)
  • In Biofilms, Infection, and Antimicrobial Therapy, Drs Pace, Rupp, and Finch assemble the contributions of more than 50 of the world's leading authorities on microbial biofilms who present recent findings on antibacterial tolerance and bacterial persistence associated with biofilms and discuses the implications of those findings with regard to human health. (waterstones.com)
  • Springer Series on Biofilms presents carefully refereed volumes on selected topics on this field of research. (springer.com)
  • A number of biofilm-negative mutants have been isolated in which polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) production appears to be unaffected. (nih.gov)
  • Polysaccharide matrices typically enclose bacterial biofilms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biofilms are central to our most important global challenges, from antimicrobial resistance and food safety to water security, and they have a significant economic, social, and environmental impact. (lboro.ac.uk)
  • Although resistance has been a problem with bacteria which produce biofilms (to protect themselves from antimicrobials) resistance of bacteria to manuka honey has not been demonstrated. (rainbow.coop)
  • Fungal Biofilm Resistance. (rainbow.coop)
  • One of the most important advantages a biofilm status gives the bacteria is an increased antimicrobial resistance phenotype. (frontiersin.org)
  • The chapter focuses on the emergence of antifungal resistance with the development of biofilms. (intechopen.com)
  • 2015 Nov;3(11): 3300-3307 Differential biofilm formation and chemical disinfection resistance of Escherichia coli on stainless steel and polystyrene tissue culture plate. (pearltrees.com)
  • January 2005 Biofilm Formation by Escherichia coli O157:H7 on Stainless Steel: Effect of Exopolysaccharide and Curli Production on Its Resistance to Chlorine. (pearltrees.com)
  • Biofilms promote bacterial growth and diversity and offer bacteria unique environments, including aerobic and anaerobic layers, that facilitate resistance to antimicrobial therapies. (scribd.com)
  • Furthermore, biofilms modify themselves following exposure to antimicrobial therapy, thus developing increased resistance. (scribd.com)
  • Platelets Enhance Biofilm Formation and Resistance of Endocarditis-Inducing Streptococci on the Injured Heart Valve. (ebscohost.com)
  • Biofilms are found naturally in many places, including teeth (plaque), medical devices such as intravenous catheters, prosthetic heart valves, and cardiac pacemakers, in sewage pipelines, ship hulls, and many other non-human environments. (google.com)
  • This spells bad news for anyone with conditions such as cystic fibrosis , periodontitis , or chronic wounds as medical implants and catheters are hotspots for biofilm formation. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Biofilms stick to just about everything, from copper pipes to steel ship hulls to glass catheters. (innovations-report.com)
  • An artistic configuration of catheters in various stages of being clogged by biofilm. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • About half of the time, the interior of long-term urinary catheters become plagued by biofilms-structures formed by colonies of bacteria that are extremely difficult to kill. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Studies that investigated anti-biofilm activities without describing the possible mechanisms were removed from the analysis. (mdpi.com)
  • 5. The method of claim 4 wherein the step of introducing the gas comprises introducing a gas comprising methane in sufficient amounts to promote growth of methylotrophic bacteria in the biofilm layer. (google.com)
  • The cells within the biofilm produce the EPS components, which are typically a polymeric conglomeration of extracellular polysaccharides, proteins, lipids and DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subpopulations of cells within the biofilm differentiate to perform various activities for motility, matrix production, and sporulation, supporting the overall success of the biofilm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pyocyanin has been used in the clinical identification of this strain for over a century, but several years ago the Newman group demonstrated that the molecule also supports biofilm growth, raising the possibility that its degradation might offer a new route to inhibit biofilm development. (caltech.edu)
  • Within the proprietary xCELLigence microtiter plates that contain gold biosensors, biofilms of S. aureus were established and then exposed to different bacteriophage-derived proteins that catalyze degradation of the key biofilm extracellular polymers peptidoglycan or exopolysaccharide. (prweb.com)
  • The authors demonstrated that the degradation of these polymers, and the concomitant dissipation of the biofilm, causes a decrease in the xCELLigence biosensor signal that is both time- and dose-dependent. (prweb.com)
  • This therapy, focused on biofilm prevention or degradation, is particularly applicable for early stage CF in young patients when antimicrobial agents are only partially effective at best. (nationaljewish.org)
  • And in the mid-1980s, Joseph Lam of the University of Calgary in Alberta, using the transmission electron microscope, confirmed that biofilms are present in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients. (sciencemag.org)
  • Antibiotic [therapy] kills some cells, but biofilms hunkered down survive the onslaught," says Peter Greenberg of the Cystic Fibrosis Research Center at the University of Iowa, Iowa City. (sciencemag.org)
  • Targeted therapy for preventing or reducing biofilm formation in cystic fibrosis, cystitis, dental caries, wounds, and acne etc. (nationaljewish.org)
  • V. cholerae biofilms consist of an extracellular matrix that is composed of Vibrio exopolysaccharides (VPS), lipids, nucleic acids and matrix proteins, including RbmA. (nature.com)
  • Bacterial biofilms are defined as a community of surface-attached bacteria that are protected by an extracellular matrix of biomolecules. (rti.org)
  • DNA has been described as a structural component of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in bacterial biofilms. (ebscohost.com)
  • Effects of Antimicrobial Agents on an ( in-vitro ) Biofilm Model of Skin Wounds. (smith-nephew.com)