Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Soil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.HydrocarbonsPetroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Chlorophenols: Phenols substituted with one or more chlorine atoms in any position.Alkanes: The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Phenol: An antiseptic and disinfectant aromatic alcohol.ChlorobenzenesFuel Oils: Complex petroleum hydrocarbons consisting mainly of residues from crude oil distillation. These liquid products include heating oils, stove oils, and furnace oils and are burned to generate energy.Toluene: A widely used industrial solvent.Creosote: A greasy substance with a smoky odor and burned taste created by high temperature treatment of BEECH and other WOOD; COAL TAR; or resin of the CREOSOTE BUSH. It contains CRESOLS and POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS which are CARCINOGENS. It has been widely used as wood preservative and in PESTICIDES and had former use medicinally in DISINFECTANTS; LAXATIVES; and DERMATOLOGIC AGENTS.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Rhodococcus: A bacterial genus of the order ACTINOMYCETALES.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.tert-Butyl AlcoholSphingomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria characterized by an outer membrane that contains glycosphingolipids but lacks lipopolysaccharide. They have the ability to degrade a broad range of substituted aromatic compounds.Chlorobenzoates: Benzoic acid or benzoic acid esters substituted with one or more chlorine atoms.Water Pollution, Chemical: Adverse effect upon bodies of water (LAKES; RIVERS; seas; groundwater etc.) caused by CHEMICAL WATER POLLUTANTS.Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: Organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen in the form of an unsaturated, usually hexagonal ring structure. The compounds can be single ring, or double, triple, or multiple fused rings.CresolsScenedesmus: A genus of GREEN ALGAE in the family Scenedesmaceae. It forms colonies of usually four or eight cylindrical cells that are widely distributed in freshwater and SOIL.Trichloroethylene: A highly volatile inhalation anesthetic used mainly in short surgical procedures where light anesthesia with good analgesia is required. It is also used as an industrial solvent. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of the vapor can lead to cardiotoxicity and neurological impairment.Pentachlorophenol: An insecticide and herbicide that has also been used as a wood preservative. Pentachlorphenol is a widespread environmental pollutant. Both chronic and acute pentachlorophenol poisoning are medical concerns. The range of its biological actions is still being actively explored, but it is clearly a potent enzyme inhibitor and has been used as such as an experimental tool.Water Pollutants: Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.Dichloroethylenes: Toxic chlorinated unsaturated hydrocarbons. Include both the 1,1- and 1,2-dichloro isomers. Both isomers are toxic, but 1,1-dichloroethylene is the more potent CNS depressant and hepatotoxin. It is used in the manufacture of thermoplastic polymers.Surface-Active Agents: Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.Ralstonia: A genus in the family BURKHOLDERIACEAE, comprised of many species. They are associated with a variety of infections including MENINGITIS; PERITONITIS; and URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS.Benzene DerivativesPropaneBenzene: Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.PhenanthrenesAerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Vinyl Chloride: A gas that has been used as an aerosol propellant and is the starting material for polyvinyl resins. Toxicity studies have shown various adverse effects, particularly the occurrence of liver neoplasms.Lindane: An organochlorine insecticide that has been used as a pediculicide and a scabicide. It has been shown to cause cancer.Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid: An herbicide with irritant effects on the eye and the gastrointestinal system.Lignin: The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Polyporaceae: A family of bracket fungi, order POLYPORALES, living in decaying plant matter and timber.Dioxygenases: Non-heme iron-containing enzymes that incorporate two atoms of OXYGEN into the substrate. They are important in biosynthesis of FLAVONOIDS; GIBBERELLINS; and HYOSCYAMINE; and for degradation of AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.Dodecanol: A saturated 12-carbon fatty alcohol obtained from coconut oil fatty acids. It has a floral odor and is used in detergents, lubricating oils, and pharmaceuticals. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Garbage: Discarded animal and vegetable matter from a kitchen or the refuse from food preparation. (From Random House College Dictionary, 1982)Pseudomonas putida: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.Gasoline: Volative flammable fuel (liquid hydrocarbons) derived from crude petroleum by processes such as distillation reforming, polymerization, etc.Xylenes: A family of isomeric, colorless aromatic hydrocarbon liquids, that contain the general formula C6H4(CH3)2. They are produced by the destructive distillation of coal or by the catalytic reforming of petroleum naphthenic fractions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Bacteria, AerobicEthylene Dibromide: An effective soil fumigant, insecticide, and nematocide. In humans, it causes severe burning of skin and irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract. Prolonged inhalation may cause liver necrosis. It is also used in gasoline. Members of this group have caused liver and lung cancers in rodents. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), 1,2-dibromoethane may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Nitrilotriacetic Acid: A derivative of acetic acid, N(CH2COOH)3. It is a complexing (sequestering) agent that forms stable complexes with Zn2+. (From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed.)Arthrobacter: A genus of asporogenous bacteria isolated from soil that displays a distinctive rod-coccus growth cycle.Sodium Benzoate: The sodium salt of BENZOIC ACID. It is used as an antifungal preservative in pharmaceutical preparations and foods. It may also be used as a test for liver function.Hydrocarbons, HalogenatedIndustrial Waste: Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.Decanoates: Salts and esters of the 10-carbon monocarboxylic acid-decanoic acid.Basidiomycota: A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.Octanes: Eight-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.Microbial Consortia: A group of different species of microorganisms that act together as a community.Laccase: A copper-containing oxidoreductase enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of 4-benzenediol to 4-benzosemiquinone. It also has activity towards a variety of O-quinols and P-quinols. It primarily found in FUNGI and is involved in LIGNIN degradation, pigment biosynthesis and detoxification of lignin-derived products.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Ethylene Dichlorides: Toxic, chlorinated, saturated hydrocarbons. Include both the 1,1- and 1,2-dichloro isomers. The latter is considerably more toxic. It has a sweet taste, ethereal odor and has been used as a fumigant and intoxicant among sniffers. Has many household and industrial uses.Oxygenases: Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.Biodegradable Plastics: Organic polymeric materials which can be broken down by naturally occurring processes. This includes plastics created from bio-based or petrochemical-based materials.Catechols: A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.Trinitrotoluene: A 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, which is an explosive chemical that can cause skin irritation and other toxic consequences.Naphthalenes: Two-ring crystalline hydrocarbons isolated from coal tar. They are used as intermediates in chemical synthesis, as insect repellents, fungicides, lubricants, preservatives, and, formerly, as topical antiseptics.Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)Waste Disposal, Fluid: The discarding or destroying of liquid waste products or their transformation into something useful or innocuous.Refuse Disposal: The discarding or destroying of garbage, sewage, or other waste matter or its transformation into something useful or innocuous.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Phanerochaete: A genus of fungi in the family Corticiaceae, order Stereales, that degrades lignin. The white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium is a frequently used species in research.Bromobenzoates: Benzoic acid or benzoic acid esters substituted with one or more bromine atoms.Bioreactors: Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Betaproteobacteria: A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised of chemoheterotrophs and chemoautotrophs which derive nutrients from decomposition of organic material.Petroleum Pollution: Release of oil into the environment usually due to human activity.Absorbable Implants: Implants constructed of materials designed to be absorbed by the body without producing an immune response. They are usually composed of plastics and are frequently used in orthopedics and orthodontics.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Sphingomonadaceae: A family of gram-negative, asporogenous rods or ovoid cells, aerobic or facultative anaerobic chemoorganotrophs. They are commonly isolated from SOIL, activated sludge, or marine environments.Methyl Chloride: A hydrocarbon used as an industrial solvent. It has been used as an aerosal propellent, as a refrigerant and as a local anesthetic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p1403)Ochrobactrum: A genus of the family BRUCELLACEAE comprising obligately aerobic gram-negative rods with parallel sides and rounded ends.Pseudomonas alcaligenes: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It cannot utilize FRUCTOSE; GLUCOSE; or MALTOSE for energy.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Pleurotus: A genus of basidiomycetous fungi, family POLYPORACEAE, order POLYPORALES, that grows on logs or tree stumps in shelflike layers. The species P. ostreatus, the oyster mushroom, is a choice edible species and is the most frequently encountered member of the genus in eastern North America. (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, p531)Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Explosive Agents: Substances that are energetically unstable and can produce a sudden expansion of the material, called an explosion, which is accompanied by heat, pressure and noise. Other things which have been described as explosive that are not included here are explosive action of laser heating, human performance, sudden epidemiological outbreaks, or fast cell growth.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Burkholderia: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Organisms in this genus had originally been classified as members of the PSEUDOMONAS genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings indicated the need to separate them from other Pseudomonas species, and hence, this new genus was created.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Tetrahydronaphthalenes: Partially saturated 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene compounds.Adipates: Derivatives of adipic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,6-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.Herbicides: Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.Gordonia Bacterium: A genus of gram-positive BACTERIA in the family Gordoniaceae, isolated from soil and from sputa of patients with chest disorders. It is also used for biotransformation of natural products.Bacteria, AnaerobicDrug Residues: Drugs and their metabolites which are found in the edible tissues and milk of animals after their medication with specific drugs. This term can also apply to drugs found in adipose tissue of humans after drug treatment.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Atrazine: A selective triazine herbicide. Inhalation hazard is low and there are no apparent skin manifestations or other toxicity in humans. Acutely poisoned sheep and cattle may show muscular spasms, fasciculations, stiff gait, increased respiratory rates, adrenal degeneration, and congestion of the lungs, liver, and kidneys. (From The Merck Index, 11th ed)Aroclors: Industrial chemicals which have become widespread environmental pollutants. Each aroclor is a mixture of chlorinated biphenyls (1200 series) or chlorinated terphenyls (5400 series) or a combination of both (4400 series).Metabolic Networks and Pathways: Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.Organic Chemicals: A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.Acenaphthenes: Tricyclic ethylene-bridged naphthalene derivatives. They are found in petroleum residues and coal tar and used as dye intermediates, in the manufacture of plastics, and in insecticides and fungicides.Trametes: A genus of fungi in the family Coriolaceae.Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.Recycling: The extraction and recovery of usable or valuable material from scrap or other discarded materials. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed.)Aniline CompoundsCarbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Comamonadaceae: A family of gram-negative aerobic bacteria in the class BETA PROTEOBACTERIA, encompassing the acidovorans rRNA complex. Some species are pathogenic for PLANTS.Triazines: Heterocyclic rings containing three nitrogen atoms, commonly in 1,2,4 or 1,3,5 or 2,4,6 formats. Some are used as HERBICIDES.Xanthobacter: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in wet soil containing decaying organic material and in water. Cells tend to be pleomorphic if grown on media containing succinate or coccoid if grown in the presence of an alcohol as the sole carbon source. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Phthalic Acids: A group of compounds that has the general structure of a dicarboxylic acid-substituted benzene ring. The ortho-isomer is used in dye manufacture. (Dorland, 28th ed)Alcaligenes: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, motile bacteria that occur in water and soil. Some are common inhabitants of the intestinal tract of vertebrates. These bacteria occasionally cause opportunistic infections in humans.Carbon-Carbon Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. This subclass contains the DECARBOXYLASES, the ALDEHYDE-LYASES, and the OXO-ACID-LYASES. EC 4.1.Catechol 1,2-Dioxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of catechol to muconic acid with the use of Fe3+ as a cofactor. This enzyme was formerly characterized as EC 1.13.1.1 and EC 1.99.2.2.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Polyethylene: A vinyl polymer made from ethylene. It can be branched or linear. Branched or low-density polyethylene is tough and pliable but not to the same degree as linear polyethylene. Linear or high-density polyethylene has a greater hardness and tensile strength. Polyethylene is used in a variety of products, including implants and prostheses.Mycelium: The body of a fungus which is made up of HYPHAE.Trityl CompoundsNitrophenolsCarboxylic Acids: Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.Microbiology: The study of microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, algae, archaea, and viruses.Waste Management: Disposal, processing, controlling, recycling, and reusing the solid, liquid, and gaseous wastes of plants, animals, humans, and other organisms. It includes control within a closed ecological system to maintain a habitable environment.Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Alkanesulfonic Acids: Sulfonic acid derivatives that are substituted with an aliphatic hydrocarbon group.Groundwater: Liquid water present beneath the surface of the earth.2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic Acid: An herbicide with strong irritant properties. Use of this compound on rice fields, orchards, sugarcane, rangeland, and other noncrop sites was terminated by the EPA in 1985. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Flavobacterium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in SOIL and WATER. Its organisms are also found in raw meats, MILK and other FOOD, hospital environments, and human clinical specimens. Some species are pathogenic in humans.Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated: Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.Polyesters: Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.Minerals: Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Oils: Unctuous combustible substances that are liquid or easily liquefiable on warming, and are soluble in ether but insoluble in water. Such substances, depending on their origin, are classified as animal, mineral, or vegetable oils. Depending on their behavior on heating, they are volatile or fixed. (Dorland, 28th ed)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Xenobiotics: Chemical substances that are foreign to the biological system. They include naturally occurring compounds, drugs, environmental agents, carcinogens, insecticides, etc.Brevibacterium: A gram-positive organism found in dairy products, fresh and salt water, marine organisms, insects, and decaying organic matter.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Carbaryl: A carbamate insecticide and parasiticide. It is a potent anticholinesterase agent belonging to the carbamate group of reversible cholinesterase inhibitors. It has a particularly low toxicity from dermal absorption and is used for control of head lice in some countries.Dicofol: An organochlorine insecticide.Nitrates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.Poloxalene: A copolymer of polyethylene and polypropylene ether glycol. It is a non-ionic polyol surface-active agent used medically as a fecal softener and in cattle for prevention of bloat.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Water Purification: Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of WASTE WATER to provide potable and hygienic water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies.Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Radioactive Waste: Liquid, solid, or gaseous waste resulting from mining of radioactive ore, production of reactor fuel materials, reactor operation, processing of irradiated reactor fuels, and related operations, and from use of radioactive materials in research, industry, and medicine. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Achromobacter: A genus of gram-negative, strictly aerobic, non-spore forming rods. Soil and water are regarded as the natural habitat. They are sometimes isolated from a hospital environment and humans.Rhamnose: A methylpentose whose L- isomer is found naturally in many plant glycosides and some gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides.Resins, Plant: Flammable, amorphous, vegetable products of secretion or disintegration, usually formed in special cavities of plants. They are generally insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol, carbon tetrachloride, ether, or volatile oils. They are fusible and have a conchoidal fracture. They are the oxidation or polymerization products of the terpenes, and are mixtures of aromatic acids and esters. Most are soft and sticky, but harden after exposure to cold. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)Aminophenols: Phenols substituted in any position by an amino group.Biological Oxygen Demand Analysis: Testing for the amount of biodegradable organic material in a water sample by measuring the quantity of oxygen consumed by biodegradation of those materials over a specific time period.PeroxidasesSurface Tension: The force acting on the surface of a liquid, tending to minimize the area of the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Benzoates: Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.Water Pollution: Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)AcetyleneRalstonia pickettii: The type species in the genus RALSTONIA. It is often found in the hospital ward as a contaminant of antiseptic and disinfectant solutions.1-Propanol: A colorless liquid made by oxidation of aliphatic hydrocarbons that is used as a solvent and chemical intermediate.Polycyclic Compounds: Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.Stenotrophomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, motile, rod-shaped bacteria formerly classified as part of the genus XANTHOMONAS.Caprolactam: Cyclic amide of caproic acid used in manufacture of synthetic fibers of the polyamide type. Can cause local irritation.Aldrin: A highly poisonous substance that was formerly used as an insecticide. The manufacture and use has been discontinued in the U.S. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Onions: Herbaceous biennial plants and their edible bulbs, belonging to the Liliaceae.Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.Corrosion: The gradual destruction of a metal or alloy due to oxidation or action of a chemical agent. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Alkanesulfonates: Organic esters or salts of sulfonic acid derivatives containing an aliphatic hydrocarbon radical.Linuron: A selective pre- and post-emergence herbicide. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Biota: The spectrum of different living organisms inhabiting a particular region, habitat, or biotope.Wood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.Eutrophication: The enrichment of a terrestrial or aquatic ECOSYSTEM by the addition of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, that results in a superabundant growth of plants, ALGAE, or other primary producers. It can be a natural process or result from human activity such as agriculture runoff or sewage pollution. In aquatic ecosystems, an increase in the algae population is termed an algal bloom.PhytolCarbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Fibroins: Fibrous proteins secreted by INSECTS and SPIDERS. Generally, the term refers to silkworm fibroin secreted by the silk gland cells of SILKWORMS, Bombyx mori. Spider fibroins are called spidroins or dragline silk fibroins.Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Arctic Regions: The Arctic Ocean and the lands in it and adjacent to it. It includes Point Barrow, Alaska, most of the Franklin District in Canada, two thirds of Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Lapland, Novaya Zemlya, and Northern Siberia. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p66)Methyl Ethers: A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.Comamonas testosteroni: A species of gram-negative, aerobic rods formerly called Pseudomonas testosteroni. It is differentiated from other Comamonas species by its ability to assimilate testosterone and to utilize phenylacetate or maleate as carbon sources.Space MaintenanceFossil Fuels: Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane: An organochlorine insecticide that is slightly irritating to the skin. (From Merck Index, 11th ed, p482)Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Biphenyl CompoundsMicroalgae: A non-taxonomic term for unicellular microscopic algae which are found in both freshwater and marine environments. Some authors consider DIATOMS; CYANOBACTERIA; HAPTOPHYTA; and DINOFLAGELLATES as part of microalgae, even though they are not algae.Cells, Immobilized: Microbial, plant, or animal cells which are immobilized by attachment to solid structures, usually a column matrix. A common use of immobilized cells is in biotechnology for the bioconversion of a substrate to a particular product. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Mirex: An organochlorine insecticide that is carcinogenic.Sulfanilic Acids: Aminobenzenesulfonic acids. Organic acids that are used in the manufacture of dyes and organic chemicals and as reagents.Enzymes: Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.Heptachlor: A man-made compound previously used to control termites and other insects. Even though production of heptachlor was phased out of use in the United States during the late 1980's it remains in soil and hazardous waste sites. It is clearly toxic to animals and humans but, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has determined that heptachlor is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans. (From ATSDR Public Heath Statement, April 1989)Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Benzothiazoles: Compounds with a benzene ring fused to a thiazole ring.Benzhydryl Compounds: Compounds which contain the methyl radical substituted with two benzene rings. Permitted are any substituents, but ring fusion to any of the benzene rings is not allowed.Agaricales: An extensive order of basidiomycetous fungi whose fruiting bodies are commonly called mushrooms.

Complete sequence of a 184-kilobase catabolic plasmid from Sphingomonas aromaticivorans F199. (1/3156)

The complete 184,457-bp sequence of the aromatic catabolic plasmid, pNL1, from Sphingomonas aromaticivorans F199 has been determined. A total of 186 open reading frames (ORFs) are predicted to encode proteins, of which 79 are likely directly associated with catabolism or transport of aromatic compounds. Genes that encode enzymes associated with the degradation of biphenyl, naphthalene, m-xylene, and p-cresol are predicted to be distributed among 15 gene clusters. The unusual coclustering of genes associated with different pathways appears to have evolved in response to similarities in biochemical mechanisms required for the degradation of intermediates in different pathways. A putative efflux pump and several hypothetical membrane-associated proteins were identified and predicted to be involved in the transport of aromatic compounds and/or intermediates in catabolism across the cell wall. Several genes associated with integration and recombination, including two group II intron-associated maturases, were identified in the replication region, suggesting that pNL1 is able to undergo integration and excision events with the chromosome and/or other portions of the plasmid. Conjugative transfer of pNL1 to another Sphingomonas sp. was demonstrated, and genes associated with this function were found in two large clusters. Approximately one-third of the ORFs (59 of them) have no obvious homology to known genes.  (+info)

Purification and characterization of gentisate 1,2-dioxygenases from Pseudomonas alcaligenes NCIB 9867 and Pseudomonas putida NCIB 9869. (2/3156)

Two 3-hydroxybenzoate-inducible gentisate 1,2-dioxygenases were purified to homogeneity from Pseudomonas alcaligenes NCIB 9867 (P25X) and Pseudomonas putida NCIB 9869 (P35X), respectively. The estimated molecular mass of the purified P25X gentisate 1, 2-dioxygenase was 154 kDa, with a subunit mass of 39 kDa. Its structure is deduced to be a tetramer. The pI of this enzyme was established to be 4.8 to 5.0. The subunit mass of P35X gentisate 1, 2-dioxygenase was 41 kDa, and this enzyme was deduced to exist as a dimer, with a native molecular mass of about 82 kDa. The pI of P35X gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase was around 4.6 to 4.8. Both of the gentisate 1,2-dioxygenases exhibited typical saturation kinetics and had apparent Kms of 92 and 143 microM for gentisate, respectively. Broad substrate specificities were exhibited towards alkyl and halogenated gentisate analogs. Both enzymes had similar kinetic turnover characteristics for gentisate, with kcat/Km values of 44.08 x 10(4) s-1 M-1 for the P25X enzyme and 39.34 x 10(4) s-1 M-1 for the P35X enzyme. Higher kcat/Km values were expressed by both enzymes against the substituted gentisates. Significant differences were observed between the N-terminal sequences of the first 23 amino acid residues of the P25X and P35X gentisate 1,2-dioxygenases. The P25X gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase was stable between pH 5.0 and 7.5, with the optimal pH around 8.0. The P35X enzyme showed a pH stability range between 7.0 and 9.0, and the optimum pH was also 8.0. The optimal temperature for both P25X and P35X gentisate 1, 2-dioxygenases was around 50 degrees C, but the P35X enzyme was more heat stable than that from P25X. Both enzymes were strongly stimulated by 0.1 mM Fe2+ but were completely inhibited by the presence of 5 mM Cu2+. Partial inhibition of both enzymes was also observed with 5 mM Mn2+, Zn2+, and EDTA.  (+info)

Effect of phenylurea herbicides on soil microbial communities estimated by analysis of 16S rRNA gene fingerprints and community-level physiological profiles. (3/3156)

The effect of three phenyl urea herbicides (diuron, linuron, and chlorotoluron) on soil microbial communities was studied by using soil samples with a 10-year history of treatment. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was used for the analysis of 16S rRNA genes (16S rDNA). The degree of similarity between the 16S rDNA profiles of the communities was quantified by numerically analysing the DGGE band patterns. Similarity dendrograms showed that the microbial community structures of the herbicide-treated and nontreated soils were significantly different. Moreover, the bacterial diversity seemed to decrease in soils treated with urea herbicides, and sequence determination of several DGGE fragments showed that the most affected species in the soils treated with diuron and linuron belonged to an uncultivated bacterial group. As well as the 16S rDNA fingerprints, the substrate utilization patterns of the microbial communities were compared. Principal-component analysis performed on BIOLOG data showed that the functional abilities of the soil microbial communities were altered by the application of the herbicides. In addition, enrichment cultures of the different soils in medium with the urea herbicides as the sole carbon and nitrogen source showed that there was no difference between treated and nontreated soil in the rate of transformation of diuron and chlorotoluron but that there was a strong difference in the case of linuron. In the enrichment cultures with linuron-treated soil, linuron disappeared completely after 1 week whereas no significant transformation was observed in cultures inoculated with nontreated soil even after 4 weeks. In conclusion, this study showed that both the structure and metabolic potential of soil microbial communities were clearly affected by a long-term application of urea herbicides.  (+info)

Anaerobic oxidation of o-xylene, m-xylene, and homologous alkylbenzenes by new types of sulfate-reducing bacteria. (4/3156)

Various alkylbenzenes were depleted during growth of an anaerobic, sulfate-reducing enrichment culture with crude oil as the only source of organic substrates. From this culture, two new types of mesophilic, rod-shaped sulfate-reducing bacteria, strains oXyS1 and mXyS1, were isolated with o-xylene and m-xylene, respectively, as organic substrates. Sequence analyses of 16S rRNA genes revealed that the isolates affiliated with known completely oxidizing sulfate-reducing bacteria of the delta subclass of the class Proteobacteria. Strain oXyS1 showed the highest similarities to Desulfobacterium cetonicum and Desulfosarcina variabilis (similarity values, 98.4 and 98.7%, respectively). Strain mXyS1 was less closely related to known species, the closest relative being Desulfococcus multivorans (similarity value, 86.9%). Complete mineralization of o-xylene and m-xylene was demonstrated in quantitative growth experiments. Strain oXyS1 was able to utilize toluene, o-ethyltoluene, benzoate, and o-methylbenzoate in addition to o-xylene. Strain mXyS1 oxidized toluene, m-ethyltoluene, m-isoproyltoluene, benzoate, and m-methylbenzoate in addition to m-xylene. Strain oXyS1 did not utilize m-alkyltoluenes, whereas strain mXyS1 did not utilize o-alkyltoluenes. Like the enrichment culture, both isolates grew anaerobically on crude oil with concomitant reduction of sulfate to sulfide.  (+info)

Involvement of two plasmids in the degradation of carbaryl by Arthrobacter sp. strain RC100. (5/3156)

A bacterium capable of utilizing carbaryl (1-naphthyl N-methylcarbamate) as the sole carbon source was isolated from carbaryl-treated soil. This bacterium was characterized taxonomically as Arthrobacter and was designated strain RC100. RC100 hydrolyzes the N-methylcarbamate linkage to 1-naphthol, which was further metabolized via salicylate and gentisate. Strain RC100 harbored three plasmids (designated pRC1, pRC2, and pRC3). Mutants unable to degrade carbaryl arose at a high frequency after treating the culture with mitomycin C. All carbaryl-hydrolysis-deficient mutants (Cah-) lacked pRC1, and all 1-naphthol-utilization-deficient mutants (Nat-) lacked pRC2. The plasmid-free strain RC107 grew on gentisate as a carbon source. These two plasmids could be transferred to Cah- mutants or Nat- mutants by conjugation, resulting in the restoration of the Cah and Nah phenotypes.  (+info)

Purification and characterization of a novel peroxidase from Geotrichum candidum dec 1 involved in decolorization of dyes. (6/3156)

A peroxidase (DyP) involved in the decolorization of dyes and produced by the fungus strain Geotrichum candidum Dec 1 was purified. DyP, a glycoprotein, is glycosylated with N-acetylglucosamine and mannose (17%) and has a molecular mass of 60 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of 3.8. The absorption spectrum of DyP exhibited a Soret band at 406 nm corresponding to a hemoprotein, and its Na2S2O4-reduced form revealed a peak at 556 nm that indicates the presence of a protoheme as its prosthetic group. Nine of the 21 types of dyes that were decolorized by Dec 1 cells were decolorized by DyP; in particular, anthraquinone dyes were highly decolorized. DyP also oxidized 2,6-dimethoxyphenol and guaiacol but not veratryl alcohol. The optimal temperature for DyP activity was 30 degrees C, and DyP activity was stable even after incubation at 50 degrees C for 11 h.  (+info)

Decolorization and detoxification of extraction-stage effluent from chlorine bleaching of kraft pulp by Rhizopus oryzae. (7/3156)

Rhizopus oryzae, a zygomycete, was found to decolorize, dechlorinate, and detoxify bleach plant effluent at lower cosubstrate concentrations than the basidiomycetes previously investigated. With glucose at 1 g/liter, this fungus removed 92 to 95% of the color, 50% of the chemical oxygen demand, 72% of the adsorbable organic halide, and 37% of the extractable organic halide in 24 h at temperatures of 25 to 45 degrees C and a pH of 3 to 5. Even without added cosubstrate the fungus removed up to 78% of the color. Monomeric chlorinated aromatic compounds were removed almost completely, and toxicity to zebra fish was eliminated. The fungal mycelium could be immobilized in polyurethane foam and used repeatedly to treat batches of effluent. The residue after treatment was not further improved by exposure to fresh R. oryzae mycelium.  (+info)

Degradation of chloronitrobenzenes by a coculture of Pseudomonas putida and a Rhodococcus sp. (8/3156)

A single microorganism able to mineralize chloronitrobenzenes (CNBs) has not been reported, and degradation of CNBs by coculture of two microbial strains was attempted. Pseudomonas putida HS12 was first isolated by analogue enrichment culture using nitrobenzene (NB) as the substrate, and this strain was observed to possess a partial reductive pathway for the degradation of NB. From high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance analyses, NB-grown cells of P. putida HS12 were found to convert 3- and 4-CNBs to the corresponding 5- and 4-chloro-2-hydroxyacetanilides, respectively, by partial reduction and subsequent acetylation. For the degradation of CNBs, Rhodococcus sp. strain HS51, which degrades 4- and 5-chloro-2-hydroxyacetanilides, was isolated and combined with P. putida HS12 to give a coculture. This coculture was confirmed to mineralize 3- and 4-CNBs in the presence of an additional carbon source. A degradation pathway for 3- and 4-CNBs by the two isolated strains was also proposed.  (+info)

This three-day symposium was organized by the US EPA, the USAF AL/EQ, Tyndall AFB FL, and the US AFCEE Technology Transfer Division, Brooks AFB TX. Natural attenuation, the biodegradation or chemical destruction or stabilization of contaminants, can reduce contaminants to levels protective of human health and ecosystems. The symposium was intended to increase understanding of the natural attenuation process and to review methods for screening sites and making decisions to determine the feasibility of natural attenuation at chlorinated solvent-contaminated sites. The symposium obtained feedback from the regulatory and industrial communities on the appropriate application of natural attenuation and the developing protocol for natural attenuation of chlorinated organics. The symposium featured invited platform presentations covering both laboratory studies and field demonstrations conducted in support of natural attenuation at government and industry sites. The theory and principles of methods for
Abstract. The sinks of hydrocarbons in the atmosphere are usually described by oxidation reactions in the gas and aqueous (cloud) phases. Previous lab studies suggest that in addition to chemical processes, biodegradation by bacteria might also contribute to the loss of organics in clouds; however, due to the lack of comprehensive data sets on such biodegradation processes, they are not commonly included in atmospheric models. In the current study, we measured the biodegradation rates of phenol and catechol, which are known pollutants, by one of the most active strains selected during our previous screening in clouds (Rhodococcus enclensis). For catechol, biodegradation transformation is about ten times faster than for phenol. The experimentally derived biodegradation rates are included in a multiphase box model to compare the chemical loss rates of phenol and catechol in both the gas and aqueous phases to their biodegradation rate in the aqueous phase under atmospheric conditions. Model results ...
Detail záznamu - Chapter 11: Biodegradation of Aromatic Pollutants by Ligninolytic Fungal Strains - Detail záznamu - Knihovna Akademie věd České republiky
Video created by Rice University for the course Natural Attenuation of Groundwater Contaminants: New Paradigms, Technologies, and Applications. In this series of lectures, we will learn when biodegradation can or cannot occur and what ...
An additional benefit of hydrogen peroxide and Fentons Reagent is the temporary increase of oxygen levels in and around the treatment area. The increased oxygen levels at the fringes of the treatment area can enhance naturally occurring aerobic biodegradation processes that reduce contaminant mass. While there may be concerns about oxidizing hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in the chemical oxidation treatment area, many studies have shown that soil cannot be readily sterilized by Fentons Reagent and that microbial populations rapidly rebound following chemical oxidation treatment. ...
The increasing sensitivity of PCR has meant that in the last two decades PCR has emerged as a major tool in diet studies, enabling us to refine our understanding of trophic links and to elucidate the diets of predators whose prey is as yet uncharacterized. The achievements and methods of PCR-based diet studies have been reviewed several times, but here we review an important development in the field: the use of PCR enrichment techniques to promote the amplification of prey DNA over that of the predator. We first discuss the success of using group-specific primers either in parallel single reactions or in multiplex reactions. We then concentrate on the more recent use of PCR enrichment techniques such as restriction enzyme digests, peptide nucleic acid clamping, DNA blocking and laser capture microdissection. We also survey the vast literature on enrichment techniques in clinical biology, to ascertain the pitfalls of enrichment techniques and what refinements have yielded some highly sensitive ...
Dichloromethane (DCM) is a toxic pollutant showing prolonged persistence in water. So far, biodegradation of DCM has only been reported in soils and freshwater systems. Herein, we studied whether or not biodegradation of DCM could occur in estuarine waters. Results showed over 90% mineralization of DCM in natural estuarine waters supplemented with DCM. Biodegradation of DCM in estuarine waters occurred by association of different bacterial species. Generally, two bacterial species participated in DCM degradation. Two bacterial consortia were obtained. Consortia were able to degrade around 80% of DCM in about 6 days. The species involved in the process were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing; a consortium was constituted by Pseudomonas sp. and Brevundimonas sp. and a second consortium was formed by Pseudomonas sp. and an Acinetobacter sp. Our results showed that DCM can be readily biodegraded in estuarine waters ...
This patent search tool allows you not only to search the PCT database of about 2 million International Applications but also the worldwide patent collections. This search facility features: flexible search syntax; automatic word stemming and relevance ranking; as well as graphical results.
... (ECRTs) use a proprietary AC/DC electrical signal to mineralize organic compounds (e.g. volatile organic compounds (VOCs)), and to mobilize and remove metal contaminants. Proprietary AC/DC converters produce a low-voltage, low-amperage electrical field that polarizes the soil or sediment (soil), causing soil particles to charge and discharge electricity. This causes redox reactions that occur at all interfaces within the soil-groundwater-contaminant-electrode system, mineralizing organics and increasing the mobilization of metals. Metals migrate to the electrodes where they are deposited and removed with the electrodes. There are several distinctions between ECRTs and traditional electrokinetics. First, relatively low energy input is required to perform remediation. Second, ECRTs generally are effective within months, instead of years, and they can be performed in-situ or ex-situ. Third, metals generally migrate to and deposit at both electrodes, unlike ...
... (ECRTs) use a proprietary AC/DC electrical signal to mineralize organic compounds (e.g. volatile organic compounds (VOCs)), and to mobilize and remove metal contaminants. Proprietary AC/DC converters produce a low-voltage, low-amperage electrical field that polarizes the soil or sediment (soil), causing soil particles to charge and discharge electricity. This causes redox reactions that occur at all interfaces within the soil-groundwater-contaminant-electrode system, mineralizing organics and increasing the mobilization of metals. Metals migrate to the electrodes where they are deposited and removed with the electrodes. There are several distinctions between ECRTs and traditional electrokinetics. First, relatively low energy input is required to perform remediation. Second, ECRTs generally are effective within months, instead of years, and they can be performed in-situ or ex-situ. Third, metals generally migrate to and deposit at both electrodes, unlike ...
Release Date: 05/02/2001. Many Superfund sites are contaminated with mixtures of hazardous substances and designing strategies to remediate them has proven to be a major challenge. To a great extent, the development of remediation processes has focused not on mixtures, but on single contaminants. In order to apply our knowledge to mixtures, we need tools to understand, describe, and predict the interactions of contaminants during remediation processes. Engineers at Colorado State University (CSU) are investigating the bacterial degradation of mixtures of aromatic hydrocarbons. Their goal is to use data from simple experimental systems to develop mathematical models that can predict the complex kinetics of biodegradation of chemical mixtures by multiple species of bacteria. This information is fundamental to both the design of bioreactors for remediation and the prediction of the fate of pollutants in the environment. The CSU researchers measured the biodegradation rates of single and mixed ...
Cascade has both the expertise and chemical remediation technology for a wide range of options including in situ chemical oxidation and bioremediation.
Get this from a library! Environmental monitoring and remediation technologies II : 20-22 September, 1999, Boston, Massachusetts. [Tuan Vo-Dinh; Robert L Spellicy; Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers.; Air & Waste Management Association. Optical Sciences Division.; SPIE Digital Library.;]
NUTRIPLEX® is a probiotic formulation of complexing systems, organic acids, nutrients, natural biological systems, buffers, and energy systems which enhances biological degradation. It provides nutrients and energy to support probiotic bioremediation systems.. ...
Biodegradation definition, to decay and become absorbed by the environment: toys that will biodegrade when theyre discarded. See more.
Biodegradation in water: screening tests Hydrocarbons, C14-C20, aliphatics (≤2% aromatics) were found to be readily biodegradable (biodegradation , 60% ThOD) in an OECD 306 ready biodegradability test. Taking into account that all those substances have been found biodegradable in seawater 306 test, this is taking over all screening tests results and lead to the conclusion that all the substances belonging to this category with the same properties and are therefore considered readily biodegradable. Hydrocarbons, C14-C18, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, ≤2% aromatics was biodegraded 74% at day 28 in a Closed Bottle test. Hence this substance should be classified as readily biodegradable. Hydrocarbons, C14-C17, n-alkanes, ,2% aromatics was found to be readily biodegradable under the conditions of an OECD 301 study meeting the 10-d window. The biodegradation prediction by BIOWIN does not lead to the conclusion that Icosane would be persistent. Biodegradation in water: simulation tests Several ...
PubMed journal article Organic Contaminant Biodegradation by Oxidoreductase Enzymes in Wastewater Treatmen were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone or iPad.
Science and Education Publishing, publisher of open access journals in the scientific, technical and medical fields. Read full text articles or submit your research for publishing.
Fellow Environmental Scientist/Engineer, GZA GeoEnvironmental, Inc. (GZA) is hosting a bioremediation discussion group (BioGroup) on the Internet. The BioGroup consists of an unmoderated mailing list serving over 900 members worldwide. The BioGroup was established to provide a global forum for the scientific and engineering community to discuss intrinsic/enhanced bioremediation topics. GZA hopes this forum provides a medium to transfer technology, standardize biotreatability protocols, and advance the science and engineering of bioremediation technologies. GZA expects the forum to be a springboard for the pursuit of innovative approaches to bioremediation engineering. Because the success of the BioGroup is a function of the participation of its members, GZA invites anyone with experience and/or interest in bioremediation to join the BioGroup. Due to the complexities of biogeochemical processes which control contaminant biotransformation, we welcome input from environmental engineers, ...
Fellow Environmental Scientist/Engineer, GZA GeoEnvironmental, Inc. (GZA) is hosting a bioremediation discussion group (BioGroup) on the Internet. The BioGroup consists of an unmoderated mailing list serving over 800 members worldwide. The BioGroup was established to provide a global forum for the scientific and engineering community to discuss intrinsic/enhanced bioremediation topics. GZA hopes this forum provides a medium to transfer technology, standardize biotreatability protocols, and advance the science and engineering of bioremediation technologies. GZA expects the forum to be a springboard for the pursuit of innovative approaches to bioremediation engineering. Because the success of the BioGroup is a function of the participation of its members, GZA invites anyone with experience and/or interest in bioremediation to join the BioGroup. Due to the complexities of biogeochemical processes which control contaminant biotransformation, we welcome input from environmental engineers, ...
Introduction. Membrane bioreactors (MBR) combine a biological degradation process with the direct separation of activated sludge and liquid-solid by filtration membranes [1]. In addition, MBRs have important advantages such as space reduction relative to conventional activated sludge process, which leads to a decrease in their environmental impact, the capability of operating with higher concentrations of suspended solids, and the production of better quality effluent. However, one of the main drawbacks of MBR is membrane fouling. Despite the high cost of commonly used ceramic membranes (made of alumina, zirconia or titania), it is known that they are more hydrophilic than polymeric membranes, which means that ceramic membranes have a lower membrane fouling rate. Ceramic membranes are also more chemically, mechanically and thermally resistant. Other characteristics that influence membrane fouling are pore size and configuration (tubular, flat or hollow fiber) [2,3]. Currently, polymeric hollow ...
This chapter discusses the aspects of bioremediation that are related to metabolism of recalcitrant chemicals by bacteria, leaving out also detoxification and immobilization of metal ions and metalloids. The most frequent types of sites amenable to bioremediation include soil, freshwater, seawater, and sediments. The chapter talks about the instances where recalcitrant and/or xenobiotic compounds are endowed with chemical properties that cause a deleterious effect on the catalytic microorganisms present in the site-regardless of whether they can be ultimately metabolized. The chemicals at stake include metals, chaotropic agents, aromatics, and hydrophobic compounds. These stressors can be grouped based on their effect on bacterial metabolism. Heat shock-like stress and oxidative damage are certainly the two more prevalent conditions endured by environmental bacteria during in situ biodegradation of chemical waste. This is true for singular stressors as well as for mixtures of them, the most frequent
Contaminated Land: Applications in Real Environments (CL:AIRE) is a respected independent not-for-profit organisation established in 1999 to stimulate the regeneration of contaminated land in the UK by raising awareness of, and confidence in, practical and sustainable remediation technologies. Since 1999, CL:AIRE has grown into an organisation that does more than just demonstrate remediation technologies
Contaminated Land: Applications in Real Environments (CL:AIRE) is a respected independent not-for-profit organisation established in 1999 to stimulate the regeneration of contaminated land in the UK by raising awareness of, and confidence in, practical and sustainable remediation technologies. Since 1999, CL:AIRE has grown into an organisation that does more than just demonstrate remediation technologies
Terpeneliteracy.com is a multi-platform publisher of news and information. Terpeneliteracy.com has earned a reputation as the leading provider of Terpene news and information that improves the quality of life of its readers by focusing on Terpene issues ...
I am a dedicated PhD with expertise in the field environmental science. The last 10 years of my work has been focused on improving soil and water remediation technologies either by using plants or bacteria to remove organic contaminants and heavy metals from contaminated sites. More specifically, I have worked on removing oil droplet from produced water discharged by oil platforms, reducing the risk associated with organics contaminants by biodegradation and sequestration in the soil, and removing heavy metals in contaminated soil by using plants (phytoremediation). I have managed research projects, planned and carried out experimental assays, managed and analysed large data sets. I have gained good results with peer-reviewed articles and scientific reports plus given presentations at several international conferences. With my masters in environmental science I have a wide interdisciplinary knowledge of biological, physical and chemical processes and I collaborate well across scientific fields ...
Sturm, B., Cheng., Y., Lane, R., Adams, C., Carter, R. (2011) "Impact of sludge residence time on the relative biodegradation and biosorption of sulfonamide antibiotics in activated sludge," ACS 241st National Meeting, Anaheim, CA (March 2011).. ...
Article Enhanced Bioremediation of Chlorinated Solvents (PDF). Enhanced in situ bioremediation of chlorinated solvents in groundwater has been successfully demonstrated at many sites by supplying lactic acid as an electron donor. The source of lactat...
A study was carried out on biodegradation of soil contaminated with used motor oil in aerobic fixed bed bioreactors. Six treatments, labeled TR1 to TR6, were investigated..
The provision for biodegradation in water and sediment simulation testing is contained within Column 1 of Annex IX. Column 2 of this Annex, describing the Specific Rules for Adaptation from Column 1, states that such biodegradation testing is not required if the substance is readily biodegradable. A ready biodegradation screening study of the substance (see IUCLID Section 5.2.1) concluded it to be readily biodegradable. Therefore, in accordance with the Standard Information Requirements laid down by REACH (Annexes VII to X), further biodegradation testing is not necessary. ...
The survival of the inoculated microbial culture is critical for successful bioaugmentation but impossible to predict precisely. As an alternative strategy, bioaugmentation of a group of...
Researchers based at Princeton University found that Earths terrestrial ecosystems have absorbed 186 billion to 192 billion tons of carbon since the mid-20th century, which has significantly contained the global temperature and levels of carbon in the atmosphere.
Article The Use of Hydrogen Release Compound (HRC) for CAH Bioremediation.. Hydrogen Release Compound (HRC™) is a simple, passive, low-cost and long-term option for the anaerobic bioremediation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) via a reduc...
The experts at EAG Laboratories conduct comprehensive environmental fate testing to determine a substances metabolism rate and identify metabolites.
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Technology News and Trends (TNT) A newsletter about soil, sediment, and groundwater characterization and remediation technologies
Technology News and Trends (TNT) A newsletter about soil, sediment, and groundwater characterization and remediation technologies
6. kinfit/(g)mkin: fit chemical degradation - kinfit and mkin are implementations of the kinetic models and evaluation procedures recommended by in the final report of the FOCUS work group on degradation kinetics first published in 2006. gmkin provides a graphical user interface to mkin ...
Worked as a part of SFUs $12M national flagship research project on heavy-duty fuel-cells with Ballard Power System and developed a set of experiments to understand the effects of manufacturing defects on degradation of PEM fuel cells. ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Jelena M Spasojević, Snežana P Maletić, Srđan D Rončević, Dragan V Radnović, Dragana I Cučak, Jelena S Tričković, Božo D Dalmacija].
ROOT!T Propagator Refill Sponges are a breakthrough in organic technology. They are made from a mixture of peat and bark bonded together with plant-derived biodegradable polymers that allow the plug to biodegrade. Natural Rooting sponges are specially designed to improve cutting strike rate.
Dec 13, 2016 To remediate these contaminants, phytoremediation, a relatively low cost and an environmental friendly Mohammad Ali Hajabbasi at Isfahan University of Technology fractions (Tan et al., 2007; Guimara.
My company, BioGreen Products Co., offers oxo-biodegradable plastic preforms and caps. These are made with conventional PET, and cannot be distinguished from conventional PET by looking at them. They are not PLA, aka spudware or starch based plastics, and are not similar to PAL. Our preforms are crystal clear, and have all of the properties of conventional PET except for the multi-century lifespan. Our bottles start to biodegrade after their two year shelf life, under the same conditions
U of T engineering professor Elizabeth Edwards is internationally recognized for using biotechnology to clean up industrial solvents in soil and groundwater.
1998 (English)In: Aquatic Microbial Ecology, ISSN 0948-3055, E-ISSN 1616-1564, Vol. 14, no 3, 301-307 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published ...
STUDIES ON THE BACTERIAL DEGRADATION OF ISOPRENOIDS. IV. THE PURIFICATION AND PROPERTIES OF BETA-ISOHEXENYLGLUTACONYL-COA-HYDRATASE AND BETA-HYDROXY-BETA-ISOHEXENYLGLUTARYL-COA-LYASE ...
It does not depend on the initial concentration of the daughter element being zero. How do we know the ages of fossils and fossil-bearing rocks?...
Addresses a Global Challenge to Sustainable Development. Advances in Biodegradation and Bioremediation of Industrial Waste examines and compiles the latest information on the industrial waste biodegradation process and provides a comprehensive review. Dedicated to reducing pollutants generated by agriculturally contaminated soil, and plastic waste from various industries, this text is a book that begs the question: Is a pollution-free environment possible? The book combines with current available data with the expert knowledge of specialists from around the world to evaluate various aspects of environmental microbiology and biotechnology. It emphasizes the role of different bioreactors for the treatment of complex industrial waste and provides specific chapters on bioreactors and membrane process integrated with biodegradation process. It also places special emphasis on phytoremediation and the role of wetland plant rhizosphere bacterial ecology and the bioremediation of complex industrial ...
The environmental approach can be defined as "the exploitation of the environmental sensitivity of the dry rot fungus for its ... International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation. Volume 33 Issue 2, pp 115 - 128. Palfreyman, J. W. & Bruce, A. (1994) ... emphasis on the use of chemical fungicides Environmental - emphasis on controlling the fungus by controlling environmental ... Indeed, this environmental sensitivity may account for why it is so unsuccessful in the wild and may be used against it when ...
Szewczyk, Rafał; Soboń, Adrian; Słaba, Mirosława; Długoński, Jerzy (June 2015). "Mechanism study of alachlor biodegradation by ... Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 71 (7): 3420-3426. doi:10.1128/aem.71.7.3420-3426.2005. Harris, L.F. (1979). ... Biodegradation. 65 (7): 954-960. doi:10.1016/j.ibiod.2011.07.004. Eykholt, Gerald R.; Davenport, Douglas T. (May 1998). " ... "Dechlorination of the Chloroacetanilide Herbicides Alachlor and Metolachlor by Iron Metal". Environmental Science & Technology ...
Sims, Gerald K.; S (1985). "Degradation of Pyridine Derivatives in Soil". Journal of Environmental Quality. 14 (4): 580-584. ... Biodegradation. 38 (2): 107-118. doi:10.1016/S0964-8305(96)00032-7. Sims, Gerald K.; O (1992). "Riboflavin Production during ... CRC Critical Reviews in Environmental Control. 19 (4): 309-340. doi:10.1080/10643388909388372. Archived from the original (PDF ... Growth of Micrococcus luteus on Pyridine". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 58 (10): 3423-3425. PMC 183117 . PMID ...
6 Environmental fate *6.1 Abiotic degradation. *6.2 Biodegradation. *7 Alternatives *7.1 Iminodisuccinic acid (IDS) ... EDDS exhibits a surprisingly high rate biodegradation at 83% in 20 days. Biodegradation rates also varies the different metal ... Environmental fate[edit]. Abiotic degradation[edit]. EDTA is in such widespread use that questions have been raised whether it ... Biodegradation[edit]. In many industrial wastewater treatment plants, EDTA elimination can be achieved at about 80% using ...
Environmental biodegradation of polyethylene. Polym. Deg. Stab 81, 441-452 (2003). "Kinetics of abiotic and biotic ... Oxo-biodegradation of polymer material has been studied in depth at the Technical Research Institute of Sweden and the Swedish ... A peer-reviewed report of the work shows 91% biodegradation in a soil environment within 24 months, when tested in accordance ... "ASTM D5526 - 94 (2011) e1 Standard Test Method for Determining Anaerobic Biodegradation of Plastic Materials Under Accelerated ...
Sims, G.K.; L.E. Sommers (1985). "Biodegradation of pyridine derivatives in soil suspensions". Environmental Toxicology and ... Biodegradation of 2-methyl, 2-ethyl, and 2-hydroxypyridine by an Arthrobacter sp. isolated from subsurface sediment. ... 2-methypyridine and 4-methypyridine are more readily degraded and exhibit less volatilization loss from environmental samples ... Like other pyridine derivatives, 2-methylpyridine is often reported as an environmental contaminant associated with facilities ...
Thatheyus, A.J; Gnana Selvam, A.Deborah (2013). "Synthetic Pyrethroids: Toxicity and Biodegradation". Applied Ecology and ... "Environmental Modeling and Exposure Assessment of Sediment-Associated Pyrethroids in an Agricultural Watershed". PLoS ONE. 6 (1 ... Its insecticidal activity has relatively low mammalian toxicity and an unusually fast biodegradation. Their development ... Environmental Science & Technology. 44 (5): 1833-40. Bibcode:2010EnST...44.1833W. doi:10.1021/es9035573. PMID 20121184. Jim E. ...
Cerniglia, C. E. (1992). "Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons". Biodegradation. 3 (2-3): 351-368. doi:10.1007/ ... Environmental data and emission sources analysis for Cl-PAHs reveal that the dominant process of generation is by reaction of ... Ohura, T. (2007). "Environmental Behavior, Sources, and Effects of Chlorinated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons". The ... Environmental Science & Technology. 43 (3): 643. Bibcode:2009EnST...43..643M. doi:10.1021/es802878w. Wang, D.; Xu, X.; Chu, S ...
2008). "Genomic Insights into Oil Biodegradation in Marine Systems". Microbial Biodegradation: Genomics and Molecular Biology. ... Environmental Microbiology. 5: 746-753. doi:10.1046/j.1468-2920.2003.00468.x. Yakimov, Michail M; Timmis, Kenneth N; Golyshin, ... A considerable amount of petroleum oil entering the sea is eliminated by the microbial biodegradation activities of microbial ... Environmental Microbiology. 4: 141-147. doi:10.1046/j.1462-2920.2002.00275.x. [1], Fernandez-Martinez, Javier, et al. " ...
ISBN 3-540-72025-1. al.], edited by C. Marjorie Aelion ... [et (2010). Environmental isotopes in biodegradation and ... 2-Dichloroethane Biodegradation". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 72 (6): 4411-4418. doi:10.1128/AEM.02576-05. PMC ... doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1995.0666h.x. Vasileva, E.; Petrov, K.; Beschkov, V. (15 April 2014). "Biodegradation of ... ISBN 0-387-25495-1. Janssen, Martin H. Agteren, Sytze Keuning, Dick B. (1998). Handbook on Biodegradation and Biological ...
Environmental Progress, 23(4), 264-270. Huesemann, M. H. & Huesemann, J. A. (2008). Will progress in science and technology ... Bosma, T. N. P.; Harms, H.; Zehnder, A. J. B. (2001). "Biodegradation of Xenobiotics in Environment and Technosphere". The ... Slack, K. V.; Feltz, H. R. (1968). "Tree leaf control on low flow water quality in a small Virginia stream". Environmental ... The persistent legacy of environmental feedback that is left behind by or as an extension of the ecological actions of ...
Sims G. K., Sommers L.E. (1986). "Biodegradation of pyridine derivatives in soil suspensions". Environmental Toxicology and ... "Environmental and Economic Costs of the Application of Pesticides Primarily in the United States" Environment, Development and ... A study on the human health and environmental costs due to pesticides in the United States was estimated at $9.6 billion: ... The EPA looks at what the potential human health and environmental effects might be associated with the use of the pesticide. ...
"Polymer Biodegradation and Biodegradable Polymers-a Review." Polish Journal of Environmental Studies 2nd ser. 19.2010 (2012): ... Biodegradation of this blend was tested and was found that by the second day the degraded carbon had already attained about 100 ... "Biodegradation is a chemical degradation of materials provoked by the action of microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, and ... The environmental impacts of athletic shoe degradation in landfills "are inextricably connected to the nature of the materials ...
Vainberg, S.; McClay, K.; Masuda, H.; Root, D.; Condee, C.; Zylstra, G. J.; Steffan, R. J. (2006). "Biodegradation of Ether ... Strain ENV478". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 72 (8): 5218-5224. doi:10.1128/AEM.00160-06. ISSN 0099-2240. PMC ...
"Biodegradation of Polyester Polyurethane by Endophytic Fungi". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 77 (17): 6076-84. doi: ... "Quick Safety Tips for Spray Polyurethane Foam Users". United States Environmental Protection Agency. ISOPA Avar, G. (October ... 5: 3. doi:10.1186/s40038-016-0012-3. "Environmental Profiles of Chemical Flame-Retardant Alternatives for Low-Density ... Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 74 (3): 564-9. doi:10.1128/AEM.01768-07. PMC 2227722 . PMID 18065627. Tokiwa, Yutaka; ...
Brown M. Biodegradation of oil in freshwater. In Trett M, Green J, editors. The fate and effects of oil in freshwater: Elsevier ... Environmental Science and technology 2002;36(19):4127-4134. Schmidt T, Kleinert P, Stengel C, Goss K, Haderlein S. Poler fuel ... Environmental Science and Technology 2002;36(19):4074-4080. Lamont N. The screening of petroleum hydrocarbons based on the ... Environmental Science and Technology 2002;36(19):4074-4080. Gill R, Robotham P. Input, behaviour and fates of petroleum ...
Sims, G. K.; Sommers, L.E. (1986). "Biodegradation of pyridine derivatives in soil suspensions". Environmental Toxicology and ... Simple substituted pyridines vary significantly in environmental fate characteristics, such as volatility, adsorption, and ... Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 67 (3): 1274-1279. doi:10.1128/aem.67.3.1274-1279.2001. PMC 92724 . PMID 11229921. Sci- ... CRC Critical Reviews in Environmental Control. 19 (4): 309-340. doi:10.1080/10643388909388372. ...
"Biodegradation of polyester polyurethane by endophytic fungi". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 77 (17): 6076-84. doi: ...
Journal of Environmental Engineering 117, 751-770. Roberts, D.J., Nica, D., Zuo, G., Davis, J.L., 2002. Quantifying microbially ... International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation 49, 227-234. Okabe, S., Odagiri, M., Ito, T., Satoh, H., 2007. Succession of ... Applied and Environmental Microbiology 73, 971-980. Mansouri, H., Alavi, S. A., & Fotovat, M. "Microbial Influenced Corrosion ... Applied and Environmental Microbiology 74:2841-2851. http://aem.asm.org/cgi/content/abstract/74/9/2841 J. E. Sheridan; Jan ...
"Biodegradation of Polyester Polyurethane by Endophytic Fungi". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. Washington, DC: American ...
Sims, G. K.; Sommers, L.E. (1986). "Biodegradation of pyridine derivatives in soil suspensions". Environmental Toxicology and ... "Environmental and health criteria for paraquat and diquat". Geneva: World Health Organization. 1984. Sherman, A. R. (2004). " ... O'Loughlin, E. J; Traina, S. J.; Sims, G. K. (2000). "Effects of sorption on the biodegradation of 2-methylpyridine in aqueous ... "Database of the (EPA)". U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. "Pyridine MSDS" (PDF). Alfa Aesar. Retrieved 3 June 2010. Aylward ...
"Biodegradation of pyridine derivatives in soil suspensions". Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 5: 503-509. doi:10.1002/ ... Critical Reviews in Environmental Control. 21 (3,4): 217-236. doi:10.1080/10643389109388416. Molecular Property Explorer QSAR ... "Structure activity relationships for the prediction of biodegradability of environmental pollutants". ... synthetic organic chemicals currently in production presents a huge challenge for timely collection of detailed environmental ...
J. Environmental Quality. 14:580-584. Sims, G. K. and L.E. Sommers. 1986. Biodegradation of pyridine derivatives in soil ... Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 5:503-509. Picolines at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings ( ...
Biodegradation of pyridine derivatives in soil suspensions. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 5:503-509. Sims, G. K. and ... J. Environmental Quality. 14:580-584. Manfred Eggersdorfer; et al. (2000). "Vitamins". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial ... CRC Critical Reviews in Environmental Control. 19(4): 309-340. Sims, G. K. and L.E. Sommers. 1986. ... Pyridine derivatives (including 3-methylpyridine) are environmental contaminants, generally associated with processing fossil ...
Biodegradation of pyridine derivatives in soil suspensions. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 5:503-509. Sims, G. K. and ...
The dissolution of collagen depends on time, temperature and environmental pH.[8] At high temperatures, the rate of collagen ... and bio-degradation.[8] Chemical changes affect crystallinity.[2] Mechanisms of chemical change, such as the uptake of F− or CO ... of bone exposed to environmental conditions, especially moisture. This is accomplished by the exchange of natural bone ...
... the worlds largest environmental industry marketplace and information resource. ... Get the latest microbial biodegradation news on Environmental XPRT, ... About Environmental XPRT. Environmental XPRT is a global environmental industry marketplace and information resource. Online ... The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced in late 2016 that 1,4-dioxane was included on the list of the first 10 ...
... the worlds largest environmental industry marketplace and information resource. ... Find plastic biodegradation testing articles on Environmental XPRT, ... plastic biodegradation testing Articles. Related terms for "plastic biodegradation testing ": plastic biodegradation articles ... About Environmental XPRT. Environmental XPRT is a global environmental industry marketplace and information resource. Online ...
Fortunately, there are microorganisms capable of degrading or transforming environmental contaminants. The present dissertation ... Vilo Muñoz, Claudia Andrea. Understanding Microbial Biodegradation of Environmental Contaminants, dissertation, May 2015; ... Fortunately, there are microorganisms capable of degrading or transforming environmental contaminants. The present dissertation ... Fortunately, there are microorganisms capable of degrading or transforming environmental contaminants. The present dissertation ...
Environmental Biodegradation and Biodegradable Pollutants scheduled on July 12-13, 2021 in July 2021 in Ottawa is for the ... Biodegradation in waters. Practical methods for estimating environmental biodegradation rates. Assessment of environmental ... Environmental biodegradation. Biodegradation. Biodegradation phases. Factors affecting rate. Detergents. Plastics. ... Environmental Biodegradation and Biodegradable Pollutants. ICEBBP 2021: 15. International Conference on Environmental ...
Biodegradation. Biodegradation of Polyester Polyurethane by Endophytic Fungi. Jonathan R. Russell, Jeffrey Huang, Pria Anand, ... Biodegradation of Polyester Polyurethane by Endophytic Fungi. Jonathan R. Russell, Jeffrey Huang, Pria Anand, Kaury Kucera, ... Biodegradation of Polyester Polyurethane by Endophytic Fungi. Jonathan R. Russell, Jeffrey Huang, Pria Anand, Kaury Kucera, ... Biodegradation of Polyester Polyurethane by Endophytic Fungi Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ...
Genetic Analysis of Biodegradation of Tetralin by aSphingomonas Strain. María José Hernáez, Walter Reineke, Eduardo Santero ... Genetic Analysis of Biodegradation of Tetralin by aSphingomonas Strain Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... Applied and Environmental Microbiology Apr 1999, 65 (4) 1806-1810; DOI: 10.1128/AEM.65.4.1806-1810.1999 ... Applied and Environmental Microbiology Apr 1999, 65 (4) 1806-1810; DOI: 10.1128/AEM.65.4.1806-1810.1999 ...
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Journal of Environmental Monitoring. Bacterial biosensors for rapid and effective monitoring of biodegradation of organic ... Bacterial biosensors for rapid and effective monitoring of biodegradation of organic pollutants in wastewater effluents A. O. ... and for in situ monitoring of biodegradation. This has great potential to offer a risk assessment strategy in predicting the ...
Microbial Hydrocarbon Formation and Biodegradation: Organisms, Pathways, Environmental Limitations, and Isotope Signatures. GSA ... MOUSER, Paula J.1, DALY, Rebecca A.2, WOLFE, Richard2 and WRIGHTON, Kelly C.2, (1)Civil, Environmental and Geodetic Engineering ... of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Rd. Rm ... LINKING MICROBIAL COMMUNITY PRESENCE AND DIVERSITY TO FORMATION WATER GEOCHEMISTRY, CRUDE OIL BIODEGRADATION, AND ...
Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts. Indigenous 14C-phenanthrene biodegradation in "pristine" woodland and grassland ... Indigenous 14C-phenanthrene biodegradation in "pristine" woodland and grassland soils from Norway and the United Kingdom U. V. ...
... Login ... However, there is no much information available on the biodegradation of quinalphos by the soil micro-organisms, which play a ... significant role in detoxifying pesticides in the environment; so research is initiated in biodegradation of quinalphos. ...
Environmental Science and Pollution Research" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with ... "Biodegradation tests of mercaptocarboxylic acids, their esters, related divalent sulfur compounds and mercaptans, ... functional group enhances biodegradation compared to a methyl group or to an H atom. 2. A rule of thumb for biodegradation of ... functional group enhances biodegradation compared to a methyl group or to an H atom. 2. A rule of thumb for biodegradation of ...
... ISSN (Print): 2333-8628 ISSN (Online): 2333-8636 Website ... International Journal of Environmental Bioremediation & Biodegradation will be a peer-reviewed, open access journal that ... provides rapid publication of articles in all areas of Environment, Bioremediation, Biodegradation and Pollution. The goal of ...
Biodegradation of xenobiotics- a way for environmental detoxification. International Journal of Development Research ... Better understanding of metabolic pathways for the biodegradation of specific organic compounds as well as more thorough ... The physical and chemical characteristics of the compounds, as well as environmental factors, may influence their ... microorganisms and their successive adaptation to a naturally persistent compound might be a powerful means for environmental ...
Read chapter Emerging Technologies to Advance Research and Decisions on the Environmental Health Effects of Microplastics: ... The Role of Biodegradation. Kathleen McDonough from Procter & Gamble Company addressed the issue of when biodegradation can be ... Environmental health scientists have well-developed methods for evaluating the health risks of various environmental exposures ... Emerging Technologies to Advance Research and Decisions on the Environmental Health Effects of Microplastics: Proceedings of a ...
Based on our analysis we hypothesize that the rhizosphere-specific pathways involved in xenobiotics biodegradation could ... These functions could provide the microbiome with additional capabilities to respond to environmental fluctuations in the ... Based on our analysis we hypothesize that the rhizosphere-specific pathways involved in xenobiotics biodegradation could ... These functions could provide the microbiome with additional capabilities to respond to environmental fluctuations in the ...
Field observations of relatively rapid aerobic MTBE biodegradation following oxygen addition suggest that the indigenous ... The hypothesis that artificial oxic conditions will lead to MTBE biodegradation by indigenous microorganisms in anoxic, ... Biodegradation of MTBE by indigenous aquifer microorganisms under artificial oxic conditions. ACS Division of Environmental ... ACS Division of Environmental Chemistry, Preprints. Volume:. 41. Issue:. 2. Year Published:. 2001. Language:. English. Larger ...
Buy the Hardcover Book Biodegradation and Bioremediation by Martin Alexander at Indigo.ca, Canadas largest bookstore. + Get ... Effect of Chemical Structure on Biodegradation.. Predicting Products of Biodegradation.. Cometabolism.. Environmental Effects. ... Authored by a world-renowned environmental microbiologist,Biodegradation and Bioremediationpresents microbiological, chemical, ... Biodegradation and Bioremediation. byMartin AlexanderEditorMartin Alexander. Hardcover , December 23, 1998. ...
CRC Critical Reviews in Environmental Control. 19(4): 309-340. *^ Wipperman, Matthew, F.; Sampson, Nicole, S.; Thomas, Suzanne ... Oil biodegradation[edit]. General overview of microbial biodegradation of petroleum oil by microbial communities. Some ... 2008). "Genomic Insights into Oil Biodegradation in Marine Systems". In Díaz E. Microbial Biodegradation: Genomics and ... Heider J & Rabus R (2008). "Genomic Insights in the Anaerobic Biodegradation of Organic Pollutants". Microbial Biodegradation: ...
Environmental Science & Technology Subject biodegradation Remove constraint Subject: biodegradation Subject DDT (pesticide) ... You searched for: Author Cheng, Zhineng Remove constraint Author: Cheng, Zhineng Journal Environmental Science & Technology ... Environmental Science & Technology 2017 v.51 no.8 pp. 4424-4433. ISSN:. 1520-5851. Subject:. DDT (pesticide); HCH (pesticide); ... air; atmospheric deposition; biodegradation; cis-chlordane; enantiomers; hexachlorobenzene; hydrolysis; hydrophobicity; lakes; ...
Maximum biodegradation efficiency was occur at temperature = 35°C; pH = 8; inoculum size = 0. 4 OD600nm; salinity = 40 ppt; C/N ... Taguchi L16 (45) was employed to evaluate the optimum biodegradation of Phe and Flu by the enriched consortium. Total of six ... biodegradation performed by enriched consortium. PAHs degrading bacteria were isolated from surface sediments. Purified strains ... biodegradation in contaminated sediment is an attractive remediation technique and its success depends on the optimal condition ...
Peroxyl radicals are potential agents of lignin biodegradation. Past work has shown that the extracellular manganese- dependent ... Applied and environmental microbiology. Vol. 76, no. 7 (Apr. 2010): pages 2091-2097. ... Lignocellulose biodegradation, an essential step in terrestrial carbon cycling, generally involves removal of the recalcitrant ... Lignin, Biodegradation, Decay fungi, Wood destroying fungi, Lipid peroxidation, Manganese peroxidase, Peroxyl radicals ...
Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Pensacola, FL (United States). Country of Publication:. United States. ... 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; 45 MILITARY TECHNOLOGY, WEAPONRY, AND NATIONAL DEFENSE; 56 BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE, APPLIED STUDIES; ... annual meeting of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry: partnerships for the environment - science, education ... CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS; BIODEGRADATION; REMEDIAL ACTION; ENZYME ACTIVITY; HYDROLASES; LYASES; METABOLISM; SOILS. ...
Biodiversity, Energy Systems and Environmental Sustainability *Biofertilizers and Biopesticides *Biogeochemical Cycles and Food ... Biodegradation and Bioremediation for Conservation *Biodegradation of organic contaminants in groundwater *Biodegradation, ... Related Conference of Biodegradation and Bioremediation for Conservation June 14-15, 2018 ...
Initiatives in Environmental Health Science Explore Initiatives in Environmental Health Science *Chemical Spill in West ... NIEHS/EPA Childrens Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research Centers. *Childrens Environmental Health Supplements ... Interagency Breast Cancer & Environmental Research Coordinating Committee. *National Advisory Environmental Health Sciences ... The researchers found that compared to predictions of the standard biodegradation kinetics models, the biodegradation of both ...
  • However, there is also some use in consumer products, [email protected] e.g. several thousand tons per year of thioglycolic acid and its 1 salts go into cosmetic and cleaning formulations and are there- Institute of Sustainable and Environmental Chemistry, Leuphana fore released to the environment directly or indirectly via sew- University Lüneburg, Universitätsallee 1, 21335 Lüneburg, Germany 2 age treatment plants. (deepdyve.com)
  • This event will be of interest to anyone working in in polymer chemistry or environmental chemistry. (soci.org)
  • While a persistent chemical is a potential threat to Biodegradability in an aerobic aquatic phase is a key ele- the environment, a chemical that is readily biodegraded to ment in the environmental assessment of chemicals and is products such as CO and H O (mineralisation) will not 2 2 therefore generally considered in national and international cause any harm to the environment. (deepdyve.com)
  • In addition, total PCB levels were from four to seven times lower than the closer precedents for the area (18-26 years ago) indicating a progress in the environmental release and biota exposure of PCBs and posing an objective indicator of success of the present international elimination programme. (cambridge.org)
  • Finally, calculated TEQs TCDD levels raised a concern in regards to environmental safety, showing guideline values to be widely exceeded and the occasional occurrence of positive correlations between PCBs bioaccumulation vs . sexual immaturity. (cambridge.org)
  • Biodegradation of the benzo a pyrene-contaminated sediment of the Jiaozhou Bay wetland using Pseudomonas sp. (springer.com)
  • The structure of the extant transcriptional control network of the TOL plasmid pWW0 born by Pseudomonas putida mt-2 for biodegradation of m-xylene is far more complex than one would consider necessary from a mere engineering point of view. (wur.nl)
  • In addition to the well-known PHE degraders Acinetobacter and Sphingobium, Kouleothrix and Sandaracinobacter were found, for the first time, to be directly responsible for indigenous PHE biodegradation. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Collectively this study suggests that microbes present in SSFL soils are capable of biodegrading PHCs, and the genes for such biodegradation are actively being expressed. (calpoly.edu)
  • Furthermore, vanillin and its biodegradation products were relatively temperature-stable based on a temperature test of supernatant from a 24-hour culture, however, when the 72-hour culture had been subjected to the highest temperature (60 °C) some spontaneous decomposition occurred. (diva-portal.org)