The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The ceasing of existence of a species or taxonomic groups of organisms.
The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.
Organisms that live in water.
The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of data through the application of computers.
An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Techniques for standardizing and expediting taxonomic identification or classification of organisms that are based on deciphering the sequence of one or a few regions of DNA known as the "DNA barcode".
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.
Animals that have no spinal column.
Activities performed by humans.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
The systematic arrangement of entities in any field into categories classes based on common characteristics such as properties, morphology, subject matter, etc.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).
The spectrum of different living organisms inhabiting a particular region, habitat, or biotope.
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.
The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.
The inanimate matter of Earth, the structures and properties of this matter, and the processes that affect it.
Environments or habitats at the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and truly aquatic systems making them different from each yet highly dependent on both. Adaptations to low soil oxygen characterize many wetland species.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
VERTEBRATES belonging to the class amphibia such as frogs, toads, newts and salamanders that live in a semiaquatic environment.
Places for cultivation and harvesting of fish, particularly in sea waters. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Former Netherlands overseas territory in the Lesser Antilles in the West Indies. It had included the islands of Aruba, Bonaire, Curacao, Saba, St. Eustatius, and the southern part of St. Martin. The Netherlands Antilles dissolved on October 10, 2010. Aruba, Curacao and Sint Maarten became autonomous territories of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Bonaire, Saba, and Sint Eustatius are under the direct administration of the Netherlands. (From US Department of State, Background Note)
Ecosystem and environmental activities, functions, or events.
One of the Indian Ocean Islands off the southeast coast of Africa. Its capital is Antananarivo. It was formerly called the Malagasy Republic. Discovered by the Portuguese in 1500, its history has been tied predominantly to the French, becoming a French protectorate in 1882, a French colony in 1896, and a territory within the French union in 1946. The Malagasy Republic was established in the French Community in 1958 but it achieved independence in 1960. Its name was changed to Madagascar in 1975. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p714)
Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
A group of islands in Melanesia constituting a French overseas territory. The group includes New Caledonia (the main island), Ile des Pins, Loyalty Island, and several other islet groups. The capital is Noumea. It was discovered by Captain Cook in 1774 and visited by various navigators, explorers, and traders from 1792 to 1840. Occupied by the French in 1853, it was set up as a penal colony 1864-94. In 1946 it was made a French overseas territory. It was named by Captain Cook with the 5th and 6th century A.D. Latin name for Scotland, Caledonia. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p830 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p375)
Inland bodies of standing FRESHWATER usually smaller than LAKES. They can be man-made or natural but there is no universal agreement as to their exact size. Some consider a pond to be a small body of water that is shallow enough for sunlight to reach the bottom.
The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.
Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.
The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.
Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.
The theory that infectious agents, symbiotic microorganisms, and parasites are normal stimulants for the maturation of the immune system toward a balanced immune response. The theory predicts that lack of such stimulation leads to allergies and AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
The enrichment of a terrestrial or aquatic ECOSYSTEM by the addition of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, that results in a superabundant growth of plants, ALGAE, or other primary producers. It can be a natural process or result from human activity such as agriculture runoff or sewage pollution. In aquatic ecosystems, an increase in the algae population is termed an algal bloom.
Minute free-floating animal organisms which live in practically all natural waters.
A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.
Planned management, use, and preservation of energy resources.
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
The MEDITERRANEAN SEA, the MEDITERRANEAN ISLANDS, and the countries bordering on the sea collectively.
Characteristic events occurring in the ATMOSPHERE during the interactions and transformation of various atmospheric components and conditions.
Environment un-modified by human activity. Areas in which natural processes operate without human interference.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A former branch of knowledge embracing the study, description, and classification of natural objects (as animals, plants, and minerals) and thus including the modern sciences of zoology, botany, and mineralogy insofar as they existed at that time. In the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries it was much used for the generalized pursuit of certain areas of science. (Webster, 3d ed; from Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)
The process whereby a society changes from a rural to an urban way of life. It refers also to the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas.
The system of all phenomena in space and time; the totality of physical reality. It is both a scientific and philosophic concept appearing in all historic eras. (Webster 2d; Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)
Tracts of land completely surrounded by water.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Marine ridges composed of living CORALS, coral skeletons, calcareous algae, and other organisms, mixed with minerals and organic matter. They are found most commonly in tropical waters and support other animal and plant life.
A body of water covering approximately one-fifth of the total ocean area of the earth, extending amidst Africa in the west, Australia in the east, Asia in the north, and Antarctica in the south. Including the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, it constitutes the third largest ocean after the ATLANTIC OCEAN and the PACIFIC OCEAN. (New Encyclopaedia Britannica Micropaedia, 15th ed, 1990, p289)
The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)
A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of SNAILS and slugs. The former have coiled external shells and the latter usually lack shells.
Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.
Property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyright, that results from creative effort. The Patent and Copyright Clause (Art. 1, Sec. 8, cl. 8) of the United States Constitution provides for promoting the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed, p1014)
The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
A process by which animals in various forms and stages of development are physically distributed through time and space.
An order of mostly marine CRUSTACEA containing more than 5500 species in over 100 families. Like ISOPODA, the other large order in the superorder Peracarida, members are shrimp-like in appearance, have sessile compound eyes, and no carapace. But unlike Isopoda, they possess thoracic gills and their bodies are laterally compressed.
Slender-bodies diurnal insects having large, broad wings often strikingly colored and patterned.
The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.
The science that deals with the ocean and its phenomena. (Webster, 3d ed)
A partially enclosed body of water, and its surrounding coastal habitats, where saltwater from the ocean mixes with fresh water from rivers or streams. The resulting mixture of seawater and fresh water is called brackish water and its salinity can range from 0.5 to 35 ppt. (accessed
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Cold-blooded, air-breathing VERTEBRATES belonging to the class Reptilia, usually covered with external scales or bony plates.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
Increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth's surface and in the troposphere, which can contribute to changes in global climate patterns.
Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.
A type of climate characterized by insufficient moisture to support appreciable plant life. It is a climate of extreme aridity, usually of extreme heat, and of negligible rainfall. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A large subphylum of mostly marine ARTHROPODS containing over 42,000 species. They include familiar arthropods such as lobsters (NEPHROPIDAE), crabs (BRACHYURA), shrimp (PENAEIDAE), and barnacles (THORACICA).
Observation and acquisition of physical data from a distance by viewing and making measurements from a distance or receiving transmitted data from observations made at distant location.
A plant genus of the family PONTEDERIACEAE that is used as a biological filter for treating wastewater.
Multicellular marine macroalgae including some members of red (RHODOPHYTA), green (CHLOROPHYTA), and brown (PHAEOPHYTA) algae. They are widely distributed in the ocean, occurring from the tide level to considerable depths, free-floating (planktonic) or anchored to the substratum (benthic). They lack a specialized vascular system but take up fluids, nutrients, and gases directly from the water. They contain CHLOROPHYLL and are photosynthetic, but some also contain other light-absorbing pigments. Many are of economic importance as FOOD, fertilizer, AGAR, potash, or source of IODINE.
The distinctly human attributes and attainments of a particular society.
The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)
Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are classified in the Subkingdom Tracheobionta (also known as Tracheophyta).
Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.
An island in the Malay Archipelago, east of Sumatra, north of Java, and west of Celebes. It is the third largest island in the world. Its name is a Portuguese alteration of BRUNEI, located on it. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p163; Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p73)
Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.
A vertical distance measured from a known level on the surface of a planet or other celestial body.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
Geological formations consisting of underground enclosures with access from the surface.
A course of action or principle adopted or proposed by a government, party, business, or individual that concerns human interactions with nature and natural resources.
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.
BIRDS that hunt and kill other animals, especially higher vertebrates, for food. They include the FALCONIFORMES order, or diurnal birds of prey, comprised of EAGLES, falcons, HAWKS, and others, as well as the STRIGIFORMES order, or nocturnal birds of prey, which includes OWLS.
The palm family of order Arecales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida.
Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.
Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.
Members of the phylum Arthropoda, composed of organisms having a hard, jointed exoskeleton and paired jointed legs. It includes the class INSECTS and the subclass ARACHNIDA, many species of which are important medically as parasites or as vectors of organisms capable of causing disease in man.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Fields of science encompassing studies and research from the disciplines of PHYSICS; CHEMISTRY; BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; and MATHEMATICS; that are related to the planet EARTH. Subfields include atmospheric chemistry; CLIMATOLOGY; ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; GEOGRAPHY; GEOLOGY; geophysics; METEOROLOGY; OCEANOGRAPHY; PALEONTOLOGY; mineralogy; and seismology.
The science of the earth and other celestial bodies and their history as recorded in the rocks. It includes the study of geologic processes of an area such as rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)
The physical distribution of plants in various forms and stages of development through time and space.
Inland bodies of still or slowly moving FRESH WATER or salt water, larger than a pond, and supplied by RIVERS and streams.
A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.
The climate of a very small area.
The genomic analysis of assemblages of organisms.
A class of minute animals of the phylum Aschelminthes.
Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.
Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.
The act of feeding on plants by animals.
Data processing largely performed by automatic means.
An area of water mostly surrounded by land, usually smaller than a gulf, and affording access to the sea.
Originally an island of the Malay Archipelago, the second largest island in the world. It divided, West New Guinea becoming part of Indonesia and East New Guinea becoming Papua New Guinea.
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.
Interactional process combining investigation, discussion, and agreement by a number of people in the preparation and carrying out of a program to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community. It usually involves the action of a formal political, legal, or recognized voluntary body.
Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.
Any of a group of plants formed by a symbiotic combination of a fungus with an algae or CYANOBACTERIA, and sometimes both. The fungal component makes up the bulk of the lichen and forms the basis for its name.
Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.
The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.
Large, robust forms of brown algae (PHAEOPHYCEAE) in the order Laminariales. They are a major component of the lower intertidal and sublittoral zones on rocky coasts in temperate and polar waters. Kelp, a kind of SEAWEED, usually refers to species in the genera LAMINARIA or MACROCYSTIS, but the term may also be used for species in FUCUS or Nereocystis.
The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.
Energy transmitted from the sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation.
The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.
The area that lies between continental North and South America and comprises the Caribbean Sea, the West Indies, and the adjacent mainland regions of southern Mexico, Central America, Colombia, and Venezuela.
The period of history before 500 of the common era.

Environmental occurrence, analysis, and toxicology of toxaphene compounds. (1/4478)

Toxaphene production, in quantities similar to those of polychlorinated biphenyls, has resulted in high toxaphene levels in fish from the Great Lakes and in Arctic marine mammals (up to 10 and 16 microg g-1 lipid). Because of the large variabiliity in total toxaphene data, few reliable conclusions can be drawn about trends or geographic differences in toxaphene concentrations. New developments in mass spectrometric detection using either negative chemical ionization or electron impact modes as well as in multidimensional gas chromatography recently have led researchers to suggest congener-specific approaches. Recently, several nomenclature systems have been developed for toxaphene compounds. Although all systems have specific advantages and limitations, it is suggested that an international body such as the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry make an attempt to obtain uniformity in the literature. Toxicologic information on individual chlorobornanes is scarce, but some reports have recently appeared. Neurotoxic effects of toxaphene exposure such as those on behavior and learning have been reported. Technical toxaphene and some individual congeners were found to be weakly estrogenic in in vitro test systems; no evidence for endocrine effects in vivo has been reported. In vitro studies show technical toxaphene and toxaphene congeners to be mutagenic. However, in vivo studies have not shown genotoxicity; therefore, a nongenotoxic mechanism is proposed. Nevertheless, toxaphene is believed to present a potential carcinogenic risk to humans. Until now, only Germany has established a legal tolerance level for toxaphene--0.1 mg kg-1 wet weight for fish.  (+info)

Richness of Colchic vegetation: comparison between refugia of south-western and East Asia. (2/4478)

BACKGROUND: The Colchis is one of the species-rich refugia and a centre of biological diversity in western Eurasia. We analysed patterns of richness, endemism and invasions in relation to taxonomy (family membership), life form, certain habitats in the Colchis, and compared them to patterns found for Japan. RESULTS: We found that in the Colchis perennials are significantly over-represented in endemic species, and that they typically occur on limestone soils and in alpine tall herbaceous vegetation. The Asteraceae produce significantly large number of both endemic and alien species, whereas the Poaceae are over-represented in alien species but under-represented in endemics. Likewise, the Apiaceae are over-represented in endemics, whereas the Euphorbiaceae are over-represented in alien species. Similar patterns have been found in Yakushima, Japan. The Morisita-Horn index of similarity between these two sites was 0.83 (based on family size). Although the flora of Adjara comprised of fewer families than the flora of Yakushima, the largest families are richer in species in the flora of Adjara than in the flora of Yakushima. CONCLUSIONS: Floristic analysis of refugia of western Eurasia and their comparison with geographically distant areas can provide useful data for plant ecological and evolutionary studies. Potentially, such studies can produce testable hypotheses on plant migrations and on their historical geography. For example, the data presented in this study indicate that more severe conditions in the Pleistocene and geographical isolation of the Colchis may be responsible for the higher relative importance of adaptive radiation in the shaping of its modern flora.  (+info)

Patterns in abundance and diversity of faecally dispersed parasites of tiger in Tadoba National Park, central India. (3/4478)

BACKGROUND: Importance of parasites in ecological and evolutionary interactions is being increasingly recognized. However, ecological data on parasites of important host species is still scanty. We analyze the patterns seen in the faecal parasites of tigers in the Tadoba National Park, India, and speculate on the factors and processes shaping the parasite community and the possible implications for tiger ecology. RESULTS: The prevalence and intensities were high and the parasite community was dominated by indirect life cycle parasites. Across all genera of parasites variance scaled with the square of the mean and there was a significant positive correlation between prevalence and abundance. There was no significant association between different types of parasites. CONCLUSIONS: The 70 samples analyzed formed 14 distinct clusters. If we assume each of the clusters to represent individual tigers that were sampled repeatedly and that resident tigers are more likely to be sampled repeatedly, the presumed transient tigers had significantly greater parasite loads than the presumed resident ones.  (+info)

The diversity of microorganisms associated with Acromyrmex leafcutter ants. (4/4478)

BACKGROUND: Molecular biological techniques are dramatically changing our view of microbial diversity in almost any environment that has so far been investigated. This study presents a systematic survey of the microbial diversity associated with a population of Acromyrmex leafcutter ants. In contrast to previous studies on social insects, which targeted specific groups of symbionts occurring in the gut (termites, Tetraponera ants) or in specialised cells (Camponotus ants) the objective of our present study was to do a total screening of all possible micro-organisms that can be found inside the bodies of these leafcutter ants. RESULTS: We amplified, cloned and sequenced SSU rRNA encoding gene fragments from 9 microbial groups known to have insect-associated representatives, and show that: (1) representatives of 5 out of 9 tested groups are present, (2) mostly several strains per group are present, adding up to a total of 33 different taxa. We present the microbial taxa associated with Acromymex ants in a phylogenetic context (using sequences from GenBank) to assess and illustrate to which known microorganisms they are closely related. The observed microbial diversity is discussed in the light of present knowledge on the evolutionary history of Acromyrmex leafcutter ants and their known mutualistic and parasitic symbionts. CONCLUSIONS: The major merits of the screening approach documented here is its high sensitivity and specificity, which allowed us to identify several microorganisms that are promising candidates for further study of their interactions with Acromyrmex leafcutter ants or their gardens.  (+info)

A new neuroprotective pinusolide derivative from the leaves of Biota orientalis. (5/4478)

A new pinusolide derivative, 15-methoxypinusolidic acid (1), and another new isopimarane diterpene, ent-isopimara-15-en-3 alpha,8 alpha-diol (2) with three known diterpenes, lambertianic acid (3), isopimara-8(9),15-dien-18-oic acid (4) and isopimara-7(8),15-dien-3 beta,18-diol (5) were isolated from the 90% MeOH fraction of Biota orientalis (L.) ENDL. (Cupressaceae) leaves. Chemical structures of 1-5 were elucidated by analyses of their spectral data, including the two-dimensional (2D) NMR technique. Compound 1 showed significant protective activity against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in primary cultures of rat cortical cells.  (+info)

Biodiversity of nematode assemblages from the region of the Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone, an area of commercial mining interest. (6/4478)

BACKGROUND: The possibility for commercial mining of deep-sea manganese nodules is currently under exploration in the abyssal Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone. Nematodes have potential for biomonitoring of the impact of commercial activity but the natural biodiversity is unknown. We investigate the feasibility of nematodes as biomonitoring organisms and give information about their natural biodiversity. RESULTS: The taxonomic composition (at family to genus level) of the nematode fauna in the abyssal Pacific is similar, but not identical to, the North Atlantic. Given the immature state of marine nematode taxonomy, it is not possible to comment on the commonality or otherwise of species between oceans. The between basin differences do not appear to be directly linked to current ecological factors. The abyssal Pacific region (including the Fracture Zone) could be divided into two biodiversity subregions that conform to variations in the linked factors of flux to the benthos and of sedimentary characteristics. Richer biodiversity is associated with areas of known phytodetritus input and higher organic-carbon flux. Despite high reported sample diversity, estimated regional diversity is less than 400 species. CONCLUSION: The estimated regional diversity of the CCFZ is a tractable figure for biomonitoring of commercial activities in this region using marine nematodes, despite the immature taxonomy (i.e. most marine species have not been described) of the group. However, nematode ecology is in dire need of further study.  (+info)

Complexity in natural microbial ecosystems: the Guerrero Negro experience. (7/4478)

The goal of this project is to describe and understand the organismal composition, structure, and physiology of microbial ecosystems from hypersaline environments. One collection of such ecosystems occurs at North America's largest saltworks, the Exportadora de Sal, in Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur. There, seawater flows through a series of evaporative basins with an increase in salinity until saturation is reached and halite crystallization begins. Several of these ponds are lined with thick (10 cm) microbial mats that have received some biological study. To determine the nature and extent of diversity of the microbial organisms that constitute these ecosystems, we are conducting a phylogenetic analysis using molecular approaches, based on cloning and sequencing of small subunit (SSU) rRNA genes (16S for Bacteria and Archaea, 18S for Eukarya). In addition, we report preliminary results on the microbial composition of a laminated community that occurs in a crystallized gypsum-halite matrix in near-saturated salt water. Exposure of the interior of these large (kilogram) wet, endoevaporite crystals reveals a multitude of colors: layers of yellow, green, pink, and purple microbiota. To date, analyses of these two environments indicate the ubiquitous dominance of uncultured organisms of phylogenetic kinds not generally thought to be associated with hypersaline environments.  (+info)

Viral influence on aquatic bacterial communities. (8/4478)

Bacterial viruses, or bacteriophages, have numerous roles in marine systems. Although they are now considered important agents of mortality of bacteria, a second possible role of regulating bacterial community composition is less well known. The effect on community composition derives from the presumed species-specificity and density-dependence of infection. Although models have described the "kill the winner" hypothesis of such control, there are few observational or experimental demonstrations of this effect in complex natural communities. We report here on some experiments that demonstrate that viruses can influence community composition in natural marine communities. Although the effect is subtle over the time frame suitable for field experiments (days), the cumulative effect over months or years would be substantial. Other virus roles, such as in genetic exchange or microbial evolution, have the potential to be extremely important, but we know very little about them.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Balancing generality and specificity in ecological gradient analysis with species abundance distributions and individual size distributions. AU - Yen, Jian. AU - Keith, Jonathan. AU - Paganin, David. AU - Fleishman, Erica. AU - Dobkin, David. AU - Bennett, Joanne. AU - Nally, Mac. AU - MAC NALLY, Ralph. PY - 2017/3/1. Y1 - 2017/3/1. N2 - AimData on ecological communities are often condensed into single-valued diversity indices, which support comparisons among ecosystems but may discard important information. At the other extreme, some studies retain full data on the identities of all species present, which retains maximum information on community structure but occludes comparisons among ecosystems. We sought to determine whether the analysis of species abundance distributions and individual size distributions could support more detailed inferences than diversity indices while remaining sufficiently general to identify fundamental ecological responses in multiple ...
There is a large amount of publicly available biodiversity data from many different data sources. When doing research, one ideally interacts with biodiversity data programmatically so their work is reproducible. The entry point to biodiversity data records is largely through taxonomic names, or common names in some cases (e.g., birds). However, many researchers have a phylogeny focused project, meaning taxonomic names are not the ideal interface to biodiversity data. Ideally, it would be simple to programmatically go from a phylogeny to biodiversity records through a phylogeny based query. Ill discuss a new project phylodiv ( that attempts to facilitate phylogeny based biodiversity data collection (see Fig. 1). The project takes the form of an R software package. The idea is to make the user interface take essentially two inputs: a phylogeny and a phylogeny based question. Behind the scenes well do many things, including gathering taxonomic names and
This TC will provide a clear understanding of existing environmental assessments and biodiversity analyses that cover the network of parks and protected areas (biological corridors) in the area of influence of the Mundo Maya Sustainable Tourism Program (MMSTP) in El Salvador, Honduras and Mexico. Regional and site-specific biodiversity studies and initiatives will be instrumental in determining the status and of local socioeconomic threats and opportunities for conservation and gaps of knowledge in areas of critical biodiversity importance. Developing a biodiversity baseline for the critical Mundo Maya Program sites will provide local and regional biological and socioeconomic information including: biodiversity inventories, natural and man-made landscape features, existing community-based projects, stakeholders and other key factors. This information will provide better understanding of the current status of biodiversity and of local socioeconomic threats and opportunities for conservation at key
The United Nations discussions on defining a new set of post-2015 development goals focus on poverty eradication and sustainable development. Biodiversity and ecosystem services are essential for poverty eradication, which is also one of the foundations of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). Based on an assessment of current proposals of goals and targets, and a quantitative pathway analysis to meet long term biodiversity and food security goals, this paper discusses how biodiversity and ecosystem services can be integrated into a broad set of goals and targets, and concludes with relevant target areas and means of implementation for which specific targets need to be defined. Furthermore, it responds to the call of the CBD to consider the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity and the related Aichi biodiversity targets in the post-2015 development agenda. The papers analysis identifies three overlapping but also supplemental ways to integrate biodiversity and
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The PhD thesis entitled International cooperation for biodiversity conservation: an economic analysis examines the functioning and effectiveness of different economic instruments for biodiversity conservation at diverse scales. Different methodological approaches such as market theory, contract theory, and game theory are implemented. The first part of the thesis consists of an assessment of the economic conditions under which markets for biodiversity are expected to function, and their potential to be scaled up to a global level. The remainder of the thesis present game theoretical analyses on the modelling and functioning of International Environmental Agreements (IEAs) for biodiversity conservation. Game theory provides a novel opportunity to study the impact of key features of biodiversity on the effectiveness and stability of conservation agreements. This type of analysis is then applied to a case study of habitat conservation for a migratory bird species in one of the chapters. ...
Biological diversity, or biodiversity, means the variety of all forms of life: genetic variation within species, the abundance of species and the diversity of their habitats. Halting the loss of biodiversity by 2020 is a global goal. The Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry safeguards biodiversity by ensuring the sustainable use of natural resources in its administrative branch. This includes agricultural areas and landscapes, forests, game and reindeer husbandry as well as fish and water resources.. The Finnish strategy for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity outlines objectives and measures to halt the loss of biodiversity by 2020. The strategy was adopted in December 2012 by the Government Resolution on the Strategy for the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biodiversity in Finland for the Years 2012-2020, Saving Nature for People. The strategy is based the objectives set in the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and EUs Biodiversity Strategy.. ...
Biodiversity Information Standards (TDWG) is a non-profit organization and community dedicated to developing biodiversity information standards.
Author(s): Hawkins, Bradford A.; Diniz, JAF; Jaramillo, C A; Soeller, S A | Abstract: Aim The aim of this study was to test a variant of the evolutionary time hypothesis for the bird latitudinal diversity gradient derived from the effects of niche conservatism in the face of global climate change over evolutionary time. Location The Western Hemisphere. Methods We used digitized range maps of breeding birds to estimate the species richness at two grain sizes, 756 and 12,100 km(2). We then used molecular phylogenies resolved to family to quantify the root distance (RD) of each species as a measure of its level of evolutionary development. Birds were classified as basal or derived based on the RD of their family, and richness patterns were contrasted for the most basal and most derived 30% of species. We also generated temperature estimates for the Palaeogene across the Western Hemisphere to examine how spatial covariation between past and present climates might make it difficult to distinguish between
An important product of marine biodiversity research should be the necessary knowledge and tools for adequately managing and protecting marine biodiversity. This requires knowledge on genetic and ecological mechanisms that control biodiversity (gene flow, dispersal, adaptive value of genetic polymorphisms, determination of dispersal and recruitment, species interactions including invasions, sediment transport, natural and human-induced catastrophes, etc.). It also requires knowledge on the functional role of biodiversity: what is the variability in genes, species and communities that is required for ecosystem functioning; and models on dispersal of genes and organisms, species interactions and food webs, the interaction between food webs and biogeochemical fluxes, and impact assessment of diffuse and point source pollution, coastal constructions, mass tourism and global climate change. ...
Nitrogen (N) enrichment is among the main drivers of the loss of plant biodiversity in terrestrial ecosystems. Yet, a meta-analysis covering multiple dimensions of biodiversity in multiple ecosystems across the globe was lacking. We performed a meta‐analysis of 115 experiments reported in 85 studies assessing the effects of N addition on terrestrial natural and semi‐natural plant communities. We quantified changes in local-scale plant biodiversity in relation to N addition using four complementary metrics: species richness, individual species abundance, mean species abundance and geometric mean abundance. For all the metrics, we found a negative relationship with N addition (so, greater amounts of annual N addition resulted in larger declines in plant diversity). However, the magnitude of the decline for a given amount of N addition differed among the metrics, with the smallest decline for species richness and the largest for individual species abundance. We further found that the ...
Develop detailed ecosystem and biodiversity assessment reports based on field surveys for Gdh.Laabadhoo. Use the out puts of the assessment to prepare and develop management plans for theselected sites under the project. The management plans will be submitted to relevant national institutionsfor considering implementation
which looks like a straight line on semilog axes, where area is logged and the number of species is arithmetic. In either case, the species-area relationship is almost always decelerating (has a negative second derivative) when plotted arithmetically.[9] Species-area relationships are often graphed for islands (or habitats that are otherwise isolated from one another, such as woodlots in an agricultural landscape) of different sizes.[3] Although larger islands tend to have more species, it is possible that a smaller island will have more than a larger one. In contrast, species-area relationships for contiguous habitats will always rise as areas increases, provided that the sample plots are nested within one another. The species-area relationship for mainland areas (contiguous habitats) will differ according to the census design used to construct it.[10] A common method is to use quadrats of successively larger size, so that the area enclosed by each one includes the area enclosed by the smaller ...
which looks like a straight line on semilog axes, where area is logged and the number of species is arithmetic. In either case, the species-area relationship is almost always decelerating (has a negative second derivative) when plotted arithmetically.[9] Species-area relationships are often graphed for islands (or habitats that are otherwise isolated from one another, such as woodlots in an agricultural landscape) of different sizes.[3] Although larger islands tend to have more species, it is possible that a smaller island will have more than a larger one. In contrast, species-area relationships for contiguous habitats will always rise as areas increases, provided that the sample plots are nested within one another. The species-area relationship for mainland areas (contiguous habitats) will differ according to the census design used to construct it.[10] A common method is to use quadrats of successively larger size, so that the area enclosed by each one includes the area enclosed by the smaller ...
Biodiversity is threatened on a global scale and the losses are ongoing. In order to stop further losses and maintain important ecosystem services, programmes have been put into place to reduce and ideally halt these processes. A whole suite of different approaches is needed to meet these goals. One major scientific contribution is to collate, integrate and analyse the large amounts of fragmented and diverse biodiversity data to determine the current status and trends of biodiversity in order to inform the relevant decision makers. To contribute towards the achievement of these challenging tasks, the project EU BON was developed. The project is focusing mainly on the European continent but contributes at the same time to a much wider global initiative the Group on Earth Observations Biodiversity Observation Network (GEO BON), which itself is a part of the Group of Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). EU BON will build on existing infrastructures such as GBIF, LifeWatch and national biodiversity
In addition to calculating the Singapore Index for Los Angeles, the 2018 Biodiversity Report includes general suggestions that the City can employ as it works to achieve the objectives set forth in the Biodiversity Motion. The information presented is a valuable resource from which an effective biodiversity strategy, action plan, and index, unique to the City, can be developed that appropriately values biodiversity and helps to create equitable access to natural places while protecting and conserving biodiversity, maximizing the ecosystem services associated with biodiversity, and making the City of Los Angeles a better place to live. The index will be measured over time so that progress in preserving and enhancing native biodiversity can be quantified ...
The study provides strong evidence in support of biodiversity and its role in preserving balance in nature. Through its commitment to responsible innovation, Evolva supports the three main aims of the UN Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD): the conservation of biodiversity; the sustainable use of biological components; and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from genetic resources.. Read more about the Dutch biodiversity study here: NY Times article and here: Royal Society paper and find out more about Evolvas commitment to biodiversity here.. * To combat the risk of infection from ticks, Evolva is currently developing Nootkatone - a biologically-produced tick repellent which it hopes will be a highly-effective agent against the ticks that transmit Lyme disease.. ...
Sustainable land-use management must account for the potential trade-offs between biodiversity conservation, productive land uses and ecosystem services. In this study, we used Marxan with Zones to generate land use plans that optimize conservation, farming and forestry land uses to reach biodiversity targets while minimizing the opportunity cost for local communities in an inhabited but data-poor National Park in the Andes of Bolivia.. Based on six alternative land-use plans, we identified the synergies and trade-offs between the biodiversity benefits achieved in the different plans and the delivery of four locally important water-related ecosystem services modeled with the web-based tool AguAAndes.. Although we find synergies between the conservation of high altitude Polylepis woodlands and their associated avifauna and three of the ecosystem services investigated, soil erosion levels were actually higher in scenarios with higher achieved biodiversity benefits.. Our study shows how systematic ...
Increased efforts are required to prevent further losses to terrestrial biodiversity and the ecosystem services that it provides1,2. Ambitious targets have been proposed, such as reversing the declining trends in biodiversity3; however, just feeding the growing human population will make this a challenge4. Here we use an ensemble of land-use and biodiversity models to assess whether-and how-humanity can reverse the declines in terrestrial biodiversity caused by habitat conversion, which is a major threat to biodiversity5. We show that immediate efforts, consistent with the broader sustainability agenda but of unprecedented ambition and coordination, could enable the provision of food for the growing human population while reversing the global terrestrial biodiversity trends caused by habitat conversion. If we decide to increase the extent of land under conservation management, restore degraded land and generalize landscape-level conservation planning, biodiversity trends from habitat conversion could
Mike Christie, Nick Hanley, John Warren, Tony Hyde, Kevin Murphy and Robert Wright INTRODUCTION The aims of this chapter are to identify problems surrounding the economic valuation of biodiversity, and then to present results from a recent stated preference study on changes in biodiversity on UK farmland, which attempts to get around one major problem, namely the information deficit that typifies the knowledge level of most members of the general public regarding biodiversity. We also provide a first choice experiment estimation of the attributes of biodiversity, an approach that may prove useful in developing policy on biodiversity protection and enhancement; obtain contingent valuation estimates for different policies, which would increase biodiversity on farmland; and compare values obtained using standard survey procedures with those obtained using the valuation workshop technique (Macmillan et al., 2003). Finally, we test for benefits transfer in both values and valuation functions ...
Figure 1. Three dimensions of biodiversity. This solicitation targets the area where all three overlap.. The Dimensions of Biodiversity program currently targets three fundamental dimensions of biodiversity -genetic diversity, taxonomic/phylogenetic diversity, and functional diversity. Genetic diversity includes but is not limited to nucleotide sequence diversity at neutral or coding loci or genomic (proteomic, transcriptomic) diversity. Taxonomic/phylogenetic diversity refers to evolutionary lineages at and above the level of the population. Functional diversity includes but is not limited to aspects of ecosystem function such as energy flow, material cycling, ecological resilience, and the role of key innovations in the generation and maintenance of biodiversity. (See examples listed below.) In addition, a primary goal of the program is to address the largest unknowns related to biodiversity; proposals that have the potential to fill large gaps in our understanding of biodiversity are ...
H2S free human exploitation and biodiversity conservation topics in biodiversity; into the firing. Damage study is with complementary bombs to be the other workshop injuries. Back 10 free human exploitation and biodiversity conservation of HE blunt structures of H2S occur effective to civilian reference.
A canopy glider - something akin to a powered hot air balloon - will be used for the first time in Australia as part of a biodiversity study in south-east Queensland to identify signs of climate change.. Queensland Premier Peter Beattie announced $356,000 in state government funding for the Griffith University study in Lamington National Park, in the Gold Coast hinterland, after meeting in Paris with French engineering firm Pro-Natura.. The Biodiversity at the Heights (BATH) project is an international study of fauna and insects. ...
A new study, published in Science, which focuses on mapping biodiversity change in marine and land ecosystems shows that loss of biodiversity is most prevalent in the tropic, with changes in marine ecosystems outpacing those on land. The research, led by scientists from the University of St Andrews, in collaboration with leading universities across Europe, the USA and Canada, including McGill, aimed at reaching a consensus about variation in biodiversity change.
Figure 1. Three dimensions of biodiversity. This Call for proposals targets the area where all these three areas overlap.. The goal of the Dimensions of Biodiversity campaign is to transform, by 2020, how we describe and understand the scope and role of life on Earth. The campaign promotes novel, integrated approaches to identify and understand the evolutionary and ecological significance of biodiversity amidst the changing environment of the present day and in the geologic past.. This campaign seeks to characterize biodiversity on Earth by using integrative, innovative approaches to fill the most substantial gaps in our understanding of the diversity of life on Earth. It takes a broad view of biodiversity, and currently focuses on the integration of genetic, taxonomic/phylogenetic, and functional dimensions of biodiversity. Successful proposals should integrate these three dimensions to understand interactions and feedbacks among them. While this focus complements several core FAPESP and NSF ...
Although hundreds of short-term local experiments indicate that random changes in biodiversity can cause substantial changes in primary productivity, considerable debate remains regarding whether these influences of biodiversity are weaker or stronger at larger spatial and temporal scales in natural ecosystems. Given this knowledge gap, current models often implicitly assume no influence of biodiversity on ecosystem productivity, likely leading to inaccurate predictions in at least some cases. We propose to develop and test a strategy for scaling-up results from biodiversity experiments to natural communities by testing theory and bridging gaps between previous experimental and observational studies. In the four proposed meetings, one of which would be co-funded, we will advance understanding of scaling up in space, scaling up in time, and accounting for non-random shifts in dominant traits. Integrating these three advances will allow us to generalize from a few experiments to data from many ...
Although the context of this paper is a World Biodiversity Update, any attempt at such would be presumptuous if not impossible. What I will attempt, however, is to highlight some of the major developments in biodiversity action and policy that have emerged during the past year or two. In fact, several of these are directly related to agricultural biodiversity, and indeed to the issue of new crops. Then I shall explore the main trends in the appreciation, conservation and sustainable use of what is termed agricultural biodiversity. The coming into effect of the Convention on Biological Diversity has led to a wide range of activities and initiatives as governments attempt to get to grips with the problems of implementing what is no more than an outline convention. The deliberations of the Conference of the Parties (COP) of the Convention and its Subsidiary Body for Scientific Technical and Technological Advice (SBSTTA) have been criticized by some as spending too much time on issues such as ...
Nominations are now invited for The MIDORI Prize for Biodiversity 2020. The call for nominations remains open until 30 March 2020.
The worldwide health crisis linked to Covid-19 reminds us of the fragility and dependence of human beings on nature. In the latest IPBES report, the figures given by scientists are frightening: one million animal and plant species are threatened with extinction. In another report released in the fall of 2020, they clearly linked the biodiversity crisis to the Covid-19 crisis. « Changes in the way we use land, the expansion and intensification of agriculture, and unsustainable trade, production, and consumption are disrupting nature and increasing contact between wildlife, livestock, pathogens, and humans. This is a path that leads straight to pandemics ». The year 2021 will therefore be the year of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Several major international events on the subject or with a strong link to it are on the agenda this year, the main ones being The United Nations Environment Assembly (virtual, UNEA, February 2021), the COP 15 on biodiversity (CBD, China, May 2021), the COP 15 of ...
The purpose of Mission 2015 is to present a solution to the biodiversity crisis. This proposal outlines step-by-step, incremental procedures that will reduce the rate of biodiversity loss and preserve ecosystem services. These steps should be implemented on individual, community, state, private sector, national, and global levels.. This proposal suggests a shift in paradigm based on the interdependence of humans and the rest of the natural world. Humans must not be viewed as external engineers, but rather as integrated parts of the global ecosystem. Our solutions attempt to scale back negative human involvement and increase positive human impact on biodiversity.. ...
The Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) is the biodiversity working group of the Arctic Council. CAFFs mandate is to address the conservation of Arctic biodiversity, and to communicate its findings to the governments and residents of the Arctic, helping to promote practices which ensure the sustainability of the Arctics living resources. It does so through various monitoring, assessment and expert group activities.
The Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) is the biodiversity working group of the Arctic Council. CAFFs mandate is to address the conservation of Arctic biodiversity, and to communicate its findings to the governments and residents of the Arctic, helping to promote practices which ensure the sustainability of the Arctics living resources. It does so through various monitoring, assessment and expert group activities.
Downloadable (with restrictions)! Habitat loss is a primary cause of loss of biodiversity but conserving habitat for species presents challenges. Land parcels differ in their ability to produce returns for landowners and landowners may have private information about the value of the land to them. Land parcels also differ in the type and quality of habitat and the spatial pattern of land use across multiple landowners is important for determining the conservation value of parcels. This paper analyzes the relative efficiency of simple voluntary incentive-based policies in achieving biodiversity conservation objectives. This topic is important not just for biodiversity conservation but for any effort to provide a public good requiring coordination across multiple decision-makers who have some degree of private information. We develop a method that integrates spatially explicit data, an econometric model of private land-use decisions, landscape simulations, a biological model of biodiversity as a function
Biodiversity and the Law is a timely and provocative volume that combines historical perspective and cutting-edge legal analysis in an authoritative and broad discussion of biodiversity and the law. Leading legal and policy experts consider a variety of options for the worldwide protection of biodiversity and present a succinct but comprehensive overview of the legal mechanisms available. They examine how conservation advocates can better utilize existing law, and consider what new law is needed. Among the topics considered are: scientific and policy foundations of biodiveristy protection, domestic efforts to establish an effective endangered species protection regime, international biodiversity protection, biodiversity as a genuinely public entity, and the future of biodiversity law.. ...
View Publication Poverty alleviation and biodiversity conservation are basic social goals and part of the policy agenda of postcolonial states and international agencies. It is not surprising therefore that a large number of programmatic interventions have aimed to achieve the two goals at the same time. These interventions are funded by governments, conservation NGOs, bilateral and multilateral donor agencies, and private sector organizations. In this paper, we first examine the conceptual discussion around poverty and biodiversity, and then analyze three such interventions: community-based wildlife management, extractive reserves, and ecotourism. Our discussion shows that the literature on these programmatic interventions depends on relatively simplified understandings of poverty and biodiversity in stark contrast to the theoretical literature on the two concepts. Further, writings on programmatic interventions tend to operationalize poverty and biodiversity in distinct and quite different ...
N2 - Increasing urbanization worldwide calls for more sustainable urban development.Simultaneously, the global biodiversity crisis accentuates the need of fostering biodiversity within cities. Policies supporting urban nature conservation need to understandpeoples acceptance of biodiversity-friendly greenspace management. We surveyedmore than 2,000 people in 19 European cities about their attitudes toward near-naturalurban grassland management in public greenspaces, and related their responses to ninesociocultural parameters. Results reveal that people across Europe can support urbanbiodiversity, yet within the frames of a generally tidy appearance of public greenery.Younger people and those using greenspaces for a greater variety of activities weremore likely to favor biodiversity-friendly greenspace management. Additionally, people who were aware of the meaning of biodiversity and those stating responsibilityfor biodiversity conservation particularly supported biodiversity-friendly ...
Aquatic ecosystems support a substantial source of the earths biological diversity. They are an essential reservoir and share an enormous proportion of earths biological productivity. Both aquatic resources and its biodiversity are interrelated to each other and they perform a myriad of functions and are valuable and essential for the sustainability of biotic communities. Aquatic biodiversity in both freshwater and marine environments are under continuous decline because of overexploitation of species, introduced exotic plant or animal, pollution sources from cities, industries and agricultural zones, loss and changes in ecological niche. Their conservation and management in the form of bio reserve points and bioregional management and worldwide monitoring are needed for the protection of the aquatic biodiversity. This review is presenting information on biodiversity in aquatic habitats and their resources, in marine and fresh water ecosystems, their importance conservation and restoration
The 16th National Biodiversity Planning Forum will be held from 4 to 7 June 2019 at Alpine Heath Resort, Northern Drakensberg, KwaZulu-Natal.. The Biodiversity Planning Forum, established in 2004, provides an opportunity for individuals, agencies and departments involved in spatial biodiversity planning to share and synthesise valuable lessons from biodiversity planning projects. Much of the biodiversity planning done in South Africa underpins strategic interventions and supports improved environmental decision-making.. For more information on the 2019 Biodiversity Planning Forum please see the invitation and the registration form.. ...
Given the continued destruction, disturbance and fragmentation of tropical forests, and the associated extinction of species (Sayer & Whitmore 1991; May, Lawton & Stork 1995; Turner 1996), there is an urgent need to develop and test standardized methods for sampling biodiversity (Sutton & Collins 1991; Stork & Samways 1995). This has prompted a growing literature on the search for bioindicators, particularly for insects, because they form the bulk of species and animal biomass in terrestrial habitats and have a strong influence over many ecosystem processes. McGeoch (1998) reviewed the selection and utility of insects as indicators, and emphasized the need for explicit aims and hypothesis testing when nominating a species or group of taxa as a bioindicator. The basic purpose of bioindicators, whatever the ultimate aim, is to indicate a relationship with another biotic or abiotic variable. These relationships with other variables are, however, only as good as the sampling method employed to ... Nations around the world have recognized biodiversity as one of the most pressing ecological issues of our time. Declining biodiversity over recent decades has prompted the formation of international coalitions and national biodiversity programs. This Topic in Depth explores the work of both international and national efforts to increase global biodiversity. The first site presents an archived report from the Convention on Biological Diversity, an international organization formed by many world nations after the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro. This first edition of the Global Biodiversity Outlook report, published in 2001, was created to provide a status summary, and an analysis of Convention objectives. It is expected that a second edition will be published this year presenting more recent data and analysis (1). Explore Biodiversity is an innovative project involving a team of scientists and filmmakers working to document the diminishing ...
Understanding patterns of biodiversity in deep sea systems is increasingly important because human activities are extending further into these areas. However, obtaining data is difficult, limiting the ability of science to inform management decisions. We have used three different methods of quantifying biodiversity to describe patterns of biodiversity in an area that includes two marine reserves in deep water off southern Australia. We used biological data collected during a recent survey, combined with extensive physical data to model, predict and map three different attributes of biodiversity: distributions of common species, beta diversity and rank abundance distributions (RAD). The distribution of each of eight common species was unique, although all the species respond to a depth-correlated physical gradient. Changes in composition (beta diversity) were large, even between sites with very similar environmental conditions. Composition at any one site was highly uncertain, and the suite of species
Plants chapter of the Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA), a report containing the best available science informed by traditional ecological knowledge on the status and trends of Arctic biodiversity and accompanying policy recommendations for biodiversity conservation.
Fungi chapter of the the Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA), a report containing the best available science informed by traditional ecological knowledge on the status and trends of Arctic biodiversity and accompanying policy recommendations for biodiversity conservation.
Come October 1, the city of Hyderabad is going to host the biggest ever global summit in the history of independent India - the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity. The event, which is the 11th edition of Conference of Parties (CoP-11) for the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), will take place in
The difference between continental and oceanic islands: The continental islands are bodies of land that lie on the continental shelf, and most of them are result of rift of the continent or entrance of seawater in it. Oceanic islands sit on the oceanic shelf and they are result of volcanic activity or bending of the plates during the tectonic movements. One of the key to understand the special biodiversity on islands is the origin of them. Having already or not fauna and flora at the formation of island is a deciding factor of the future biodiversity. For example, think about bird species in UK (continental islands) versus Hawaii (oceanic islands).We discuss about this in a next post, but keep these ideas on your head ...
The aim of the project is a comparative study of the structural biodiversity and the causal factors by which it is induced and regulated. Present environmental factors and historical background (phylogeny of the biota and geographic evolution of the locality) are indeed main causes of the biodiversity observed today. We therefore plan to study the biodiversity in coastal ecosystems and estuaries in tropical and subtropical areas. Lagoons and estuaries are very productive ecosystems with a major impact on the functioning of open sea ecosystems and important for human activities. On the other hand, (sub)tropical areas are known to yield the highest biodiversity on which very few information is available. Moreover, semi-closed systems are very suitable to study speciation phenomena such as gene flow interruption and the origin of endemisms.. ...
Developed by CIAT and the Crop Trust, the indicator provides an official marker for thousands of economically and culturally important plants. It shows conservation goals set for 2020 will be hard to attain.. The Biodiversity Indicators Partnership officially adopted in July a new indicator to track progress on the conservation of thousands of economically and culturally important plants. Developed by the International Center for Tropical Agriculture and the Crop Trust, the indicator helps rate progress toward the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), Aichi Biodiversity Target 13, which includes maintaining the genetic diversity of cultivated plants, their wild relatives, and other socioeconomically and culturally valuable flora. The metric is also listed as a relevant indicator for Sustainable Development Goal 2.5. But based on the very low average score for the plants in the index - about 3 out of 100 - the indicator shows that much work remains to be done to achieve the conservation ...
Biodiversity surveys were conducted on Saba Bank, Netherlands Antilles, to assess ichthyofaunal richness and to compare with published surveys of other Caribbean localities. The primary objective was to estimate the total species richness of the Saba Bank ichthyofauna. A variety of sampling techniques was utilized to survey the fish species of both the visually accessible megafauna and the camouflaged and small-sized species comprising the cryptic ichthyofauna. Based on results presented herein, the number of species known on Saba Bank is increased from 42 previously known species to 270 species. Expected species-accumulation curves demonstrate that the current estimate of species richness of fishes for Saba Bank under represents the actual richness, and our knowledge of the ichthyofauna has not plateaued. The total expected fish-species richness may be somewhere between 320 and 411 species. The Saba Bank ichthyofaunal assemblage is compared to fish assemblages found elsewhere in the Caribbean. Despite
CONVENTION ON BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY THE CONTRACTING PARTIES, CONSCIOUS of the intrinsic value of biological diversity and of the ecological, genetic, social
Regional Gateway for Technology Transfer and Climate Change Action in Latin America and the Caribbean (ROLAC UNEP) Characterizing and addressing SLOW ONSET EVENTS climate change impacts on BIODIVERSITY
The first and second Federal Plans for Sustainable Development devote special attention to biodiversity[23]. The first Federal Plan for Sustainable Development 2000-2004 mentions several strategies in the field of the conservation and the sustainable use of biodiversity and in the field of biosecurity. It refers also to national and international integration and coordination measures, to sensibilisation and to the need for scientific knowledge. This plan was the first strategic document endorsed by the federal government that referred to a biodiversity strategy and a national action plan. The Second Federal Plan for Sustainable Development 2004-2008 (FPSD2) was adopted by the Federal Council of Ministers on 24 September 2004. Action 18 is devoted to biodiversity and actions 19 and 20 deal with forests and marine waters.. Action 18 foresees the integration of biodiversity issues into four key sectors (transport, the economy, development cooperation and research). For each sector, the Federal ...
Addressing the loss of biodiversity is essential for poverty eradication, sustainable jobs, economic development and meeting the SDGs. The conservation, sustainable use and equitable sharing of benefits from biodiversity underpin the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Humanitys dependence on biodiversity is widely recognized and nature is critical for the delivery and success of 14 of the 17 SDGs, including those that relate to food security, health, livelihoods, jobs, water security, the ocean, climate change, and disaster prevention. More than half of the worlds GDP is moderately or highly dependent on nature, through the contributions of nature to people such as pollination, water quality, and natural materials. Construction, agriculture, and food and beverages are the three largest sectors most dependent on nature. In recent years, biodiversity loss has been consistently identified by business leaders as one of the top risks to global business.. All people depend on a healthy planet. ...
This book series provides complete, comprehensive and broad subject based reviews about existing biodiversity of different habitats and conservation strategies in the framework of different technologies, ecosystem diversity, and genetic diversity. The ways by which these resources are used with sustainable management and replenishment are also dealt with. The topics of interest include but are not restricted only to sustainable development of various ecosystems and conservation of hotspots, traditional methods and role of local people, threatened and endangered species, global climate change and effect on biodiversity, invasive species, impact of various activities on biodiversity, biodiversity conservation in sustaining livelihoods and reducing poverty, and technologies available and required. The books in this series will be useful to botanists, environmentalists, marine biologists, policy makers, conservationists, and NGOs working for environment protection. ...
Microbial biodiversity is difficult to measure in extreme environments due to the inability to culture many of the species, especially from hypersaline environments. Great Salt Lake (GSL), Utah, USA offers a unique ecology to study microbial diversity across a salt gradient. GSL has increasing salt from South to North that varies from marine salt concentrations to saturation, respectively. We used three methods to examine the biodiversity of the GSL-traditional cultivation on solid media, 16s rRNA gene sequencing, multiplexed 16s rRNA gene hybridization to the phylochip, and DNA hybridization to the Geochip for metabolic diversity estimates. Over 40 isolates from the North Arm were obtained, while six were selected for identification. Isolates included gammaproteobacteria, bacilli, and actinobacteria. Sequencing the 16S rRNA genes for identification yielded 350 clones. Refraction curves indicated that this did not represent the bacterial diversity of the GSL, while estimation of the diversity with the
Species-rich semi-natural grassland are valuable habitats in the agricultural landscape as they may contain a high diversity of both plant and animal species, as well as provide essential ecosystem services like pollination. To keep these habitats open and to maintain the biodiversity in them, management like grazing or mowing is necessary. Due to changed agricultural practices many semi-natural grasslands have been lost, e.g. due to secondary succession after abandonment or use of more intense management practices. As limited resources are available for the management and restoration of semi-natural grasslands, research is needed to find the best available management method that maintains biodiversity at a low cost. Therefore, the overall aim of this thesis was to use existing data to compare effects of different management methods and explore their effect on the biodiversity of semi-natural grasslands. More specifically, effects of grazing vs. mowing, different mowing frequencies and different ...
Neutral metacommunity models for spatial biodiversity patterns are implemented on river networks acting as ecological corridors at different resolution. Coarse-graining elevation fields (under the constraint of preserving the basin mean elevation) produce a set of reconfigured drainage networks. The hydrologic assumption made implies uniform runoff production such that each link has the same habitat capacity. Despite the universal scaling properties shown by river basins regardless of size, climate, vegetation, or exposed lithology, we find that species richness at local and regional scales exhibits resolution-dependent behavior. In addition, we investigate species-area relationships and rank-abundance patterns. The slopes of the species-area relationships, which are consistent over coarse-graining resolutions, match those found in real landscapes in the case of long-distance dispersal. The rank-abundance patterns are independent of the resolution over a broad range of dispersal length. Our ...
The Conference of the Parties, Recalling its decision V/27 on the contribution of the Convention on Biological Diversity to the ten-year review of progress achieved since the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, Noting the outcome of the third meeting of the Commission on Sustainable Development acting as the Preparatory Committee for the World Summit on Sustainable Development, Convinced that the World Summit on Sustainable Development should be an excellent opportunity to mobilize more political will and resources to promote the implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity and reinvigorate the global commitment to sustainable development, Deeply concerned that, despite many successful and continuing efforts of the international community since the entry into force of the Convention and the fact that some progress has been made, the condition of biodiversity in the worlds major ecosystems continues to deteriorate, almost without exception and often at an ...
Biodiversity has been described as the diversity of life on earth within species, among species, and among ecosystems. The rate of biodiversity loss due to human activity in the last 50 years has beenmore rapid than at any other time in human history, and many of the drivers of biodiversity loss are increasing, including habitat loss, overexploitation, invasive species, climate change, and pollution, including pollution from reactive nitrogen (Nr). Of these stressors, climate change and Nr from anthropogenic activities are causing some of the most rapid changes. Climate change is causing warming trends that result in poleward and elevational range shifts of flora and fauna, and changes in phenology, particularly the earlier onset of spring events and migration, and lengthening of the growing season. Nitrogen (N) enrichment can enhance plant growth, but has been shown to favor, fast-growing, sometimes invasive, species over native species adapted to low N conditions. Although there have been only ...
Agriculture and forestry are land use sectors that cover worldwide large areas. A noteworthy peculiarity is that agricultural and forest land uses are most intensively confronted with human interventions compared to other vegetation cover types. Hence, agricultural and forest land management practices play a key role in impacting biodiversity shifts and in sustaining natural capacities to provide a multitude of ecosystem services. A resulting challenge for a comprehensive impact assessment consists of integrating the whole range of actions and interventions in agriculture and forestry from the management scale towards planning and policy consulting. This requires the development of reliable, nested indicator sets and of modelling approaches that support integrative analyses at different spatial and temporal scales. In this chapter, we introduce the modelling and assessment platform GISCAME that was developed to connect planning and decision-making at different scales. The approach particularly
Read Crying wolf, crying foul, or crying shame: alien salmonids and a biodiversity crisis in the southern cool-temperate galaxioid fishes?, Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
India currently spends about $2 billion per year on biodiversity conservation efforts, but the country requires between $5-15 billion more every year to meet its biodiversity conservation targets
Under pressure to protect the natural environment the European Community in 1973 adopted its First Action Programme for the protection of wild life. Later programmes were more ambitious and detailed and through funding made possible the conservation and rehabilitation of sensitive and important biotopes. The strict protective measures take~ and the emphasis on the setting of priority natural habitats is commendable. The Community signed, and later ratified the Rio Convention on Biological Diversity. This international Convention was weakened when certain important principles, such as the precautionary principle, and the principle that a state is responsible for the damage it causes to biodiversity were deleted. It tries to bridge the North-South divide by fostering the transfer of technology and of Intellectual Property Rights from the developed to the developing countries. The USA objected to this as it considered it a threat to its biotechnology industry. The Directive on the Conservation of ...
Winter migratory birds gather in paddy rice fields to feed shed rice grains. The Korean Ministry of Environment has practiced a policy program Contract on Paddy Field Management (CPFM) during winter fallow since 2002. This program starts with a contract between local governments and farmers, and the government pays a differential subsidy to farmers who finish spreading rice straw, cultivating barley, letting the whole rice plant without harvest, and submerging paddy fields for winter migratory birds. As more local governments have operated CPFM program, the total area on the contract and subsidy budget has increased yearly since 2002. This program could have its stable position as a successful policy by giving profits to farmers. With the program extended, the population of winter migratory birds has been greatly. For the evaluation of environmental performance of a policy, we analyzed this CPFM program by introducing some indicators in the form of Driving Force-State-Response Framework. The
Policies addressing the conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem services both need to be informed by scientific evidence about biodiversity and require ongoing generation of this information to continue to be effective. This interplay takes place in both national and international policy arenas. National legislatures and environmental ministries establish and implement
Ecosystem services are emerging as a key driver of conservation policy and environmental management. Delivery of ecosystem services depends on the efficient functioning of ecosystems, which in turn depends on biodiversity and environmental conditions. Many marine ecosystems are extremely productive and highly valued, but they are increasingly threatened by human activities. With contributions from leading researchers, this volume synthesises current understanding of the effects on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning caused by a variety of human activities and pressures at play in coastal marine ecosystems. The authors examine the likely consequences for ecosystem service provision, covering key topics including fisheries, aquaculture, physical structures, nutrients, chemical contaminants, marine debris and invasive species. Critically reviewing the latest developments, this is a unique resource both for environmental managers and policy-makers, and for researchers and students in marine ...
Quantifying the economic impact of ammonia emissions on biodiversity is challenging and the methods used are subject to debate. Available estimates suggest that loss of biodiversity due to ammonia emissions could have impacts in the UK which can be valued, conservatively, at between £0.20 and £4 per kg of ammonia. Combining this with the monetised health impacts, our conservative estimate of the total costs from both health and biodiversity impacts of ammonia in the UK is £2.50 per kg of ammonia (though the range of possible values is from £2 to £56 per kg). This conservative estimate, combined with projected emission data, suggests that if no action is taken to reduce ammonia emissions, the negative impacts on the UK in 2020 could be equivalent to costs of more than £700m per year. However, there are significant uncertainties in these values. The range of possible costs, based on the estimates in the literature and best available projections for emissions, are between £580m and £16.5bn ...
Sampling biases are the greatest impediment to resolving the history of species richness of fossilizable marine invertebrates in the Phanerozoic. Actual patterns of species richness have remained uncertain because no method is available to compensate for variations in sampling intensity. Data are not obtainable which would permit application of techniques that allow direct compensation for sampling intensity, such as rarefaction, but actual patterns can be estimated with a sampling model designed to account for sampling bias. One can estimate the total species richness of a geologic period if one knows the relative sampling intensity devoted to that period, the original species-abundance distribution of all species that existed during the interval, and the number of species that existed during the Cenozoic. The model presented here is based on the assumption that the species-abundance distributions of fossilizable marine invertebrates were lognormal and that sampling was proportional to sediment ...
How will biodiversity loss affect ecosystem functioning, ecosystem services, and human well-being? In an age of accelerating biodiversity loss, this timely and critical volume summarizes recent advances in biodiversity-ecosystem functioning research and explores the economics of biodiversity and ecosystem services.
Hello, we are pleased to announce the opening of the Biodiversity and Ecosystems NEtwork (BENE) webserver, hosted by the W.M. Keck Center for Genome Informatics at Texas A&M University. In addition to the Keck Center, the other founding partners are the National Performance Review NetResults project Smithsonian Institution U.S. Environmental Protection Agency We welcome other partners. The Uniform Resource Locator (URL) for the BENE webserver is: The goal of the BENE webserver is to help those interested in biodiversity and ecosystems to find information, and foster dialogue and collaborations. BENE also represents a demonstration of some of the capabilities suggested for the proposed U.S. National Biodiversity Information Center (NBIC). BENE also provides an Email ListServer to encourage discussions, queries, and information sharing. To subscribe to the BENE list, send a message to: listproc at with the text: subscribe bene ...
The largest widely-recognized biodiversity hotspot in the United States is the California Floristic Province, which extends down the length of the California coast, and into southern Oregon and a small section of northern Mexico. The California Floristic Province is one of five Mediterranean-type habitats in the world. These ecosystems tend to support unique plant and animal species found in few other places, and all five of them are listed as biodiversity hotspots. The California Floristic Province provides habitat for many threatened and endangered plant species, as well as threatened animals like the desert slender salamander and giant kangaroo rat. It is also one of the last remaining habitats for the California condor - a critically endangered bird species. The main threats to this hotspot are presented by urban and agricultural development in California.. ...
Our landscapes need to be managed appropriately to ensure the sustainable delivery of these servcies into the future. But we do not truly understand the linkages between the stocks of biodiversity within those landscape and the flows of services from those stocks. Until we have a better grasp of those linkages, those responsible for managing our landscapes will be doing so under great uncertainty.. Biodiversity & Ecosystem Service Sustainability (BESS) is a six-year (2011-2017) NERC research programme, designed to reduce that uncertainty. It will answer fundamental questions about the functional role of biodiversity in key ecosystem processes and the delivery of ecosystem processes at the landscape scale and how these are likely to change in an uncertain future.. By providing a much improved evidence base, those responsible for how landscapes are used and developed should be in much better position to make decisions about the inevitable trade-offs that are required to ensure sustainable ...
The Royal Belgian Institute for Natural Science is looking for a master or Postdoc in molecular ecology for a contract of limited duration (October 2018-September 2019) who will join the Antarctic team of the Biodiversity and Ecosystems Data and Information Centre part of OD Nature. This team is in charge of the management of biodiversity and ecosystem data resulting, for example, from the federal monitoring programmes of the marine environment or from research projects in marine and Antarctic sciences. AntaBIS ( is a BelSPO ( project that aims at constructing a dedicated Antarctic biodiversity virtual Laboratory in the framework of the EU Lifewatch program, providing tools for the discovery and analysis of Antarctic biodiversity data. creates new ways of exploring and understanding Antarctic biodiversity by linking various online resources. contributes Antarctic biodiversity Data to global initiates such as the Ocean ...
ButterflyCircle members also contributed time and expertise by volunteering for surveys and nature events in the community. Although we did not set up a booth at the annual Festival of Biodiversity 2018, our presence was in the form of photos and write-ups on butterflies. Members also participated in scientific surveys organised by NParks, like BioBlitz, Bukit Timah Biodiversity Survey and Pulau Ubin Biodiversity Survey. Photos and write ups on interpretative signages in parks and other facilities also featured ButterflyCircle members work. We also participated in butterfly biodiversity surveys at the Singapore Zoo ...
The rapid expansion of urban areas worldwide is leading to native habitat loss and ecosystem fragmentation and degradation. Although the study of urbanisations impact on biodiversity is gaining increasing interest globally, there is still a disconnect between research recommendations and urbanisation strategies. Expansion of the Perth metropolitan area on the Swan Coastal Plain in south-western Australia, one of the worlds thirty-six biodiversity hotspots, continues to affect the Banksia Woodlands (BWs) ecosystem, a federally listed Threatened Ecological Community (TEC). Here, we utilise the framework of a 1989 review of the state of knowledge of BWs ecology and conservation to examine scientific advances made in understanding the composition, processes and functions of BWs and BWs species over the last 30 years. We highlight key advances in our understanding of the ecological function and role of mechanisms in BWs that are critical to the management of this ecosystem. The most encouraging ...
The variety of life forms and its many processes constitute biodiversity. Humanity is dependent on biodiversity for all its requirements. Presently great conc...
The forests of western Amazonia are among the most diverse tree communities on Earth, yet this exceptional diversity is distributed highly unevenly within and among communities. In particular, a small number of dominant species account for the majority of individuals, whereas the large majority of species are locally and regionally extremely scarce. By definition, dominant species contribute little to local species richness (alpha diversity), yet the importance of dominant species in structuring patterns of spatial floristic turnover (beta diversity) has not been investigated. Here, using a network of 207 forest inventory plots, we explore the role of dominant species in determining regional patterns of beta diversity (community‐level floristic turnover and distance‐decay relationships) across a range of habitat types in northern lowland Peru. Of the 2,031 recorded species in our data set, only 99 of them accounted for 50% of individuals. Using these 99 species, it was possible to ...
We recently announced our sixth and seventh major projects in our freshwater grant portfolio that each create a notable point in our constellation of projects. Our Freshwater Biodiversity & Resources program aims to support freshwater ecosystem assessments and decision-making regarding freshwater resources for conservation and sustainable development. We believe that biodiversity information system efforts that involve partnerships of data providers and knowledge users to address local needs are most likely to be sustained.. The grants we announced to the National Museums of Kenya (NMK) and Ugandas National Fisheries Research Institute (NaFIRRI) pursue strategies that are fundamental to our future grantmaking. NMKs project is organized upon the unit of the Tana River catchment in Kenya. We are interested in catchment boundaries, as these are often functional management areas of basin authorities and may be the key unit of governance and management for transnational catchments. For NMK, this ...
The Biodiversity Heritage Library works collaboratively to make biodiversity literature openly available to the world as part of a global biodiversity community.
AWCSG-GWC. 2011. Searching for the Last Kouprey: Final Project Report to the Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund for Grant No. GA 10/0.8 to Global Wildlife Conservation. Asian Wild Cattle Specialist Group and Global Wildlife Conservation, Austin, USA.. Baltzer, M.C., Nguyen Thi Dao and Shore, R.G. (eds). 2001. Towards a vision for biodiversity conservation in the forests of the lower Mekong Ecoregion complex: summary of the biological assessment for the Ecoregion Biodiversity Conservation Program in the forests of the lower Mekong Ecoregion complex. WWF Indochina Programme and WWF US, Hanoi, Vietnam and Washington, DC, USA.. Bauer, K. 1997. Historic record and range extension for giant muntjac, Muntiacus vuquangensis (Cervidae). Mammalia 61: 265-267.. Birdlife International. 2010. The Biodiversity of Chu Yang Sin National Park, Dak Lak Province, Vietnam. BirdLife International in Indochina., Hanoi.. CBD and BGMNP. 2012. Biodiversity survey and conservation status of species of international ...
Summary: The objectives of this Act are, within the framework of the National Environmental Management Act, to provide for the management and conservation of biological diversity within the Republic and of the components of such biological diversity; to provide for the use of indigenous biological resources in a sustainable manner; and to provide for the fair and equitable sharing among stakeholders of benefits arising from bioprosgecting involving indigenous biological resources. Other objecitves of this Act are to give effect to ratified international agreements relating to biodiversity which are binding on the Republic; to provide for co-operative governance in biodiversity management and conservation; and to provide for a South African National Biodiversity Institute to assist in achieving the objectives of this Act ...
The Biodiversity Heritage Library works collaboratively to make biodiversity literature openly available to the world as part of a global biodiversity community.
Many of us would like to contribute to the conservation of our natural environment, but it can be difficult to know where to start. The best place to start is often on our local patch and by doing so we can help to conserve Devons wildlife, as well as improving our own well-being - human well-being and biodiversity are intrinsically linked and a properly functioning natural environment provides substantial economic, environmental, health and community benefits.. To help communities become involved in conserving their own local environment, Devon County Council produced a number of parish biodiversity audits (see below). The audits aim to provide basic information on the wildlife and geology found within each parish, supported by initial ideas for local action: actions which have potential to contribute to nature conservation on a wider scale - from local to county, county to national and beyond.. The parish biodiversity audits have three basic elements:. 1) A description of parish wildlife - ...
In: R.A. Bradstock, J.E. Williams and A.M. Gill (eds), Flammable Australia: The Fire Regimes and Biodiversity of A Continent, ...
Biodiversity[edit]. The Mobile River Basin historically supported the greatest biodiversity of freshwater snail species in the ...
Biodiversity indicator[edit]. An analysis of feces of two dolphin and one whale species led to the discovery of a new species ...
Xishuangbanna harbors much of the biodiversity of Yunnan, which harbors much of the biodiversity of China. Its tropical climate ...
Biodiversity maintained by apex predation[edit]. Further information: Keystone species. Predators may increase the biodiversity ... Gurr, Geoff M.; Wratten, Stephen D.; Snyder, William E. (2012). Biodiversity and Insect Pests: Key Issues for Sustainable ... Keystone species". In Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; Mooney, Harold A. (eds.). Biodiversity and Ecosystem Function. Springer. p. 237. ...
Biodiversity estimates[edit]. It has been suggested that cryptic species complexes are very common in the marine environment.[ ...
Loss of biodiversity[edit]. Landmines can threaten biodiversity by wiping out vegetation and wildlife during explosions or ... This exploitation furthers the loss of biodiversity.[61] Chemical contamination[edit]. Near mines that have exploded or decayed ... loss of biodiversity, micro-relief disruption, chemical composition, and loss of productivity". The effects of an explosion ...
Environment and biodiversity[edit]. See also: Category:Flora of Guyana, Category:Fauna of Guyana, and Category:Orchids_of_ ... "Biodiversity in the Konashen Community-Owned Conservation Area, Guyana" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 December ... Guyana has one of the highest levels of biodiversity in the world. Guyana, with 1,168 vertebrate species, 814 bird species, ... identifies threats to the area's biodiversity, and helps develop projects to increase awareness of the COCA as well as generate ...
"Making the case for biodiversity in South Africa: Re-framing biodiversity communications". Bothalia. 46 (1). doi:10.4102/abc. ... South African National Biodiversity Institute[edit]. In 1951, the Botanical Research Institute (BRI) was created from the ... In 2014 it was renamed Bothalia - African Biodiversity & Conservation to reflect the broader scope of SANBI.[10] ... In 2004 the National Botanical Institute was absorbed into a broader configuration, the South African National Biodiversity ...
3.3 Biodiversity and endangered species. *4 Government and politics *4.1 Political culture ...
LIFE+ Nature & Biodiversity[edit]. The Nature & Biodiversity component continues and extends the former LIFE Nature programme. ... which falls under the Nature and Biodiversity project area and will help finance biodiversity projects, amongst other things. ... and also comprises nature and biodiversity projects (including the Natura 2000 network), as well as environmental governance ... Its most famous action is the "nature & biodiversity" branch which finances conservation actions within Natura 2000 area. This ...
"National Biodiversity Strategy of Slovakia" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 July 2008. Retrieved 8 December 2012. ... The biodiversity of Slovakia comprises animals (such as annellids, arthropods, molluscs, nematodes and vertebrates), fungi ( ... It has subsequently produced a National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan, which was received by the convention on 2 ...
Biodiversity, flora and fauna. See also: List of plants of Amazon Rainforest vegetation of Brazil and Amazonian manatee ... The biodiversity of plant species is the highest on Earth with one 2001 study finding a quarter square kilometer (62 acres) of ... Environmentalists are concerned about loss of biodiversity that will result from destruction of the forest, and also about the ... They also pledged a $100m biodiversity conservation fund for the Amazon led by the private sector. Brazil's foreign minister ...
"A biodiversity strategy for the Great Barrier Reef". Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, Australian Government. Retrieved ... MPAs encompass both social and biological objectives, including reef restoration, aesthetics, biodiversity, and economic ... including a biodiversity action plan.[154] They have compiled a Coral Reef Resilience Action Plan. This detailed action plan ... "Effects of Coral Reef Complexity on Invertebrate Biodiversity". Immediate Science Ecology Publishing: 1-10. Archived from the ...
Global human impact on biodiversity[edit]. Further information: Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. At a fundamental level, energy ... Loss of biodiversity stems largely from the habitat loss and fragmentation produced by the human appropriation of land for ... Groombridge, B. & Jenkins, M.D. (2002). World Atlas of Biodiversity. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520- ... Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005). Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Biodiversity Synthesis. World Resources Institute, ...
Biodiversity of proteases[edit]. Proteases occur in all organisms, from prokaryotes to eukaryotes to viruses. These enzymes are ...
Biodiversity[edit]. The region boasts high biodiversity and many endemic species, with several national parks. Both wildlife ...
Effect on biodiversity and food security[edit]. The Green Revolution of the 20th century relied on hybridization to create high ... Main articles: biodiversity and food security. In agriculture and animal husbandry, the Green Revolution's use of conventional ...
UK Biodiversity Group Tranche 2 Action Plans. UK Biodiversity Action Plan. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 July 2011. ... Biodiversity[edit]. The marsh frog (Pelophylax ridibundus, a non-native species introduced from Europe in the 1930s) is now ... Surrey Biodiversity Partnership. Archived from the original on 5 September 2008. Retrieved 8 February 2010.. ...
Biodiversity=,Ecology[edit]. I propose renaming that section "Ecology". It's already about more than biodiversity. Changing the ... Biodiversity - Algae[edit]. I ask for correction of the following sentence: "The algal population consists of turf algae, ... A key point about coral reefs is that they support a large biodiversity of other species, and there should be a section ... On the question of biodiversity, it may well be the percentage increases as more research results come in. I have also modified ...
Biodiversity of India, a community-driven, Mediawiki based initiative to document the biodiversity of India. ... Biodiversity hotspots[edit]. The Western Ghats[edit]. Main article: Western Ghats. The Western Ghats are a chain of hills that ... "Biodiversity Profile of India (Text Only)". Retrieved 2007-06-20.. *^ Jean-Claude Rage (2003) Relationships of the Malagasy ... Biodiversity of India: List of all mammals of India and their taxonomic status based on data from the IBIN Portal, Encyclopedia ...
Biodiversity[edit]. Deforestation is directly linked with a decrease in plant biodiversity.[150] This decrease in biodiversity ... May 2012). "The role of biodiversity for sustainable environment". International Journal of Sustainable Development. 4 (3): 71- ... and greater protection of biodiversity and the natural environment, should reduce the risks of future outbreaks of other new ...
Common names and biodiversity[edit]. This is a large taxon of insects; some estimates of the species numbers suggest well over ... The biodiversity of the Chironomidae often goes unnoticed because they are notoriously difficult to identify and ecologists ... They are often associated with degraded or low-biodiversity ecosystems because some species have adapted to virtually anoxic ...
British and Irish biodiversity[edit]. Subject area. Currently working on. Happy with. Not a stub but needs work. Stub. ... Endemic Bird Areas of the World: Priorities for Biodiversity Conservation. Regional overviews. Central Asia. Eastern Africa. ... Putting biodiversity on the map: priority areas for global conservation. ...
As a biodiversity indicator[edit]. The occurrence of common cuckoo in Europe is a good surrogate for biodiversity facets ... "Cuckoo and biodiversity: testing the correlation between species occurrence and bird species richness in Europe". Biological ...
Loss of agricultural and livestock biodiversity[edit]. See also: Agricultural biodiversity. Genetic erosion in agricultural and ... 2 Loss of agricultural and livestock biodiversity. *3 Prevention by human intervention, modern science and safeguards *3.1 In ... Costly (and sometimes controversial) ex-situ conservation techniques aim to increase the genetic biodiversity on our planet, as ...
Biodiversity[edit]. State symbols of Mizoram[46] Animal Serow (Saza). Bird Mrs. Hume's pheasant (Vavu). ...
Conservation and biodiversity[edit]. Summary of threats[edit]. *Deforestation. *Degradation of Mangroves and Restingas ...
In: R.A. Bradstock, J.E. Williams and A.M. Gill (eds), Flammable Australia: The Fire Regimes and Biodiversity of A Continent, ... Federal, state and territory policy makers have supported a National Biodiversity and Climate Change Action Plan that works to ... This impacts the relationship between Aboriginal Australians and biodiversity, as well as impacts social and cultural aspects ... with significant loss of biodiversity projected to occur by 2020".[73][needs update] It also said: "Very conservatively, 90 ...
Nonnative eucalyptus and biodiversity[edit]. Due to similar favourable climatic conditions, Eucalyptus plantations have often ... Much of Madagascar's original native forest has been replaced with Eucalyptus, threatening biodiversity by isolating remaining ... but are controversial because of their adverse effect on biodiversity, hydrology and soil fertility. They are associated with ...
Other names. The name, dassie, is derived from the Dutch word "das", meaning badger.. Derivation of scientific name. This is not certain, although pro means "before" in Latin, and Cavia is the genus name for the guinea pig and this name is derived from the name of the guinea pig in the language of the Galibi tribe from French Guiana. Dassies were originally placed in the genus Cavia, with guinea pigs. "Capensis" refers to the Cape, where the first specimens were collected.. Introduction. The rock hyrax or dassie is a very popular and sociable mammal that is often seen in the Pretoria National Botanical Garden. There are currently more than three colonies and an unknown number of individuals living in the Garden and they are often seen lazing around or feeding behind the Herbarium Building on most sunny afternoons.. There is a lot of information about dassies available on websites and scattered in books and only some of the main points of interest are included here.. ...
Conserving tropical biodiversity via market forces and spatial targeting Ian J. Bateman, Emma Coombes, Emily Fitzherbert, Amy ...
The State of the Worlds Biodiversity for Food and Agriculture assesses its status and management around the world. ... Biodiversity is essential to food and agriculture; yet, it is declining worldwide. ... Biodiversity for food and agriculture is declining Many key components of biodiversity for food and agriculture at genetic, ... Biodiversity for food and agriculture (BFA) is, in turn, the subset of biodiversity that contributes in one way or another to ...
BIODIVERSITY?The variety of diverse living beings in a specific area.BIO means life.DIVERSITY means variety or abundance… ... Ag21 biodiversity * 1. WHAT IS BIODIVERSITY?The variety of diverse living beings in a specific area.BIO means life.DIVERSITY ... 3. WHAT IS HAPPENING TO BIODIVERSITY?According to the IUCN Red Data List, 1 out of 8 bird species is in dangerof extinction; 1 ... DO YOU KNOW THE BIODIVERSITY IN YOUR SURROUNDINGS? Investigate a garden, a street, a mount, a forest, an old wall, a few trees ...
Read about the EUs biodiversity strategy for 2030 - our ambitious and long-term plan to protect nature and reverse the ... The 2030 EU Biodiversity Strategy. The EUs biodiversity strategy for 2030 is a comprehensive, ambitious and long-term plan to ... The biodiversity strategy aims to put Europes biodiversity on the path to recovery by 2030 for the benefit of people, climate ... Introducing measures to tackle the global biodiversity challenge These measures will demonstrate that the EU is ready to lead ...
Amazing forest!!! Biodiversity! conservation! sustainable development! All are waiting for us. I went there with some local and ... In fact, Mergui Archipelago Biodiversity Research was initiated by a Swiss INGO, ECoSwiss, and then, in collaboration with the ... OIKOS, MSAM and BANCA, we have been doing Myeik Archipelago Biodiversity Research Programme. You can take a glane of our ...
The erosion of biodiversity and biomass in the Atlantic Forest biodiversity hotspot * The erosion of biodiversity and biomass ... High carbon and biodiversity costs from converting Africas wet savannahs to cropland * High carbon and biodiversity costs from ... Biodiversity Biodiversity is the variation in living forms and can be measured in ways that include the number of species, ... Biodiversity of key-stone phylotypes determines crop production in a 4-decade fertilization experiment * Biodiversity of key- ...
The Map of Biodiversity Importance from NatureServe provides mapped data about imperiled plant and animal species that can be ... NatureServe recently released its Map of Biodiversity Importance, accessible via ArcGIS Living Atlas of the World. ... Read this ArcGIS Blog post to learn more about the different Map of Biodiversity Importance data layers. ... The Map of Biodiversity Importance took the use of GIS, cloud computing, and AI at NatureServe to a new level. ...
This category is for questions about biodiversity, or species diversity, which is composed of genetic, species, and ecosystem ... Biodiversity. This category is for questions about biodiversity, or species diversity, which is composed of genetic, species, ... Three reasons why biodiversity is important is, 1. Importance to nature, 2. Biodiversity brings stability, and 3. Importance to ... 4. Because Biodiversity is declining and we need to understand why, how it is going to effect us all, if we are causing it or ...
Biodiversity and Conservation of Fruit Crops By N. D. Polara Paperback: List Price: $19.51 $17.56 , You Save: 10% ... Global Food Security and Biodiversity By Dr. Shyam S. Khinchi & Mrs.Meenu Tanwar Paperback: List Price: $20.96 $16.77 , You ... CLIMATE CHANGE AND BIODIVERSITY MANAGEMENT By Sabang Sajanikanta Mahavidyalaya, Lutunia, West Bengal. Paperback: $10.00 ... Biodiversity Conservation The level of rural development has impact in the priorities and choices of member states of European ...
As biodiversity continues to decline, so will natures ability to contribute to peoples quality of life. ... Beyond our protected acres, we also understand the value in inspiring others to protect biodiversity. Through collaborations ... and creating resilience within a changing climate-our North Star remains the protection of the rich tapestry of biodiversity ... we are protecting large blocks of land to preserve biodiversity and help source populations of sensitive species to thrive. ...
Sites of importance for the survival of these species, Key Biodiversity Areas, are also identified. This knowledge is used to ... Almost one-third of freshwater biodiversity face extinction, largely due to habitat loss, introduction of alien species, ...
Freshwater biodiversity. The Freshwater Biodiversity Unit aims to put in place a factual basis for efforts to conserve and ... Freshwater Biodiversity Unit Objectives:. *To build expertise and capacity on freshwater biodiversity through the establishment ... Freshwater biodiversity is facing unprecedented levels of threat. Through The River Bank we aim to raise awareness about these ... Demonstrate the link between biodiversity and livelihoods through interdisciplinary approaches.. For more information contact ...
The Dimensions of Biodiversity campaign takes a broad view of biodiversity that ranges from genes through species to ecosystems ... The Dimensions of Biodiversity program currently targets three fundamental dimensions of biodiversity -genetic diversity, ... Dimensions of Biodiversity FY2014. Program Solicitation NSF 14-525. Replaces Document(s):. NSF 13-536. National Science ... biodiversity management) are not eligible for funding. Projects that integrate multiple dimensions of biodiversity but largely ...
Urban places are rich in biodiversity. However, in most U.S. cities, considerations for biodiversity, equitable access to ... Moreover, the intersection of biodiversity, health, equity, and climate change are not yet fully understood by the City, its ... International cities have used various tools to achieve these goals: The City Biodiversity Index, Natural Assets Map, and ... What are your primary goals in creating a Biodiversity Assessment? Check all that apply. * ...
Weve adopted a strategy to halt the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services in the EU by 2020. ... EU Biodiversity Strategy for 2030 The European Commission has adopted the new EU Biodiversity Strategy for 2030 and an ... It aims to put Europes biodiversity on a path to recovery by 2030 with benefits for people, the climate and the planet. It is ... A core part of the European Green Deal, the Biodiversity Strategy will also support a green recovery following the pandemic. ...
We are in a biodiversity crisis. One million species are now at risk of extinction, and in New Zealand, we have the highest ... Biodiversity #Democracy #Fishing #Oceans Get the fish hooks out of Government Call on Jacinda Ardern to exclude NZ First MPs ... Biodiversity #Fishing #Oceans Ban Bottom Trawling on Seamounts At home and far out to sea, our oceans are being plundered for ... Biodiversity #Fishing #Oceans #Plastics Protect The Oceans From climate change and plastics, to deep sea mining and overfishing ...
The Ecology, Biodiversity, and Conservation series presents balanced, comprehensive, up-to-date, and critical reviews of ... It highlights the need to consider the value of biodiversity based on its use by each stakeholder, addresses the importance of ... In the face of ever-declining biodiversity, zoos have a major role to play in species conservation. Written by professionals ... In the face of decreasing biodiversity and ongoing global changes, maintaining ecosystem functioning is seen both as a means to ...
Articles containing facts and information on biodiversity issues based on scientific research. ... Want to learn more about biodiversity and biological diversity loss? ... Use biodiversity to combat climate change!. The influences of ecology are subtle. So far, few have realised that biodiversity, ... Biodiversity Progress Today. Here is the promised simple report on the first day of the big Korean Biodiversity convention. We ...
Get the table of contents of every new volume published in Biodiversity, Community and Ecosystems. ... causes and consequences of biodiversity, and the delivery of ecosystem services. This series aims to publish novel syntheses ... Relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem processes; Ecology of global environmental change; Biological invasions; ...
BIODIVERSITY 4a 6.6 12.8 15.1 15.5 IMPROVED URBAN ENVIRONMENT 8.9 11.1 11.7 12.b11.6 SANITATION 1.5 3.3 6.2 6.3 11.6 12.4 12.5 ... NATURE & BIODIVERSITY 4a 6.6 * BLUE MARBLE Dec 7 1972, Apollo 17 * Summary for Policymakers Climate Change and Land An IPCC ... NATURE & BIODIVERSITY 4a 6.6 12.8 15.1 15.5 IMPROVED URBAN ENVIRONMENT 8.9 11.1 11.7 12.b11.6 SANITATION 1.5 3.3 6.2 6.3 11.6 ... NATURE & BIODIVERSITY 4a 6.6 Keynote presentation: Mr. Henk Ovink, Special Envoy International Water Affairs, Government of the ...
CSR: Fostering Responsible Biodiversity Stewardship. by 3p Contributor. The 651 biosphere reserves spanning over 120 countries ...
Biodiversity and Native America questions the widespread view that indigenous peoples had minimal ecological impact in North ... and ... Biodiversity and Native America. Paul E. Minnis,Wayne J. Elisens. Limited preview - 2001. ... - Exploring the relationship between Native Americans and the natural world, Biodiversity and Native America ...
But biodiversity isnt just for "country" bees on farms. James Hung, who received NSF funding as a doctoral student and who ... NSF-funded researcher Rachael Winfree and her team at Rutgers University revealed just how important pollinator biodiversity is ... What can we do to protect biodiversity and help both our pollinator friends and ourselves at the same time? ... Researchers have found that this staggering biodiversity -- besides making our gardens and countryside beautiful -- is critical ...
Richard Wilding looks at the subject of biodiversity and why it is important for business ... Protecting biodiversity: Local and global policies - Duration: 10:40. California Academy of Sciences 12,411 views ... TEEB for Business-Biodiversity Impacts and Dependencies: TEEB @ Yale - Duration: 52:46. YaleUniversity 509 views ... Why is biodiversity so important? - Kim Preshoff - Duration: 4:19. TED-Ed 573,120 views ...
Alternative Measures of Biodiversity: Taxonomy, Phylogeny and Turnover: 7. Spatial scaling of microbial biodiversity Jessica ... Scaling Biodiversity. Series: Ecological Reviews. Edited by David Storch. Charles University, Prague. Pablo Marquet. Pontificia ... Scaling biodiversity under neutrality Luís Borda-de-Água, Stephen P. Hubbell and Fangliang He; 18. General patterns in plant ... Scaling Biodiversity presents new views on quantitative patterns of the biological diversity on earth and the processes ...
McGill professor Andrew Hendrys research on Darwins finches on the Galapagos Islands is cited as an example of how human impacts can disrupt evolution.
Biodiversity and You. Biodiversity and You. As the Earths population surges toward the 7 billion mark, the following twist on ... Thus, in todays highly evolved world, it takes biodiversity to sustain biodiversity." Its easy to spot other areas of life ... But the biodiversity crisis really accelerated, McKee establishes, at the onset of the agriculture age, some 10,000 years ago, ... Everyone needs sustenance, and mans taming of the land in the quest for food has dealt the greatest blow to biodiversity. But ...
Biodiversity Science McGill Postdoctoral fellow wins the Étudiants-chercheurs étoiles award and discusses his study in The ... Jean-Philippe Lessard, an ecologist and postdoctoral fellow at the Quebec Centre for Biodiversity Science at McGill University ...
This work is part of the PACES II Research Program at AWI, and of the Topic "Land Use, Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services" at ... 2017). Do drivers of biodiversity change differ in importance across marine and terrestrial systems-Or is it just different ... Knapp S., Kraberg A., Frickenhaus S., Klotz S., Schweiger O., Krause G. (2018) Linking Biodiversity Research Communities. In: ...
  • Biodiversity is the variety of life at genetic, species and ecosystem levels. (
  • Biodiversity at genetic, species and ecosystem levels helps address the challenges posed by diverse and changing environmental conditions and socio-economic circumstances. (
  • Diversifying production systems, for example by using multiple species, breeds or varieties, integrating the use of crop, livestock, forest and aquatic biodiversity, or promoting habitat diversity in the local landscape or seascape, helps to promote resilience, improve livelihoods and support food security and nutrition. (
  • Many key components of biodiversity for food and agriculture at genetic, species and ecosystem levels are in decline. (
  • 5. WHY IS BIODIVERSITY IMPORTANT?The extinction of one single species has plenty of noticeable consequences. (
  • The mission of the Map of Biodiversity Importance project is to h arness a rtificial intelligence (AI) and location technology to determine where our country ' s most at-risk species occur in order to help protect them. (
  • The Map of Biodiversity Importance collection consists of raster map layers that identify important areas for imperiled and critically imperiled plant and animal species in the contiguous United States. (
  • As Hamilton gave the audience a first look at the Map of Biodiversity Importance Richness of Imperiled Species in the United States map, s he explained where to find the habitats of the most imperiled plants and animals. (
  • This category is for questions about biodiversity, or species diversity, which is composed of genetic, species, and ecosystem diversity. (
  • scientific survey of the surrounding area, giving special attention to species which many people overlook, but which contribute to the balance of biodiversity. (
  • In places like the Grand River Grasslands in Northwestern Missouri and throughout the Ozarks, we are protecting large blocks of land to preserve biodiversity and help source populations of sensitive species to thrive. (
  • Stewarding these landscapes using controlled burns and invasive species removal, we can reduce carbon, restore habitats and increase biodiversity. (
  • Almost one-third of freshwater biodiversity face extinction, largely due to habitat loss, introduction of alien species, pollution, and over-harvesting. (
  • Sites of importance for the survival of these species, Key Biodiversity Areas, are also identified. (
  • To conserve and manage freshwater biodiversity, the FBU works in conjunction with the SSC's Specialist Groups (including the IUCN/SSC/WI Freshwater Fish Specialist Group , the Freshwater Plant Specialist Group, the Dragonfly SG and the Mollusc SG ), the Species Information Service, the Global Amphibian Assessment Programme , regional scientists, experts in freshwater biodiversity and policy makers. (
  • This book brings together leading conservation practitioners to reflect on their response to the current global biodiversity crisis, through the lens of island species recovery and management. (
  • It was delineated by the presence of many species of dipterocarp, entwined with rattans and delicious fruiting trees, all set off with the huge biodiversity of tigers and elephant, Orang-utan and civets. (
  • Winfree's team found that although a few dominant species are critical at smaller scales, when an entire region is considered, a high level of biodiversity is needed to ensure farmers' crops receive adequate pollination services. (
  • Species-Energy Relationship and the Latitudinal Biodiversity Gradient: 11. (
  • He argues that preserving biodiversity is essential to the health of the planet, and consequently the long-term survival of the human species. (
  • The draft regulations take biodiversity damage to mean protected species, natural habitats and sites of special scientific interest (SSSIs). (
  • Biodiversity boosts ecosystem productivity where each species, no matter how small, all have an important role to play. (
  • The paper combines an economic-geography model of agglomeration and periphery with a model of species diversity and looks at optimal policies of biodiversity conservation. (
  • We combine a new economic geography model of agglomeration and dispersion of economic activity with an ecological-economic model of species diversity to examine optimal policies of biodiversity conservation in a two-region world. (
  • The real question is this: why should we care about biodiversity and the long-term survival of all manner of plant and animal species? (
  • Similarly, a loss of plant species in grasslands has been shown to lead to long-term drops in the production of biomass, while diminishing biodiversity even in the out-of-sight world of deep-sea ecosystems may have significant detrimental impacts on entire oceans. (
  • Here we present data from a new 5-y study of a tropical freshwater ecosystem showing that change in the two dimensions of biodiversity-assemblage diversity (number and abundance of species) and assemblage composition-is decoupled from and uncorrelated among taxa. (
  • Despite being billed as the most intelligent of all species, human beings are known to have deliberately or otherwise, disturbed biodiversity. (
  • The term 'Biodiversity' refers to the abundance and diversity of life in a particular area and, in Glasgow, these green spaces create habitats for thousands of different species. (
  • Strathclyde has committed to championing biodiversity on a senior level, which has been captured in our Biodiversity Policy that links to species monitoring, grounds management, developing partnerships and promoting wellbeing. (
  • This selection highlights leading research from the disciplines of genetics and evolution of species richness, to conservation and biodiversity informatics. (
  • With Australia's biodiversity in steep decline, CSIRO researchers are leading the efforts to build fundamental knowledge on the nature, extent and history of our native species. (
  • We'll talk a lot about biodiversity this fall at UCLouvain but from an angle that is not often assumed: focusing on the interactions - we wouldn't dare write 'synergies' - between causes of species decline. (
  • The report lists 35 biodiversity 'hot spots' (including the Mediterranean basin, coral reefs, and the tropical forests in the news this summer), which represent only about 2% of the earth's surface but are home to 75% of threatened animal species. (
  • Biodiversity is the degree of variation of life This can refer to genetic variation, species variation, or ecosystem variation within an area, biome , or planet . (
  • But biodiversity is much more than that, for it encompasses not only the diversity of species, but also the diversity within species. (
  • Unless we appreciate the critical role that intra-species biodiversity plays in the survival of species, we risk seeing extinction as a numbers game, as something that happens when the last individual dies. (
  • In addition, the work on many cross-cutting issues, such as Biodiversity for Development, Climate Change and Biodiversity, Economics and Incentive Measures, Health & Biodiversity, Impact Assessment, Invasive Alien Species, and Biodiversity and Tourism Development, have direct relevance to mainstreaming. (
  • Biodiversity refers to the variety inherent in life-both the genetic variety within single species and the 'species variety' within ecosystems. (
  • Development that's led to loss of habitat, climate change, overfishing, pollution and invasive species is causing a biodiversity crisis, scientists say in a new United Nations science report released Monday, May 6, 2019. (
  • You may go your entire life without seeing an endangered species, yet the globe's biodiversity crisis threatens all of humanity in numerous unseen or unrecognized ways, scientists say. (
  • People may think of biodiversity or endangered species as something detached from their daily lives. (
  • Encouraging biodiversity does not insist on allowing every plant or animal species free range of your land. (
  • The paper goes on to argue that sharing of biodiversity data must be the expected norm, and that data should only be withheld in exceptional circumstances when precise localities need to be protected, for example in cases involving marketable plants or animals, or for species of special concern. (
  • Lauren leads a backyard biodiversity exploration to conduct an audit of local plants, animals, and insect species found in her garden and backyard in. (
  • About 90% of the species in Madagascar's rainforests are found nowhere else on Earth, but efforts to save the island nation's forests are about more than conserving biodiversity. (
  • Projects that contribute to the University's vision for biodiversity include focused work on mapping species , such as hedgehogs, and wider initiatives looking at g eodiversity and conservation , and biophilia and placemaking . (
  • Biodiversity is the name given to the variety of ecosystems (natural capital), species and genes in the world or in a particular habitat. (
  • The scarce lime bark beetle Ernoporus tiliae is classed as a Red Data Book category 1 species and is listed as a Priority species in the UK Biodiversity Action Plan due to its apparent decline in post war years. (
  • Myanmar is a globally recognized biodiversity hotspot that supports many species unique to Southeast Asia. (
  • According to the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, the main drivers for biodiversity impact are habitat change (land use change), over-exploitation, invasive alien species, pollution and climate change. (
  • Unlike nonscientists, biologists don't think of biodiversity strictly in terms of the number of species found on Earth. (
  • In fact, the variety of living things found across the planet -- also known as species diversity or species richness -- is just one part of biodiversity. (
  • Perhaps the biggest benefit of biodiversity isn't what compounds an individual species carries in its cells , but how that species fits together and interacts with other species in its ecosystem and how that ecosystem works with others across the world. (
  • As the search for wild species whose genes can yield new medicines and better crops gathers speed, these rich habitats also sport more and more specimens of a relatively new breed--the biodiversity prospector. (
  • Biodiversity is a measure of variation at the genetic, species, and ecosystem level. (
  • and 2021-2030 as the United Nations Decade on Ecosystem Restoration, According to a 2019 Global Assessment Report on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services by IPBES 25% of plant and animal species are threatened with extinction as the result of human activity. (
  • Based on information provided by 91 countries and 27 international organizations, analysis of global literature and datasets, and contributions from over 175 authors and reviewers, The State of the World's Biodiversity for Food and Agriculture assesses biodiversity for food and agriculture and its management worldwide. (
  • However, all around the world, much of the world's marine biodiversity face threats from human and activities as well as natural. (
  • Thirty months after the convention was signed by most of the world's governments, fewer than a dozen countries have submitted national plans for protecting their biodiversity, one of the central commitments of the convention. (
  • The world's biodiversity is under unprecedented threat due to human activities, yet we have an incomplete understanding of ecosystem change in response to these pressures. (
  • A UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs report released in April this year says that around 1.6 billion people worldwide depend directly on forests for food, shelter, energy, medicines and income: "Progress in protecting the world's forests-and the people who rely on them-is at risk due to the devastating impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic and the escalating climate and biodiversity crises. (
  • As we consume natural resources we are reducing the world's biodiversity and ecosystems at an unsustainable rate, and this is already starting to have serious socio-economic impacts that ultimately affect our well-being. (
  • European Commission President Ursula von der Leyen has said that biodiversity needs a Paris Agreement - COP15 in autumn this year is the world's chance to achieve that, writes Bas Eickhout. (
  • If biotech seed companies were to penetrate the markets of non-industrialized countries, their seeds would replace thousands of locally grown and adapted varieties resulting in a significant loss of the world's agricultural biodiversity. (
  • The authors define a data publishing framework as an environment conducive to ensuring free and open access to the world's primary biodiversity data: "The core purpose of the framework is to overcome barriers or impediments affecting access to data and the publishing of data. (
  • In 2002, the world's governments agreed to significantly slow the rate of biodiversity loss by 2010. (
  • Although many institutions around the world are pioneering this new field, the report focuses on Costa Rica's National Biodiversity Institute (INBio) because its arrangement with Merck & Co., Ltd.--the world's largest pharmaceutical firm--represents new ways to promote conservation, as well as manage information and inventory. (
  • They gathered scientists from around the world to contribute to the first comprehensive report on the state of the world's biodiversity. (
  • It is the proposal for the EU's contribution to the upcoming international negotiations on the global post-2020 biodiversity framework. (
  • The goal of the Dimensions of Biodiversity campaign is to transform, by 2020, how we describe and understand the scope and role of life on Earth. (
  • From April 19-22, 2020, NatureServe will host the Biodiversity Without Boundaries Conference in Richmond, Virginia. (
  • In 2011 the EU committed itself to halting the loss of biodiversity and the degradation of ecosystem services in the EU by 2020. (
  • The new global and EU targets to halt and reverse biodiversity loss by 2020 are ambitious and achieving them will require better policy implementation, coordination across sectors, ecosystem management approaches and a wider understanding of the value of biodiversity. (
  • The EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020 will help further integrate biodiversity needs into the development and implementation of sectoral policies. (
  • The Biodiversity Strategy to 2020 helps deliver the natural capital objective of the Seventh Environmental Action Programme ( 7th EAP ) to 2020, "Living well, within the limits of our planet", which came into force in January 2014 and will guide European environment policy until 2020. (
  • Halting the loss of biodiversity and the degradation of ecosystem services in the EU by 2020, and restoring them in so far as feasible, while stepping up the EU contribution to averting global biodiversity loss. (
  • The Biodiversity Strategy to 2020 follows on from the 2006 EU Biodiversity Action Plan, learning lessons from its implementation and raising the level of ambition. (
  • In addition, it was triggered by and is fully in line with the UN Convention on Biological Diversity, which is the most important global biodiversity policy dedicated to halting the loss of biodiversity and with it the loss of ecosystem services by 2020. (
  • The United Nations designated 2011-2020 as the United Nations Decade on Biodiversity. (
  • An October 2020 IPBES report found the same human actions which drive biodiversity loss have also resulted in an increase in pandemics. (
  • Understanding these linkages also has considerable relevance to understanding conservation biology, causes and consequences of biodiversity, and the delivery of ecosystem services. (
  • This work is part of the PACES II Research Program at AWI, and of the Topic "Land Use, Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services" at UFZ. (
  • Ocean biodiversity is already being affected as are other parts of the ecosystem. (
  • One type of ecosystem that perhaps is neglected more than any other is perhaps also the richest in biodiversity-the coral reefs. (
  • Biodiversity is the foundation for numerous ecosystem services, for example air quality, climate, pollination, water purification and soil formation. (
  • Biodiversity is the basis of various ecosystem services, such as the availability of clean water and renewable resources or the preservation of air, water and soil quality. (
  • President Juan Manuel Santos opened the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) meeting in Medellin by stating that protecting biodiversity is 'as important as fighting climate change. (
  • Exploring everything from Ecosystem Services and the Assessments Landscape to the latest in biodiversity data management, BWB 2012 provided a rich array of opportunities to form and refresh both solutions and relationships. (
  • The Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services ( IPBES ) condemned the crash in its May report. (
  • Both biodiversity and ecosystem services are under pressure from a rising world population, demand for higher living standards and increased industrial activity. (
  • Biodiversity is essential to humankind, for it is the foundation for our food, clean air, soil quality and other ecosystem services. (
  • At Rio+20 we will continue to make the links between sustainable development and the biodiversity and ecosystem services which underpin it, focusing on the additional issues now being addressed, such as the health of oceans and food security - Helen Clark . (
  • The Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) report points to more than 2,500 wars and other conflicts over fossil fuels, water, food and land to show how important nature is. (
  • We believe that implementation of our recommendations by the GBIF network, and its adoption by similar initiatives such as GEO-BON (Global Earth Observation - Biodiversity Observation Network), IPBES (Intergovernmental Science-Policy Interface on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services) and CBD (Convention on Biological Diversity), will contribute to a much needed global research infrastructure and specifically to an open access regime in biodiversity and conservation science. (
  • Biodiversity not only contributes to wellbeing, but also provides vital ecosystem services for climate change mitigation and adaptation. (
  • Biodiversity is also crucial to ecosystem services - the services that nature supplies - such as pollination, climate regulation, flood protection, soil fertility and the production of food, fuel, fibre and medicines. (
  • By 2050, European Union biodiversity and the ecosystem services it provides - its natural capital - are protected, valued and appropriately restored for biodiversity's intrinsic value and for their essential contribution to human wellbeing and economic prosperity, and so that catastrophic changes caused by the loss of biodiversity are avoided. (
  • Having a rich variety of ecosystems, what biologists call ecosystem diversity , constitutes another important level of biodiversity. (
  • Written by a team of leading experts in ecology who present their most recent and innovative views, readers will be provided with what is the state of art in current ecology and biodiversity science. (
  • The UCL Centre for Biodiversity and Environment Research (CBER), Research Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment (GEE), is seeking to recruit an outstanding individual developing world-class research in an area of ecology. (
  • BMC Ecology expands scope (BMC Ecology 2010, 10:16) BMC Ecology has always been open to a wide range of topics from biodiversity research and in this 2010 International Year of Biodiversity we are keen to emphasise biodiversity studies within the scope of the journal. (
  • Biodiversity Without Boundaries 2015 brought together nearly 200 scientists, natural resource managers, and corporate and public decision-makers to discuss the most pressing conservation issues of today-issues including climate change, land conservation, freshwater and marine protection, forest ecology and management, data sharing, and emerging technologies. (
  • Caroline Nieberding, a professor at the Biodiversity Research Centre ( ELIB ) and the head of the UCLouvain 'Evolutionary ecology and genetics' team, neither minces words nor settles for talk. (
  • Ecology student, in partnership with Youghal Tidy Towns, completed a study into the factors that effect Ballyvergan Marsh, supporting the community's local biodiversity action plan. (
  • Led by Conservation Ecology Center scientist Melissa Songer, the initiative leverages institution-wide expertise and resources to study and conserve the biodiversity of Myanmar through research and capacity building. (
  • Biodiversity Informatics is the application of informatics techniques to biodiversity information, such as taxonomy, biogeography or ecology. (
  • These measures will demonstrate that the EU is ready to lead by example to address the global biodiversity crisis. (
  • We are in a biodiversity crisis. (
  • But the biodiversity crisis really accelerated, McKee establishes, at the onset of the agriculture age, some 10,000 years ago, when humans enjoyed unprecedented growth. (
  • Blog: Time for Nature - Is a global public health crisis what it takes to protect the planet's biodiversity? (
  • The initiative brings community expertise together with academia to collaborate and build capacity to address Ireland's biodiversity crisis. (
  • An international team of researchers has mapped where human activity has had the most impact on the natural environment leading to a "biodiversity crisis. (
  • 1. WHAT IS BIODIVERSITY?The variety of diverse living beings in a specific area.BIO means life.DIVERSITY means variety or abundance. (
  • In particular, working towards the successful adoption of an ambitious global biodiversity framework under the Convention on Biological Diversity. (
  • We value nature ' s diversity, " Healy Hamilton, chief scientist at NatureServe, said in unveiling the Map of Biodiversity Importance to the public at the Esri Federal GIS Conference in Washington, DC , in February. (
  • The scale of the unknown diversity on Earth is especially troubling given the rapid and permanent loss of biodiversity across the globe. (
  • This campaign seeks to characterize biodiversity on Earth by using integrative, innovative approaches to fill the most substantial gaps in our understanding of the diversity of life on Earth. (
  • Among city networks, ICLEI holds a unique leadership role as the focal point for local and regional governments in the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), providing ICLEI USA members with access to a plethora of biodiversity, including the CitiesWithNature platform. (
  • Measures to tackle the global biodiversity challenge , demonstrating that the EU is ready to lead by example towards the successful adoption of an ambitious global biodiversity framework under the Convention on Biological Diversity. (
  • Scaling Biodiversity presents new views on quantitative patterns of the biological diversity on earth and the processes responsible for them. (
  • The variety of life on Earth, its biological diversity is commonly referred to as biodiversity. (
  • The February 1999 Biodiversity Protocol meeting in Colombia broke down because USA, not even a signatory to the Convention on Biological Diversity, to which the protocol is meant to be part of, and five other countries of the "Miami Group" felt that their business interests were threatened. (
  • As stability in community size could be underpinned by marked temporal turnover, a key question is the extent to which changes in both biodiversity dimensions (temporal α- and temporal β-diversity) covary within and among the assemblages that comprise natural communities. (
  • To celebrate 2010 as the United Nations International Year of Biodiversity and the importance of sharing our knowledge of the diversity of the natural world, we present a cross journal thematic series of open access biodiversity research. (
  • While the Convention on Biological Diversity has long recognised the importance of biodiversity and the need to conserve and sustainably use it, two of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals now explicitly focus on terrestrial and on marine ecosystems. (
  • Simply put, biodiversity includes the entire diversity of all life forms on earth. (
  • Protecting biodiversity means protecting mankind because we human beings depend fundamentally on the diversity of the living," UNESCO Director-General Audrey Azoulay said in announcing the report in Paris. (
  • The 1992 UN Conference on the Environment and Development marked a major step forward for the conservation of biodiversity and the protection of nature thanks to the adoption of the Convention on Biological Diversity. (
  • On a global scale, however, biological diversity -- or biodiversity -- is vitally important to the health of our planet and humanity. (
  • Biodiversity is a contraction of biological diversity. (
  • The period since the emergence of humans has displayed an ongoing biodiversity reduction and an accompanying loss of genetic diversity. (
  • Integrating biodiversity into our sustainability management tools. (
  • image: Logo for the Global Soil Biodiversity Initiative, a global collaboration of scientists to inform the public, transform soil science into environmental policy and create a platform for the current and future sustainability of soils. (
  • Biodiversity is a non-detachable part of the concept of sustainability. (
  • Biodiversity has been championed at the College of Medicine & Veterinary Medicine in the form of several projects including an animated sustainability map, the Easter Bush Campus Apiary and vegetable garden managed by staff and students. (
  • The huge role biodiversity plays in the sustainability of our world and our lives makes its ongoing loss all the more troubling. (
  • Tinkering is unlikely to be an answer to the continuing loss of biodiversity from every single habitat on land and water. (
  • Through concrete commitments and actions, the EU aims to restore degraded ecosystems by 2030 and manage them sustainably, addressing the key drivers of biodiversity loss. (
  • Deforestation results in the Loss of Biodiversity. (
  • An EU Nature Restoration Plan - a series of concrete commitments and actions to restore degraded ecosystems across the EU by 2030, and manage them sustainably, addressing the key drivers of biodiversity loss. (
  • Man-made disturbances to habitats are creating problems for pollinator communities, including significant biodiversity loss. (
  • Until now, there has been a dearth of literature linking human population growth and biodiversity loss. (
  • Read " Loss of Biodiversity and Extinctions " to learn more. (
  • In April 2002, the Parties to the Convention committed to significantly reduce the loss of biodiversity loss by 2010. (
  • This page provides an overview on how the attempts to prevent biodiversity loss is progressing. (
  • Read " Addressing Biodiversity Loss " to learn more. (
  • Rockstrom's work on planetary boundaries, the limits to which Earth's systems can safely operate show we may have already massively overreached the planet's ability to meet social needs when it comes to biodiversity loss (see graph below). (
  • We hope that this will help inform policy decisions to stem the loss of biodiversity and the fundamental services it provides us with,' chief scientist Tom Brooks of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature told AFP. (
  • Before the pandemic, many countries were working hard to reverse native forest loss and increase protected areas designated for biodiversity conservation," wrote UN Secretary-General António Guterres in the report's foreword. (
  • Our indigenous biodiversity faces many threats, including loss associated with development. (
  • New Zealand's indigenous biodiversity faces many threats, including loss associated with development and other activities that use natural resources. (
  • Biodiversity offsetting can play an important role in addressing this loss by providing a robust and transparent process to manage impacts and enhance biodiversity in New Zealand. (
  • It is a way to ensure that development causes no net loss, by enhancing the state of biodiversity elsewhere. (
  • Where possible, impacts of development on biodiversity that cannot be avoided, remedied or mitigated at one site (impact site) are 'offset' by enhancing a separate nearby site (offset site), to achieve no net loss or a net gain in biodiversity. (
  • In the right circumstances, biodiversity offsets can provide for no net loss and ultimately a net gain for biodiversity while economic development continues. (
  • Biodiversity offsetting has emerged globally as a response to this loss with the aim of achieving no net loss or a net biodiversity gain. (
  • The European Union's bid to tackle biodiversity loss goes hand in hand with the new ambition of making the food system more sustainable, involving several farming aspects. (
  • Deforestation, urbanisation, industrialisation, pollution and climate change all contribute to the alarming loss of biodiversity. (
  • The loss of biodiversity threatens our very existence, and there is no time to waste in diverting this downward spiral. (
  • How detrimental is loss of biodiversity? (
  • Grand Canyon National Park , south rim of canyon - Although biodiversity loss continues globally , many countries are significantly slowing the rate of loss by shoring up protected natural areas and the services they provide, and in expanding national park systems with tighter management and more secure funding. (
  • Although biodiversity loss continues globally , many countries are significantly slowing the rate of loss by shoring up protected natural areas and the services they provide, and in expanding national park systems with tighter management and more secure funding. (
  • This accelerated pace of biodiversity loss is a direct result of human activity and constitutes a direct threat to human well-being all across the world. (
  • While we strive to address the risks of biodiversity loss, we also look for opportunities for positive impact. (
  • While climate change is a key driver of biodiversity loss, protecting biodiversity can make substantial contributions to climate change mitigation and adaptation. (
  • Climate change and biodiversity loss are equally huge environmental problems that make each other worse, report chairman Robert Watson said. (
  • Despite numerous government pledges, biodiversity loss is accelerating in all regions of the world. (
  • The EU has played an important international role in seeking solutions to biodiversity loss, climate change and the destruction of tropical rainforests. (
  • We are, however, currently witnessing a steady loss of biodiversity, which has profound consequences for the natural world and for human well-being. (
  • Although it has been acknowledged at various levels that the target to halt biodiversity loss has not yet been met, setting such a target has certainly increased public awareness. (
  • Since 2001, policies addressing biodiversity loss and indicators assessing progress have improved significantly. (
  • The scientists believe that this is strong evidence supporting the assumption that temperature is actually more decisive for distribution patterns of overall biodiversity than productivity or size of habitats. (
  • In this new synthesis, based on a survey of published and unpublished data, the team of researchers analyzed the habitats and biodiversity of well-developed OMZs in the Arabian Sea, eastern Pacific and Bay of Bengal. (
  • Despite the value of biodiversity, it is under significant threat. (
  • When most people think of biodiversity, they think of verdant Amazonian rainforests or vibrant coral reefs in tropical seas. (
  • Implementing projects to encourage the protection of biodiversity at the local level. (
  • Since 1992, the LIFE programme has been the most important financial instrument for the protection of biodiversity and forests in the EU. (
  • I am happy that since many years Germany is a close partner of the Philippines in the fight against climate change and in the protection of biodiversity. (
  • Also the European Union has an important regional program for the protection of biodiversity. (
  • The situation has not been ameliorated by a new UN-backed report, The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity , which highlighted the huge economic benefits for all from conserving key ecosystems . (
  • In the post-COVID context, the Biodiversity Strategy aims to build our societies' resilience to future threats such as climate change impacts, forest fires, food insecurity or disease outbreaks, including by protecting wildlife and fighting illegal wildlife trade. (
  • The purpose of biodiversity offsetting is to counter-balance the unavoidable impacts that development activities have on biodiversity. (
  • Offsetting considers and addresses the impacts that development activities have on biodiversity, after first avoiding, minimising and remedying any negative effects. (
  • It filters the air, water and soil-moreover, biodiversity cushions climate change and impacts health. (
  • Robust biodiversity baseline and monitoring data are crucial in understanding transaction-level biodiversity impacts, and needed for aligning with international best practices like IFC Performance Standard 6. (
  • In the latest, and last, issue of Nature Reports Climate Change, Hannah Hoag reports on some of the most promising efforts underway to protect biodiversity against rising temperature and other impacts of climate change. (
  • Conversely, biodiversity positively impacts human health in a number of ways, although a few negative effects are studied. (
  • Every year, teams of scientists conduct biodiversity surveys in different areas of the park. (
  • Among other things, scientists increasingly understand the impact human activities are having on global biodiversity. (
  • Some of the more than 100 scientists involved in writing the UN-FAO report, "State of Knowledge of Soil Biodiversity: Status, Challenges, and Potentialities" will discuss why they volunteered to be a contributor, why it is important to contribute scientific knowledge to policy, and their thoughts on the importance of this report for the future of research and policy. (
  • The highly regarded gathering of scientists, resource managers, data managers, decision-makers, and all-around solution-finders was a can't-miss event for biodiversity conservation professionals. (
  • The IPBES is to biodiversity what the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is to climate: a group of international experts, scientists and political representatives who evaluate and synthesise recent scientific publications (more than 15,000 in this case) in various fields to generate an overview of the (ecological as well as socio-political) threats to ecosystems. (
  • The purpose of the conference is to engage IPCC and IPBES leaders - climate scientists, land use experts, environmentalists, and experts on proposed technological solutions - to see how interactions can affect the evolution of biodiversity. (
  • The French Bee Biodiversity Network numbers over 300 partners, including scientists, beekeepers, farmers and private companies. (
  • From within numerous disciplines, our ecologists, soil experts, plant and animal scientists, behavioural scientists, transition scientists and other experts study biodiversity issues that affect land, freshwater systems and the seas. (
  • The authors of the paper conclude: "Implementation of these recommendations should expedite the progress of archiving, curation, discovery and publishing of primary biodiversity data, because scientists and originators of data will realize the value and incentives for such efforts. (
  • It also encompasses what is known as "associated biodiversity", the vast range of organisms that live in and around food and agricultural production systems 1 , sustaining them and contributing to their output. (
  • And it's very clear that some areas are key areas both for the biodiversity and for agricultural development, such as basins, river valleys, which are oases with the best soil and where the soils can be watered. (
  • biodiversity is essential for agricultural production, as agriculture should be for biodiversity conservation. (
  • In fact, several of these are directly related to agricultural biodiversity, and indeed to the issue of new crops. (
  • Then I shall explore the main trends in the appreciation, conservation and sustainable use of what is termed agricultural biodiversity. (
  • Soil and biodiversity are important for a future-proof agricultural sector . (
  • ING has identified the industrial, infrastructure, agricultural and extractives sectors to be most exposed to biodiversity risk. (
  • The Conference of the Parties (COP) has also established seven thematic programmes of work which contain provisions closely related to the mainstreaming of biodiversity, for instance in the programmes of work on Agricultural Biodiversity, Forest Biodiversity and Inland Waters Biodiversity. (
  • Today, both forms of agricultural biodiversity are receding in the face of commercial production, which usually demands a high degree of uniformity. (
  • [2] There are a number of ways, though, that you can help protect biodiversity - through reducing your use and the agricultural use of pesticides, changing your consumption habits, and advocating knowledgeably to the right people about the need for change. (
  • This in turn has resulted in the collapse of many practices (e.g. traditional agricultural methods) that helped to maintain biodiversity-rich landscapes. (
  • These summaries must be officially adopted in Medellin before being sent to IPBES member states to guide policymaking in areas that affect biodiversity -- everything from transport and infrastructure to farming, water management and education. (
  • 2017). Do drivers of biodiversity change differ in importance across marine and terrestrial systems-Or is it just different research communities' perspectives? (
  • Terrestrial biodiversity tends to be highest near the equator , which seems to be the result of the warm climate and high primary productivity. (
  • Terrestrial biodiversity is usually greater near the equator, which is the result of the warm climate and high primary productivity. (
  • Biodiversity informatics (different but linked to bioinformatics) is the application of information technology methods to the problems of organizing, accessing, visualizing and analyzing primary biodiversity data. (
  • Primary biodiversity data is composed of names, observations and records of specimens, and genetic and morphological data associated to a specimen. (
  • The Freshwater Biodiversity Unit aims to put in place a factual basis for efforts to conserve and manage freshwater biodiversity. (
  • Biodiversity would collapse because coral is the main food source for countless numbers of marine life and if coral died, the marine life that thrives on coral would die as well. (
  • THE Biodiversity Convention, one of the main outcomes of the Earth Summit, is floundering after a first meeting of the convention signatories which finished in the Bahamas last week. (
  • Kuratov said the development of the hydrocarbon industry in the Caspian basin and the lack of enforcement of existing environmental legislation are the two main factors responsible for the degradation of biodiversity in Kazakhstan. (
  • Local biodiversity working groups were established and each community developed bespoke five-year biodiversity action plans to complement the main renewal plans. (
  • Biodiversity is defined as the natural variety and variability among living organisms , the ecological complexes among living organisms, the ecological complexes in which they naturally occur, and the ways in which they interact with each other and with the physical environment rooted in biological science . (
  • Biodiversity reflects the number, variety and variability of living organisms. (
  • Biodiversity is the biological variety and variability of life on Earth. (
  • Despite centuries of discovery, most of our planet's biodiversity remains unknown. (
  • Parties to the Convention and numerous stakeholders have already undertaken significant efforts and made progress in mainstreaming biodiversity but recognize the importance to make further progress, namely to have the mainstreaming of biodiversity implemented by governments, the private sector, indigenous peoples and local communities, and other major groups and stakeholders across cross-cutting and sectorial policies. (
  • Mainstreaming Biodiversity: A Real Solution to the Devastation of Nature? (
  • The Biodiversity Heritage Library (BHL) is a large digital archive of legacy biological literature, comprising over 31 million pages scanned from books, monographs, and journals. (
  • Whether we consciously realize it or not, the biodiversity with which we are most familiar, and the biodiversity with which we have most intimate historical , cultural and biological connections, is that associated with food plants . (
  • Whether we consciously realize it or not, the biodiversity with which we are most familiar, and the biodiversity with which we have most intimate historical , cultural and biological connections, is that associated with food plants .We all know that apples come in red, yellow and green models, and we know some of the varietal names. (
  • The EU's biodiversity strategy for 2030 is a comprehensive, ambitious and long-term plan to protect nature and reverse the degradation of ecosystems. (
  • The strategy aims to put Europe's biodiversity on a path to recovery by 2030, and contains specific actions and commitments. (
  • The biodiversity strategy aims to put Europe's biodiversity on the path to recovery by 2030 for the benefit of people, climate and the planet. (
  • LinkedIn live with Commissioner Virginijus SINKEVIČIUS on the EU 2030 Biodiversity Strategy and Europe's green recovery. (
  • The European Commission has adopted the new EU Biodiversity Strategy for 2030 and an associated Action Plan (annex) - a comprehensive, ambitious, long-term plan for protecting nature and reversing the degradation of ecosystems. (
  • We have a key partnership with Conservation International's Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, with which we are working to undertake regional and global freshwater assessments. (
  • The Biodiversity Heritage Library improves research methodology by collaboratively making biodiversity literature openly available to the world as part of a global biodiversity community. (
  • Despite numerous successful conservations measures supporting biodiversity, the 2010 biodiversity target has not been met at the global level. (
  • The webinar series is sponsored by the Global Soil Biodiversity Initiative. (
  • Although the all-pervading influence of human action in modifying biodiversity is widely recognized, and the Global Biodiversity Assessment (Heywood 1985) included a whole section on this topic, the complexity of the social, cultural, ethical, religious, and other human interactions with biodiversity and agroecological systems. (
  • Yet global trends in biodiversity continue to decline. (
  • The global biodiversity, food and climate issues cannot be considered separately and can only be solved through an integral (evidence-based) scientific approach. (
  • WUR aims to lead as a global unifier in developing new innovations and integrated solutions to restore biodiversity in a sustainable and just manner. (
  • Georgia is part of the global biodiversity hotspot of the Caucasus Ecoregion , with a network of Protected Areas covering seven per cent of the country. (
  • But global warming is likely to exacerbate oxygen depletion and thereby reduce biodiversity in these regions, they warn. (
  • The global Paris Agreement on climate change reached in December 2015 to mitigate the effects of climate change and the subsequent EU legislation to implement the agreement are expected to have a positive impact on the preservation of biodiversity and forests in the decades to come. (
  • In the daily hustle and bustle of the busy and exciting city life in Manila it is easy to forget that the Philippines is one of the most important global hotspots for biodiversity. (
  • The country benefits as well from 10 regional and 28 global projects with a focus on climate change and biodiversity. (
  • Biodiversity also exists in ecosystems, from forests to fields and from deserts to coral reefs. (
  • To many people, 'biodiversity' is almost synonymous with the word ' nature ,' and 'nature' brings to mind steamy forests and the big creatures that dwell there. (
  • It takes a broad view of biodiversity, and currently focuses on the integration of genetic, taxonomic/phylogenetic, and functional dimensions of biodiversity. (
  • Valuing Biodiversity from an Economic Perspective: A Unified Economic, Ecological, and Genetic Approach ," American Economic Review , American Economic Association, pages 1597-1614. (
  • Valuing Biodiversity from an Economic Perspective: AUnified Economic, Ecological and Genetic Approach ," Working Papers 0301, University of Crete, Department of Economics. (
  • Valuing biodiversity from an economic perspective : a unified economic, ecological and genetic approach ," Working papers 17, Wisconsin Madison - Social Systems. (
  • The Convention text itself contains several relevant provisions such as the second and third objectives of the Convention on the sustainable use of biodiversity and its components, and on the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources for example. (
  • What 'doing right' means in this context is the central question of Biodiversity Prospecting: Using Genetic Resources for Sustainable Development , by WRI Vice President Walter V. Reid and seven of his colleagues, here at WRI and elsewhere. (
  • Several countries with the richest biodiversity, such as Brazil, are this week refusing to sign up to new targets unless there is also a deal on sharing the cash benefits from the exploitation of their genetic resources by western corporations such as drugs companies. (
  • Last year, the platform published five reports on the state of biodiversity in several regions, such as Europe-Asia. (
  • Thank you very much for sharing this valuable legacy for the new generations of biologists, taxonomists and naturalists interested in the study of biodiversity and conservation of fauna and flora around the world. (
  • Such a double whammy of failure in international environment negotiations could effectively mark the end of an era of optimism about environmental diplomacy that began at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 , when the original climate and biodiversity conventions were both agreed. (
  • We work closely with our partner organisations to ensure a consistent approach to biodiversity monitoring and conservation across the country. (
  • Demonstrate the link between biodiversity and livelihoods through interdisciplinary approaches. (
  • The link between biodiversity and our daily lives isn't clear or immediate, especially here in Europe. (
  • This book is useful for the students as well amateure who are interested in conservation of biodiversity. (
  • As biodiversity continues to decline, so will nature's ability to contribute to people's quality of life. (
  • Our research is helping to underpin a national effort to halt biodiversity decline and to manage Australia's unique and diverse ecosystems. (
  • And the consequences for us of the decline in biodiversity elsewhere, in the tropics, in the oceans, are still poorly documented. (
  • Thanks to this unique pooling of knowledge, WUR has assumed a leading role in halting the decline of biodiversity. (
  • As a part of the Indo-Burma region this island is considered to be one of the "biodiversity hotspots" of the world. (
  • Biodiversity generally tends to cluster in hotspots and has been increasing through time but will be likely to slow in the future . (
  • The EU will enlarge existing Natura 2000 areas, with strict protection for areas of very high biodiversity and climate value. (
  • Establishing a larger EU-wide network of protected areas on land and at sea , building upon existing Natura 2000 areas, with strict protection for areas of very high biodiversity and climate value. (
  • But its work is being coordinated by Canada and Malaysia, two leading timber producing nations heavily criticised by conservationists for their destruction of natural forest biodiversity. (
  • However, forest biodiversity is increasingly threatened as a result of deforestation, fragmentation, climate change and other stressors. (
  • Disruptions to these connections, however, reduce biodiversity and threaten human health, livelihood and survival. (
  • We are a member of the finance workstream of the EU [email protected] platform , which is an EU-led initiative that aims to support financial institutions integrate biodiversity risks and opportunities. (
  • But our own country harbors globally significant biodiversity. (
  • Others regard the Convention as providing incentives for countries to conserve and sustainably use their own biodiversity and ensure that the benefits derived from it by third parties are equitably shared (Seyani 1998). (
  • Biodiversity for food and agriculture is indispensable to food security and sustainable development. (
  • Another area of developing concern is the role of indigenous communities in the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. (
  • Argues that biodiversity prospecting ventures won't succeed if they don't promote sustainable development. (
  • Years of urbanisation, industrialisation and intensive farming have left the UK in poor company globally - the 2016 State of the Nature report ranked the UK 189th in the world for biodiversity intactness. (
  • Freshwater biodiversity is facing unprecedented levels of threat. (
  • The earth's biodiversity - with natural formations, flora and fauna - is beautiful, extensive, intricate and life-affirming. (
  • Staat van fauna en flora in België, in de gewesten en in Belgische Zee. (
  • The Nature, Greenspace and Health undergraduate course takes a living labs approach to study the ways in which gardens, parks, flora, fauna, and biodiversity more generally may impact on the health of humans and human communities. (
  • Both plans identified partnership with academia as a key action, reflecting the National Biodiversity Action Plan 2017-2021 . (
  • SECAD Partnership is also one of the named representative organisations in Irelands National Biodiversity Action Plan 2017-2021. (
  • Here is the promised simple report on the first day of the big Korean Biodiversity convention. (
  • At the Earth Summit, the United States refused to sign the biodiversity convention which was signed by more than 150 nations, claiming that agreements like that between Merck and INBio would obviate the need for an international treaty. (
  • As this book went to press, President Clinton reversed the U.S. position and signed the biodiversity convention on June 4, 1993. (
  • Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies is pleased to congratulate Dr. Jean-Philippe Lessard, an ecologist and postdoctoral fellow at the Quebec Centre for Biodiversity Science at McGill University, who. (
  • Beyond our protected acres, we also understand the value in inspiring others to protect biodiversity. (
  • That means we want to protect biodiversity in all its forms - from the ecosystems at the bottom of the sea, to the fragile balance of our soils. (
  • What can we do to protect biodiversity and help both our pollinator friends and ourselves at the same time? (
  • Given the stark position in which humankind now finds itself, any legislation that aims to protect biodiversity is likely to be enthusiastically endorsed. (
  • For instance, if a company wants to develop an area of minor biodiversity value, the offset it undertakes could create substantial gain in, or protect an area of greater biodiversity value. (
  • Climate alignment may help our clients to reduce not only their climate impact, but also the related strain on land use, as well as to protect biodiversity. (
  • Not surprisingly, most of our efforts to protect biodiversity have focused on such places. (
  • The University will protect existing biodiversity on campuses and enhance opportunities for biodiversity by taking a holistic approach that prioritises our interactions with wider communities of organisms, including humans, and dynamic landscapes. (
  • James D Mauseth "Biogeography and Biodiversity of Cacti," Cactus and Succulent Journal 88(1), 46, (1 January 2016). (
  • Biodiversity informatics is a term that was only coined around 1992 but with rapidly increasing data sets has become useful in numerous studies and applications, such as the construction of taxonomic databases or geographic information systems. (
  • Biodiversity Informatics contrasts with "bioinformatics", which is often used synonymously with the computerized handling of data in the specialized area of molecular biology. (
  • Biodiversity informatics may also have to cope with managing information from unnamed taxa such as that produced by environmental sampling and sequencing of mixed-field samples. (
  • In September 2000, the U.S. journal Science devoted a special issue to "Bioinformatics for Biodiversity", the journal "Biodiversity Informatics" commenced publication in 2004, and several international conferences through the 2000s have brought together Biodiversity Informatics practitioners, including the London e-Biosphere conference in June 2009. (
  • A supplement to the journal BMC Bioinformatics (Volume 10 Suppl 14) published in November 2009 also deals with Biodiversity Informatics. (
  • According to correspondence reproduced by Walter Berendsohn, the term "Biodiversity Informatics" was coined by John Whiting in 1992 to cover the activities of an entity known as the Canadian Biodiversity Informatics Consortium, a group involved with fusing basic biodiversity information with environmental economics and geospatial information in the form of GPS and GIS. (
  • To make that data even more useful for users who make critical conservation and land - use decisions, NatureServe just launched the Map of Biodiversity Importance , developed with help from the NatureServe Network programs, Esri, Microsoft, and The Nature Conservancy. (
  • Biodiversity science is the foundation of NatureServe. (
  • NatureServe is a product of the Association for Biodiversity Information in collaboration with the Natural Heritage Network. (
  • The NatureServe Conservation Award goes each year to a titan of biodiversity conservation. (
  • The campaign promotes novel, integrated approaches to identify and understand the evolutionary and ecological significance of biodiversity amidst the changing environment of the present day and in the geologic past. (
  • While this focus complements several core NSF programs, it differs by requiring that multiple dimensions of biodiversity be addressed simultaneously, in innovative or novel ways, to understand their synergistic roles in critical ecological and evolutionary processes. (
  • - Exploring the relationship between Native Americans and the natural world, Biodiversity and Native America questions the widespread view that indigenous peoples had minimal ecological impact in North America. (
  • Researchers have found that this staggering biodiversity -- besides making our gardens and countryside beautiful -- is critical for many types of ecological services, including pollination. (
  • International cities have used various tools to achieve these goals: The City Biodiversity Index, Natural Assets Map, and Biodiversity Assessment Reports. (
  • This cohort will introduce up to 12 ICLEI USA members to biodiversity assessment and action. (
  • What are your primary goals in creating a Biodiversity Assessment? (
  • For project finance in scope of an EP assessment, ING applies the International Finance Corporation (IFC) Performance Standards 6 (PS6) on biodiversity. (
  • Furthermore, ING is involved in a UNEP-FI initiative to set up a biodiversity assessment tool for the banking sector. (