Bioelectric Energy Sources: Electric power supply devices which convert biological energy, such as chemical energy of metabolism or mechanical energy of periodic movements, into electrical energy.Water Quality: A rating of a body of water based on measurable physical, chemical, and biological characteristics.Electricity: The physical effects involving the presence of electric charges at rest and in motion.PrintingBiological Oxygen Demand Analysis: Testing for the amount of biodegradable organic material in a water sample by measuring the quantity of oxygen consumed by biodegradation of those materials over a specific time period.Electrodes: Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.Geobacter: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, metal-reducing bacteria in the family Geobacteraceae. They have the ability to oxidize a variety of organic compounds, including AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Publications: Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Miniaturization: The design or construction of objects greatly reduced in scale.Electrical Equipment and Supplies: Apparatus and instruments that generate and operate with ELECTRICITY, and their electrical components.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Electric Stimulation Therapy: Application of electric current in treatment without the generation of perceptible heat. It includes electric stimulation of nerves or muscles, passage of current into the body, or use of interrupted current of low intensity to raise the threshold of the skin to pain.Historical ArticleResearch Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov'tBioreactors: Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Waste Disposal, Fluid: The discarding or destroying of liquid waste products or their transformation into something useful or innocuous.Methanosarcinaceae: A family of anaerobic METHANOSARCINALES whose cells are mesophilic or thermophilic and appear as irregular spheroid bodies or sheathed rods. These methanogens are found in any anaerobic environment including aquatic sediments, anaerobic sewage digesters and gastrointestinal tracts. There are four genera: METHANOSARCINA, Methanolobus, Methanothrix, and Methanococcoides.Industrial Waste: Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Device Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a device to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required preclinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance. It is not restricted to FDA.Diagnostic Equipment: Nonexpendable items used in examination.Equipment and Supplies: Expendable and nonexpendable equipment, supplies, apparatus, and instruments that are used in diagnostic, surgical, therapeutic, scientific, and experimental procedures.Equipment Safety: Freedom of equipment from actual or potential hazards.Diagnostic Test Approval: The process of gaining approval by a government regulatory agency for DIAGNOSTIC REAGENTS AND TEST KITS. This includes any required preclinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance.Heart Atria: The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.Medical Device Legislation: Laws and regulations pertaining to devices used in medicine, proposed for enactment, or enacted by a legislative body.Foundations: Organizations established by endowments with provision for future maintenance.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.North CarolinaReproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Academic Medical Centers: Medical complexes consisting of medical school, hospitals, clinics, libraries, administrative facilities, etc.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Electric Countershock: An electrical current applied to the HEART to terminate a disturbance of its rhythm, ARRHYTHMIAS, CARDIAC. (Stedman, 25th ed)Ventricular Fibrillation: A potentially lethal cardiac arrhythmia that is characterized by uncoordinated extremely rapid firing of electrical impulses (400-600/min) in HEART VENTRICLES. Such asynchronous ventricular quivering or fibrillation prevents any effective cardiac output and results in unconsciousness (SYNCOPE). It is one of the major electrocardiographic patterns seen with CARDIAC ARREST.Defibrillators: Cardiac electrical stimulators that apply brief high-voltage electroshocks to the HEART. These stimulators are used to restore normal rhythm and contractile function in hearts of patients who are experiencing VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION or ventricular tachycardia (TACHYCARDIA, VENTRICULAR) that is not accompanied by a palpable PULSE. Some defibrillators may also be used to correct certain noncritical dysrhythmias (called synchronized defibrillation or CARDIOVERSION), using relatively low-level discharges synchronized to the patient's ECG waveform. (UMDNS, 2003)Heart Arrest: Cessation of heart beat or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. If it is treated within a few minutes, heart arrest can be reversed in most cases to normal cardiac rhythm and effective circulation.Defibrillators, Implantable: Implantable devices which continuously monitor the electrical activity of the heart and automatically detect and terminate ventricular tachycardia (TACHYCARDIA, VENTRICULAR) and VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION. They consist of an impulse generator, batteries, and electrodes.Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: The artificial substitution of heart and lung action as indicated for HEART ARREST resulting from electric shock, DROWNING, respiratory arrest, or other causes. The two major components of cardiopulmonary resuscitation are artificial ventilation (RESPIRATION, ARTIFICIAL) and closed-chest CARDIAC MASSAGE.

Hydrogen production. Green algae as a source of energy. (1/164)

Hydrogen gas is thought to be the ideal fuel for a world in which air pollution has been alleviated, global warming has been arrested, and the environment has been protected in an economically sustainable manner. Hydrogen and electricity could team to provide attractive options in transportation and power generation. Interconversion between these two forms of energy suggests on-site utilization of hydrogen to generate electricity, with the electrical power grid serving in energy transportation, distribution utilization, and hydrogen regeneration as needed. A challenging problem in establishing H(2) as a source of energy for the future is the renewable and environmentally friendly generation of large quantities of H(2) gas. Thus, processes that are presently conceptual in nature, or at a developmental stage in the laboratory, need to be encouraged, tested for feasibility, and otherwise applied toward commercialization.  (+info)

The health impacts of exposure to indoor air pollution from solid fuels in developing countries: knowledge, gaps, and data needs. (2/164)

Globally, almost 3 billion people rely on biomass (wood, charcoal, crop residues, and dung) and coal as their primary source of domestic energy. Exposure to indoor air pollution (IAP) from the combustion of solid fuels is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. In this paper, we review the current knowledge on the relationship between IAP exposure and disease and on interventions for reducing exposure and disease. We take an environmental health perspective and consider the details of both exposure and health effects that are needed for successful intervention strategies. We also identify knowledge gaps and detailed research questions that are essential in successful design and dissemination of preventive measures and policies. In addition to specific research recommendations, we conclude that given the interaction of housing, household energy, and day-to-day household activities in determining exposure to indoor smoke, research and development of effective interventions can benefit tremendously from integration of methods and analysis tools from a range of disciplines in the physical, social, and health sciences.  (+info)

Daily average exposures to respirable particulate matter from combustion of biomass fuels in rural households of southern India. (3/164)

Indoor air pollution resulting from combustion of biomass fuels in rural households of developing countries is now recognized as a major contributor to the global burden of disease. Accurate estimation of health risks has been hampered by a paucity of quantitative exposure information. In this study we quantified exposures to respirable particulate matter from biomass-fuel combustion in 436 rural homes selected through stratified random sampling from four districts of Tamil Nadu, India. The study households are a subset of a larger sample of 5,028 households from the same districts in which socioeconomic and health information has been collected. Results of measurements for personal exposures to respirable particulate matter during cooking were reported earlier. This has been extended to calculation of 24-hr exposures with the aid of additional measurements during noncooking times and the collection of time-activity records. Concentrations of respirable particulate matter ranged from 500 to 2,000 micro g/m(3) during cooking in biomass-using households, and average 24-hr exposures ranged from 90 +/- 21 micro g/m(3) for those not involved in cooking to 231 +/- 109 micro g/m(3) for those who cooked. The 24-hr exposures were around 82 +/- 39 micro g/m(3) for those in households using clean fuels (with similar exposures across household subgroups). Fuel type, type and location of the kitchen, and the time spent near the kitchen while cooking were the most important determinants of exposure across these households among other parameters examined, including stove type, cooking duration, and smoke from neighborhood cooking. These estimates could be used to build a regional exposure database and facilitate health risk assessments.  (+info)

The origin, fate, and health effects of combustion by-products: a research framework. (4/164)

Incomplete combustion processes can emit organic pollutants, metals, and fine particles. Combustion by-products represent global human and environmental health challenges that are relevant not only in heavily industrialized nations, but also in developing nations where up to 90% of rural households rely on unprocessed biomass fuels for cooking, warmth, and light. These issues were addressed at the Seventh International Congress on Combustion By-Products, which convened 4-6 June 2001 in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. This congress included a diverse group of multidisciplinary researchers and practitioners who discussed recent developments and future goals in the control of combustion by-products and their effects of exposure on human and ecologic health. Participants recommended that interdisciplinary, coordinated research efforts should be focused to capitalize on the important potential synergisms between efforts to reduce the adverse human health effects linked to exposures to combustion by-products and broader efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and save energy through efficiency. In this article we summarize the principal findings and recommendations for research focus and direction.  (+info)

Electricity generation by direct oxidation of glucose in mediatorless microbial fuel cells. (5/164)

Abundant energy, stored primarily in the form of carbohydrates, can be found in waste biomass from agricultural, municipal and industrial sources as well as in dedicated energy crops, such as corn and other grains. Potential strategies for deriving useful forms of energy from carbohydrates include production of ethanol and conversion to hydrogen, but these approaches face technical and economic hurdles. An alternative strategy is direct conversion of sugars to electrical power. Existing transition metal-catalyzed fuel cells cannot be used to generate electric power from carbohydrates. Alternatively, biofuel cells in which whole cells or isolated redox enzymes catalyze the oxidation of the sugar have been developed, but their applicability has been limited by several factors, including (i) the need to add electron-shuttling compounds that mediate electron transfer from the cell to the anode, (ii) incomplete oxidation of the sugars and (iii) lack of long-term stability of the fuel cells. Here we report on a novel microorganism, Rhodoferax ferrireducens, that can oxidize glucose to CO(2) and quantitatively transfer electrons to graphite electrodes without the need for an electron-shuttling mediator. Growth is supported by energy derived from the electron transfer process itself and results in stable, long-term power production.  (+info)

Exposure assessment for respirable particulates associated with household fuel use in rural districts of Andhra Pradesh, India. (6/164)

Indoor air pollution associated with combustion of solid fuels seems to be a major contributor to the national burden of disease in India, but relatively few quantitative exposure assessment studies are available. This study quantified the daily average concentrations of respirable particulates (50% cut-off at 4 microm) in 412 rural homes selected through stratified random sampling from three districts of Andhra Pradesh, India and recorded time activity data from 1400 individuals to reconstruct 24-h average exposures. The mean 24-h average concentrations ranged from 73 to 732 microg/m(3) in gas- versus solid fuel-using households, respectively. Concentrations were significantly correlated with fuel type, kitchen type, and fuel quantity. The mean 24-h average exposures ranged from 80 to 573 microg/m(3). Among solid fuel users, the mean 24-h average exposures were the highest for women cooks and were significantly different from men and children. Among women, exposures were the highest in the age group of 15-40 years (most likely to be involved in cooking or helping in cooking), while among men, exposures were highest in the age group of 65-80 years (most likely to be indoors). The data are being used to develop a model to predict quantitative categories of population exposure based on survey information on housing and fuel characteristics. This would facilitate the development of a regional exposure database and enable better estimation of health risks.  (+info)

Potential role of a novel psychrotolerant member of the family Geobacteraceae, Geopsychrobacter electrodiphilus gen. nov., sp. nov., in electricity production by a marine sediment fuel cell. (7/164)

Previous studies have shown that members of the family Geobacteraceae that attach to the anodes of sediment fuel cells are directly involved in harvesting electricity by oxidizing organic compounds to carbon dioxide and transferring the electrons to the anode. In order to learn more about this process, microorganisms from the anode surface of a marine sediment fuel cell were enriched and isolated with Fe(III) oxide. Two unique marine isolates were recovered, strains A1(T) and A2. They are gram-negative, nonmotile rods, with abundant c-type cytochromes. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA, recA, gyrB, fusA, rpoB, and nifD genes indicated that strains A1(T) and A2 represent a unique phylogenetic cluster within the Geobacteraceae. Both strains were able to grow with an electrode serving as the sole electron acceptor and transferred ca. 90% of the electrons available in their organic electron donors to the electrodes. These organisms are the first psychrotolerant members of the Geobacteraceae reported thus far and can grow at temperatures between 4 and 30 degrees C, with an optimum temperature of 22 degrees C. Strains A1(T) and A2 can utilize a wide range of traditional electron acceptors, including all forms of soluble and insoluble Fe(III) tested, anthraquinone 2,6-disulfonate, and S(0). In addition to acetate, both strains can utilize a number of other organic acids, amino acids, long-chain fatty acids, and aromatic compounds to support growth with Fe(III) nitrilotriacetic acid as an electron acceptor. The metabolism of these organisms differs in that only strain A1(T) can use acetoin, ethanol, and hydrogen as electron donors, whereas only strain A2 can use lactate, propionate, and butyrate. The name Geopsychrobacter electrodiphilus gen. nov., sp. nov., is proposed for strains A1(T) and A2, with strain A1(T) (ATCC BAA-880(T); DSM 16401(T); JCM 12469) as the type strain. Strains A1(T) and A2 (ATCC BAA-770; JCM 12470) represent the first organisms recovered from anodes that can effectively couple the oxidation of organic compounds to an electrode. Thus, they may serve as important model organisms for further elucidation of the mechanisms of microbe-electrode electron transfer in sediment fuel cells.  (+info)

Evidence for involvement of an electron shuttle in electricity generation by Geothrix fermentans. (8/164)

In experiments performed using graphite electrodes poised by a potentiostat (+200 mV versus Ag/AgCl) or in a microbial fuel cell (with oxygen as the electron acceptor), the Fe(III)-reducing organism Geothrix fermentans conserved energy to support growth by coupling the complete oxidation of acetate to reduction of a graphite electrode. Other organic compounds, such as lactate, malate, propionate, and succinate as well as components of peptone and yeast extract, were utilized for electricity production. However, electrical characteristics and the results of shuttling assays indicated that unlike previously described electrode-reducing microorganisms, G. fermentans produced a compound that promoted electrode reduction. This is the first report of complete oxidation of organic compounds linked to electrode reduction by an isolate outside of the Proteobacteria.  (+info)

*List of MeSH codes (E07)

... bioelectric energy sources MeSH E07.296.159 --- defibrillators MeSH E07.296.159.175 --- defibrillators, implantable MeSH ... Source for content is here. (File "2006 MeSH Trees".) MeSH E07.101.074 --- bandages, hydrocolloid MeSH E07.101.150 --- ...

*Jolt (comics)

... and that with an unlimited source of energy she would be able to use her powers with no physical strain whatsoever. After her " ... Jolt appeared in her bio-electric form, but had the same powers as the Marvel-616 Jolt.[volume & issue needed] Jolt was part of ... In her energy form, she could fly and fire blasts of electrical force. At first, she could only function in her electric form, ... The other children died or were horribly mutated, but Hallie became faster, stronger, and gained the ability to throw bio-electric ...

*Bioelectromagnetics

Direct and Inverse Bioelectric Field Problems Human body meshes for MATLAB, Ansoft/ANSYS HFSS, Octave (surface meshes from real ... Others include animal navigation utilizing the geomagnetic field; potential effects of man-made sources of electromagnetic ... One such interaction is absorption of energy from the fields, which can cause tissue to heat up; more intense fields will ... Some usually aquatic animals, such as sharks, have acute bioelectric sensors providing a sense known as electroreception, while ...

*E-meter

... "mental energy." Energy is energy. Matter is condensed energy. This text in Understanding the E-Meter is accompanied by three ... Some sources say the E-meter was "developed by Volney Mathison following Hubbard's designs", or that Hubbard invented it. ... and bioelectric potential. Researchers in psychophysiology are also exploring admittance and impedance aspects of EDA that can ... This mental mass (condensed energy), acts as an additional resistance or lack of resistance to the flow of electrical energy ...

*Orgastic potency

Reich progressively called this energy libido, sexual energy, emotional energy, bioelectric energy, biophysical energy and, ... According to one source, Reich held that the vast majority of people do not meet these criteria and thus lack orgastic potency ... In other words, he argued that the inability of psychoneurotics to wholly discharge sexual energy caused a damming up of energy ... The corollary is the idea that bioelectric energy displayed an antithetic function: if it flows outward to the skin surface, ...

*Speed Force

... a byproduct of The Godwave created by the mysterious omni-energy known as The Source. The ability to gain a connection to the ... "background bio-electric field." When Bart died, Wally West reclaimed the mantle as the Flash and freely used the Speed Force at ... It's an electrical energy that exists in every dimension, every universe, and every era. It touches every part of reality. It ... The Speed Force is a vaguely defined extra-dimensional energy force from which most, but not all, heroes in the DC Comics ...

*Neuromechanics

The signal source refers to the location at which the EMG electrode is place. EMG signal acquisition is dependent on distance ... The brain is given the task to perform a certain motor task, and once a muscle has been weakened, the brain computes energy ... The transducer used to detect the signal is an EMG electrode than transforms the bioelectric signal from the muscle to a ... The six determinants of gait predict very high energy expenditure for the sinusoidal motion of the Center of Mass during gait, ...

*K. N. Toosi University of Technology

MSc program in Energy Systems with University of Manchester, Manchester, UK. BSc program in Aerospace Engineering with Moscow ... "Sabotaging Iran's Nuclear Program: Mossad Behind Tehran Assassinations, Says Source - SPIEGEL ONLINE - International". SPIEGEL ... Bioelectric Artificial Organs Research laboratory (Faculty of Electrical Engineering) Antenna Research laboratory (Faculty of ... of excellence in robotics and control Center of excellence in materials and modern structures Center of excellence in energy ...

*Powers and abilities of Superman

Emphasis was placed on yellow sun energy as a source for the character's powers. Superman's origin story was altered so that ... Superman's invulnerability is further increased by his bio-electric aura, which protects him from some attacks and can be ... Solar energy dependency: Superman's abilities will eventually weaken without replenishing his energy reserves with normal ( ... when he uses Super Flare he expels that stored up energy in the form of a giant blast of energy. Superman's powers rely on his ...

*X-Men 2099

Initial electrical energy absorption and redirection later developed into absorption and redirection of any energy source; ... Morphine Somers - Superannuation touch generates specific bioelectric feedback through matter, aging it thousands of years into ... He took drugs to enhance his dwindling psychic energies, and as a result grew demented. He eventually killed the last of the X- ... but those he resurrected are linked to his neural energies. Junkpile - Former member of the Lawless and ally of Xi'an. Betrayed ...

*Aestivation

The California red-legged frog may aestivate to conserve energy when its food and water supply is low. The water-holding frog ... Bogong moths will aestivate over the summer to avoid the heat and lack of food sources. Adult alfalfa weevils (Hypera postica) ... Kutyna, F. A.; Tombes, A. S. (1966-11-26). "Bioelectric activity of the central nervous system in normal and diapausing alfalfa ... The primary physiological and biochemical concerns for an aestivating animal are to conserve energy, retain water in the body, ...

*Center for Biofilm Engineering

Costerton encouraged exploration of the bioelectric effect, the phenomenon of cell-cell signaling and its relation to biofilm ... Member companies have represented several industrial categories including energy/petroleum, chemicals/specialty chemicals, ... "Sources and resources: Importance of nutrients, resource allocation, and ecology in microalgal cultivation for lipid ... and oil/energy companies. In June 1996 the National Science Foundation renewed its commitment to the Center for Biofilm ...

*Prosthesis

Energy storage and return - storage of energy acquired through ground contact and utilization of that stored energy for ... Open-source robotic prothesisEdit. See also: Open-source hardware, Modular design, 3D printing, and Thingiverse ... "A Russian Bioelectric-Controlled Prosthesis: Report of a Research Team from the Rehabilitation Institute of Montreal" ... Cost and source freedomEdit. High-costEdit. In the USA a typical prosthetic limb costs anywhere between $15,000 and $90,000, ...

*Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran

From 2004-05 the Energy Engineering has also been included in the faculty. www.environment.srbiau.ac.ir/fa/index.html The wide ... in bio-electric, bio-mechanics, and bio-materials. Since 2004 the faculty has been offering degrees in clinical disciplines. ... although in recent years the university is attempting to diversify its sources of income through commercialization of its ... Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources Faculty of Veterinary Science Center for Environment and Energy Research and ...

*Prosthesis

Energy storage and return - storage of energy acquired through ground contact and utilization of that stored energy for ... Open-source robotic prothesis[edit]. See also: Open-source hardware, Modular design, 3D printing, and Thingiverse ... "A Russian Bioelectric-Controlled Prosthesis: Report of a Research Team from the Rehabilitation Institute of Montreal" ... Cost and source freedom[edit]. High-cost[edit]. In the USA a typical prosthetic limb costs anywhere between $15,000 and $90,000 ...

*Neural engineering

Depolarization of the membrane past its threshold potential generates an action potential, which is the main source of signal ... ISBN 978-0-8493-8174-4. Neural Engineering (Bioelectric Engineering) (2005) ISBN 978-0-306-48609-8 Operative Neuromodulation: ... or other forms of energy stimulus to re-establish balance in impaired regions of the brain. Researchers in this field face the ... By studying the neural stem cells in vitro and exploring alternative cell sources, engineering novel biopolymers that could be ...
Electrical power distribution control methods, electrical energy demand monitoring methods, and power management devices are described. In one aspect, an electrical power distribution control method includes providing electrical energy from an electrical power distribution system, applying the electrical energy to a load, providing a plurality of different values for a threshold at a plurality of moments in time and corresponding to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy, and adjusting an amount of the electrical energy applied to the load responsive to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy triggering one of the values of the threshold at the respective moment in time.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Analysis of chitin particle size on maximum power generation, power longevity, and Coulombic efficiency in solid-substrate microbial fuel cells. AU - Rezaei, Farzaneh. AU - Richard, Tom L.. AU - Logan, Bruce E.. PY - 2009/7/15. Y1 - 2009/7/15. N2 - Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) produce bioelectricity from a wide variety of organic and inorganic substrates. Chitin can be used as a slowly degrading substrate in MFCs and thus as a long-term fuel to sustain power by these devices in remote locations. However, little is known about the effects of particle size on power density and length of the power cycle (longevity). We therefore examined power generation from chitin particles sieved to produce three average particle sizes (0.28, 0.46 and 0.78 mm). The longevity increased from 9 to 33 days with an increase in the particle diameter from 0.28 to 0.78 mm. Coulombic efficiency also increased with particle size from 18% to 56%. The maximum power density was lower for the largest (0.78 mm) ...
Microbial fuel cells are batteries in which microorganisms catalyze the conversion of organic fuel (such as lactate) into protons and electrons that power a resistor (e. g., a light bulb) before reducing the terminal electron acceptor (e. g., oxygen is reduced to water). Great improvements in power production and efficiency have been made by engineering inorganic components, such as the electrodes themselves, to be more efficiently utilized by fuel cell-inhabiting organisms. However, other avenues for improvement may exist, that is, engineering the fuel cell-inhabiting organisms themselves. We hypothesized that Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, a model organism used for studying microbial fuel cells, could be shown to evolve under physiological conditions which mimic those found in microbial fuel cells. These physiological conditions include the planktonic lifestyle, the biofilm lifestyle, and transient association between the two - that is, those cells that rapidly detach from and reattach to the ...
Microbial fuel cells may hold the key to this endeavor. Microbial fuel cells able to convert waste into electricity Microbial fuel cells are
Figure 5.6 shows that the introduction of renewable technologies under the Energy [R]evolution scenario increase the future costs of electricity generation compared to the Reference scenario until 2020. This difference will be less than 0.8 US$ct/kWh up to 2020, however. Because of high prices for conventional fuels and the lower CO2 intensity of electricity generation, from 2030 on electricity generation costs will become economically favourable under the Energy [R]evolution scenario and by 2050 costs will be 7.5 US$ct/kWh below those in the Reference version. Under the Reference scenario, on the other hand, unchecked growth in demand, an increase in fossil fuel prices and the cost of CO2 emissions result in total electricity supply costs rising from todays US$ 96 billion per year to more than US$ 555 billion in 2050, compared to US$ 327 billion in the Energy [R]evolution scenario. Figure 5.6 shows that the Energy [R]evolution scenario not only complies with the ASEAN regions CO2 reduction ...
The biocathodic reduction of nitrate in Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) is an alternative to remove nitrogen in low carbon to nitrogen wastewater and relies entirely on microbial activity. In this paper the community composition of denitrifiers in the cathode of a MFC is analysed in relation to added electron acceptors (nitrate and nitrite) and organic matter in the cathode. Nitrate reducers and nitrite reducers were highly affected by the operational conditions and displayed high diversity. The number of retrieved species-level Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) for narG, napA, nirS and nirK genes was 11, 10, 31 and 22, respectively. In contrast, nitrous oxide reducers remained virtually unchanged at all conditions. About 90% of the retrieved nosZ sequences grouped in a single OTU with a high similarity with Oligotropha carboxidovorans nosZ gene. nirS-containing denitrifiers were dominant at all conditions and accounted for a significant amount of the total bacterial density. Current production ...
In this science fair project, build a microbial fuel cell and use it to power an external circuit. The student will also use the microbial fuel cell to harvest electricity from two different mud samples.
Scientists at the Bristol Robotics Laboratory, have demonstrated that a commercially available mobile phone can be charged and powered with urine.. The availability of energy for communication when in remote areas can be a big problem. If you could charge your phone with your own readily available urine, the worry of running out of phone battery in a difficult situation is solved. This research also opens up lots of possibilities for the utilisation of waste for useful energy. The authors of this research told UWE News that they think their technology could be installed into domestic bathrooms to harness the urine and produce sufficient electricity to power showers, lighting or razors as well as mobile phones.. Microbial Fuel Cells use live microorganisms to turn organic matter into electricity. The group created a membrane-less microbial fuel cell, which was made out of ceramic material and used carbon-based electrodes.. Read the story in UWE Bristol News here…. Find out more about how this ...
This is a schematic depiction of simplified mechanism of power generation by the benthic microbial fuel cell (BMFC), without box labeled 5 corresponding to photosynthesis, and for the microbial photoelectrochemical solar microbial fuel cell (SMFC) reported here, with box labeled 5. Other labels include: (1) biofilm catalyzed anode reaction; (2) biofilm catalyzed cathode reaction; (3) fermentative reaction, and (4) the microbial oxygen barrier.
article{2009645, author = {Virdis, Bernardino and Rabaey, Korneel and Yuan, ZhiGuo and Keller, J{\u}rg}, issn = {0043-1354}, journal = {WATER RESEARCH}, keyword = {cathode,biocatalysis,denitrification,nitrification,microbial fuel cell,wastewater,BIOFILM-ELECTRODE REACTOR,WASTE-WATER TREATMENT,ELECTRICITY-GENERATION,ENERGY GENERATION,ACTIVATED-SLUDGE,DENITRIFICATION,REDUCTION,NITRATE,SHARON}, language = {eng}, number = {12}, pages = {3013--3024}, title = {Microbial fuel cells for simultaneous carbon and nitrogen removal}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2008.03.017}, volume = {42}, year = {2008 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A small-scale air-cathode microbial fuel cell for on-line monitoring of water quality. AU - Di Lorenzo, M. AU - Thomson, Alexander R.. AU - Schneider, Kenneth. AU - Cameron, Petra J. AU - Ieropoulosc, Ioannis. PY - 2014/12/15. Y1 - 2014/12/15. N2 - The heavy use of chemicals for agricultural, industrial and domestic purposes has increased the risk of freshwater contamination worldwide. Consequently, the demand for efficient new analytical tools for on-line and on-site water quality monitoring has become particularly urgent.In this study, a small-scale single chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cell (SCMFC), fabricated by rapid prototyping layer-by-layer 3D printing, was tested as a biosensor for continuous water quality monitoring.When acetate was fed as the rate-limiting substrate, the SCMFC acted as a sensor for chemical oxygen demand (COD) in water. The linear detection range was 3-164 ppm, with a sensitivity of 0.05 μA mM−1cm−2 with respect to the anode total surface ...
The ability of Pelobacter carbinolicus to oxidize electron donors with electron transfer to the anodes of microbial fuel cells was evaluated because microorganisms closely related to Pelobacter species are generally abundant on the anodes of microbial fuel cells harvesting electricity from aquatic sediments. P. carbinolicus could not produce current in a microbial fuel cell with electron donors which support Fe(III) oxide reduction by this organism. Current was produced using a coculture of P. carbinolicus and Geobacter sulfurreducens with ethanol as the fuel. Ethanol consumption was associated with the transitory accumulation of acetate and hydrogen. G. sulfurreducens alone could not metabolize ethanol, suggesting that P. carbinolicus grew in the fuel cell by converting ethanol to hydrogen and acetate, which G. sulfurreducens oxidized with electron transfer to the anode. Up to 83% of the electrons available in ethanol were recovered as electricity and in the metabolic intermediate acetate. ...
Under anaerobic conditions, certain bacteria can produce electricity. This behavior can be exploited in microbial fuel cells, with a special focus on wastewater treatment schemes. A weak point is the dissatisfactory power density of the microbial cells. An unconventional solution is now presented by Singaporean and Chinese scientists: as reported in the journal Angewandte Chemie, they coated live, electroactive bacteria with a conducting polymer and obtained a high-performance anode for microbial fuel cells.. The history of microbial fuel cells goes back to the beginning of the 20th century when scientists connected bacteria cells with electrodes to generate electricity. The principle is that, if no oxygen is present, the bacterias metabolism changes to produce protons and electrons instead of carbon dioxide and water. These electrons can be used for current generation in an electrochemical cell. Such microbial fuel cells are currently heavily investigated for sustainable energy production and, ...
The slow kinetics of the electrochemical oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is a crucial bottleneck in the development of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). This article firstly gives an overview of the particular constraints imposed on ORR by MFC operating conditions: neutral pH, slow oxygen mass transfer, sensitivity to reactive oxygen species, fouling and biofouling. A review of the literature is then proposed to assess how microbial catalysis could afford suitable solutions. Actually, microbial catalysis of ORR occurs spontaneously on the surface of metallic materials and is an effective motor of microbial corrosion. In this framework, several mechanisms have been proposed, which are reviewed in the second part of the article. The last part describes the efforts made in the domain of MFCs to determine the microbial ecology of electroactive biofilms and define efficient protocols for the formation of microbial oxygen-reducing cathodes. Although no clear mechanism has been established yet, several ...
Article Effect of cathode electron acceptors on simultaneous anaerobic sulfide and nitrate removal in microbial fuel cell. The current investigation reports the effect of cathode electron acceptors on simultaneous sulfide and nitrate removal in two-c...
A marine microbial fuel cell (MFC) type biosensor was developed for the detection of assimilable organic carbon (AOC) in ocean water for the purpose of online water quality monitoring for seawater desalination plants prone to biofouling of reverse osmosis (RO) membranes. The anodophilic biofilm that developed on the graphite tissue anode could detect acetate as the model AOC to concentrations as low as 5 µM (120 µg/L of AOC), which is sufficiently sensitive as an online biofouling risk sensor. Although the sensor was operated at a higher (+200 ± 10 mV) than the usual (-300 mV) anodic potential, the presence of oxygen completely suppressed the electrical signal. In order to overcome this outcompeting effect of oxygen over the anode as electron acceptor by the bacteria, hexacyanoferrate (HCF(III)) was found to enable the development of an adapted biofilm that transferred electrons to HCF(III) rather than oxygen. As the resultant of the reduced HCF(II) could readily transfer electrons to the ...
In the quest for renewable energy some ideas are wackier than others.. This pee-powered toilet created by researchers at the University of the West of England (UWE Bristol) converts urine into electricity might just be crazy enough to work.. Professor Ioannis Ieropoulos, project leader and director of the universitys Bristol BioEnergy Center, said the urinal uses microbial fuel cell stacks to convert the urine into electricity that powers the restrooms electric lights.. "We have already proved that this way of generating electricity works. Work by the Bristol BioEnergy Center hit the headlines in 2013 when the team demonstrated that electricity generated by microbial fuel cell stacks could power a mobile phone. This exciting project with Oxfam could have a huge impact in refugee camps," Ieropoulos said.. "The microbial fuel cells work by employing live microbes which feed on urine [fuel] for their own growth and maintenance. The MFC is in effect a system which taps a portion of that ...
The effluents of mainstream anaerobic treatment processes such as anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) contain dissolved methane that represents a large fraction of the available energy (approximately 50% at 15 °C) and a significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emission if released to the atmosphere. Microbial fuel cell
An electrical energy storage device for storing electrical energy and supplying the electrical energy to a driving motor at different power levels is disclosed. The electrical storage device has an energy battery connected to a power battery. The energy battery has a higher energy density than the power battery. However, the power battery can provide electrical power to the electrical motor at different power rates, thereby ensuring that the motor has sufficient power and current when needed. The power battery can be recharged by the energy storage battery. In this way, the power battery temporarily stores electrical energy received from the energy battery and both batteries can provide electrical energy at the different power rates as required by the motor. The energy storage device can be releasably connected to an external power source in order to recharge both batteries. Both batteries can be recharged independently to optimize the recharging and lifetime characteristics of the batteries.
Introduction. 11 IB CHEMISTRY PRACTICAL DESIGN PROFORMA NAME;......ESTHER..................................................... INSTRUCTIONS A electrochemical cell also called a voltaic cell, it consist of two different half -cells, converting chemical energy into electrical energy using a spontaneous redox reaction as a source of electrical energy. Anode is negative (reduction), and cathode is positive (oxidation). Electron always flows from anode to cathode. There are lots of factors affecting electrochemical cells, this experiment will find out one of the factor affecting the average voltage of electrochemical cells. Aim: To investigate the effect of the temperature change of the anode electrolyte has on the average voltage produced by a voltaic cell with 50ml of 0.5M Zinc sulphate solution and 50ml of 0.5M Magnesium sulphate solution. Hypothesis: As increase the temperature of anode electrolytes, its average voltage will also increase. DESIGN RESEARCH QUESTION: (Is your research question ...
Microbial fuel cells (MFCs), which convert organic waste to electricity using microbes, could be used to make the wastewater infrastructure more energy efficient and sustainable. However, the chemical catalysts which catalyse the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the cathode of MFCs are expensive and unsustainable. Mixed community aerobic biocathode biofilms are an alternative to chemical catalysts. However, little is known about the bacteria, their metabolism, and their mechanisms of electron transfer with the electrode. A novel 4-electrode method was used to determine the minimum potential for production of peroxide on a porous carbon felt biocathode support. Biocathodes with a high onset potential for the ORR of +0.4 V vs Ag/AgCl were then cultivated in poised-potential half-cells at working electrode potentials of -0.1 and +0.2 V vs Ag/AgCl. These biofilms show what may be an electrode potential-dependent switch in an electron transfer mechanism from -0.1 to +0.2 V vs Ag/AgCl. The biofilms ...
0019] As shown in the lower portion of FIG. 2, conventional ball milling of K2FeO4 heats the particles and converts some to the ferric state. Chemically synthesized, re-crystallized K2FeO4 was milled in a Restch PM 100 planetary ball in a steel vessel with steel grinding balls at approximately 500 revolutions per minute (rpm) ball milling for approximately 45 minutes. The resulting nanometer-size particles and 10 weight percent carbon (based on the total amount of K2FeO4 and carbon) were used to form a cathode. The cathode had a decreased coulombic efficiency (approximately 37%) compared to the coulombic efficiency of a comparable cathode made using non-milled K2FeO4 (53% coulombic efficiency). However the discharge voltage increased and the coulombic efficiency increased to approximately 47% when the milling time was shortened to approximately 15 minutes. As seen an the upper portion of FIG. 2, at a lower mill speed of approximately 300 rpm for approximately 30 minutes, the coulombic efficiency ...
Physicist: Electrical energy is nothing special. Just like the chemical energy in our bodies, it breaks down into heat. For example, the heat given off by light bulbs (or electric heaters for that matter!) is a result of electrical energy. When electricity is flowing to a light bulb, thats where the electrical energy is going; its turning into light. When you pull the plug (so to speak) what tiny, tiny amount of electrical energy there is in the wires runs out almost immediately.. The term "electrical energy" is actually a little vague. So, to be specific, in our nervous system there are tiny ion pumps that maintain an imbalance of charges between the inside and outside of the nerve cells. When a nerve cell fires, charges are allowed to suddenly flow through the cell membrane in a process called an "action potential". The way electricity flows along nerve cells is different from the way it flows down a telegraph wire ("inside-to-outside" instead of "along"), but whatever. The point is, there ...
This paper describes the detrimental effect of photosynthetically evolved oxygen on anodic current generation in the presence of riboflavin upon illumination of a mixed phototrophic culture enriched from a freshwater pond at +0.6 V vs standard hydrogen electrode. In the presence of riboflavin, the phototrophic biomass in the anodic compartment produced an electrical current in response to light/dark cycles (12 h/12 h) over 12 months of operation, generating a maximum current density of 17.5 mA.m(-2) during the dark phase, whereas a much lower current of approximately 2 mA.m(-2) was generated during illumination. We found that the low current generation under light exposure was caused by high rates of reoxidation of reduced riboflavin by oxygen produced during photosynthesis. Quantification of biomass by fluorescence in situ hybridization images suggested that green algae were predominant in both the anode-based biofilm (55.1%) and the anolyte suspension (87.9%) with the remaining biovolume ...
As populations continue to grow, the amount of waste produced also increases; 61 percent of energy is wasted by the U.S. economy each year, and most of it can be attributed to our relatively inefficient power plants.1 Fuel cells are capable of reducing waste to increase efficiency and produce marketable energy. Processed municipal waste produces anaerobic digested gas, commonly known as biogas, which can be used as a fuel for fuel cells cell fuel. While hydrogen is the most common fuel type for fuel cells, biogas such as methane, natural gas, propane and diesel can be used as well. Biogas is an ideal option for fuel cells because it is easily stored and produces almost zero net carbon dioxide emissions. When biogas is fed into fuel cells, heat, electricity, and water are produced,2 providing on-site power for the facility. Some fuel cells are efficient enough to create excess hydrogen that can be sold to fuel cell stations and be utilized by fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV).. The Orange County ...
A large-scale, capacitor-based electrical energy storage and distribution system capable of effectuating load-leveling during periods of peak demand on a utility, and of effectuating a cost savings associated with the purchase of electrical energy. A capacitor or multitude of capacitors may be charged with electrical energy produced by the utility, such as during periods of low demand or low cost, and discharged during periods of high electrical energy consumption or high electrical energy cost. One or more capacitors may be located at a consumers residence or business. Alternatively, a farm of capacitors may be provided at or near a utility, or at or near a location experiencing high demand. In another embodiment, one or more capacitors may be located in or on a vehicle, such as an automobile, a truck, or a train of a light rail system.
EE-515 Bioelectricity & Biomagnetism 2002 Fall - Murat Eyüboğlu Location of the Heart The heart is located in the chest between the lungs behind the sternum and above the diaphragm. It is surrounded by the pericardium. Its size is about that of a fist, and its weight is about g. Its center is located about 1.5 cm to the left of the midsagittal plane. Located above the heart are the great vessels: the superior and inferior vena cava, the pulmonary artery and vein, as well as the aorta. The aortic arch lies behind the heart. The esophagus and the spine lie further behind the heart. EE-515 Bioelectricity & Biomagnetism 2002 Fall - Murat Eyüboğlu
One of the biggest barriers to greater adoption of hydrogen fuel cell technology is cost.. Not only is hydrogen more expensive than gasoline, diesel and natural gas, the fuel cells themselves are expensive.. A Vancouver company that has been quietly working on fuel cell efficiency since 2001 claims it has a solution that could bring the cost of hydrogen fuel cells down by 25% and has chosen this weeks Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Conference 2013 to go public.. The biennial conference, organized by the Canadian Hydrogen Fuel Cell Association, will draw more than 600 fuel cell scientists and business leaders from 40 countries to Vancouver.. PowerDisc will be among the Canadian companies demonstrating their technology at the conference.. The companys eFlow technology addresses one of the problems inherent in hydrogen fuel cells: an uneven consumption of oxygen and resulting unequal distribution of current, which requires manufacturers to overbuild fuel stacks to make up for the inefficiency.. "Weve ...
June 19, 1962 A. M. MOOS FUEL CELL ELECTRODES Filed Sept. 28, 1960 United States Patent OP 3,040,115 FUEL CELL ELECTRODES Anthony M. Moos, Ossining, N.Y., assigner to Leesona Corporation, Cranston, RJ., a corporation of Massachusetts Filed Sept. 28, 1960, Ser. No. 58,888 7 Claims. (Cl. 13G-120) This invention relates to improved fuel cells and more partciularly to novel fuel cell electrodes which are particularly well suited for high temperature operations. A fuel cell, as the term is employed in this specification, is an electrochemical cell in which the free energy of combustion of the fuel is converted directly into electrical energy. A simple cell comprises a housing, a fuel electrode, an oxidizing electrode, and an external means for drawing off electrical current. An oxidizing gas such as oxygen is passed through, or on one side of the oxidizing electrode and a fuel gas is passed through, or on one side of the fuel gas electrode. The oxidizing gas is adsorbed in the pores of the oxygen ...
The depletion of fossil fuel reserves, global warming, energy security and the need for clean, cheap fuels has made developing sources of renewable energy a global research priority. Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) have the potential to generate renewable electricity from a vast array of carbon sources such as waste-water, agricultural by-products and industrial pollutants. In MFCs electrons from microbial metabolism flow from the bacteria toward an anode then on through an external circuit finally converting oxygen into water at the cathode closing the cycle. The optimization of MFC systems is a highly multidisciplinary area of research and two complementary areas of work are required - firstly to design more efficient hardware for the cells by traditional engineering and secondly to understand and improve the interaction and electron transport between microbes and electrode via biological engineering. One of the most important engineering challenges in MFC development is the efficient electron ...
A secondary electrochemical cell with at least one positive electrode includes an active material and one negative electrode, which are held directly in a hermetically tight housing which has at least one detector element or which is dynamically connected to one such detector element. The detector element is designed or can be set to acquire a predetermined unallowable operating state of the secondary electrochemical cell, and in an unallowable operating state of the secondary electrochemical cell, to actuate at least one switching element which prevents recharging and/or discharging of the secondary electrochemical cell. By making the housing as a hermetically tight protective housing, which is part of an implantable medical device, contamination of surrounding tissue with toxic substances and hazard to the implant wearer by the malfunction of the secondary electrochemical cell can be precluded under all operating conditions with simultaneously great reduction of all dimensions.
System and method of operating an electrical energy storage device or an electrochemical energy generation device using thermal conductivity materials based on mobile device states and vehicle states - diagram, schematic, and image 12 ...
Electrical energy comes from renewable and nonrenewable sources; it is generally inexpensive and readily available, but it leaves many appliances and heating units defunct when power supplies are...
In experiments, biofuel cells have harnessed membranes of living bacteria to separate anode from cathode--enabling them to share an electrolyte chamber like a lead-acid battery. Now, researchers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have purified the essential protein performing a fuel-cell membranes electronic function, clearing the way to commercialize biofuel cells sans bacteria. The team purified the bacterium down to the essential protein in the cell wall--eliminating the need to keep the bacterium alive. The only missing element was a fuel source, which biomass could supply, lab scientists reasoned. Now they propose biofuel cell arrays to harvest biomass in tiny reactors. The reaction creates a mobile electron carrier that shuttles electrons to the protein-coated electrodes, generating electricity as it neutralizes the biomass. The proposed biofuel cells would use a cheap porous hematite electrode in which the bacterias purified protein could be bound. The coated electrodes would ...
One of the remaining challenges driving polymer electrolyte membrane hydrogen fuel cell research is the durability of the Pt oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalyst. Pt is inherently unstable; minute amounts (in the order of ng/cm2 are dissolved every time the fuel cell is started, goes from idle to load, or shut-down. In addition, corrosion of carbon-based materials (ubiquitous inside fuel cells) occurs during the start-up and shut-down and also contributes to the steady decline of fuel cell performance. Adding oxygen evolution reaction (OER) catalysts, of which only Ru and Ir are stable in the acidic conditions of the fuel cell, can decrease Pt loss and carbon corrosion by mitigating the degradation mechanism which occurs during the start-up and shut-down phases. There are two challenges in developing this materials solution (there are other solutions, based on hardware systems) to the fuel cell durability problem: 1) finding the right mixture of Ru and Ir, (Ru is cheaper, more active, but ...
Methods and systems for fuel, chemical, and/or electricity production from electrochemical cells are disclosed. A voltage is applied between an anode and a cathode of an electrochemical cell. The anode includes a metal or metal oxide electrocatalyst. Oxygen is supplied to the cathode, producing oxygen ions. The anode electrocatalyst is at least partially oxidized by the oxygen ions transported through an electrolyte from the cathode to the anode. A feed gas stream is supplied to the anode electrocatalyst, which is converted to a liquid fuel. The anode electrocatalyst is re-oxidized to higher valency oxides, or a mixture of oxide phases, by supplying the oxygen ions to the anode. The re-oxidation by the ions is controlled or regulated by the amount of voltage applied.
Ancient cultures understood that the body possessed a special energy that was responsible for life. The Chinese called this life force energy, Qi. I believe that what they were talking about is bioelectricity.. Bioelectricity. Electricity is a force that results from the interaction between positive and negative charges. Like charges repel while opposites attract. In the body there are different atoms and molecules that have positive or negative charges associated with them. We call these charged particles ions. Bioelectricity (the kind of electricity used in the body) is generated by the movement of these ions.. It is the controlled flow of ions that allows signals to be carried by the nerves of our brains and nervous systems. That means that every thought we have is a result of bioelectricity. This same basic process is responsible for the contraction of our muscles. So, every movement we make and every beat of our hearts are powered by electricity. But there are still deeper implications of ...
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In a fuel cell system including a stack of polymer electrolyte fuel cells, the wet state of electrolyte membranes in the fuel cell stack is detected according to a variation in measurement value of an alternating current impedance (AC impedance) of the fuel cell stack. In an adequate level of water content of the electrolyte membranes, the measurement value of the AC impedance is substantially constant and has a very little variation. In an excess level of water content of the electrolyte membranes, the measurement value of the AC impedance has a significant variation. The AC impedance of the fuel cell stack is determinable by frequency analysis of high-frequency noise generated by an inverter included in the fuel cell system.
Metal hydride fuel cells are a subclass of alkaline fuel cells that are in the research and development phase. A notable feature is their ability to chemically bond and store hydrogen within the cell. This feature is shared with direct borohydride fuel cells, although the two differ in that MHFCs are refueled with pure hydrogen. Though the absorption characteristic of metal hydrides (around 2%) is far lower than sodium-borohydrides and other "light" metal hydrides (around 10.8%), prototypes have been claimed to demonstrate a number of interesting characteristics: The ability to be recharged with electrical energy (similar to NiMH batteries); Low operating temperatures (down to −20°C); Fast kinetics; Extended shelf life; Fast "cold start" properties; Ability to operate for limited periods of time with no external hydrogen source, enabling "hot swapping" of fuel canisters. Metal hydrides fuel cells are being researched by ECD Ovonics, as well as by the Japanese National Institute of Advanced ...
Living on Earths Cynthia Graber reports that bacteria can clean waste water and generate electricity for a fuel cell - at the same time.
... Scientists have developed a new type of smaller, cheaper and more powerful microbial fuel cell that can turn
...DURHAM N.C. By altering the genetic makeup of normally unexcitable ...This proof-of-concept advance could have broad implications in treatin...The researchers achieved this transformation by introducing genes into... By introducing only three specific ion channels we were able to give...,Engineering,excitable,cells,for,studies,of,bioelectricity,and,cell,therapy,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
A revolutionary new environmental biotechnology - the Microbial Fuel Cell - turns the treatment of organic wastes into a source of electricity. Fuel cell technology, despite its recent popularity as a possible solution for a fossil-fuel free future, is actually quite old. The principle of the fuel cell was discovered by German scientist Christian Friedrich Sch nbein in 1838 and published in 1839. Based on this work, the first fuel cell was developed by Welsh scientist Sir William Robert Grove in 1843. The operating principle of a fuel cell is fairly straightforward. It is an electrochemical energy conversion device that converts the chemical energy from fuel (on the anode side) and oxidant (on the cathode side) directly into electricity. Today, there are many competing types of fuel cells, depending on what kind of fuel and oxidant they use. Many combinations of fuel and oxidant are possible. For instance, hydrogen cell uses hydrogen as fuel and oxygen as oxidant. Other fuels include ...
Bioelectricity: A Quantitative Approach from Duke University. Nerves, the heart, and the brain are electrical. How do these things work? This course presents fundamental principles, described quantitatively. 2000+ courses from schools like ...
Bioelectricity: A Quantitative Approach from Duke University. Nerves, the heart, and the brain are electrical. How do these things work? This course presents fundamental principles, described quantitatively. 2000+ courses from schools like ...
Bioelectricity: A Quantitative Approach from Duke University. Nerves, the heart, and the brain are electrical. How do these things work? This course presents fundamental principles, described quantitatively. 2000+ courses from schools like ...
Keith Wipke of the U.S. Department of Energys National Renewable Energy Laboratory was recently elected to the Board of Directors of the Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Association (FCHEA). "I am looking forward to helping this organization achieve its goals of market introduction and success for hydrogen and fuel cell technologies," Wipke said. "I personally would like to see hydrogen fuel cell cars stay on track for 2015 introduction to consumers, with enough fueling stations to make consumers comfortable with fuel availability." FCHEA is dedicated to the commercialization of fuel cells and hydrogen energy technologies. Its members are at the forefront of efforts to transform the energy network, fundamentally altering the way energy is generated and used. FCHEA membership organizations include universities; government laboratories and agencies; trade associations; fuel cell materials, components and systems manufacturers; hydrogen producers and fuel distributors; and utilities and other end ...
FUEL CELL SYSTEM | REGENERATION OF FLOW BATTERY ELECTRODE | FUEL CELL CONTROL METHOD AND FUEL CELL SYSTEM | METHOD FOR CONTROLLING FUEL CELL SYSTEM | METHOD TO PRODUCE A GAS DIFFUSION LAYER AND FUEL CELL COMPRISING A GAS DIFFUSION LAYER |
A protective apparatus and method for a fuel cell comprising a switching device connected to the output of the fuel cell, a device for detecting the output voltage of the fuel cell, a device for setting a reference voltage, a comparator for comparing the detected output voltage of the fuel cell with the reference voltage, and a device for opening the switching device when the detected output voltage of the fuel cell drops below the reference voltage.
The Canadian Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Association (CHFCA) is a national, non-profit association that supports Canadian corporations, governments and educational institutions that are developing, demonstrating and deploying hydrogen and fuel cell products and services in Canada. The CHFCA was formed in January 2009 when the Canadian Hydrogen Association (CHA) and Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Canada (H2FCC) merged together. The merge united all of the members of the former groups to create a vibrant, influential association. With offices in both Vancouver and Ottawa, the CHFCA now represents the majority of the stakeholders in Canadas hydrogen and fuel cell sector ...
According to new patent filings, Apple is researching hydrogen fuel cell technology that could be used on smartphones and other portable devices.. The company submitted documents to the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office that said its proposal "eliminates the need for a bulky and heavy battery.". A hydrogen fuel cell converts hydrogen and oxygen into water and electrical energy.. "Our countrys continuing reliance on fossil fuels has forced our government to maintain complicated political and military relationships with unstable governments in the Middle East, and has also exposed our coastlines and our citizens to the associated hazards of offshore drilling," Apple says in its patent filings.. "These problems have led to an increasing awareness and desire on the part of consumers to promote and use renewable energy sources.". Apple said that hydrogen fuel cells could be smaller and lighter than batteries currently being used by devices, as well as offer a longer lasting alternative.. "Such fuel ...
In practice, the electrode response is expected to be nonlinear. A possible additional contributor to nonlinearity is oxidation of the electrolyte, particularly at the air electrode, where polarization losses are expected to be greatest. Such oxidation would enhance the electronic leakage which occurs as a result of p-type conductivity.49 Nevertheless, these expressions provide a valuable estimate of the impact of the various electrical terms on the faradaic efficiency and provide a reference for comparison to the measured faradaic efficiencies.. A trace of the hydrogen detected under different voltage conditions, Fig. 4d and Fig. S6 (ESI†), reveals that the protonic current is substantially lower than the total current, Fig. 4a, and accordingly the faradaic efficiency, Fig. 4e, is measurably lower than 100%, ranging from 40 to 75% over the measurement conditions examined here. Moreover, this efficiency is independent of the gas flow rate, as expected for losses due to electronic conductivity ...
Selim, N., Hamed, H., Fathy, R., Gamal, M., El Kareem, H.A., Breheny, M., Farahmand, N., Bowman, K., Kyazze, G., Keshavarz, T. and Gomaa, O.M. 2018. Modification of bacterial cell membrane to accelerate decolorization of textile wastewater effluent using microbial fuel cells: role of gamma radiation, salinity and endogenous biosurfactant induction. 4th European Meeting of the International Society for Microbial Electrochemistry and Technology. Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne 12 - 14 Sep 2018 Design of a single chamber air cathode microbial fuel cell using a stainless steel spiral anode and 3D printing techniques for continuous flow dye decolourisation ...
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The University of North Floridas School of Engineering received a combined $9.4 million in contracts from the U.S. Army CERDEC (Communications-Electronics Research, Development and Engineering Center) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for fuel cell research. The value of the combined fuel cell contracts is the largest amount in total contract value that the University has ever received for a technology-related research activity. The funds from the contracts will be used by UNF researchers to continue the development and commercialization of direct methanol fuel cell power sources for two laptops, one to be used by American soldiers and the other by the average consumer. The latest contract with the Army CERDEC, when awarded later this summer, will provide UNF with $3.2 million for the third year of a four-year project. UNF and University of Florida researchers along with UNF engineering students are working to replace the battery in military laptops with a methanol fuel cell to make our ...
An abstract from the authors statement Suppose one were to devise some sort of "lens" that could focus electrical energy into a single point, much like a magnifying glass focusing sunlight on a combustible object. In the second case, the heat generated would be so intense, it could set the object on fire. What would happen in the first case? That is what I wanted to find out, since focusing electrical energy into a very small area sets up a field of such an intense energy, that the structure of matter might be altered. After two years of research and experimentation (I am an amateur scientist and entrepreneur), I have designed such a device, capable of concentrically focusing electrical energy. Then, I discovered when certain crystals are exposed to this intense electric field during their growth process, some samples form microscopic landscapes of extraordinary beauty (at least in the eye of this beholder :)). Each crystal landscape created in this manner is unique, but highly unstable and ...
Some of the planets tiniest inhabitants may help address two of societys biggest environmental challenges: how to deal with the vast quantities of organic waste produced and where to find clean, renewable energy.
TY - JOUR. T1 - On-chip fuel cell. T2 - Micro direct methanol fuel cell of an air-breathing, membraneless, and monolithic design. AU - Tominaka, Satoshi. AU - Ohta, Sousuke. AU - Obata, Hiroyuki. AU - Momma, Toshiyuki. AU - Osaka, Tetsuya. PY - 2008/8/13. Y1 - 2008/8/13. N2 - This paper proposes a novel design for a microfuel cell as an on-chip power source and demonstrates its fabrication and operation to prove the concept. Its simple design is important from the viewpoints of fabrication (e.g., replication), integration, and compatibility with other microdevices. In testing, the prototype cell was able to generate electric power (maximum: ca. 1.4 μW) on methanol without pumps under both neutral and acidic conditions. As for the size, the electrode part of the cell (two cathodes and one anode) is 400 μm in width and 6 mm in length. The evaluation demonstrated that the proposed design is a promising on-chip power source for miniature devices.. AB - This paper proposes a novel design for a ...
Various biofuels pathways have been under research in the last decades, but most of them have showed limited applications because of their insufficient energy output (inferior to the minimal threshold of 5 mW/mL needed to supply biomedical devices). For instance, systems that utilize vibrations or body movements to scavenge power for an implanted device are currently limited to few μW/mL in the best cases due to low frequency of body movements or heart contractions. Seebeck thermoelectric effect cannot be used for implanted devices because there is almost no differential temperature inside the body. Betavoltaic cells could be used for isotope energy conversion but current density is still low like NanoTritium™ from Citylabs which current is 0.1 μA/cm2 for 0.7V.. In recent years, two types of Biofuel Cells have been making headlines for their energy output potential:. - Glucose BioFuel Cells (GBFC), which exploiting the ubiquitous presence of glucose in body fluids for energy ...
The giant fuel cell system is based on Ballards proton-exchange membrane technology that has been successfully proven in a number of smaller commercial power applications ranging from 1 kilowatt (kW) up to 150 kW, including powering 40-foot mass transit buses. Because fuel cells use hydrogen to generate electricity and produce only heat and water as byproducts, they are a more environmentally friendly means of generating power than diesel or coal. Because its on wheels, the unit can be moved to provide emergency power during outages for up to 500 homes or used to supplement power during peak load periods, such as during summer months when air conditioning demand is high. "We are discovering that there is great opportunity for megawatt-scale clean-energy solutions using fuel cells. And, smaller-scale fuel cell systems can provide backup for telecom companies, for instance, if the grid goes down. Batteries dont offer the runtime that is often required and diesel generators are expensive, dirty ...
In living systems, hydrogen supplied from the TCA cycle is transferred to molecular oxygen and oxidized by the electron carrier system, thereby generating energy. It appears that the reversible redox system such as the electron carrier system has not yet been studied in vitro. It was considered that the system of cystine-cysteine containing ferric ion or that of quinone-hydroquinone containing an enzyme might act like the electron carrier system. The authors attempted to use the electron carrier system at the cathode of a fuel cell to obtain a greater amount of electric current. As a result, it has been demonstrated that a fuel cell, based on the model of carrier systems, shows the properties of larger current density and capacity than the ordinary fuel cell and following the model of the carrier system, oxidation and reduction can be repeated alternately without consumption of reactants. (Author)(*FUEL CELLS
Wärtsilä and Hitachi Zosen have signed a business development agreement to develop and market fuel cell based power solutions for distributed power generation applications in Japan. The combined heat and power applications, which can be run on either city gas or bio gas, will feature the use of Wärtsiläs fuel cell technology. The applications will be developed in cooperation by both companies, and marketed by Hitachi Zosen. Wärtsilä and Hitachi Zosen will utilize and combine their vast experience in technology and business development to provide this new and competitive power solution for the Japanese distributed energy markets.. "The co-operation between Wärtsilä and Hitachi Zosen provides an important opportunity to optimise future fuel cell products to meet customer requirements, and to facilitate optimal application development. We are very pleased to start this partnership with Hitachi Zosen in order to develop and introduce Wärtsiläs fuel cell products to the Japanese market. ...
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Proton-exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are expected to provide a complementary power supply to fossil fuels in the near future. The current reliance of fuel cells on platinum catalysts is undesirable. However, even the best-performing non-noble metal catalysts are not as efficient. To drive commercial viability of fuel cells forward in the short term, increased utilization of Pt catalysts is paramount. We have demonstrated improved power and energy densities in a single PEMFC using a designed cathode with a Pt loading of 0.1 mg cm−2 on a mesoporous conductive entangled carbon nanotube (CNT)-based architecture. This electrode allows for rapid transfer of both fuel and waste to and from the electrode, respectively. Pt particles are bound tightly, directly to CNT sidewalls by a microwave-reduction technique, which provided increased charge transport at this interface. The Pt entangled CNT cathode, in combination with an E-TEK 0.2 mg cm−2 anode, has a maximum power and energy density of ...
A fuel cell system employing a gasifier for generating fuel gas for the fuel cell of the fuel cell system and in which heat for the gasifier is derived from the anode exhaust gas of the fuel cell.
The object of the invention is the coupling of a hydrogen fuel cell to an enzymatic process for the production of electricity and the transformation and sequestration of CO2. Gaseous CO2 emissions from processes such as hydrocarbon reforming are transformed into carbonate or bicarbonate ions and hydrogen ions by the enzymatic system in order to prevent their contribution to the greenhouse effect. The hydrogen ions resulting from the enzymatic process are recovered and combined in order to supply the hydrogen fuel cell. Finally, water, a by-product of the oxidizing reaction of the hydrogen fuel cell, is recovered and recycled back into the aqueous enzymatic system.
Title of the proposed R&D Project: Biodegradation of the Organic textile dye by using Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC).. Name and Designation of the project Leader and associates: Project Leader : Reaz M Mazumdar (SO) Project Associates: Moniruzzaman (SO), Rehana Akter (SO), Rownock Afruza (SO), Mamudul Hasan Razu (SO).. Objectives : Electricity generation by MFC technique using textile dyes.. Socio-Economic: Environment pollution is a burning issue due to impact on public health. Importance of the project: Water pollution, groundwater contamination, polluted solid wastes are the main environmental pollutions of Bangladesh. The dumping of ...
Fuel cells are expected to play a major role in the future power supply that will transform to renewable, decentralized and fluctuating primary energies. At the same time the share of electric power will continually increase at the expense of thermal and mechanical energy not just in transportation, but also in households. Hydrogen as a perfect fuel for fuel cells and an outstanding and efficient means of bulk storage for renewable energy will spearhead this development together with fuel cells. Moreover, small fuel cells hold great potential for portable devices such as gadgets and medical applications such as pacemakers ...
Durability and cost are the two major remaining challenges for the commercialization of fuel cells in passenger vehicles. The platinum catalyst is one of the most expensive components in a fuel cell and degrades during normal operation due to load cycling. While a reduction in platinum loading is beneficial for cost, it affects catalyst durability negatively. Therefore, an understanding of the catalyst degradation mechanism is required to increase fuel cell lifetime and lower cost. In this dissertation, the conditions that promote catalyst degradation in an automotive context and its consequences on catalyst layer microstructure are studied experimentally. In order to degrade the platinum catalyst during fuel cell operation square wave voltage cycling in hydrogen-air atmosphere is carried out as an accelerated stress test on small scale single cells. For characterization of aged samples and visualization of the degradation mechanism electrochemical techniques as well as electron microscopy are ...
The complexity of the balance of plant of a fuel cell-fuel processor unit challenges the design/development/demonstration of compact and user friendly fuel cell power systems for portable applications. An Internal Reforming Methanol Fuel Cell (IRMFC) stack poses a highly potential technological challenge for High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (HT-PEMFCs) in portable applications. It aims at opening new scientific and engineering prospects, which may allow easier market penetration of the fuel cells.
Altergy is excited to add this additional fuel option to its fleet of advanced fuel cell products. The Hy9 reformer has proven itself in our testing and we believe will complement Altergys proven field reliability," said Eric Mettler, president and CEO of Altergy. Altergy and Hy9 will work together to integrate and optimize Hy9s HGS platform with Altergys Freedom Power fuel cell systems. The Hy9 HGS platform converts ubiquitous chemical feedstock into a high purity hydrogen stream at the point-of-use. In addition to the collaboration agreement, Hy9 and Altergy Systems have announced a 3-year distribution agreement allowing Altergy System to co-market the Hy9 platform. Telecommunications, data centers, and other mission-critical applications benefit greatly from the uninterrupted, on-demand power made possible by Altergys innovative fuel cell systems. Motive, peak shaving/demand management and residential applications will soon benefit as well from the use of Altergys innovative fuel cell ...
Loughborough - Monday 14th October: Intelligent Energy announced today that it plans to showcase its class-leading, lightweight Fuel Cell Power Modules for UAVs at a number of private flight demonstrations to commercial fleet operators. Using a DJI M600, the worlds best-selling commercial UAV, the Company will showcase up to two hour flight times using fuel cells.. The invite-only flight demonstrations will be held in the Bay area, California; Tokyo, Japan; South Korea and selected locations across Europe over the coming few months. The demonstrations will give potential customers the opportunity to see the fuel cell technology in operation and to speak to the Intelligent Energy team. Customers will be guided as to the right configuration required for their UAV fleet as well as providing information on refuelling and cylinder options.. The demonstrations will present Intelligent Energys range of fuel cell power modules (FCPMs). An example configuration will be flown using two 800W FCPMs which ...
Nuvera specializes in advanced motive fuel cell power systems and state-of-the-art hydrogen delivery solutions. Nuvera hydrogen supply systems (PowerTap) and fuel cell technology are transforming markets such as logistics, automotive, and aerospace. As more industries adopt hydrogen fuel cells as the energy technology of choice, Nuvera is positioned as a leading global provider of advanced power solutions ...
In most cases, a battery-powered vehicle is almost 3 times more efficient. One can only presume why automakers have been stuck trying to make it happen anyway, but the technology conveniently needs a similar (and profitable) refinery and refuelling supply chain as the gasoline model. Could that be it?. The only real advantage fuel cells *currently* have over batteries is refueling speed which is quickly being closed by Teslas Supercharger and other DC fast charging technology.. The automakers who are pushing fuel cell are also primarily located in Japan and Korea where governments are offering subsidies for the vehicles and financing for the required infrastructures. These incentives extended to the US where in California, the latest version of the Clean Vehicle Rebate Program offers bigger incentives to fuel cell cars than to electric vehicle.. Though CARBs logic for the favoritism is that no one is buying fuel cell cars anyway, so even with bigger incentives per vehicle, they will still ...
WASHINGTON (AP) - The Army and General Motors Corp. are collaborating to help the military learn more about the uses of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, a potential aid for soldiers on future battlefields.. The Army received the keys Thursday to a Chevrolet Equinox fuel cell vehicle, beginning a year of tests to see how the hydrogen power might support the armed services. The vehicle will be used at the Marines Camp Pendleton, Calif., base and the Army base at Fort Belvoir, Va.. "Everything were doing in the future involves power. Regular batteries wont do it," said Army Maj. Gen. Roger Nadeau, commander of the Armys Research, Development and Engineering Command. "The capability of this fuel cell to power the platform is a very exciting thing.". Nadeau said the testing will "allow us to find out things we dont know and validate things we do know and get ready for the next advances that the technology brings.". Hydrogen fuel cells produce less sound and heat than a conventional internal ...
As for your fuel cell size, if youre shooting for 100 watts of power you are most definitely going to want to go with a fuel cell stack unless you have a very good DC-DC converter or a load that likes to run at 0.5V and 200amps. Now this is where the serious engineering comes in. Because NaBH4 is electrically conductive, its can be very difficult to design a fuel cell stack that wont short itself out. A lot of thought will need to go into the manifolding and sealing in order to make sure the stack doesnt kill itself. You may even want to first try building a smaller low power FC stack or individual fuel cell to help with the learning curve ...
General Motors Corp. says it will join the Japan Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Demonstration Project (JHFC), which will demonstrate fuel cell vehicles in the country and educate the public about the benefits of hydrogen energy and fuel cells. The project, directed by Japans Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, will be the basis for standards and regulations concerning fuel cells and hydrogen, GM says.
pem fuel cell, pemfc system, pem system, fuel cell design, pemfc, pem, humidification, oxidant air flow, fuel cell subsystem, fans, blowers, compressors, turbines, fuel cell pumps, electrical subsystem
Both exogenous commensal and endogenous self antigens stimulate T cell proliferation under lymphopenic conditions. Projects 1 Not started 1 Active 3 Finished. Nimike 1-20 Viittaukset Vuosi Continuous electricity generation from domestic wastewater and organic substrates in a flat plate microbial fuel cell B Min, BE Logan. Mechanism of basophil mediated immune modulation Min, B. Call for Additional Assistance MSTP students and alumni who have completed a PhD with this mentor: Thanks, you are now subscribed Subscribe another email. Type of Doctor Researcher. To find out more full tilt eu our cookies policy, click largest online poker sites. View brettspiel welt erobern of fc liefering futbol24 out of more. Roles of regulatory T cells and gamma delta T cells during chronic inflammatory diseases. In order for the discoveries of Cleveland Clinic physicians and scientists laboratories and investigations futuriti casino auszahlung benefit the public, these discoveries home stud be commercialized in ...
An electrochemical cell exhibiting high specific power and specific energyn combination which comprises an aluminum-lithium alloy anode with an aqueous electrolyte. The electrolyte may be the readily available seawater circulated through the cell at a predetermined flowrate to obtain maximum controlled electrical energy output.
In fuel cells, hydrogen and oxygen, separated by a proton-conductive membrane impermeable to gas, bond to water, from which energy is generated as a "by product" in a process that is efficient and totally free of emissions. No intermediate stages occur as the chemical energy is converted directly into electrical energy and heat in the electrochemical process. The fuel cell is therefore a highly efficient energy converter, a form of energy generation ideally suited to the demands of the 21st century, as it emits no harmful greenhouse gases while producing simple, plain water. The technology has a host of applications and has the potential to become the most important energy system of the future ...
The present invention includes a fuel cell system having a plurality of adjacent electrochemical cells formed of an anode layer, a cathode layer spaced apart from the anode layer, and an electrolyte layer disposed between the anode layer and the cathode layer. The fuel cell system also includes at least one interconnect, the interconnect being structured to conduct free electrons between adjacent electrochemical cells. Each interconnect includes a primary conductor embedded within the electrolyte layer and structured to conduct the free electrons.
The process of enzymatic catalysis of glucose oxidation releases electrons which, when harnessed to flow through a circuit, may be utilised to power devices. This principle has driven research towards the goal of providing implantable medical devices powered by the fuel and oxidant present in-vivo, namely glucose and oxygen respectively. Challenges exist in the form of efficiently converting chemical energy into electrical energy, communicating the chemical process to an electrode, achieving both these aims under physiological conditions over a sufficient period of time, and, in so doing, creating enough electrical energy to power a device. This thesis builds on, and draws from, over three decades of development in the field of biomolecular electronics. Enzyme electrode assembly methodologies are developed, compared, and analysed in order to improve catalytic current density and stability for glucose oxidation. The inclusion of carbon nanotubes and implementation of alternate crosslinking ...
Fuel cells are electrochemical cells that convert chemical energy into electrical energy with efficiencies up to 80%; they are a promising potential replacement for internal combustion engines in automobiles. However, carbon monoxide poisoning of the anode catalyst is a major obstacle preventing their use. The ideal solution is to remove CO from the H2 feed gas before it reaches the catalyst. The present project develops novel external metal/graphene membranes capable of capturing CO before it enters the cell. These membranes must have strong binding to CO and weak binding to H2. Density functional theory calculations showed that CO has the strongest binding to Pt/C followed closely by Ni/C. Of these metals, nickel has a notably weaker interaction with H2. Addition of boron, nitrogen or oxygen dopants to the carbon surface decreases CO binding and causes H2 binding to become negligible. Recent experimental studies measured the potential desorption of CO and H2 from platinum and nickel nanoparticles
A Source Measurement Unit (SMU) is a flexible test instrument which is capable of both sourcing and measuring voltage and/or current at the same time. A SMU is made up of a constant current source, a constant voltage source, a voltmeter, and an ammeter. It allows seven modes of operation: voltage generation/current measurement (VS/IM), voltage generation/voltage measurement (VS/VM), current generation/voltage measurement (IS/VM), current generation/current measurement (IS/IM), and voltage generation (VS), current generation (IS), and resistance measurement (VS/IM or IS/VM). SMUs are commonly used for characterization of semiconductor devices, electronic components and devices. Yokogawa offers single, dual, and low voltage/current SMUs to accommodate a wide variety of applications, and feature the fastest testing speeds in the industry.. ...
NEC has succeeded in reducing the size of a prototype fuel cell for laptop use with but says it is unlikely to become commercially viable until 2007 - two years later than recent predictions - because of legal hurdles. Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) mix methanol with air and water to produce electrical power and are viewed by many as a potential successor to lithium-ion and other batteries used in devices such as laptops and other portable electronics devices. Their by-products are heat and water. NECs new prototype has a power unit that is 20 percent smaller than the companys previous prototype and has an output density of 70 milliwatts per square centimeter, the company said. The new fuel cell also includes a control system that helps optimise power output. It will be officially unveiled tomorrow at World PC Expo in Tokyo. A single 250 cubic-centimeter methanol fuel cartridge can provide enough power to run a notebook PC for 10 hours, said NEC. The prototype machine is based on a 1.1GHz ...
30% Platinum on Vulcan XC 72 (Carbon) is most commonly used for Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell (PEMFC), Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC), Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC), and Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) applications (as the cathode catalyst or anode catalyst). It is also used as a recombination catalyst for hydrogen elimination. Platinum on Vulcan can also be used as a building block for sensor elements.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Analysis and Design of a Bidirectional Isolated DC-DC Converter for Fuel Cell and Super-Capacitor Hybrid System. AU - Zhang,Zhe. AU - Ouyang,Ziwei. AU - Thomsen,Ole Cornelius. AU - Andersen,Michael A. E.. PY - 2012. Y1 - 2012. N2 - Electrical power system in future uninterruptible power supply (UPS) or electrical vehicle (EV) may employ hybrid energy sources, such as fuel cells and super-capacitors. It will be necessary to efficiently draw the energy from these two sources as well as recharge the energy storage elements by the DC bus. In this paper, a bidirectional isolated DC-DC converter controlled by phase-shift and duty cycle for the fuel cell hybrid energy system is analyzed and designed. The proposed topology minimizes the number of switches and their associated gate driver components by using two high frequency transformers which combine a half-bridge circuit and a full-bridge circuit together on the primary side. The voltage doubler circuit is employed on the secondary ...
March 2009, the 1st High Performance Electronic Controllable 5KW PEM Fuel Cell Power Unit Was Successfully Commissioned in Singapore--Nanyang Technological University (School of EEE) 4th Dec 2009, the Complete Integrated System of 1KW PEM Fuel Cell Electrical Power Generator with Hydrogen Leak Detecting System were Successfully Installed and Commissioned in UTM (Universiti of Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai)--The Faculty of Electrical Engineering. Design & Build A Single-Axis PV (Maximum PV Modules Installed 3 X 175Wp Monocrystalline PV) Tracker for Ngee Ann Polytechnic was Delivered in Oct 2009 To Supply & Install ITE (Dover Campus) Project for Roof Mounting of 200W Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) System at 4th January 2010. Shell Eco-Marathon 2010 (Solar-Powered Motors Category)--Supply a Complete Flexible PV system to ITE (Dover Campus). Shell Eco-Marathon 2010 (Electric Motors Category)--Design, Supply & Install a Complete PEM Fuel Cell Powered System for ITE (Dover Campus). Two-Sets of ...
An improved lithium electrode structure comprises an alloy of lithium, silicon, and iron in specified proportions and a supporting current-collecting matrix in intimate contact with said alloy. The lithium electrode of the present invention is utilized as the negative electrode in a rechargeable electrochemical cell.
A tubular cathode was prepared by subsequently dipcoating the gas diffusion layer, Pt/C catalyst layer and Nafion membrane on the outside of the tubular Ti mesh. The single direct methanol fuel cell composed of the above electrodes was discussed under normal pressure, and the factors that affected the cell performance were discussed. The results also show that the diffusion layer and catalyst layer prepared by dip coating have mesoporous microstructure which is beneficial to mass transport. With catalyst loading increasing, the cell performance improves. When the Pt loading on cathode is 4.3 mg/cm2, the power density of DMFC reaches 12.3 mW/cm2 at room temperature by using air as the cathode feed. With the oxygen as the cathode feed, the power density of DMFC can reach 40.0 mW/cm2 at 60°C. This indicates that the temperature and oxidant type are as important as the cathode catalyst loading. The stability test of the cell after working for 100 h shows that the tubular cathode has a perfect ...
A printed circuit biopotential sensing device is provided which is particularly adapted for endocardial or other deep body applications. The device has a predetermined printed circuit pattern formed on a thin film substrate, the pattern having at least one electrode pad at its distal end, at least one terminal pad at the proximal end, and conductor means selectively interconnecting the electrode pads and terminal pads. The substrate is secured to, and is preferably wrapped around an elongated member which is preferably tube-shaped in a manner such that the electrodes are exposed at the distal end of the member, and the terminal pads at the proximal end of the substrate are utilized in forming a suitable connector from the device. By forming the conductors on only a selected fraction of the width of the substrate and overlapping the portion of the substrate containing the conductors during the helical wrapping process, the substrate insulates and protects the conductors and eliminates the need for a
Downloadable (with restrictions)! Renewable portfolio standards (RPSs) have become a popular tool for state governments to promote renewable electricity generation and to decrease carbon dioxide emissions within a state or region. Renewable portfolio standards are a policy tool likely to persist for many decades due to the long term goals of many state RPSs and the likely creation of a federal RPS alongside any comprehensive climate change bill. Even though RPSs have become a popular policy tool, there is little empirical evidence about their costs. Using the temporal and regional variation in RPS requirements, I estimate the long-run price elasticity of supply of renewable electricity generation to be 2.67 (95% CI of 1.74, 3.60). Using my preferred elasticity estimate, I calculate the marginal cost of abatement from RPSs is at least $11 per ton of CO2 compared to a marginal cost of abatement of $3 per ton in the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative.
In this lab activity for Grades 5-9, students work in teams to construct a simple telegraph using a battery, wires, and a bulb. By turning the switch on and off, learners "send" messages using International Morse Code. Students then repeat the process sending identical messages on cell phones. Which group can send intelligible messages most quickly? Editors Note: This lab activity does not mimic the actual design of the original Morse device, which used electric current to move an electromagnet attached to the key device. Its purpose is to give a simple introduction to signal communications.. Open Website. ...
In this lab activity for Grades 5-9, students work in teams to construct a simple telegraph using a battery, wires, and a bulb. By turning the switch on and off, learners "send" messages using International Morse Code. Students then repeat the process sending identical messages on cell phones. Which group can send intelligible messages most quickly? Editors Note: This lab activity does not mimic the actual design of the original Morse device, which used electric current to move an electromagnet attached to the key device. Its purpose is to give a simple introduction to signal communications.. Open Website. ...
Electroglottalgram (EGL). Surface Electrode Measurements of Biopotentials - all reported biopotential values are for non-invasive surface electrodes, unless otherwise noted.. Setup table to indicate:. ...
Garner Insights included a new research study on the Global Telemetry Biopotential Transmitters Market 2019 by Manufacturers, Regions, Type and Application, Forecast to 2024 to its database of Market Research Reports. This report covers market size by types, applications and major regions.
Information on the environment for those involved in developing, adopting, implementing and evaluating environmental policy, and also the general public
... stocks are publicly traded companies whose business involves fuel cells, devices for efficiently converting the energy in a fuel (often hydrogen) directly into electricity by chemical means, without combustion. Applications include road transport, large-scale energy storage and short-haul transport such as forklifts. This list was last updated on 2/7/2020 AFC Energy (AFC.L) Ballard Power Corporation (BLDP) Bloom Energy Corporation (BE) Cell Impact AB (CI-B.ST) Ceres Power Holdings PLC (CPWHF) Enova Systems (ENVS) FuelCell Energy (FCEL) ITM Power (ITM.L) McPhy Energy SA (MCPHY: PA) Neah Power Systems (NPWZ) Plug Power (PLUG) Proton Power Systems (PPS.L) SFC Energy AG (F3C.DE) Umicore S.A. (UMI.BR, UMICY, UMICF) If you know of any fuel cell stock that is not listed ...
Up until now, the issue of using hydrogen fuel cells as alternative sources of power has been a matter of debate. They required fossil fuels for production, needed external inputs of electricity to operate, and were too expensive to be considered as an all-encompassing solution to the global climate crisis. Enter the mighty microbe and a team of brilliant US researchers to provide a little hope for hydrogen.. An article recently published in the National Academy of Sciences describes the newly developed "MEC", or Microbial Electrolysis Cell which generates its own hydrogen without the aid of external electricity. Through a process called Reverse Electrodialysis, the cell uses fresh and saltwater membranes to generate and collect power from charged particles created between the gradients. In addition, the microbes manufacture hydrogen gas and small amounts of electricity by breaking down organic material.. This technology has implications far beyond transportation. Without drawing power from the ...
In January-August, Azerenergy (electricity generation and distribution in Azerbaijan) generated about 14.5 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity compared to about 13.2 billion kilowatt-hours during the same period of last year, Azerenergy said on Monday.
The low-temperature Direct Propane Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (DPFC) based on low-cost modified membranes was demonstrated for the first time. The propane is fed into the fuel cell directly without the need for reforming. A PBI membrane doped with acid and a Nafion 117 membrane modified or non-modified with silicotungstic acid were used as the polymer membranes. The anode was based on Pt, Pt-Ru or Pt/CrO3 electro catalysts and the cathode was based on a Pt electro catalyst. For non-optimized fuel cells based on H2SO4 doped PBI membranes and Pt/CrO3 anode, the open circuit potential was 1.0 Volt and the current density at 0.40 Volt was 118 mA.cm-2 at 95°C. For fuel cells based on Nafion 117 membranes modified with silicotungstic acid and on Pt/CrO3, the open-circuit voltage was 0.98 Volt and the current density at 0.40 Volt was 108 mA.cm-2 while fuel cells based on non-modified Nafion 117 membranes exhibited an open-circuit voltage of 0.8 Volt and the current density at 0.40 Volt was ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Electrochemical characterization of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells and polarization curve analysis. AU - Mohsin, Munazza. AU - Raza, Rizwan. AU - Mohsin-ul-Mulk, M. AU - Yousaf, Abid. AU - Hacker, Viktor. PY - 2019/10/28. Y1 - 2019/10/28. N2 - This paper presents the diagnostic results of single polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell assemblies characterized by polarization curves. Single PEM fuel cell assemblies were investigated through accelerated voltage cycling test at different values of relative humidity. The fuel cells are tested at different humidity level. The cells are discussed in this paper with analysis results at different relative humidity at atmospheric pressure. This represents a nearly fully humidified, a moderately humidified, and a low humidified condition, respectively. This technique is useful for diagnosing the main sources of loss in MEA development work, especially for high temperature/low relative humidity operation where several sources of ...
The report documents the study on a hydrogen proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell powered unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) named Kenyalang-1. Common aircraft utilize internal combustion engines (ICE) as main power source for the propulsion system. However, ICE imposes negative impact towards the environment due to the pollution produced through carbon emission, initiating green house effect, global warming, and health problems. Researchers have started to develop interest on the possibilities of using alternative energies to replace ICE aircraft propulsion system. Due to the relatively new nature of the technology, there is a need for a research on the development of a ftiel cell electrical propulsion system. The objectives of this project are to design and to develop a fuel cell propulsion system that operates using a 500 W hydrogen PEM fuel cell as the main power generator for a UAV. The research is important to determine the capability of the propulsion system to power a custom designed and ...
Organic-inorganic hybrid membranes, as promising direct methanol fuel cell membranes, have become a research focus in recent years. Wherein interfacial morphology, greatly influenced by the polymer chain flexibility and interfacial stress generated during membrane formation, is a critical determinant of efficient suppression of methanol crossover. In this study, a novel and feasible approach for rational fabrication of organic/inorganic hybrid direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) membrane is tentatively explored. By adding plasticizer in the membrane casting solution and/or elevating solvent evaporation temperature during membrane fabrication, the glass transition temperature (Tg) and crystallinity of the chitosan/zeolitehybrid membrane are both remarkably decreased. In particular, the interface voids are substantially eliminated, generating a more desirable interfacial morphology and consequently leading to an improved performance in suppressing methanol crossover. The chitosan/mordenite/sorbitol ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Impedance characterization of high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell stack under the influence of carbon monoxide and methanol vapor. AU - Jeppesen, Christian. AU - Polverino, Pierpaolo. AU - Andreasen, Søren Juhl. AU - Araya, Samuel Simon. AU - Sahlin, Simon Lennart. AU - Pianese, Cesare. AU - Kær, Søren Knudsen. PY - 2017/8. Y1 - 2017/8. N2 - This work presents a comprehensive mapping of electrochemical impedance measurements under the influence of CO and methanol vapor contamination of the anode gas in a high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell, at varying load current. Electrical equivalent circuit model parameters based on experimental evaluation of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements were used to quantify the changes caused by different contamination levels. The changes are generally in good agreement with what is found in the literature. It is shown that an increased level of CO contamination resulted in an increase in the high ...
In spite of the fact that electricity production in Poland was traditionally based on the huge Polish hard coal mining, the Polish government in early seventies decided to introduce nuclear power to domestic electricity balance. In 1972 the site for the first nuclear power plant was selected, and by 1984 eight different localities were examined for the next two nuclear power stations.. In 1974 an agreement on co-operation in the field of nuclear power was signed between Poland (at that time the Polish Peoples Republic) and the Soviet Union. For the first Polish nuclear power plant four VVER-440/213 units based almost entirely on Soviet supplies were chosen, and cooperation of that plant with already existing water-pumping station on Zarnowiec Lake on the Baltic Sea, was predicted. The final Decision to start construction of the first plant in Zarnowiec was taken by the Council of Ministers in January 1982, and was followed by the construction contract between Polish and Soviet governments ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phosphoric acid doped imidazolium polysulfone membranes for high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells. AU - Yang,Jingshuai. AU - Li,Qingfeng. AU - Jensen,Jens Oluf. AU - Pan,Chao. AU - Cleemann,Lars Nilausen. AU - Bjerrum,Niels J.. AU - He,Ronghuan. PY - 2012. Y1 - 2012. N2 - A novel acid-base polymer membrane is prepared by doping of imidazolium polysulfone with phosphoric acid for high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Polysulfone is first chloromethylated, followed by functionalization of the chloromethylated polysulfone with alkyl imidazoles i.e. methyl (MePSU), ethyl (EtPSU) and butyl (BuPSU) imidazoliums, as revealed by 1H NMR spectra. The imidazolium polysulfone membranes are then doped with phosphoric acid and used as a proton exchange membrane electrolyte in fuel cells. An acid doping level of about 10-11mol H3PO4 per mole of the imidazolium group is achieved in 85wt% H3PO4 at room temperature. The membranes exhibit a proton conductivity of ...

Energy Balance in Critically Ill Children With Severe Sepsis Using Indirect Calorimetry: A Prospective Cohort Study.Energy Balance in Critically Ill Children With Severe Sepsis Using Indirect Calorimetry: A Prospective Cohort Study.

Data on energy balance in children with severe sepsis using indirect calorimetry (IC) is lacki... ... Energy needs in critically ill children are dynamic and variable. ... Bioelectric Energy Sources. Electric power supply devices which convert biological energy, such as chemical energy of ... Energy needs in critically ill children are dynamic and variable. Data on energy balance in children with severe sepsis using ...
more infohttps://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/pmarticle/2320719/Energy-Balance-in-Critically-Ill-Children-With-Severe-Sepsis-Using-Indirect-Calorimetry.html

Dynamic-dual-energy spectral CT for improving multi-material decomposition in image-domain.Dynamic-dual-energy spectral CT for improving multi-material decomposition in image-domain.

However, dual-energy CT is difficult to apply to multi-material decompo... ... Dual-energy CT, as well as spectral CT, has a great potential in material decomposition. ... Bioelectric Energy Sources. Electric power supply devices which convert biological energy, such as chemical energy of ... Dual-energy CT, as well as spectral CT, has a great potential in material decomposition. However, dual-energy CT is difficult ...
more infohttps://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/pmarticle/2345895/Dynamic-dual-energy-spectral-CT-for-improving-multi-material-decomposition-in-image.html

Electromagnetic Wave Emitting Products and Kikoh Potentiate Human Leukocyte Functions - PubMedElectromagnetic Wave Emitting Products and 'Kikoh' Potentiate Human Leukocyte Functions - PubMed

... hot spring water and human palmar energy (called Kikoh in Japan and China), all which emit electromagnetic radiation in the ... Bioelectric Energy Sources Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... hot spring water and human palmar energy (called "Kikoh" in Japan and China), all which emit electromagnetic radiation in the ...
more infohttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8406976/

Stability tests: a Variation of the response current fo | Open-iStability tests: a Variation of the response current fo | Open-i

Bioelectric Energy Sources*. *Biosensing Techniques/methods*. *Flavin-Adenine Dinucleotide/chemistry/metabolism*. *Glucose/ ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC3275720_216_2011_5650_Fig3_HTML&req=4

Spatiotemporal development of the bacterial community in a tubular longitudinal microbial fuel cell.  - Surrey Research Insight...Spatiotemporal development of the bacterial community in a tubular longitudinal microbial fuel cell. - Surrey Research Insight...

Bacteria, Bioelectric Energy Sources, Biofilms, DNA, Bacterial, Molecular Sequence Data, Phylogeny, RNA, Ribosomal, 16S, ...
more infohttp://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/375309/

List of MeSH codes (E07) - WikipediaList of MeSH codes (E07) - Wikipedia

... bioelectric energy sources MeSH E07.296.159 --- defibrillators MeSH E07.296.159.175 --- defibrillators, implantable MeSH ... Source for content is here. (File "2006 MeSH Trees".) MeSH E07.101.074 --- bandages, hydrocolloid MeSH E07.101.150 --- ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_MeSH_codes_(E07)

Thunderbolts Forum • View topic - Structural Integration and the Human Energy FieldThunderbolts Forum • View topic - Structural Integration and the Human Energy Field

Because of the nature of the bioelectric sources and the volume conductors, the theory and the analytic methods of ... of Bioelectric. and Biomagnetic Fields Preface. Bioelectric phenomena have been a part of medicine throughout its history. The ... The energy is supposed to originate from an apparent reservoir of subtle bio-energy at the base of the spine. The central ... The lead field theory ties together the sensitivity distribution of the measurement of bioelectric sources, the distribution of ...
more infohttp://www.thunderbolts.info/forum/phpBB3/viewtopic.php?p=8647

Biomedical Engineering, Bioelectronic Technology & Bioelectric ImplantsBiomedical Engineering, Bioelectronic Technology & Bioelectric Implants

Bioelectronic technology and bioelectric implants continue to advance in sophistication. However, basic biomedical engineering ... Kinetic energy and piezoelectric materials. In addition to molecular energy contained in our fluids, we produce kinetic energy ... Power sources. Interfaces between bioelectric implants and the targeted nerves. Durable, non-degrading materials. Sufficiently ... Human bodies produce energy, and another avenue of research aims to harness it to power devices. We burn 2000-3000 calories per ...
more infohttps://ustranslation.com/blog/bioelectronic-technology-bioelectric-implants-biomedical-engineering/

Life Energy Drops - HempUSALife Energy Drops - HempUSA

Life Energy Drops originates from the pristine northern waters of the Great Salt Lake in Utah and are harvested through solar ... Life Energy Drops™ is the natural source and perfect solution for bio electric health and mineral balancing. ... Our Life Energy Drops™ contain Natural Lithium and the amount per serving is .3mg per 8 drops. Life Energy Drops™ is one of the ... The Life Energy drops improved mental clarity and increased my energy levels. I think its even helping with my bodys pH ...
more infohttps://hempusa.org/product/30-ml-life-energy-drops/

Accelerated Wound Healing on Skin by Electrical Stimulation with a Bioelectric Plaster<...Accelerated Wound Healing on Skin by Electrical Stimulation with a Bioelectric Plaster<...

Accelerated Wound Healing on Skin by Electrical Stimulation with a Bioelectric Plaster. Advanced healthcare materials. 2017. ... Accelerated Wound Healing on Skin by Electrical Stimulation with a Bioelectric Plaster. :: Advanced healthcare materials. 2017. ... Accelerated Wound Healing on Skin by Electrical Stimulation with a Bioelectric Plaster. / Kai, Hiroyuki; Yamauchi, Takeshi; ... Using flexible enzymatic electrodes and stretchable hydrogel, a stretchable bioelectric plaster is fabricated with a built-in ...
more infohttps://waseda.pure.elsevier.com/ja/publications/accelerated-wound-healing-on-skin-by-electrical-stimulation-with-

US20100331934A1 - Multi-element contact assemblies for electrical stimulation systems and systems and methods of making and...US20100331934A1 - Multi-element contact assemblies for electrical stimulation systems and systems and methods of making and...

... thermally-powered energy sources, flexural powered energy sources, bioenergy power sources, fuel cells, bioelectric cells, ... The external power source can be in a device that is mounted on the skin of the user or in a unit that is provided near the ... Microstimulator having self-contained power source US7421295B2 (en) * 2002-07-19. 2008-09-02. Oscor Inc.. Implantable cardiac ... Microstimulator having self-contained power source US6741892B1 (en) * 2000-03-10. 2004-05-25. Advanced Bionics Corporation. ...
more infohttps://patents.google.com/patent/US20100331934A1/en

US7805202B2 - Implantable electrodes and insertion methods and tools 
        - Google PatentsUS7805202B2 - Implantable electrodes and insertion methods and tools - Google Patents

... thermally-powered energy sources, flexural powered energy sources, bioenergy power sources, fuel cells, bioelectric cells, ... A power source 420 can be disposed within the housing 400. Any power source can be used including, for example, a battery such ... The external power source can be in a device that is mounted on the skin of the user or in a unit that is provided near the ... Microstimulator having self-contained power source US6829508B2 (en) * 2001-10-19. 2004-12-07. Alfred E. Mann Foundation For ...
more infohttps://patents.google.com/patent/US7805202?oq=4182933

Patent US7229437 - Medical device having integral traces and formed electrodes - Google PatentsPatent US7229437 - Medical device having integral traces and formed electrodes - Google Patents

The external electrical contacts may detect bioelectric energy or may deliver electrical energy to a target site. ... The external electrical contacts may detect bioelectric energy or may deliver electrical energy to a target site. ... a power source operably connected to the first electrically conductive element, the power source operative to transmit ... Medtronic Advanced Energy Llc. Debridement device and method. US9301802. 14 Jan 2014. 5 Apr 2016. Covidien Lp. Energy delivery ...
more infohttp://www.google.co.uk/patents/US7229437

Find Research Outputs
             - the University of Baths research portalFind Research Outputs - the University of Bath's research portal

Sell, N. P., Plummer, A. R. & Hillis, A. J. 21 Feb 2018 In : Journal of Ocean Engineering and Marine Energy. p. 1-15 15 p.. ... A socio-mathematical approach to exploring conflicts between energy retrofit and perceived heritage character. Okutan, R. S., ... Assessing domestic heat storage requirements for energy flexibility over varying timescales. Allison, J., Bell, K., Clarke, J ... A Self-zeroing position controller for oscillating surge wave energy converters with strong asymmetry. ...
more infohttps://researchportal.bath.ac.uk/en/publications/?showAdvanced=false&allConcepts=true&inferConcepts=true&originalSearch=&nexusOrganisationUuid=&format=&page=4

Jo-Shu Chang - Research Output
     - National Cheng Kung UniversityJo-Shu Chang - Research Output - National Cheng Kung University

Lo, Y. C., Chen, C. Y., Lee, C. M. & Chang, J. S., 2011 Oct 1, In : International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 36, 21, p. 14059- ... cultivation of indigenous Chlorella vulgaris ESP-31 for biomass and lipid production using acetic acid as the carbon source. ... Lee, C. Y., Ho, K. L., Lee, D. J., Su, A. & Chang, J-S., 2012 Oct 1, In : International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 37, 20, p. ... Lo, Y. C., Su, Y. C., Cheng, C. L. & Chang, J. S., 2011 Oct 1, In : International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 36, 21, p. 13955- ...
more infohttps://researchoutput.ncku.edu.tw/en/persons/jo-shu-chang/publications/?page=6

OPUS at UTS: Evaluation of energy-distribution of a hybrid microbial fuel cell-membrane bioreactor (MFC-MBR) for cost-effective...OPUS at UTS: Evaluation of energy-distribution of a hybrid microbial fuel cell-membrane bioreactor (MFC-MBR) for cost-effective...

Bioelectric Energy Sources. en_US. dc.subject.mesh. Biological Oxygen Demand Analysis. en_US. ... Evaluation of energy-distribution of a hybrid MFC-MBR (BITE 15667).pdf. Published Version. 922.66 kB. Adobe PDF ... Evaluation of energy-distribution of a hybrid microbial fuel cell-membrane bioreactor (MFC-MBR) for cost-effective wastewater ... Evaluation of energy-distribution of a hybrid microbial fuel cell-membrane bioreactor (MFC-MBR) for cost-effective wastewater ...
more infohttps://opus.lib.uts.edu.au/handle/10453/40519

Find Research Outputs
             - The National University of MalaysiaFind Research Outputs - The National University of Malaysia

Bioelectric Energy Sources Biological Oxygen Demand Analysis Microbial fuel cells Biosensing Techniques ...
more infohttps://ukm.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/?format=&page=728

Find Research Outputs
             - The National University of MalaysiaFind Research Outputs - The National University of Malaysia

Aziz, N. I. H. A. & Mohd Hanafiah, M., 1 Jan 2020, In : Renewable Energy. 145, p. 847-857 11 p.. Research output: Contribution ... of radiation effective dose in ECG-Gated Coronary CT Angiography and calcium scoring examinations performed with a dual-source ... Al-Waeli, A. H. A., Kazem, H. A., Yousif, J. H., Chaichan, M. T. & Sopian, K., 1 Jan 2020, In : Renewable Energy. 145, p. 963- ... Abdulateef, A. M., Abdulateef, J., Al-Abidi, A. A., Sopian, K., Mat, S. & Mahdi, M. S., 1 Aug 2019, In : Journal of Energy ...
more infohttps://ukm.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/

Microtoming coupled to microarray analysis to evaluate the spatial metabolic status of Geobacter sulfurreducens biofilms.  -...Microtoming coupled to microarray analysis to evaluate the spatial metabolic status of Geobacter sulfurreducens biofilms. -...

Bioelectric Energy Sources*. *Biofilms*. *Electrodes/microbiology*. *Gene Expression Profiling*. *Geobacter/growth & ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20033069

Three-dimensional carbon nanotube-textile anode for high-performance microbial fuel cells.  - PubMed - NCBIThree-dimensional carbon nanotube-textile anode for high-performance microbial fuel cells. - PubMed - NCBI

Bioelectric Energy Sources*/economics. *Bioelectric Energy Sources*/trends. *Electrodes. *Electron Transport. *Nanotubes, ... Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) harness the metabolism of microorganisms, converting chemical energy into electrical energy. Anode ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21158405?dopt=Abstract

Self-powered wireless carbohydrate/oxygen sensitive biodevice based on radio signal transmissionSelf-powered wireless carbohydrate/oxygen sensitive biodevice based on radio signal transmission

Bioelectric Energy Sources (MeSH) * Biosensing Techniques (MeSH) * Carbohydrates (MeSH) * General Science & Technology (Science ... A wireless electronic unit, consisting of a micropotentiostat, an energy harvesting module (voltage amplifier together with a ... supplied with electrical energy from a combined multi-enzyme fuel cell generating sufficient current at required voltage to ...
more infohttps://scholars.latrobe.edu.au/display/publication513408

Patent US8147486 - Medical device with flexible printed circuit - Google PatentsPatent US8147486 - Medical device with flexible printed circuit - Google Patents

The external electrical contacts may detect bioelectric energy or may deliver electrical or thermal energy to a target site. ... A catheter or lead having a flexible printed circuit for conveying signals and/or energy. Each trace may be in electrical ... Typically affixed to the lead is a pacemaker or other power source capable of providing electrical impulses at timed intervals ... The external electrical contacts may detect bioelectric energy or may deliver electrical or thermal energy to a target site. ...
more infohttp://www.google.com/patents/US8147486?dq=3376842
  • This product is carefully crafted through a traditional, all-natural, solar-concentration process that does not use any artificial ingredients, artificial drying processes, or minerals sourced from facilities other than those controlled by our manufacturer. (hempusa.org)
  • To investigate the efficacy of the fabricated bioelectric plaster, an artificial wound is made on the back skin of a live mouse and the wound healing is observed for 7 d in the presence and absence of the ionic current of the bioelectric plaster. (elsevier.com)
  • However, Jolt made a brief return to Earth, in order to help both the Thunderbolts and Avengers to stop the out-of-control Moonstone (who had possessed two moonstones at the time and was losing control when she absorbed the Liberator's energies within her). (wikipedia.org)
  • Tourmaline (electric stone, a type of granite stone), common granite stone, ceramic disks, hot spring water and human palmar energy (called "Kikoh" in Japan and China), all which emit electromagnetic radiation in the far infrared region (wavelength 4-14 microns). (nih.gov)
  • Such as figuring out how to power bioelectric implants. (ustranslation.com)
  • The most promising solution to power bioelectric implants: wireless juicing with " near-infrared-ray (nIR) irradiation . (ustranslation.com)
  • An MFC equipped with a CNT-textile anode has a 10-fold-lower charge-transfer resistance and achieves considerably better performance than one equipped with a traditional carbon cloth anode: the maximum current density is 157% higher, the maximum power density is 68% higher, and the energy recovery is 141% greater. (nih.gov)
  • A wireless electronic unit, consisting of a micropotentiostat, an energy harvesting module (voltage amplifier together with a capacitor), and a radio microchip, were designed to enable the biofuel cell to be used as a power supply for managing the sensing devices and for wireless data transmission. (edu.au)
  • Current spectral CT systems have more energy bins, but the statistical noise in each energy bin is high because of the decreased photon number, which causes errors in the material decomposition results. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A marriage of nature and science, Life Energy Drops™ originates from the pristine northern waters of the Great Salt Lake in Utah and are harvested through solar evaporation. (hempusa.org)
  • Energy Balance in Critically Ill Children With Severe Sepsis Using Indirect Calorimetry: A Prospective Cohort Study. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Thus, we planned to study the energy needs and balance of this cohort. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The aim of the study is to determine relevant hemodynamic parameters for the diagnostics of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) by dynamic contrast enhanced dual-energy CT (DE-CT). (bioportfolio.com)
  • A single-centre, industry sponsored, pilot study to assess the feasibility of Single Exposure Dual Energy Subtraction with a Multi-Energy digital radiography detector as an imaging platfor. (bioportfolio.com)
  • And, when these wee computers are implanted into us, the theory goes, they'll function with our body's own nanomachines and energy systems. (ustranslation.com)
  • In conclusion, our proposed dynamic-dual-energy spectral CT method is highly feasible and has a great potential in high-quality multi-material decomposition. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Life Energy Drops™ is a highly concentrated Ionic Mineral compound that contains Boron which is helpful with keeping radiation out of the body and also helps with libido in men and women. (hempusa.org)
  • Dynamic-dual-energy spectral CT for improving multi-material decomposition in image-domain. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In this paper, we propose a dynamic-dual-energy spectral CT for accurate multi-material decomposition. (bioportfolio.com)
  • With the proposed statistical noise-weighted tPRISM algorithm, the multi-energy image reconstruction using dynamic-dual-energy CT data was implemented, followed by multi-material decomposition. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Both simulation and experiment results show that the multi-energy reconstruction and multi-material decomposition using the dynamic-dual-energy method are more accurate and have less noise compared with that of the conventional static-multi-energy method with the same number of energy bins. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Dual-energy CT, as well as spectral CT, has a great potential in material decomposition. (bioportfolio.com)
  • However, dual-energy CT is difficult to apply to multi-material decomposition because the number of energy bins is limited to two. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Spectral computed tomography (CT) reconstructs the same scanned object from projections of multiple narrow energy windows, and it can be used for material identification and decomposition. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Image Domain Dual Material Decomposition for Dual-Energy CT using Butterfly Network. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Dual-energy CT (DECT) has been increasingly used in imaging applications because of its capability for material differentiation. (bioportfolio.com)