Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Extinction, Biological: The ceasing of existence of a species or taxonomic groups of organisms.Forestry: The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Marine Biology: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.Aquatic Organisms: Organisms that live in water.Informatics: The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of data through the application of computers.Endangered Species: An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic: Techniques for standardizing and expediting taxonomic identification or classification of organisms that are based on deciphering the sequence of one or a few regions of DNA known as the "DNA barcode".Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Invertebrates: Animals that have no spinal column.Human Activities: Activities performed by humans.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Classification: The systematic arrangement of entities in any field into categories classes based on common characteristics such as properties, morphology, subject matter, etc.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Biota: The spectrum of different living organisms inhabiting a particular region, habitat, or biotope.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Introduced Species: Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.Mediterranean SeaFood Chain: The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.Geological Phenomena: The inanimate matter of Earth, the structures and properties of this matter, and the processes that affect it.Wetlands: Environments or habitats at the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and truly aquatic systems making them different from each yet highly dependent on both. Adaptations to low soil oxygen characterize many wetland species.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Amphibians: VERTEBRATES belonging to the class amphibia such as frogs, toads, newts and salamanders that live in a semiaquatic environment.Fisheries: Places for cultivation and harvesting of fish, particularly in sea waters. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Netherlands Antilles: Former Netherlands overseas territory in the Lesser Antilles in the West Indies. It had included the islands of Aruba, Bonaire, Curacao, Saba, St. Eustatius, and the southern part of St. Martin. The Netherlands Antilles dissolved on October 10, 2010. Aruba, Curacao and Sint Maarten became autonomous territories of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Bonaire, Saba, and Sint Eustatius are under the direct administration of the Netherlands. (From US Department of State, Background Note)Ecological and Environmental Processes: Ecosystem and environmental activities, functions, or events.Madagascar: One of the Indian Ocean Islands off the southeast coast of Africa. Its capital is Antananarivo. It was formerly called the Malagasy Republic. Discovered by the Portuguese in 1500, its history has been tied predominantly to the French, becoming a French protectorate in 1882, a French colony in 1896, and a territory within the French union in 1946. The Malagasy Republic was established in the French Community in 1958 but it achieved independence in 1960. Its name was changed to Madagascar in 1975. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p714)Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Phylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.New Caledonia: A group of islands in Melanesia constituting a French overseas territory. The group includes New Caledonia (the main island), Ile des Pins, Loyalty Island, and several other islet groups. The capital is Noumea. It was discovered by Captain Cook in 1774 and visited by various navigators, explorers, and traders from 1792 to 1840. Occupied by the French in 1853, it was set up as a penal colony 1864-94. In 1946 it was made a French overseas territory. It was named by Captain Cook with the 5th and 6th century A.D. Latin name for Scotland, Caledonia. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p830 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p375)PanamaPonds: Inland bodies of standing FRESHWATER usually smaller than LAKES. They can be man-made or natural but there is no universal agreement as to their exact size. Some consider a pond to be a small body of water that is shallow enough for sunlight to reach the bottom.Genetic Speciation: The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Hygiene Hypothesis: The theory that infectious agents, symbiotic microorganisms, and parasites are normal stimulants for the maturation of the immune system toward a balanced immune response. The theory predicts that lack of such stimulation leads to allergies and AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Eutrophication: The enrichment of a terrestrial or aquatic ECOSYSTEM by the addition of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, that results in a superabundant growth of plants, ALGAE, or other primary producers. It can be a natural process or result from human activity such as agriculture runoff or sewage pollution. In aquatic ecosystems, an increase in the algae population is termed an algal bloom.Zooplankton: Minute free-floating animal organisms which live in practically all natural waters.Anthozoa: A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.Conservation of Energy Resources: Planned management, use, and preservation of energy resources.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Mediterranean Region: The MEDITERRANEAN SEA, the MEDITERRANEAN ISLANDS, and the countries bordering on the sea collectively.Climatic Processes: Characteristic events occurring in the ATMOSPHERE during the interactions and transformation of various atmospheric components and conditions.Wilderness: Environment un-modified by human activity. Areas in which natural processes operate without human interference.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.South AmericaNatural History: A former branch of knowledge embracing the study, description, and classification of natural objects (as animals, plants, and minerals) and thus including the modern sciences of zoology, botany, and mineralogy insofar as they existed at that time. In the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries it was much used for the generalized pursuit of certain areas of science. (Webster, 3d ed; from Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Urbanization: The process whereby a society changes from a rural to an urban way of life. It refers also to the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas.Nature: The system of all phenomena in space and time; the totality of physical reality. It is both a scientific and philosophic concept appearing in all historic eras. (Webster 2d; Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Islands: Tracts of land completely surrounded by water.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Coral Reefs: Marine ridges composed of living CORALS, coral skeletons, calcareous algae, and other organisms, mixed with minerals and organic matter. They are found most commonly in tropical waters and support other animal and plant life.Indian Ocean: A body of water covering approximately one-fifth of the total ocean area of the earth, extending amidst Africa in the west, Australia in the east, Asia in the north, and Antarctica in the south. Including the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, it constitutes the third largest ocean after the ATLANTIC OCEAN and the PACIFIC OCEAN. (New Encyclopaedia Britannica Micropaedia, 15th ed, 1990, p289)Antarctic Regions: The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)Gastropoda: A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of SNAILS and slugs. The former have coiled external shells and the latter usually lack shells.MuseumsPhytoplankton: Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.Intellectual Property: Property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyright, that results from creative effort. The Patent and Copyright Clause (Art. 1, Sec. 8, cl. 8) of the United States Constitution provides for promoting the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed, p1014)Water Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Animal Distribution: A process by which animals in various forms and stages of development are physically distributed through time and space.Amphipoda: An order of mostly marine CRUSTACEA containing more than 5500 species in over 100 families. Like ISOPODA, the other large order in the superorder Peracarida, members are shrimp-like in appearance, have sessile compound eyes, and no carapace. But unlike Isopoda, they possess thoracic gills and their bodies are laterally compressed.Butterflies: Slender-bodies diurnal insects having large, broad wings often strikingly colored and patterned.FiresCosta RicaPlant Physiological Phenomena: The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.ParaguayBeetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Oceanography: The science that deals with the ocean and its phenomena. (Webster, 3d ed)Estuaries: A partially enclosed body of water, and its surrounding coastal habitats, where saltwater from the ocean mixes with fresh water from rivers or streams. The resulting mixture of seawater and fresh water is called brackish water and its salinity can range from 0.5 to 35 ppt. (accessed http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/education/kits/estuaries/estuaries01_whatis.html)Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Reptiles: Cold-blooded, air-breathing VERTEBRATES belonging to the class Reptilia, usually covered with external scales or bony plates.Pacific OceanBrazilGeologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Global Warming: Increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth's surface and in the troposphere, which can contribute to changes in global climate patterns.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Desert Climate: A type of climate characterized by insufficient moisture to support appreciable plant life. It is a climate of extreme aridity, usually of extreme heat, and of negligible rainfall. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Crustacea: A large subphylum of mostly marine ARTHROPODS containing over 42,000 species. They include familiar arthropods such as lobsters (NEPHROPIDAE), crabs (BRACHYURA), shrimp (PENAEIDAE), and barnacles (THORACICA).Remote Sensing Technology: Observation and acquisition of physical data from a distance by viewing and making measurements from a distance or receiving transmitted data from observations made at distant location.Eichhornia: A plant genus of the family PONTEDERIACEAE that is used as a biological filter for treating wastewater.Seaweed: Multicellular marine macroalgae including some members of red (RHODOPHYTA), green (CHLOROPHYTA), and brown (PHAEOPHYTA) algae. They are widely distributed in the ocean, occurring from the tide level to considerable depths, free-floating (planktonic) or anchored to the substratum (benthic). They lack a specialized vascular system but take up fluids, nutrients, and gases directly from the water. They contain CHLOROPHYLL and are photosynthetic, but some also contain other light-absorbing pigments. Many are of economic importance as FOOD, fertilizer, AGAR, potash, or source of IODINE.Atlantic OceanCivilization: The distinctly human attributes and attainments of a particular society.Insects: The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)Ferns: Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are classified in the Subkingdom Tracheobionta (also known as Tracheophyta).Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Borneo: An island in the Malay Archipelago, east of Sumatra, north of Java, and west of Celebes. It is the third largest island in the world. Its name is a Portuguese alteration of BRUNEI, located on it. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p163; Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p73)Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Altitude: A vertical distance measured from a known level on the surface of a planet or other celestial body.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Caves: Geological formations consisting of underground enclosures with access from the surface.Environmental Policy: A course of action or principle adopted or proposed by a government, party, business, or individual that concerns human interactions with nature and natural resources.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Raptors: BIRDS that hunt and kill other animals, especially higher vertebrates, for food. They include the FALCONIFORMES order, or diurnal birds of prey, comprised of EAGLES, falcons, HAWKS, and others, as well as the STRIGIFORMES order, or nocturnal birds of prey, which includes OWLS.Arecaceae: The palm family of order Arecales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida.Vertebrates: Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.Mammals: Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.Arthropods: Members of the phylum Arthropoda, composed of organisms having a hard, jointed exoskeleton and paired jointed legs. It includes the class INSECTS and the subclass ARACHNIDA, many species of which are important medically as parasites or as vectors of organisms capable of causing disease in man.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Earth Sciences: Fields of science encompassing studies and research from the disciplines of PHYSICS; CHEMISTRY; BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; and MATHEMATICS; that are related to the planet EARTH. Subfields include atmospheric chemistry; CLIMATOLOGY; ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; GEOGRAPHY; GEOLOGY; geophysics; METEOROLOGY; OCEANOGRAPHY; PALEONTOLOGY; mineralogy; and seismology.Geology: The science of the earth and other celestial bodies and their history as recorded in the rocks. It includes the study of geologic processes of an area such as rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Ants: Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)Plant Dispersal: The physical distribution of plants in various forms and stages of development through time and space.Lakes: Inland bodies of still or slowly moving FRESH WATER or salt water, larger than a pond, and supplied by RIVERS and streams.Wood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.Microclimate: The climate of a very small area.Metagenomics: The genomic analysis of assemblages of organisms.Rotifera: A class of minute animals of the phylum Aschelminthes.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Paleontology: The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Herbivory: The act of feeding on plants by animals.Automatic Data Processing: Data processing largely performed by automatic means.Bays: An area of water mostly surrounded by land, usually smaller than a gulf, and affording access to the sea.New Guinea: Originally an island of the Malay Archipelago, the second largest island in the world. It divided, West New Guinea becoming part of Indonesia and East New Guinea becoming Papua New Guinea.Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)RNA, Ribosomal, 18S: Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.Fertilizers: Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Social Planning: Interactional process combining investigation, discussion, and agreement by a number of people in the preparation and carrying out of a program to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community. It usually involves the action of a formal political, legal, or recognized voluntary body.Plankton: Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.Lichens: Any of a group of plants formed by a symbiotic combination of a fungus with an algae or CYANOBACTERIA, and sometimes both. The fungal component makes up the bulk of the lichen and forms the basis for its name.EcuadorCarbon Sequestration: Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.SikkimInternational Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Kelp: Large, robust forms of brown algae (PHAEOPHYCEAE) in the order Laminariales. They are a major component of the lower intertidal and sublittoral zones on rocky coasts in temperate and polar waters. Kelp, a kind of SEAWEED, usually refers to species in the genera LAMINARIA or MACROCYSTIS, but the term may also be used for species in FUCUS or Nereocystis.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Solar Energy: Energy transmitted from the sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation.North AmericaInternationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.EuropeCaribbean Region: The area that lies between continental North and South America and comprises the Caribbean Sea, the West Indies, and the adjacent mainland regions of southern Mexico, Central America, Colombia, and Venezuela.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Argentina

Environmental occurrence, analysis, and toxicology of toxaphene compounds. (1/4478)

Toxaphene production, in quantities similar to those of polychlorinated biphenyls, has resulted in high toxaphene levels in fish from the Great Lakes and in Arctic marine mammals (up to 10 and 16 microg g-1 lipid). Because of the large variabiliity in total toxaphene data, few reliable conclusions can be drawn about trends or geographic differences in toxaphene concentrations. New developments in mass spectrometric detection using either negative chemical ionization or electron impact modes as well as in multidimensional gas chromatography recently have led researchers to suggest congener-specific approaches. Recently, several nomenclature systems have been developed for toxaphene compounds. Although all systems have specific advantages and limitations, it is suggested that an international body such as the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry make an attempt to obtain uniformity in the literature. Toxicologic information on individual chlorobornanes is scarce, but some reports have recently appeared. Neurotoxic effects of toxaphene exposure such as those on behavior and learning have been reported. Technical toxaphene and some individual congeners were found to be weakly estrogenic in in vitro test systems; no evidence for endocrine effects in vivo has been reported. In vitro studies show technical toxaphene and toxaphene congeners to be mutagenic. However, in vivo studies have not shown genotoxicity; therefore, a nongenotoxic mechanism is proposed. Nevertheless, toxaphene is believed to present a potential carcinogenic risk to humans. Until now, only Germany has established a legal tolerance level for toxaphene--0.1 mg kg-1 wet weight for fish.  (+info)

Richness of Colchic vegetation: comparison between refugia of south-western and East Asia. (2/4478)

BACKGROUND: The Colchis is one of the species-rich refugia and a centre of biological diversity in western Eurasia. We analysed patterns of richness, endemism and invasions in relation to taxonomy (family membership), life form, certain habitats in the Colchis, and compared them to patterns found for Japan. RESULTS: We found that in the Colchis perennials are significantly over-represented in endemic species, and that they typically occur on limestone soils and in alpine tall herbaceous vegetation. The Asteraceae produce significantly large number of both endemic and alien species, whereas the Poaceae are over-represented in alien species but under-represented in endemics. Likewise, the Apiaceae are over-represented in endemics, whereas the Euphorbiaceae are over-represented in alien species. Similar patterns have been found in Yakushima, Japan. The Morisita-Horn index of similarity between these two sites was 0.83 (based on family size). Although the flora of Adjara comprised of fewer families than the flora of Yakushima, the largest families are richer in species in the flora of Adjara than in the flora of Yakushima. CONCLUSIONS: Floristic analysis of refugia of western Eurasia and their comparison with geographically distant areas can provide useful data for plant ecological and evolutionary studies. Potentially, such studies can produce testable hypotheses on plant migrations and on their historical geography. For example, the data presented in this study indicate that more severe conditions in the Pleistocene and geographical isolation of the Colchis may be responsible for the higher relative importance of adaptive radiation in the shaping of its modern flora.  (+info)

Patterns in abundance and diversity of faecally dispersed parasites of tiger in Tadoba National Park, central India. (3/4478)

BACKGROUND: Importance of parasites in ecological and evolutionary interactions is being increasingly recognized. However, ecological data on parasites of important host species is still scanty. We analyze the patterns seen in the faecal parasites of tigers in the Tadoba National Park, India, and speculate on the factors and processes shaping the parasite community and the possible implications for tiger ecology. RESULTS: The prevalence and intensities were high and the parasite community was dominated by indirect life cycle parasites. Across all genera of parasites variance scaled with the square of the mean and there was a significant positive correlation between prevalence and abundance. There was no significant association between different types of parasites. CONCLUSIONS: The 70 samples analyzed formed 14 distinct clusters. If we assume each of the clusters to represent individual tigers that were sampled repeatedly and that resident tigers are more likely to be sampled repeatedly, the presumed transient tigers had significantly greater parasite loads than the presumed resident ones.  (+info)

The diversity of microorganisms associated with Acromyrmex leafcutter ants. (4/4478)

BACKGROUND: Molecular biological techniques are dramatically changing our view of microbial diversity in almost any environment that has so far been investigated. This study presents a systematic survey of the microbial diversity associated with a population of Acromyrmex leafcutter ants. In contrast to previous studies on social insects, which targeted specific groups of symbionts occurring in the gut (termites, Tetraponera ants) or in specialised cells (Camponotus ants) the objective of our present study was to do a total screening of all possible micro-organisms that can be found inside the bodies of these leafcutter ants. RESULTS: We amplified, cloned and sequenced SSU rRNA encoding gene fragments from 9 microbial groups known to have insect-associated representatives, and show that: (1) representatives of 5 out of 9 tested groups are present, (2) mostly several strains per group are present, adding up to a total of 33 different taxa. We present the microbial taxa associated with Acromymex ants in a phylogenetic context (using sequences from GenBank) to assess and illustrate to which known microorganisms they are closely related. The observed microbial diversity is discussed in the light of present knowledge on the evolutionary history of Acromyrmex leafcutter ants and their known mutualistic and parasitic symbionts. CONCLUSIONS: The major merits of the screening approach documented here is its high sensitivity and specificity, which allowed us to identify several microorganisms that are promising candidates for further study of their interactions with Acromyrmex leafcutter ants or their gardens.  (+info)

A new neuroprotective pinusolide derivative from the leaves of Biota orientalis. (5/4478)

A new pinusolide derivative, 15-methoxypinusolidic acid (1), and another new isopimarane diterpene, ent-isopimara-15-en-3 alpha,8 alpha-diol (2) with three known diterpenes, lambertianic acid (3), isopimara-8(9),15-dien-18-oic acid (4) and isopimara-7(8),15-dien-3 beta,18-diol (5) were isolated from the 90% MeOH fraction of Biota orientalis (L.) ENDL. (Cupressaceae) leaves. Chemical structures of 1-5 were elucidated by analyses of their spectral data, including the two-dimensional (2D) NMR technique. Compound 1 showed significant protective activity against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in primary cultures of rat cortical cells.  (+info)

Biodiversity of nematode assemblages from the region of the Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone, an area of commercial mining interest. (6/4478)

BACKGROUND: The possibility for commercial mining of deep-sea manganese nodules is currently under exploration in the abyssal Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone. Nematodes have potential for biomonitoring of the impact of commercial activity but the natural biodiversity is unknown. We investigate the feasibility of nematodes as biomonitoring organisms and give information about their natural biodiversity. RESULTS: The taxonomic composition (at family to genus level) of the nematode fauna in the abyssal Pacific is similar, but not identical to, the North Atlantic. Given the immature state of marine nematode taxonomy, it is not possible to comment on the commonality or otherwise of species between oceans. The between basin differences do not appear to be directly linked to current ecological factors. The abyssal Pacific region (including the Fracture Zone) could be divided into two biodiversity subregions that conform to variations in the linked factors of flux to the benthos and of sedimentary characteristics. Richer biodiversity is associated with areas of known phytodetritus input and higher organic-carbon flux. Despite high reported sample diversity, estimated regional diversity is less than 400 species. CONCLUSION: The estimated regional diversity of the CCFZ is a tractable figure for biomonitoring of commercial activities in this region using marine nematodes, despite the immature taxonomy (i.e. most marine species have not been described) of the group. However, nematode ecology is in dire need of further study.  (+info)

Complexity in natural microbial ecosystems: the Guerrero Negro experience. (7/4478)

The goal of this project is to describe and understand the organismal composition, structure, and physiology of microbial ecosystems from hypersaline environments. One collection of such ecosystems occurs at North America's largest saltworks, the Exportadora de Sal, in Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur. There, seawater flows through a series of evaporative basins with an increase in salinity until saturation is reached and halite crystallization begins. Several of these ponds are lined with thick (10 cm) microbial mats that have received some biological study. To determine the nature and extent of diversity of the microbial organisms that constitute these ecosystems, we are conducting a phylogenetic analysis using molecular approaches, based on cloning and sequencing of small subunit (SSU) rRNA genes (16S for Bacteria and Archaea, 18S for Eukarya). In addition, we report preliminary results on the microbial composition of a laminated community that occurs in a crystallized gypsum-halite matrix in near-saturated salt water. Exposure of the interior of these large (kilogram) wet, endoevaporite crystals reveals a multitude of colors: layers of yellow, green, pink, and purple microbiota. To date, analyses of these two environments indicate the ubiquitous dominance of uncultured organisms of phylogenetic kinds not generally thought to be associated with hypersaline environments.  (+info)

Viral influence on aquatic bacterial communities. (8/4478)

Bacterial viruses, or bacteriophages, have numerous roles in marine systems. Although they are now considered important agents of mortality of bacteria, a second possible role of regulating bacterial community composition is less well known. The effect on community composition derives from the presumed species-specificity and density-dependence of infection. Although models have described the "kill the winner" hypothesis of such control, there are few observational or experimental demonstrations of this effect in complex natural communities. We report here on some experiments that demonstrate that viruses can influence community composition in natural marine communities. Although the effect is subtle over the time frame suitable for field experiments (days), the cumulative effect over months or years would be substantial. Other virus roles, such as in genetic exchange or microbial evolution, have the potential to be extremely important, but we know very little about them.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Balancing generality and specificity in ecological gradient analysis with species abundance distributions and individual size distributions. AU - Yen, Jian. AU - Keith, Jonathan. AU - Paganin, David. AU - Fleishman, Erica. AU - Dobkin, David. AU - Bennett, Joanne. AU - Nally, Mac. AU - MAC NALLY, Ralph. PY - 2017/3/1. Y1 - 2017/3/1. N2 - AimData on ecological communities are often condensed into single-valued diversity indices, which support comparisons among ecosystems but may discard important information. At the other extreme, some studies retain full data on the identities of all species present, which retains maximum information on community structure but occludes comparisons among ecosystems. We sought to determine whether the analysis of species abundance distributions and individual size distributions could support more detailed inferences than diversity indices while remaining sufficiently general to identify fundamental ecological responses in multiple ...
This TC will provide a clear understanding of existing environmental assessments and biodiversity analyses that cover the network of parks and protected areas (biological corridors) in the area of influence of the Mundo Maya Sustainable Tourism Program (MMSTP) in El Salvador, Honduras and Mexico. Regional and site-specific biodiversity studies and initiatives will be instrumental in determining the status and of local socioeconomic threats and opportunities for conservation and gaps of knowledge in areas of critical biodiversity importance. Developing a biodiversity baseline for the critical Mundo Maya Program sites will provide local and regional biological and socioeconomic information including: biodiversity inventories, natural and man-made landscape features, existing community-based projects, stakeholders and other key factors. This information will provide better understanding of the current status of biodiversity and of local socioeconomic threats and opportunities for conservation at key
The United Nations discussions on defining a new set of post-2015 development goals focus on poverty eradication and sustainable development. Biodiversity and ecosystem services are essential for poverty eradication, which is also one of the foundations of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). Based on an assessment of current proposals of goals and targets, and a quantitative pathway analysis to meet long term biodiversity and food security goals, this paper discusses how biodiversity and ecosystem services can be integrated into a broad set of goals and targets, and concludes with relevant target areas and means of implementation for which specific targets need to be defined. Furthermore, it responds to the call of the CBD to consider the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity and the related Aichi biodiversity targets in the post-2015 development agenda. The papers analysis identifies three overlapping but also supplemental ways to integrate biodiversity and
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Biological diversity, or biodiversity, means the variety of all forms of life: genetic variation within species, the abundance of species and the diversity of their habitats. Halting the loss of biodiversity by 2020 is a global goal. The Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry safeguards biodiversity by ensuring the sustainable use of natural resources in its administrative branch. This includes agricultural areas and landscapes, forests, game and reindeer husbandry as well as fish and water resources.. The Finnish strategy for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity outlines objectives and measures to halt the loss of biodiversity by 2020. The strategy was adopted in December 2012 by the Government Resolution on the Strategy for the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biodiversity in Finland for the Years 2012-2020, "Saving Nature for People". The strategy is based the objectives set in the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and EUs Biodiversity Strategy.. ...
An important product of marine biodiversity research should be the necessary knowledge and tools for adequately managing and protecting marine biodiversity. This requires knowledge on genetic and ecological mechanisms that control biodiversity (gene flow, dispersal, adaptive value of genetic polymorphisms, determination of dispersal and recruitment, species interactions including invasions, sediment transport, natural and human-induced catastrophes, etc.). It also requires knowledge on the functional role of biodiversity: what is the variability in genes, species and communities that is required for ecosystem functioning; and models on dispersal of genes and organisms, species interactions and food webs, the interaction between food webs and biogeochemical fluxes, and impact assessment of diffuse and point source pollution, coastal constructions, mass tourism and global climate change. ...
The study provides strong evidence in support of biodiversity and its role in preserving balance in nature. Through its commitment to responsible innovation, Evolva supports the three main aims of the UN Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD): the conservation of biodiversity; the sustainable use of biological components; and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from genetic resources.. Read more about the Dutch biodiversity study here: NY Times article and here: Royal Society paper and find out more about Evolvas commitment to biodiversity here.. * To combat the risk of infection from ticks, Evolva is currently developing Nootkatone - a biologically-produced tick repellent which it hopes will be a highly-effective agent against the ticks that transmit Lyme disease.. ...
Mike Christie, Nick Hanley, John Warren, Tony Hyde, Kevin Murphy and Robert Wright INTRODUCTION The aims of this chapter are to identify problems surrounding the economic valuation of biodiversity, and then to present results from a recent stated preference study on changes in biodiversity on UK farmland, which attempts to get around one major problem, namely the information deficit that typifies the knowledge level of most members of the general public regarding biodiversity. We also provide a first choice experiment estimation of the attributes of biodiversity, an approach that may prove useful in developing policy on biodiversity protection and enhancement; obtain contingent valuation estimates for different policies, which would increase biodiversity on farmland; and compare values obtained using standard survey procedures with those obtained using the valuation workshop technique (Macmillan et al., 2003). Finally, we test for benefits transfer in both values and valuation functions ...
Figure 1. Three dimensions of biodiversity. This solicitation targets the area where all three overlap.. The Dimensions of Biodiversity program currently targets three fundamental dimensions of biodiversity -genetic diversity, taxonomic/phylogenetic diversity, and functional diversity. Genetic diversity includes but is not limited to nucleotide sequence diversity at neutral or coding loci or genomic (proteomic, transcriptomic) diversity. Taxonomic/phylogenetic diversity refers to evolutionary lineages at and above the level of the population. Functional diversity includes but is not limited to aspects of ecosystem function such as energy flow, material cycling, ecological resilience, and the role of key innovations in the generation and maintenance of biodiversity. (See examples listed below.) In addition, a primary goal of the program is to address the largest unknowns related to biodiversity; proposals that have the potential to fill large gaps in our understanding of biodiversity are ...
Global biodiversity is the measure of biodiversity on planet Earth and is defined as the total variability of life forms. More than 99 percent of all species that ever lived on Earth are estimated to be extinct. Estimates on the number of Earths current species range from 2 million to 1012, of which about 1.6 million have been databased thus far and over 80 percent have not yet been described. More recently, in May 2016, scientists reported that 1 trillion species are estimated to be on Earth currently with only one-thousandth of one percent described. The total amount of DNA base pairs on Earth, as a possible approximation of global biodiversity, is estimated at 5.0 x 1037, and weighs 50 billion tonnes. In comparison, the total mass of the biosphere has been estimated to be as much as 4 TtC (trillion tons of carbon). In other related studies, around 1.9 million extant species are believed to have been described currently, but some scientists believe 20% are synonyms, reducing the total valid ...
Figure 1. Three dimensions of biodiversity. This Call for proposals targets the area where all these three areas overlap.. The goal of the Dimensions of Biodiversity campaign is to transform, by 2020, how we describe and understand the scope and role of life on Earth. The campaign promotes novel, integrated approaches to identify and understand the evolutionary and ecological significance of biodiversity amidst the changing environment of the present day and in the geologic past.. This campaign seeks to characterize biodiversity on Earth by using integrative, innovative approaches to fill the most substantial gaps in our understanding of the diversity of life on Earth. It takes a broad view of biodiversity, and currently focuses on the integration of genetic, taxonomic/phylogenetic, and functional dimensions of biodiversity. Successful proposals should integrate these three dimensions to understand interactions and feedbacks among them. While this focus complements several core FAPESP and NSF ...
Although hundreds of short-term local experiments indicate that random changes in biodiversity can cause substantial changes in primary productivity, considerable debate remains regarding whether these influences of biodiversity are weaker or stronger at larger spatial and temporal scales in natural ecosystems. Given this knowledge gap, current models often implicitly assume no influence of biodiversity on ecosystem productivity, likely leading to inaccurate predictions in at least some cases. We propose to develop and test a strategy for scaling-up results from biodiversity experiments to natural communities by testing theory and bridging gaps between previous experimental and observational studies. In the four proposed meetings, one of which would be co-funded, we will advance understanding of scaling up in space, scaling up in time, and accounting for non-random shifts in dominant traits. Integrating these three advances will allow us to generalize from a few experiments to data from many ...
Although the context of this paper is a "World Biodiversity Update," any attempt at such would be presumptuous if not impossible. What I will attempt, however, is to highlight some of the major developments in biodiversity action and policy that have emerged during the past year or two. In fact, several of these are directly related to agricultural biodiversity, and indeed to the issue of new crops. Then I shall explore the main trends in the appreciation, conservation and sustainable use of what is termed agricultural biodiversity. The coming into effect of the Convention on Biological Diversity has led to a wide range of activities and initiatives as governments attempt to get to grips with the problems of implementing what is no more than an outline convention. The deliberations of the Conference of the Parties (COP) of the Convention and its Subsidiary Body for Scientific Technical and Technological Advice (SBSTTA) have been criticized by some as spending too much time on issues such as ...
The Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) is the biodiversity working group of the Arctic Council. CAFFs mandate is to address the conservation of Arctic biodiversity, and to communicate its findings to the governments and residents of the Arctic, helping to promote practices which ensure the sustainability of the Arctics living resources. It does so through various monitoring, assessment and expert group activities.
Downloadable (with restrictions)! Habitat loss is a primary cause of loss of biodiversity but conserving habitat for species presents challenges. Land parcels differ in their ability to produce returns for landowners and landowners may have private information about the value of the land to them. Land parcels also differ in the type and quality of habitat and the spatial pattern of land use across multiple landowners is important for determining the conservation value of parcels. This paper analyzes the relative efficiency of simple voluntary incentive-based policies in achieving biodiversity conservation objectives. This topic is important not just for biodiversity conservation but for any effort to provide a public good requiring coordination across multiple decision-makers who have some degree of private information. We develop a method that integrates spatially explicit data, an econometric model of private land-use decisions, landscape simulations, a biological model of biodiversity as a function
Given the continued destruction, disturbance and fragmentation of tropical forests, and the associated extinction of species (Sayer & Whitmore 1991; May, Lawton & Stork 1995; Turner 1996), there is an urgent need to develop and test standardized methods for sampling biodiversity (Sutton & Collins 1991; Stork & Samways 1995). This has prompted a growing literature on the search for bioindicators, particularly for insects, because they form the bulk of species and animal biomass in terrestrial habitats and have a strong influence over many ecosystem processes. McGeoch (1998) reviewed the selection and utility of insects as indicators, and emphasized the need for explicit aims and hypothesis testing when nominating a species or group of taxa as a bioindicator. The basic purpose of bioindicators, whatever the ultimate aim, is to indicate a relationship with another biotic or abiotic variable. These relationships with other variables are, however, only as good as the sampling method employed to ...
http://www.marinebiodiversity.ca/en/home.html. Nations around the world have recognized biodiversity as one of the most pressing ecological issues of our time. Declining biodiversity over recent decades has prompted the formation of international coalitions and national biodiversity programs. This Topic in Depth explores the work of both international and national efforts to increase global biodiversity. The first site presents an archived report from the Convention on Biological Diversity, an international organization formed by many world nations after the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro. This first edition of the Global Biodiversity Outlook report, published in 2001, was created to provide a status summary, and an analysis of Convention objectives. It is expected that a second edition will be published this year presenting more recent data and analysis (1). Explore Biodiversity is an innovative project involving a team of scientists and filmmakers working to document the diminishing ...
Understanding patterns of biodiversity in deep sea systems is increasingly important because human activities are extending further into these areas. However, obtaining data is difficult, limiting the ability of science to inform management decisions. We have used three different methods of quantifying biodiversity to describe patterns of biodiversity in an area that includes two marine reserves in deep water off southern Australia. We used biological data collected during a recent survey, combined with extensive physical data to model, predict and map three different attributes of biodiversity: distributions of common species, beta diversity and rank abundance distributions (RAD). The distribution of each of eight common species was unique, although all the species respond to a depth-correlated physical gradient. Changes in composition (beta diversity) were large, even between sites with very similar environmental conditions. Composition at any one site was highly uncertain, and the suite of species
Plants chapter of the Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA), a report containing the best available science informed by traditional ecological knowledge on the status and trends of Arctic biodiversity and accompanying policy recommendations for biodiversity conservation.
Fungi chapter of the the Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA), a report containing the best available science informed by traditional ecological knowledge on the status and trends of Arctic biodiversity and accompanying policy recommendations for biodiversity conservation.
The difference between continental and oceanic islands: The continental islands are bodies of land that lie on the continental shelf, and most of them are result of rift of the continent or entrance of seawater in it. Oceanic islands sit on the oceanic shelf and they are result of volcanic activity or bending of the plates during the tectonic movements. One of the key to understand the special biodiversity on islands is the origin of them. Having already or not fauna and flora at the formation of island is a deciding factor of the future biodiversity. For example, think about bird species in UK (continental islands) versus Hawaii (oceanic islands).We discuss about this in a next post, but keep these ideas on your head ...
Surprisingly, many large-scale patterns of biodiversity (such as the latitudinal diversity gradient) are still poorly understood. We use large, global-scale databases of the distributions and phylogenies of mammals and birds to test hypotheses about the underlying causes of global biodiversity patterns. This is not a specific, funded project, but an ongoing research interest in the Macroevolution & Macroecology Group.
In this course, we will give you an overview in how to use molecular tools for ecological biodiversity assessments. We will cover basics in traditional ecology as well, so no previous knowledge is required in this field. We will teach theory and practical work hands-in-hands, so that the course will be varied in theoretical basics, lab work and computer based analysis. You will have seen the complete workflow (although not possible to go very deep) of ecological diversity analyses based on sequence data from the beginning to the end (Sanger and NGS). Basics in bioinformatics will be an additional (short) topic in this practical, since a lot of software used for this purpose are based on the Linux command line. The second week will be mostly dedicated to getting a dataset and analyze it yourself (with our support of course) using the tools acquired in the first week. After the practical you should have a basic understanding of Phylogeny, DNA-Barcoding, Metabarcoding, Genomics and Metagenomics ...
The Convention on Biological Diversity, 20 years on, is still struggling to stem the precipitous decline in biodiversity. After missing the 2010 target of reducing biodiversity loss, it is now pulling out all stops to meet the Aichi Targets, named after the Japanese prefecture where new goals for protection were set two years ago. As time runs out to protect the world’s ‘natural capital’, the forthcoming CBD conference in Hyderabad will discuss innovative ways of financing b
from: IPCC WGII Fourth Assessment report, Summary to Policy Makers, April 2007). In the face of the projected threats, which are clearly and unequivocally recognized by scientists, policy makers have the responsibility to anticipate and organize scientifically sound mitigation and adaptation measures, adopting an ecologically and economically effective precautionary approach (e.g., see the Stern report). Possible mitigation and adaptation measures are proposed in the IPCC WG2 and 3 SPMs. Recommendations for research and knowledge transfer. To support and evaluate actions, the participants of the "Biodiversity and Climate Change" meeting recommend that funding bodies, institutions and researchers address the gaps in knowledge as identified in the recommendations of the European Platform on Biodiversity Research Strategy, as adopted at its 2005 meeting under the UK Presidency of the EU, and the recommendations in the upcoming IPCC WG2 and WG3 Technical Summaries.. Considering the interests as ...
Biodiversity Research Institute assesses emerging threats to wildlife and ecosystems through collaborative research, and uses scientific findings to advance environmental awareness and inform decision makers.
Biodiversity Research Institute assesses emerging threats to wildlife and ecosystems through collaborative research, and uses scientific findings to advance environmental awareness and inform decision makers.
The exploration of the abysses of our planet is one of the last frontiers of ecological research. The dark portion of the biosphere likely hosts millions of undiscovered-yet new species. A global scale study conducted on biodiversity collected down to 8000 m depth reveals for the first time that small invertebrates (including worms and crustacea) play a key role in sustaining the overall functioning of these ecosystems. This study concludes that even a minor loss of biodiversity can cause a major impact on the functioning of the global biosphere. In the future, we should start protecting not only large ?flag species?, but also the almost invisible and sometime monstrous creatures that inhabit the abyss and the ocean interior.
Classification, Measurement & Importance of Biodiversity PPT). What is biodiversity? What are the different levels of biodiversity? What are the different types of biodiversity? How biodiversity is measured? Alpha diversity, Beta diversity, Gamma diversity, What are the uses of biodiversity? Why biodiversity is rich in Tropics? What are the Importance/significance of biodiversity?. Learn more: Lecture Note in Introduction to Biodiversity. You can DOWNLOAD the PPT by clicking on the download link below the preview…. ...
My research includes developing methods for quantifying and monitoring biodiversity and ecosystem services, the impact of land use change, climate change and other drivers of biodiversity loss, identifying and managing conflicts between human activities and the conservation of biodiversity, and the biodiversity science-policy interface.. I coordinated the EKLIPSE project with Juliette Young, an EU H2020 project whose aim was to set up a European support mechanism for evidence-informed decision-making. I also coordinate the ALTER-Net summer schools on biodiversity and ecosystem services held in Peyresq each year: http://www.alter-net.info/summer-school/ and https://www.flickr.com/photos/adwatt/albums/72157667641098099. I have been involved in over 15 European (EU-funded) projects on biodiversity (see below) and have previously worked on biodiversity in tropical forests. I have also worked on forest pests (including the pine beauty moth and the mahogany shoot borer), agricultural pests and coypu ...
The Biodiversity Heritage Library works collaboratively to make biodiversity literature openly available to the world as part of a global biodiversity community.
The Biodiversity Heritage Library works collaboratively to make biodiversity literature openly available to the world as part of a global biodiversity community.
MANILA, Philippines--A high-level United Nations official on biodiversity called on the Filipino youth Friday to ride "the green wave" and take part in global efforts to protect all life on earth as the world counts down to 2010, the International Year of Biodiversity.. Dr. Ahmed Djoghlaf, executive secretary of the UNs Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), also called on more Asian leaders to agree to a plan to end deforestation by 2020 to slow down the destruction of plants and animals.. Djoghlaf called on Filipino school children to plant a tree every year on May 22, the International Day for Biodiversity, and join the billion-signature campaign to protect the global ecosystem.. "All schools of the world will be planting trees at 10 a.m. every 22nd of May of every year. A tree is the most beautiful symbol of nature. It provides enough oxygen for a family of five," he said.. About 80 percent of the worlds known biodiversity could be found in forests, where about 1.6 billion people also ...
The tenth Conference of the Parties (COP10) to the UN Convention on Biological Diversity, which took place in Nagoya, Japan, has been heralded a success, with the close of the conference seeing key agreements on biodiversity protection being reached.
Multivariate analyses are used widely for determining patterns of assemblage structure, inferring species-environment relationships and assessing human impacts on ecosystems. The estimation of ecological patterns often depends on sampling effort, so the degree to which sampling effort affects the outcome of multivariate analyses is a concern. We examined the effect of sampling effort on site and group separation, which was measured using a mean similarity method. Two similarity measures, the Jaccard Coefficient and Bray-Curtis Index were investigated with 1 benthic macroinvertebrate and 2 fish data sets. Site separation was significantly improved with increased sampling effort because the similarity between replicate samples of a site increased more rapidly than between sites. Similarly, the faster increase in similarity between sites of the same group than between sites of different groups caused clearer separation between groups. The strength of site and group separation completely stabilized only
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Synthesis and analysis of scientific data has proven an invaluable tool for the emergence of new theory, paradigms, knowledge and research needs within the broad scientific field of biodiversity. However, much remains to be done to make data from biodiversity research fully available and usable for synthesis and analysis. A significant part of this challenge relates to the management of these potentially available data.. The main objectives of this workshop are:. ...
Eleventh meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (COP 11). At this side event will be presented some activities developed in the region in supporting the Aichi Biodiversity Targets implementation. A reference about the Amazon Observatory defined by the ACTO Member Countries will be also presented. ...
Despite its importance, marine biodiversity - the theme of this years International Day for Biological Diversity - has not fared well at human hands. Commercial over-exploitation of the worlds fish stocks is severe. Many species have been hunted to fractions of their original populations" -UN Sec. Ban Ki-moon. This years theme for International Day of Biological Diversity is marine biodiversity. This day provides us the opportunity to get everyone interested in marine life, and the opportunity to raise awareness of the issue and increase practical action. The oceans need all the resilience it can muster in the face of pollution and climate change and the potentially damaging impacts these problems are already producing in the marine world.. It is gravely worrying that we are damaging the oceans on a scale that is unimaginable to most people.. Now, if you are not aware of whats happening to the oceans beyond the beach, here are some random facts you may or may not know. Feel free to also ...
Tropical rainforests (TRFs) harbour almost half of the worlds vascular plant species diversity while covering only about 6-7% of land. However, why species richness varies amongst the Earths major TRF regions remains poorly understood. Here we investigate the evolutionary processes shaping continental species richness disparities of the pantropical, epiphytic and mostly TRF-dwelling orchid mega-genus Bulbophyllum (c. 1948 spp. in total) using diversification analyses based on a time-calibrated molecular phylogeny (including c. 45-50% spp. each from Madagascar, Africa, Neotropics, and 8.4% from the Asia-Pacific region), coupled with ecological niche modelling (ENM) of geographic distributions under present and past (Last Glacial Maximum; LGM) conditions. Our results suggest an early-to-late Miocene scenario of out-of-Asia-Pacific origin and progressive, dispersal-mediated diversification in Madagascar, Africa and the Neotropics, respectively. Species richness disparities amongst these four TRF
Anthropogenic activities have accelerated the rate of global loss of biodiversity, making it more important than ever to understand the structure of biodiversity hotspots. One current focus is the relationship between species richness and aboveground biomass (AGB) in a variety of ecosystems. Nonetheless, species diversity, evenness, rarity, or dominance represent other critical attributes of biodiversity and may have associations with AGB that are markedly different than that of species richness. Using data from large trees in four environmentally similar sites in the Luquillo Experimental Forest of Puerto Rico, we determined the shape and strength of relationships between each of five measures of biodiversity (i.e., species richness, Simpsons diversity, Simpsons evenness, rarity, and dominance) and AGB. We quantified these measures of biodiversity using either proportional biomass or proportional abundance as weighting factors. Three of the four sites had a unimodal relationship between ...
Jose De Santiago Torices Montero , Dreamstime.com - Biodiversity ial escene. by Anup Shah. The variety of life on Earth, its biological diversity is commonly referred to as biodiversity. The number of species of plants, animals, and microorganisms, the enormous diversity of genes in these species, the different ecosystems on the planet, such as deserts, rainforests and coral reefs are all part of a biologically diverse Earth. Appropriate conservation and sustainable development strategies attempt to recognize this as being integral to any approach. Almost all cultures have in some way or form recognized the importance that nature, and its biological diversity has had upon them and the need to maintain it. Yet, power, greed and politics have affected the precarious balance.. Source: http://www.globalissues.org/issue/169/biodiversity. ...
Every organisation, regardless of size, sector or location depends in some way on the natural environment. Those with responsibility for land management have a direct impact on biodiversity. The Biodiversity Benchmark provides a framework within which an organisation can ensure that its impact is as positive as possible.
After four years, the Critical Ecosystem Partnership Funds investment in the Indo- Burma biodiversity hotspot has resulted in more than US$ 9.8 million in grants to 54 civil society organisations to conserve biodiversity in Cambodia, Laos, Thailand and Vietnam.
The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) presents alarming findings from the most comprehensive freshwater biodiversity assessment in th...
EPA grant helps create Internet-based applications for Utah field biologists (Denver, Colorado - September 17, 2012) The Utah Division of Wildlife Resources in cooperation with NatureServe has become the first agency in the nation to exchange biodiversity data using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agencys Central Data Exchange. The state agency was awarded an EPA Exchange Network grant to create Internet-based applications for field biologists that allow them to enter species data along with mapping capabilities from any field computer. "These innovative Exchange Network grant projects continue to generate invaluable data to EPA, states, and local communities, while providing the latest technology to our field scientists," said Josie Lopez, EPAs Exchange Network Coordinator in Denver. The Utah Division of Wildlife Resources is the states primary agency for collecting, maintaining, and evaluating sensitive species occurrences, and natural resources information. NatureServe is a leading ...
These conclusions are the fruit of two and a half years of international and regional deliberations, organized on all five continents by the Steering Committee for an IMoSEB (International Mechanism of Scientific Expertise on Biodiversity)*. The specialists are planning to organize an intergovernmental conference in 2008, in conjunction with the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), which should serve to determine how the structure could be set up.. So that nobody can say in future "we didnt know". In particular, the conference should take account of the results and consequences of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA) conducted between 2001 and 2005 to estimate the impact of human activity on the environment and, conversely, the way in which such changes affect future prospects for terms of human health and wellbeing. The biodiversity experts and those involved in the MEA have a similar view of the current issues surrounding biodiversity. It is not enough to draw up a list of ...
a) Parties should consider promoting actions to reinforce linkages between the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) and CITES and to strengthen the science-policy interface at the national and international levels, including through the governing body of IPBES, as appropriate; and ...
The World Database of Key Biodiversity Areas™ hosts data on Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs). This database can support strategic decisions on protected areas by governments or civil society towards achieving Aichi Biodiversity Targets. It also guides the identification of sites under international conventions and in the setting of private sector policies and standards. The database is managed by the KBA Partnership, which comprises 11 founding partners and is served by the KBA secretariat hosted jointly by BirdLife International and IUCN. ...
The meeting aimed at pooling information from project partners on the current state of their biodiversity strategies and action plans with regards to the implementation of the Convention of Biological Diversity and, especially, the achievement of the Aichi targets. To that end, innovative facilitation techniques were used, such as graphic recording to promote dialogue and genuine interest focused oriented. Those techniques helped to draw a broad picture for each project partner on the state-of-the-art in their territories with regards to their biodiversity strategies and action plans, and highlighted both capacities and outstanding needs of all project partners. True discussions and showcase of expertise happened in the meeting, where project partners delegates made several presentations and exchanged their expectations with regards to their current state of the art.. The second in person meeting will be held in Sao Paolo by the end of September alongside the VIII Sao Paolo Biodiversity ...
If every human being treated the planet as we would treat our grandmothers - with a sense of respect and nurturing for her well-being, we would easily solve the problem.. A key point here is that widespread pollution and environmental degradation are not just a social well-being or biodiversity issue - they are also affecting the ability of the planet to self-regulate its own climate.. In fact, the whole biodiversity that has always sustained our hunger for growth, at the expense of the environment, is now hugely compromised.. If the soils, vegetation and ecosystems lose their capacity to naturally absorb and store carbon, the climate may continue to change even with emissions reduction.. To increase complexity, some of the proposed mitigation and adaptation strategies may be harmful for the environment and biodiversity.. If we plant the wrong type of trees in the wrong places, and build retaining walls where we shouldnt, we might make the problem worse in the long-term.. Even though the ...
Hillebrand, H., Gruner, D.S., Borer, E.T., Bracken, M.E.S., Cleland, E.E., Elser, J.J. et al. (2007). Consumer versus resource control of producer diversity depends on ecosystem type and producer community structure. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 104, 10904-10909 ...
Microorganisms play an important role in weathering sulfide minerals worldwide and thrive in metal-rich and extremely acidic environments in acid mine drainage (AMD). Advanced molecular methods provide in-depth information on the microbial diversity and community dynamics in the AMD-generating environment. Although the diversity is relatively low and in general inversely correlated with the acidity, a considerable number of microbial species have been detected and described in AMD ecosystems. The acidophilic microbial communities dominated by iron/sulfur-oxidizing microbes vary widely in their composition and structure across diverse environmental gradients. Environmental conditions affect the microbial community assembly via direct and indirect interactions with microbes, resulting in an environmentally dependent biogeographic pattern. This article summarizes the latest studies to provide a better understanding of the microbial biodiversity and community assembly in AMD environments.
The mechanisms responsible for latitudinal gradients in biodiversity are still poorly understood. Mechanistic understanding will require new theory that links short-term species coexistence to long-term speciation-extinction dynamics. My research at NCEAS will involve developing and testing a theoretical framework based on temperature dependence of biological rates and times and the dynamics of speciation and extinction. This framework will involve a synthesis of theory and data that encompasses population genetics, community ecology, and macroevolution. The primary motivations for this work are to better understand and predict changes in biodiversity along temperature gradients, and more generally, to better understand the forces that control the origin and maintenance of species. collapse ...
Assessing Urban Residents Willingness to Pay for Preserving the Biodiversity of Swamp Forest: 10.4018/978-1-4666-8814-8.ch014: Measuring the biodiversity value in monetary could be useful information for policy-makers to estimate welfare losses caused by biodiversity reductions and
The Convention on Biological Diversity has been updated with a new agreement called the Nagoya protocol. This provision, which goes into effect in 2012, determines exactly how biological specimens can be collected from Third World countries.. The flora and fauna in remote forests and jungles has been a rich source of medicines and other products. However, the ecosystems and political systems of those regions can be adversely affected by collection attempts. To prevent biopiracy (stealing valuable biological resources without compensating the local people) or habitat destruction, the Convention on Biodiversity went into affect in 1993. That United Nations treaty declared that nations hold rights to their own biological materials.. Last fall, the Nagoya protocol was drafted. For one thing, it clarifies procedures for getting collection permits. In the past, it wasnt clear whether researchers on a collecting mission should approach the local university or the town hall. Nagoya requires that ...
The National Biodiversity Data Centre is an Initiative of the Heritage Council and is operated under a service level agreement by Compass Informatics ...
Biodiversity refers to the totality of genes, species, and ecosystems of plant, animals or micro-organisms in a region. Study of biodiversity has become very important recently after realising the value of biodiversity for our survival. It has many medicinal, commercial, economic and scientific uses. Wild relatives of cultivated crop plants are the source of genes…
Dear Sir or Lady: This is a NEWS-Letter to inform you of the existance of a brand new INSTITUTE OF ECOLOGICAL-GENETICS TO STUDY THE AMAZONIAN=20 BIODIVERSITY . For further information write=20 to: Dr. Hugo Hoenigsberg =09 Instituto de Genetica-Ecologica y Biodiversidad Amazonica Cra.4 No.71-69 Bogota D.C.COLOMBIA. FAX: 612 7369 You can sent your C.V.to our personal address above. We are considering=20 applications to fill posts as research scientific staff members.=20 Evolutionary-Biologists, geneticists,ecologists, systematist,=20 botanists,zoologists, mathematicians and other Ph.D. individuals=20 interested in neo-tropical biological research with at least 10 years of=20 research experience preferably, but not exclusively, in the trop=A1cs, and= =20 about 10 published scientific papers will be considered. This new=20 Institute will study Amazonian biodiversity. Although its main purpose is= =20 research it will by inclination help, not only to preserve the Amazonian=20 biodiversity , but also ...
About usThe National Biodiversity Network has been championing the sharing of biological data since 2000. We are the UKs largest partnership for nature, with over 200 members and more than 235 million wildlife records available through the NBN Atlas. ...
Carrasco, L. R., J. Chan, F. L. McGrath, and L. T. P. Nghiem. 2017. Biodiversity conservation in a telecoupled world. Ecology and Society 22(3):24. https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-09448-220324
The Centre for Biodiversity Analysis (CBA) is a collaboration between ANU and CSIRO to exploit new and emerging capabilities in the discovery, understanding and conservation of Australias unique biodiversity. Read more on the website of the Centre for Biodiversity Analysis.
However, pathogens and parasites actually comprise much of worlds biodiversity since every species, be they of interest to people, or barely noticed, hosts its own unique co-evolved community of disease causing organisms and other parasites. This unregarded realm of biodiversity is fundamentally important to maintaining ecosystem diversity and function through regulatory effects on hosts, and by driving the evolution of host species. In the current biodiversity crisis, the extinction of a host species is likely to also cause the extinction of its associated parasites, magnifying the biodiversity loss.. A dilemma for conservation scientists and managers therefore is what interventions should be made for wildlife disease in threatened species. On the one hand some parasites may put species at risk, but pathogens are also important biodiversity worthy of conservation in their own right. A new paper by a team from the Royal Veterinary College, School of Biology, University of Leeds, Zoological ...
I guess that most scientists and many learned people would agree with me that answer number 3 seems about right (but if you think otherwise, please leave a comment). Actually, it seems that we know very little on the matter. Scientists are starting to agree -- I think -- on a broad definition of biodiversity. But the field faces (at least) two huge challenges. First, there are many organisms living on (and inside) this planet that we havent met yet, and our estimates of how many species are awaiting discovery are little more than educated guesses. Second, although biodiversity can be measured at various levels, its often understood as referring to the number and relative abundance of different species. And deciding if two organisms belong to a single species, or to two different ones, can be really hard. Moreover, the difficulty in agreeing on species definition depends greatly on the type of organism it applies to: whereas this issue causes some serious troubles when studying cuties, it ...
A highly collaborative approach to gathering data spearheaded by Iowa State University faculty and students has revealed new insight into plant biodiversity and netted publication in a top scientific journal.
Participants from other countries to encourage their Ministers to endorse the GTI funding of global facilities.. A one page document called the Darwin Declaration was prepared following the meeting, included below for your information.. The Darwin Declaration. The worlds governments who recognise the Convention on Biological Diversity have affirmed the existence of a taxonomic impediment to sound management and conservation of biodiversity. Removal of this impediment is a crucial, rate-determining step in the proper implementation of the Conventions objectives. Removal of this impediment implies an urgent need to train and support Taxonomic experts, and to strengthen the infrastructure required to discover and understand the relationships among the worlds biological diversity.. Information derived from biological collections held in the worlds taxonomic institutions underpins the global efforts to conserve biological diversity. The collections, staff and associated information, serve as a ...
Introduction. Despite criticism over their selection and delimitation, biodiversity hotspots1,2 have undeniably become a popular approach for prioritising conservation efforts globally,3 as well as in South Africa.4 Of the 34 global biodiversity hotspots, 3 are either within South Africa or extend marginally into neighbouring countries: the Cape Floristic Region, the Succulent Karoo and the Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany (MPA). In a broader context, southern Africa, defined as the area south of the Cunene, Okavango and Zambezi Rivers,5 fully encompasses these three hotspots together with the southern parts of the Coastal Forests of Eastern Africa hotspot.1 The major biological criterion for the designation of biodiversity hotspots is floristic endemism, that is, the area must contain at least 0.5% of the worlds vascular plant species (1500 species) as endemics.1,2 This means that animal endemism per se is not critical for hotspot selection, although vertebrates are most likely to become hotspot ...
Continental margins cover approximately 11% of the oceans seafloor, but are disproportionately important in providing goods and ecosystem services [1], including the biggest percentage-wise increase in fisheries catch in the last three decades [2]. Margins are also important to long-term carbon cycling as the largest sink for carbon produced on land and the shelf [3]. Their biodiversity is the source of these services, yet much of it remains unexplored [1]. Global analysis of deep-sea benthic communities have demonstrated that as biodiversity decreases, there can be concomitant declines in ecosystem functions including secondary production, transfer efficiency of detritus to higher food webs and organic matter recycling [4]-each with implications for fisheries and carbon-cycle processes. Benthic organisms on continental margins are currently facing ocean acidification, global warming and oxygen loss [5-7], ultimately resulting from increases in atmospheric CO2. Rates of change are ...
By Sue Biniaz on January 3, 2020 The Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) are currently negotiating the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework, scheduled to be completed this …. Read ...
In Linus Blomqvists recent essay on wildlife and farmland, he uses the classic land-sparing versus land-sharing framework to discuss how to best protect biodiversity at the local and the global level. Blomqvist concludes that there are opportunities for "win-wins" between farmland productivity and biodiversity, but that ultimately, high-yield agriculture, whether conventional or organic, will mostly mean less on-farm wildlife. Thus, conserving biodiversity primarily requires a "tweaked" land-sparing strategy-i.e., protecting biodiversity in large reserves and mildly modifying intensive agriculture through crop rotations.. I agree with Blomqvist on protecting large reserves whenever possible, but disagree that the land-sparing/land-sharing perspective will help us to identify pathways for biodiversity conservation. To me, the land-sparing/land-sharing debate is dangerous because it oversimplifies key aspects influencing land use, and focuses attention away from more important issues that will ...
Relating microbial community composition to ecosystem function is a fundamental goal in ecological analyses, with physico-chemical parameters largely controlling this relationship. This investigation aimed to elucidate the impact of physicochemical factors on biodiversity in glacial habitats, with an emphasis on dissolved organic matter (DOM). DOM is a complex mixture of organic compounds and the primary substrate for microbial activity. Considering the variety of DOM sources in aquatic systems, little is still known about the biological release and bio-transformation of microbially-derived, autochthonous DOM. Continental Antarctica, typically lacking terrestrial carbon inputs, is largely governed by autochthonous DOM, making it an ideal site to investigate microbial biodiversity and the microbial formation of DOM. Different glacial ecosystems were selected, with a strong focus on the supraglacial Cotton Glacier stream, to investigate: i) the microbial diversity and underlying environmental ...
Protecting biodiversity is more than an act of environmental preservation; it can be a matter of self-preservation, according to a study that shows healthy biodiversity in intact ecosystems helps ward off infectious disease.
Article Climate Change and Biodiversity. On two counts this is a book which I would not normally have rushed out to buy. I generally dislike books that are compilations of a range of short specialist articles. Few editors are capable of co-ordinating...
Genetic monitoring is the use of molecular markers to (i) identify individuals, species or populations, or (ii) to quantify changes in population genetic metrics (such as effective population size, genetic diversity and population size) over time. Genetic monitoring can thus be used to detect changes in species abundance and/or diversity, and has become an important tool in both conservation and livestock management. The types of molecular markers used to monitor populations are most commonly mitochondrial, microsatellites or single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), while earlier studies also used allozyme data. Species gene diversity is also recognized as an important biodiversity metric for implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Types of population changes that can be detected by genetic monitoring include population growth and decline, spread of pathogens, adaptation to environmental change, hybridization, introgression and habitat fragmentation events. Most of these changes ...
The Science for Nature and People Partnership (SNAPP) working group on Ecosystem Services and Key Biodiversity Areas, co-led by Penny Langhammer and Leah Gerber of the ASU Center for Biodiversity Outcomes, hosted an international science workshop with the Canadian Council on Ecological Areas on November 7-10, 2017 in Quebec City, Canada. The workshop brought together international...
The maps section of the India Biodiversity Portal has a collection of more than one hundred interactive map layers that can be viewed on a Google Map. The layers are organised by theme (Biogeography, Abiotic, Demography, Species, Administrative Units, Land Use Land Cover, Conservation) and by geography ...
...MADISON When it comes to economic growth and environmental impacts i...A team of UW-Madison researchers is hoping to help change that narrati... The idea is to see what future land use changes may look like under d...Martinuzzi who works in Professor Volker Radeloffs lab in the Depart...,Study,puts,freshwater,biodiversity,on,the,map,for,planners,and,policymakers,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
In 1992 the Convention on Biological Diversity introduced an international basis for conserving and regulating R&D on genetic and biological diversity and associated traditional knowledge. The Nagoya Protocol which was adopted in 2010, and in force in 2014, pro- vided a more detailed legal framework for the Conventions objective of fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising out of the utilisation of genetic resources. The Nagoya Protocol called on countries to improve protections of Indigenous knowledge - by encouraging states to recognise relevant customary laws through developing community (or biocultural) protocols. The use of protocols may help document and identify knowledge-holders or communities customary laws, beliefs and interests, which may otherwise remain unknown to researchers (see Bavikatte and Jonas 2009; Raven 2010). Contrary to such attempts, Australia does not have a nationally consistent approach to biodiversity regulation. Gaps exist in Australias ABS framework ...
In addition, the Atlantic Forest biodiversity hotspot in which the bird occurs is one of the most threatened in the world. Considered one of the "hottest of the hotspots," this region has some of the most unique biodiversity in the world and is also at high risk of losing it unless immediate conservation action is taken. Less than 10 percent of the Atlantic Forests original vegetation remains. In an area 50 times smaller than the Brazilian Amazon, it holds an incredible 20,000 plant species, 40 percent of which are found no where else. Combined, the 25 global biodiversity hotspots contain 60 percent of terrestrial plant and animal species in only 1.4 percent of the planet s land area ...
Ecology: rare introduction to sub-arctic; gardens, orchards, fields(grain, mustard, sunflowers), pastures, woods, thickets, shores, flats; ballast, elevators, roadsides, railways, and waste places; ...
database: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), 2007 - 2011; USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/paper.pl?language= ...
Ecosystems, and the biological diversity they incorporate, provide valuable services to humanity, yet expanding urban areas, agricultural activities and industry can have an impact on them. The IAEA conducts research and provides expertise on processes and stressors, such as pollution or climate change, which could result in biodiversity loss.
A main aim of the Jena-Experiment is to study ecosystem processes on experimental plots, and over a large time-scale. Since 2002 the experiment yielded time-series data on a wide range of ecosystem processes, ranging from productivity, C-storage, and N-cycling to herbivory, pollination and decomposition. For all plant species investigated, a large number of demographic, morphological and physiological variables are compiled. Each participant of the projects has therefore a specific role in the research group, e.g. for investigating Interspecific Interactions in communities, or explore Water and Element Cycling like aboveground and belowground processes, or Applied Aspects (e.g. effects of biodiversity on energy production). A particular strength of the research group is the complementary of the approaches in different subprojects and the syntheses and Integration of the data. Since 2002, therefore an international and interdisciplinary network of scientist was created for research on the complex ...
Recently, a phylogenetic diversity and community structure analysis as complementary to species-centric approaches in biodiversity studies provides new insights into the processes of community...
Biodiversity affects ecosystem functioning.Biodiversity may decrease or increase parasitism.Parasites impair individual hosts and affect their role in the ecosystem.Parasitism, in common with competition, facilitation, and predation, could regulate BD-EF relationships.Parasitism affects host phenotypes, including changes to host morphology, behavior, and physiology, which might increase intra- and interspecific functional diversity.The effects of parasitism on host abundance and phenotypes, and on interactions between hosts and the remaining community, all have potential to alter community structure and BD-EF relationships.Global change could facilitate the spread of invasive parasites, and alter the existing dynamics between parasites, communities, and ecosystems.Species interactions can influence ecosystem functioning by enhancing or suppressing the activities of species that drive ecosystem processes, or by causing changes in biodiversity. However, one important class of species interactions -
Declining biodiversity may be contributing to the rise of asthma, allergies, and other chronic inflammatory diseases among people living in cities worldwide, a Finnish study suggests.
Biodiversity offset policies may inadvertently incentivise behaviours which actually accelerate biodiversity loss, new research has found. The study’s ...
The SWATT, which is located in southwest Western Australia, incorporates an internationally recognised biodiversity hotspot, the Southwest Botanical Province; a national biodiversity hotspot, the Central and Eastern Avon Wheatbelt; and the evolutionary significant species-rich southwest Interzone, which includes the globally significant Great Western Woodlands. The SWATT also intercepts two nationally significant phytogeographic transitional zones; the Triodia-Acacia line and the Menzies line.. The SWATT captures several biophysical gradients that drive species selection, influence community composition and determine assemblage distributional patterns across the landscape. Some of the ecosystem science questions the SWATT aims to inform include how biodiversity is partitioned across the landscape a) at a gene, species and community level in response to biophysical processes, b) how species, population and regional scale genetic variability responds to biophysical gradients and c) to what extent ...
Biodiversity "Biodiversity" is short for biological diversity; the differences between organisms and species on our planet. It includes genetic variations among these groups, which is just wh
Abstract: Anthropogenic disturbance of natural environments has led to the widespread loss of native biodiversity and degradation of ecosystems. It is increasingly recognized that addressing this "biodiversity crisis" entails understanding the societal drivers of unsustainable patterns of use. Conservation psychology is a new discipline that specifically focuses on understanding the linkages between human behavior and action and promoting a healthy and sustainable relationship between humans and nature. In this project, we employed principles of conservation psychology with the goal of improving the efficacy and efficiency of conservation of biodiversity in the Adirondack Park (AP). To meet this goal we employed three specific strategies. The first of these strategies was the use of surveys to assess the values, attitudes, and actions different stakeholders have in regards to conservation of biodiversity in the AP. These surveys were disseminated via both direct mailings and online, and included ...
Abstract: Anthropogenic disturbance of natural environments has led to the widespread loss of native biodiversity and degradation of ecosystems. It is increasingly recognized that addressing this "biodiversity crisis" entails understanding the societal drivers of unsustainable patterns of use. Conservation psychology is a new discipline that specifically focuses on understanding the linkages between human behavior and action and promoting a healthy and sustainable relationship between humans and nature. In this project, we employed principles of conservation psychology with the goal of improving the efficacy and efficiency of conservation of biodiversity in the Adirondack Park (AP). To meet this goal we employed three specific strategies. The first of these strategies was the use of surveys to assess the values, attitudes, and actions different stakeholders have in regards to conservation of biodiversity in the AP. These surveys were disseminated via both direct mailings and online, and included ...
Recently, the use of SADs to test biodiversity theory has been criticized because different species abundance models often generate very similar predictions, which can be difficult to distinguish when fitted to species abundance data (9). Consequently, some researchers have focused on other properties of assemblages, such as community similarity (12), species-area and species-time relationships (23, 24), and relationships between species traits or phylogeny and species abundance (25, 26). Such approaches are powerful when evaluating the performance of particular species abundance models. However, because models combine multiple assumptions, attributing a models failure to one assumption in particular, such as species equivalence, is problematic. Indeed, in the debate over neutral theory of biodiversity, studies that show failure of a neutral model (12, 25, 27) are almost invariably followed by responses showing that packaging neutrality with a different set of alternative assumptions can ...
The Devon Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP) describes the actions which need to be taken now to make sure that Devons wonderful wildlife survives. The Plan cannot cover every species and habitat in Devon. There are too many and it would cost too much money. It therefore concentrates on the species and habitats which are either most in danger of disappearing in Devon, or those which are most special to Devon. The overall Devon Biodiversity Action Plan includes 20 individual Species Action Plans and 17 Habitat Action Plans. The Species Action Plans each concentrate on one particular species, while the Habitat Action Plans aim to conserve whole habitats with all their wildlife.. ...
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Biodiversity is important, more than just the I want my children to enjoy it reason. For example, the richness of diversity allows medicines and foods to be naturally available. The natural disaster prevention mechanisms in most ecosystems and other free services we all get from the surrounding environment are not easily replaceable or replicable, so maintaining biodiversity is important.
Abstract: DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): This is a renewal application to continue our ICBG efforts in Panama which combine the goals of drug discovery from natural sources with host country infrastructure development, training, economic growth, biodiversity inventories, and conservation. The past 4.5 years have been highly productive in all of these areas, with the majority of effort occurring in the host country and at host country institutions. Panama possesses an extraordinary biodiversity of plants and algae owing to its unique juxtaposition between North and South America and between the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean. As such, Panama is a "biodiversity hotspot" as well as a biological corridor between these major geographical features, thus providing unique opportunities for high impact regional and international conservation strategies. We have assembled a remarkable team from Panamanian and US academic institutions as well as leaders in the pharmaceutical and agrochemical ...
Biodiversity patterns are strongly connected to land use by herbivores and human activity. Africa occupies one-fifth of the global land surface and here live a quarter of the Worlds approximate 4,700 mammal species and 1,600 bird species which are endemic (existing only in this area.) A great number of these species are on the environment. In Kenya the National Parks include the World famous Masai Mara, bordering the Serengeti in Tanzania, home to a number of these endangered species. Between July and October unimaginable numbers of wilderbeest, zebra, gazelles and big cats make the journey from the Serengeti in Tanzania into the Masai Mara in Kenya, crossing the border to reach grazing ...
in Molecular Ecology (2010), 19(24), 5469-5483. Despite the importance of the African tropical rainforests as a hotspot of biodiversity, their history and the processes that have structured their biodiversity are understood poorly. With respect to past ... [more ▼]. Despite the importance of the African tropical rainforests as a hotspot of biodiversity, their history and the processes that have structured their biodiversity are understood poorly. With respect to past demographic processes, new insights can be gained through characterizing the distribution of genetic diversity. However, few studies of this type have been conducted in Central Africa, where the identification of species in the field can be difficult. We examine here the distribution of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) diversity in Lower Guinea in two tree species that are difficult to distinguish, Erythrophleum ivorense and Erythrophleum suaveolens (Fabaceae). By using a blind-sampling approach and comparing molecular and morphological ...
The Union for Ethical BioTrade (UEBT) launches the 2013 Biodiversity Barometer. This new report highlights growing biodiversity awareness worldwide David
SPECIES - A group of organisms whose members are similar to each other in shape,(morphology), physiology, biochemistry and behaviour, and can interbreed to produce fertile offspring. HABITAT -the place where an aorganism or population lives. It includes the clmate, topographic and edaphic factors, as well as the plants and animals that live there.. BIODIVERSITY - the number and variety of living things to be found in the world, in an ecosystem, or in a habitat. ...
Biodiversity surveys were conducted on Saba Bank, Netherlands Antilles, to assess ichthyofaunal richness and to compare with published surveys of other Caribbean localities. The primary objective was to estimate the total species richness of the Saba Bank ichthyofauna. A variety of sampling techniques was utilized to survey the fish species of both the visually accessible megafauna and the camouflaged and small-sized species comprising the cryptic ichthyofauna. Based on results presented herein, the number of species known on Saba Bank is increased from 42 previously known species to 270 species. Expected species-accumulation curves demonstrate that the current estimate of species richness of fishes for Saba Bank under represents the actual richness, and our knowledge of the ichthyofauna has not plateaued. The total expected fish-species richness may be somewhere between 320 and 411 species. The Saba Bank ichthyofaunal assemblage is compared to fish assemblages found elsewhere in the Caribbean. Despite
The Hawaiian Rhodophyta Biodiversity Survey yielded only a few new taxonomic records for the Hawaiian Islands, but many new distributional records. The flora has been remarkably well-studied from a morphological and anatomical perspective, most notably by Abbott [1], and many of her designations are supported by our molecular investigations. However, many taxa have also been revealed to be in need of in-depth taxonomic study based on our molecular survey data due to instances of suspected cryptic or incipient speciation (e.g. Amansia glomerata and Spyridia filamentosa; see results for full list), or conspecificity (e.g. Gracilaria eppihippisora and G. salicornia). As such, our survey data provide a unique opportunity to flag Hawaiian red algal taxa for further study. Although identification of these taxonomic issues, rather than full resolution, was the goal of the Hawaiian Rhodophyta Biodiversity Survey, several of these flagged taxa have been investigated in detail under the auspices of the ...
As Korea is not rich in indigenous biological resources, more than 2/3 of companies using biological resources are dependent on imports. Biological resources in the territory of Korea are estimated to account for some 100,000 species, and some 37,000 species have been excavated as of 2011. Thus, the Ministry of Environment plans to build Comprehensive Management System for securing and managing indigenous biological resources in order to strengthen our sovereignty on biological resources. To begin with, the ministry plans to build the list of traditional knowledge consisting of more than 50,000 pieces with high value (including 32,200 pieces excavated to date) in the industry in respect to biological resources by increasing the speed of excavating biological resources to 2,000 species from 800 species a year and investigating or excavating around 60,000 species of indigenous biological resources by 2020 (including 36,921 species excavated to date). In addition, the ministry is planing to ...
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The occurrence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was assessed by both morphological and molecular criteria in two salt marshes: (i) a NaCl site of the island Terschelling, Atlantic Coast, the Netherlands and (ii) a K2CO3 marsh at Schreyahn, Northern Germany. The overall biodiversity of AMF, based on sequence analysis, was comparably low in roots at both sites. However, the morphological spore analyses from soil samples of both sites exhibited a higher AMF biodiversity. Glomus geosporum was the only fungus of the Glomerales that was detected both as spores in soil samples and in roots of the AMF-colonized salt plants Aster tripolium and Puccinellia sp. at both saline sites and on all sampling dates (one exception). In roots, sequences of Glomus intraradices prevailed, but this fungus could not be identified unambiguously from DNA of soil spores. Likewise, Glomus sp. uncultured, only deposited as sequence in the database, was widely detected by DNA sequencing in root samples. All attempts to ...
agriculture [Keywords] in United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa (1994); agriculture [Keywords] in Geneva Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War (1949); agriculture [Keywords] in Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees (1951); agriculture [Keywords] in International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families (1990); agriculture [Keywords] in Convention on Biological Diversity (1992); agriculture [Keywords] in Forced Labour Convention (1930); agriculture [Keywords] in Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (1998); agriculture [Keywords] in Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) (1994); agriculture [Keywords] in Convention on Technical and Vocational Education (1989); agriculture [Keywords] in Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe - Final Act - Helsinki 1975 (1975)
Cold-water coral reefs are known to locally enhance the diversity of deep-sea fauna as well as of microbes. Sponges areamong the most diverse faunal groups in these ecosystems, and many of them host large abundances of microbes in theirtissues. In this study, twelve sponge species from three cold-water coral reefs off Norway were investigated for therelationship between sponge phylogenetic classification (species and family level), as well as sponge type (high versus lowmicrobial abundance), and the diversity of sponge-associated bacterial communities, taking also geographic location andwater depth into account. Community analysis by Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA) showed that asmany as 345 (79%) of the 437 different bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) detected in the dataset were sharedbetween sponges and sediments, while only 70 (16%) appeared purely sponge-associated. Furthermore, changes inbacterial community structure were significantly related to sponge ...
Effect of Fire on Microbial Community Structure and Enzyme Activities in Forest Soil - Forest fire;microbial community structure;enzyme activity;
Aims Although biological invasions occur throughout the world, and some invaders are widespread in many habitats, few studies on the ecological impact of invaders have examined multiple sites. We tested how the impact of three widespread plant invaders changed depending on the identity of the species and the invaded island. We also tested whether relative species loss was lower in species-rich communities than in species-poor ones. Location We conducted floristic surveys and soil analyses in eight Mediterranean Basin islands: Crete and Lesbos (Greece), Sardinia (Italy), Corsica, Bagaud and Porquerolles (France), and Mallorca and Menorca (Spain). Methods We compared native species richness and diversity, proportion of life forms, soil percentage nitrogen, percentage organic carbon, C/N, and soil pH in nearby paired plots of 2 × 2 m: one control and one invaded by either the deciduous tree Ailanthus altissima, the succulent subshrubs Carpobrotus spp. or the annual geophyte Oxalis pes-caprae, ...
View works by Haeckel at the Biodiversity Heritage Library. *aDiatomea: artificial life experiment with 3d generated diatoms, ...
en) Ida i Global Biodiversity Information Facility *(en) Ida hos Fossilworks *(en) Kategori:Darwinius - bilder, video eller lyd ...
Documentos diversos consultados en la Biodiversity Heritage Library, páginas 30013117, 19219661, 8848180, 17019747, 16864774, ... the Biodiversity Information System for Cheshire, Halton, Warrington and the Wirral; 62488 collection, Wiltshire and Swindon ... All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory - Gemer (Slovakia) collection, European Distributed Institute of Taxonomy (EDIT); ONF ... All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory - Mercantour/Alpi Marittime (France/Italy) collection, European Distributed Institute of ...
It has colonized natural areas in Hungary, for example, and is considered a threat to biodiversity at that country's Aggtelek ...
"Emerging Infectious Diseases of Wildlife-Threats to Biodiversity and Human Health". Science খণ্ড 287 (5452): 443-49. doi ...
Fukuoka claimed that his approach prevents water pollution, biodiversity loss and soil erosion, while providing ample amounts ... The system works along with the natural biodiversity of each farmed area, encouraging the complexity of living organisms-both ...
Erwin, Terry L. (1997). Biodiversity at its utmost: tropical forest beetles. pp. 27-40.. In: Reaka-Kudla M.L; Wilson D.E. and ... Wilson E.O. (ed.). Biodiversity II. Joseph Henry Press, Washington, D.C.. ...
en) Buskspurver i Global Biodiversity Information Facility *(en) Buskspurver hos Fossilworks *(en) Buskspurver hos Fauna ...
University of Oxford; Universiteit Leiden; Naturalis Biodiversity Center; Macquarie University; National Herbarium of New South ...
Works by Fridtjof Nansen at Biodiversity Heritage Library *Works by Fridtjof Nansen at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks) ...
Declines in the health and population of pollinators pose what could be a significant threat to the integrity of biodiversity, ... The architecture of mutualistic networks minimizes competition and increases biodiversity. Nature, 458(7241), 1018-1020. : [3] ... "The architecture of mutualistic networks minimizes competition and increases biodiversity". Nature, 458(7241), 1018-1020. ...
Biodiversity. 4 (4): 721-39. doi:10.1002/cbdv.200790060. PMID 17443885.. ...
"Foundation for Ecological Security- Indian Biodiversity. Archived from the original on 2013-07-04. Retrieved 2013-04-23.. ...
The biota largely disappeared with the rapid increase in biodiversity known as the Cambrian explosion. Most of the currently ...
Common names and biodiversity[edit]. This is a large taxon of insects; some estimates of the species numbers suggest well over ... The biodiversity of the Chironomidae often goes unnoticed because they are notoriously difficult to identify and ecologists ... They are often associated with degraded or low-biodiversity ecosystems because some species have adapted to virtually anoxic ...
"Western Amazonia as a Hotspot of Mammalian Biodiversity Throughout the Cenozoic". Journal of Mammalian Evolution. 24 (1): 5-17 ... "A perspective on mammal biodiversity and zoogeography in the Late Pleistocene of México". Quaternary International. 212 (2): ...
The study of pathology, including the detailed examination of the body, including dissection and inquiry into specific maladies, dates back to antiquity. Rudimentary understanding of many conditions was present in most early societies and is attested to in the records of the earliest historical societies, including those of the Middle East, India, and China.[3] By the Hellenic period of ancient Greece, a concerted causal study of disease was underway (see Medicine in ancient Greece), with many notable early physicians (such as Hippocrates, for whom the modern Hippocratic Oath is named) having developed methods of diagnosis and prognosis for a number of diseases. The medical practices of the Romans and those of the Byzantines continued from these Greek roots, but, as with many areas of scientific inquiry, growth in understanding of medicine stagnated some after the Classical Era, but continued to slowly develop throughout numerous cultures. Notably, many advances were made in the medieval era of ...
"Chemistry & Biodiversity 5 (1): 1-15. PMID 18205130. doi:10.1002/cbdv.200890001.. ...
McCallum, M.L.; Bury, G.W. (2013). "Google search patterns suggest declining interest in the environment". Biodiversity and ... Relyea, R.A. (2004). "The impact of insecticides and herbicides on the biodiversity and productivity of aquatic communities". ... These declines are known as one of the most critical threats to global biodiversity. ... biologists have come to a consensus that declines in amphibian populations are a real and severe threat to biodiversity.[5] ...
"Biodiversity Data Journal. 2: e4094. doi:10.3897/BDJ.2.e4094. ISSN 1314-2828. PMC 4238074. PMID 25425936.. ... In: Animal Biodiversity: An Outline of Higher-level Classification and Survey of Taxonomic Richness". Zootaxa. 3148. ISSN 1175- ...
UK Biodiversity Action Plan Archived October 24, 2007, at the Wayback Machine ...
A Taxonomic and Zoogeographic Atlas of the Biodiversity of Birds in Australia and its Territories. Collingwood, Victoria: CSIRO ...
"Yeast Systematics and Phylogeny-Implications of Molecular Identification Methods for Studies in Ecology.", Biodiversity and ...
Stormwater management BMPs are control measures taken to mitigate changes to both quantity and quality of urban runoff caused through changes to land use. Generally BMPs focus on water quality problems caused by increased impervious surfaces from land development.[11] BMPs are designed to reduce stormwater volume, peak flows, and/or nonpoint source pollution through evapotranspiration, infiltration, detention, and filtration or biological and chemical actions.[12] BMPs also can improve receiving-water quality by extending the duration of outflows in comparison to inflow duration (known as hydrograph extension), which dilutes the stormwater discharged into a larger volume of upstream flow.[13] Stormwater BMPs can be classified as "structural" (i.e., devices installed or constructed on a site such as silt fences, rock filter dams, fiber rolls (also called erosion control logs or excelsior wattles), sediment traps and numerous other proprietary products) or "non-structural" (procedures, such as ...
Paraty and Ilha Grande - Culture and Biodiversity. Rio de Janeiro: Carioca Landscapes between the Mountain and the Sea. ...
37,0 37,1 37,2 Nature protection and biodiversity - State and impacts (Portugal) European Environment Agency, 26.11.2010 ( ...
Mammalian biodiversity is poor in the volcanic islands of the western Indian Ocean and all mammals currently present, except ... This "composite" biodiversity [12], and the particularities of local ecological conditions as well as agricultural and cultural ... However, Madagascar is one of the most striking hotspots of biodiversity on Earth where most of the fauna is endemic [14]. ... Derne BT, Fearnley EJ, Lau CL, Paynter S, Weinstein P: Biodiversity and leptospirosis risk: a case of pathogen regulation?. Med ...
Other names. The name, dassie, is derived from the Dutch word "das", meaning badger.. Derivation of scientific name. This is not certain, although pro means "before" in Latin, and Cavia is the genus name for the guinea pig and this name is derived from the name of the guinea pig in the language of the Galibi tribe from French Guiana. Dassies were originally placed in the genus Cavia, with guinea pigs. "Capensis" refers to the Cape, where the first specimens were collected.. Introduction. The rock hyrax or dassie is a very popular and sociable mammal that is often seen in the Pretoria National Botanical Garden. There are currently more than three colonies and an unknown number of individuals living in the Garden and they are often seen lazing around or feeding behind the Herbarium Building on most sunny afternoons.. There is a lot of information about dassies available on websites and scattered in books and only some of the main points of interest are included here.. ...
Conserving tropical biodiversity via market forces and spatial targeting Ian J. Bateman, Emma Coombes, Emily Fitzherbert, Amy ...
BIODIVERSITY?The variety of diverse living beings in a specific area.BIO means life.DIVERSITY means variety or abundance… ... Ag21 biodiversity * 1. WHAT IS BIODIVERSITY?The variety of diverse living beings in a specific area.BIO means life.DIVERSITY ... 3. WHAT IS HAPPENING TO BIODIVERSITY?According to the IUCN Red Data List, 1 out of 8 bird species is in dangerof extinction; 1 ... DO YOU KNOW THE BIODIVERSITY IN YOUR SURROUNDINGS? Investigate a garden, a street, a mount, a forest, an old wall, a few trees ...
The State of the Worlds Biodiversity for Food and Agriculture assesses its status and management around the world. ... Biodiversity is essential to food and agriculture; yet, it is declining worldwide. ... Biodiversity for food and agriculture is declining Many key components of biodiversity for food and agriculture at genetic, ... Biodiversity for food and agriculture (BFA) is, in turn, the subset of biodiversity that contributes in one way or another to ...
This category is for questions about biodiversity, or species diversity, which is composed of genetic, species, and ecosystem ... Biodiversity What is the definition of biodiversity. ?. One way to describe biodiversity is to say that it is the variation of ... Asked in Biodiversity What is the biggest threat to biodiversity. ?. Human beings are the biggest threat to biodiversity as ... Biodiversity. , Corals and Coral Reefs How would biodiversity be affected if coral died. ?. Biodiversity would collapse because ...
Biodiversity and Conservation of Fruit Crops By N. D. Polara Paperback: List Price: $19.51 $17.56 , You Save: 10% ... Global Food Security and Biodiversity By Dr. Shyam S. Khinchi & Mrs.Meenu Tanwar Paperback: List Price: $20.96 $16.77 , You ... CLIMATE CHANGE AND BIODIVERSITY MANAGEMENT By Sabang Sajanikanta Mahavidyalaya, Lutunia, West Bengal. Paperback: $10.00 ... Biodiversity Conservation The level of rural development has impact in the priorities and choices of member states of European ...
The ecosystem approach is a strategy for the integrated management of land, water and living resources that promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way. It is based on the application of appropriate scientific methodologies focused on levels of biological organization which encompass the essential processes, functions and interactions among organisms and their environment, and recognizes that humans, with their cultural diversity, are an integral component of ecosystems.. An ecosystem approach to agriculture and natural resource management explicitly identifies opportunities and trade-offs. It can preserve or increase the capacity of an ecosystem to produce benefits for the society, fairly apportions benefits and costs, and is sustainable over the longer-term. The ecosystem approach to agriculture requires adjustments in institutional and governance arrangements that ensure informed, balanced, transparent and legitimate decision making in relation to trade-offs and stakeholder ...
Sites of importance for the survival of these species, Key Biodiversity Areas, are also identified. This knowledge is used to ... Almost one-third of freshwater biodiversity face extinction, largely due to habitat loss, introduction of alien species, ...
Freshwater biodiversity. The Freshwater Biodiversity Unit aims to put in place a factual basis for efforts to conserve and ... Freshwater Biodiversity Unit Objectives:. *To build expertise and capacity on freshwater biodiversity through the establishment ... Freshwater biodiversity is facing unprecedented levels of threat. Through The River Bank we aim to raise awareness about these ... Demonstrate the link between biodiversity and livelihoods through interdisciplinary approaches.. For more information contact ...
The Dimensions of Biodiversity campaign takes a broad view of biodiversity that ranges from genes through species to ecosystems ... The Dimensions of Biodiversity program currently targets three fundamental dimensions of biodiversity -genetic diversity, ... Dimensions of Biodiversity FY2014. Program Solicitation NSF 14-525. Replaces Document(s):. NSF 13-536. National Science ... biodiversity management) are not eligible for funding. Projects that integrate multiple dimensions of biodiversity but largely ...
The Ecology, Biodiversity, and Conservation series presents balanced, comprehensive, up-to-date, and critical reviews of ... It highlights the need to consider the value of biodiversity based on its use by each stakeholder, addresses the importance of ... In the face of ever-declining biodiversity, zoos have a major role to play in species conservation. Written by professionals ... In the face of decreasing biodiversity and ongoing global changes, maintaining ecosystem functioning is seen both as a means to ...
Articles containing facts and information on biodiversity issues based on scientific research. ... Want to learn more about biodiversity and biological diversity loss? ... Use biodiversity to combat climate change!. The influences of ecology are subtle. So far, few have realised that biodiversity, ... Biodiversity Progress Today. Here is the promised simple report on the first day of the big Korean Biodiversity convention. We ...
BIODIVERSITY 4a 6.6 12.8 15.1 15.5 IMPROVED URBAN ENVIRONMENT 8.9 11.1 11.7 12.b11.6 SANITATION 1.5 3.3 6.2 6.3 11.6 12.4 12.5 ... NATURE & BIODIVERSITY 4a 6.6 * BLUE MARBLE Dec 7 1972, Apollo 17 * Summary for Policymakers Climate Change and Land An IPCC ... NATURE & BIODIVERSITY 4a 6.6 12.8 15.1 15.5 IMPROVED URBAN ENVIRONMENT 8.9 11.1 11.7 12.b11.6 SANITATION 1.5 3.3 6.2 6.3 11.6 ... NATURE & BIODIVERSITY 4a 6.6 Keynote presentation: Mr. Henk Ovink, Special Envoy International Water Affairs, Government of the ...
Biodiversity and Conservation is an international journal that publishes articles on all aspects of biological diversity, its ... Founded in 1992, Biodiversity and Conservation is an international journal that publishes articles on all aspects of biological ... Addressing the implementation challenge of the global biodiversity framework Authors. *Sui C. Phang ... Welcomes contributions from less developed but biodiversity rich countries to ensure a global perspective ...
CSR: Fostering Responsible Biodiversity Stewardship. by 3p Contributor. The 651 biosphere reserves spanning over 120 countries ...
Biodiversity and Native America questions the widespread view that indigenous peoples had minimal ecological impact in North ... books.google.com/books/about/Biodiversity_and_Native_America.html?id=R91pBkws_W8C&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareBiodiversity and ... Biodiversity and Native America. Paul E. Minnis,Wayne J. Elisens. Limited preview - 2001. ... books.google.com - Exploring the relationship between Native Americans and the natural world, Biodiversity and Native America ...
But biodiversity isnt just for "country" bees on farms. James Hung, who received NSF funding as a doctoral student and who ... NSF-funded researcher Rachael Winfree and her team at Rutgers University revealed just how important pollinator biodiversity is ... What can we do to protect biodiversity and help both our pollinator friends and ourselves at the same time? ... Researchers have found that this staggering biodiversity -- besides making our gardens and countryside beautiful -- is critical ...
The European Commission Directorate-General for Environment offers a wide variety of publications related to EU biodiversity ... 52 tips for biodiversity. Brochure. (pdf 7,5Mb). EU Biodiversity Action Plan - 2010 Assessment Brochure. Text translations. ( ... More action is needed to save Europes biodiversity. EU Biodiversity Action Plan mid-term report 2008. Leaflet ... Attitudes of Europeans towards the issue of biodiversity. Date of publication: March 2010 ...
Richard Wilding looks at the subject of biodiversity and why it is important for business ... Protecting biodiversity: Local and global policies - Duration: 10:40. California Academy of Sciences 12,411 views ... TEEB for Business-Biodiversity Impacts and Dependencies: TEEB @ Yale - Duration: 52:46. YaleUniversity 509 views ... Why is biodiversity so important? - Kim Preshoff - Duration: 4:19. TED-Ed 573,120 views ...
Alternative Measures of Biodiversity: Taxonomy, Phylogeny and Turnover: 7. Spatial scaling of microbial biodiversity Jessica ... Scaling Biodiversity. Series: Ecological Reviews. Edited by David Storch. Charles University, Prague. Pablo Marquet. Pontificia ... Scaling biodiversity under neutrality Luís Borda-de-Água, Stephen P. Hubbell and Fangliang He; 18. General patterns in plant ... Scaling Biodiversity presents new views on quantitative patterns of the biological diversity on earth and the processes ...
McGill professor Andrew Hendrys research on Darwins finches on the Galapagos Islands is cited as an example of how human impacts can disrupt evolution.
Biodiversity and You. Biodiversity and You. As the Earths population surges toward the 7 billion mark, the following twist on ... Thus, in todays highly evolved world, it takes biodiversity to sustain biodiversity." Its easy to spot other areas of life ... But the biodiversity crisis really accelerated, McKee establishes, at the onset of the agriculture age, some 10,000 years ago, ... Everyone needs sustenance, and mans taming of the land in the quest for food has dealt the greatest blow to biodiversity. But ...
Terms of Use , Privacy Policy Funding for RELIGION & ETHICS NEWSWEEKLY is provided by Lilly Endowment. Additional funding is provided by individual supporters and Mutual of America Life Insurance Company.. Produced by THIRTEEN ©2015 WNET. All rights reserved.. ...
This work is part of the PACES II Research Program at AWI, and of the Topic "Land Use, Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services" at ... 2017). Do drivers of biodiversity change differ in importance across marine and terrestrial systems-Or is it just different ... Knapp S., Kraberg A., Frickenhaus S., Klotz S., Schweiger O., Krause G. (2018) Linking Biodiversity Research Communities. In: ...
  • 2018. Hidden biodiversity: total evidence phylogenetics and evolution of morphological traits in a highly diverse lineage of endogean ground beetles, Typhlocharis Dieck, 1869 (Carabidae, Trechinae, Anillini). (morphobank.org)
  • I have been using Meta-Genetics/Barcoding approaches to know and understand levels of biodiversity, richness and community structure in eukaryotes. (zfmk.de)
  • GBIF - Global Biodiversity Information Facility, contains primarily specimen and type information. (kew.org)
  • D. in entomology from the University of Arizona, and I am interested in biodiversity, evolution, phylogeny, and online collaboration and publishing. (tolweb.org)
  • As a result, thermal tolerance is a key determinant of the global distribution of biodiversity, yet the constraints on its evolution are not well understood. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • In recent years, in pursuit of an ultimate explanation for human reluctance to protect biodiversity, Soule has turned his attention to the seven deadlies, examining their history and evolution as both a scientist and a longtime Buddhist practitioner. (grist.org)
  • Plant identification using molecular barcoding has a huge potential for biodiversity, conservation, and monitoring of trade in plant genetic resources for pharmaceutical manufacturing, horticulture and tropical timber trade. (uio.no)
  • These technological and methodological advances may help unlock the huge potential for accurate plant identification using molecular tools to support vital public policies and tasks, such as conserving biodiversity, monitoring trade in plant genetic resources for pharmaceutical manufacturing, horticulture and tropical timber industries, and the enforcement of the CBD Nagoya protocol on Access and Benefit Sharing. (uio.no)
  • aims to bring together leading academic scientists, researchers and research scholars to exchange and share their experiences and research results on all aspects of Blue Biotechnology, Microbiology and Biodiversity. (waset.org)
  • Also, high quality research contributions describing original and unpublished results of conceptual, constructive, empirical, experimental, or theoretical work in all areas of Blue Biotechnology, Microbiology and Biodiversity are cordially invited for presentation at the conference. (waset.org)
  • applied User-level data cleaning to biodiversity databases, and presented a new framework to quantify the effect of data cleaning on SDMs . (scirp.org)
  • In 1972, the founders of APIVITA, Nikos and Niki Koutsiana, two young pharmacists, who were inspired by the honeybee society, the unique biodiversity of Greek nature and Hippocrates' holistic approach to health, beauty and well-being. (agoratopia.com)
  • The project aims at developing new approaches to discover and describe Indonesian biodiversity. (zsmblog.de)
  • Is to understand how past, present and future environmental change has and will affect polar biodiversity both on land and in the ocean, and how life adapts to extreme polar conditions. (bas.ac.uk)
  • Since environmental biodiversity is so critical to our own health and physiology, perhaps we should all be more incentivized to preserve it. (mindbodygreen.com)
  • Use a range of advanced marine technology, including heated settlement plates for marine colonisation studies and new high definition video and photographic systems for mapping seafloor biodiversity. (bas.ac.uk)
  • Building on a long tradition of Marine Bioprospecting at SINTEF and NTNU, it aims at accessing and exploiting the metabolic potential of the entire microbial biodiversity in natural habitats, including the great majority of microorganisms that cannot be readily cultivated under laboratory conditions. (sintef.no)
  • Saving the turtles of the Turtle Islands is important to the overall health of the Coral Triangle , a triangular area of waters bordered by Indonesia, Malaysia and West Papua that boasts spectacular biodiversity, said Department of Environment and Natural Resources Secretary Ramon Paje. (livescience.com)
  • Traditional taxonomic practices have often been a major obstacle for the fast and efficient discovery and characterization of unknown biodiversity. (zsmblog.de)
  • Use and develop databases and mapping software to reveal patterns in biodiversity and predict future range changes. (bas.ac.uk)
  • The specimens were processed through the DNA barcoding pipeline at the Zoologische Staatssammlung München (ZSM) as part of the IndoBioSys project - Indonesian Biodiversity Discovery System. (zsmblog.de)
  • There are many different kinds of plant and animal life that contribute to the biodiversity of this location. (amnh.org)
  • Biodiversity and Health Extinction by Infection: Biodiversity makes a difference. (columbia.edu)
  • Marine permaculture should be the start of a pioneering frontier use of the world ocean to restore climate and biodiversity, catalysing investment from governments and the private sector. (rtulip.net)
  • The ZSM is, in cooperation with the Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense, establishing a novel high-throughput biodiversity discovery pipeline that is based on DNA barcoding as an efficient mean to assess the biodiversity of a region that is among the world's top biodiversity hotspots. (zsmblog.de)
  • These findings revealed that herbs provide a good predictor of belowground biodiversity in forest ecosystems, and provide new perspective on the aboveground and belowground interactions in forest ecosystems. (statescale.ga)