Bioethical Issues: Clusters of topics that fall within the domain of BIOETHICS, the field of study concerned with value questions that arise in biomedicine and health care delivery.Bioethics: A branch of applied ethics that studies the value implications of practices and developments in life sciences, medicine, and health care.Confucianism: A school of thought and set of moral, ethical, and political teachings usually considered to be founded by Confucius in 6th-5th century B.C. China. (from Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, 1995)Animal Rights: The moral and ethical bases of the protection of animals from cruelty and abuse. The rights are extended to domestic animals, laboratory animals, and wild animals.Personal Autonomy: Self-directing freedom and especially moral independence. An ethical principle holds that the autonomy of persons ought to be respected. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Religion and ScienceLiterature, ModernEthics, Medical: The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.Contraceptives, Postcoital, Synthetic: Postcoital contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations.Ethics, Research: The moral obligations governing the conduct of research. Used for discussions of research ethics as a general topic.Receptors, Purinergic P2X: A subclass of purinergic P2 receptors that signal by means of a ligand-gated ion channel. They are comprised of three P2X subunits which can be identical (homotrimeric form) or dissimilar (heterotrimeric form).Personhood: The state or condition of being a human individual accorded moral and/or legal rights. Criteria to be used to determine this status are subject to debate, and range from the requirement of simply being a human organism to such requirements as that the individual be self-aware and capable of rational thought and moral agency.Stem Cell Research: Experimentation on STEM CELLS and on the use of stem cells.Feminism: The theory of the political, economic, and social equality of the sexes and organized activity on behalf of women's rights and interests. (Webster New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)Religion and Medicine: The interrelationship of medicine and religion.Ethical Analysis: The use of systematic methods of ethical examination, such as CASUISTRY or ETHICAL THEORY, in reasoning about moral problems.Deoxyepinephrine: Sympathomimetic, vasoconstrictor agent.Human Experimentation: The use of humans as investigational subjects.Moral Obligations: Duties that are based in ETHICS, rather than in law.Ethics, Clinical: The identification, analysis, and resolution of moral problems that arise in the care of patients. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Informed Consent: Voluntary authorization, by a patient or research subject, with full comprehension of the risks involved, for diagnostic or investigative procedures, and for medical and surgical treatment.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Nelson Syndrome: A syndrome characterized by HYPERPIGMENTATION, enlarging pituitary mass, visual defects secondary to compression of the OPTIC CHIASM, and elevated serum ACTH. It is caused by the expansion of an underlying ACTH-SECRETING PITUITARY ADENOMA that grows in the absence of feedback inhibition by adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS, usually after ADRENALECTOMY.Living Donors: Non-cadaveric providers of organs for transplant to related or non-related recipients.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Kidney Transplantation: The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Amish: An ethnic group with shared religious beliefs. Originating in Switzerland in the late 1600s, and first migrating to the mid-Atlantic, they now live throughout Eastern and Mid-Western United States and elsewhere. Communities are usually close-knit and marriage is within the community.World War II: Global conflict involving countries of Europe, Africa, Asia, and North America that occurred between 1939 and 1945.GuatemalaEncyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Syphilis: A contagious venereal disease caused by the spirochete TREPONEMA PALLIDUM.Military Personnel: Persons including soldiers involved with the armed forces.Nontherapeutic Human Experimentation: Human experimentation that is not intended to benefit the subjects on whom it is performed. Phase I drug studies (CLINICAL TRIALS, PHASE I AS TOPIC) and research involving healthy volunteers are examples of nontherapeutic human experimentation.Human Body: The human being as a non-anatomical and non-zoological entity. The emphasis is on the philosophical or artistic treatment of the human being, and includes lay and social attitudes toward the body in history. (From J. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Copyright: It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)Synthetic Biology: A field of biological research combining engineering in the formulation, design, and building (synthesis) of novel biological structures, functions, and systems.Intellectual Property: Property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyright, that results from creative effort. The Patent and Copyright Clause (Art. 1, Sec. 8, cl. 8) of the United States Constitution provides for promoting the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed, p1014)Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Access to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.BooksInternet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Book SelectionClick Chemistry: Organic chemistry methodology that mimics the modular nature of various biosynthetic processes. It uses highly reliable and selective reactions designed to "click" i.e., rapidly join small modular units together in high yield, without offensive byproducts. In combination with COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES, it is used for the synthesis of new compounds and combinatorial libraries.Gymnastics: Systematic physical exercise. This includes calisthenics, a system of light gymnastics for promoting strength and grace of carriage.Medicine in ArtJoint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations: A private, voluntary, not-for-profit organization which establishes standards for the operation of health facilities and services, conducts surveys, and awards accreditation.Psychophysics: The science dealing with the correlation of the physical characteristics of a stimulus, e.g., frequency or intensity, with the response to the stimulus, in order to assess the psychologic factors involved in the relationship.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.

How physician executives and clinicians perceive ethical issues in Saudi Arabian hospitals. (1/256)

OBJECTIVES: To compare the perceptions of physician executives and clinicians regarding ethical issues in Saudi Arabian hospitals and the attributes that might lead to the existence of these ethical issues. DESIGN: Self-completion questionnaire administered from February to July 1997. SETTING: Different health regions in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. PARTICIPANTS: Random sample of 457 physicians (317 clinicians and 140 physician executives) from several hospitals in various regions across the kingdom. RESULTS: There were statistically significant differences in the perceptions of physician executives and clinicians regarding the existence of various ethical issues in their hospitals. The vast majority of physician executives did not perceive that seven of the eight issues addressed by the study were ethical concerns in their hospitals. However, the majority of the clinicians perceived that six of the same eight issues were ethical considerations in their hospitals. Statistically significant differences in the perceptions of physician executives and clinicians were observed in only three out of eight attributes that might possibly lead to the existence of ethical issues. The most significant attribute that was perceived to result in ethical issues was that of hospitals having a multinational staff. CONCLUSION: The study calls for the formulation of a code of ethics that will address specifically the physicians who work in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. As a more immediate initiative, it is recommended that seminars and workshops be conducted to provide physicians with an opportunity to discuss the ethical dilemmas they face in their medical practice.  (+info)

Description of an ethics curriculum for a medicine residency program. (2/256)

This paper examines the attempts to develop and implement an ethics curriculum for the Internal Medicine Residency Program at the University of Maryland Medical Center. The objectives of the curriculum were to enhance moral reasoning skills and to promote humanistic attitudes and behavior among the residents. The diverse methodologies used to achieve these objectives included case discussions, literature reading, role playing, writing, and videos. These activities occurred predominantly within the forum of morning report sessions and ethics ward rounds. The author also describes efforts to overcome the initial constraints associated with the implementation of this curriculum and concludes by exploring future directions for the curriculum.  (+info)

Bioethics regulations in Turkey. (3/256)

Although modern technical and scientific developments in medicine are followed closely in Turkey, it cannot be claimed that the same is true in the field of bioethics. Yet, more and more attention is now being paid to bioethics and ethics training in health sciences. In addition, there are also legal regulations in bioethics, some of which are not so new. The objective of these regulations is to provide technical and administrative control. Ethical concerns are rather few. What attracts our attention most in these regulations is the presence of the idea of "consent".  (+info)

An international survey of medical ethics curricula in Asia. (4/256)

SETTING: Medical ethics education has become common, and the integrated ethics curriculum has been recommended in Western countries. It should be questioned whether there is one, universal method of teaching ethics applicable worldwide to medical schools, especially those in non-Western developing countries. OBJECTIVE: To characterise the medical ethics curricula at Asian medical schools. DESIGN: Mailed survey of 206 medical schools in China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Korea, Mongolia, Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Australia and New Zealand. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 100 medical schools responded, a response rate of 49%, ranging from 23%-100% by country. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The degree of integration of the ethics programme into the formal medical curriculum was measured by lecture time; whether compulsory or elective; whether separate courses or unit of other courses; number of courses; schedule; total length, and diversity of teachers' specialties. RESULTS: A total of 89 medical schools (89%) reported offering some courses in which ethical topics were taught. Separate medical ethics courses were mostly offered in all countries, and the structure of vertical integration was divided into four patterns. Most deans reported that physicians' obligations and patients' rights were the most important topics for their students. However, the evaluation was diverse for more concrete topics. CONCLUSION: Offering formal medical ethics education is a widespread feature of medical curricula throughout the study area. However, the kinds of programmes, especially with regard to integration into clinical teaching, were greatly diverse.  (+info)

Ethical considerations in international HIV vaccine trials: summary of a consultative process conducted by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). (5/256)

Research that is initiated, designed or funded by sponsor agencies based in countries with relatively high social and economic development, and conducted in countries that are relatively less developed, gives rise to many important ethical challenges. Although clinical trials of HIV vaccines began ten years ago in the US and Europe, an increasing number of trials are now being conducted or planned in other countries, including several that are considered "developing" countries. Safeguarding the rights and welfare of individuals participating as research subjects in developing countries is a priority. In September, 1997, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) embarked on a process of international consultation; its purpose was further to define the important ethical issues and to formulate guidance that might facilitate the ethical design and conduct of HIV vaccine trials in international contexts. This paper summarises the major outcomes of the UNAIDS consultative process.  (+info)

What makes a problem an ethical problem? An empirical perspective on the nature of ethical problems in general practice. (6/256)

Whilst there has been considerable debate about the fit between moral theory and moral reasoning in everyday life, the way in which moral problems are defined has rarely been questioned. This paper presents a qualitative analysis of interviews conducted with 15 general practitioners (GPs) in South Australia to argue that the way in which the bioethics literature defines an ethical dilemma captures only some of the range of lay views about the nature of ethical problems. The bioethics literature has defined ethical dilemmas in terms of conflict and choice between values, beliefs and options for action. While some of the views of some of the GPs in this study about the nature of their ethical dilemmas certainly accorded with this definition, other explanations of the ethical nature of their problems revolved around the publicity associated with the issues they were discussing, concern about their relationships with patients, and anxiety about threats to their integrity and reputation. The variety of views about what makes a problem a moral problem indicates that the moral domain is perhaps wider and richer than mainstream bioethics would generally allow.  (+info)

The ethical challenge of infection-inducing challenge experiments. (7/256)

Challenge experiments that induce infections in healthy volunteers are an important method for initial efficacy testing of candidate vaccines and for study of the pathogenesis of infectious diseases. Although these studies can be conducted safely for selected infectious diseases that are either fully treatable or self-limiting, they raise significant ethical issues. An ethical framework is offered for evaluating infection-inducing challenge experiments, which focuses on the scientific and public health rationale for conducting these studies, the risks that they pose and the ways in which these risks can be minimized, the symptoms experienced by healthy volunteers that may cause discomfort or distress, the exclusion of vulnerable research subjects, the informed consent process, the payment of volunteers, and the use of isolation of volunteers to prevent infection of others.  (+info)

Ethics and family practice: some modern dilemmas. (8/256)

Ethical dilemmas in family practice have increased in frequency and complexity as both the potential benefit and the potential harm of medical treatments have increased. All physicians must be aware of moral issues relating to medicine. Family physicians commonly face ethical problems concerning the patient with diminished autonomy; the right to refuse treatment; allocation of resources; informed consent; surrogate consent (for children, for the incompetent, and for those with diminished autonomy); and the appropriate level of aggressiveness in treatment.  (+info)

  • In this article we discuss some of the more relevant biological evidence supporting the fact that beginning human life begins unquestionably at fertilization and the bioethical consequences. (
  • Conscious that we can distinguish, but not totally separate these areas, in this article we address the biological aspects, which are fundamental for a consistent philosophical reflection and we address the main bioethical questions involved. (
  • For example, the biomedical advances related to in vitro fertilization, pre-implantation diagnosis, genetic engineering, human cloning (Santos, 2005), the use of maternal embryonic cells (Ventura-Juncá, 2009) and emergency contraceptives are procedures that make the contemporariness and importance of the issue very evident. (
  • The issue of when the human life begins is a very important subject since it has a significant impact on the decisions that we have to take in relation to human beings in development, particularly human embryos. (
  • These address certain issues prioritised in the local and European bio-legal discourse - for example, the availability of supernumerary human embryos for stem cell procurement - rather than regulating the technological domain comprehensively. (
  • Firstly, it examines the broader basis in regulatory theory for comparing the regulatory frames as covered in the different systems of biomedical technology regulation in Europe, namely the dilemma of connecting rules with the technology regulated and the related issue of choosing between generic or specific provisions to secure regulatory connection. (
  • Today, without doubt, the issue has acquired new dimensions given that we have acquired the capacity to intervene in life at its beginnings in ways that could not have been anticipated a few decades ago, which is of great scientific, anthropological and ethical importance. (
  • Monsignor Elio Sgreccia, the Vatican's top official on bioethical questions, answers questions during a press conference on bioethics, at the Vatican press room, Friday Dec. 12, 2008. (
  • The Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues (the Bioethics Commission) was created by Executive Order 13521 on November 24, 2009. (
  • The Bioethics Commission advised President Barack Obama on bioethical issues arising from advances in biomedicine and related areas of science and technology. (
  • I discuss these issues by way of a recent specific example provided by a controversy in the field of bioethics concerning the value, or lack thereof, of homeopathy. (
  • To develop a survey, the Bioethical Issues in Biostatistical Consulting Questionnaire, for investigating bioethical issues in analysis, a comprehensive literature review was conducted to specify areas of bioethics. (
  • Development of biopharmaceuticals is a challenging issue in bioethics. (
  • The Bioethics Commission is an independent, deliberative panel of experts that advises the President and the Administration, and, in so doing, educates the nation on bioethical issues. (
  • A medical student and faculty directors from the Johns Hopkins Berman Institute of Bioethics analyzed depictions of bioethical issues and professionalism over a full season of two popular medical dramas - "Grey's Anatomy" and "House, M.D." - and found that the shows were "rife" with ethical dilemmas and actions that often ran afoul of professional codes of conduct. (
  • Each sub-discipline has its own particular area of bioethics , but there is a significant overlap of many issues, ethical approaches, concepts, and moral considerations. (
  • In addition, the field of bioethics presupposes at least some basic knowledge of important life sciences, most notably medicine, biology (including genetics), biochemistry, and biophysics in order to deal successfully with particular moral issues. (
  • This article also contains a discussion about the vital issue of moral status-and hence protection-in the context of bioethics, that is, whether moral status is ascribed depending on rationality, harm, or any other feature. (
  • Bioethics provides a disciplinary framework for the whole array of moral questions and issues surrounding the life sciences concerning human beings, animals, and nature. (
  • Organizations like the Women's Bioethics Project continue to explore the rocky landscape of ART, including surrogacy, and how we can and should be structuring our public policy in relation to these issues. (
  • 2010 ). Ongoing debates regarding problems that prevent LGBT+ individuals from receiving adequate healthcare services has not only made these issues more salient but has also enabled solution-based suggestions to be included in the worldwide bioethics agenda (Eckstrand et al. (
  • The President's Council on Bioethics was established by Executive Order 13237 and was charged with advising the President on bioethical issues that may emerge as a consequence of advances in biomedical science and technology. (
  • The Center for Bioethics & Human Dignity's annual conference is a leading venue for Christian bioethical engagement, providing opportunities for equipping and education, professional development and academic engagement, as well as networking for professionals, researchers, policymakers, educators, and students across a variety of disciplines and professional contexts. (
  • Your global information source for bioethics news and issues. (
  • Part B explores topical applied ethics issues of interpersonal and social significance ranging through bioethics, sexual ethics, environmental ethics, business ethics, political ethics and questions of war and social justice. (
  • As it is mandatory under Brazilian law, bioethical dilemmas arise due to the absence of individual choice on whether to consume or not consume fluoridated water. (
  • To find out more about the complex emotional dilemmas that couples face when making choices about stored embryos, NEWSWEEK's Karen Springen spoke with psychologist Sandra Leiblum, director of psychological services at the New Jersey Center for Sexual Wellness and editor of "Infertility: Psychological Issues and Counseling Strategies" ( Wiley ). (
  • Workshops and paper sessions explore additional issues from among the wide spectrum of traditional and emerging bioethical topics, ranging from beginning-of-life issues and dilemmas in clinical ethics to reproductive and genetic ethics, disability ethics, emerging technology assessment, historical analyses, philosophical foundations, policy considerations, and legal implications. (
  • Understanding Ethics introduces the frameworks of moral philosophy to analyse contemporary moral issues and perennial human dilemmas. (
  • Other potential bioethi-cal issues related biopharmaceutical drug development are their cost/effectiveness ratio, clinical safety assessment, production of biosimilars, and comparison of their efficacy with placebo in countries without intention to market. (
  • Given the vivid portrayals of clinical practice and bioethical issues in medical dramas - albeit through storylines that sometimes stray into the realm of outlandish - the co-authors began systematically eyeing the programs in the genre several years ago to assess the nature and extent of the depictions. (
  • Topics covered include good clinical practice (GCP) compliance, clinical trial agreements, clinical trial registration and results reporting, access to clinical trial data, managing conflicts of interest, reimbursement issues, and the implications of anti-bribery laws and U.S. fraud and abuse laws for clinical research. (
  • This course explores the regulatory and quality assurance issues pertinent to pre-clinical safety research. (
  • Students conduct simulated lab tests to determine the safe chemotherapy dosage and consider issues associate with clinical trial participation. (
  • BECS deals exclusively with questions arising from laboratory and clinical genetic research and only provides consultation outside of that field for requests that strongly hinge on issues relevant to the pursuance, policy or conduct of genetic research as a whole. (
  • Bioethical issues arise frequently in neurology. (
  • Rather than address those issues, this entry examines some of the social and ethical issues that may arise as a result of what researchers in behavioral genetics claim to know regarding the role of genes in shaping human behavior. (
  • In response to these challenges, CIRGE has developed the Benchside Ethics Consultation Service (BECS) to aid members of the genetics community in proactively identifying and responding to ethical, legal and social issues that may arise in their research. (
  • bioethical issues in a global context. (
  • Identify the prospects and challenges for the evolving landscape of bioethical engagement within the context of shifting global and societal realities and advances in medicine and biotechnology. (
  • The new edition examines particular issues which reflect many of the social, scientific and cultural changes of the last decade, especially in an Australian context. (
  • In the new issue of the journal Fertility and Sterility, researchers who surveyed 1,020 patients at nine American fertility clinics reported that 54 percent of respondents with cryopreserved embryos said they were "very likely" to use them for reproduction and 21 percent were "very likely" to donate them for research. (
  • Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. (
  • The authors of the review, available in the April issue of the Journal of Medical Ethics , say they were well aware that their findings would end up stating the obvious. (
  • The American Surrogacy Center strongly advises that any issues regarding potential birth defects and abortion always be discussed prior to entering into any contractual arrangement. (
  • I n a resounding confirmation that the Catholic church's pro-life concern extends to the brave new world of biotechnology, the Vatican today issued a tough document condemning the freezing of human embryos, genetic engineering, human cloning, animal/human genetic hybrids, and a number of other procedures described as affronts to human dignity. (
  • This course examines a variety of legal, policy, scientific, social, and ethical issues in the realm of biotechnology. (
  • Four decades ago, following numerous disclosures of unethical human research studies conducted in the U.S. - most notably the Tuskegee USPHS syphilis study - the federal government issued regulations that were intended to protect human subjects involved in research. (
  • Multifetal pregnancy and fetal reduction, embryo cryopreservation, preimplantation genetic diagnosis, risks of birth defects and other adverse outcome associated with assisted reproductive technology are issues that have to be addressed building future collaborative studies and continuing the debate on related ethical issues. (
  • Assigned reading, class discussion and presentations by various specialists will be used to explore current legal issues, legislation and litigation. (
  • therefore, BECS offers real-time discussions, analyses and conflict resolutions for researchers to explore current or anticipated ethical issues in their studies. (
  • This article aims to analyze the bioethical aspects and legal and political issues of water fluoridation, creating a discussion based on established studies and new research, in order to contribute to an ethical and impartial perspective on the subject. (
  • The talk focused on such topics as stem cell research, cloning, organ transplant and other current issues. (
  • In the latest policy statement issued in collaboration with the immunologist and geneticist Hans Clevers and the bioethicist and Member of the Dutch Parliament, Annelien Bredenoord, the researchers also examined for the first time the most important ethical dimensions of organoid research. (
  • These issues were chosen through a global research programme seeking to identify the most significant issues in the world today which are of concern in our task to take the good news to the world. (
  • Aside from bioethical issues, there's a lack of available human eggs for research. (
  • Despite the gravity of such issues, there has been little consideration about how to translate work in research ethics into practical guidance for scientists before their research is planned and conducted. (
  • The Center's mission is to address fundamental ethical issues in the areas of health, medicine, and the environment as they affect individuals, communities, and societies. (
  • Without the backing of a clear moral consensus, the law is frequently forced into resolving these conflicts only to see the moral issues involved still hotly debated and the validity of existing law further questioned. (
  • Furthermore, moral problems which stem from a concrete situation, for example, gene-manipulated food, have given rise to heated public debates and serious public concerns with regard to safety issues in the past. (
  • Among the topics they addressed were biomedical applications and innovation, issues related to artificial life, security concerns, and public opinion. (
  • In this paper we investigated the issues of physician and patient autonomy، and the differences between the values of the people involved. (
  • But it stopped short of issuing an explicit no to "embryo adoption," whereby infertile couples adopt embryos that were frozen during in vitro techniques and subsequently abandoned. (
  • So last August, N.I.H. issued revised guidelines, permitting scientists using public grants to use stem cells derived by others, but also prescribing rules to be followed by those extracting cells from donated embryos. (
  • Much of the controversy within the field involves conceptual and methodological issues such as the question: Do twin studies yield the most scientifically reliable conclusions about the degree to which genes shape behavior? (
  • Professional attitudes to bioethical issues ration the supply of marginal living donor kidneys for transplantation. (
  • The last part contains a discussion of the main bioethical theories including their main line of reasoning and complex challenges in contemporary philosophy. (
  • This 31 credit, online master's degree provides extensive exposure to patents, trademarks, copyrights, trade secrets, and also allows students to focus on privacy and security issues in the health, science and technology fields. (
  • The Vatican's Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith issued "The Dignity of a Person" to help answer bioethical questions that have emerged in the two decades since its last such document was published. (