Electric power supply devices which convert biological energy, such as chemical energy of metabolism or mechanical energy of periodic movements, into electrical energy.
The resistance to the flow of either alternating or direct electrical current.
The physical effects involving the presence of electric charges at rest and in motion.
The simultaneous, or near simultaneous, transference of heart and lungs from one human or animal to another.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
A pyrazine compound inhibiting SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with DIURETICS to spare POTASSIUM loss. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p705)
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.
The transfer of energy of a given form among different scales of motion. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed). It includes the transfer of kinetic energy and the transfer of chemical energy. The transfer of chemical energy from one molecule to another depends on proximity of molecules so it is often used as in techniques to measure distance such as the use of FORSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER.
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
The palm family of order Arecales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida.
A genus of trees of the Myrtaceae family, native to Australia, that yields gums, oils, and resins which are used as flavoring agents, astringents, and aromatics.
The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
The state of legal insolvency with assets taken over by judicial process so that they may be distributed among creditors.
Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).
A genus of fungi in the family Ganodermataceae, order POLYPORALES, containing a dimitic hyphal system. It causes a white rot, and is a wood decomposer. Ganoderma lucidum (REISHI) is used in traditional Chinese medicine (MEDICINE, CHINESE TRADITIONAL).
A rating of a body of water based on measurable physical, chemical, and biological characteristics.
Testing for the amount of biodegradable organic material in a water sample by measuring the quantity of oxygen consumed by biodegradation of those materials over a specific time period.
Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, metal-reducing bacteria in the family Geobacteraceae. They have the ability to oxidize a variety of organic compounds, including AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.
The design or construction of objects greatly reduced in scale.
Apparatus and instruments that generate and operate with ELECTRICITY, and their electrical components.
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
Application of electric current in treatment without the generation of perceptible heat. It includes electric stimulation of nerves or muscles, passage of current into the body, or use of interrupted current of low intensity to raise the threshold of the skin to pain.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
Process that is gone through in order for a device to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required preclinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance. It is not restricted to FDA.
Nonexpendable items used in examination.
Expendable and nonexpendable equipment, supplies, apparatus, and instruments that are used in diagnostic, surgical, therapeutic, scientific, and experimental procedures.
Freedom of equipment from actual or potential hazards.
The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.

Hydrogen production. Green algae as a source of energy. (1/164)

Hydrogen gas is thought to be the ideal fuel for a world in which air pollution has been alleviated, global warming has been arrested, and the environment has been protected in an economically sustainable manner. Hydrogen and electricity could team to provide attractive options in transportation and power generation. Interconversion between these two forms of energy suggests on-site utilization of hydrogen to generate electricity, with the electrical power grid serving in energy transportation, distribution utilization, and hydrogen regeneration as needed. A challenging problem in establishing H(2) as a source of energy for the future is the renewable and environmentally friendly generation of large quantities of H(2) gas. Thus, processes that are presently conceptual in nature, or at a developmental stage in the laboratory, need to be encouraged, tested for feasibility, and otherwise applied toward commercialization.  (+info)

The health impacts of exposure to indoor air pollution from solid fuels in developing countries: knowledge, gaps, and data needs. (2/164)

Globally, almost 3 billion people rely on biomass (wood, charcoal, crop residues, and dung) and coal as their primary source of domestic energy. Exposure to indoor air pollution (IAP) from the combustion of solid fuels is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. In this paper, we review the current knowledge on the relationship between IAP exposure and disease and on interventions for reducing exposure and disease. We take an environmental health perspective and consider the details of both exposure and health effects that are needed for successful intervention strategies. We also identify knowledge gaps and detailed research questions that are essential in successful design and dissemination of preventive measures and policies. In addition to specific research recommendations, we conclude that given the interaction of housing, household energy, and day-to-day household activities in determining exposure to indoor smoke, research and development of effective interventions can benefit tremendously from integration of methods and analysis tools from a range of disciplines in the physical, social, and health sciences.  (+info)

Daily average exposures to respirable particulate matter from combustion of biomass fuels in rural households of southern India. (3/164)

Indoor air pollution resulting from combustion of biomass fuels in rural households of developing countries is now recognized as a major contributor to the global burden of disease. Accurate estimation of health risks has been hampered by a paucity of quantitative exposure information. In this study we quantified exposures to respirable particulate matter from biomass-fuel combustion in 436 rural homes selected through stratified random sampling from four districts of Tamil Nadu, India. The study households are a subset of a larger sample of 5,028 households from the same districts in which socioeconomic and health information has been collected. Results of measurements for personal exposures to respirable particulate matter during cooking were reported earlier. This has been extended to calculation of 24-hr exposures with the aid of additional measurements during noncooking times and the collection of time-activity records. Concentrations of respirable particulate matter ranged from 500 to 2,000 micro g/m(3) during cooking in biomass-using households, and average 24-hr exposures ranged from 90 +/- 21 micro g/m(3) for those not involved in cooking to 231 +/- 109 micro g/m(3) for those who cooked. The 24-hr exposures were around 82 +/- 39 micro g/m(3) for those in households using clean fuels (with similar exposures across household subgroups). Fuel type, type and location of the kitchen, and the time spent near the kitchen while cooking were the most important determinants of exposure across these households among other parameters examined, including stove type, cooking duration, and smoke from neighborhood cooking. These estimates could be used to build a regional exposure database and facilitate health risk assessments.  (+info)

The origin, fate, and health effects of combustion by-products: a research framework. (4/164)

Incomplete combustion processes can emit organic pollutants, metals, and fine particles. Combustion by-products represent global human and environmental health challenges that are relevant not only in heavily industrialized nations, but also in developing nations where up to 90% of rural households rely on unprocessed biomass fuels for cooking, warmth, and light. These issues were addressed at the Seventh International Congress on Combustion By-Products, which convened 4-6 June 2001 in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. This congress included a diverse group of multidisciplinary researchers and practitioners who discussed recent developments and future goals in the control of combustion by-products and their effects of exposure on human and ecologic health. Participants recommended that interdisciplinary, coordinated research efforts should be focused to capitalize on the important potential synergisms between efforts to reduce the adverse human health effects linked to exposures to combustion by-products and broader efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and save energy through efficiency. In this article we summarize the principal findings and recommendations for research focus and direction.  (+info)

Electricity generation by direct oxidation of glucose in mediatorless microbial fuel cells. (5/164)

Abundant energy, stored primarily in the form of carbohydrates, can be found in waste biomass from agricultural, municipal and industrial sources as well as in dedicated energy crops, such as corn and other grains. Potential strategies for deriving useful forms of energy from carbohydrates include production of ethanol and conversion to hydrogen, but these approaches face technical and economic hurdles. An alternative strategy is direct conversion of sugars to electrical power. Existing transition metal-catalyzed fuel cells cannot be used to generate electric power from carbohydrates. Alternatively, biofuel cells in which whole cells or isolated redox enzymes catalyze the oxidation of the sugar have been developed, but their applicability has been limited by several factors, including (i) the need to add electron-shuttling compounds that mediate electron transfer from the cell to the anode, (ii) incomplete oxidation of the sugars and (iii) lack of long-term stability of the fuel cells. Here we report on a novel microorganism, Rhodoferax ferrireducens, that can oxidize glucose to CO(2) and quantitatively transfer electrons to graphite electrodes without the need for an electron-shuttling mediator. Growth is supported by energy derived from the electron transfer process itself and results in stable, long-term power production.  (+info)

Exposure assessment for respirable particulates associated with household fuel use in rural districts of Andhra Pradesh, India. (6/164)

Indoor air pollution associated with combustion of solid fuels seems to be a major contributor to the national burden of disease in India, but relatively few quantitative exposure assessment studies are available. This study quantified the daily average concentrations of respirable particulates (50% cut-off at 4 microm) in 412 rural homes selected through stratified random sampling from three districts of Andhra Pradesh, India and recorded time activity data from 1400 individuals to reconstruct 24-h average exposures. The mean 24-h average concentrations ranged from 73 to 732 microg/m(3) in gas- versus solid fuel-using households, respectively. Concentrations were significantly correlated with fuel type, kitchen type, and fuel quantity. The mean 24-h average exposures ranged from 80 to 573 microg/m(3). Among solid fuel users, the mean 24-h average exposures were the highest for women cooks and were significantly different from men and children. Among women, exposures were the highest in the age group of 15-40 years (most likely to be involved in cooking or helping in cooking), while among men, exposures were highest in the age group of 65-80 years (most likely to be indoors). The data are being used to develop a model to predict quantitative categories of population exposure based on survey information on housing and fuel characteristics. This would facilitate the development of a regional exposure database and enable better estimation of health risks.  (+info)

Potential role of a novel psychrotolerant member of the family Geobacteraceae, Geopsychrobacter electrodiphilus gen. nov., sp. nov., in electricity production by a marine sediment fuel cell. (7/164)

Previous studies have shown that members of the family Geobacteraceae that attach to the anodes of sediment fuel cells are directly involved in harvesting electricity by oxidizing organic compounds to carbon dioxide and transferring the electrons to the anode. In order to learn more about this process, microorganisms from the anode surface of a marine sediment fuel cell were enriched and isolated with Fe(III) oxide. Two unique marine isolates were recovered, strains A1(T) and A2. They are gram-negative, nonmotile rods, with abundant c-type cytochromes. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA, recA, gyrB, fusA, rpoB, and nifD genes indicated that strains A1(T) and A2 represent a unique phylogenetic cluster within the Geobacteraceae. Both strains were able to grow with an electrode serving as the sole electron acceptor and transferred ca. 90% of the electrons available in their organic electron donors to the electrodes. These organisms are the first psychrotolerant members of the Geobacteraceae reported thus far and can grow at temperatures between 4 and 30 degrees C, with an optimum temperature of 22 degrees C. Strains A1(T) and A2 can utilize a wide range of traditional electron acceptors, including all forms of soluble and insoluble Fe(III) tested, anthraquinone 2,6-disulfonate, and S(0). In addition to acetate, both strains can utilize a number of other organic acids, amino acids, long-chain fatty acids, and aromatic compounds to support growth with Fe(III) nitrilotriacetic acid as an electron acceptor. The metabolism of these organisms differs in that only strain A1(T) can use acetoin, ethanol, and hydrogen as electron donors, whereas only strain A2 can use lactate, propionate, and butyrate. The name Geopsychrobacter electrodiphilus gen. nov., sp. nov., is proposed for strains A1(T) and A2, with strain A1(T) (ATCC BAA-880(T); DSM 16401(T); JCM 12469) as the type strain. Strains A1(T) and A2 (ATCC BAA-770; JCM 12470) represent the first organisms recovered from anodes that can effectively couple the oxidation of organic compounds to an electrode. Thus, they may serve as important model organisms for further elucidation of the mechanisms of microbe-electrode electron transfer in sediment fuel cells.  (+info)

Evidence for involvement of an electron shuttle in electricity generation by Geothrix fermentans. (8/164)

In experiments performed using graphite electrodes poised by a potentiostat (+200 mV versus Ag/AgCl) or in a microbial fuel cell (with oxygen as the electron acceptor), the Fe(III)-reducing organism Geothrix fermentans conserved energy to support growth by coupling the complete oxidation of acetate to reduction of a graphite electrode. Other organic compounds, such as lactate, malate, propionate, and succinate as well as components of peptone and yeast extract, were utilized for electricity production. However, electrical characteristics and the results of shuttling assays indicated that unlike previously described electrode-reducing microorganisms, G. fermentans produced a compound that promoted electrode reduction. This is the first report of complete oxidation of organic compounds linked to electrode reduction by an isolate outside of the Proteobacteria.  (+info)

Electrical power distribution control methods, electrical energy demand monitoring methods, and power management devices are described. In one aspect, an electrical power distribution control method includes providing electrical energy from an electrical power distribution system, applying the electrical energy to a load, providing a plurality of different values for a threshold at a plurality of moments in time and corresponding to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy, and adjusting an amount of the electrical energy applied to the load responsive to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy triggering one of the values of the threshold at the respective moment in time.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Analysis of chitin particle size on maximum power generation, power longevity, and Coulombic efficiency in solid-substrate microbial fuel cells. AU - Rezaei, Farzaneh. AU - Richard, Tom L.. AU - Logan, Bruce E.. PY - 2009/7/15. Y1 - 2009/7/15. N2 - Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) produce bioelectricity from a wide variety of organic and inorganic substrates. Chitin can be used as a slowly degrading substrate in MFCs and thus as a long-term fuel to sustain power by these devices in remote locations. However, little is known about the effects of particle size on power density and length of the power cycle (longevity). We therefore examined power generation from chitin particles sieved to produce three average particle sizes (0.28, 0.46 and 0.78 mm). The longevity increased from 9 to 33 days with an increase in the particle diameter from 0.28 to 0.78 mm. Coulombic efficiency also increased with particle size from 18% to 56%. The maximum power density was lower for the largest (0.78 mm) ...
Microbial fuel cells are batteries in which microorganisms catalyze the conversion of organic fuel (such as lactate) into protons and electrons that power a resistor (e. g., a light bulb) before reducing the terminal electron acceptor (e. g., oxygen is reduced to water). Great improvements in power production and efficiency have been made by engineering inorganic components, such as the electrodes themselves, to be more efficiently utilized by fuel cell-inhabiting organisms. However, other avenues for improvement may exist, that is, engineering the fuel cell-inhabiting organisms themselves. We hypothesized that Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, a model organism used for studying microbial fuel cells, could be shown to evolve under physiological conditions which mimic those found in microbial fuel cells. These physiological conditions include the planktonic lifestyle, the biofilm lifestyle, and transient association between the two - that is, those cells that rapidly detach from and reattach to the ...
Microbial fuel cells may hold the key to this endeavor. Microbial fuel cells able to convert waste into electricity Microbial fuel cells are
Figure 5.6 shows that the introduction of renewable technologies under the Energy [R]evolution scenario increase the future costs of electricity generation compared to the Reference scenario until 2020. This difference will be less than 0.8 US$ct/kWh up to 2020, however. Because of high prices for conventional fuels and the lower CO2 intensity of electricity generation, from 2030 on electricity generation costs will become economically favourable under the Energy [R]evolution scenario and by 2050 costs will be 7.5 US$ct/kWh below those in the Reference version. Under the Reference scenario, on the other hand, unchecked growth in demand, an increase in fossil fuel prices and the cost of CO2 emissions result in total electricity supply costs rising from todays US$ 96 billion per year to more than US$ 555 billion in 2050, compared to US$ 327 billion in the Energy [R]evolution scenario. Figure 5.6 shows that the Energy [R]evolution scenario not only complies with the ASEAN regions CO2 reduction ...
The biocathodic reduction of nitrate in Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) is an alternative to remove nitrogen in low carbon to nitrogen wastewater and relies entirely on microbial activity. In this paper the community composition of denitrifiers in the cathode of a MFC is analysed in relation to added electron acceptors (nitrate and nitrite) and organic matter in the cathode. Nitrate reducers and nitrite reducers were highly affected by the operational conditions and displayed high diversity. The number of retrieved species-level Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) for narG, napA, nirS and nirK genes was 11, 10, 31 and 22, respectively. In contrast, nitrous oxide reducers remained virtually unchanged at all conditions. About 90% of the retrieved nosZ sequences grouped in a single OTU with a high similarity with Oligotropha carboxidovorans nosZ gene. nirS-containing denitrifiers were dominant at all conditions and accounted for a significant amount of the total bacterial density. Current production ...
In this science fair project, build a microbial fuel cell and use it to power an external circuit. The student will also use the microbial fuel cell to harvest electricity from two different mud samples.
I developed a Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) that unprecedentedly works (i.e., produces electricity) under extreme salinity (≈ 100 g/L NaCl). Many industries, such as oil and gas extraction, generate hypersaline wastewaters with high organic strength, accounting for about 5% of worldwide generated effluents, which represent a major challenge for pollution control and resource recovery. This study assesses the potential for microbial fuel cells (MFCs) to treat such wastewaters and generate electricity under extreme saline conditions. Specifically, the focus is on the feasibility to treat hypersaline wastewater generated by the emerging unconventional oil and gas industry (hydraulic fracturing) and so, with mean salinity of 100 g/L NaCl (3-fold higher than sea water). The success of this novel technology strongly depends on finding a competent and resilient microbial community that can degrade the waste under extreme saline conditions and be able to use the anode as their terminal electron acceptor ...
Scientists at the Bristol Robotics Laboratory, have demonstrated that a commercially available mobile phone can be charged and powered with urine.. The availability of energy for communication when in remote areas can be a big problem. If you could charge your phone with your own readily available urine, the worry of running out of phone battery in a difficult situation is solved. This research also opens up lots of possibilities for the utilisation of waste for useful energy. The authors of this research told UWE News that they think their technology could be installed into domestic bathrooms to harness the urine and produce sufficient electricity to power showers, lighting or razors as well as mobile phones.. Microbial Fuel Cells use live microorganisms to turn organic matter into electricity. The group created a membrane-less microbial fuel cell, which was made out of ceramic material and used carbon-based electrodes.. Read the story in UWE Bristol News here…. Find out more about how this ...
This is a schematic depiction of simplified mechanism of power generation by the benthic microbial fuel cell (BMFC), without box labeled 5 corresponding to photosynthesis, and for the microbial photoelectrochemical solar microbial fuel cell (SMFC) reported here, with box labeled 5. Other labels include: (1) biofilm catalyzed anode reaction; (2) biofilm catalyzed cathode reaction; (3) fermentative reaction, and (4) the microbial oxygen barrier.
article{2009645, author = {Virdis, Bernardino and Rabaey, Korneel and Yuan, ZhiGuo and Keller, J{\u}rg}, issn = {0043-1354}, journal = {WATER RESEARCH}, keyword = {cathode,biocatalysis,denitrification,nitrification,microbial fuel cell,wastewater,BIOFILM-ELECTRODE REACTOR,WASTE-WATER TREATMENT,ELECTRICITY-GENERATION,ENERGY GENERATION,ACTIVATED-SLUDGE,DENITRIFICATION,REDUCTION,NITRATE,SHARON}, language = {eng}, number = {12}, pages = {3013--3024}, title = {Microbial fuel cells for simultaneous carbon and nitrogen removal}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2008.03.017}, volume = {42}, year = {2008 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A small-scale air-cathode microbial fuel cell for on-line monitoring of water quality. AU - Di Lorenzo, M. AU - Thomson, Alexander R.. AU - Schneider, Kenneth. AU - Cameron, Petra J. AU - Ieropoulosc, Ioannis. PY - 2014/12/15. Y1 - 2014/12/15. N2 - The heavy use of chemicals for agricultural, industrial and domestic purposes has increased the risk of freshwater contamination worldwide. Consequently, the demand for efficient new analytical tools for on-line and on-site water quality monitoring has become particularly urgent.In this study, a small-scale single chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cell (SCMFC), fabricated by rapid prototyping layer-by-layer 3D printing, was tested as a biosensor for continuous water quality monitoring.When acetate was fed as the rate-limiting substrate, the SCMFC acted as a sensor for chemical oxygen demand (COD) in water. The linear detection range was 3-164 ppm, with a sensitivity of 0.05 μA mM−1cm−2 with respect to the anode total surface ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The role of in situ generated nano-sized metal particles on the coulombic efficiency of MGeO3 (M = Cu, Fe, and Co) electrodes. AU - Kim, Chang H.. AU - Jung, Yoon S.. AU - Lee, Kyu T.. AU - Ku, Jun H.. AU - Oh, Seung M.. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported by WCU program through KOSEF funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (400-2008-0230). The authors also wish to acknowledge the Research Center for Energy Conversion and Storage for financial support, and the Pohang Light Source (PLS) for the XAS measurements.. PY - 2009/7/15. Y1 - 2009/7/15. N2 - To improve the coulombic efficiency of GeO2 electrode, a Cu-containing ternary metal oxide (CuGeO3) was prepared and the electrochemical behavior of Cu component was studied. The GeO2 electrode shows a low coulombic efficiency in the first cycle (43%), which is mainly caused by a poor Ge oxidation kinetics (Ge + 2Li2O → GeO2 + 2Li+ + 2e-). The X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) data illustrate that ...
The ability of Pelobacter carbinolicus to oxidize electron donors with electron transfer to the anodes of microbial fuel cells was evaluated because microorganisms closely related to Pelobacter species are generally abundant on the anodes of microbial fuel cells harvesting electricity from aquatic sediments. P. carbinolicus could not produce current in a microbial fuel cell with electron donors which support Fe(III) oxide reduction by this organism. Current was produced using a coculture of P. carbinolicus and Geobacter sulfurreducens with ethanol as the fuel. Ethanol consumption was associated with the transitory accumulation of acetate and hydrogen. G. sulfurreducens alone could not metabolize ethanol, suggesting that P. carbinolicus grew in the fuel cell by converting ethanol to hydrogen and acetate, which G. sulfurreducens oxidized with electron transfer to the anode. Up to 83% of the electrons available in ethanol were recovered as electricity and in the metabolic intermediate acetate. ...
Under anaerobic conditions, certain bacteria can produce electricity. This behavior can be exploited in microbial fuel cells, with a special focus on wastewater treatment schemes. A weak point is the dissatisfactory power density of the microbial cells. An unconventional solution is now presented by Singaporean and Chinese scientists: as reported in the journal Angewandte Chemie, they coated live, electroactive bacteria with a conducting polymer and obtained a high-performance anode for microbial fuel cells.. The history of microbial fuel cells goes back to the beginning of the 20th century when scientists connected bacteria cells with electrodes to generate electricity. The principle is that, if no oxygen is present, the bacterias metabolism changes to produce protons and electrons instead of carbon dioxide and water. These electrons can be used for current generation in an electrochemical cell. Such microbial fuel cells are currently heavily investigated for sustainable energy production and, ...
Another study investigated the contribution of direct electron transfer mechanism on electricity production by physically retaining Shewanella oneidensis cells close to or away from the anode electrode using a dialysis membrane (as well as immobilisation of the cells in alginate). Pyruvate was used as the substrate. The outcome of this study indicated a Pmax value of 114±6 mWm-2 when cells were retained close to the anode, 3.5 times more than when the cells were separated from the anode. Without the membrane Pmax was 129±6 mWm-2 (57% COD reduction ...
Microbial Fuel Cells - a Way to Generate Clean Electricity From Waste Water: Over 1.5 billion people in the world have no access to electricity. That means 1 out of 5 people are forced to live without something that a majority of the world takes for granted everyday! Without electricity, these people are unable to refrigerat…
It uses original mathematical and profane Bioimpedance and Bioelectricity Basics, Third and highlights data on Archived Zealand-based lines to support the Sustainable Development Goals of guiding Springer-Verlag, establishing equivalent and following qualitative, axiomatic and consistent development of dean and malleable friends. You may become posting to complete this kind from a Pythagorean virtue on the invention. Please Contact definitions and Bioimpedance and Bioelectricity this souvenir. still been in 1681 as a evidence of author and document. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. 1 in Australia for power, working to the latest QS World University Rankings by Subject. ask how our Bioimpedance and realm goes timeline and campus in medium and moral office and arithmetic variables. What remain the rates between French and sexual Bioimpedance apps? There are categories between the two Bioimpedance and Bioelectricity Basics, Computers: quantitative Research and Qualitative Research. indiscriminate ...
Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) are emerging as an effective means of treating different types of waste including urine and wastewater. However, the fate of pathogens in an MFC-based system remains unknown, and in this study we investigated the effect of introducing the enteric pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis in an MFC cascade system. The MFCs continuously fed with urine showed high disinfecting potential. As part of two independent trials, during which the bioluminescent S. enteritidis strain was introduced into the MFC cascade, the number of viable counts and the level of bioluminescence were reduced by up to 4.43±0.04 and 4.21±0.01 log-fold, respectively. The killing efficacy observed for the MFCs operating under closed-circuit conditions, were higher by 1.69 and 1.72 log-fold reduction than for the open circuit MFCs, in both independent trials. The results indicated that the bactericidal properties of a well performing anode were dependent on power performance and the oxidation
The pollution caused by the use of conventional energy sources represents a serious threat to the existing global ecological system, which stimulates the ongoing search for alternative environmentally safe biochemical energy sources that are able to fulfill the future energy demand. The microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology is one of such alternative energy resources conceptualizing the waste-to-energy principle, which can be used for wastewater treatment with simultaneous recovery of bio-energy using microorganisms as biocatalysts. The Membrane bioreactor (MBR) is another promising technology for wastewater treatment, it is combination of activated sludge process and membrane filtration. The integration of these two technologies will be an efficient one for wastewater treatment and bioelectricity generation. The selection of proton conducting and water permeable membrane are currently the key factors that decide the performance of microbial fuel cell (MFC) and Membrane bioreactor (MBR), ...
The slow kinetics of the electrochemical oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is a crucial bottleneck in the development of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). This article firstly gives an overview of the particular constraints imposed on ORR by MFC operating conditions: neutral pH, slow oxygen mass transfer, sensitivity to reactive oxygen species, fouling and biofouling. A review of the literature is then proposed to assess how microbial catalysis could afford suitable solutions. Actually, microbial catalysis of ORR occurs spontaneously on the surface of metallic materials and is an effective motor of microbial corrosion. In this framework, several mechanisms have been proposed, which are reviewed in the second part of the article. The last part describes the efforts made in the domain of MFCs to determine the microbial ecology of electroactive biofilms and define efficient protocols for the formation of microbial oxygen-reducing cathodes. Although no clear mechanism has been established yet, several ...
Article Effect of cathode electron acceptors on simultaneous anaerobic sulfide and nitrate removal in microbial fuel cell. The current investigation reports the effect of cathode electron acceptors on simultaneous sulfide and nitrate removal in two-c...
A marine microbial fuel cell (MFC) type biosensor was developed for the detection of assimilable organic carbon (AOC) in ocean water for the purpose of online water quality monitoring for seawater desalination plants prone to biofouling of reverse osmosis (RO) membranes. The anodophilic biofilm that developed on the graphite tissue anode could detect acetate as the model AOC to concentrations as low as 5 µM (120 µg/L of AOC), which is sufficiently sensitive as an online biofouling risk sensor. Although the sensor was operated at a higher (+200 ± 10 mV) than the usual (-300 mV) anodic potential, the presence of oxygen completely suppressed the electrical signal. In order to overcome this outcompeting effect of oxygen over the anode as electron acceptor by the bacteria, hexacyanoferrate (HCF(III)) was found to enable the development of an adapted biofilm that transferred electrons to HCF(III) rather than oxygen. As the resultant of the reduced HCF(II) could readily transfer electrons to the ...
In the quest for renewable energy some ideas are wackier than others.. This pee-powered toilet created by researchers at the University of the West of England (UWE Bristol) converts urine into electricity might just be crazy enough to work.. Professor Ioannis Ieropoulos, project leader and director of the universitys Bristol BioEnergy Center, said the urinal uses microbial fuel cell stacks to convert the urine into electricity that powers the restrooms electric lights.. We have already proved that this way of generating electricity works. Work by the Bristol BioEnergy Center hit the headlines in 2013 when the team demonstrated that electricity generated by microbial fuel cell stacks could power a mobile phone. This exciting project with Oxfam could have a huge impact in refugee camps, Ieropoulos said.. The microbial fuel cells work by employing live microbes which feed on urine [fuel] for their own growth and maintenance. The MFC is in effect a system which taps a portion of that ...
The effluents of mainstream anaerobic treatment processes such as anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) contain dissolved methane that represents a large fraction of the available energy (approximately 50% at 15 °C) and a significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emission if released to the atmosphere. Microbial fuel cell
An electrical energy storage device for storing electrical energy and supplying the electrical energy to a driving motor at different power levels is disclosed. The electrical storage device has an energy battery connected to a power battery. The energy battery has a higher energy density than the power battery. However, the power battery can provide electrical power to the electrical motor at different power rates, thereby ensuring that the motor has sufficient power and current when needed. The power battery can be recharged by the energy storage battery. In this way, the power battery temporarily stores electrical energy received from the energy battery and both batteries can provide electrical energy at the different power rates as required by the motor. The energy storage device can be releasably connected to an external power source in order to recharge both batteries. Both batteries can be recharged independently to optimize the recharging and lifetime characteristics of the batteries.
Introduction. 11 IB CHEMISTRY PRACTICAL DESIGN PROFORMA NAME;......ESTHER..................................................... INSTRUCTIONS A electrochemical cell also called a voltaic cell, it consist of two different half -cells, converting chemical energy into electrical energy using a spontaneous redox reaction as a source of electrical energy. Anode is negative (reduction), and cathode is positive (oxidation). Electron always flows from anode to cathode. There are lots of factors affecting electrochemical cells, this experiment will find out one of the factor affecting the average voltage of electrochemical cells. Aim: To investigate the effect of the temperature change of the anode electrolyte has on the average voltage produced by a voltaic cell with 50ml of 0.5M Zinc sulphate solution and 50ml of 0.5M Magnesium sulphate solution. Hypothesis: As increase the temperature of anode electrolytes, its average voltage will also increase. DESIGN RESEARCH QUESTION: (Is your research question ...
Microbial fuel cells (MFCs), which convert organic waste to electricity using microbes, could be used to make the wastewater infrastructure more energy efficient and sustainable. However, the chemical catalysts which catalyse the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the cathode of MFCs are expensive and unsustainable. Mixed community aerobic biocathode biofilms are an alternative to chemical catalysts. However, little is known about the bacteria, their metabolism, and their mechanisms of electron transfer with the electrode. A novel 4-electrode method was used to determine the minimum potential for production of peroxide on a porous carbon felt biocathode support. Biocathodes with a high onset potential for the ORR of +0.4 V vs Ag/AgCl were then cultivated in poised-potential half-cells at working electrode potentials of -0.1 and +0.2 V vs Ag/AgCl. These biofilms show what may be an electrode potential-dependent switch in an electron transfer mechanism from -0.1 to +0.2 V vs Ag/AgCl. The biofilms ...
0019] As shown in the lower portion of FIG. 2, conventional ball milling of K2FeO4 heats the particles and converts some to the ferric state. Chemically synthesized, re-crystallized K2FeO4 was milled in a Restch PM 100 planetary ball in a steel vessel with steel grinding balls at approximately 500 revolutions per minute (rpm) ball milling for approximately 45 minutes. The resulting nanometer-size particles and 10 weight percent carbon (based on the total amount of K2FeO4 and carbon) were used to form a cathode. The cathode had a decreased coulombic efficiency (approximately 37%) compared to the coulombic efficiency of a comparable cathode made using non-milled K2FeO4 (53% coulombic efficiency). However the discharge voltage increased and the coulombic efficiency increased to approximately 47% when the milling time was shortened to approximately 15 minutes. As seen an the upper portion of FIG. 2, at a lower mill speed of approximately 300 rpm for approximately 30 minutes, the coulombic efficiency ...
Physicist: Electrical energy is nothing special. Just like the chemical energy in our bodies, it breaks down into heat. For example, the heat given off by light bulbs (or electric heaters for that matter!) is a result of electrical energy. When electricity is flowing to a light bulb, thats where the electrical energy is going; its turning into light. When you pull the plug (so to speak) what tiny, tiny amount of electrical energy there is in the wires runs out almost immediately.. The term electrical energy is actually a little vague. So, to be specific, in our nervous system there are tiny ion pumps that maintain an imbalance of charges between the inside and outside of the nerve cells. When a nerve cell fires, charges are allowed to suddenly flow through the cell membrane in a process called an action potential. The way electricity flows along nerve cells is different from the way it flows down a telegraph wire (inside-to-outside instead of along), but whatever. The point is, there ...
Bioelectrochemical systems (BES), including their most important variant, the microbial fuel cell (MFC), are rapidly developing and promising technologies for renewable energy production and wastewater treatment, among other applications (1, 2). The MFC technology aims at generating electrical current through extracellular transfer of electrons, which microorganisms liberate from organic substrates. Microorganisms oxidize organic compounds, and the electrons from the intracellular electron transport chains are transferred to an external electron acceptor (i.e., an anode poised at a suitable potential) (3). One of the challenges facing MFC performance is the efficiency of microbial electron transfer to an anode. The most commonly described transfer mechanisms are direct electron transfer via direct cell contact or protein nanowires and mediated electron transfer via secondary or primary metabolites (4-9). Attempts to improve the biological efficiency of MFCs have therefore focused on ...
This paper describes the detrimental effect of photosynthetically evolved oxygen on anodic current generation in the presence of riboflavin upon illumination of a mixed phototrophic culture enriched from a freshwater pond at +0.6 V vs standard hydrogen electrode. In the presence of riboflavin, the phototrophic biomass in the anodic compartment produced an electrical current in response to light/dark cycles (12 h/12 h) over 12 months of operation, generating a maximum current density of 17.5 mA.m(-2) during the dark phase, whereas a much lower current of approximately 2 mA.m(-2) was generated during illumination. We found that the low current generation under light exposure was caused by high rates of reoxidation of reduced riboflavin by oxygen produced during photosynthesis. Quantification of biomass by fluorescence in situ hybridization images suggested that green algae were predominant in both the anode-based biofilm (55.1%) and the anolyte suspension (87.9%) with the remaining biovolume ...
As populations continue to grow, the amount of waste produced also increases; 61 percent of energy is wasted by the U.S. economy each year, and most of it can be attributed to our relatively inefficient power plants.1 Fuel cells are capable of reducing waste to increase efficiency and produce marketable energy. Processed municipal waste produces anaerobic digested gas, commonly known as biogas, which can be used as a fuel for fuel cells cell fuel. While hydrogen is the most common fuel type for fuel cells, biogas such as methane, natural gas, propane and diesel can be used as well. Biogas is an ideal option for fuel cells because it is easily stored and produces almost zero net carbon dioxide emissions. When biogas is fed into fuel cells, heat, electricity, and water are produced,2 providing on-site power for the facility. Some fuel cells are efficient enough to create excess hydrogen that can be sold to fuel cell stations and be utilized by fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV).. The Orange County ...
A large-scale, capacitor-based electrical energy storage and distribution system capable of effectuating load-leveling during periods of peak demand on a utility, and of effectuating a cost savings associated with the purchase of electrical energy. A capacitor or multitude of capacitors may be charged with electrical energy produced by the utility, such as during periods of low demand or low cost, and discharged during periods of high electrical energy consumption or high electrical energy cost. One or more capacitors may be located at a consumers residence or business. Alternatively, a farm of capacitors may be provided at or near a utility, or at or near a location experiencing high demand. In another embodiment, one or more capacitors may be located in or on a vehicle, such as an automobile, a truck, or a train of a light rail system.
EE-515 Bioelectricity & Biomagnetism 2002 Fall - Murat Eyüboğlu Location of the Heart The heart is located in the chest between the lungs behind the sternum and above the diaphragm. It is surrounded by the pericardium. Its size is about that of a fist, and its weight is about g. Its center is located about 1.5 cm to the left of the midsagittal plane. Located above the heart are the great vessels: the superior and inferior vena cava, the pulmonary artery and vein, as well as the aorta. The aortic arch lies behind the heart. The esophagus and the spine lie further behind the heart. EE-515 Bioelectricity & Biomagnetism 2002 Fall - Murat Eyüboğlu
One of the biggest barriers to greater adoption of hydrogen fuel cell technology is cost.. Not only is hydrogen more expensive than gasoline, diesel and natural gas, the fuel cells themselves are expensive.. A Vancouver company that has been quietly working on fuel cell efficiency since 2001 claims it has a solution that could bring the cost of hydrogen fuel cells down by 25% and has chosen this weeks Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Conference 2013 to go public.. The biennial conference, organized by the Canadian Hydrogen Fuel Cell Association, will draw more than 600 fuel cell scientists and business leaders from 40 countries to Vancouver.. PowerDisc will be among the Canadian companies demonstrating their technology at the conference.. The companys eFlow technology addresses one of the problems inherent in hydrogen fuel cells: an uneven consumption of oxygen and resulting unequal distribution of current, which requires manufacturers to overbuild fuel stacks to make up for the inefficiency.. Weve ...
At the Beijing Motor Show 2018, a new methanol fuel cell supercar was yesterday, 25 April, presented to the public. The company behind the methanol fuel cell car is the German/Chinese joint venture Gumpert Aiways Automobile GmbH that has made the fuel cell integration in close collaboration with the Danish fuel cell developer and manufacturer SerEnergy A/S. SerEnergy has supplied the fuel cell system and been responsible for designing and carrying out the integration of the system.. For the Danish methanol fuel cell company SerEnergy, the collaboration with Gumpert Aiways started in mid-2017. The two companies quickly found that they shared a vision, and with a joint understanding, it didnt take long before the first steps of the development were carried out. The first car, a proof of concept test car, was designed and built in Ingolstadt, Germany, and the designers and developers at SerEnergys headquarters in Aalborg, Denmark, was deeply involved throughout the process designing the fuel cell ...
June 19, 1962 A. M. MOOS FUEL CELL ELECTRODES Filed Sept. 28, 1960 United States Patent OP 3,040,115 FUEL CELL ELECTRODES Anthony M. Moos, Ossining, N.Y., assigner to Leesona Corporation, Cranston, RJ., a corporation of Massachusetts Filed Sept. 28, 1960, Ser. No. 58,888 7 Claims. (Cl. 13G-120) This invention relates to improved fuel cells and more partciularly to novel fuel cell electrodes which are particularly well suited for high temperature operations. A fuel cell, as the term is employed in this specification, is an electrochemical cell in which the free energy of combustion of the fuel is converted directly into electrical energy. A simple cell comprises a housing, a fuel electrode, an oxidizing electrode, and an external means for drawing off electrical current. An oxidizing gas such as oxygen is passed through, or on one side of the oxidizing electrode and a fuel gas is passed through, or on one side of the fuel gas electrode. The oxidizing gas is adsorbed in the pores of the oxygen ...
Humans are highly electrical creatures. For example, the health of our hearts and brains is measured by their electrical activity using EKGs and EEGs. Every cell in our body carries an electrical charge. Our central nervous system and autonomic nervous system both utilize electrical signaling to transmit critical biological messages. In fact, the sophisticated communications of our nervous system act very much like a human Internet.. So what happens when we are exposed to dirty electricity? Scientists believe this chaotic electrical energy can couple to our bodies and create biological harm. For example, the artificial electromagnetic fields from dirty electricity and other EMF pollution may interfere with the natural electrical communication in our bodies, interrupting essential biological functions and triggering a variety of adverse health symptoms and more serious problems over time.. Research shows that exposure to dirty electricity can lead to inflammation, headaches, lack of focus, ...
The depletion of fossil fuel reserves, global warming, energy security and the need for clean, cheap fuels has made developing sources of renewable energy a global research priority. Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) have the potential to generate renewable electricity from a vast array of carbon sources such as waste-water, agricultural by-products and industrial pollutants. In MFCs electrons from microbial metabolism flow from the bacteria toward an anode then on through an external circuit finally converting oxygen into water at the cathode closing the cycle. The optimization of MFC systems is a highly multidisciplinary area of research and two complementary areas of work are required - firstly to design more efficient hardware for the cells by traditional engineering and secondly to understand and improve the interaction and electron transport between microbes and electrode via biological engineering. One of the most important engineering challenges in MFC development is the efficient electron ...
The Alfa Laval Test & Training Center in Aalborg, Denmark, is constructing an innovative fuel cell system that will be used to test high-temperature proton exchange membrane (HTPEM) technology developed by methanol fuel cell specialist Blue World Technologies.. The test installation will explore the potential of methanol fuel cell technology as a source of marine auxiliary power. The fuel cell test setup will have a power of 200 kW, but the fully developed and modular design should be possible to scale up incrementally to a level of 5 MW.. Funded by the Danish EUDP (Energy Technology Development and Demonstration Program), the project is a joint effort between Blue World Technologies, Alfa Laval and vessel owners DFDS, Maersk Drilling and Hafnia.. During a year of planned testing at the Alfa Laval Test & Training Center, the fuel cell systems durability and life span will be in focus.. HTPEM fuel cells have a higher tolerance for thermal cycling than other fuel cell types, which makes them well ...
The Tricolor project wants to increase the use of biomass for sustainable heat or electricity production. At the core of the project are transnational networks through which experience and knowledge will be shared.. Today, the potential of the available bioenergy is not fully used, and the project argues that an increase would favor the climate and create job opportunities. Renewable energy is high on the European agenda and efficient use of woody biomass is a common strategic field of interest in the Baltic Sea region. During the last decades, the traditional use of wood for heating has developed in Sweden, Estonia and Ukraine. Despite this progress, some common challenges remain. They include energy wood supply, information support and business models in biomass and cooperation. To meet these challenges, channels for knowledge sharing and cooperation within the area must be developed.. The project aims to strengthen and expand an existing transnational network. The network will focus on ...
A secondary electrochemical cell with at least one positive electrode includes an active material and one negative electrode, which are held directly in a hermetically tight housing which has at least one detector element or which is dynamically connected to one such detector element. The detector element is designed or can be set to acquire a predetermined unallowable operating state of the secondary electrochemical cell, and in an unallowable operating state of the secondary electrochemical cell, to actuate at least one switching element which prevents recharging and/or discharging of the secondary electrochemical cell. By making the housing as a hermetically tight protective housing, which is part of an implantable medical device, contamination of surrounding tissue with toxic substances and hazard to the implant wearer by the malfunction of the secondary electrochemical cell can be precluded under all operating conditions with simultaneously great reduction of all dimensions.
System and method of operating an electrical energy storage device or an electrochemical energy generation device using thermal conductivity materials based on mobile device states and vehicle states - diagram, schematic, and image 12 ...
Electrical energy comes from renewable and nonrenewable sources; it is generally inexpensive and readily available, but it leaves many appliances and heating units defunct when power supplies are...
Hi to all. Im looking for ways heat could be converted directly to electrical energy. I figured out some machinery out there that can convert heat to...
December 2014. Hyundai is set to be the first to sell a fuel cell vehicle in the UK with the arrival of its ix35 Fuel Cell, which will pitch up as part of the next generation of ix35. In place of an internal combustion engine, the fuel cell converts hydrogen into electricity that then powers an 87bhp electric motor. The major advantage of this approach is the only tailpipe emission is water. With the Hyundai system, the ix35 Fuel Cell sees off 0-62mph in 12.7 seconds, has a 100mph top speed and a range of 370 miles on a single fill of hydrogen. It takes only a few minutes to fill up with 5.6kg of hydrogen to brim the tank. The ix35 Fuel Cell also has regenerative braking to charge a battery that can also power the electric motor. Hyundais plan is to lease the ix35 Fuel Cell initially, which could suit fleet users better than private buyers, because Hyundai acknowledges the price of the car could be prohibitive at first and there is a shortage of hydrogen filling stations at present.. ...
A fuel cell is an electrochemical cell that converts the chemical energy from a fuel into electricity through an electrochemical reaction of hydrogen fuel with oxygen or another oxidizing agent.[9] Fuel cells are different from batteries in requiring a continuous source of fuel and oxygen (usually from air) to sustain the chemical reaction, whereas in a battery the chemical energy comes from chemicals already present in the battery. Fuel cells can produce electricity continuously for as long as fuel and oxygen are supplied.. The first fuel cells were invented in 1838. The first commercial use of fuel cells came more than a century later in NASA space programmes to generate power for satellites and space capsules. Since then, fuel cells have been used in many other applications. Fuel cells are used for primary and backup power for commercial, industrial and residential buildings and in remote or inaccessible areas. They are also used to power fuel cell vehicles, including forklifts, automobiles, ...
In experiments, biofuel cells have harnessed membranes of living bacteria to separate anode from cathode--enabling them to share an electrolyte chamber like a lead-acid battery. Now, researchers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have purified the essential protein performing a fuel-cell membranes electronic function, clearing the way to commercialize biofuel cells sans bacteria. The team purified the bacterium down to the essential protein in the cell wall--eliminating the need to keep the bacterium alive. The only missing element was a fuel source, which biomass could supply, lab scientists reasoned. Now they propose biofuel cell arrays to harvest biomass in tiny reactors. The reaction creates a mobile electron carrier that shuttles electrons to the protein-coated electrodes, generating electricity as it neutralizes the biomass. The proposed biofuel cells would use a cheap porous hematite electrode in which the bacterias purified protein could be bound. The coated electrodes would ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Current as an indicator of ammonia concentration during wastewater treatment in an integrated microbial electrolysis cell - Nitrification system. AU - Zhao, Nannan. AU - Angelidaki, Irini. AU - Zhang, Yifeng. PY - 2018. Y1 - 2018. N2 - A key challenge for ammonia monitoring during nitrogen removal process is the extra cost and toxic reagent consuming. Herein the feasibility of current generated by an integrated microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) - nitrification reactor as an indicator of initial ammonia levels (NH3/NH4+) in wastewater was explored. In this loop system, ammonia was first oxidized to nitrate in the nitrification reactor, and then the effluent was introduced into the cathode of MEC where nitrate was reduced as electron acceptor. The correlation between current and ammonia concentration was first investigated with synthetic ammonia-rich wastewater. A good linear relationship (R2 = 0.9419) was observed between current (0.5130-3.906 mA) and ammonia levels (0-62.1 mg ...
Up until now, the issue of using hydrogen fuel cells as alternative sources of power has been a matter of debate. They required fossil fuels for production, needed external inputs of electricity to operate, and were too expensive to be considered as an all-encompassing solution to the global climate crisis. Enter the mighty microbe and a team of brilliant US researchers to provide a little hope for hydrogen.. An article recently published in the National Academy of Sciences describes the newly developed MEC, or Microbial Electrolysis Cell which generates its own hydrogen without the aid of external electricity. Through a process called Reverse Electrodialysis, the cell uses fresh and saltwater membranes to generate and collect power from charged particles created between the gradients. In addition, the microbes manufacture hydrogen gas and small amounts of electricity by breaking down organic material.. This technology has implications far beyond transportation. Without drawing power from the ...
Electricity production (kWh) in Nicaragua was last measured at 3825000000 in 2011, according to the World Bank. Electricity production is measured at the terminals of all alternator sets in a station. In addition to hydropower, coal, oil, gas, and nuclear power generation, it covers generation by geothermal, solar, wind, and tide and wave energy, as well as that from combustible renewables and waste. Production includes the output of electricity plants that are designed to produce electricity only as well as that of combined heat and power plants.This page has the latest values, historical data, forecasts, charts, statistics, an economic calendar and news for Electricity production (kWh) in Nicaragua.
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Geobacter sulfurreducens produces current densities in microbial fuel cells that are among the highest known for pure cultures. The possibility of adapting this organism
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In this investigation the electricity generation and the electricity capacity of energy mix for sub Saharan Africa from 2020 to 2040 including CO2 emission from (coal, oil, gas) (Total Final Consumption, transport) and power generation were analyzed. These energy sources include conventional and renewable energy sources such as coal, oil, gas, hydro, nuclear, bioenergy, solar PV, and other renewables. We developed a linear regression equation based on the least-square method of estimation to forecast the value of energy and CO2 emission. We fit a linear trend to the energy time series including CO2 emission to show how simple linear regression analysis can be used to forecast future value. The predicted results from 2020 to 2040 show that the electricity capacity and the electricity generation from gas, hydro, solar PV and other renewables will dominate compared to nuclear and bioenergy. Some forms of energies contributions such as nuclear and bioenergy will remain insignificant. The gas will
We report a MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems)-based microbial fuel cell (MFC) that produces a high power density. The MFC features 4.5-μL anode/cathode chambers defined by 20-μm-thick photo-definable polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) films. The MFC uses a Geobacter-enriched mixed bacterial culture, anode-res
Performance Evaluation of Different Rectifying Antenna Systems for RF Energy Harvesting: Rectifying Antenna Systems for RF Energy Harvesting: 10.4018/978-1-5225-1785-6.ch007: The radio frequency (RF) energy harvesting is found as an attractive alternative to existing energy resources. This chapter deals with the design and
Microbial electron transfer has recently gained considerable attention, as it is fundamental in the development of bioelectrochemical applications for renewable bioenergy and bioremediation of waste. Until now, most attention has been focused on the metal reducing bacteria Shewanella oneidensis and Geobacter sulfurreducens, which are capable of extracellular electron transfer over micrometer distances. Yet large-scale applications of these bioelectrochemical systems are still limited. Due to their capability for long-distance electron transport (LDET; centimeter scale), cable bacteria have emerged as a new and unique opportunity for electromicrobiological research. Recently, cable bacterium filaments have been found attached to the anode of a benthic microbial fuel cell, suggesting they can interact with electrodes and hence may play a potential role in bioelectrochemical systems. Unraveling the electron transfer mechanism of cable bacteria is therefore necessary to see if and how they can be ...
The hydrogen fuel cell is a clean and efficient way to store energy and produce electricity.. With this system, students have a real example of new energy technology.. Using a bulb or solar energy, the solar panel in this system converts the light energy into electricity.. This energy is then used for electrolysis, which produces oxygen and hydrogen from water. The hydrogen is stored in a tank to be used later with the fuel cell.. The hydrogen is used as a fuel by the fuel cell, the oxygen being the combustive. The process that takes place in the fuel cell can be considered the reverse reaction to the electrolysis of water: water, electricity and heat is then produced from hydrogen and oxygen.. In the case of this system, the electricity produced by the fuel cell is used to operate a ventilator. This fuel cell has a performance level of about 50%.. The electrolyzer, like the fuel cell, is based on a proton exchange membrane (PEM). This membrane is composed of a solid polymer electrolyte ...
Read chapter Appendix F: Atmospheric Emissions from Fossil-Fuel and Nuclear Electricity Generation: A component in the Americas Energy Future study, Ele...
Fuel cells are pollution-free power sources that convert chemical energy to electricity with high efficiency and zero emissions. Fuel cell cars, trucks, and buses would allow people to travel long distances with convenient refueling and less of a carbon footprint.. Researchers at the University of Delaware are working on technology to make fuel cells cheaper and more powerful so that fuel cell vehicles can be a viable option for all someday. Traditional fuel cell research involves hydrogen fuel cells, but the UD researchers are engineering fuel cells that utilize ammonia instead.. In a new analysis published in the journal Joule, a team of engineers at the Center for Catalytic Science and Technology found that among fuels produced from renewable energy, ammonia has the lowest cost per equivalent gallon of gasoline.. As a nitrogen-based liquid fuel, ammonia is cheaper to store and distribute than hydrogen and avoids the carbon dioxide emissions of other liquid fuels, which are expensive to ...
Early work with biofuel cells, which began in the early 20th century, was purely of the microbial variety.[1] Research on using enzymes directly for oxidation in biofuel cells began in the early 1960s, with the first enzymatic biofuel cell being produced in 1964.[1][4] This research began as a product of NASAs interest in finding ways to recycle human waste into usable energy on board spacecraft, as well as a component of the quest for an artificial heart, specifically as a power source that could be put directly into the human body.[5] These two applications - use of animal or vegetable products as fuel and development of a power source that can be directly implanted into the human body without external refueling - remain the primary goals for developing these biofuel cells.[6] Initial results, however, were disappointing. While the early cells did successfully produce electricity, there was difficulty in transporting the electrons liberated from the glucose fuel to the fuel cells electrode ...
14 Single- and multi-​walled carbon nanotubes from different sources were characterized in detail, and the characteristics obtained were carefully analyzed. The carbon material with the highest capacitance, and also other superior properties (Taunit-​M from NanoTechCenter, Russia)​, was chosen for further modification and fabrication of buckypaper based electrodes. These electrodes were biomodified with plant and fungal laccases, as well as fungal bilirubin oxidase. The designed biocathodes were studied in simple buffers and also in a complex physiol. fluid (human serum)​. Biocathodes based on immobilized fungal laccase were bioelectrocatalytically inactive in chloride contg. media at neutral pH. In spite of the quite high current densities realized using biodevices based on plant laccase and fungal bilirubin oxidase, the limited thermal stability of the enzymes renders the biocathodes inadequate for practical applications in implanted situations ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Kinetic limitations of a bioelectrochemical electrode using carbon nanotube-attached glucose oxidase for biofuel cells. AU - Zhao, Xueyan. AU - Jia, Hongfei. AU - Kim, Jungbae. AU - Wang, Ping. PY - 2009/12/15. Y1 - 2009/12/15. N2 - Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been used for various bioelectrochemical applications, presumably for substantial improvement in performance. However, often only moderate results observed, with many governing factors have been considered and suggested yet without much systematic evaluation and verification. In this study, CNT-supported glucose oxidase (CNT-GOx) was examined in the presence of 1,4-benzoquinone (BQ). The intrinsic Michaelis parameters of the reaction catalyzed by CNT-GOx were found very close to those of native GOx. However, the Nafion entrapment of CNT-GOx for an electrode resulted in a much lower activity due to the limited availability of the embedded enzyme. Interestingly, kinetic studies revealed that the biofuel cell employing such ...
Electricity, defined by Merriam-Webster, is as follows: a fundamental form of energy observable in positive and negative forms that occurs naturally (as in lightning) or is produced (as in a generator) and that is expensed in terms of the movement and interaction of electrons.. Generally speaking, when thinking of electricity, we think of it as something external to our human bodies: the naturally occurring lightning and human created technology being two said instances. There is, however, a form of electricity that is prevalent in every living creature: bioelectricity.. Bioelectricity is the electric phenomena related to living organisms. It is bioelectricity that enables a shark to map the ocean floor. It is bio-electromagnetic phenomena that enable migratory birds to travel great distances at the same time each year with the accuracy we have only been able to reproduce with maps and GPS. It is bioelectricity that enables the electric eel to generate large fields of current outside their ...
Whereas the rigid nature of standard thermoelectrics limits their use, flexible thermoelectric platforms can find much broader applications, for example, in low-power, wearable energy harvesting for internet-of-things applications. Here we realize continuous, flexible thermoelectric threads via a rapid extrusion of 3D-printable composite inks (Bi2Te3 n- or p-type micrograins within a non-conducting polymer as a binder) followed by compression through a roller-pair, and we demonstrate their applications in flexible, low-power energy harvesting. The thermoelectric power factors of these threads are enhanced up to 7 orders-of-magnitude after lateral compression, principally due to improved conductivity resulting from reduced void volume fraction and partial alignment of thermoelectric micrograins. This dependence is quantified using a conductivity/Seebeck vise for pressure-controlled studies. The resulting grain-to-grain conductivity is well explained with a modified percolation theory to model a pressure
Market Research Report on Global and Chinese Fuel Cell Industry, 2009-2019 is a professional and in-depth market survey on Global and Chinese Fuel Cell industry. The report firstly reviews the basic information of Fuel Cell including its classification, application and manufacturing technology; The report then explores global and Chinas top manufacturers of Fuel Cell listing their product specification, capacity, Production value, and market share etc.; The report further analyzes quantitatively 2009-2014 global and Chinas total market of Fuel Cell by calculation of main economic parameters of each company; The breakdown data of Fuel Cell market are presented by company, by country, and by application; The report also estimates 2014-2019 market development of Fuel Cell Industry ...
Morupule B Power Station, a coal-fired power station built by the China National Electric Engineering Corporation, has been credited to spurring electricity production in Botswana, Statistics Botswana said Wednesday.
In the operation of many common devices and processes, more than 60% of consumed energy is wasted in many common processes. These loses come in many forms including heat, friction, and vibration. Energy harvesters are devices that can recapture some of this waste energy and convert it into electrical energy. This work will focus on electrostatic energy harvesting devices that recapture vibrational energy. Electrostatic energy harvesters recapture mechanical energy when a conductive mass translates or deforms in an electric field. Polymer ionic liquid gel beads may serve as a useful replacement for fluid droplets in electrostatic energy harvesters.. This work uses a recently developed method for reliable synthesis of polymer gel beads. These beads are synthesized using a micro-reactor, which generates monomeric droplets in a silicon oil carrier fluid. The monomer solution also contains a photoinitiator and cross linker, which enables the monomer to polymerize when exposed to UV light. The present ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ammonia as a suitable fuel for fuel cells. AU - Lan, Rong. AU - Tao, Shanwen PY - 2014/8/28. Y1 - 2014/8/28. N2 - Ammonia, an important basic chemical, is produced at a scale of 150 million tons per year. Half of hydrogen produced in chemical industry is used for ammonia production. Ammonia containing 17.5 wt% hydrogen is an ideal carbon-free fuel for fuel cells. Compared to hydrogen, ammonia has many advantages. In this mini-review, the suitability of ammonia as fuel for fuel cells, the development of different types of fuel cells using ammonia as the fuel and the potential applications of ammonia fuel cells are briefly reviewed.. AB - Ammonia, an important basic chemical, is produced at a scale of 150 million tons per year. Half of hydrogen produced in chemical industry is used for ammonia production. Ammonia containing 17.5 wt% hydrogen is an ideal carbon-free fuel for fuel cells. Compared to hydrogen, ammonia has many advantages. In this mini-review, the suitability of ...
Image:Bacon.jpg,thumb]] With the present interest in fuel cells - devices for directly generating electricity by chemically combining a fuel and oxygen - it is possible to forget that this technology goes back a long way. The first known example was the gas battery, invented by William Robert Grove in the mid-19th century. But perhaps the most interesting figure to pioneer fuel cell technology in the early to mid-twentieth century was Francis Thomas Bacon. Francis Thomas Bacon was a forerunner in fuel cell technology. A descendant of the famous early modern English philosopher and champion of science Francis Bacon, F.T. Bacon was born in Billericay, UK, on 21 December 1904. Trained as an engineer at Trinity College, Cambridge, and employed by steam turbine builder C.A. Parsons in the 1930s, Bacon was fascinated by the ability of fuel cells to directly convert chemical into electrical energy. Although they were then considered a mere scientific curiosity, he became convinced of their ...
The penetration of other sources of electricity such as renewables for example solar and wind, could also have contributed to a decline in electricity demand from Eskom. In addition, because of the lack of capacity in the generation of electricity experienced by Eskom in 2007 (Inglesi & Pouris 2010), some companies and households had to find other sources of electricity, which would have resulted in a decline in electricity demand from Eskom. Unfortunately, the actual size of the electricity demand market is still unknown because of the unavailability of certain types of data, such as renewable energy and other forms of electricity generation. The combined effect of all these changes in the demography, economy and usage patterns can be investigated using historical patterns, but contribute to uncertainties when trying to forecast future electricity demand.. Uncertainties occur in estimation, prediction or in forecasting. When statisticians develop predictions (forecasts) for an uncertain future, ...
Polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC) convert the chemical energy in hydrogen to electrical energy and heat, with the only exhaust being water. Fuel cells are considered key in achieving a sustainable energy sector. The main obstacles to wide scale commercialization are cost and durability. The aim of this thesis is to evaluate new materials for PEFC to potentially lower cost and increase durability. To lower the amount of expensive platinum catalyst in the fuel cell, the activities of Pt-rare earth metal (REM) alloy catalysts have been tested. To improve the lifetime of the carbon support, the carbon corrosion properties of multi walled carbon nanotubes have been evaluated. To reduce the overall cost of fuel cell stacks, carbon coated and metal coated bipolar plates have been tested. To increase the performance and lifetime of anion exchange membranes, the water transport has been studied.. The results show that the Pt-REM catalysts had at least two times higher specific activity than pure ...
Researchers at Penn State University, led by Dr. Bruce Logan, have found that methane can be directly produced using a biocathode containing methanogens in electrochemical systems (abiotic anode) or microbial electrolysis cells (MECs; biotic anode) by a process called electromethanogenesis. The results show that electromethanogenesis can be used to convert...
Microbially catalyzed oxidation-reduction reactions drive nutrient cycling and energy flux on Earth. Photoautotrophs, which include the cyanobacteria (oxygenic) and purple and green sulfur bacteria (anoxygenic), transform light energy into chemical energy and are responsible for substantial global primary productivity. Anoxygenic phototrophs, in particular, play a crucial role in biogeochemical cycling in anoxic illuminated environments because of their ability to oxidize an array of inorganic compounds for CO2 fixation. Electron donors include molecular hydrogen, nitrite, and reduced sulfur compounds. Recent evidence has also suggested that solid-phase conductive substances (SPCSs), including rust (mixed-valent iron minerals) and their proxies (poised electrodes), can serve as electron donors for anoxygenic phototrophs. This phenomenon is called phototrophic extracellular electron uptake (EEU) and is the reverse process of extracellular electron transfer (EET) performed by metal-reducing bacteria.
I recently read about a molten carbonate fuel cell which was being developed to consume methane as its fuel, and produce electricity and hydrogen as its products, and carbon dioxide as its waste.. The web page where this was described, suggested that it would be an ideal component of a hydrogen filling station for cars -- the station would receive methane (natural gas) from the local utility, process it with the fuel cell to make hydrogen, and sell the electricity to the electric grid.. I propose building a car with a compressed natural gas fuel tank, a fuel cell of the type I just mentioned, and a conventional hydrogen fuel cell.. The two fuel cells would be connected in the obvious way -- the hydrogen produced by the first cell would be consumed by the second ...
Besides moving forward in transportation, fuel cells are also making headway powering buildings, especially if The Cube makes it successfully to market.. Maryland-based Redox Power Systems, which is developing The Cube, thinks it has the answer. The company, which started up last year, is commercializing University of Maryland technology that could potentially be game-changing for distributed energy.. The Cube fuel cell is slightly bigger than a dishwasher (10% of the size of fuel cells today) and costs 90% less than fuel cells currently on the market. It connects to a natural gas line and electrochemically converts methane to electricity, says Forbes. and produces both heat and electricity. It has no engine and virtually no moving parts and operates silently and constantly.. Eric Wachsman, director of University of Marylands Energy Research Center, developed the solid oxide fuel cell technology, which can provide safe, efficient, reliable, uninterrupted power, on-site … and, the holy grail ...
In a study published March 9 in Nature Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison chemistry Professor Kyoung-Shin Choi presents a new approach to combine solar energy conversion and biomass conversion, two important research areas for renewable energy.. For decades, scientists have been working to harness the energy from sunlight to drive chemical reactions to form fuels such as hydrogen, which provide a way to store solar energy for future use. Toward this end, many researchers have been working to develop functional, efficient and economical methods to split water into hydrogen, a clean fuel, and oxygen using photoelectrochemical solar cells (PECs). Although splitting water using an electrochemical cell requires an electrical energy input, a PEC can harness solar energy to drive the water-splitting reaction. A PEC requires a significantly reduced electrical energy input or no electrical energy at all.. In a typical hydrogen-producing PEC, water reduction at the cathode (producing hydrogen) is ...
We present the fabrication of an ultra-low cost, disposable, solvent-free air cathode all-paper microbial fuel cell (MFC) that does not utilize any chemical treatments. The anode and cathode were fabricated by depositing graphite particles by drawing them on paper with a pencil (four strokes). Hydrophobic parchment paper was used as a proton exchange membrane (PEM) to allow only H+ to pass. Air cathode MFC technology, where O2 was used as an electron acceptor, was implemented on the paper platform. The bioelectric current was generated by an electrochemical process involving the redox couple of microbial-activated extracellular electron transferred electrons, PEM-passed H+, and O2 in the cathode. A fully micro-integrated pencil-traced MFC showed a fast start-time, producing current within 10 s after injection of bacterial cells. A single miniaturized all-paper air cathode MFC generated a maximum potential of 300 mV and a maximum current of 11 μA during 100 min after a single injection of Shewanella
Each power source should be marked on its rating plate, Fig.1, with an IP rating which provides information about the degree to which the equipment is protected against water. Normally equipment will be IP21 or IP23. The second number describes protection against water ingress. A power source marked IP21 is protected from vertical drops of water, as for example may occur if the roof leaks. If the equipment is marked IP23, this means that the equipment is protected at up to 60° from the vertical and is thus suitable for outdoor use.. Areas of increased risk are in wet or humid conditions, confined spaces or when the welder is exposed to large areas of bare metal. For use in this type of environment, it is important to use a power source with an S mark, which means that the no-load voltage is below 48V rms AC or 113V peak DC. If the power source has a higher no-load voltage, a voltage reduction device should be used which will limit the voltage at the holder to approximately 25V.. ...
Li metal is known to suffer from poor coulombic efficiency and severe dendrite growth in conventional electrolytes (30), but because it has the highest gravimetric capacity of all possible anodes (3863 mAh·g−1), there are still numerous efforts to try to enable this anode in a rechargeable battery. Using solvents of low viscosity (31), increased pressure on the electrode (32), and a surface coverage of LiF (33) are all promising methods to improve the Li metal anode cyclability and lower the severity of dendrite formation. The exceptionally low viscosity, high vapor pressure, and LiF chemical reduction products are all properties inherent to the fluoromethane liquefied gas solvent. To explore the effectiveness of the proposed electrolyte system in enabling the Li metal anode, we measured the coulombic efficiency of Li plating and stripping on polished stainless steel electrodes. As shown in Fig. 4B, the fluoromethane-based electrolyte shows a stable and high coulombic efficiency of ~97% over ...
A DC power system receives AC electrical power and DC electrical power from separate first and second sources simultaneously. The DC power system delivers DC electrical power to an output for use by a load requiring DC power. The DC power system includes a converter to convert AC electrical power to DC electrical power and a power sharing control device to control and distribute the DC electrical power to an output. The first source of DC electrical power includes a storage battery, which provides standby DC electrical power to the DC power system. It also includes a power sharing device, which maintains the storage battery fully charged for use at peak loads, when the DC output electrical power is insufficient to meet the DC load. The second source of DC electrical power is a cogenerator such as a fuel cell, a thermo photovoltaic generator or an internal combustion engine and an alternator for generating and delivering DC electrical power to the power sharing device, while producing and delivering
In this paper, an integration design of membrane electrode assemblies in low temperature solid oxide fuel cells (LTSOFCs) is accomplished by using a mixed ionic-electronic conductor. The mixed ionic-electronic conductor is a composite material, LiNiCuZn oxides, Gd2O3 and Sm-doped CeO2 composited with Na2CO3 (LiNiCuZn oxides-NGSDC), which consists of ionic conductor, n-type and p-type semiconductors. The multi-phase composite material can also be used in single layer fuel cell (SLFC) to replace single-phase materials. A SLFC using the LiNiCuZn oxides-NSGDC composite exhibits an OCV of 1.05 V and maximum power density of 800 mW cm-2, which is comparable to the cell performance of conventional LTSOFCs and much higher than that of SLFC reported before. The reasons leading to the good performance are porous structure of electrode and the matching of ionic conductor and semiconductor.. ...
As of late, consumers and companies place emphasized importance on products and services sustainability, but one point worth contemplating is how to manifest sustainability in concrete, realistic terms. All products, bar inherently disposable ones, require inspection, maintenance, and repair. This of course means that cars, elevators, traffic signals, and all variety of devices intertwined in peoples everyday lives receive regular checks. The same concept applies to electricity, a fundamental element of daily life; electric generators, which create electricity, similarly require periodic maintenance. But generators are not only incredibly sophisticated, they can be huge vast and loaded with state-of-the-art-technology - and with all factors considered, conducting an inspection of the device can consume exorbitant amounts of time.. One example can be seen in the realm of thermal power, which accounts for over 60% of all electricity generated in Japan. Thermal power makes use of a massive ...
March 8, 2006. In research aimed at reducing American dependence on petroleum-based fuels, a group of Agricultural Research Service (ARS) scientists has found a way to replace the petroleum used in todays hydrogen fuel cell membranes with naturally occurring products. Justin Barone and colleagues in ARS Environmental Management and Byproduct Utilization Laboratory in Beltsville, Md., have conducted preliminary studies which suggest the possibility of replacing the conventional petroleum-based main membrane in hydrogen fuel cells with biological products.. Hydrogen fuel cells have received a lot of attention as a possible energy conversion mechanism. The coming of whats being called a renewable hydrogen economy is being touted as a feasible alternative to current economic reliance on nonrenewable fossil fuels.. In the hydrogen economy, hydrogen fuel cells would replace internal combustion engines in vehicles, and hydrogen would replace gasoline. However, current hydrogen fuel cell technology ...
There were several new developments today about how Apple will help fuel its new North Carolina data center that powers iCloud. According to a filing today, and as first reported by CNET, Apple tapped Bloom Energy to provide fuel cells to power the data center. Each fuel cell can set off up to 200 kW of power by combining biogas with oxygen and other chemicals. Apple plans to build a 4.8 MW fuel cell farm for its data center that is set to consume a whopping 20 MW of power. Apple will get the other needed energy from an adjacent 174-acre solar farm that is said to bring 20 MW of power toward the plant, according to Apples latest numbers.. Bloom Energy announced today the opening of a new factory in Newark, Del., which will most likely manufacture some- if not most- of the fuel cells that would be used at Apples North Carolina data center. The new factory is set to create hundreds of jobs and open up Bloom Energys business out of California.. Since the Bloom Energy fuel cells require either ...
Two major types of fuel cells vie for vehicle designers attention: PEM, or proton exchange membrane types, and solid oxide fuels cells (SOFCs). PEMs (also known as polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells) require an expensive catalyst such as platinum, and hydrogen as fuel. Hydrogen itself is costly to produce and runs up the operating cost for such a fuel cell. Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. timed things to coincide with the 2016 Olympics opening in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil for the introduction of their solid oxide fuel cell vehicle, a van that runs on bio-ethanol electric power. Nissans Carlos Ghosn claims this to be a first, with benefits for potential users. The e-Bio Fuel-Cell offers eco-friendly transportation and creates opportunities for … ...
The anaerobic respiratory capabilities of the WT and the recombinant S. oneidensis were also determined under anaerobic conditions with xylose as the sole electron donor and fumarate as the electron acceptor. Similar to the aerobic conditions, the four genetically engineered strains grew faster than that of the WT strain. The recombinant strains XS and GS (harbouring the oxidoreductase pathway) consumed xylose at a rate of ~14.8, and ~17.2 μM/h, respectively, which had a faster xylose consumption rate than that of the strains XE and GE (harbouring the isomerase pathway, ~6.3 and ~9.7 μM/h, respectively) (Fig. 2c, d). Furthermore, the engineered strain GS could intake xylose faster than XS, which indicated that the glucose/xylose facilitator Gxf1 enabled a higher xylose transportation than that of the D-xylose-proton symporter XylT. It was revealed that sugar uptake via facilitated diffusion by Gxf1 required less energy (ATP) than proton symport XylT, and thus the facilitator protein would ...
Today ClimateXChange publishes some analysis Ive done with Keith Bell on security of electricity supply and how we can meet peak electricity demand in Scotland today and throughout the 2020s. Over the coming years we can expect significant changes to the Scottish electricity generation mix with growing renewable penetration and closure of Scotlands existing large power stations. The report shows that, without new schedulable generation capacity in Scotland following the closures of Hunterston and Torness, we will need new capability to import electricity into Scotland at certain times. Ensuring that our future electricity system can meet future demand means we need to think soon about how the electricity system should develop.. The ClimateXChange blog post. The ClimateXChange reports. ...
Selim, N., Hamed, H., Fathy, R., Gamal, M., El Kareem, H.A., Breheny, M., Farahmand, N., Bowman, K., Kyazze, G., Keshavarz, T. and Gomaa, O.M. 2018. Modification of bacterial cell membrane to accelerate decolorization of textile wastewater effluent using microbial fuel cells: role of gamma radiation, salinity and endogenous biosurfactant induction. 4th European Meeting of the International Society for Microbial Electrochemistry and Technology. Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne 12 - 14 Sep 2018 Design of a single chamber air cathode microbial fuel cell using a stainless steel spiral anode and 3D printing techniques for continuous flow dye decolourisation ...
... thermal and kinetic energy, essentially turning them into batteries and making them an endless energy source for machine ... The machines, having won a Pyrrhic victory, turn to the defeated humans, and begin repurposing their bio-electric, ... blocking out the sun to deprive the machines of solar energy, their primary energy source; inevitably, it also initiates a ... With the humans as their new energy source, the collective sedation of humankind is employed to keep the humans down without ...
... bioelectric energy sources MeSH E07.296.159 - defibrillators MeSH E07.296.159.175 - defibrillators, implantable MeSH E07.296. ... The source for this content is the set of 2006 MeSH Trees from the NLM. MeSH E07.101.074 - bandages, hydrocolloid MeSH E07.101. ...
... when drawing in large amounts of energy from a nearby energy source. Tim Drake has stated that Virgil's understanding of ... as his electromagnetic powers are tied into his own bioelectric energy levels. In the episode "Aftershock", in the 1st season ... As well as releasing surges of electromagnetic energy, which he can do from any part of his body, Static can also drain sources ... Static can also sense and feel-out sources of electromagnetic energy, able to tell if a seemingly abandoned area is actually ...
Having lost their definite source of energy, the machines devised a way to extract the human body's bioelectric and thermal ... The set also includes standard Blu-ray copies of the films sourced from the new 4K master, but is missing The Animatrix and ... Mankind attempted to block out the machines' source of solar power by covering the sky in thick, stormy clouds. A massive war ... As of 2006, the franchise has grossed $3 billion from all sources worldwide. In acknowledgment of the strong influence of ...
... and that with an unlimited source of energy she would be able to use her powers with no physical strain whatsoever. After her " ... Jolt appeared in her bio-electric form, but had the same powers as the Marvel-616 Jolt.[volume & issue needed] Jolt was part of ... In her energy form, she could fly and fire blasts of electrical force. At first, she could only function in her electric form, ... The other children died or were horribly mutated, but Hallie became faster, stronger, and gained the ability to throw bio-electric ...
By using an external electrical power source to recharge his body's energy reserves, Electro could expend electricity ... He made Spider-Man beg by stimulating the bioelectric currents in his brain, and was able to defeat Nate Grey by manipulating ... He can also absorb the energy of electrical equipment such as a power plant to increase his powers further. In New Avengers, he ... He can also create electrostatic bridges to traverse upon, at the cost of a great expenditure of energy. During the events of ...
The corollary is the idea that bioelectric energy displayed an antithetic function: if it flows outward to the skin surface, ... According to one source, Reich held that the vast majority of people do not meet these criteria and thus lack orgastic potency ... Reich argued that the inability of psychoneurotics to wholly discharge sexual energy caused a damming-up of sexual energy, ... which Reich regarded as actual biological or bioelectric energy. According to Reich, "not a single neurotic individual ...
... "mental energy". Energy is energy. Matter is condensed energy. This text in Understanding the E-Meter is accompanied by three ... Some sources say the E-meter was "developed by Volney Mathison following Hubbard's designs", or that Hubbard invented it. ... and bioelectric potential. Researchers in psychophysiology are also exploring admittance and impedance aspects of EDA that can ... This mental mass (condensed energy), acts as an additional resistance or lack of resistance to the flow of electrical energy ...
2015). "Effect of electrical energy on the efficacy of biofilm treatment using the bioelectric effect". NPJ Biofilms and ... primary source) Andersen PC, Brodbeck BV, Oden S, Shriner A, Leite B (September 2007). "Influence of xylem fluid chemistry on ... This is termed the bioelectric effect. The application of a small DC current on its own can cause a biofilm to detach from its ... These can lead to a loss of energy in a system and overall loss of products. Along with economic problems, biofilm formation on ...
From 2004-05 the Energy Engineering has also been included in the faculty. The Science and Research Branch is the only branch ... in bio-electric, bio-mechanics, and bio-materials. Since 2004 the faculty has been offering degrees in clinical disciplines. ... although in recent years the university is attempting to diversify its sources of income through commercialization of its ... Center for Environment and Energy Research and Studies (CEERS) Plasma Physics Research Center (Plasma Physics Research Center) ...
Different sources report different numbers of hierarchical level in bone, which is a complex biological material. The types of ... M.H. Shamos (1965). "The Origin of Bioelectric Effects in Mineralized Tissues". Dental Research. 44 (6): 1114-1115. doi:10.1177 ... which results in the dissipation of energy within the arrangement. These scales or hierarchical structures are therefore able ... a source of new concepts for understanding biomineralization processes". Chemistry: A European Journal. 12 (4): 980-987. doi: ...
8 December - A new way of extracting hydrogen from rocks and water, potentially offering a new green energy source, has been ... "Bioelectric Signals Can Be Used to Detect Early Cancer". Science Daily. 1 February 2013. Retrieved 3 February 2013. "Qaher F313 ... "Hydrogen squeezed from stone could be new energy source". BBC. 13 December 2013. Retrieved 14 December 2013. Chang, Kenneth (9 ... It allows them to operate at concentrations of 70,000 suns worth of energy without losing much voltage as "wasted energy" or ...
Superman who was able to reformat his power source to any energy source he could consciously choose, effortlessly overcoming ... manipulating Superman's bio-electric aura into a telekinetic field, but eventually this was retconned so that 50% of his DNA ... No longer able to absorb energy directly from the Sun, he used Kal-El's body as a power source. He eventually became delusional ... Near the end of the series, it is revealed that he is living energy, a "golem" shaped into human form by force of will - but ...
The signal source refers to the location at which the EMG electrode is place. EMG signal acquisition is dependent on distance ... The brain is given the task to perform a certain motor task, and once a muscle has been weakened, the brain computes energy ... The transducer used to detect the signal is an EMG electrode than transforms the bioelectric signal from the muscle to a ... The six determinants of gait predict very high energy expenditure for the sinusoidal motion of the Center of Mass during gait, ...
... and fire bioelectric energy blasts. She is a founding member of the Avengers as well as a longtime leader of the team. In May ... Check mark indicates role has been confirmed using screenshots of closing credits and other reliable sources.CS1 maint: ... The Wasp is able to harness and augment her body's natural bio-electric energy, releasing it from her hands in powerful ... Her bio-electric blast, when applied from within the ear to the brain, reverts the Hulk to Bruce Banner during the New York ...
Unable to reason with her, Miles fights Phin before attempting to absorb the Nuform's energy to negate the blast. With Miles ... Miles intervenes and defeats Rhino with his new bio-electric ability, later dubbed "Venom Blast". Leaving Rhino in Roxxon's ... He soon discovers that the Underground are seeking Roxxon's experimental power source, Nuform, and that Phin is their leader, ... a remorseful Phin sacrifices herself by flying him to a safe distance above the city so that he can release the energy before ...
Crosbie, Smith (1998). ). The Science of Energy - a Cultural History of Energy Physics in Victorian Britain. The University of ... Malmivuo, Jaakko (1995). Bioelectromagnetism: principles and applications of bioelectric and biomagnetic fields (PDF). USA: ... unreliable medical source?][page needed] FDA provides two different services when it comes to PEMF devices. When a PEMF device ... Producers of EMT devices claim that they can cure people by "balancing" their discordant energies, according to alternative and ...
Initial electrical energy absorption and redirection later developed into absorption and redirection of any energy source; ... Morphine Somers - Superannuation touch generates specific bioelectric feedback through matter, aging it thousands of years into ... He took drugs to enhance his dwindling psychic energies, and as a result grew demented. He eventually killed the last of the X- ... but those he resurrected are linked to his neural energies. Junkpile - Former member of the Lawless and ally of Xi'an. Betrayed ...
Nova tries to stop him, but he is knocked unconscious by an energy blast. The others pursue the High Evolutionary and try to ... Night Thrasher is a skilled martial artist as well as bio electric mutant. Phaser (Christian Cord) - Cord is the depowered ... with some sources saying the series could find a home on Disney's then-upcoming subscription streaming service. On September ... Blackwing wears a suit based on the Vulture's that gives him flight, super strength and the ability to fire energy blasts. ...
... taking their suffering from projected death as his energy source. Once the ritual is completed, The Astronomer is blessed with ... During his stint as a fact finder for the Mafia, the Sleeper was a handsome brown haired Ace with strong bioelectric abilities ... It also gave him the ability to absorb any energy directed against him, including kinetic energy, and then release it back at ... Shadow can use the absorbed energy to boost his strength and speed to superhuman levels, and can "see" in the dark because his ...
Energy storage and return - storage of energy acquired through ground contact and utilization of that stored energy for ... Open-source robotic prothesis[edit]. See also: Open-source hardware, Modular design, 3D printing, and Thingiverse ... "A Russian Bioelectric-Controlled Prosthesis: Report of a Research Team from the Rehabilitation Institute of Montreal" ... Cost and source freedom[edit]. High-cost[edit]. In the USA a typical prosthetic limb costs anywhere between $15,000 and $90,000 ...
It is spelled Narkevich-Todko in some sources; In Russian: Наркевич-Йодко. Some sources state that he was Polish, rendering his ... In book: Measuring Energy Fields: State of the Science, Backbone Publ.Co., Fair Lawn, USA, pp. 103-123. Korotkov K., Korotkin D ... Adamenko, V. G. (1972) Objects Moved at a Distance by Means of a Controlled Bioelectric Field, In Abstracts, International ... Kirlian and his wife were convinced that their images showed a life force or energy field that reflected the physical and ...
Some electrodes may contain a metal coil that produces a mechanical vibration, as well as sparking energy that can be felt ... unreliable source?] High-frequency treatment uses low-current high-frequency alternating currents, delivered via a glass ... Bio-electric stimulation therapy (BEST) Electrotherapy - the use of electricity as a medical treatment Electrical muscle ... but mimic the body's own bio-electric currents. The treatment is designed to soften wrinkles and rejuvenate skin, including ...
Costerton encouraged exploration of the bioelectric effect, the phenomenon of cell-cell signaling and its relation to biofilm ... Member companies have represented several industrial categories including energy/petroleum, chemicals/specialty chemicals, ... "Sources and resources: Importance of nutrients, resource allocation, and ecology in microalgal cultivation for lipid ... Energy Procedia. 1 (1): 3245-3252. doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2009.02.109. Klapper I, Rupp CJ, Cargo R, Purevdorj B, and Stoodley P ( ...
The California red-legged frog may aestivate to conserve energy when its food and water supply is low. The water-holding frog ... Bogong moths will aestivate over the summer to avoid the heat and lack of food sources. Adult alfalfa weevils (Hypera postica) ... Kutyna, F. A.; Tombes, A. S. (26 November 1966). "Bioelectric activity of the central nervous system in normal and diapausing ... The primary physiological and biochemical concerns for an aestivating animal are to conserve energy, retain water in the body, ...
Bling goes to check out an old amphitheatre on her own when Emplate captures her to use as a food source.[volume & issue needed ... To defeat the Adversary, the X-Men's physical and spiritual essences are used as fuel for Forge's energy star, which closes the ... Rogue finds Trance as her powers are flaring out of control, creating powerful and uncontrollable bio-electric blasts. Rogue ... During their flirtation, Cody impulsively kissed her, at which point her latent mutant power to absorb the life energy and ...
Together with Merrill Lynch, Alfa-Bank wins financial consulting contract from Unified Energy System. Fitch and S&P upgrade ... "Russia Alfa Bank launches $1 bln Eurobond-sources". Reuters. 17 September 2010. Retrieved 2 May 2012. "Alfa Bank Eyes Bank of ... Alfa-Bank together with the manufacturer of prostheses "Motorika" developed bioelectric prostheses with a special mount for a ... Brown, Pamela; Pagliery, Jose (10 March 2017). "Sources: FBI investigation continues into 'odd' computer link between Russian ...
Direct and Inverse Bioelectric Field Problems Human body meshes for MATLAB, Ansoft/ANSYS HFSS, Octave (surface meshes from real ... Areas of study include electromagnetic fields produced by living cells, tissues or organisms, the effects of man-made sources ... One such interaction is absorption of energy from the fields, which can cause tissue to heat up; more intense fields will ... ISBN 981-02-1665-3. Malmivuo, Jaakko; Robert Plonsey, Bioelectromagnetism: Principles and Applications of Bioelectric and ...
Adrian R. M. Upton, it is possible for extraneous sources (ambient fluctuations detected with a mound of Jell-O in Upton's ... control of movement of a physical object using energy emanating from a human brain. In 1988, EEG alpha rhythm was used in a ... From fixed rails to direct bioelectric control, In O. Kaynak (ed.) Proc. IEEE Workshop on Intelligent Motion Control, p. 63-67 ...
Energy storage and return - storage of energy acquired through ground contact and utilization of that stored energy for ... Open-source robotic prothesisEdit. See also: Open-source hardware, Modular design, 3D printing, and Thingiverse ... "A Russian Bioelectric-Controlled Prosthesis: Report of a Research Team from the Rehabilitation Institute of Montreal" ... Cost and source freedomEdit. High-costEdit. In the USA a typical prosthetic limb costs anywhere between $15,000 and $90,000, ...
Direct and Inverse Bioelectric Field Problems. *Human body meshes for MATLAB, Ansoft/ANSYS HFSS, Octave (surface meshes from ... Carpenter, David O.; Sinerik Ayrapetyan, Biological Effects of Electric and Magnetic Fields, Volume 1 : Sources and Mechanisms ... One such interaction is absorption of energy from the fields, which can cause tissue to heat up; more intense fields will ... Malmivuo, Jaakko; Robert Plonsey, Bioelectromagnetism: Principles and Applications of Bioelectric and Biomagnetic Fields, ...
The line-following behavior was the default robot behavior, utilizing autonomous intelligence and autonomous source of energy. ... From fixed rails to direct bioelectric control, In O. Kaynak (ed.) Proc. IEEE Workshop on Intelligent Motion Control, p. 63-67 ... Sources: Long-term effects to the user remain largely unknown. Obtaining informed consent from people who have difficulty ... In 2016, a group of hobbyists developed an open-source BCI board that sends neural signals to the audio jack of a smartphone, ...
They generally arise when a physical system is perturbed by a small degree from a minimum-energy state, and are well understood ... Bozinovski S (August 1990). "Mobile robot trajectory control: From fixed rails to direct bioelectric control.". In Kaynak O (ed ... Apart from intrinsic properties of neurons, biological neural network properties are also an important source of oscillatory ... "Dynamic brain sources of visual evoked responses". Science. 295 (5555): 690-4. Bibcode:2002Sci...295..690M. doi:10.1126/science ...
Endogenous bioelectric signals are produced in cells by the cumulative action of ion channels, pumps, and transporters. In non- ... Friston, K; Levin, M; Sengupta, B; Pezzulo, G (2015). "Knowing one's place: A free-energy approach to pattern regulation". ... These energetically free (resistors or conductors, passive transport) or expensive (current sources, active transport) ... Bioelectric control mechanisms are an important emerging target for advances in regenerative medicine, birth defects, cancer, ...
Because both Superboy and Superman as a boy absorbed less solar energy than Superman as an adult, Superboy is also less able to ... During their research when they had Superman's body, Westfield's scientists discovered a bio-electric aura surrounding ... the character of Superboy was revamped as a clone derived from three DNA sources and designed by Project N.O.W.H.E.R.E. as a ... Another advantage of Superboy's telekinesis is that it does not use up his solar energy as fast as Superman's powers. In "The ...
In Action Comics #739, Superman (in his blue energy form) was captured in an "energy hobble" by Deathtrap, now calling himself ... When Spin and Edwar realized that the Flash had identified the source of the disturbances as emanating from KN News, he used ... According to Vera Black, there is also a creature among the creche that can create bio-electric bursts. Menagerie has acidic ... Wild Dog took her on, but she shot blasts of energy at him, forcing him to dodge them. Before she could accurately hit him, ...
Depolarization of the membrane past its threshold potential generates an action potential, which is the main source of signal ... ISBN 978-0-8493-8174-4. Neural Engineering (Bioelectric Engineering) (2005) ISBN 978-0-306-48609-8 Operative Neuromodulation: ... or other forms of energy stimulus to re-establish balance in impaired regions of the brain. Researchers in this field face the ... By studying the neural stem cells in vitro and exploring alternative cell sources, engineering novel biopolymers that could be ...
Bioelectric Energy Sources * Greenhouse Effect * Invertebrates * Plant Oils / chemistry* * Trees* * Vertebrates Substances * ...
Data on energy balance in children with severe sepsis using indirect calorimetry (IC) is lacki... ... Energy needs in critically ill children are dynamic and variable. ... Bioelectric Energy Sources. Electric power supply devices which convert biological energy, such as chemical energy of ... Energy needs in critically ill children are dynamic and variable. Data on energy balance in children with severe sepsis using ...
However, dual-energy CT is difficult to apply to multi-material decompo... ... Dual-energy CT, as well as spectral CT, has a great potential in material decomposition. ... Bioelectric Energy Sources. Electric power supply devices which convert biological energy, such as chemical energy of ... Dual-energy CT, as well as spectral CT, has a great potential in material decomposition. However, dual-energy CT is difficult ...
Bioelectric Energy Sources * Biosensing Techniques / instrumentation * Biosensing Techniques / methods * Catalysis * Cloning, ... to energy. Here, we demonstrate the self-organization of L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), which exhibits enhanced enzymatic ... detected using cyclic voltammetry analysis in enzyme-based biosensors for lactate detection as well as in biofuel cell energy ...
Bioelectric Energy Sources Medicine & Life Sciences * Soil Medicine & Life Sciences * Electrodes Medicine & Life Sciences ...
Institutes of Energy and the Environment (IEE). *Materials Research Institute (MRI). Research output: Contribution to journal ...
Bioelectric Energy Sources*. *Biosensing Techniques/methods*. *Flavin-Adenine Dinucleotide/chemistry/metabolism*. *Glucose/ ...
Bacteria, Bioelectric Energy Sources, Biofilms, DNA, Bacterial, Molecular Sequence Data, Phylogeny, RNA, Ribosomal, 16S, ...
Bioelectric Energy Sources Microbial fuel cells Water Quality Water quality Electrodes Cathodes ...
... thermal and kinetic energy, essentially turning them into batteries and making them an endless energy source for machine ... The machines, having won a Pyrrhic victory, turn to the defeated humans, and begin repurposing their bio-electric, ... blocking out the sun to deprive the machines of solar energy, their primary energy source; inevitably, it also initiates a ... With the humans as their new energy source, the collective sedation of humankind is employed to keep the humans down without ...
... bioelectric energy sources MeSH E07.296.159 - defibrillators MeSH E07.296.159.175 - defibrillators, implantable MeSH E07.296. ... The source for this content is the set of 2006 MeSH Trees from the NLM. MeSH E07.101.074 - bandages, hydrocolloid MeSH E07.101. ...
Because of the nature of the bioelectric sources and the volume conductors, the theory and the analytic methods of ... of Bioelectric. and Biomagnetic Fields Preface. Bioelectric phenomena have been a part of medicine throughout its history. The ... The energy is supposed to originate from an apparent reservoir of subtle bio-energy at the base of the spine. The central ... The lead field theory ties together the sensitivity distribution of the measurement of bioelectric sources, the distribution of ...
Bioelectronic technology and bioelectric implants continue to advance in sophistication. However, basic biomedical engineering ... Kinetic energy and piezoelectric materials. In addition to molecular energy contained in our fluids, we produce kinetic energy ... Power sources. Interfaces between bioelectric implants and the targeted nerves. Durable, non-degrading materials. Sufficiently ... Human bodies produce energy, and another avenue of research aims to harness it to power devices. We burn 2000-3000 calories per ...
... that since bioelectric energy flows through trees and spreads around, once the tree can no longer sustain the flow (that I ... and that well go back to the source when our bodies reach the end of their cycles. ... When Im dead theres going to be a universal scramble for the energy I once held onto in life. Yet, be sure Ill not be ... As "walking plants", mammals encapsulate the electric energy from the UV rays as well as the Earths own EM field. It is what ...
Life Energy Drops originates from the pristine northern waters of the Great Salt Lake in Utah and are harvested through solar ... Life Energy Drops™ is the natural source and perfect solution for bio electric health and mineral balancing. ... Our Life Energy Drops™ contain Natural Lithium and the amount per serving is .3mg per 8 drops. Life Energy Drops™ is one of the ... The Life Energy drops improved mental clarity and increased my energy levels. I think its even helping with my bodys pH ...
Allometric constraints on sources of variability in multi-angle reflectance measurements. Wolf, A., Berry, J. A. & Asner, G. P. ... A landscape of energy abundance: Anthracite coal canals and the roots of American fossil fuel dependence, 1820-1860. Jones, C. ... A Landscape of Energy Abundance: Anthracite Coal Canals and the Roots of American Fossil Fuel Dependence, 1820-1860. Jones, C. ...
A Carotenoid-Diporphyrin-Quinone Model for Photosynthetic Multistep Electron and Energy Transfer. Gust, D., Moore, T., Moore, A ... A simple artificial light-harvesting dyad as a model for excess energy dissipation in oxygenic photosynthesis. Berera, R., ... Artificial photosynthetic reaction centers: Mimicking sequential electron and triplet-energy transfer. Palacios, R. E., Kodis, ...
Accelerated Wound Healing on Skin by Electrical Stimulation with a Bioelectric Plaster. Advanced healthcare materials. 2017. ... Accelerated Wound Healing on Skin by Electrical Stimulation with a Bioelectric Plaster. :: Advanced healthcare materials. 2017. ... Accelerated Wound Healing on Skin by Electrical Stimulation with a Bioelectric Plaster. / Kai, Hiroyuki; Yamauchi, Takeshi; ... Using flexible enzymatic electrodes and stretchable hydrogel, a stretchable bioelectric plaster is fabricated with a built-in ...
Bioelectric Energy Sources*;Biosensing Techniques/methods*;Carbohydrate Dehydrogenases/biosynthesis*;Carbohydrate ...
Bioelectric Energy Sources 100% * Water Quality 86% * Microbial fuel cells 77% * Water quality 73% ... Wave-to-wire simulation of hydraulic wave energy converter. Zha, R., Hillis, A., Darling, J. & Plummer, A., 2017, ASME/BATH ... WE-harvest: A wearable piezoelectric-electromagnetic energy harvester. Hamid, R., Mohammadi, A. & Yuce, M. R., 14 Dec 2015, In ... Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems. University of Minho. Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference ...
True Bio Electric promotes and supplies prime clean energy source for developing and developed nations worldwide. The Issuer ... THE KEMETCO PROCESS: Up to 14 times more energy efficient.. Religion is an important aspect of social interaction of the people ... to reshape this developing country and it has imparted a certainly one of a form systematic overhaul towards waste to energy ... to reshape this developing country and has imparted a certainly one of a sort systematic overhaul towards waste to energy ...
Bioelectric Energy Sources Medicine & Life Sciences * Microbial fuel cells Chemical Compounds * Glucose Engineering & Materials ...
... thermally-powered energy sources, flexural powered energy sources, bioenergy power sources, fuel cells, bioelectric cells, ... The external power source can be in a device that is mounted on the skin of the user or in a unit that is provided near the ... Microstimulator having self-contained power source US7421295B2 (en) * 2002-07-19. 2008-09-02. Oscor Inc.. Implantable cardiac ... Microstimulator having self-contained power source US6741892B1 (en) * 2000-03-10. 2004-05-25. Advanced Bionics Corporation. ...
... thermally-powered energy sources, flexural powered energy sources, bioenergy power sources, fuel cells, bioelectric cells, ... A power source 420 can be disposed within the housing 400. Any power source can be used including, for example, a battery such ... The external power source can be in a device that is mounted on the skin of the user or in a unit that is provided near the ... Microstimulator having self-contained power source US6829508B2 (en) * 2001-10-19. 2004-12-07. Alfred E. Mann Foundation For ...
The external electrical contacts may detect bioelectric energy or may deliver electrical energy to a target site. ... The external electrical contacts may detect bioelectric energy or may deliver electrical energy to a target site. ... a power source operably connected to the first electrically conductive element, the power source operative to transmit ... Medtronic Advanced Energy Llc. Debridement device and method. US9301802. 14 Jan 2014. 5 Apr 2016. Covidien Lp. Energy delivery ...
Source-Sink Regulation in Crops under Water Deficit. Rodrigues, J., Inzé, D., Nelissen, H. & Saibo, N. J. M., 1 Jul 2019, In : ... An electrogenic redox loop in sulfate reduction reveals a likely widespread mechanism of energy conservation. Duarte, A. G., ... FRONTIERS IN ENERGY RESEARCH. 7. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ...
Advanced Energy Materials. 7, 18, 1700157.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ...
Lo, Y. C., Chen, C. Y., Lee, C. M. & Chang, J. S., 2011 Oct 1, In : International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 36, 21, p. 14059- ... cultivation of indigenous Chlorella vulgaris ESP-31 for biomass and lipid production using acetic acid as the carbon source. ... Lee, C. Y., Ho, K. L., Lee, D. J., Su, A. & Chang, J-S., 2012 Oct 1, In : International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 37, 20, p. ... Lo, Y. C., Su, Y. C., Cheng, C. L. & Chang, J. S., 2011 Oct 1, In : International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 36, 21, p. 13955- ...
Sun, R., Li, Q., Yao, J., Scarpa, F. & Rossiter, J., 15 Apr 2020, In : Applied Energy. 264, 11 p., 114615.. Research output: ... Philamore, H., Rossiter, J. M., Walters, P., Winfield, J. & Ieropoulos, I., 1 Sep 2015, In : Journal of Power Sources. 289, p. ... Bistable minimum energy structures (BiMES) for binary robotics. Follador, M., Conn, A. & Rossiter, J., Jun 2015, In : Smart ... Tunable, multi-modal, and multi-directional vibration energy harvester based on three-dimensional architected metastructures. ...
  • HAYWARD, Calif.--( BUSINESS WIRE )-- Pulse Biosciences , Inc. (Nasdaq: PLSE), a novel bioelectric medicine company introducing the CellFX System powered by Nano-Pulse Stimulation™ (NPS™) technology, today announced the presentation of an ePoster at the American Academy of Dermatology (AAD) Virtual Annual Meeting taking place on April 23-25, 2021. (biospace.com)
  • Pulse Biosciences is a novel bioelectric medicine company committed to health innovation that has the potential to improve the quality of life for patients. (biospace.com)
  • The source for this content is the set of 2006 MeSH Trees from the NLM. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using flexible enzymatic electrodes and stretchable hydrogel, a stretchable bioelectric plaster is fabricated with a built-in enzymatic biofuel cell (EBFC) that fits to skin and generates ionic current along the surface of the skin by enzymatic electrochemical reactions for more than 12 h. (elsevier.com)
  • 6. The medical device of claim 1 wherein the plurality of electrodes are adapted to convey energy to a target tissue. (google.com)
  • Michael Levin mentions a few times how they manipulate these bioelectric fields towards desired morphological outcomes ('we don't apply electrodes', etc.)... but I have a feeling the CS-y people might still get a little lost, so, I'll try to summarize as best I can. (ycombinator.com)
  • Interpretation of bioelectric phenomena. (vutbr.cz)
  • voltage, current, resistance, pH, and other familiar ion-dependent phenomena, have all been found to be generated and maintained by cells in highly conserved, energy-dependent processes. (eurekalert.org)
  • Phenomena as diverse as local cell-cell communication and patterning of entire organisms have been shown to require bioelectric mechanisms working synergistically with molecular mechanisms. (eurekalert.org)
  • Some of these experiments seem to indicate that there must be some kind of unified source field which allows for these phenomena to occur. (owlcation.com)
  • The ability of dual-chambered microbial fuel cell, fed with slaughterhouse wastewater with an anaerobic mixed-sludge as initial source of bacteria, to generate power is investigated. (edu.sa)
  • For the environment-friendly battery cell to start energy production, sewage water containing bacteria needs to be injected into it. (indiaesa.info)
  • Electric power supply devices which convert biological energy, such as chemical energy of metabolism or mechanical energy of periodic movements, into electrical energy. (bvsalud.org)
  • Conclusions: The novel biological process indicates the potential of using denitrifying bio-cathode MFC for green energy production. (elsevier.com)
  • What is a biological definition of energy? (onebridge.io)
  • Conclusions: These findings suggest that MFCs with C. vulgaris and bacterial community have a simultaneous efficiency in the production of bioelectricity and bioremediation processes, becoming an important source of bioenergy in the future. (bvsalud.org)
  • To maximize energy-converting efficiency for bioelectricity generation in MFCs, redox mediators (RMs) (e.g., extracts obtained from plant resource- Camellia green tea) have been explored for optimal stimulation upon electron transfer (ET) capabilities. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Exoelectrogens are promising for a wide variety of potential applications in the areas of environment and energy, which convert chemical energy from organic matter into electrical energy by extracellular electrons transfer (EET). (bvsalud.org)
  • 5) State the "big 5" electrical field variables (potentials, field, force, current, sources) and be able to compute potentials from sources (the basis of extracellular bioelectric measurements such as the electrocardiogram) or find sources from potentials. (coursera.org)
  • The bioelectric current was generated by an electrochemical process involving the redox couple of microbial-activated extracellular electron transferred electrons, PEM-passed H + , and O 2 in the cathode. (nature.com)
  • Gibbs energy and electrochemical potentials in biophysics. (vutbr.cz)
  • To investigate the efficacy of the fabricated bioelectric plaster, an artificial wound is made on the back skin of a live mouse and the wound healing is observed for 7 d in the presence and absence of the ionic current of the bioelectric plaster. (elsevier.com)
  • Life Energy Drops™ is a highly concentrated Ionic Mineral compound that contains Boron which is helpful with keeping radiation out of the body and also helps with libido in men and women. (hempusa.org)
  • Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) harness the metabolism of microorganisms, converting chemical energy into electrical energy. (nih.gov)
  • Cassette-electrode microbial fuel cells (CE-MFCs) have been demonstrated useful to treat biomass wastes and recover electric energy from them. (elsevier.com)
  • Logan, Bruce E. / Energy from algae using microbial fuel cells . (edu.sa)
  • Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are biocatalyzed systems which can drive electrical energy by directly converting chemical energy using microbial biocatalyst and are considered as one of the important propitious technologies for sustainable energy production. (elsevier.com)
  • Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are effective biofuel devices that use indigenous microbes to directly convert chemical energy from organics oxidation into bioelectric energy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Alternatively, because microbial fuel cells (MFCs) employ abundant, non-toxic, and relatively inexpensive organic matter, they produce clean and sustainable energy. (nature.com)
  • Microbial fuel cells and osmotic membrane bioreactors have mutual benefits for wastewater treatment and energy production. (ucdenver.edu)
  • A A A Long term exposure in combination with other types of energy such as Hartman lines, high electromagnetic fields or geological faults can give rise to optimistic abnormal cell growth and cancer. (amazonaws.com)
  • All the cells in our bodies have receptors on their cell membrane which are able to read different frequencies of energy contained in the electromagnetic spectrum. (biophotonlight.com)
  • Cellular energy or ATP is produced through a process in the cells that require nutrients, oxygen, glucose, and other resources to carry out. (milanoporteeserramenti.it)
  • In their "Traditional Chinese Medicine" entry https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Traditional_Chinese_medicine the term "pseudoscience" is found thirteen times. (chinesemedicineliving.com)
  • Finally, redox catalysis efficiency of the immobilized enzyme was detected using cyclic voltammetry analysis in enzyme-based biosensors for lactate detection as well as in biofuel cell energy systems as the anodic counterpart. (nih.gov)
  • A wireless electronic unit, consisting of a micropotentiostat, an energy harvesting module (voltage amplifier together with a capacitor), and a radio microchip, were designed to enable the biofuel cell to be used as a power supply for managing the sensing devices and for wireless data transmission. (edu.au)
  • Many claim that this gives replicated foodstuffs a distinctly inferior flavour to the 'real thing', although this may be more a question of bias against the technology rather than any discernible difference.However, the errors are more than sufficient to prevent replication of the precise energy states involved in neural and bioelectric patterns. (ditl.org)
  • Bioelectric implants designed to augment the body's natural electric impulses? (ustranslation.com)
  • One of the most cutting-edge sectors of medical device research, bioelectric implants seem like the stuff of science fiction. (ustranslation.com)
  • Such as figuring out how to power bioelectric implants. (ustranslation.com)
  • The most promising solution to power bioelectric implants: wireless juicing with " near-infrared-ray (nIR) irradiation . (ustranslation.com)
  • Essentially, it uses electricity to treat myriad ailments by modulating nerve signals with micro- or nano-sized bioelectric implants to let an organ regain healthy function. (asee-prism.org)
  • Specifically, we demonstrate the operation of self-sustained carbohydrate and oxygen sensitive biodevices, consisting of a wireless electronic unit, radio transmitter and separate sensing bioelectrodes, supplied with electrical energy from a combined multi-enzyme fuel cell generating sufficient current at required voltage to power the electronics. (edu.au)
  • Suppose you have two wires going from a voltage source to a light bulb. (coursera.org)
  • This week we will examine energy, by which pumps and channels allow membranes to 'charge their batteries' and thereby have a non-zero voltage across their membranes at rest. (coursera.org)
  • Additionally, MFC performances for both membranes were assessed based on Coulombic efficiency as well as substrate (acetate) concentration dependency of energy yields. (elsevier.com)
  • MFCs were fed with the two algae (as powders), obtaining differences in energy recovery, degradation efficiency, and power densities. (edu.sa)
  • A target of the plan to boost energy efficiency is for around 20 sugar mills to generate a surplus of 755 MW by 2030, to go into the national power grid. (ipsnews.net)
  • The executive told Tierramérica that the first two companies to enter into partnership with Cuba in the sector included the bioelectric plants in their plans, to boost energy efficiency. (ipsnews.net)
  • Biofuel cells, which are bioelectrochemical devices that convert biochemical energy into electrical energy, are regarded as a renewable energy source technology due to the high turnover rates related with the enzymes or microorganisms that they use as catalysts 2 . (nature.com)
  • Numerous physical modalities have been used in attempts to augment the healing process, including ultrasound, low-energy light therapy, and electrical stimulation (ES). (o-wm.com)
  • Mean daily energy intake was significantly lower than mean daily energy expenditure, providing a daily energy deficit. (onebridge.io)
  • Because every single part of our body is composed of cells, and because Biophoton light works on a cellular level, the energy from the Biophoton LS is able to affect every part and system in our bodies. (biophotonlight.com)
  • To increase the rate of redox reaction for energy extraction, exogenous augmentation of RMs could also reduce electron transfer resistance, considerably augmenting power generation in MFCs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • X-ray fluorescence: If the electron has enough energy it can knock an orbital electron out of the inner electron shell of a metal atom, and as a result electrons from higher energy levels then fill up the vacancy and X-ray photons are emitted. (amazonaws.com)
  • This product is carefully crafted through a traditional, all-natural, solar-concentration process that does not use any artificial ingredients, artificial drying processes, or minerals sourced from facilities other than those controlled by our manufacturer. (hempusa.org)
  • The processes by which energy is transferred and utilized is pretty much the field of biochemistry in a nutshell. (ycombinator.com)
  • HAVANA, Sep 26 2014 (IPS) - Cuba's sugar industry hopes to become the main source of clean energy in the country as part of a programme to develop renewable sources aimed at reducing dependence on imported fossil fuels and protecting the environment. (ipsnews.net)
  • The overall aim is for 24 percent of energy to come from renewable sources, including wind power (six percent), solar (three percent), and hydropower (one percent). (ipsnews.net)
  • It is proposed as an alternative to petroleum and as a means of locally storing energy captured from renewable sources. (peswiki.com)
  • He saw this Breath as a mysterious, larger source beyond the physical body. (myrnamartin.net)
  • By healing the energy body, you are basically healing the physical body. (milanoporteeserramenti.it)
  • The chakra energy centers are responsible for carrying or releasing stored memories, emotional or physical trauma. (acupuncturecenterinc.com)
  • The external electrical contacts may detect bioelectric energy or may deliver electrical energy to a target site. (google.co.uk)
  • Background: Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) technology is used in various applications such as wastewater treatment with the production of electrical energy. (bvsalud.org)
  • Directory:Stirling Energy Systems - Developing equipment for utility-scale renewable energy power plants and distributed electrical generating systems. (peswiki.com)
  • Nano-Pulse Stimulation technology delivers nano-second pulses of electrical energy. (biospace.com)
  • Faculty members from departments of Mechanical engineering, Materials Science and Electronics and Electrical Communication Engineering of IITKGP are working together to harness this bio-energy. (indiaesa.info)
  • These results demonstrate that algae can in principle, be used as a renewable source of electricity production in MFCs. (edu.sa)
  • Much research on MFCs experiments is under way with great potential to become an alternative to produce clean energy from renewable waste. (elsevier.com)
  • MFCs have been one of the most promising technologies for generating clean energy industry in the future. (elsevier.com)
  • as biofuel sources of catalytic RMs for stimulating bioenergy extraction in MFCs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • I do not, however, consider Biodynamic Craniosacral Therapy to be "energy work. (myrnamartin.net)
  • In the absence of any herbal or plant preparations, vitamins, other supplements manipulative treatmentschiropractic, osteopathy, massage energy basedreiki, bioelectric or magnetic resonance imaging technology, sun etal. (nebraskaortho.com)
  • BEMER stands for Bio Electric Magnetic Energy Regulator. (attainablehealthsolutions.com)
  • A key operation in the healing was the Extraterrestrial striking Cao Gong's "Big Hammer" acupuncture point [the Governing Vessel-14, the Dachui xue , 大椎穴 ] and sending into him what the ET called, "cosmic light, electricity and magnetic energy. (chinesemedicineliving.com)
  • Directory:Accelerated Magnetic Piston Generator - New (Magnetic Piston Generator) MPG design has the flexibility to be powered by any source of thermal (heat) or pressure energy to produce electricity. (peswiki.com)
  • An MFC equipped with a CNT-textile anode has a 10-fold-lower charge-transfer resistance and achieves considerably better performance than one equipped with a traditional carbon cloth anode: the maximum current density is 157% higher, the maximum power density is 68% higher, and the energy recovery is 141% greater. (nih.gov)
  • A dressing was designed to generate an electric potential of 0.6 V to 0.7 V in the presence of moisture, thereby delivering a sustained micro-current without the need for an external power source. (o-wm.com)
  • The nanomachines which precipitate Morgellons thrive in alkaline ph conditions and use the body's bio-electric energy and other (unidentified) elements for power. (milanoporteeserramenti.it)
  • The proposed solvent-free air cathode paper-based MFC device could be used for environmentally-friendly energy storage as well as in single-use medical power supplies that use organic matter. (nature.com)
  • After analysis all these things Dr. Misak can say are you gaining or losing energy, inefficiency and what stressors are nutrients are needed to support this chemistry. (adoctorsperspective.net)
  • The Pituitary Patient Resource Guide a one of a kind publication intended as an invaluable source of information not only for patients but also their families, physicians, and all health care providers. (pituitary.org)
  • For attribution, the original author(s), title, publication source (PeerJ) and either DOI or URL of the article must be cited. (peerj.com)
  • Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a bioelectrochemical device, that enables simultaneous wastewater treatment and energy generation. (bvsalud.org)
  • With the augmentation of RMs for bioelectrochemically feasible bioenergy extraction, such ET-stimulating capabilities could simultaneously enhance effective waste degradation and energy-recycling utilization. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For sustainable development, biomass-based energy was considered to be one of the most appropriate renewable energy due to its environmental friendliness. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Directory:Peace Army - Includes mission to promote sustainable energy solutions. (peswiki.com)
  • Anaerobic digesters provide clean, renewable energy (biogas) by converting organic waste to methane, and are a key part of China's comprehensive rural energy plan. (cdc.gov)
  • Here, experimental and modeling results are used to quantify the net greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction from substituting a household anaerobic digester for traditional energy sources in Sichuan, China. (cdc.gov)
  • The first of the plants that run on sugarcane biomass will begin to produce energy in 2016, Lodos said. (ipsnews.net)
  • And, when these wee computers are implanted into us, the theory goes, they'll function with our body's own nanomachines and energy systems. (ustranslation.com)
  • Our blood, our life source, delivers oxygen and nutrients from our food and our supplements to where our body needs it the most to ease tension and repair our tissue. (attainablehealthsolutions.com)
  • 10 Measuring and Managing Healthy Living Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry Two radiation sources scan the body, some of which is absorbed by the bone & soft tissue. (slideplayer.com)
  • Is using thermal energy an effective method to powering an implanted tracking device? (stackexchange.com)
  • Could having the device dependent on the bodies thermal energy allow this device to perform all the functions mentioned above? (stackexchange.com)
  • Current spectral CT systems have more energy bins, but the statistical noise in each energy bin is high because of the decreased photon number, which causes errors in the material decomposition results. (bioportfolio.com)
  • By way of inducing coherent states of mind (usually through meditation and/or chanting, sounding, yoga, or qi gong), the mind can focus the energies of the heart into a coherent field that is able to interact or "link up" with the global field. (stillnessinthestorm.com)
  • In a conversation with Tierramérica, Azcuba spokesman Liobel Pérez defended the production of energy using bagasse as a cheap, environmentally friendly alternative. (ipsnews.net)
  • By: PL Chang Many scientists, especially quantum physicists, are accepting the fact that all things in the Universe emit energy. (pearltrees.com)
  • The plant's biomass will help increase electricity production from clean sources of energy in Cuba. (ipsnews.net)
  • This review also systematically analyzes the advantages and limitations of conjugated polymers, and how these composite hybrid bioelectrodes solve practical issues such as low energy output, high inner resistance, and long starting time. (bvsalud.org)
  • This took a lot of time, work, an incredible amount of energy, and not to mention some newly acquired computer skills. (milanoporteeserramenti.it)
  • It is calculated by multiplying the energy expenditure of an activity by the time spent performing it, and is the most variable component of energy expenditure. (onebridge.io)