Pollination: The transfer of POLLEN grains (male gametes) to the plant ovule (female gamete).Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Orchidaceae: A plant family of the order Orchidales, subclass Liliidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). All orchids have the same bilaterally symmetrical flower structure, with three sepals, but the flowers vary greatly in color and shape.Bees: Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Iridaceae: A monocot plant family of the Liliopsida class. It is classified by some in the Liliales order and some in the Asparagales order.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Extinction, Biological: The ceasing of existence of a species or taxonomic groups of organisms.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Insects: The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Self-Fertilization: The fusion of a male gamete with a female gamete from the same individual animal or plant.Plant Nectar: Sugar-rich liquid produced in plant glands called nectaries. It is either produced in flowers or other plant structures, providing a source of attraction for pollinating insects and animals, as well as being a nutrient source to animal mutualists which provide protection of plants against herbivores.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Forestry: The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.Liliaceae: A monocot family within the order Liliales. This family is divided by some botanists into other families such as Convallariaceae, Hyacinthaceae and Amaryllidaceae. Amaryllidaceae, which have inferior ovaries, includes CRINUM; GALANTHUS; LYCORIS; and NARCISSUS and are known for AMARYLLIDACEAE ALKALOIDS.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Self-Incompatibility in Flowering Plants: One of many different processes which occur in ANGIOSPERMS by which genetic diversity is maintained while INBREEDING is prevented.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Marine Biology: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.Aquatic Organisms: Organisms that live in water.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Inflorescence: A cluster of FLOWERS (as opposed to a solitary flower) arranged on a main stem of a plant.Malpighiaceae: A plant family of the order Polygalales, subclass Rosidae class, Magnoliopsida that are mostly shrubs and small trees. Many of the members contain indole alkaloids.Gymnosperms: Gymnosperms are a group of vascular plants whose seeds are not enclosed by a ripened ovary (fruit), in contrast to ANGIOSPERMS whose seeds are surrounded by an ovary wall. The seeds of many gymnosperms (literally, "naked seed") are borne in cones and are not visible. Taxonomists now recognize four distinct divisions of extant gymnospermous plants (CONIFEROPHYTA; CYCADOPHYTA; GINKGOPHYTA; and GNETOPHYTA).Pollen Tube: A growth from a pollen grain down into the flower style which allows two sperm to pass, one to the ovum within the ovule, and the other to the central cell of the ovule to produce endosperm of SEEDS.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Plant Physiological Phenomena: The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.Petunia: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain steroidal glycosides.Informatics: The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of data through the application of computers.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Endangered Species: An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.Borneo: An island in the Malay Archipelago, east of Sumatra, north of Java, and west of Celebes. It is the third largest island in the world. Its name is a Portuguese alteration of BRUNEI, located on it. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p163; Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p73)Wind: The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Gentianaceae: A plant family of the order Gentianales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida.Ericaceae: The heath plant family of the order Ericales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida that are generally shrubs or small trees. Leaves are alternate, simple, and leathery; flowers are symmetrical with a 4- or 5-parted corolla of partly fused petals.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Yucca: A genus (and common name) in the AGAVACEAE family. It is known for SAPONINS in the root that are used in SOAPS.Ovule: The element in plants that contains the female GAMETOPHYTES.Juniperus: A plant genus of the family CUPRESSACEAE. The species are slow growing coniferous evergreen trees or shrubs.DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic: Techniques for standardizing and expediting taxonomic identification or classification of organisms that are based on deciphering the sequence of one or a few regions of DNA known as the "DNA barcode".Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Wasps: Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.Cactaceae: The cactus plant family of the order Caryophyllales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida. Cacti are succulent perennial plants well adapted to dry regions.Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Invertebrates: Animals that have no spinal column.Human Activities: Activities performed by humans.Bignoniaceae: A plant family of the order Lamiales. The family is characterized by oppositely paired, usually compound leaves and bell- or funnel-shaped, bisexual flowers having a five-lobed calyx and corolla.Classification: The systematic arrangement of entities in any field into categories classes based on common characteristics such as properties, morphology, subject matter, etc.Campanulaceae: A plant family of the order Campanulales, subclass Asteridae, class MagnoliopsidaEuphorbiaceae: The spurge family of flowering plants, in the order Euphorbiales, contains some 7,500 species in 275 genera. The family consists of annual and perennial herbs and woody shrubs or trees.Mediterranean Region: The MEDITERRANEAN SEA, the MEDITERRANEAN ISLANDS, and the countries bordering on the sea collectively.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Organic Agriculture: Systems of agriculture which adhere to nationally regulated standards that restrict the use of pesticides, non-organic fertilizers, genetic engineering, growth hormones, irradiation, antibiotics, and non-organic ANIMAL FEED.Proteaceae: A plant family of the order Proteales, subclass Rosidae class Magnoliopsida. Cluster roots, bottlebrush-like clusters of rootlets which form in response to poor soil, are common in this family.Islands: Tracts of land completely surrounded by water.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Biota: The spectrum of different living organisms inhabiting a particular region, habitat, or biotope.Apocynaceae: The dogbane family of the order Gentianales. Members of the family have milky, often poisonous juice, smooth-margined leaves, and flowers in clusters. Asclepiadacea (formerly the milkweed family) has been included since 1999 and before 1810.Acanthaceae: A plant family of the order Lamiales. It is characterized by simple leaves in opposite pairs, cystoliths (enlarged cells containing crystals of calcium carbonate), and bilaterally symmetrical and bisexual flowers that are usually crowded together. The common name for Ruellia of wild petunia is easily confused with PETUNIA.Introduced Species: Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Mediterranean SeaPolygalaceae: A plant family of the order Polygalales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.Pyrus: A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE known for the edible fruit.Arecaceae: The palm family of order Arecales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida.Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Food Chain: The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.South AmericaGenetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Geological Phenomena: The inanimate matter of Earth, the structures and properties of this matter, and the processes that affect it.Wetlands: Environments or habitats at the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and truly aquatic systems making them different from each yet highly dependent on both. Adaptations to low soil oxygen characterize many wetland species.Chrysobalanaceae: A plant family of the order ROSALES, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.Herbivory: The act of feeding on plants by animals.Arum: A plant genus of the family ARACEAE. The name derived from ar (fire in Arabic) due to the irritating sap. Flower is a spathe.Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Rubiaceae: The Madder plant family of the order Rubiales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida includes important medicinal plants that provide QUININE; IPECAC; and COFFEE. They have opposite leaves and interpetiolar stipules.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Rosales: An order of the ANGIOSPERMS, subclass Rosidae. Its members include some of the most known ornamental and edible plants of temperate zones including roses, apples, cherries, and peaches.Ferns: Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are classified in the Subkingdom Tracheobionta (also known as Tracheophyta).Hymenoptera: An extensive order of highly specialized insects including bees, wasps, and ants.BrazilSeawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Nelumbo: A plant genus of the family NELUMBONACEAE. The common name of lotus is also for LOTUS and NYMPHAEA.Antirrhinum: A plant genus of the family Plantaginaceae. Members contain DEFICIENS PROTEIN.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Seed Dispersal: The various physical methods which include wind, insects, animals, tension, and water, by which a plant scatters its seeds away from the parent plant.Amphibians: VERTEBRATES belonging to the class amphibia such as frogs, toads, newts and salamanders that live in a semiaquatic environment.Fisheries: Places for cultivation and harvesting of fish, particularly in sea waters. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Netherlands Antilles: Former Netherlands overseas territory in the Lesser Antilles in the West Indies. It had included the islands of Aruba, Bonaire, Curacao, Saba, St. Eustatius, and the southern part of St. Martin. The Netherlands Antilles dissolved on October 10, 2010. Aruba, Curacao and Sint Maarten became autonomous territories of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Bonaire, Saba, and Sint Eustatius are under the direct administration of the Netherlands. (From US Department of State, Background Note)Honey: A sweet viscous liquid food, produced in the honey sacs of various bees from nectar collected from flowers. The nectar is ripened into honey by inversion of its sucrose sugar into fructose and glucose. It is somewhat acidic and has mild antiseptic properties, being sometimes used in the treatment of burns and lacerations.Ecological and Environmental Processes: Ecosystem and environmental activities, functions, or events.Marantaceae: A plant family of the order ZINGIBERALES, subclass Zingiberidae, class Liliopsida.Madagascar: One of the Indian Ocean Islands off the southeast coast of Africa. Its capital is Antananarivo. It was formerly called the Malagasy Republic. Discovered by the Portuguese in 1500, its history has been tied predominantly to the French, becoming a French protectorate in 1882, a French colony in 1896, and a territory within the French union in 1946. The Malagasy Republic was established in the French Community in 1958 but it achieved independence in 1960. Its name was changed to Madagascar in 1975. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p714)Melastomataceae: A plant family of the order Myrtales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida composed of tropical plants with parallel-nerved leaves.Phylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Impatiens: A plant genus of subsucculent annual or perennial plants in the family BALSAMINACEAE, order Geraniales.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.New Caledonia: A group of islands in Melanesia constituting a French overseas territory. The group includes New Caledonia (the main island), Ile des Pins, Loyalty Island, and several other islet groups. The capital is Noumea. It was discovered by Captain Cook in 1774 and visited by various navigators, explorers, and traders from 1792 to 1840. Occupied by the French in 1853, it was set up as a penal colony 1864-94. In 1946 it was made a French overseas territory. It was named by Captain Cook with the 5th and 6th century A.D. Latin name for Scotland, Caledonia. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p830 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p375)Daphne: A plant genus of the family THYMELAEACEAE. They are evergreen shrubs much cultivated in garden borders and rock gardens in mild climates. Members contain mezerein, flavonoids, and COUMARINS such as daphnetin and daphnin.PanamaPonds: Inland bodies of standing FRESHWATER usually smaller than LAKES. They can be man-made or natural but there is no universal agreement as to their exact size. Some consider a pond to be a small body of water that is shallow enough for sunlight to reach the bottom.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Genetic Speciation: The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.Cacao: A tree of the family Sterculiaceae (or Byttneriaceae), usually Theobroma cacao, or its seeds, which after fermentation and roasting, yield cocoa and chocolate.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Butterflies: Slender-bodies diurnal insects having large, broad wings often strikingly colored and patterned.Inbreeding: The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Prunus: A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of edible fruits such as apricot, plum, peach, cherry, and almond.Ficus: A plant genus of the family MORACEAE. It is the source of the familiar fig fruit and the latex from this tree contains FICAIN.Sagittaria: A plant genus of the family ALISMATACEAE that grows in salty marshes and is used for phytoremediation of oil spills. The unisexual flowers have 3 sepals and 3 petals. Members contain trifoliones (DITERPENES).Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Coffea: A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. It is best known for the COFFEE beverage prepared from the beans (SEEDS).Plant Exudates: Substances released by PLANTS such as PLANT GUMS and PLANT RESINS.Hygiene Hypothesis: The theory that infectious agents, symbiotic microorganisms, and parasites are normal stimulants for the maturation of the immune system toward a balanced immune response. The theory predicts that lack of such stimulation leads to allergies and AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Dipterocarpaceae: A plant family of the order Theales.Zamiaceae: A plant family of the order Cycadales, class Cycadopsida, division CYCADOPHYTA.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Eutrophication: The enrichment of a terrestrial or aquatic ECOSYSTEM by the addition of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, that results in a superabundant growth of plants, ALGAE, or other primary producers. It can be a natural process or result from human activity such as agriculture runoff or sewage pollution. In aquatic ecosystems, an increase in the algae population is termed an algal bloom.Zooplankton: Minute free-floating animal organisms which live in practically all natural waters.Anthozoa: A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.Conservation of Energy Resources: Planned management, use, and preservation of energy resources.Araceae: A plant family of the order Arales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida (monocot). Many members contain OXALIC ACID and calcium oxalate (OXALATES).Lycopodiaceae: The club-moss plant family of the order Lycopodiales, class Lycopodiopsida, division Lycopodiophyta, subkingdom Tracheobionta. The common name of clubmoss applies to several genera of this family. Despite the name this is not one of the true mosses (BRYOPSIDA).Climatic Processes: Characteristic events occurring in the ATMOSPHERE during the interactions and transformation of various atmospheric components and conditions.Silene: A plant genus of the family CARYOPHYLLACEAE. The common name of campion is also used with LYCHNIS. The common name of 'pink' can be confused with other plants.EcuadorEarth (Planet): Planet that is the third in order from the sun. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the SOLAR SYSTEM.Wilderness: Environment un-modified by human activity. Areas in which natural processes operate without human interference.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Eriocaulaceae: A plant family of the order Commelinales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons).Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Ants: Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)Natural History: A former branch of knowledge embracing the study, description, and classification of natural objects (as animals, plants, and minerals) and thus including the modern sciences of zoology, botany, and mineralogy insofar as they existed at that time. In the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries it was much used for the generalized pursuit of certain areas of science. (Webster, 3d ed; from Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Urbanization: The process whereby a society changes from a rural to an urban way of life. It refers also to the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas.Nature: The system of all phenomena in space and time; the totality of physical reality. It is both a scientific and philosophic concept appearing in all historic eras. (Webster 2d; Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Alocasia: A plant genus of the family ARACEAE. Members contain beta-glucosidases and trypsin inhibitors.Lilium: A plant genus in the family LILIACEAE generally growing in temperate areas. The word lily is also used in the common names of many plants of other genera that resemble true lilies. True lilies are erect perennial plants with leafy stems, scaly bulbs, usually narrow leaves, and solitary or clustered flowers.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Diptera: An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).Moths: Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.Coral Reefs: Marine ridges composed of living CORALS, coral skeletons, calcareous algae, and other organisms, mixed with minerals and organic matter. They are found most commonly in tropical waters and support other animal and plant life.Indian Ocean: A body of water covering approximately one-fifth of the total ocean area of the earth, extending amidst Africa in the west, Australia in the east, Asia in the north, and Antarctica in the south. Including the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, it constitutes the third largest ocean after the ATLANTIC OCEAN and the PACIFIC OCEAN. (New Encyclopaedia Britannica Micropaedia, 15th ed, 1990, p289)Antarctic Regions: The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)Gastropoda: A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of SNAILS and slugs. The former have coiled external shells and the latter usually lack shells.Cycadophyta: A division of GYMNOSPERMS which look like palm trees (ARECACEAE) but are more closely related to PINUS. They have large cones and large pinnate leaves and are sometimes called cycads, a term which may also refer more narrowly to cycadales or CYCAS.MuseumsCrosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Phytoplankton: Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.Intellectual Property: Property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyright, that results from creative effort. The Patent and Copyright Clause (Art. 1, Sec. 8, cl. 8) of the United States Constitution provides for promoting the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed, p1014)Water Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.ArgentinaAnimal Distribution: A process by which animals in various forms and stages of development are physically distributed through time and space.Malus: A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of the edible fruit (apple) and is cultivated in temperate climates worldwide.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Amphipoda: An order of mostly marine CRUSTACEA containing more than 5500 species in over 100 families. Like ISOPODA, the other large order in the superorder Peracarida, members are shrimp-like in appearance, have sessile compound eyes, and no carapace. But unlike Isopoda, they possess thoracic gills and their bodies are laterally compressed.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Germination: The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Quercus: A plant genus of the family FAGACEAE that is a source of TANNINS. Do not confuse with Holly (ILEX).Passiflora: A plant genus of the family Passifloraceae, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are vines with ornamental flowers and edible fruit.Gene Flow: The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.FiresAfrica, Southern: The geographical area of Africa comprising ANGOLA; BOTSWANA; LESOTHO; MALAWI; MOZAMBIQUE; NAMIBIA; SOUTH AFRICA; SWAZILAND; ZAMBIA; and ZIMBABWE.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Passeriformes: A widely distributed order of perching BIRDS, including more than half of all bird species.Brassica: A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Costa RicaSouth Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.ParaguayEndosperm: Nutritive tissue of the seeds of flowering plants that surrounds the EMBRYOS. It is produced by a parallel process of fertilization in which a second male gamete from the pollen grain fuses with two female nuclei within the embryo sac. The endosperm varies in ploidy and contains reserves of starch, oils, and proteins, making it an important source of human nutrition.Beekeeping: The management and maintenance of colonies of honeybees.Oceanography: The science that deals with the ocean and its phenomena. (Webster, 3d ed)Estuaries: A partially enclosed body of water, and its surrounding coastal habitats, where saltwater from the ocean mixes with fresh water from rivers or streams. The resulting mixture of seawater and fresh water is called brackish water and its salinity can range from 0.5 to 35 ppt. (accessed http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/education/kits/estuaries/estuaries01_whatis.html)Rosaceae: The rose plant family in the order ROSALES and class Magnoliopsida. They are generally woody plants. A number of the species of this family contain cyanogenic compounds.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Reptiles: Cold-blooded, air-breathing VERTEBRATES belonging to the class Reptilia, usually covered with external scales or bony plates.
Pollination and floral ecology. Princeton University Press, 2011. *^ Pacini, E. N. M. V. J., M. Nepi, and J. L. Vesprini. " ... "Nectar biodiversity: a short review." Plant Systematics and Evolution 238.1-4 (2003): 7-21. ... Pollination and floral ecology. Princeton University Press, 2011. *^ Nicolson, Susan W., Massimo Nepi, and Ettore Pacini, eds. ... Baker, H.G. and Baker, I. (1981) Chemical constituents of nectar in relation to pollination mechanisms and phylogeny. In ...
As it does so, its bill and face gets brushed with pollen, thereby allowing for possible pollination. Along with birds, a host ... Jamieson, H.G. (July 2001). "Protea cynaroides". South African National Biodiversity Institute. Retrieved 14 October 2011. ... "Pollination of Proteas". Proteas Atlas Project. Retrieved 14 October 2011. ... Protea cynaroides info on PlantZAfrica.com - from the South African National Biodiversity Institute. ...
Abrol, Dharam P. (2010). Pollination biology : biodiversity conservation and agricultural production. Dordrecht: Springer. p. ... Pollination of orchids by ants is rare because the mouthparts of ants usually have antibiotic secretions which damage pollen ... R. Peakall, A. J. Beattie (1989). "Pollination of the Orchid Microtis parviflora R. Br. by Flightless Worker Ants". Functional ...
Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, Australian Government, Canberra. Retrieved 1 December 2013. "Shy susan, Tetratheca ... Tetratheca gunnii relies on native bees for pollination. Associated species include Eucalyptus amygdalina, Eucalyptus ovata, ...
Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Retrieved 5 November 2017. Carol Wilkins, Stephen Kern, Damien Rathbone and Adrienne ... Stephen Hopper; G.F.Moran (1981). "Bird Pollination and the Mating System of Eucalyptus Stoatei". Australian Journal of Botany ...
ISBN 978-0-643-09761-2. Abrol, D.P. (2011). Pollination Biology: Biodiversity Conservation and Agricultural Production (2012 ed ... Peakall, Rod (1989). "The unique pollination of Leporella fimbriata (Orchidaceae): Pollination by pseudocopulating male ants ( ... Pollination of this orchid usually occurs between April and June during warm afternoons, and may take several days until the ... While pollination by ants is somewhat rare, several Myrmecia species have been observed pollinating flowers. For example, the ...
Abrol, D.P. (2011). Pollination Biology: Biodiversity Conservation and Agricultural Production (2012 ed.). Springer. p. 288. ... It is unknown whether jack jumper ants contribute to pollination. Unlike many other ants that use scent to forage for food, ...
These gradually become pink after pollination. Unlike other Fumaria species which are known as weeds of crops and agricultural ... Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, Australian Government, Canberra. Retrieved 8 January 2013. "Fumaria capreolata". ...
Polli:Nation. References[edit]. *^ Fægri, K. and L. van der Pijl. 1979. The principles of pollination ecology. Oxford: Pergamon ... Declines in the health and population of pollinators pose what could be a significant threat to the integrity of biodiversity, ... The Principles of Pollination Ecology. New York: Pergamon Press, 1979.. *Percival, Mary S. Floral Biology. New York: Pergamon ... "Year of Pollination: Mosquitoes as Pollinators". awkward botany. 8 July 2015. Retrieved 28 July 2017.. ...
Adult E. undosata feed from the flowers and assist with the pollination of Dracophyllum acerosum and Hebe salicifolia. " ... CXXVIII, Fig 2. - via Biodiversity Heritage Library. Hudson, George Vernon (1898). New Zealand moths and butterflies (Macro- ... Primack, Richard B. (1983-07-01). "Insect pollination in the New Zealand mountain flora". New Zealand Journal of Botany. 21 (3 ...
The genus Cycadothrips is a specialist pollinator of cycads, the flowers of which are adapted for pollination by small insects ... Frame, Dawn (2003). "Generalist flowers, biodiversity and florivory: implications for angiosperm origins". Taxon. 52 (4): 681-5 ... Saxena, P.; Vijayaraghavan, M.R.; Sarbhoy, R.K.; Raizada, U. (1996). "Pollination and gene flow in chillies with Scirtothrips ... Williams, G.A.; Adam, P.; Mound, L.A. (2001). "Thrips (Thysanoptera) pollination in Australian subtropical rainforests, with ...
Obligate pollination mutualism in Breynia (Phyllanthaceae): further documentation of pollination mutualism involving Epicephala ... Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, Australian Government, Canberra. Retrieved 2008-10-10. Kawakita, A.; Kato, M. 2004. ... Breynia oblongifolia presumably is dependent on leafflower moths (Epicephala spp.) for its pollination, like other species of ... "Repeated independent evolution of obligate pollination mutualism in the Phyllantheae-Epicephala association." Proceedings of ...
Cross-Pollinations: the Marriage of Science and Poetry. Minneapolis: Milkweed Editions. Nabhan, G.P. and A.-G. Valenzuela- ... Woodlands in Crisis: A Legacy of Lost Biodiversity on the Colorado Plateau. Bilby Research Center Occasional Papers No. 2. ... In addition to the articles and books on pollination ecology for which he has been sole author or editor, he co-authored with ... Nabhan was among the first creative non-fiction writers to link the loss of biodiversity to the loss of cultural diversity. In ...
Paton, D. C.; Ford, H. A. (1977). "Pollination by birds of native plants in South Australia". Emu. 77: 73-85. doi:10.1071/ ... Management of Phytophthora cinnamomi for Biodiversity Conservation in Australia. Department of the Environment and Heritage, ... Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, Australian Government. ...
It was found that their ineffective pollination in the study system did not significantly reduce fruit-set. Thus, the adult ... DeVries, P. J., Chacon, I. A., & Murray, D. (1992). Toward a better understanding of host use and biodiversity in riodinid ... Schemske, Douglas W.; Horvitz, Carol C. (1984). "Variation among Floral Visitors in Pollination Ability: A Precondition for ... success of pollination during future visits. This may also lead to tripping of flowers with no pollen exchange, resulting in ...
Jogeir N. Stokland; Juha Siitonen; Bengt Gunnar Jonsson (26 April 2012). Biodiversity in Dead Wood. Cambridge University Press ... ISBN 978-9061931188 S. C Willemstein (1987). An Evolutionary Basis for Pollination Ecology. Brill Archive. pp. 105-. ISBN 978- ...
The main threats to the species are weed invasion, grazing and lack of pollination. "Caladenia gladiolata". APNI. Retrieved 7 ... Caladenia gladiolata is listed as "endangered" under the Australian Government Environment Protection and Biodiversity ...
Many people recognize that biodiversity has an intrinsic value and that we have a responsibility to conserve it for future ... and the pollination of crops. These ecosystem processes have been estimated to be worth trillions of dollars annually.[2][1] ... Wilson, E. O. (1988). Biodiversity. Washington DC: National Academy. ISBN 0-309-03739-5. Young, T.P. (2000). "Restoration ... Novacek, M.J. & Cleland, E.E. (2001). "The current biodiversity extinction event: Scenarios for mitigation and recovery". ...
Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, Australian Government, Canberra. Retrieved 30 July 2013. Williams, G. A.; Adam, P.; ... with particular reference to pollination of Wilkiea huegeliana (Monimiaceae)". Journal of Natural History. 35 (1): 1-21. doi: ... Mound, L. A. (2001-01-01). "Thrips (Thysanoptera) pollination in Australian subtropical rainforests, ...
Therefore, O. viciifolia is a promising crop to enhance biodiversity within agro-ecosystems. This pollination biology leads to ...
It is possible the colour change is unrelated to pollination. Seeds do not require any treatment, and take around 14 days to ... Canberra, Australian Capital Territory: Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, Australian Government. Retrieved 1 December ... Canberra, Australian Capital Territory: Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, Australian Government. Retrieved 1 December ... Canberra, Australian Capital Territory: Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, Australian Government. Retrieved 1 December ...
Biodiversity in South Africa Biodiversity & SANBI Mandate Traditional medicine Archived 28 July 2008 at WebCite Biodiversity in ... There are also millions of invertebrates that provide functions such as decomposition and pollination which are necessary for ... A loss in biodiversity for wildlife would be very detrimental to the ecosystem and to the human population as well. The ... Ecotourism and Biodiversity Conservation. Pp. 597-602 in M.J. Groom, G.K.Meffe and C.R. Carroll (eds). Principles of ...
The UK Biodiversity Partnership lists traditional orchards and a priority UK Biodiversity Action Plan habitat. The Wiltshire ... Trees portal Climate-friendly gardening Forest Freeganism Fruit tree forms Fruit tree pollination Fruit tree propagation Fruit ... In recent years, ecologists have successfully lobbied for state subsidies to valuable habitats, biodiversity and natural ...
... and landscape-scale management on farmland biodiversity. There are four key issues when comparing the impacts on biodiversity ... better pollination. Nearly all non-crop, naturally occurring species observed in comparative farm land practice studies show a ... Increased biodiversity, especially from beneficial soil microbes and mycorrhizae have been proposed as an explanation for the ... Biodiversity from organic farming provides capital to humans. Species found in organic farms enhance sustainability by reducing ...
Pollination of this species, as for all species in the genus, is by native bees and wasps. No leafless species of Dipodium has ... Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, Australian Government. Retrieved 24 January 2014. "Dipodium roseum M.A.Clem. & D.L. ...
... only 3-4 months after pollination. Cones mature and seeds are then shed by the end of that same year. Pollination and ... While tropical rainforests have more biodiversity and turnover, the immense conifer forests of the world represent the largest ... Some pollen grains will land on a female cone for pollination. The generative cell in the pollen grain divides into two haploid ... In summary, the 1-year and the 2-year cycles differ mainly in the duration of the pollination- fertilization interval.[15] ...
Mango fruit set resulted from self-pollination (Pself-pollination) and from pollination provided by two groups of visitors that ... Pollination services decline with distance from natural habitat even in biodiversity-rich areas. Authors. *. Luísa G. ... The susceptibility of biodiversity-rich regions to the recently debated pollination crisis is still unclear (Ghazoul 2005). Our ... However, such an effect would only occur if cross-pollination lead to a higher fruit set than pollination within the same plant ...
The impacts of pesticides on pollinator biodiversity and pollination services at multiple spatial scales ... More information is needed on how the effects of pesticides on pollinators and pollination are realised in the field. The ... used in agriculture and recognised as a threat to pollinators which provide a valuable ecosystem service through pollination. ... impact of pesticides on insect pollinators and pollination was investigated in and around Italian vine fields, at several ...
Could tanoak mortality affect insect biodiversity? Evidence for insect pollination in tanoaks. Tanoaks, Notholithocarpus ... Flowering phenology, insect observations, insect pollination, Lithocarpus densiflorus, Notholithocarpus densiflorus, pollinator ... Here we investigate the pollination ecology of.... .hidewebpageurl { display: none; visibility: hidden; } https://www.fs.usda. ...
Could tanoak mortality affect insect biodiversity? Evidence for insect pollination in tanoaks. Tanoaks, Notholithocarpus ... These events threaten biodiversity associated with impacted host trees and other resources valued by human societies even when ... Flowering phenology, insect observations, insect pollination, Lithocarpus densiflorus, Notholithocarpus densiflorus, pollinator ... Here we investigate the pollination ecology of.... .hidewebpageurl { display: none; visibility: hidden; } https://www.fs.usda. ...
Or possibly the Scandinavian Association of Pollination Ecology? Perhaps the Scandinavian Association of Pollination Ecologists ... Or is it just Scandinavian Pollination Ecology or Scandinavian Pollination Ecologists? Ive also seen it written as the ... Scandinvian Association of Pollination Egologists which I assume… ... SCAPE is the Scandinavian Association for Pollination Ecology. ... Follow Jeff Ollertons Biodiversity Blog on WordPress.com *. ...
Policy Analysis Paper: Mainstreaming of biodiversity and ecosystem services with a focus on pollination. Author: FAO ... With respect to the ecosystem service of pollination, FAO developed a protocol to identify and assess pollination deficits in ... A manual on apple pollination. Author: FAO The purpose of this manual is to improve knowledge concerning the management of bee ... The Pollination of Cultivated Plants: A compendium for practitioners (Volume 1). Author: FAO ...
Organic Ready Corn: The Fight to Stop GMO Cross-Pollination. by Jan Lee ... CSR: Fostering Responsible Biodiversity Stewardship. by 3p Contributor. The 651 biosphere reserves spanning over 120 countries ...
Biodiversity loss in Haiti. Blair Hedges discusses the state of Haitis remaining forests and the consequences to biodiversity ... Non-bee insect crop pollination. Romina Rader, Ignasi Bartomeus, Lucas A. Garibaldi, Michael P. D. Garratt, Brad G. Howlett, ... Non-bee insect crop pollination. Romina Rader, Ignasi Bartomeus, Lucas A. Garibaldi, Michael P. D. Garratt, Brad G. Howlett, ... Non-bee insects are important contributors to global crop pollination Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ...
Fahrig L (2003) Effects of habitat fragmentation of biodiversity. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 34:487-515CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Paton DC, Ford HA (1977) Pollination by birds of native plants in South Australia. Emu 77:73-85CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Wilcock C, Neiland R (2002) Pollination failure in plants: why it happens and when it matters. Trends Plant Sci 7:270-277PubMed ... Paton DC (2000) Disruption of bird-plant pollination systems in Southern Australia. Conserv Biol 14:1232-1234CrossRefGoogle ...
Pollination Biology. Biodiversity Conservation and Agricultural Production. 2011. col. illus. XXIX, 792 p. gr8vo. Hardcover. ... Pollination Biology. Volume 1: Pests and pollinators of fruit crops. 2015. 26 figs. VII, 468 p. gr8vo. Hardcover. ... Medicinal Plant Biodiversity of Lesser Himalayas-Pakistan. 2011. 114 col. illus. XIII, 220 p. gr8vo. Hardcover. ...
Pollination Biology. Biodiversity Conservation and Agricultural Production. 2011. col. illus. XXIX, 792 p. gr8vo. Hardcover. ... Pollination Biology. Volume 1: Pests and pollinators of fruit crops. 2015. 26 figs. VII, 468 p. gr8vo. Hardcover. ... Medicinal Plant Biodiversity of Lesser Himalayas-Pakistan. 2011. 114 col. illus. XIII, 220 p. gr8vo. Hardcover. ...
The pollination work of bees Specialized pollination Bees are good for trees and trees are good for bees Bees and biodiversity ... Bee pollination gives better quality and quantity of harvest Where to place hives for pollination Why honeybees often are the ... Biodiversity and wildlife Floral calendars Melliferous tree species Beekeeping in mangroves 8 THE VALUE OF BEES FOR CROP ... Use of other bees for pollination Pesticides How to see if bees are poisoned by pesticides How to protect your bees against ...
2015 the Commission published the mid-term review of the EU biodiversity strategy to 2020 which showed that animal pollination ... Pollination is the transfer of pollen between the male and female parts of flowers and is a vital step in the fertilization and ... 2015 the Commission published the mid-term review of the EU biodiversity strategy to 2020 which showed that animal pollination ... The consultation aims to ensure that all relevant stakeholders that may have an interest in pollinators and pollination have an ...
Pollination and floral ecology. Princeton University Press, 2011. *^ Pacini, E. N. M. V. J., M. Nepi, and J. L. Vesprini. " ... "Nectar biodiversity: a short review." Plant Systematics and Evolution 238.1-4 (2003): 7-21. ... Pollination and floral ecology. Princeton University Press, 2011. *^ Nicolson, Susan W., Massimo Nepi, and Ettore Pacini, eds. ... Baker, H.G. and Baker, I. (1981) Chemical constituents of nectar in relation to pollination mechanisms and phylogeny. In ...
Biodiversity, pollination biology. 96%. Surbek et al. (2011). x. 8. Elastically scattered light. Aeropalynology. 60-100%. ... melissopalynology and pollination biology). It may also be useful when working with samples where the analyst is interested ...
Biodiversity accounts. The SEEA follows the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and defines biodiversity at 3 levels: * ... Pollination and other intermediate services. In general, the focus of ecosystem accounts is on the final service provided by ... Biodiversity. As discussed in Section 4, biodiversity is generally treated as a condition indicator within the ecosystem asset ... Genetic biodiversity is the number of genetic characteristics in the genetic make-up of a species. It is probably highly ...
Biodiversity and ecosystem services: pollination, biological control, and nature conservation in agricultural landscapes ... Text (Shackelford 2014 - Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services - Pollination, Biological Control, and Nature Conservation in ... ecosystem services pollination pest regulation pest control biological control food production biodiversity conservation ... Shackelford, Gorm (2014) Biodiversity and ecosystem services: pollination, biological control, and nature conservation in ...
Take pollination, for example. Gary Paul Nabhan and entomologist Stephen Buchmann have documented widespread declines in ... The Biodiversity That People Made. The Biodiversity That People Made Snaking along the border of Minnesota and the Dakotas, the ... Biodiversity refers to the variety inherent in life-both the genetic variety within single species and the species variety ... Yet there is another side to biodiversity, one that is very much a part of human history. As agriculture developed over the ...
Documentary on Microbial Biodiversity (in German). Bee Pollination also Important for Field Crops. A study on the importance of ... Microbial Biodiversity Research Programme. Data collection in several model systems is successfully complete. The data analyses ... The estimated value of the yield for all crops achieved through pollination is CHF 341 million per year. There are probably not ... pollination by honey- and wild bees in Switzerland revealed that, in addition to fruits and berries, pollinator-dependent field ...
Farming for Biodiversity: Designing Pollination Systems to Sustain Native Wildlife. Evan Abramson, Landscape Interactions ... Wild pollination systems are being degraded rapidly, raising concern over an impending ecological catastrophe. Yet most efforts ...
1989). "Pollination parameters". Gleanings in Bee Culture. 117: 148-152. S. E. McGregor (1976). Insect pollination of ... Insect biodiversity accounts for a large proportion of all biodiversity on the planet -- over half of the estimated 1.5 million ... While biodiversity loss is a global problem, conserving habitat for species of insects is uncommon and generally of low ... In agricultural ecosystems, biodiversity is instrumentally important not only for the production of food, but for other ...
As it does so, its bill and face gets brushed with pollen, thereby allowing for possible pollination. Along with birds, a host ... Jamieson, H.G. (July 2001). "Protea cynaroides". South African National Biodiversity Institute. Retrieved 14 October 2011. ... "Pollination of Proteas". Proteas Atlas Project. Retrieved 14 October 2011. ... Protea cynaroides info on PlantZAfrica.com - from the South African National Biodiversity Institute. ...
Effect of cross pollination on yield and oil content of Brassica spp. and Eruca sativa with pollination efficiency of honeybees ... Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility. Government of Canada. [Online] http://www.cbif.gc.ca/eng/species-bank/brassicaceae- ... 0.02 seeds per pollination (11 F1 seeds harvested from 375 pollinations). Getinet et al. 1997. ... 7.8 seeds per pollination. Rahman 2001. B. carinata. B. oleracea var. alboglabra. 7.9 fertilized ovules per silique. Rahman ...
On the other hand, "what Nature gives us in terms of fresh water..., providing fisheries, providing pollination..., providing ... At the CBDs last meeting, in Hyderabad, India, in 2012, the world agreed to double biodiversity aid to developing countries by ... Another concern was the lack of progress in governments undertaking to review national biodiversity strategies to bring them ... nations will analyse progress since they agreed four years ago on 20 targets for stemming the tide of biodiversity loss. ...
... biodiversity conservation; water cycling; atmospheric gas/climate regulation; pest control; pollination services; and water ... Specific Benefits or Trade-offs: Aesthetics, Ambient water quality, Habitat and biodiversity, Land and environment, People and ... Specific Benefits or Trade-offs: Aesthetics, Agriculture, Ambient water quality, Community resilience, Habitat and biodiversity ... Specific Benefits or Trade-offs: Carbon sequestration, Community resilience, Educational opportunity, Habitat and biodiversity ...
  • More information is needed on how the effects of pesticides on pollinators and pollination are realised in the field. (bl.uk)
  • The impact of pesticides on insect pollinators and pollination was investigated in and around Italian vine fields, at several spatial scales: field (10's-100's metres), landscape (several km's) including a comparison between organic and conventional sites, regional (10's km's). (bl.uk)
  • The consultation aims to ensure that all relevant stakeholders that may have an interest in pollinators and pollination have an opportunity to express their views on the problem of pollinator declines and an EU approach to tackle it. (europa.eu)
  • The purpose of the conference is to engage IPCC and IPBES leaders - climate scientists, land use experts, environmentalists, and experts on proposed technological solutions - to see how interactions can affect the evolution of biodiversity. (uclouvain.be)
  • Since 2011, the Group has been installing beehives on roofs and around its stores in order to integrate biodiversity into its sites and support local bee-keepers in all of the countries in which it operates. (carrefour.com)
  • In Belgium, a start-up is tapping bees to help authorities and businesses integrate biodiversity into their activities. (foodnavigator.com)
  • Linear remnants appear to be frequently used by honeyeaters, but the changes in community composition among the elements may influence the quality of pollination, which could have implications for plant reproduction. (springer.com)
  • Professor Wolfgang Weisser from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) reports on two unexpected findings of the long-term study: Biodiversity influences almost half the processes in the ecosystem, and intensive grassland management does not result in higher yields than high biodiversity. (tum.de)
  • 2009) 'Functional and taxonomic perspectives of marine biodiversity: relevance to ecosystem processes' In: M. Wahl (eds). (ucd.ie)
  • The group contributes theoretical insights and underpinning for practical measures for protection of biodiversity. (port.ac.uk)
  • Implementing projects to encourage the protection of biodiversity at the local level. (basf.com)
  • Everyone can do something to help protect our native biodiversity, whether it be as simple as keeping your cat indoors during the day or planting natives and trapping pests. (nrc.govt.nz)