The therapy technique of providing the status of one's own AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM function (e.g., skin temperature, heartbeats, brain waves) as visual or auditory feedback in order to self-control related conditions (e.g., hypertension, migraine headaches).
The branch of psychology concerned with psychological methods of recognizing and treating behavior disorders.
The study of normal and abnormal behavior of children.
The science dealing with the study of mental processes and behavior in man and animals.
The branch of psychology concerned with the effects of group membership upon the behavior, attitudes, and beliefs of an individual.
Treatment to improve one's health condition by using techniques that can reduce PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS; or both.
Incontinence of feces not due to organic defect or illness.
Infrequent or difficult evacuation of FECES. These symptoms are associated with a variety of causes, including low DIETARY FIBER intake, emotional or nervous disturbances, systemic and structural disorders, drug-induced aggravation, and infections.
A technique to self-regulate brain activities provided as a feedback in order to better control or enhance one's own performance, control or function. This is done by trying to bring brain activities into a range associated with a desired brain function or status.
Failure of voluntary control of the anal sphincters, with involuntary passage of feces and flatus.
Soft tissue formed mainly by the pelvic diaphragm, which is composed of the two levator ani and two coccygeus muscles. The pelvic diaphragm lies just below the pelvic aperture (outlet) and separates the pelvic cavity from the PERINEUM. It extends between the PUBIC BONE anteriorly and the COCCYX posteriorly.
A philosophy of nursing practice that takes into account total patient care, considering the physical, emotional, social, economic, and spiritual needs of patients, their response to their illnesses, and the effect of illness on patients' abilities to meet self-care needs. (From Mosby's Medical, Nursing, & Allied Health Dictionary, 4th ed, p745)
The replacement of illogical and unrealistic ideas with more realistic and adaptive ones through direct intervention and confrontation by the therapist.
The normal process of elimination of fecal material from the RECTUM.
Radiographic examination of the process of defecation after the instillation of a CONTRAST MEDIA into the rectum.
The terminal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, beginning from the ampulla of the RECTUM and ending at the anus.
The branch of psychology concerned with similarities or differences in the behavior of different animal species or of different races or peoples.
Technique based on muscle relaxation during self-hypnotic exercises. It is used in conjunction with psychotherapy.
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
The branch of psychology concerned with psychological aspects of teaching and the formal learning process in school.
The branch of psychology which seeks to learn more about the fundamental causes of behavior by studying various psychologic phenomena in controlled experimental situations.
A branch of psychology in which there is collaboration between psychologists and physicians in the management of medical problems. It differs from clinical psychology, which is concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of behavior disorders.
Measurement of the pressure or tension of liquids or gases with a manometer.
The branch of applied psychology concerned with the application of psychologic principles and methods to industrial problems including selection and training of workers, working conditions, etc.
Anxiety related to the execution of a task. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 9th ed.)
Principles applied to the analysis and explanation of psychological or behavioral phenomena.
'Anus diseases' refer to various medical conditions affecting the anus, including structural abnormalities, inflammatory disorders, infections, and neoplasms, which can cause symptoms such as pain, bleeding, itching, or changes in bowel habits.
The study of the physiological basis of human and animal behavior.
Pathological processes of the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH which contains part of the balancing apparatus. Patients with vestibular diseases show instability and are at risk of frequent falls.
A state of increased receptivity to suggestion and direction, initially induced by the influence of another person.
A mechanism of communicating one's own sensory system information about a task, movement or skill.
Pathological developments in the RECTUM region of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE).
A class of disabling primary headache disorders, characterized by recurrent unilateral pulsatile headaches. The two major subtypes are common migraine (without aura) and classic migraine (with aura or neurological symptoms). (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)
Application of electric current in treatment without the generation of perceptible heat. It includes electric stimulation of nerves or muscles, passage of current into the body, or use of interrupted current of low intensity to raise the threshold of the skin to pain.
Impairment of the ability to perform smoothly coordinated voluntary movements. This condition may affect the limbs, trunk, eyes, pharynx, larynx, and other structures. Ataxia may result from impaired sensory or motor function. Sensory ataxia may result from posterior column injury or PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES. Motor ataxia may be associated with CEREBELLAR DISEASES; CEREBRAL CORTEX diseases; THALAMIC DISEASES; BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; injury to the RED NUCLEUS; and other conditions.
The interdisciplinary field concerned with the development and integration of behavioral and biomedical science, knowledge, and techniques relevant to health and illness and the application of this knowledge and these techniques to prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation.
Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.
The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.
A POSTURE in which an ideal body mass distribution is achieved. Postural balance provides the body carriage stability and conditions for normal functions in stationary position or in movement, such as sitting, standing, or walking.
A generic term for the treatment of mental illness or emotional disturbances primarily by verbal or nonverbal communication.
The combined discipline of psychology and economics that investigates what happens in markets in which some of the agents display human limitations and complications.
Disciplines concerned with the study of human and animal behavior.
Timing the acquisition of imaging data to specific points in the breathing cycle to minimize image blurring and other motion artifacts. The images are used diagnostically and also interventionally to coordinate radiation treatment beam on/off cycles to protect healthy tissues when they move into the beam field during different times in the breathing cycle.
Ecological and environmental entities, characteristics, properties, relationships and processes.
Manner or style of walking.
The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.
Passage of food (sometimes in the form of a test meal) through the gastrointestinal tract as measured in minutes or hours. The rate of passage through the intestine is an indicator of small bowel function.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Agents that produce a soft formed stool, and relax and loosen the bowels, typically used over a protracted period, to relieve CONSTIPATION.
The process in which specialized SENSORY RECEPTOR CELLS transduce peripheral stimuli (physical or chemical) into NERVE IMPULSES which are then transmitted to the various sensory centers in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A system which emphasizes that experience and behavior contain basic patterns and relationships which cannot be reduced to simpler components; that is, the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.
A psychologic theory, developed by John Broadus Watson, concerned with studying and measuring behaviors that are observable.
A common primary headache disorder, characterized by a dull, non-pulsatile, diffuse, band-like (or vice-like) PAIN of mild to moderate intensity in the HEAD; SCALP; or NECK. The subtypes are classified by frequency and severity of symptoms. There is no clear cause even though it has been associated with MUSCLE CONTRACTION and stress. (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)
Those forces and content of the mind which are not ordinarily available to conscious awareness or to immediate recall.
Nonexpendable items used in the performance of orthopedic surgery and related therapy. They are differentiated from ORTHOTIC DEVICES, apparatus used to prevent or correct deformities in patients.
Research that involves the application of the behavioral and social sciences to the study of the actions or reactions of persons or animals in response to external or internal stimuli. (from American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed)
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
A change in electrical resistance of the skin, occurring in emotion and in certain other conditions.
A love or pursuit of wisdom. A search for the underlying causes and principles of reality. (Webster, 3d ed)
A regimen or plan of physical activities designed and prescribed for specific therapeutic goals. Its purpose is to restore normal musculoskeletal function or to reduce pain caused by diseases or injuries.

Referral centers and specialized care. Based on a presentation by Ronald P. Lesser, MD. (1/425)

Appropriate diagnosis and treatment and the correct use of specialized services at epilepsy referral centers make it possible to control seizures relatively quickly in a large number of patients. Timeliness is extremely important, however, because delaying treatment decreases the likelihood of achieving complete remission from seizures. Epilepsy has a tremendous impact on quality of life. Concerns about concomitant illnesses, seizure-related injuries, and the psychosocial effects of seizures and anticonvulsants on patients are very real and should be addressed. An accurate diagnosis is the first step in effective seizure control, because not every patient with a seizure disorder has epilepsy. The second step is choosing an antiepileptic drug (AED) that is appropriate for the patient and using the correct dose and dosing schedule. When seizures remain uncontrolled or are poorly controlled despite medical therapy, the patient should be reevaluated to ascertain why the drug or drug combination is not working. The reason may be the wrong diagnosis, the wrong drug, or the wrong dose. If the seizures remain uncontrolled, the patient should be evaluated as a possible candidate for epilepsy surgery. If the patient is a good candidate, a presurgical work-up that includes monitoring and imaging studies should be performed, ideally at an epilepsy referral center. Quality care depends on access, communication, and knowledge, which involves patients who know how to achieve the best possible seizure control, doctors who are well informed and know what to do to ensure that their patients are receiving the best care, and mechanisms that permit consultation among everyone involved in caring for patients with epilepsy. Developing a system of quality, cost-effective care for the management of epilepsy also offers an excellent opportunity to apply such a system to the larger arena of medical care in general.  (+info)

Thermal biofeedback for claudication in diabetes: a literature review and case study. (2/425)

Temperature biofeedback (TBFB) is designed to alter cutaneous temperature in treated extremities by providing information corresponding to minor temperature fluctuations in the context of therapeutic structure and reinforcement. Toe TBFB may improve vascular flow and walking tolerance in patients with peripheral vascular disease. This case study documents improved walking in a diabetes patient with lower extremity complications, and suggests TBFB might increase lower extremity temperature and blood flow volume pulse in uncomplicated diabetes. Ankle-brachial index (ABI) and walking function were assessed in a 60-year-old woman with type 2 diabetes and intermittent claudication, before and after five sessions of TBFB applied to the ventral surface of the great toe. Toe temperature increased during feedback phases but not during baseline phases. Improvements were seen in ankle-brachial index, walking distance, walking speed, and stair climbing. This case indicates the need for extended and controlled study of TBFB for improved vascular and ambulatory function in diabetic claudication.  (+info)

A neurobehavioral treatment for unilateral complex partial seizure disorders: a comparison of right- and left-hemisphere patients. (3/425)

This study looked at the efficacy of a multi-disciplinary neurobehavioral approach for treating patients with complex partial seizure disorders. Patients with a seizure focus in either the left or right hemisphere were compared for overall effectiveness of this approach in achieving control of complex partial seizures. Patients in this study received short-term treatment based on a model of self-control developed by the Andrews/Reiter Epilepsy Research Program. This research selected all patients who met the lateralization criterion from among cases receiving short-term treatment between 1992 and 1996. Forty-four patients were identified, a group of 21 right-hemisphere subjects and a second group of 23 left-hemisphere subjects. These patients were treated in a short-term (5 consecutive days) treatment protocol and then released, with weekly phone contact for 6 months following treatment. They were then followed for an additional 19 months through the continued submission of their seizure logs and journals. Subjects in both groups kept seizure records throughout the study starting with a two-month baseline period. Other data collected allowed study of the interaction of emotional states with seizure occurrence. This project produced valuable and relevant information regarding neurobehavioral management interventions as an effective adjunctive or alternative treatment for obtaining seizure control in epilepsy patients. Overall, 79% of patients treated achieved seizure control. More than 64% identified a recognizable emotional state that triggered seizures. The emotional trigger was specific for either the right or left hemisphere.  (+info)

A guide for use and interpretation of kinesiologic electromyographic data. (4/425)

Physical therapists are among the most common users of electromyography as a method for understanding function and dysfunction of the neuromuscular system. However, there is no collection of references or a source that provides an overview or synthesis of information that serves to guide either the user or the consumer of electromyography and the data derived. Thus, the purpose of this article is to present a guide, accompanied by an inclusive reference list, for the use and interpretation of kinesiologic electromyographic data. The guide is divided into 4 major sections: collecting, managing, normalizing, and analyzing kinesiologic electromyographic data. In the first of these sections, the issues affecting data collection with both indwelling and surface electrodes are discussed. In the second section, data management through alternative forms of data processing is addressed. In the third section, various reasons and procedures for data normalization are discussed. The last section reviews qualitative descriptors once used as the only means of analyzing data, then focuses on more quantitative procedures that predominate today. The guide is intended as a tool for students, educators, clinicians, and beginning researchers who use and interpret kinesiologic electromyographic data. Modifications will likely be needed as alternative forms of collecting, managing, normalizing, and analyzing electromyographic data are proposed, used in various settings, and reported in the literature.  (+info)

Empirically supported treatments in pediatric psychology: nocturnal enuresis. (5/425)

OBJECTIVE: To review the medical and psychological literature concerning enuresis treatments in light of the Chambless criteria for empirically supported treatment. METHOD: A systematic search of the medical and psychological literature was performed using Medline and Psychlit. RESULTS: Several review studies and numerous well-controlled experiments have clearly documented the importance of the basic urine alarm alone as a necessary component in the treatment of enuresis or combined with the "Dry-Bed Training" intervention, establishing them as "effective treatments." Other multicomponent behavioral interventions that also include the urine alarm such as "Full Spectrum Home Training" have further improved the outcome for bed-wetters, but are classified as "probably efficacious" at this time because independent researchers have not replicated them. Less rigorously examined approaches that focus on improving compliance with treatment or include a "cognitive" focus (i.e., hypnosis) warrant further study. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend a "biobehavioral" perspective in the assessment and treatment of bed-wetting and suggest that combining the urine alarm with desmopressin offers the most promise and could well push the already high success rates of conditioning approaches closer to 100%. Much important work is yet to be completed that elucidates the mechanism of action for the success of the urine alarm and in educating society about its effectiveness so that its availability is improved.  (+info)

Empirically supported treatments in pediatric psychology: constipation and encopresis. (6/425)

OBJECTIVE: To review the empirical research examining behavioral and medical treatments for constipation and fecal incontinence. METHOD: Sixty-five articles investigating intervention efficacy were identified and reviewed. Twenty-three of the studies were excluded because they were case studies or were less well-controlled single-case designs. The intervention protocol for each study was identified and coded, with studies employing the same interventions matched and evaluated according to the Chambless criteria. RESULTS: From the literature base to date, no well-established interventions have emerged. However, four probably efficacious treatments and three promising interventions were identified. Two different medical interventions plus positive reinforcement fit the criteria for the probably efficacious category (one with fiber recommendation and one without). Three biofeedback plus medical interventions fit efficacy category criteria: one probably efficacious for constipation with abnormal defecation dynamics (full medical intervention plus biofeedback for paradoxical contraction), and two fit the promising intervention criteria for constipation and abnormal defecation dynamics (full medical intervention plus biofeedback for EAS strengthening, correction of paradoxical contraction and home practice; and biofeedback focused on correction of paradoxical contraction, medical intervention without fiber recommendation, and positive reinforcement). Two extensive behavioral interventions plus medical intervention also met efficacy criteria for constipation plus incontinence (medical intervention without laxative maintenance plus positive reinforcement, dietary education, goal setting, and skills building presented in a small-group format fits criteria for a promising intervention; and positive reinforcement and skills building focused on relaxation of the EAS during defecation, but without biofeedback, plus medical intervention meets the probably efficacious criteria). CONCLUSIONS: A discussion of the current weaknesses in this research area follows. Specific recommendations for future research are made including greater clarity in treatment protocol and sample descriptions, reporting cure rates rather than success rates, utilization of adherence checks, and investigation of potential differential outcomes for subgroups of children with constipation and incontinence.  (+info)

FES-biofeedback versus intensive pelvic floor muscle exercise for the prevention and treatment of genuine stress incontinence. (7/425)

We undertook this work to compare the treatment efficacies and the changes of quality of life after pelvic floor muscle (PFM) exercise and the functional electrical stimulation (FES)-biofeedback treatment, both of which are being widely used as conservative treatment methods for female urinary incontinence. We randomly selected 60 female incontinence patients who visited our department and divided them evenly into two groups. They were treated for a period of 6 weeks. The subjective changes in the severity of incontinence and discomfort in daily and social life were measured using a translated version of the questionnaire by Jackson. Objective changes of pelvic muscle contraction force were measured using a perineometer. Pre- and post-treatment maximal pelvic floor muscle contractile (PMC) pressure and changes in the severity of urinary incontinence and discomfort of the two groups showed statistically significant differences (p<0.001). In particular the FES-biofeedback group showed significantly increased maximal PMC pressure and a decreased severity of urinary incontinence and discomfort compared to the intensive PFM exercise group (p<0.001). In conclusion, FES-biofeedback proved more effective than simple PFM exercise.  (+info)

Gut focused behavioural treatment (biofeedback) for constipation and faecal incontinence in multiple sclerosis. (8/425)

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether gut focused behavioural treatment (biofeedback) is a useful therapy in multiple sclerosis patients referred for constipation, incontinence, or a combination of these symptoms. Most patients with multiple sclerosis complain of constipation, faecal incontinence, or a combination of the two. Patients rate these bowel symptoms as having a major impact on their life. Until now the management of these problems has been empirical, with a lack of evaluated therapeutic regimes. METHODS: Thirteen patients (eight women, median age 38 years, median duration of multiple sclerosis 10 years) complaining of constipation, with or without faecal incontinence underwent a median of four sessions of behavioural treatment. Anorectal physiological tests were performed before therapy. Impairment and disability were rated with the Kurtzke score and the Cambridge multiple sclerosis basic score (CAMBS). Patients were contacted a median of 14 months after completion of treatment. RESULTS: A beneficial effect was attributed to biofeedback in five patients. Mild to moderate disability, quiescent and non-relapsing disease, and absence of progression of multiple sclerosis over the year before biofeedback were predictive of symptom improvement. No physiological test predicted the response to therapy. CONCLUSION: Biofeedback retraining is an effective treatment in some patients with multiple sclerosis complaining of constipation or faecal incontinence. A response is more likely in patients with limited disability and a non-progressive disease course.  (+info)

Biofeedback is a psychological and physiological intervention that involves the use of electronic devices to measure and provide real-time feedback to individuals about their bodily functions, such as heart rate, muscle tension, skin conductance, and brain activity. The goal of biofeedback is to help individuals gain awareness and control over these functions, with the aim of improving physical and mental health outcomes.

In psychology, biofeedback is often used as a treatment for a variety of conditions, including anxiety, stress, headaches, chronic pain, and mood disorders. By learning to regulate their physiological responses through biofeedback training, individuals can reduce symptoms and improve their overall well-being. The process typically involves working with a trained healthcare provider who guides the individual in practicing various relaxation techniques, such as deep breathing or progressive muscle relaxation, while monitoring their physiological responses using biofeedback equipment. Over time, the individual learns to associate these techniques with positive changes in their body and can use them to manage symptoms on their own.

Clinical psychology is a branch of psychology that focuses on the diagnosis, assessment, treatment, and prevention of mental health disorders. It is a practice-based profession and involves the application of psychological research and evidence-based interventions to help individuals, families, and groups overcome challenges and improve their overall well-being.

Clinical psychologists are trained to work with people across the lifespan, from young children to older adults, and they may specialize in working with specific populations or presenting problems. They use a variety of assessment tools, including interviews, observations, and psychological tests, to help understand their clients' needs and develop individualized treatment plans.

Treatment approaches used by clinical psychologists may include cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), psychodynamic therapy, family therapy, and other evidence-based practices. Clinical psychologists may work in a variety of settings, including hospitals, mental health clinics, private practice, universities, and research institutions.

In addition to direct clinical work, clinical psychologists may also be involved in teaching, supervision, program development, and policy advocacy related to mental health. To become a licensed clinical psychologist, individuals must typically complete a doctoral degree in psychology, a one-year internship, and several years of post-doctoral supervised experience. They must also pass a state licensing exam and meet other requirements set by their state's regulatory board.

Child psychology is a branch of psychology that deals with the mental, emotional, and social development of children from birth to adolescence. It involves the study of children's behavior, thoughts, feelings, and relationships with others, including their families, peers, and teachers. Child psychologists use various research methods, such as observation, interviews, and testing, to understand how children develop and learn. They also work with children who have emotional, social, or behavioral problems, providing assessments, therapy, and counseling services to help them overcome these challenges. Additionally, child psychologists may provide consultation and training to parents, teachers, and other professionals who work with children.

Psychology is not a medical discipline itself, but it is a crucial component in the understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of many medical conditions. It is a social science that deals with the scientific study of behavior and mental processes such as perception, cognition, emotion, personality, and motivation. In a medical context, psychology can be applied to help understand how biological, psychological, and social factors interact to influence an individual's health and well-being, as well as their response to illness and treatment. Clinical psychologists often work in healthcare settings to evaluate, diagnose, and treat mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders, using various therapeutic interventions based on psychological principles and research.

Social psychology is a branch of psychology that studies how individuals behave, think, and feel in social situations. It examines the ways in which people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others. Social psychologists seek to understand how we make sense of other people and how we understand ourselves in a social context. They study phenomena such as social influence, social perception, attitude change, group behavior, prejudice, aggression, and prosocial behavior.

In summary, social psychology is the scientific study of how people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are shaped by their social context and interactions with others.

Relaxation therapy is not a specific type of therapy with its own distinct medical definition. Rather, relaxation is a common element that is incorporated into many types of therapies and techniques aimed at reducing stress, anxiety, and promoting physical and mental relaxation. These techniques can include various forms of mind-body interventions such as deep breathing exercises, progressive muscle relaxation, guided imagery, meditation, yoga, tai chi, and biofeedback.

The goal of relaxation therapy is to help individuals learn to control their physiological responses to stress and anxiety, leading to a reduction in muscle tension, lower heart rate and blood pressure, and an overall sense of calm and well-being. While relaxation therapy is not typically used as a standalone treatment for medical conditions, it can be a useful adjunctive therapy when combined with other treatments for a variety of physical and mental health concerns.

Encopresis is a medical condition in which an individual, usually a child aged 4 or older, experiences repeated involuntary passage of feces in inappropriate places, such as clothing or floors. This occurs due to chronic constipation and fecal impaction, where hardened stool blocks the rectum and causes liquid stool to leak around it, soiling the underwear. It can result from various factors, including withholding bowel movements due to fear of pain or discomfort, poor toilet training, or underlying gastrointestinal issues. Prolonged encopresis may lead to emotional distress, social difficulties, and physical complications if not treated promptly and effectively.

Constipation is a condition characterized by infrequent bowel movements or difficulty in passing stools that are often hard and dry. The medical definition of constipation varies, but it is generally defined as having fewer than three bowel movements in a week. In addition to infrequent bowel movements, other symptoms of constipation can include straining during bowel movements, feeling like you haven't completely evacuated your bowels, and experiencing hard or lumpy stools.

Constipation can have many causes, including a low-fiber diet, dehydration, certain medications, lack of physical activity, and underlying medical conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome or hypothyroidism. In most cases, constipation can be treated with lifestyle changes, such as increasing fiber intake, drinking more water, and getting regular exercise. However, if constipation is severe, persistent, or accompanied by other symptoms, it's important to seek medical attention to rule out any underlying conditions that may require treatment.

Neurofeedback, also known as neurobiofeedback or EEG biofeedback, is a type of biofeedback that involves measuring brain waves and providing that information to the individual in real-time so that they can learn to modify their brain wave activity. It typically involves the use of sensors placed on the scalp that measure electrical activity in the brain, which is displayed to the person in the form of visual or auditory feedback. Through this process, individuals can learn to voluntarily regulate their brain wave activity, with potential applications in the treatment of various neurological and psychiatric conditions such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), epilepsy, migraines, anxiety disorders, and insomnia.

Fecal incontinence is the involuntary loss or leakage of stool (feces) from the rectum. It is also known as bowel incontinence. This condition can range from occasional leakage of stool when passing gas to a complete loss of bowel control. Fecal incontinence can be an embarrassing and distressing problem, but there are treatments available that can help improve symptoms and quality of life.

The causes of fecal incontinence can vary, but some common factors include:

* Damage to the muscles or nerves that control bowel function, such as from childbirth, surgery, spinal cord injury, or long-term constipation or diarrhea.
* Chronic digestive conditions, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), or celiac disease.
* Neurological conditions, such as multiple sclerosis, stroke, or spina bifida.
* Aging, which can lead to a decrease in muscle strength and control.

Treatment for fecal incontinence depends on the underlying cause of the condition. Treatments may include:

* Bowel training exercises to improve muscle strength and control.
* Changes in diet to help regulate bowel movements.
* Medications to treat constipation or diarrhea.
* Surgery to repair damaged muscles or nerves, or to create a new opening for stool to exit the body.

If you are experiencing symptoms of fecal incontinence, it is important to speak with your healthcare provider. They can help determine the cause of your symptoms and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

The pelvic floor is a group of muscles, ligaments, and connective tissues that form a sling or hammock across the bottom of the pelvis. It supports the organs in the pelvic cavity, including the bladder, rectum, and uterus or prostate. The pelvic floor helps control urination, defecation, and sexual function by relaxing and contracting to allow for the release of waste and during sexual activity. It also contributes to postural stability and balance. Weakness or damage to the pelvic floor can lead to various health issues such as incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, and sexual dysfunction.

Holistic nursing is a specialized form of nursing practice that focuses on treating the whole person, including their physical, mental, emotional, spiritual, and environmental needs. It is based on the principles of holism, which emphasizes the interconnectedness of all aspects of a person's life and the importance of addressing them in the healing process.

The American Holistic Nurses Association (AHNA) defines holistic nursing as "all nursing practice that has the patient, person, health, or human experience as its central focus." It encompasses a wide range of practices, including complementary and alternative therapies, mind-body techniques, and self-care strategies.

Holistic nurses aim to create a healing environment that supports the patient's innate ability to heal. They work in partnership with patients, families, and other healthcare providers to identify and address the underlying causes of illness or distress, rather than just treating symptoms. Holistic nursing also emphasizes the importance of self-care for nurses, recognizing that they must take care of themselves in order to provide optimal care to others.

Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) is a form of psychotherapy developed by Albert Ellis in the 1950s. It is based on the idea that our emotional distress is often caused by our irrational beliefs about situations, not the situations themselves. REBT aims to help individuals identify and challenge these irrational beliefs, replacing them with more rational and adaptive ones.

The medical definition of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) is:

A cognitive-behavioral therapy that emphasizes the role of irrational beliefs in emotional distress and maladaptive behaviors. REBT seeks to help individuals identify and dispute their irrational beliefs, such as demandingness, awfullizing, low frustration tolerance, and global evaluations of human worth, and replace them with more rational and adaptive alternatives. This is achieved through a variety of techniques, including cognitive restructuring, role-playing, shame attacking, and behavioral experiments. REBT is used to treat a wide range of psychological issues, including anxiety, depression, anger, guilt, and low self-esteem.

Defecation is the medical term for the act of passing stools (feces) through the anus. It is a normal bodily function that involves the contraction of muscles in the colon and anal sphincter to release waste from the body. Defecation is usually a regular and daily occurrence, with the frequency varying from person to person.

The stool is made up of undigested food, bacteria, and other waste products that are eliminated from the body through the rectum and anus. The process of defecation is controlled by the autonomic nervous system, which regulates involuntary bodily functions such as heart rate and digestion.

Difficulties with defecation can occur due to various medical conditions, including constipation, irritable bowel syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease. These conditions can cause symptoms such as hard or painful stools, straining during bowel movements, and a feeling of incomplete evacuation. If you are experiencing any problems with defecation, it is important to speak with your healthcare provider for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Defecography is a medical diagnostic procedure that involves taking X-ray images of the rectum and anus while a person is defecating. Also known as evacuation proctography, this test assesses how well the muscles and structures of the pelvic floor perform during a bowel movement. It can help identify issues such as rectal prolapse, intussusception, or abnormalities in muscle function that may be causing difficulties with defecation or fecal incontinence.

During the procedure, the individual is usually given an enema containing a contrast material, which makes the contents of the rectum visible on X-ray images. The person then sits on a special toilet seat placed within the X-ray machine, and is asked to strain and evacuate as if having a bowel movement. Fluoroscopic X-ray imaging is used to capture real-time images of the pelvic floor and surrounding structures during this process. The resulting images can help healthcare providers diagnose and treat various anorectal conditions.

The anal canal is the terminal portion of the digestive tract, located between the rectum and the anus. It is a short tube-like structure that is about 1 to 1.5 inches long in adults. The main function of the anal canal is to provide a seal for the elimination of feces from the body while also preventing the leakage of intestinal contents.

The inner lining of the anal canal is called the mucosa, which is kept moist by the production of mucus. The walls of the anal canal contain specialized muscles that help control the passage of stool during bowel movements. These muscles include the internal and external sphincters, which work together to maintain continence and allow for the voluntary release of feces.

The anal canal is an important part of the digestive system and plays a critical role in maintaining bowel function and overall health.

Comparative psychology, in medical and scientific terms, is a branch of psychology that focuses on comparing the behavior, cognition, and emotional processes across different species. The goal is to identify both similarities and differences in order to understand the evolutionary origins and development of these processes. This field often involves the use of animal models to make inferences about human psychological functioning, as well as to increase our understanding of animal behavior and cognition in their own right. Comparative psychologists may study a wide range of topics, including perception, learning, memory, language, emotion, social behavior, and cognitive development. The ultimate aim is to contribute to the development of a unified theory of mind and behavior that can be applied across all species.

Autogenic training is a form of self-relaxation therapy that was developed by the German psychiatrist Johannes Heinrich Schultz in the early 20th century. It involves the use of simple exercises to bring about a state of deep relaxation and mental calmness, with the goal of reducing stress and promoting overall well-being.

During autogenic training, individuals focus on their own physical sensations, such as warmth, heaviness, and relaxation, in order to induce a state of deep relaxation. This is often accomplished through the use of visualization techniques and guided imagery, as well as repetition of simple phrases or statements that help to reinforce the desired mental and physical states.

Autogenic training has been shown to be effective in reducing symptoms of anxiety, depression, and stress-related disorders, as well as improving sleep quality and overall quality of life. It is often used as a complementary therapy alongside traditional medical treatments, and can be practiced by individuals on their own or under the guidance of a trained therapist.

Electromyography (EMG) is a medical diagnostic procedure that measures the electrical activity of skeletal muscles during contraction and at rest. It involves inserting a thin needle electrode into the muscle to record the electrical signals generated by the muscle fibers. These signals are then displayed on an oscilloscope and may be heard through a speaker.

EMG can help diagnose various neuromuscular disorders, such as muscle weakness, numbness, or pain, and can distinguish between muscle and nerve disorders. It is often used in conjunction with other diagnostic tests, such as nerve conduction studies, to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the nervous system.

EMG is typically performed by a neurologist or a physiatrist, and the procedure may cause some discomfort or pain, although this is usually minimal. The results of an EMG can help guide treatment decisions and monitor the progression of neuromuscular conditions over time.

Educational psychology is a subfield of psychology that focuses on the application of psychological principles and research to educational theory, policy, and practice. The primary aim of educational psychology is to understand how individuals learn and develop within educational settings, as well as to promote effective teaching and learning practices. This field draws upon various areas of psychology, including cognitive, developmental, social, and clinical perspectives, to examine issues related to student motivation, engagement, achievement, and well-being.

Educational psychologists often conduct research on topics such as memory, attention, learning strategies, motivation, and social interaction in order to better understand the factors that influence academic success. They may also work directly with educators, administrators, and policymakers to develop evidence-based interventions and programs that support student learning and development. Additionally, educational psychologists may provide assessment, counseling, and consultation services to students, parents, and teachers in order to address a range of educational and psychological concerns.

Overall, the goal of educational psychology is to promote positive educational outcomes for all students by applying psychological knowledge and research to real-world educational contexts.

Experimental psychology is a branch of psychology that uses scientific methods and systematic experiments to investigate various psychological phenomena. It employs rigorous experimental designs, controlled laboratory settings, and statistical analyses to test hypotheses and draw conclusions about human cognition, emotion, motivation, learning, memory, perception, and other areas of mental processes. The goal is to establish reliable and valid principles that can help explain behavior and mental experiences. This subfield often involves the use of specific research methods, such as reaction time measurements, response latencies, signal detection theory, and psychophysical procedures, among others.

Medical psychology is a branch of psychology that deals with the application of psychological principles and methods to understanding, diagnosing, and treating physical illnesses and disorders. It involves the collaboration between psychologists and medical professionals to address the psychological, behavioral, and emotional aspects of medical conditions. Medical psychologists may provide assessments, interventions, and treatments for patients dealing with chronic illnesses, pain management, adjustment to disability, adherence to medical regimens, and other health-related concerns. They also conduct research in the area of health psychology and may provide consultation services to healthcare organizations and professionals.

Manometry is a medical test that measures pressure inside various parts of the gastrointestinal tract. It is often used to help diagnose digestive disorders such as achalasia, gastroparesis, and irritable bowel syndrome. During the test, a thin, flexible tube called a manometer is inserted through the mouth or rectum and into the area being tested. The tube is connected to a machine that measures and records pressure readings. These readings can help doctors identify any abnormalities in muscle function or nerve reflexes within the digestive tract.

Industrial-Organizational Psychology (I-O Psychology) is a subfield of psychology that applies psychological principles, theories, and research to the workplace and organizations. Its primary focus is on understanding how workers and work systems interact, with the goal of improving the well-being and performance of employees while also enhancing organizational effectiveness.

I-O psychologists study a wide range of topics, including:

1. Job analysis and design: Identifying the important tasks, responsibilities, and requirements of jobs to improve job satisfaction, productivity, and safety.
2. Personnel selection and assessment: Developing and implementing methods for selecting, evaluating, and promoting employees, such as interviews, tests, and simulations.
3. Training and development: Designing, delivering, and evaluating training programs to enhance employee skills, knowledge, and abilities.
4. Motivation and performance management: Understanding what motivates employees and developing strategies for improving performance, engagement, and job satisfaction.
5. Leadership and organizational culture: Examining the impact of leadership styles and organizational cultures on employee attitudes, behaviors, and performance.
6. Work-life balance and well-being: Investigating ways to promote work-life balance and improve employee well-being, including stress management and work-family conflict.
7. Organizational development and change: Assessing and improving organizational effectiveness through interventions such as team building, organizational restructuring, and culture change.

I-O psychologists work in a variety of settings, including corporations, government agencies, consulting firms, and academic institutions. They use scientific methods to conduct research, analyze data, and develop evidence-based solutions to real-world problems in the workplace.

Performance anxiety is not a formal medical diagnosis, but it is a common term used to describe the experience of feeling anxious or stressed in situations where one's performance is being evaluated, such as public speaking, musical performances, or athletic competitions. It can lead to physical symptoms like increased heart rate, sweating, and trembling, as well as cognitive symptoms like difficulty concentrating and racing thoughts. In some cases, performance anxiety can interfere with a person's ability to function in these situations, leading to avoidance behaviors or poor performance. While it is normal to feel some level of nervousness or apprehension in high-pressure situations, performance anxiety becomes problematic when it causes significant distress or impairment in daily life.

A psychological theory is a proposed explanation or framework that aims to describe, explain, and predict psychological phenomena. It is based on established scientific principles and methods, and it integrates various observations, facts, and findings to provide a coherent understanding of psychological processes and behaviors. Psychological theories can encompass a wide range of topics, including cognition, emotion, motivation, perception, personality, learning, memory, development, and psychopathology. They are used to guide research, inform clinical practice, and advance our knowledge of the human mind and behavior.

The anus is the opening at the end of the digestive tract where feces are eliminated from the body. There are several diseases and conditions that can affect the anus, including:

1. Anal fissure: A small tear in the lining of the anus, which can cause pain and bleeding during bowel movements.
2. Hemorrhoids: Swollen veins in the rectum or anus that can cause discomfort, itching, and bleeding.
3. Perianal abscess: A collection of pus in the tissue surrounding the anus, which can cause pain, swelling, and redness.
4. Anal fistula: An abnormal connection between the anal canal and the skin around the anus, often resulting from a perianal abscess that did not heal properly.
5. Anal cancer: A rare form of cancer that develops in the cells lining the anus, usually affecting people over the age of 50.
6. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD): A group of chronic inflammatory conditions of the intestine, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, which can affect the anus and cause symptoms such as pain, bleeding, and diarrhea.
7. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs): Certain STIs, such as herpes simplex virus, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis, can affect the anus and cause symptoms such as pain, discharge, and sores.
8. Fecal incontinence: The involuntary loss of bowel control, which can be caused by nerve damage, muscle weakness, or other medical conditions affecting the anus.

Psychophysiology is a branch of psychology that deals with the scientific study of the relationships between physical processes (such as heart rate, skin conductance, brain activity) and mental or emotional states. It involves the use of physiological measures to understand psychological phenomena and how they relate to behavior. This field of study often employs various research methods, including laboratory experiments, observational studies, and neuroimaging techniques, to examine these relationships in both healthy individuals and those with psychological disorders. The goal of psychophysiology is to better understand the underlying mechanisms that contribute to emotional, cognitive, and behavioral functioning.

Vestibular diseases are a group of disorders that affect the vestibular system, which is responsible for maintaining balance and spatial orientation. The vestibular system includes the inner ear and parts of the brain that process sensory information related to movement and position.

These diseases can cause symptoms such as vertigo (a spinning sensation), dizziness, imbalance, nausea, and visual disturbances. Examples of vestibular diseases include:

1. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV): a condition in which small crystals in the inner ear become dislodged and cause brief episodes of vertigo triggered by changes in head position.
2. Labyrinthitis: an inner ear infection that can cause sudden onset of vertigo, hearing loss, and tinnitus (ringing in the ears).
3. Vestibular neuronitis: inflammation of the vestibular nerve that causes severe vertigo, nausea, and imbalance but typically spares hearing.
4. Meniere's disease: a disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of vertigo, tinnitus, hearing loss, and a feeling of fullness in the affected ear.
5. Vestibular migraine: a type of migraine that includes vestibular symptoms such as dizziness, imbalance, and disorientation.
6. Superior canal dehiscence syndrome: a condition in which there is a thinning or absence of bone over the superior semicircular canal in the inner ear, leading to vertigo, sound- or pressure-induced dizziness, and hearing loss.
7. Bilateral vestibular hypofunction: reduced function of both vestibular systems, causing chronic imbalance, unsteadiness, and visual disturbances.

Treatment for vestibular diseases varies depending on the specific diagnosis but may include medication, physical therapy, surgery, or a combination of these approaches.

Hypnosis is a state of highly focused attention or concentration, often associated with relaxation, and heightened suggestibility. In a clinical context, hypnosis is often used as a tool in hypnotherapy, to help individuals explore unconscious thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, or to make positive changes to their thoughts, behavior, and physical well-being. It's important to note that hypnosis is not a state of unconsciousness or sleep, but rather a state of altered consciousness characterized by increased suggestibility and focused attention.

It's also worth noting that the definition of hypnosis can vary between different fields and perspectives. Some definitions emphasize the role of suggestion in shaping experience during hypnosis, while others focus on the importance of expectancy and belief. Additionally, there is ongoing debate about the precise mechanisms underlying hypnotic phenomena, with some researchers emphasizing social and psychological factors, while others highlight neurological and physiological changes associated with hypnosis.

Sensory feedback refers to the information that our senses (such as sight, sound, touch, taste, and smell) provide to our nervous system about our body's interaction with its environment. This information is used by our brain and muscles to make adjustments in movement, posture, and other functions to maintain balance, coordination, and stability.

For example, when we walk, our sensory receptors in the skin, muscles, and joints provide feedback to our brain about the position and movement of our limbs. This information is used to adjust our muscle contractions and make small corrections in our gait to maintain balance and avoid falling. Similarly, when we touch a hot object, sensory receptors in our skin send signals to our brain that activate the withdrawal reflex, causing us to quickly pull away our hand.

In summary, sensory feedback is an essential component of our nervous system's ability to monitor and control our body's movements and responses to the environment.

Rectal diseases refer to conditions that affect the structure or function of the rectum, which is the lower end of the large intestine, just above the anus. The rectum serves as a storage area for stool before it is eliminated from the body. Some common rectal diseases include:

1. Hemorrhoids: Swollen veins in the rectum or anus that can cause pain, itching, bleeding, and discomfort.
2. Rectal cancer: Abnormal growth of cells in the rectum that can invade and destroy nearby tissue and spread to other parts of the body.
3. Anal fissures: Small tears in the lining of the anus that can cause pain, bleeding, and itching.
4. Rectal prolapse: A condition where the rectum slips outside the anus, causing discomfort, fecal incontinence, and other symptoms.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD): A group of chronic inflammatory conditions that affect the digestive tract, including the rectum, such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
6. Rectal abscess: A collection of pus in the rectum caused by an infection, which can cause pain, swelling, and fever.
7. Fistula-in-ano: An abnormal connection between the rectum and the skin around the anus, which can cause drainage of pus or stool.
8. Rectal foreign bodies: Objects that are accidentally or intentionally inserted into the rectum and can cause injury, infection, or obstruction.

These are just a few examples of rectal diseases, and there are many other conditions that can affect the rectum. If you experience any symptoms related to the rectum, it is important to seek medical attention from a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.

A migraine disorder is a neurological condition characterized by recurrent headaches that often involve one side of the head and are accompanied by various symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, sensitivity to light and sound, and visual disturbances. Migraines can last from several hours to days and can be severely debilitating. The exact cause of migraines is not fully understood, but they are believed to result from a combination of genetic and environmental factors that affect the brain and blood vessels. There are different types of migraines, including migraine without aura, migraine with aura, chronic migraine, and others, each with its own specific set of symptoms and diagnostic criteria. Treatment typically involves a combination of lifestyle changes, medications, and behavioral therapies to manage symptoms and prevent future attacks.

Electric stimulation therapy, also known as neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) or electromyostimulation, is a therapeutic treatment that uses electrical impulses to stimulate muscles and nerves. The electrical signals are delivered through electrodes placed on the skin near the target muscle group or nerve.

The therapy can be used for various purposes, including:

1. Pain management: Electric stimulation can help reduce pain by stimulating the release of endorphins, which are natural painkillers produced by the body. It can also help block the transmission of pain signals to the brain.
2. Muscle rehabilitation: NMES can be used to prevent muscle atrophy and maintain muscle tone in individuals who are unable to move their muscles due to injury or illness, such as spinal cord injuries or stroke.
3. Improving circulation: Electric stimulation can help improve blood flow and reduce swelling by contracting the muscles and promoting the movement of fluids in the body.
4. Wound healing: NMES can be used to promote wound healing by increasing blood flow, reducing swelling, and improving muscle function around the wound site.
5. Muscle strengthening: Electric stimulation can be used to strengthen muscles by causing them to contract and relax repeatedly, which can help improve muscle strength and endurance.

It is important to note that electric stimulation therapy should only be administered under the guidance of a trained healthcare professional, as improper use can cause harm or discomfort.

Ataxia is a medical term that refers to a group of disorders affecting coordination, balance, and speech. It is characterized by a lack of muscle control during voluntary movements, causing unsteady or awkward movements, and often accompanied by tremors. Ataxia can affect various parts of the body, such as the limbs, trunk, eyes, and speech muscles. The condition can be congenital or acquired, and it can result from damage to the cerebellum, spinal cord, or sensory nerves. There are several types of ataxia, including hereditary ataxias, degenerative ataxias, cerebellar ataxias, and acquired ataxias, each with its own specific causes, symptoms, and prognosis. Treatment for ataxia typically focuses on managing symptoms and improving quality of life, as there is no cure for most forms of the disorder.

Behavioral medicine is a field of healthcare that focuses on the development and integration of behavioral and biomedical sciences in the promotion of health, prevention of illness, and treatment of disorders. It is an interdisciplinary approach that involves the collaboration of professionals from various fields, including psychology, psychiatry, medicine, nursing, social work, and public health.

Behavioral medicine recognizes that behavior plays a critical role in health outcomes and seeks to understand how behaviors such as diet, physical activity, sleep, stress management, and substance use can impact physical health. It also examines the psychological factors that can influence health, such as thoughts, emotions, and social support.

The goal of behavioral medicine is to develop interventions that target these modifiable risk factors to prevent or treat illness, improve quality of life, and reduce healthcare costs. These interventions may include individual counseling, group therapy, lifestyle modification programs, stress management techniques, and other evidence-based practices.

In summary, behavioral medicine is a medical specialty that focuses on the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disorders that result from the interaction of biological, behavioral, and environmental factors. It aims to promote health and well-being by addressing modifiable risk factors through evidence-based interventions.

Graduate education typically refers to educational programs beyond the undergraduate level that lead to an advanced degree, such as a master's, doctoral, or professional degree. These programs usually require completion of a Bachelor's degree as a prerequisite and involve more specialized and in-depth study in a particular field. Graduate education may include coursework, research, examinations, and the completion of a thesis or dissertation. The specific requirements for graduate education vary depending on the field of study and the institution offering the degree program.

The rectum is the lower end of the digestive tract, located between the sigmoid colon and the anus. It serves as a storage area for feces before they are eliminated from the body. The rectum is about 12 cm long in adults and is surrounded by layers of muscle that help control defecation. The mucous membrane lining the rectum allows for the detection of stool, which triggers the reflex to have a bowel movement.

Postural balance is the ability to maintain, achieve, or restore a state of equilibrium during any posture or activity. It involves the integration of sensory information (visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive) to control and adjust body position in space, thereby maintaining the center of gravity within the base of support. This is crucial for performing daily activities and preventing falls, especially in older adults and individuals with neurological or orthopedic conditions.

Psychotherapy is a type of treatment used primarily to treat mental health disorders and other emotional or behavioral issues. It involves a therapeutic relationship between a trained psychotherapist and a patient, where they work together to understand the patient's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, identify patterns that may be causing distress, and develop strategies to manage symptoms and improve overall well-being.

There are many different approaches to psychotherapy, including cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), psychodynamic therapy, interpersonal therapy, and others. The specific approach used will depend on the individual patient's needs and preferences, as well as the training and expertise of the therapist.

Psychotherapy can be conducted in individual, group, or family sessions, and may be provided in a variety of settings, such as hospitals, clinics, private practices, or online platforms. The goal of psychotherapy is to help patients understand themselves better, develop coping skills, improve their relationships, and enhance their overall quality of life.

Behavioral economics in the field of medicine refers to the study of how psychological, social, and emotional factors influence the economic decisions and behaviors of individuals and groups within the healthcare system. This interdisciplinary approach combines insights from psychology, economics, and other social sciences to examine how various factors such as cognitive biases, heuristics, emotions, social norms, and cultural influences affect health-related decision-making by patients, healthcare providers, policymakers, and other stakeholders.

By understanding these behavioral factors, researchers and practitioners can develop more effective interventions, policies, and strategies to improve health outcomes, promote evidence-based practices, reduce healthcare costs, and enhance patient satisfaction and well-being. Examples of applications of behavioral economics in medicine include nudging patients toward healthier choices, reducing overuse and underuse of medical services, promoting shared decision-making between patients and providers, and designing insurance plans and payment systems that incentivize high-value care.

The Behavioral Sciences are a group of disciplines that focus on the study of human and animal behavior. These sciences use various methods, including experiments, observations, and surveys, to understand why organisms behave the way they do. Some of the key disciplines in the Behavioral Sciences include:

1. Psychology: The scientific study of the mind and behavior, including topics such as perception, cognition, emotion, motivation, and personality.
2. Sociology: The scientific study of human social behavior, including topics such as group dynamics, social norms, and cultural influences.
3. Anthropology: The scientific study of human societies and cultures, both past and present, including their evolution, development, and variation.
4. Education: The field concerned with teaching and learning processes, curriculum development, and instructional design.
5. Communication Studies: The field that examines how people use symbols, language, and communication to create and maintain relationships, communities, and cultures.
6. Political Science: The study of political systems, institutions, and behaviors, including topics such as power, governance, and public policy.
7. Economics: The study of how individuals, businesses, and societies allocate scarce resources to satisfy their needs and wants.

Overall, the Behavioral Sciences aim to provide a deeper understanding of human behavior and social phenomena, with applications in fields such as healthcare, education, business, and policy-making.

Respiratory-gated imaging techniques are medical imaging procedures that synchronize the data acquisition with the patient's respiratory cycle, in order to reduce motion artifacts and improve image quality. These techniques are often used in CT (computed tomography) and MR (magnetic resonance) imaging for thoracic and abdominal examinations, where respiratory motion can degrade the images and compromise diagnostic accuracy.

In a respiratory-gated imaging technique, the patient's breathing pattern is monitored using sensors such as pressure belts or navigators, which detect the movement of the diaphragm or chest wall. The imaging data are then acquired only during specific phases of the respiratory cycle, typically during the end-expiration phase when motion is minimal. This allows for the creation of sharp and detailed images that accurately represent the anatomy and pathology of interest.

Respiratory gating can be particularly useful in imaging patients with lung cancer, liver tumors, or other conditions that involve moving structures in the chest and abdomen. By reducing motion artifacts, these techniques can help ensure more accurate diagnosis, staging, and treatment planning.

Ecological and environmental phenomena refer to the processes, conditions, and interactions between living organisms and their physical surroundings in a given ecosystem or environment. These phenomena can include various natural and human-induced factors that affect the health, distribution, abundance, and diversity of species and populations within an ecosystem, as well as the overall function and stability of the ecosystem itself.

Examples of ecological and environmental phenomena include:

1. Biogeochemical cycles (e.g., carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus) that regulate the flow of nutrients and energy through an ecosystem.
2. Climate change and global warming, which can alter temperature, precipitation patterns, and other abiotic factors that impact species' distributions and survival.
3. Habitat fragmentation and loss due to human activities such as land use changes, urbanization, and deforestation, which can lead to declines in biodiversity and ecosystem health.
4. Pollution from various sources (e.g., air, water, soil) that can harm living organisms and disrupt ecological processes.
5. Invasive species introductions, which can outcompete native species for resources and alter community structure and function.
6. Natural disasters such as wildfires, hurricanes, and floods that can impact ecosystems and their inhabitants in various ways.
7. Human-induced disturbances such as hunting, fishing, and logging that can affect population dynamics and community structure.

Understanding ecological and environmental phenomena is crucial for developing effective strategies to conserve biodiversity, mitigate climate change, and promote sustainable development.

Gait is a medical term used to describe the pattern of movement of the limbs during walking or running. It includes the manner or style of walking, including factors such as rhythm, speed, and step length. A person's gait can provide important clues about their physical health and neurological function, and abnormalities in gait may indicate the presence of underlying medical conditions, such as neuromuscular disorders, orthopedic problems, or injuries.

A typical human gait cycle involves two main phases: the stance phase, during which the foot is in contact with the ground, and the swing phase, during which the foot is lifted and moved forward in preparation for the next step. The gait cycle can be further broken down into several sub-phases, including heel strike, foot flat, midstance, heel off, and toe off.

Gait analysis is a specialized field of study that involves observing and measuring a person's gait pattern using various techniques, such as video recordings, force plates, and motion capture systems. This information can be used to diagnose and treat gait abnormalities, improve mobility and function, and prevent injuries.

Neurosciences is a multidisciplinary field of study that focuses on the structure, function, development, and disorders of the nervous system, which includes the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves. It incorporates various scientific disciplines such as biology, chemistry, physics, mathematics, engineering, and computer science to understand the complexities of the nervous system at different levels, from molecular and cellular mechanisms to systems and behavior.

The field encompasses both basic research and clinical applications, with the aim of advancing our knowledge of the nervous system and developing effective treatments for neurological and psychiatric disorders. Specialties within neurosciences include neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, neurochemistry, neuropharmacology, neurobiology, neuroimmunology, behavioral neuroscience, cognitive neuroscience, clinical neuroscience, and computational neuroscience, among others.

Gastrointestinal transit refers to the movement of food, digestive secretions, and waste products through the gastrointestinal tract, from the mouth to the anus. This process involves several muscles and nerves that work together to propel the contents through the stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and rectum.

The transit time can vary depending on factors such as the type and amount of food consumed, hydration levels, and overall health. Abnormalities in gastrointestinal transit can lead to various conditions, including constipation, diarrhea, and malabsorption. Therefore, maintaining normal gastrointestinal transit is essential for proper digestion, nutrient absorption, and overall health.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Laxatives are substances or medications that are used to promote bowel movements or loosen the stools, thereby helping in the treatment of constipation. They work by increasing the amount of water in the stool or stimulating the muscles in the intestines to contract and push the stool through. Laxatives can be categorized into several types based on their mechanism of action, including bulk-forming laxatives, lubricant laxatives, osmotic laxatives, saline laxatives, stimulant laxatives, and stool softeners. It is important to use laxatives only as directed by a healthcare professional, as overuse or misuse can lead to serious health complications.

In medical terms, sensation refers to the ability to perceive and interpret various stimuli from our environment through specialized receptor cells located throughout the body. These receptors convert physical stimuli such as light, sound, temperature, pressure, and chemicals into electrical signals that are transmitted to the brain via nerves. The brain then interprets these signals, allowing us to experience sensations like sight, hearing, touch, taste, and smell.

There are two main types of sensations: exteroceptive and interoceptive. Exteroceptive sensations involve stimuli from outside the body, such as light, sound, and touch. Interoceptive sensations, on the other hand, refer to the perception of internal bodily sensations, such as hunger, thirst, heartbeat, or emotions.

Disorders in sensation can result from damage to the nervous system, including peripheral nerves, spinal cord, or brain. Examples include numbness, tingling, pain, or loss of sensation in specific body parts, which can significantly impact a person's quality of life and ability to perform daily activities.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Gestalt Theory" is actually a concept in psychology, not medicine. It is a theory of perception that describes the way we organize visual elements into groups or unified wholes rather than processing them as individual parts. The term "Gestalt" is German for "form" or "shape."

In medical/healthcare fields, you might hear about Gestalt principles being used in areas like physical therapy, occupational therapy, or counseling to help patients make sense of their experiences or perceptions, but the theory itself is a concept from psychology.

Behaviorism is a theory of learning and psychology that focuses on observable and measurable behaviors, rather than on internal thoughts, feelings, or motivations. It asserts that behavior is shaped by environmental factors, particularly through the process of conditioning. There are two main types of behaviorism: methodological and radical. Methodological behaviorists study observable behaviors and their environmental causes and effects, while radical behaviorists argue that behavior is exclusively determined by environmental factors and that internal mental states do not exist or are irrelevant.

In medical terms, behaviorism can be applied to the understanding and treatment of various psychological and behavioral disorders. For example, therapies based on behavioral principles, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), focus on modifying maladaptive behaviors and beliefs through techniques like exposure, reinforcement, and extinction. These interventions aim to help individuals learn new, adaptive behaviors that can improve their mental health and well-being.

A tension-type headache (TTH) is a common primary headache disorder characterized by mild to moderate, non-throbbing head pain, often described as a tight band or pressure surrounding the head. The pain typically occurs on both sides of the head and may be accompanied by symptoms such as scalp tenderness, neck stiffness, and light or sound sensitivity.

TTHs are classified into two main categories: episodic and chronic. Episodic TTHs occur less than 15 days per month, while chronic TTHs occur 15 or more days per month for at least three months. The exact cause of tension-type headaches is not fully understood, but they are believed to be related to muscle tension, stress, anxiety, and poor posture.

Treatment options for TTHs include over-the-counter pain relievers such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen, relaxation techniques, stress management, physical therapy, and lifestyle modifications. In some cases, prescription medications may be necessary to manage chronic TTHs.

Orthopedic equipment refers to devices or appliances used in the practice of orthopedics, which is a branch of medicine focused on the correction, support, and prevention of disorders, injuries, or deformities of the skeletal system, including bones, joints, ligaments, tendons, and muscles. These devices can be categorized into various types based on their function and application:

1. Mobility aids: Equipment that helps individuals with impaired mobility to move around more easily, such as walkers, crutches, canes, wheelchairs, and scooters.
2. Immobilization devices: Used to restrict movement of a specific body part to promote healing, prevent further injury, or provide support during rehabilitation, including casts, braces, splints, slings, and collars.
3. Prosthetics: Artificial limbs that replace missing body parts due to amputation, illness, or congenital defects, enabling individuals to perform daily activities and maintain independence.
4. Orthotics: Custom-made or off-the-shelf devices worn inside shoes or on the body to correct foot alignment issues, provide arch support, or alleviate pain in the lower extremities.
5. Rehabilitation equipment: Devices used during physical therapy sessions to improve strength, flexibility, balance, and coordination, such as resistance bands, exercise balls, balance boards, and weight training machines.
6. Surgical instruments: Specialized tools used by orthopedic surgeons during operations to repair fractures, replace joints, or correct deformities, including saws, drills, retractors, and screwdrivers.
7. Diagnostic equipment: Imaging devices that help healthcare professionals assess musculoskeletal conditions, such as X-ray machines, CT scanners, MRI machines, and ultrasound systems.

These various types of orthopedic equipment play a crucial role in the diagnosis, treatment, rehabilitation, and management of orthopedic disorders and injuries, enhancing patients' quality of life and functional abilities.

Behavioral research is a branch of scientific study that focuses on observing and analyzing the behaviors of humans and animals in various situations. This type of research aims to understand the underlying factors that influence, shape, and motivate behavior, including cognitive processes, emotional responses, and environmental influences. In medical terms, behavioral research can be used to investigate how certain behaviors or lifestyle factors may contribute to the development, prevention, or management of health conditions. This may include studying patterns of substance use, dietary habits, physical activity levels, adherence to medical treatments, and other health-related behaviors. The goal of behavioral research in a medical context is often to develop interventions or strategies that can help promote positive health behaviors and improve overall health outcomes.

In the context of medicine and healthcare, "movement" refers to the act or process of changing physical location or position. It involves the contraction and relaxation of muscles, which allows for the joints to move and the body to be in motion. Movement can also refer to the ability of a patient to move a specific body part or limb, which is assessed during physical examinations. Additionally, "movement" can describe the progression or spread of a disease within the body.

Galvanic Skin Response (GSR), also known as Electrodermal Activity (EDA), is a physiological response that reflects the activation of the sympathetic nervous system. It measures changes in the electrical properties of the skin, which are influenced by the sweat gland activity. GSR is often used as an indicator of emotional arousal or psychological stress in various research and clinical settings.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "philosophy" is not a medical term. It is a branch of study that deals with fundamental questions about existence, knowledge, ethics, and reality. In contrast, medical terms typically refer to concepts within the field of medicine, such as diseases, treatments, or anatomical structures. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you!

Exercise therapy is a type of medical treatment that uses physical movement and exercise to improve a patient's physical functioning, mobility, and overall health. It is often used as a component of rehabilitation programs for individuals who have experienced injuries, illnesses, or surgeries that have impaired their ability to move and function normally.

Exercise therapy may involve a range of activities, including stretching, strengthening, balance training, aerobic exercise, and functional training. The specific exercises used will depend on the individual's needs, goals, and medical condition.

The benefits of exercise therapy include:

* Improved strength and flexibility
* Increased endurance and stamina
* Enhanced balance and coordination
* Reduced pain and inflammation
* Improved cardiovascular health
* Increased range of motion and joint mobility
* Better overall physical functioning and quality of life.

Exercise therapy is typically prescribed and supervised by a healthcare professional, such as a physical therapist or exercise physiologist, who has experience working with individuals with similar medical conditions. The healthcare professional will create an individualized exercise program based on the patient's needs and goals, and will provide guidance and support to ensure that the exercises are performed safely and effectively.

  • The presentation also includes a review of biofeedback and Neurofeedback with Olympic athletes, particularly in volleyball. (
  • The use of game video during biofeedback and Neurofeedback is demonstrated. (
  • Biofeedback and neurofeedback are subjects that check all of those boxes. (
  • Biofeedback and neurofeedback introduce technology that helps the clients of psychologists to learn about themselves. (
  • Some psychologists may have had minimal exposure to biofeedback or neurofeedback during their initial education in psychology . (
  • The most recognized body offering certification in biofeedback and neurofeedback is the Biofeedback Certification International Alliance (BCIA). (
  • With a course approved for APA continuing education credits for biofeedback or neurofeedback, a psychologist can receive a large number of required hours in a short amount of time while learning an exciting and effective skill. (
  • Being able to use biofeedback and neurofeedback to show clients the changes that are going on with their muscle tension, heart rate, breathing, brain and other activity is on another level and can help them understand what is happening in ways that cannot easily be put into words. (
  • The subjects of biofeedback and neurofeedback, self regulation, consciousness, self awareness are revolutionary and paradigm shifting. (
  • Meeting on the Art, Science and Application of Story and The Winter Brain Meeting on neurofeedback, biofeedback, Optimal Functioning and Positive Psychology. (
  • Schwartz received his PhD from Harvard University and was a professor of psychiatry and psychology at Yale University as well as Director of the Yale Psychophysiology Center and co-director of the Yale Behavioral Medicine Clinic from 1976 to 1988. (
  • He is President of the Biofeedback Foundation of Europe and past President of the Association for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback. (
  • His research interests focus on psychophysiology of healing, illness prevention, voluntary self-regulation, holistic health, healthy computing, respiratory psychophysiology and optimizing health with biofeedback. (
  • Since 1993 Professor of Medical Psychology and Behavioral Neurobiology at the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Tübingen and Professor of Clinical Psychophysiology, University of Padova, Italy. (
  • In addition to her role as president of the board of directors for IMP, Dr. Khazan serves on the board of directors for the Associate for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback (AAPB), and Biofeedback Certification International Alliance (BCIA), where she is currently chair-elect. (
  • Additionally, I have achieved over 30-years of clinical experience as a licensed psychologist, certified biofeedback therapist, and certified medical psychotherapist in private practice with over 500 patients. (
  • Electromyographic Biofeedback in the Densitization of Test Anxiety. (
  • It was hypothesized that this attributable to insufficient levels of muscular relaxation obtained with verbal relaxation procedures and that electromyographic biofeedback would lead to deeper levels of relaxation and hence improved performance scores among test-anxious subjects. (
  • In the present study subjects received multiple sessions of electromyographic biofeedback of frontalis muscle tension as well as standardized systematic desensitization sessions. (
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) plus electromyographic biofeedback or PFMT alone for stress or mixed urinary incontinence in women. (
  • PARTICIPANTS: 600 women aged 18 and older, newly presenting with stress or mixed urinary incontinence between February 2014 and July 2016: 300 were randomised to PFMT plus electromyographic biofeedback and 300 to PFMT alone. (
  • Participants in the biofeedback PFMT group received supervised PFMT and a home PFMT programme, incorporating electromyographic biofeedback during clinic appointments and at home. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: At 24 months no evidence was found of any important difference in severity of urinary incontinence between PFMT plus electromyographic biofeedback and PFMT alone groups. (
  • Routine use of electromyographic biofeedback with PFMT should not be recommended. (
  • One of the largest trainers of biofeedback specialists in the world, BCCC offers face-to-face and online training leading to a certification accredited by the Biofeedback Certification International Alliance (BCIA) . (
  • As a BCIA-approved training facility, the center can assist you, as a graduate student, along with therapists, in completing the requirements for certification in general biofeedback. (
  • Based on what BCIA calls "The Blueprint of Knowledge," our web-based course fulfills the 42-hour didactic educational requirement for certification in general biofeedback. (
  • BCIA requires 50 patient/client biofeedback sessions, 10 sessions of personal training, and 10 case studies. (
  • While you will not receive any academic credit for this course, it is the same course that Widener students take (with the Biofeedback Certification International Alliance exam as their final exam), and it meets the didactic requirement for certification in general biofeedback through BCIA. (
  • The didactic educational requirement for BCIA peripheral biofeedback certification is 42 hours. (
  • I utilize an integrative approach grounded in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR), and other psychophysiological techniques (i.e., biofeedback, relaxation training, hypnosis, etc. (
  • Inna is a faculty member at Harvard Medical School and a clinical psychologist specializing in health psychology and performance excellence training using biofeedback and mindfulness-based approaches. (
  • Dr. Khazan is recognized as a pioneer in the area of mindfulness-based biofeedback. (
  • He is a frequent Speaker on Politics, Impeachment, The art, science and power of story, heroes and the hero's journey, Positive Psychology, Stress, Biofeedback and a wide range of subjects. (
  • He is a registered Naturopathic Physician and applies this with his specialization in psychology, psychotherapy and biofeedback. (
  • What Is Biofeedback Therapy for Addiction Treatment? (
  • Biofeedback therapy is a treatment that is being successfully used in helping many working to overcome addiction. (
  • How do you know if Biofeedback therapy is something you should try? (
  • A quasi- experimental design was used to investigate the efficacy of a biofeedback relaxation intervention in reducing pain associated with postoperative continuous passive motion ( CPM) therapy . (
  • Biofeedback devices are used in both competitive sports and in training therapy. (
  • In dealing with anticipatory anxiety, teaching internal methods to control the autonomic nervous system through such internal methods as hypnosis, HRV breathing, and TFT (Thought Field Therapy) a form of Energy Psychology. (
  • Enhancing biofeedback-driven self-guided virtual reality exposure therapy through arousal detection from multimodal data using machine learning. (
  • This chapter presents a qualitative and quantitative systematic review of randomized controlled trials of biofeedback for anxiety disorders as defined by the 3rd through 5th editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). (
  • Thus, although biofeedback appears generally efficacious for anxiety disorders, the specific effects of biofeedback cannot be distinguished from nonspecific effects of treatment. (
  • Research has shown that biofeedback is a clinically effective tool for children, adolescents, and adults who experience a variety of conditions, including stress, pain, headaches and migraines, panic and anxiety disorders, sleep difficulties, TMJ and teeth grinding. (
  • Biofeedback Training for Mental Health Disorders including anxiety, PTSD, and depression seem to have become more widespread over the past several years. (
  • The Biofeedback Clinic & Certification Center (BCCC) is a community clinic that provides psychophysiological interventions for such stress-related problems as anxiety, teeth grinding, insomnia, headaches, and test anxiety. (
  • The Biofeedback Clinic & Certification Center (BCCC) offers a variety of personalized treatment programs that can help reduce stress and improve overall health. (
  • They can learn to change how their body reacts to stress using biofeedback . (
  • Stress is not in your head, it's in your body -this is the key to peak performance that Leah Lagos, PsyD, BCB, an internationally known expert in biofeedback and sport and performance psychology, wants us to know. (
  • This has lead to providing elearning psychology courses for up to 900 students per year, 300 per semester, in subjects that include general, abnormal, stress, forensic, and trauma. (
  • Treating stress on an individual basis may involve utilizing drugs, emotional release, biofeedback, exercise, and social support. (
  • Currently, he is Professor of Psychology, Medicine, Neurology, Psychiatry, and Surgery and the Director of the Laboratory for Advances in Consciousness and Health in the Department of Psychology at the University of Arizona. (
  • He was trained in psychotechnics and higher states of consciousness for biofeedback by Maxwell Cade at the Institute for Psychobiological Research in 1979. (
  • Erik Peper, Ph.D., BCB is an international authority on biofeedback and self-regulation. (
  • Papers written by Dr. Sterman have been published in Science, Brain Research, EEG and Clinical Neurophysiology, Experimental Neurology Journal of Internal Medicine, Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, Brain Topography, Clinical Neurophysiology, Journal of Neurotherapy, and the Handbook of Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology. (
  • He holds Senior Fellow (Biofeedback) certification from the Biofeedback Certification Institute of America He was the behavioral scientist (sport psychologist) for the United States Rhythmic Gymnastic team. (
  • The Association for Transpersonal Psychology promoting a vision of the universe as sacred. (
  • The study results provide preliminary support for biofeedback relaxation, a non-invasive and non-pharmacological intervention, as a complementary treatment option for pain management in this population. (
  • NSU Health's Biofeedback and Health Psychology Center offers evaluation, intervention, and consultation for managing ongoing health concerns and maintaining a healthy lifestyle. (
  • Finally, we have implemented a biofeedback framework for VRET where we successfully provided feedback as a form of heart rate and brain laterality index from our acquired multimodal data for psychological intervention to overcome anxiety . (
  • Biofeedback relaxation for pain associated with continuous passive motion in Taiwanese patients after total knee arthroplasty. (
  • Variants include electromyography (EMG), electrodermal activity (EDA), skin temperature, heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV), respiratory biofeedback of end-tidal CO 2 (ETCO 2 ), electroencephalography (EEG) signal, and blood oxygen-level dependent signal using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). (
  • Additive benefits of laxative, toilet training and biofeedback therapies in the treatment of pediatric encopresis. (
  • I am a licensed clinical psychologist with specialty training in health and pain psychology. (
  • In his early career, Schwartz wrote on biofeedback research and health psychology. (
  • His most recent co-authored books are Muscle Biofeedback at the Computer, Make Health Happen Training: Yourself to Create Wellness and De Computermens. (
  • As a part of the NSU College of Psychology, we have 13 pediatric specialties serving children and adolescents at our South Florida mental health clinics. (
  • As professor emeritus, I have served 37-years as a tenured professor of psychology and health science at University of Alaska Anchorage (UAA). (
  • Clinical Handbook of Biofeedback: A Step-by-Step Guide to Training and Practice with Mindfulness and Biofeedback and Mindfulness in Everday Life: practical solutions for improving your health and performance . (
  • Arrangements can be made to complete this work at our Biofeedback Clinic if you do not have a facility of your own. (
  • 309-310 Among his hundreds of academic papers is a 3-part series entitled "God, Synchronicity, and Postmaterialist Psychology" published in the journal Spirituality in Clinical Practice by the American Psychological Association, where Schwartz describes eleven coincidences that he found so "increasingly improbable," he figured God must have been signaling him that souls of dead people collaborate with the divine to orchestrate personally meaningful synchronicities. (
  • As a graduate student in the clinical psychology doctoral program , you can gain experience, training, and certification in the BCCC through clinical rotations, practicum and internships, all under faculty supervision. (
  • 1975-1993 Full Professor of Clinical and Physiological Psychology, University of Tübingen, Germany. (
  • Ron is an Assistant Clinical Professor of Psychology, part time, at Harvard Medical School, where he has taught for over 30 years. (
  • 1986-1988 Full Professor of Psychology, Pennsylvania State University, USA. (
  • Biofeedback is a safe, non-invasive technique that teaches people how to monitor and control various body functions such as heart rate, muscle tension, blood pressure, and skin temperature. (
  • Internship experiences may NOT be used to fulfill the Psychology electives requirement of the Psychology major. (
  • Meta-analytic results indicated that biofeedback (broadly defined) is superior to wait list, but has not been shown to be superior to active treatment conditions or to conditions in which patients are trained to change their physiological responding in a countertherapeutic direction. (
  • Journal of pediatric psychology , 21 (5), 659-670. (
  • She was trained in sports psychology at Boston University by the world famous Pan (Am) American coach, Dr. John Cheffers . (
  • From the extensive personal training with Dr. Cheffers, Dr. Diane ® incorporates this training and modifies it to assist athletes in sports psychology and sports performance enhancement. (
  • Award for Research in Neuromuscular Diseases, Wilhelm-Wundt-Medal of the German Society of Psychology, and the Albert Einstein Award of the World Cultural Council. (
  • Biofeedback refers to the operant training of physiological responding. (
  • The Biofeedback Federation CIC is a community interest company based in the UK dedicated to increasing awareness about the benefits of biofeedback and providing education, training and certification to professionals. (
  • However, the potential positive effect of biofeedback-based Nintendo Wii training on muscle strength and postural balance in older adults is unknown. (
  • This randomized controlled trial examined postural balance and muscle strength in community-dwelling older adults (75±6 years) pre- and post-10 weeks of biofeedback-based Nintendo Wii training (WII, n = 28) or daily use of ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer insoles (controls [CON], n = 30). (
  • The high level of participant motivation suggests that biofeedback-based Wii exercise may ensure a high degree of compliance to home- and/or community-based training in community-dwelling older adults. (
  • We will assist you in selecting equipment (both rental and purchase options), provide you with a lab log to guide you through the 50 sessions, and give you hands-on equipment training at our Biofeedback Center. (
  • There are several options for people who are interested in receiving training in biofeedback and neu. (
  • I received my doctoral degree from The Chicago School of Professional Psychology, Irvine. (
  • Journal of Educational & Developmental Psychology. (
  • Psychology students must attend one orientation session during the first several weeks of the fall and spring semesters, when PSYC Internship Orientation sessions are offered. (
  • A minimum of two 3-credit internship experiences are recommended for all Psychology majors. (
  • Students cannot complete more than 15 credits of Psychology Internship during the undergraduate program. (
  • This form must be signed by the student's academic advisor, Internship Coordinator, and the Chair of the Psychology Department in order to authorize the abroad internship. (
  • Follow the Psychology Internship Manual. (
  • The study of individual interpretation of one own's living environment represents a cornerstone of sport and exercise psychology. (

No images available that match "biofeedback psychology"