Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Soil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.HydrocarbonsPetroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Chlorophenols: Phenols substituted with one or more chlorine atoms in any position.Alkanes: The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Phenol: An antiseptic and disinfectant aromatic alcohol.ChlorobenzenesFuel Oils: Complex petroleum hydrocarbons consisting mainly of residues from crude oil distillation. These liquid products include heating oils, stove oils, and furnace oils and are burned to generate energy.Toluene: A widely used industrial solvent.Creosote: A greasy substance with a smoky odor and burned taste created by high temperature treatment of BEECH and other WOOD; COAL TAR; or resin of the CREOSOTE BUSH. It contains CRESOLS and POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS which are CARCINOGENS. It has been widely used as wood preservative and in PESTICIDES and had former use medicinally in DISINFECTANTS; LAXATIVES; and DERMATOLOGIC AGENTS.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Rhodococcus: A bacterial genus of the order ACTINOMYCETALES.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.tert-Butyl AlcoholSphingomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria characterized by an outer membrane that contains glycosphingolipids but lacks lipopolysaccharide. They have the ability to degrade a broad range of substituted aromatic compounds.Chlorobenzoates: Benzoic acid or benzoic acid esters substituted with one or more chlorine atoms.Water Pollution, Chemical: Adverse effect upon bodies of water (LAKES; RIVERS; seas; groundwater etc.) caused by CHEMICAL WATER POLLUTANTS.Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: Organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen in the form of an unsaturated, usually hexagonal ring structure. The compounds can be single ring, or double, triple, or multiple fused rings.CresolsScenedesmus: A genus of GREEN ALGAE in the family Scenedesmaceae. It forms colonies of usually four or eight cylindrical cells that are widely distributed in freshwater and SOIL.Trichloroethylene: A highly volatile inhalation anesthetic used mainly in short surgical procedures where light anesthesia with good analgesia is required. It is also used as an industrial solvent. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of the vapor can lead to cardiotoxicity and neurological impairment.Pentachlorophenol: An insecticide and herbicide that has also been used as a wood preservative. Pentachlorphenol is a widespread environmental pollutant. Both chronic and acute pentachlorophenol poisoning are medical concerns. The range of its biological actions is still being actively explored, but it is clearly a potent enzyme inhibitor and has been used as such as an experimental tool.Water Pollutants: Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.Dichloroethylenes: Toxic chlorinated unsaturated hydrocarbons. Include both the 1,1- and 1,2-dichloro isomers. Both isomers are toxic, but 1,1-dichloroethylene is the more potent CNS depressant and hepatotoxin. It is used in the manufacture of thermoplastic polymers.Surface-Active Agents: Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.Ralstonia: A genus in the family BURKHOLDERIACEAE, comprised of many species. They are associated with a variety of infections including MENINGITIS; PERITONITIS; and URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS.Benzene DerivativesPropaneBenzene: Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.PhenanthrenesAerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Vinyl Chloride: A gas that has been used as an aerosol propellant and is the starting material for polyvinyl resins. Toxicity studies have shown various adverse effects, particularly the occurrence of liver neoplasms.Lindane: An organochlorine insecticide that has been used as a pediculicide and a scabicide. It has been shown to cause cancer.Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid: An herbicide with irritant effects on the eye and the gastrointestinal system.Lignin: The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Polyporaceae: A family of bracket fungi, order POLYPORALES, living in decaying plant matter and timber.Dioxygenases: Non-heme iron-containing enzymes that incorporate two atoms of OXYGEN into the substrate. They are important in biosynthesis of FLAVONOIDS; GIBBERELLINS; and HYOSCYAMINE; and for degradation of AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.Dodecanol: A saturated 12-carbon fatty alcohol obtained from coconut oil fatty acids. It has a floral odor and is used in detergents, lubricating oils, and pharmaceuticals. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Garbage: Discarded animal and vegetable matter from a kitchen or the refuse from food preparation. (From Random House College Dictionary, 1982)Pseudomonas putida: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.Gasoline: Volative flammable fuel (liquid hydrocarbons) derived from crude petroleum by processes such as distillation reforming, polymerization, etc.Xylenes: A family of isomeric, colorless aromatic hydrocarbon liquids, that contain the general formula C6H4(CH3)2. They are produced by the destructive distillation of coal or by the catalytic reforming of petroleum naphthenic fractions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Bacteria, AerobicEthylene Dibromide: An effective soil fumigant, insecticide, and nematocide. In humans, it causes severe burning of skin and irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract. Prolonged inhalation may cause liver necrosis. It is also used in gasoline. Members of this group have caused liver and lung cancers in rodents. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), 1,2-dibromoethane may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Nitrilotriacetic Acid: A derivative of acetic acid, N(CH2COOH)3. It is a complexing (sequestering) agent that forms stable complexes with Zn2+. (From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed.)Arthrobacter: A genus of asporogenous bacteria isolated from soil that displays a distinctive rod-coccus growth cycle.Sodium Benzoate: The sodium salt of BENZOIC ACID. It is used as an antifungal preservative in pharmaceutical preparations and foods. It may also be used as a test for liver function.Hydrocarbons, HalogenatedIndustrial Waste: Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.Decanoates: Salts and esters of the 10-carbon monocarboxylic acid-decanoic acid.Basidiomycota: A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.Octanes: Eight-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.Microbial Consortia: A group of different species of microorganisms that act together as a community.Laccase: A copper-containing oxidoreductase enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of 4-benzenediol to 4-benzosemiquinone. It also has activity towards a variety of O-quinols and P-quinols. It primarily found in FUNGI and is involved in LIGNIN degradation, pigment biosynthesis and detoxification of lignin-derived products.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Ethylene Dichlorides: Toxic, chlorinated, saturated hydrocarbons. Include both the 1,1- and 1,2-dichloro isomers. The latter is considerably more toxic. It has a sweet taste, ethereal odor and has been used as a fumigant and intoxicant among sniffers. Has many household and industrial uses.Oxygenases: Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.Biodegradable Plastics: Organic polymeric materials which can be broken down by naturally occurring processes. This includes plastics created from bio-based or petrochemical-based materials.Catechols: A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.Trinitrotoluene: A 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, which is an explosive chemical that can cause skin irritation and other toxic consequences.Naphthalenes: Two-ring crystalline hydrocarbons isolated from coal tar. They are used as intermediates in chemical synthesis, as insect repellents, fungicides, lubricants, preservatives, and, formerly, as topical antiseptics.Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)Waste Disposal, Fluid: The discarding or destroying of liquid waste products or their transformation into something useful or innocuous.Refuse Disposal: The discarding or destroying of garbage, sewage, or other waste matter or its transformation into something useful or innocuous.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Phanerochaete: A genus of fungi in the family Corticiaceae, order Stereales, that degrades lignin. The white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium is a frequently used species in research.Bromobenzoates: Benzoic acid or benzoic acid esters substituted with one or more bromine atoms.Bioreactors: Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Betaproteobacteria: A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised of chemoheterotrophs and chemoautotrophs which derive nutrients from decomposition of organic material.Petroleum Pollution: Release of oil into the environment usually due to human activity.Absorbable Implants: Implants constructed of materials designed to be absorbed by the body without producing an immune response. They are usually composed of plastics and are frequently used in orthopedics and orthodontics.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Sphingomonadaceae: A family of gram-negative, asporogenous rods or ovoid cells, aerobic or facultative anaerobic chemoorganotrophs. They are commonly isolated from SOIL, activated sludge, or marine environments.Methyl Chloride: A hydrocarbon used as an industrial solvent. It has been used as an aerosal propellent, as a refrigerant and as a local anesthetic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p1403)Ochrobactrum: A genus of the family BRUCELLACEAE comprising obligately aerobic gram-negative rods with parallel sides and rounded ends.Pseudomonas alcaligenes: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It cannot utilize FRUCTOSE; GLUCOSE; or MALTOSE for energy.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Pleurotus: A genus of basidiomycetous fungi, family POLYPORACEAE, order POLYPORALES, that grows on logs or tree stumps in shelflike layers. The species P. ostreatus, the oyster mushroom, is a choice edible species and is the most frequently encountered member of the genus in eastern North America. (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, p531)Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Explosive Agents: Substances that are energetically unstable and can produce a sudden expansion of the material, called an explosion, which is accompanied by heat, pressure and noise. Other things which have been described as explosive that are not included here are explosive action of laser heating, human performance, sudden epidemiological outbreaks, or fast cell growth.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Burkholderia: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Organisms in this genus had originally been classified as members of the PSEUDOMONAS genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings indicated the need to separate them from other Pseudomonas species, and hence, this new genus was created.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Tetrahydronaphthalenes: Partially saturated 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene compounds.Adipates: Derivatives of adipic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,6-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.Herbicides: Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.Gordonia Bacterium: A genus of gram-positive BACTERIA in the family Gordoniaceae, isolated from soil and from sputa of patients with chest disorders. It is also used for biotransformation of natural products.Bacteria, AnaerobicDrug Residues: Drugs and their metabolites which are found in the edible tissues and milk of animals after their medication with specific drugs. This term can also apply to drugs found in adipose tissue of humans after drug treatment.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Atrazine: A selective triazine herbicide. Inhalation hazard is low and there are no apparent skin manifestations or other toxicity in humans. Acutely poisoned sheep and cattle may show muscular spasms, fasciculations, stiff gait, increased respiratory rates, adrenal degeneration, and congestion of the lungs, liver, and kidneys. (From The Merck Index, 11th ed)Aroclors: Industrial chemicals which have become widespread environmental pollutants. Each aroclor is a mixture of chlorinated biphenyls (1200 series) or chlorinated terphenyls (5400 series) or a combination of both (4400 series).Metabolic Networks and Pathways: Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.Organic Chemicals: A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.Acenaphthenes: Tricyclic ethylene-bridged naphthalene derivatives. They are found in petroleum residues and coal tar and used as dye intermediates, in the manufacture of plastics, and in insecticides and fungicides.Trametes: A genus of fungi in the family Coriolaceae.Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.Recycling: The extraction and recovery of usable or valuable material from scrap or other discarded materials. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed.)Aniline CompoundsCarbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Comamonadaceae: A family of gram-negative aerobic bacteria in the class BETA PROTEOBACTERIA, encompassing the acidovorans rRNA complex. Some species are pathogenic for PLANTS.Triazines: Heterocyclic rings containing three nitrogen atoms, commonly in 1,2,4 or 1,3,5 or 2,4,6 formats. Some are used as HERBICIDES.Xanthobacter: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in wet soil containing decaying organic material and in water. Cells tend to be pleomorphic if grown on media containing succinate or coccoid if grown in the presence of an alcohol as the sole carbon source. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Phthalic Acids: A group of compounds that has the general structure of a dicarboxylic acid-substituted benzene ring. The ortho-isomer is used in dye manufacture. (Dorland, 28th ed)Alcaligenes: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, motile bacteria that occur in water and soil. Some are common inhabitants of the intestinal tract of vertebrates. These bacteria occasionally cause opportunistic infections in humans.Carbon-Carbon Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. This subclass contains the DECARBOXYLASES, the ALDEHYDE-LYASES, and the OXO-ACID-LYASES. EC 4.1.Catechol 1,2-Dioxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of catechol to muconic acid with the use of Fe3+ as a cofactor. This enzyme was formerly characterized as EC 1.13.1.1 and EC 1.99.2.2.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Polyethylene: A vinyl polymer made from ethylene. It can be branched or linear. Branched or low-density polyethylene is tough and pliable but not to the same degree as linear polyethylene. Linear or high-density polyethylene has a greater hardness and tensile strength. Polyethylene is used in a variety of products, including implants and prostheses.Mycelium: The body of a fungus which is made up of HYPHAE.Trityl CompoundsNitrophenolsCarboxylic Acids: Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.Microbiology: The study of microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, algae, archaea, and viruses.Waste Management: Disposal, processing, controlling, recycling, and reusing the solid, liquid, and gaseous wastes of plants, animals, humans, and other organisms. It includes control within a closed ecological system to maintain a habitable environment.Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Alkanesulfonic Acids: Sulfonic acid derivatives that are substituted with an aliphatic hydrocarbon group.Groundwater: Liquid water present beneath the surface of the earth.2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic Acid: An herbicide with strong irritant properties. Use of this compound on rice fields, orchards, sugarcane, rangeland, and other noncrop sites was terminated by the EPA in 1985. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Flavobacterium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in SOIL and WATER. Its organisms are also found in raw meats, MILK and other FOOD, hospital environments, and human clinical specimens. Some species are pathogenic in humans.Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated: Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.Polyesters: Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.Minerals: Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Oils: Unctuous combustible substances that are liquid or easily liquefiable on warming, and are soluble in ether but insoluble in water. Such substances, depending on their origin, are classified as animal, mineral, or vegetable oils. Depending on their behavior on heating, they are volatile or fixed. (Dorland, 28th ed)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Xenobiotics: Chemical substances that are foreign to the biological system. They include naturally occurring compounds, drugs, environmental agents, carcinogens, insecticides, etc.Brevibacterium: A gram-positive organism found in dairy products, fresh and salt water, marine organisms, insects, and decaying organic matter.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Carbaryl: A carbamate insecticide and parasiticide. It is a potent anticholinesterase agent belonging to the carbamate group of reversible cholinesterase inhibitors. It has a particularly low toxicity from dermal absorption and is used for control of head lice in some countries.Dicofol: An organochlorine insecticide.Nitrates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.Poloxalene: A copolymer of polyethylene and polypropylene ether glycol. It is a non-ionic polyol surface-active agent used medically as a fecal softener and in cattle for prevention of bloat.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Water Purification: Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of WASTE WATER to provide potable and hygienic water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies.Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Radioactive Waste: Liquid, solid, or gaseous waste resulting from mining of radioactive ore, production of reactor fuel materials, reactor operation, processing of irradiated reactor fuels, and related operations, and from use of radioactive materials in research, industry, and medicine. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Achromobacter: A genus of gram-negative, strictly aerobic, non-spore forming rods. Soil and water are regarded as the natural habitat. They are sometimes isolated from a hospital environment and humans.Rhamnose: A methylpentose whose L- isomer is found naturally in many plant glycosides and some gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides.Resins, Plant: Flammable, amorphous, vegetable products of secretion or disintegration, usually formed in special cavities of plants. They are generally insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol, carbon tetrachloride, ether, or volatile oils. They are fusible and have a conchoidal fracture. They are the oxidation or polymerization products of the terpenes, and are mixtures of aromatic acids and esters. Most are soft and sticky, but harden after exposure to cold. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)Aminophenols: Phenols substituted in any position by an amino group.Biological Oxygen Demand Analysis: Testing for the amount of biodegradable organic material in a water sample by measuring the quantity of oxygen consumed by biodegradation of those materials over a specific time period.PeroxidasesSurface Tension: The force acting on the surface of a liquid, tending to minimize the area of the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Benzoates: Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.Water Pollution: Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)AcetyleneRalstonia pickettii: The type species in the genus RALSTONIA. It is often found in the hospital ward as a contaminant of antiseptic and disinfectant solutions.1-Propanol: A colorless liquid made by oxidation of aliphatic hydrocarbons that is used as a solvent and chemical intermediate.Polycyclic Compounds: Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.Stenotrophomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, motile, rod-shaped bacteria formerly classified as part of the genus XANTHOMONAS.Caprolactam: Cyclic amide of caproic acid used in manufacture of synthetic fibers of the polyamide type. Can cause local irritation.Aldrin: A highly poisonous substance that was formerly used as an insecticide. The manufacture and use has been discontinued in the U.S. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Onions: Herbaceous biennial plants and their edible bulbs, belonging to the Liliaceae.Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.Corrosion: The gradual destruction of a metal or alloy due to oxidation or action of a chemical agent. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Alkanesulfonates: Organic esters or salts of sulfonic acid derivatives containing an aliphatic hydrocarbon radical.Linuron: A selective pre- and post-emergence herbicide. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Biota: The spectrum of different living organisms inhabiting a particular region, habitat, or biotope.Wood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.Eutrophication: The enrichment of a terrestrial or aquatic ECOSYSTEM by the addition of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, that results in a superabundant growth of plants, ALGAE, or other primary producers. It can be a natural process or result from human activity such as agriculture runoff or sewage pollution. In aquatic ecosystems, an increase in the algae population is termed an algal bloom.PhytolCarbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Fibroins: Fibrous proteins secreted by INSECTS and SPIDERS. Generally, the term refers to silkworm fibroin secreted by the silk gland cells of SILKWORMS, Bombyx mori. Spider fibroins are called spidroins or dragline silk fibroins.Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Arctic Regions: The Arctic Ocean and the lands in it and adjacent to it. It includes Point Barrow, Alaska, most of the Franklin District in Canada, two thirds of Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Lapland, Novaya Zemlya, and Northern Siberia. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p66)Methyl Ethers: A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.Comamonas testosteroni: A species of gram-negative, aerobic rods formerly called Pseudomonas testosteroni. It is differentiated from other Comamonas species by its ability to assimilate testosterone and to utilize phenylacetate or maleate as carbon sources.Space MaintenanceFossil Fuels: Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane: An organochlorine insecticide that is slightly irritating to the skin. (From Merck Index, 11th ed, p482)Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Biphenyl CompoundsMicroalgae: A non-taxonomic term for unicellular microscopic algae which are found in both freshwater and marine environments. Some authors consider DIATOMS; CYANOBACTERIA; HAPTOPHYTA; and DINOFLAGELLATES as part of microalgae, even though they are not algae.Cells, Immobilized: Microbial, plant, or animal cells which are immobilized by attachment to solid structures, usually a column matrix. A common use of immobilized cells is in biotechnology for the bioconversion of a substrate to a particular product. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Mirex: An organochlorine insecticide that is carcinogenic.Sulfanilic Acids: Aminobenzenesulfonic acids. Organic acids that are used in the manufacture of dyes and organic chemicals and as reagents.Enzymes: Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.Heptachlor: A man-made compound previously used to control termites and other insects. Even though production of heptachlor was phased out of use in the United States during the late 1980's it remains in soil and hazardous waste sites. It is clearly toxic to animals and humans but, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has determined that heptachlor is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans. (From ATSDR Public Heath Statement, April 1989)Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Benzothiazoles: Compounds with a benzene ring fused to a thiazole ring.Benzhydryl Compounds: Compounds which contain the methyl radical substituted with two benzene rings. Permitted are any substituents, but ring fusion to any of the benzene rings is not allowed.Agaricales: An extensive order of basidiomycetous fungi whose fruiting bodies are commonly called mushrooms.

Complete sequence of a 184-kilobase catabolic plasmid from Sphingomonas aromaticivorans F199. (1/3156)

The complete 184,457-bp sequence of the aromatic catabolic plasmid, pNL1, from Sphingomonas aromaticivorans F199 has been determined. A total of 186 open reading frames (ORFs) are predicted to encode proteins, of which 79 are likely directly associated with catabolism or transport of aromatic compounds. Genes that encode enzymes associated with the degradation of biphenyl, naphthalene, m-xylene, and p-cresol are predicted to be distributed among 15 gene clusters. The unusual coclustering of genes associated with different pathways appears to have evolved in response to similarities in biochemical mechanisms required for the degradation of intermediates in different pathways. A putative efflux pump and several hypothetical membrane-associated proteins were identified and predicted to be involved in the transport of aromatic compounds and/or intermediates in catabolism across the cell wall. Several genes associated with integration and recombination, including two group II intron-associated maturases, were identified in the replication region, suggesting that pNL1 is able to undergo integration and excision events with the chromosome and/or other portions of the plasmid. Conjugative transfer of pNL1 to another Sphingomonas sp. was demonstrated, and genes associated with this function were found in two large clusters. Approximately one-third of the ORFs (59 of them) have no obvious homology to known genes.  (+info)

Purification and characterization of gentisate 1,2-dioxygenases from Pseudomonas alcaligenes NCIB 9867 and Pseudomonas putida NCIB 9869. (2/3156)

Two 3-hydroxybenzoate-inducible gentisate 1,2-dioxygenases were purified to homogeneity from Pseudomonas alcaligenes NCIB 9867 (P25X) and Pseudomonas putida NCIB 9869 (P35X), respectively. The estimated molecular mass of the purified P25X gentisate 1, 2-dioxygenase was 154 kDa, with a subunit mass of 39 kDa. Its structure is deduced to be a tetramer. The pI of this enzyme was established to be 4.8 to 5.0. The subunit mass of P35X gentisate 1, 2-dioxygenase was 41 kDa, and this enzyme was deduced to exist as a dimer, with a native molecular mass of about 82 kDa. The pI of P35X gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase was around 4.6 to 4.8. Both of the gentisate 1,2-dioxygenases exhibited typical saturation kinetics and had apparent Kms of 92 and 143 microM for gentisate, respectively. Broad substrate specificities were exhibited towards alkyl and halogenated gentisate analogs. Both enzymes had similar kinetic turnover characteristics for gentisate, with kcat/Km values of 44.08 x 10(4) s-1 M-1 for the P25X enzyme and 39.34 x 10(4) s-1 M-1 for the P35X enzyme. Higher kcat/Km values were expressed by both enzymes against the substituted gentisates. Significant differences were observed between the N-terminal sequences of the first 23 amino acid residues of the P25X and P35X gentisate 1,2-dioxygenases. The P25X gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase was stable between pH 5.0 and 7.5, with the optimal pH around 8.0. The P35X enzyme showed a pH stability range between 7.0 and 9.0, and the optimum pH was also 8.0. The optimal temperature for both P25X and P35X gentisate 1, 2-dioxygenases was around 50 degrees C, but the P35X enzyme was more heat stable than that from P25X. Both enzymes were strongly stimulated by 0.1 mM Fe2+ but were completely inhibited by the presence of 5 mM Cu2+. Partial inhibition of both enzymes was also observed with 5 mM Mn2+, Zn2+, and EDTA.  (+info)

Effect of phenylurea herbicides on soil microbial communities estimated by analysis of 16S rRNA gene fingerprints and community-level physiological profiles. (3/3156)

The effect of three phenyl urea herbicides (diuron, linuron, and chlorotoluron) on soil microbial communities was studied by using soil samples with a 10-year history of treatment. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was used for the analysis of 16S rRNA genes (16S rDNA). The degree of similarity between the 16S rDNA profiles of the communities was quantified by numerically analysing the DGGE band patterns. Similarity dendrograms showed that the microbial community structures of the herbicide-treated and nontreated soils were significantly different. Moreover, the bacterial diversity seemed to decrease in soils treated with urea herbicides, and sequence determination of several DGGE fragments showed that the most affected species in the soils treated with diuron and linuron belonged to an uncultivated bacterial group. As well as the 16S rDNA fingerprints, the substrate utilization patterns of the microbial communities were compared. Principal-component analysis performed on BIOLOG data showed that the functional abilities of the soil microbial communities were altered by the application of the herbicides. In addition, enrichment cultures of the different soils in medium with the urea herbicides as the sole carbon and nitrogen source showed that there was no difference between treated and nontreated soil in the rate of transformation of diuron and chlorotoluron but that there was a strong difference in the case of linuron. In the enrichment cultures with linuron-treated soil, linuron disappeared completely after 1 week whereas no significant transformation was observed in cultures inoculated with nontreated soil even after 4 weeks. In conclusion, this study showed that both the structure and metabolic potential of soil microbial communities were clearly affected by a long-term application of urea herbicides.  (+info)

Anaerobic oxidation of o-xylene, m-xylene, and homologous alkylbenzenes by new types of sulfate-reducing bacteria. (4/3156)

Various alkylbenzenes were depleted during growth of an anaerobic, sulfate-reducing enrichment culture with crude oil as the only source of organic substrates. From this culture, two new types of mesophilic, rod-shaped sulfate-reducing bacteria, strains oXyS1 and mXyS1, were isolated with o-xylene and m-xylene, respectively, as organic substrates. Sequence analyses of 16S rRNA genes revealed that the isolates affiliated with known completely oxidizing sulfate-reducing bacteria of the delta subclass of the class Proteobacteria. Strain oXyS1 showed the highest similarities to Desulfobacterium cetonicum and Desulfosarcina variabilis (similarity values, 98.4 and 98.7%, respectively). Strain mXyS1 was less closely related to known species, the closest relative being Desulfococcus multivorans (similarity value, 86.9%). Complete mineralization of o-xylene and m-xylene was demonstrated in quantitative growth experiments. Strain oXyS1 was able to utilize toluene, o-ethyltoluene, benzoate, and o-methylbenzoate in addition to o-xylene. Strain mXyS1 oxidized toluene, m-ethyltoluene, m-isoproyltoluene, benzoate, and m-methylbenzoate in addition to m-xylene. Strain oXyS1 did not utilize m-alkyltoluenes, whereas strain mXyS1 did not utilize o-alkyltoluenes. Like the enrichment culture, both isolates grew anaerobically on crude oil with concomitant reduction of sulfate to sulfide.  (+info)

Involvement of two plasmids in the degradation of carbaryl by Arthrobacter sp. strain RC100. (5/3156)

A bacterium capable of utilizing carbaryl (1-naphthyl N-methylcarbamate) as the sole carbon source was isolated from carbaryl-treated soil. This bacterium was characterized taxonomically as Arthrobacter and was designated strain RC100. RC100 hydrolyzes the N-methylcarbamate linkage to 1-naphthol, which was further metabolized via salicylate and gentisate. Strain RC100 harbored three plasmids (designated pRC1, pRC2, and pRC3). Mutants unable to degrade carbaryl arose at a high frequency after treating the culture with mitomycin C. All carbaryl-hydrolysis-deficient mutants (Cah-) lacked pRC1, and all 1-naphthol-utilization-deficient mutants (Nat-) lacked pRC2. The plasmid-free strain RC107 grew on gentisate as a carbon source. These two plasmids could be transferred to Cah- mutants or Nat- mutants by conjugation, resulting in the restoration of the Cah and Nah phenotypes.  (+info)

Purification and characterization of a novel peroxidase from Geotrichum candidum dec 1 involved in decolorization of dyes. (6/3156)

A peroxidase (DyP) involved in the decolorization of dyes and produced by the fungus strain Geotrichum candidum Dec 1 was purified. DyP, a glycoprotein, is glycosylated with N-acetylglucosamine and mannose (17%) and has a molecular mass of 60 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of 3.8. The absorption spectrum of DyP exhibited a Soret band at 406 nm corresponding to a hemoprotein, and its Na2S2O4-reduced form revealed a peak at 556 nm that indicates the presence of a protoheme as its prosthetic group. Nine of the 21 types of dyes that were decolorized by Dec 1 cells were decolorized by DyP; in particular, anthraquinone dyes were highly decolorized. DyP also oxidized 2,6-dimethoxyphenol and guaiacol but not veratryl alcohol. The optimal temperature for DyP activity was 30 degrees C, and DyP activity was stable even after incubation at 50 degrees C for 11 h.  (+info)

Decolorization and detoxification of extraction-stage effluent from chlorine bleaching of kraft pulp by Rhizopus oryzae. (7/3156)

Rhizopus oryzae, a zygomycete, was found to decolorize, dechlorinate, and detoxify bleach plant effluent at lower cosubstrate concentrations than the basidiomycetes previously investigated. With glucose at 1 g/liter, this fungus removed 92 to 95% of the color, 50% of the chemical oxygen demand, 72% of the adsorbable organic halide, and 37% of the extractable organic halide in 24 h at temperatures of 25 to 45 degrees C and a pH of 3 to 5. Even without added cosubstrate the fungus removed up to 78% of the color. Monomeric chlorinated aromatic compounds were removed almost completely, and toxicity to zebra fish was eliminated. The fungal mycelium could be immobilized in polyurethane foam and used repeatedly to treat batches of effluent. The residue after treatment was not further improved by exposure to fresh R. oryzae mycelium.  (+info)

Degradation of chloronitrobenzenes by a coculture of Pseudomonas putida and a Rhodococcus sp. (8/3156)

A single microorganism able to mineralize chloronitrobenzenes (CNBs) has not been reported, and degradation of CNBs by coculture of two microbial strains was attempted. Pseudomonas putida HS12 was first isolated by analogue enrichment culture using nitrobenzene (NB) as the substrate, and this strain was observed to possess a partial reductive pathway for the degradation of NB. From high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance analyses, NB-grown cells of P. putida HS12 were found to convert 3- and 4-CNBs to the corresponding 5- and 4-chloro-2-hydroxyacetanilides, respectively, by partial reduction and subsequent acetylation. For the degradation of CNBs, Rhodococcus sp. strain HS51, which degrades 4- and 5-chloro-2-hydroxyacetanilides, was isolated and combined with P. putida HS12 to give a coculture. This coculture was confirmed to mineralize 3- and 4-CNBs in the presence of an additional carbon source. A degradation pathway for 3- and 4-CNBs by the two isolated strains was also proposed.  (+info)

*Shale oil

1. United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Environmental Monitoring and Support ... "Selective Biodegradation of S and N Heterocycles by a Recombinant Rhodococcus erythropolis Strain Containing Carbazole ... Bureau of Land Management (2011-04-14). "Notice of Intent To Prepare a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and ... James Girard (2004). Principles of Environmental Chemistry. Jones & Bartlett. ISBN 978-0-7637-2471-9. Fractional distillation ...

*Biodegradable plastic

Environmental biodegradation of polyethylene. Polym. Deg. Stab 81, 441-452 (2003). "Kinetics of abiotic and biotic ... Oxo-biodegradation of polymer material has been studied in depth at the Technical Research Institute of Sweden and the Swedish ... A peer-reviewed report of the work shows 91% biodegradation in a soil environment within 24 months, when tested in accordance ... "ASTM D5526 - 94 (2011) e1 Standard Test Method for Determining Anaerobic Biodegradation of Plastic Materials Under Accelerated ...

*Environmental impact of biodiesel

Biodegradation and Environmental Behavior of Biodiesel Mixtures in the Sea: An Initial Study. Marine Poll. Bull. 2007, 54, 894- ... The environmental impact of biodiesel is diverse. An often mentioned incentive for using biodiesel is its capacity to lower ... Additionally, the presence of biodiesel can increase the rate of diesel biodegradation via co-metabolism. As the ratio of ... A University of Idaho study compared biodegradation rates of biodiesel, neat vegetable oils, biodiesel and petroleum diesel ...

*Xanthobacter autotrophicus

ISBN 3-540-72025-1. al.], edited by C. Marjorie Aelion ... [et (2010). Environmental isotopes in biodegradation and ... 2-Dichloroethane Biodegradation". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 72 (6): 4411-4418. doi:10.1128/AEM.02576-05. PMC ... doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1995.0666h.x. Vasileva, E.; Petrov, K.; Beschkov, V. (15 April 2014). "Biodegradation of ... ISBN 0-387-25495-1. Janssen, Martin H. Agteren, Sytze Keuning, Dick B. (1998). Handbook on Biodegradation and Biological ...

*Priming (microbiology)

Soil carbon Nutrient cycle Soil chemistry Soil biology Environmental microbiology Microbial biodegradation Bird, Jeffrey A.; ...

*Sulfide intrusion

Nutrient cycle Redox Sulfur cycle Soil chemistry Soil biology Environmental microbiology Microbial biodegradation Núria Marbà; ...

*Micrococcus

They are likely involved in detoxification or biodegradation of many other environmental pollutants. Other Micrococcus isolates ... Doddamani H, Ninnekar H (2001). "Biodegradation of carbaryl by a Micrococcus species". Curr Microbiol. 43 (1): 69-73. doi: ...

*Microbial biodegradation

Biodegradation Bioremediation Biotransformation Bioavailability Chemotaxis Microbiology Environmental microbiology Industrial ... Heider J & Rabus R (2008). "Genomic Insights in the Anaerobic Biodegradation of Organic Pollutants". Microbial Biodegradation: ... 2008). "Genomic Insights into Oil Biodegradation in Marine Systems". In Díaz E. Microbial Biodegradation: Genomics and ... Microbial biodegradation is the use of bioremediation and biotransformation methods to harness the naturally occurring ability ...

*Geobacter

Microbial biodegradation of recalcitrant organic pollutants is of great environmental significance and involves intriguing ... Heider J, Rabus R (2008). "Genomic Insights in the Anaerobic Biodegradation of Organic Pollutants". Microbial Biodegradation: ... 2008). Microbial Biodegradation: Genomics and Molecular Biology (1st ed.). Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-17-2. ... Genome-based models of several Geobacter species that are able to predict physiological responses under different environmental ...

*Dipicolinic acid

Sims, G. K.; Sommers, L.E. (1986). "Biodegradation of pyridine derivatives in soil suspensions". Environmental Toxicology and ... Simple substituted pyridines vary significantly in environmental fate characteristics, such as volatility, adsorption, and ... Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 67 (3): 1274-1279. doi:10.1128/aem.67.3.1274-1279.2001. PMC 92724 . PMID 11229921. Sci- ... CRC Critical Reviews in Environmental Control. 19 (4): 309-340. doi:10.1080/10643388909388372. ...

*Pyrethroid

Thatheyus, A.J; Gnana Selvam, A.Deborah (2013). "Synthetic Pyrethroids: Toxicity and Biodegradation". Applied Ecology and ... "Environmental Modeling and Exposure Assessment of Sediment-Associated Pyrethroids in an Agricultural Watershed". PLoS ONE. 6 (1 ... Its insecticidal activity has relatively low mammalian toxicity and an unusually fast biodegradation. Their development ... Environmental Science & Technology. 44 (5): 1833-40. Bibcode:2010EnST...44.1833W. doi:10.1021/es9035573. PMID 20121184. Jim E. ...

*Ecological impact of explosives

Environmental impact of war Formerly Used Defense Sites Biodegradation Advanced oxidation process Pennington JC, Brannon JM ( ... Explosive derived contaminants may have adverse effects on the environmental as well as human health. In addition to their ... In the last decade, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has declared TNT a pollutant whose removal is ... Kalderis D, Juhasz AL, Boopathy R, Comfort S (2011). "Soils contaminated with explosives: Environmental fate and evaluation of ...

*Phenol formaldehyde resin

Gusse AC; Miller PD; Volk TJ (July 2006). "White-rot fungi demonstrate first biodegradation of phenolic resin". Environmental ...

*Phanerochaete

Gusse, A.C.; Miller, P.D.; Volk, T.J. (2006). "White-rot fungi demonstrate first biodegradation of phenolic resin". ... Environmental Science and Technology. 40: 4196-9. doi:10.1021/es060408h. PMID 16856735. Mori, T.; Wang, J.; Tanaka, Y.; Nagai, ...

*Bioremediation

Outside of environmental conditions they were designed for, they lose their biodegradation ability or undergo self destruction ... Also, for biodegradation to occur, there must be a microbial population with the metabolic capacity to degrade the pollutant, ... Composting accelerates pollutant biodegradation by mixing the waste to be treated with a bulking agent, forming into piles, and ... Therefore, more research is required to see if the products from biodegradation are less persistent and less toxic than the ...

*Pesticide

Sims G. K., Sommers L.E. (1986). "Biodegradation of pyridine derivatives in soil suspensions". Environmental Toxicology and ... "Environmental and Economic Costs of the Application of Pesticides Primarily in the United States" Environment, Development and ... A study on the human health and environmental costs due to pesticides in the United States was estimated at $9.6 billion: ... The EPA looks at what the potential human health and environmental effects might be associated with the use of the pesticide. ...

*2-Methylpyridine

Sims, G.K.; L.E. Sommers (1985). "Biodegradation of pyridine derivatives in soil suspensions". Environmental Toxicology and ... Biodegradation of 2-methyl, 2-ethyl, and 2-hydroxypyridine by an Arthrobacter sp. isolated from subsurface sediment. ... 2-methypyridine and 4-methypyridine are more readily degraded and exhibit less volatilization loss from environmental samples ... Like other pyridine derivatives, 2-methylpyridine is often reported as an environmental contaminant associated with facilities ...

*Pyridine

Sims, G. K.; Sommers, L.E. (1986). "Biodegradation of pyridine derivatives in soil suspensions". Environmental Toxicology and ... "Environmental and health criteria for paraquat and diquat". Geneva: World Health Organization. 1984. Sherman, A. R. (2004). " ... O'Loughlin, E. J; Traina, S. J.; Sims, G. K. (2000). "Effects of sorption on the biodegradation of 2-methylpyridine in aqueous ... "Database of the (EPA)". U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. "Pyridine MSDS" (PDF). Alfa Aesar. Retrieved 3 June 2010. Aylward ...

*Structure-activity relationship

"Biodegradation of pyridine derivatives in soil suspensions". Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 5: 503-509. doi:10.1002/ ... Critical Reviews in Environmental Control. 21 (3,4): 217-236. doi:10.1080/10643389109388416. Molecular Property Explorer QSAR ... "Structure activity relationships for the prediction of biodegradability of environmental pollutants". ... synthetic organic chemicals currently in production presents a huge challenge for timely collection of detailed environmental ...

*Picoline

J. Environmental Quality. 14:580-584. Sims, G. K. and L.E. Sommers. 1986. Biodegradation of pyridine derivatives in soil ... Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 5:503-509. Picolines at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings ( ...

*3-Methylpyridine

Biodegradation of pyridine derivatives in soil suspensions. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 5:503-509. Sims, G. K. and ... J. Environmental Quality. 14:580-584. Manfred Eggersdorfer; et al. (2000). "Vitamins". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial ... CRC Critical Reviews in Environmental Control. 19(4): 309-340. Sims, G. K. and L.E. Sommers. 1986. ... Pyridine derivatives (including 3-methylpyridine) are environmental contaminants, generally associated with processing fossil ...

*2-Chloropyridine

Biodegradation of pyridine derivatives in soil suspensions. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 5:503-509. Sims, G. K. and ...

*2,6-Lutidine

Biodegradation of pyridine derivatives in soil suspensions. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 5: 503-509.. ... Degradation of pyridines in the environment, CRC Critical Reviews in Environmental Control. 19(4): 309-340. Sims, G. K.; L.E. ... Sommers (1985). "Degradation of pyridine derivatives in soil". Journal of Environmental Quality. 14: 580-584. Sims, G. K. and L ...

*Sucralose

Labare, Michael P; Alexander, Martin (1993). "Biodegradation of sucralose in samples of natural environments". Environmental ... However, measurements by the Swedish Environmental Research Institute have shown sewage treatment has little effect on ... but the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency warns a continuous increase in levels may occur if the compound is only slowly ... 2016 in the peer-reviewed International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health. Sucralose has not shown any DNA- ...

*Polyurethane

"Biodegradation of Polyester Polyurethane by Endophytic Fungi". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 77 (17): 6076-84. doi: ... "Quick Safety Tips for Spray Polyurethane Foam Users". United States Environmental Protection Agency. ISOPA Avar, G. (October ... 5: 3. doi:10.1186/s40038-016-0012-3. "Environmental Profiles of Chemical Flame-Retardant Alternatives for Low-Density ... Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 74 (3): 564-9. doi:10.1128/AEM.01768-07. PMC 2227722 . PMID 18065627. Tokiwa, Yutaka; ...

*Aflatoxin B1

Dermal exposure to this aflatoxin in particular environmental conditions can lead to major health risks. The liver is the most ... "Detection and estimation of aflatoxin B1 in feeds and its biodegradation by bacteria and fungi". Egyptian Journal of Natural ... Environmental Health Perspectives. 113 (12): 1779-1783. doi:10.1289/ehp.8384. JSTOR 3436751. Tulpule P. G., Madhavan T. V., ... Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis: NA. doi:10.1002/em.20518. Geissler, Francis; Faustman, Elaine M (1988). "Developmental ...

*Scott Strobel

"Biodegradation of polyester polyurethane by endophytic fungi". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 77 (17): 6076-84. doi: ...
This three-day symposium was organized by the US EPA, the USAF AL/EQ, Tyndall AFB FL, and the US AFCEE Technology Transfer Division, Brooks AFB TX. Natural attenuation, the biodegradation or chemical destruction or stabilization of contaminants, can reduce contaminants to levels protective of human health and ecosystems. The symposium was intended to increase understanding of the natural attenuation process and to review methods for screening sites and making decisions to determine the feasibility of natural attenuation at chlorinated solvent-contaminated sites. The symposium obtained feedback from the regulatory and industrial communities on the appropriate application of natural attenuation and the developing protocol for natural attenuation of chlorinated organics. The symposium featured invited platform presentations covering both laboratory studies and field demonstrations conducted in support of natural attenuation at government and industry sites. The theory and principles of methods for
At a former wood preservation plant severely contaminated with coal tar oil, in situ bulk attenuation and biodegradation rate constants for several monoaromatic (BTEX) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were determined using (1) classical first order decay models, (2) Michaelis-Menten degradation kinetics (MM), and (3) stable carbon isotopes, for o-xylene and naphthalene. The first order bulk attenuation rate constant for o-xylene was calculated to be 0.0025 d(-1) and a novel stable isotope-based first order model, which also accounted for the respective redox conditions, resulted in a slightly smaller biodegradation rate constant of 0.0019 d(-1). Based on MM-kinetics, the o-xylene concentration decreased with a maximum rate of k(max)=0.1 mu g/L/d. The bulk attenuation rate constant of naphthalene retrieved from the classical first order decay model was 0.0038 d(-1). The stable isotope-based biodegradation rate constant of 0.0027 d(-1) was smaller in the reduced zone, while residual naphthalene ...
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Detail záznamu - Chapter 11: Biodegradation of Aromatic Pollutants by Ligninolytic Fungal Strains - Detail záznamu - Knihovna Akademie věd České republiky
Natural Attenuation of Groundwater Contaminants: New Paradigms, Technologies, and Applications from Rice University. Cleaning up the large number of groundwater contamination sites is a significant and complex environmental challenge. The ...
Video created by Rice University for the course Natural Attenuation of Groundwater Contaminants: New Paradigms, Technologies, and Applications. In this series of lectures, we will learn when biodegradation can or cannot occur and what ...
An additional benefit of hydrogen peroxide and Fentons Reagent is the temporary increase of oxygen levels in and around the treatment area. The increased oxygen levels at the fringes of the treatment area can enhance naturally occurring aerobic biodegradation processes that reduce contaminant mass. While there may be concerns about oxidizing hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in the chemical oxidation treatment area, many studies have shown that soil cannot be readily sterilized by Fentons Reagent and that microbial populations rapidly rebound following chemical oxidation treatment. ...
The increasing sensitivity of PCR has meant that in the last two decades PCR has emerged as a major tool in diet studies, enabling us to refine our understanding of trophic links and to elucidate the diets of predators whose prey is as yet uncharacterized. The achievements and methods of PCR-based diet studies have been reviewed several times, but here we review an important development in the field: the use of PCR enrichment techniques to promote the amplification of prey DNA over that of the predator. We first discuss the success of using group-specific primers either in parallel single reactions or in multiplex reactions. We then concentrate on the more recent use of PCR enrichment techniques such as restriction enzyme digests, peptide nucleic acid clamping, DNA blocking and laser capture microdissection. We also survey the vast literature on enrichment techniques in clinical biology, to ascertain the pitfalls of enrichment techniques and what refinements have yielded some highly sensitive ...
This patent search tool allows you not only to search the PCT database of about 2 million International Applications but also the worldwide patent collections. This search facility features: flexible search syntax; automatic word stemming and relevance ranking; as well as graphical results.
... (ECRTs) use a proprietary AC/DC electrical signal to mineralize organic compounds (e.g. volatile organic compounds (VOCs)), and to mobilize and remove metal contaminants. Proprietary AC/DC converters produce a low-voltage, low-amperage electrical field that polarizes the soil or sediment (soil), causing soil particles to charge and discharge electricity. This causes redox reactions that occur at all interfaces within the soil-groundwater-contaminant-electrode system, mineralizing organics and increasing the mobilization of metals. Metals migrate to the electrodes where they are deposited and removed with the electrodes. There are several distinctions between ECRTs and traditional electrokinetics. First, relatively low energy input is required to perform remediation. Second, ECRTs generally are effective within months, instead of years, and they can be performed in-situ or ex-situ. Third, metals generally migrate to and deposit at both electrodes, unlike ...
... (ECRTs) use a proprietary AC/DC electrical signal to mineralize organic compounds (e.g. volatile organic compounds (VOCs)), and to mobilize and remove metal contaminants. Proprietary AC/DC converters produce a low-voltage, low-amperage electrical field that polarizes the soil or sediment (soil), causing soil particles to charge and discharge electricity. This causes redox reactions that occur at all interfaces within the soil-groundwater-contaminant-electrode system, mineralizing organics and increasing the mobilization of metals. Metals migrate to the electrodes where they are deposited and removed with the electrodes. There are several distinctions between ECRTs and traditional electrokinetics. First, relatively low energy input is required to perform remediation. Second, ECRTs generally are effective within months, instead of years, and they can be performed in-situ or ex-situ. Third, metals generally migrate to and deposit at both electrodes, unlike ...
Biodegradable and compostable can be confusing terms. Technically, both words define biological processes, but they have become prevalent marketing terms as well. This tends to blur the difference between the two, which is understandably confusing! Biodegradation is a larger natural process that can happen in a number of ways, including composting. Composting is very specific process that happens only in situations with the right microorganisms and environmental conditions - and it creates humus, water, and heat. Other biodegradation processes do not make humus, which is an important part of soils. Other things "biodegrade" in different ways, such as in water, with sunlight, heat, or even chemicals, but compostable products breakdown (or biodegrade) into compost through the composting process only. Our products are certified compostable by a third-party organization called BPI and they meet the strict ASTM composting standards for each material type. Thats why our products are labeled ...
Cascade has both the expertise and chemical remediation technology for a wide range of options including in situ chemical oxidation and bioremediation.
Get the latest fuel anaerobic biodegradation news on Environmental XPRT, the worlds largest environmental industry marketplace and information resource.
Get this from a library! Environmental monitoring and remediation technologies II : 20-22 September, 1999, Boston, Massachusetts. [Tuan Vo-Dinh; Robert L Spellicy; Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers.; Air & Waste Management Association. Optical Sciences Division.; SPIE Digital Library.;]
Mathematical models developed for design and operation of biological wastewater treatment such as those from the International Water Association (IWA) were not concerned with specific chemical compounds. Consequently commercial modeling software for microconstituents (MCs) removal have been developed, but models used in these packages have not incorporated developments in IWA models which present numerous possibilities that have not been evaluated. This paper discusses many theoretical models that could be applicable considering coupling with activated sludge (AS) models developed by the IWA. The literature was reviewed for the kinetic models that can be used to describe transformation of MCs (volatilization and photodegradation were considered negligible) in an AS process. It is recommended that sorption models should depend on total concentration of solids in AS and biodegradation studies should incorporate active mass and not mixed liquor suspended solids concentration (MLSS) in their kinetic ...
NUTRIPLEX® is a probiotic formulation of complexing systems, organic acids, nutrients, natural biological systems, buffers, and energy systems which enhances biological degradation. It provides nutrients and energy to support probiotic bioremediation systems.. ...
Abstract. The objective of this work was to compare experimentally the contribution of photochemistry vs. microbial activity to the degradation of carboxylic acids present in cloud water. For this, we selected 17 strains representative of the microflora existing in real clouds and worked on two distinct artificial cloud media that reproduce marine and continental cloud chemical composition. Photodegradation experiments with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as a source of hydroxyl radicals were performed under the same microcosm conditions using two irradiation systems. Biodegradation and photodegradation rates of acetate, formate, oxalate and succinate were measured on both media at 5 °C and 17 °C and were shown to be on the same order of magnitude (around 10−10-10−11 M s−1). The chemical composition (marine or continental origin) had little influence on photodegradation and biodegradation rates while the temperature shift from 17 °C to 5 °C decreased biodegradation rates of a factor 2 to 5 ...
Biodegradation definition, to decay and become absorbed by the environment: toys that will biodegrade when theyre discarded. See more.
Fellow Environmental Scientist/Engineer, GZA GeoEnvironmental, Inc. (GZA) is hosting a bioremediation discussion group (BioGroup) on the Internet. The BioGroup consists of an unmoderated mailing list serving over 900 members worldwide. The BioGroup was established to provide a global forum for the scientific and engineering community to discuss intrinsic/enhanced bioremediation topics. GZA hopes this forum provides a medium to transfer technology, standardize biotreatability protocols, and advance the science and engineering of bioremediation technologies. GZA expects the forum to be a springboard for the pursuit of innovative approaches to bioremediation engineering. Because the success of the BioGroup is a function of the participation of its members, GZA invites anyone with experience and/or interest in bioremediation to join the BioGroup. Due to the complexities of biogeochemical processes which control contaminant biotransformation, we welcome input from environmental engineers, ...
Fellow Environmental Scientist/Engineer, GZA GeoEnvironmental, Inc. (GZA) is hosting a bioremediation discussion group (BioGroup) on the Internet. The BioGroup consists of an unmoderated mailing list serving over 800 members worldwide. The BioGroup was established to provide a global forum for the scientific and engineering community to discuss intrinsic/enhanced bioremediation topics. GZA hopes this forum provides a medium to transfer technology, standardize biotreatability protocols, and advance the science and engineering of bioremediation technologies. GZA expects the forum to be a springboard for the pursuit of innovative approaches to bioremediation engineering. Because the success of the BioGroup is a function of the participation of its members, GZA invites anyone with experience and/or interest in bioremediation to join the BioGroup. Due to the complexities of biogeochemical processes which control contaminant biotransformation, we welcome input from environmental engineers, ...
Introduction. Membrane bioreactors (MBR) combine a biological degradation process with the direct separation of activated sludge and liquid-solid by filtration membranes [1]. In addition, MBRs have important advantages such as space reduction relative to conventional activated sludge process, which leads to a decrease in their environmental impact, the capability of operating with higher concentrations of suspended solids, and the production of better quality effluent. However, one of the main drawbacks of MBR is membrane fouling. Despite the high cost of commonly used ceramic membranes (made of alumina, zirconia or titania), it is known that they are more hydrophilic than polymeric membranes, which means that ceramic membranes have a lower membrane fouling rate. Ceramic membranes are also more chemically, mechanically and thermally resistant. Other characteristics that influence membrane fouling are pore size and configuration (tubular, flat or hollow fiber) [2,3]. Currently, polymeric hollow ...
Microbial biodegradation of organic pollutants, microbial bioremediation, microbial populations analysis, characterization of metabolic pathways of contaminants, the study of mechanisms of biodegradation, organic pollutants ecotoxicity, bioavailability of organic ...
This chapter discusses the aspects of bioremediation that are related to metabolism of recalcitrant chemicals by bacteria, leaving out also detoxification and immobilization of metal ions and metalloids. The most frequent types of sites amenable to bioremediation include soil, freshwater, seawater, and sediments. The chapter talks about the instances where recalcitrant and/or xenobiotic compounds are endowed with chemical properties that cause a deleterious effect on the catalytic microorganisms present in the site-regardless of whether they can be ultimately metabolized. The chemicals at stake include metals, chaotropic agents, aromatics, and hydrophobic compounds. These stressors can be grouped based on their effect on bacterial metabolism. Heat shock-like stress and oxidative damage are certainly the two more prevalent conditions endured by environmental bacteria during in situ biodegradation of chemical waste. This is true for singular stressors as well as for mixtures of them, the most frequent
Terpeneliteracy.com is a multi-platform publisher of news and information. Terpeneliteracy.com has earned a reputation as the leading provider of Terpene news and information that improves the quality of life of its readers by focusing on Terpene issues ...
I am a dedicated PhD with expertise in the field environmental science. The last 10 years of my work has been focused on improving soil and water remediation technologies either by using plants or bacteria to remove organic contaminants and heavy metals from contaminated sites. More specifically, I have worked on removing oil droplet from produced water discharged by oil platforms, reducing the risk associated with organics contaminants by biodegradation and sequestration in the soil, and removing heavy metals in contaminated soil by using plants (phytoremediation). I have managed research projects, planned and carried out experimental assays, managed and analysed large data sets. I have gained good results with peer-reviewed articles and scientific reports plus given presentations at several international conferences. With my masters in environmental science I have a wide interdisciplinary knowledge of biological, physical and chemical processes and I collaborate well across scientific fields ...
The analysis of the sea water samples using sequential enrichment technique revealed a report of marine bacterium capable of degrading meta toluic acid a component of crude oil. An attempt to characterize the isolated culture using biochemical tests indicated the culture as a Gram- negative aerobic rod that was highly motile exhibiting biodegrading ability and was identified as Pseudomonas spp. strain GUI13. Further, a comparative analysis of the biochemical characters with the archae type terrestrial soil bacterium indicated that the isolate required marked amounts of Sodium chloride (NaCl) in the medium to retain its viability. Substrate constant (Ks) of strain GUI13 with respect to meta toluic acid was found to be eight times lower when compared to that of a terrestrial bacterium. A similar ratio was observed in case of Michaelis constants (Km) for the key degradative enzyme, Catechol 2,3 dioxygenase, emphasizing the distinguishing feature of the marine bacteria that helps it to carry on the ...
Sturm, B., Cheng., Y., Lane, R., Adams, C., Carter, R. (2011) "Impact of sludge residence time on the relative biodegradation and biosorption of sulfonamide antibiotics in activated sludge," ACS 241st National Meeting, Anaheim, CA (March 2011).. ...
A study was carried out on biodegradation of soil contaminated with used motor oil in aerobic fixed bed bioreactors. Six treatments, labeled TR1 to TR6, were investigated..
Kaluarachchi, J. J.; Cvetkovic, V.; and Berglund, S., "Oxygen- and nitrate-based biodegradation of hydrocarbons in heterogeneous aquifers" (2000). ...
Biodegradation of the MSNs. MSCs were labeled with MSNs and cultured for 1 (A), 2 (B), or 3 (C) weeks and then analyzed with TEM. A similar change in morphology
phdthesis{0d75a343-5545-47c9-808e-a25f7d43bb44, abstract = {Biodegradation is becoming an attractive mode of operation for eliminating toxic chemicals released from industrial processes or already present in the environment. One needs, however, not only to identify organisms capable of degrading such chemicals, but also to address the issue of whether these chemicals, after being degraded, will be toxic to the degrading organisms if present in high concentrations. The present thesis concerns the isolation of a microbial culture capable of degrading acetonitrile. Various aspects of designing a process for degrading acetonitrile are also considered. To obtain an efficient and robust process, immobilised cells were used, making the system less sensitive to sudden spikes in the concentration of the toxic compound. Letting the cells grow in an adhesive mode on suspended plastic carriers was found to be an efficient arrangement. Adhesive growth was used since it is a low-cost method of obtaining an ...
The experts at EAG Laboratories conduct comprehensive environmental fate testing to determine a substances metabolism rate and identify metabolites.
Now a day, spreading of contaminants into the natural environments is becoming a threat to humankind as well as other life forms. Phytoremediation, as a technique of bioremediation, is the implication of plants to remove contaminants from the polluted sites. The use of genetic engineering in might enhances the efficiency of the technique.
Technology News and Trends (TNT) A newsletter about soil, sediment, and groundwater characterization and remediation technologies
Technology News and Trends (TNT) A newsletter about soil, sediment, and groundwater characterization and remediation technologies
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Jelena M Spasojević, Snežana P Maletić, Srđan D Rončević, Dragan V Radnović, Dragana I Cučak, Jelena S Tričković, Božo D Dalmacija].
ROOT!T Propagator Refill Sponges are a breakthrough in organic technology. They are made from a mixture of peat and bark bonded together with plant-derived biodegradable polymers that allow the plug to biodegrade. Natural Rooting sponges are specially designed to improve cutting strike rate.
My company, BioGreen Products Co., offers oxo-biodegradable plastic preforms and caps. These are made with conventional PET, and cannot be distinguished from conventional PET by looking at them. They are not PLA, aka spudware or starch based plastics, and are not similar to PAL. Our preforms are crystal clear, and have all of the properties of conventional PET except for the multi-century lifespan. Our bottles start to biodegrade after their two year shelf life, under the same conditions
U of T engineering professor Elizabeth Edwards is internationally recognized for using biotechnology to clean up industrial solvents in soil and groundwater.
1998 (English)In: Aquatic Microbial Ecology, ISSN 0948-3055, E-ISSN 1616-1564, Vol. 14, no 3, 301-307 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published ...
It does not depend on the initial concentration of the daughter element being zero. How do we know the ages of fossils and fossil-bearing rocks?...
Addresses a Global Challenge to Sustainable Development. Advances in Biodegradation and Bioremediation of Industrial Waste examines and compiles the latest information on the industrial waste biodegradation process and provides a comprehensive review. Dedicated to reducing pollutants generated by agriculturally contaminated soil, and plastic waste from various industries, this text is a book that begs the question: Is a pollution-free environment possible? The book combines with current available data with the expert knowledge of specialists from around the world to evaluate various aspects of environmental microbiology and biotechnology. It emphasizes the role of different bioreactors for the treatment of complex industrial waste and provides specific chapters on bioreactors and membrane process integrated with biodegradation process. It also places special emphasis on phytoremediation and the role of wetland plant rhizosphere bacterial ecology and the bioremediation of complex industrial ...
Motivation: Current methods for the prediction of biodegradation products and pathways of organic environmental pollutants either do not take into account domain knowledge or do not provide probability estimates. In this article, we propose a hybrid knowledge- and machine learning-based approach to overcome these limitations in the context of the University of Minnesota Pathway Prediction System (UM-PPS). The proposed solution performs relative reasoning in a machine learning framework, and obtains one probability estimate for each biotransformation rule of the system. As the application of a rule then depends on a threshold for the probability estimate, the trade-off between recall (sensitivity) and precision (selectivity) can be addressed and leveraged in practice.. Results: Results from leave-one-out cross-validation show that a recall and precision of ∼0.8 can be achieved for a subset of 13 transformation rules. Therefore, it is possible to optimize precision without compromising recall. ...
Studies on the currently used organophosphorus insecticides with respect to their environmental levels and effective remediation technologies for their residues in water have been considered as a source of major concern. This study was carried out to monitor the presence of organophosphorus in drinking water plants (Kafr-El-Shiekh, Ebshan, Elhamoul, Mehalt Aboali, Fowa, Balteem and Metobess) in Kafr-El-Shiekh Governorate, Egypt. Furthermore, it was carried out to evaluate the efficiency of different remediation technologies (advanced oxidation processes and bioremediation) for removing chlorpyrifos in drinking water. The results showed the presence of several organophosphorus pesticides in water sampling sites. Chlorpyrifos was detected with high frequency relative to other compounds in drinking water. Nano photo-Fenton like reagent (Fe2O3(nano)/H2O2/UV) was the most effective treatment for chlorpyrifos removal in drinking water followed by ZnO(nano)/H2O2/UV, Fe3+/H2O2/UV and ZnO/H2O2/ UV, ...
Co-contamination of the environment with toxic chlorinated organic and heavy metal pollutants is one of the major problems facing industrialized nations today. Heavy metals may inhibit biodegradation of chlorinated organics by interacting with enzymes directly involved in biodegradation or those involved in general metabolism. Predictions of metal toxicity effects on organic pollutant biodegradation in co-contaminated soil and water environments is difficult since heavy metals may be present in a variety of chemical and physical forms. Recent advances in bioremediation of co-contaminated environments have focussed on the use of metal-resistant bacteria (cell and gene bioaugmentation), treatment amendments, clay minerals and chelating agents to reduce bioavailable heavy metal concentrations. Phytoremediation has also shown promise as an emerging alternative clean-up technology for co-contaminated environments. However, despite various investigations, in both aerobic and anaerobic systems, demonstrating
The intrinsic biodegradability of hydrocarbons and the distribution of proficient degrading microorganisms in the environment are very crucial for the implementation of bioremediation practices. Among others, one of the most favorable methods that can enhance the effectiveness of bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated environment is the application of biosurfactant producing microbes. In the present study, the biodegradation capacities of native bacterial consortia towards total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) with special emphasis to poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined. The purpose of the study was to isolate TPH degrading bacterial strains from various petroleum contaminated soil of Assam, India and develop a robust bacterial consortium for bioremediation of crude oil of this native land. From a total of 23 bacterial isolates obtained from three different hydrocarbons contaminated samples 5 isolates, namely KS2, PG1, PG5, R1 and R2 were selected as efficient crude oil degraders with
Previously... Re: [SANET-MG] Beneficial Soil Microbia] The question is how to get information on IM or IMOs, Indigenous Microorganisms. Well, there is a seminar on Indigenous Microorganisms at the Ecological Farming Conference in California, Jan. 22-25. Gil Carandang, a farmer from the Phillipines, will demonstrate some of the special cultures. http://www.eco-farm.org/efc/efc_main.html Concepts and practices on Indigenous Microorganisms, IM or IMO, originate with Han Kyu Cho and the Korean Natural Farming Association, or KNFA, going back 35 to 40 years. Yet, this knowledge has only come into English language in the last few years. There is one book in English, yet it is not available for-sale from any distributor that I can determine. Korean Natural Farming: Indigenous Microorganisms and Vital Power of Crop/Livestock Han Kyu Cho and Atsushi Koyama Korean Natural Farming Association, 1997. 172 p. Here is an address for KNFA: Korean Natural Farming Association (KNFA) 209-2 Woongok-ri, ...
D5988 - 12 Standard Test Method for Determining Aerobic Biodegradation of Plastic Materials in Soil , aerobic, biodegradation, degree (of biodegradation), mineralization, plastics, soil,
... Formate up to 1g/L had no significant enhancing effect on the degradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) by three mixed enrichments of methane-oxidizing bacteria. Methanol did not enhance TCE degradation, but did inhibit TCE degradation above 100 mg/L. 5-10% methane enhanced TCE degradation, but 20-40% methane inhibited. The addition of formate overcame some of the inhibition by methane. Enrichments grown without copper degraded TCE faster than those grown with copper, but the variations between inocula sources had a greater effect on TCE degradation rate.
One of the major challenges when using enhanced reductive dechlorination (ERD) as a remediation technology at clay till sites is to obtain good contact between added agents such as donor, bacteria and the contamination. It is unclear whether degradation only takes place in fractures and/or sand lenses/stringers or if degradation in the clay till matrix is possible. In this study a 30 year old contaminated clay till site where natural degradation of chlorinated ethenes and ethanes is occurring is investigated to obtain a better understanding of the processes driving anaerobic dechlorination including the location of degradation in the fracture matrix geology. An extensive field collection of cores and discrete soil sampling has been conducted and samples have been analysed using state of the art microbial and chemical tools including isotope fractionation ...
Detail záznamu - Biodegradation potential of the genus Rhodococcus - Detail záznamu - Knihovna Akademie věd České republiky
In 1984, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) named a hazardous waste site in the state of Louisiana to the National Priority List (NPL). It was estimated at the time that the site held approximately eight million cubic feet of contaminated materials. A computer model was constructed for the site that would simulate the contaminant movement in the subsurface. Modeling efforts resulted in a successful negotiation with the EPA for monitored natural attenuation as the accepted remediation alternative. ("Natural attenuation" refers to the reduction, weakening, and eventual elimination of toxic substances in the soil and groundwater by natures own processes.) This EPA determination was a milestone for the site. Previously a pump-and-treat system, which was based on an initial groundwater model developed to simulate hydraulic containment, had cost millions of dollars to install, operate, and maintain. A carbon absorption system was used to treat the contaminated water recovered. By July ...
Study of the aerobic biodegradation of coke wastewater in a two and three-step activated sludge process.: A laboratory-scale biological plant composed of two ae
The hypothesis that artificial oxic conditions will lead to MTBE biodegradation by indigenous microorganisms in anoxic, gasoline-contaminated aquifers was examined by adding oxygen in the form of a metal peroxide slurry to an anoxic part of gasoline-contaminated aquifer in South Carolina. Field observations of relatively rapid aerobic MTBE biodegradation following oxygen addition suggest that the indigenous bacteria have become acclimated not only to mg/L concentrations of MTBE in the gasoline plume, but also to periodic delivery of oxygen by recharge events. Significant natural attenuation of MTBE could occur if the oxygen limitations naturally associated with gasoline releases can be removed, either under natural conditions where discharging anoxic groundwater comes into contact with oxygen, or artificial conditions where oxygen can be added to aquifers containing mg/L concentrations of MTBE. This final solution might be an effective strategy for intercepting characteristically long MTBE plumes,
The influence of thermal pretreatment on degradation properties of organics in kitchen waste (KW) was investigated. The kinetics results showed that thermal pretreatment could enhance the degradation efficiency of crude protein (CP), fat, oil and grease (FOG), volatile solid (VS) and volatile fatty acids (VFA). Thermal pretreatment showed no significant difference in the final concentration of protein but could decrease the FOG degradation potential (7-36%), while increased the lag phase for degradation of protein and FOG respectively by 35-65% and 11-82% compared with untreated KW. Cumulative biogas yield increased linearly and exponentially with the removal efficiency of VS and other organics (CP and FOG) respectively. Additionally, the reduction of CP increased exponentially with FOG removal efficiency. The calculating methods of biogas yield, organics reduction and corresponding appropriate digestion retention based on FOG and CP reduction amount and pretreatment parameters were ...
Teen uses microbes to biodegrade plastic bags, an article on Bruce Clement - Read all about Teen uses microbes to biodegrade plastic bags here.
D6340-98(2007) Standard Test Methods for Determining Aerobic Biodegradation of Radiolabeled Plastic Materials in an Aqueous or Compost Environment (Withdrawn 2016)
The chlorinated hydrocarbon 1,2-dichloroethane (DCA) is a common pollutant of groundwater, and poses both human and environmental health risks. The Botany Industrial Park in south Sydney is heavily contaminated with DCA and other organochlorines. The main user of the site (Orica Ltd) operates a large groundwater treatment plant (GTP) on site to contain and remediate the DCA-contaminated groundwater. At present, remediation is done by air-stripping and thermal oxidation, but this is very costly and energy-intensive. Orica is interested in alternative technologies for treating the groundwater, including bioremediation. In 2010, a pilot scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) was set up to treat a fraction of the groundwater. The aims of our study were to identify DCA-degrading bacteria and genes in the GTP and on the site at large, define the community structure and ecological successions occurring in the MBR, develop a qPCR for catabolic genes in the DCA biodegradation pathway, and field-test this qPCR ...
We are studying a representative of a large group of chlorobenzoate degrading bacteria active in uncontaminated systems - Burkholderia phytofirmans OLGA172. Now we know that anthropogenic chemicals have not always been the driving selective force behind the evolution of chloro-organic degradative genes, we are looking for the natural selectors for these capabilities, initially by looking at the environmental triggers and mobile genetic elements that affect chloroaromatic degradative gene expression. The recent genome sequencing of OLGA172 in the lab has expanded this endeavour.. In addition, my lab carries out research on the species composition of bacterial communities in both natural and contaminated systems. These include waste water treatment systems, contaminated soils, rhizospheric communities and the hyporheic zones of streams.. The UTSC campus is heavily infested with an invasive species known as Dog Strangling Vine. My lab has recently begun research into the microbial associations of ...
YAO, Haiyan; REN, Yuan; WEI, Chaohai y YUE, Siyang. Biodegradation characterisation and kinetics of m-cresol by Lysinibacillus cresolivorans. Water SA [online]. 2011, vol.37, n.1, pp.15-20. ISSN 1816-7950.. A novel strain of m-cresol-degrading bacterium, named as Lysinibacillus cresolivorans, was isolated from aerobic sludge from a coking wastewater treatment plant. This bacterium is able to utilise m-cresol as its sole source of carbon and energy. The optimal pH for growth is 6.8 ~ 7.3 and the optimal temperature is 35ºC. Compared to organic nitrogen sources, inorganic nitrogen sources were easily utilised for the m-cresol biodegradation. The degradation rate of m-cresol at different starting concentrations was analysed with zero-order kinetic characteristics. When the initial concentration of m-cresol was 224.2 mg·ℓ-1, the reaction rate reached a maximum at 46.80 mg·(ℓ·h)-1.The cell growth kinetics was also investigated with initial m-cresol concentrations varying from 0 to 1 200 ...
Leakage of trichloroethene (TCE) from a neutralization pond at a former manufacturing facility near Niagara Falls, N.Y. during 1950-87 into the Guelph Formation of the Lockport Group, a fractured dolomite aquifer, created a plume of TCE and its metabolites that, by 1990, extended about 4,300 feet south of the facility. A smaller plume of dense, nonaqueous-phase liquids (DNAPL) probably serves as a continuing source of TCE. The presence of the TCE metabolites cis-1,2-dichloroethene (DCE), vinyl chloride (VC), and ethene in the plume, and the results of previous laboratory microcosm studies, indicate that the TCE is being degraded by naturally occurring microorganisms. Biodegradation rates of TCE and its metabolites were estimated through simulation with BIOMOC, a solute-transport model that represents multispecies reactions through Monod kinetics. A fracture zone in the Guelph Formation was represented as a porous medium containing an extensive, 3-foot thick layer with several interconnected fractures;
This pathway was contributed by Sujana Mittapalli, University of Minnesota. Isocarbophos (O-2-isopropoxycarbonylphenyl O-methyl phosphoramidothioate) is a widely-used organophosphorous insecticide and acaricide. It persists in the environment and is moderately toxic, thus its biodegradation pathway is of interest (Li et al., 2009). Arthrobacter sp. scl-2 can use iscarbophos as its sole source of carbon and phosphorous for growth. The first step in the pathway is hydrolysis of the O-methyl phosphoramidothioate moietry by an organophosphorous hydrolase (Wang, J.F. et al., The degradation effects of a Pseudomonas hydrolase OPHC2 to organophosphorus insecticides. Phosphorus Sulfur Silicon Relat. Elem, 183:804-810, 2008) to produce isopropyl salicylate. The isopropyl ester is next hydrolyzed to produce salicylate, a common, readily degraded, bacterial metabolic intermediate (Li et al., 2009). The following is a text-format isocarbophos degradation pathway map. Organisms which can initiate the pathway ...
2014. Chapleur O., et al., Co-inoculating ruminal content neither provides active hydrolytic microbes nor improves methanization of 13C-cellulose in batch digesters. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 2014. 87(3): p. 616-629. Desmond-Le Quéméner, E. & Bouchez, T., A thermodynamic theory of microbial growth. The ISME Journal, 2014.. Driss-Limam, R., et al., Members of the uncultured bacterial candidate division WWE1 are implicated in anaerobic digestion of cellulose. MicrobiologyOpen, 2014. 3(2): p.157-167.. Lü, F., et al., Metaproteomics of cellulose methanisation under thermophilic conditions reveals a surprisingly high proteolytic activity. The ISME Journal, 2014. 8: p. 88-102.. Hoyos-Hernandez, C., et al., Elucidation of the thermophilic phenol biodegradation pathway via benzoate during the anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste. Chemosphere, 2014. 97: p. 115-119.. Bridier, A., & Briandet, R. Contribution of confocal laser scanning microscopy in deciphering biofilm tridimensional structure ...
EARTH scientists have long recognized(1-4) that the soluble organic acids excreted by soil biota enhance rates of mineral weathering, thereby chemically stratifying the soil and affecting the biodegradation pathways of organic matter, including pollutants(5). Multidentate organic ligands(6,7) also exist in industrial waste waters(8) and can enhance the mobility of heavy elements, including radionuclides(9). Here we examine whether rate coefficients for ligand-promoted disolution of minerals can be predicted from existing studies of dissolved metal complexes. We have performed dissolution experiments on bunsenite (NiO) to compare with published studies of ligand exchange around dissolved Ni(lI)-ligand complexes(10-12). The hypothesis is confirmed with surprising detail: the dissolution rate coefficient increases with the number of ligand functional groups coordinated to the surface metal, as do the exchange rate coefficients(10-12). Furthermore, we find that the dissolution rate coefficients can be
Given that over 80 million barreis of crude oil are consumed daily worldwide, it is unsurprising that petroleumhydrocarbons (PHCs) are among the most common contaminants of soils and groundwater. PHCs are water immiscible, i.e. they occur in the form of light nonaqueous phase liquids (LNAPL), and commonly display limited water solubilities and relatively high toxicities. Because of this they are difficult to remove from porous media once emplaced and have the potential to be long-lasting sources of ground water contamination. Biodegradation is widely favored as a technique for the treatment of PHC contamination. It offers cost advantages and has the ability to destroy contaminants instead of simply transferring them between media. Furthermore, it can be applied in situ such that treatment can occur with minimal disturbance to existing structures, be they natural or man made. This thesis seeks to shed light on some of the factors which infiuence the effectiveness of biodegradation in the ...
Abiotic and bacterial degradation is presented for the two isomers α- and β- of the organochlorine pesticide endosulfan, denoted as ES-1 and ES-2, respectively. Biodegradation studies were conducted with two indigenous species Pseudomonas putida (P. putida) and Rhodococcus sp. Both ES isomers rapidly hydroly
The metabolism of monoaromatic hydrocarbons by an iron-reducing bacterial enrichment culture originating from diesel-contaminated groundwater was examined using d 7 -propylbenzene as a model hydrocarbon. Sequence analysis of the 16S rDNA gene showed that the dominant part (10 of 10 clones) of the enrichment culture consisted of a bacterium closely related to clones found in benzene-contaminated groundwater and to the iron-reducing β- proteobacterium, Rhodoferax ferrireducens (similarity values were 99.5% and 98.3%, respectively). In degradation studies conducted over 18 weeks, d 7 -propylphenols were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) as intra-cellular metabolites concomitant with cell growth in the cultures. The amount of propylphenols increased during the exponential growth phase, and by the end of this phase 4 × 10 -14 moles of ferric iron were reduced and 3 × 10 -15 moles propylphenol produced for every cell formed. During the stationary growth phase the cell density was
Organophosphate (OP) compounds are part of the most common chemical classes used in the protection of crop and livestock and in the control of diseases transmitted through vectors and account for an estimated 34% of worldwide insecticide sales [1]. In India, usage of OPs has also gradually been increasing with a consistent decline in application of organochlorines and currently makes up 27% of the total sales of pesticides [2-4]. Andhra Pradesh is the biggest user of crop protection chemicals in India and uses 20% of the total pesticides in the country [5]. Among OPs, quinalphos (QP: O,O-diethyl O-quinoxalin-2-yl phospharothioate) is used widely in agriculture in Andhra Pradesh because of its effective control of all pests over different crops, which is reflected by the 5% of total sales of pesticides registered against quinalphos [5]. Quinalphos is a synthetic OP, non-systemic, broad spectrum insecticide, and acaricide extensively used in India owing to its action on inhibition of ...
Gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS) has made it possible to analyze natural stable isotope ratios (e.g., 13C/12C, 15N/14N, 2H/1H) of individual organic contaminants in environmental samples. They may be used as fingerprints to infer contamination sources, and may demonstrate, and eve Journal of Environmental Monitoring Top Cited Papers 2009 and 2010
This volume focuses on biosynthesis, metabolism, biodegradation, functions, properties and applications of miscellaneous polymers, such as hemozoin, thymine-containing styrene polymers, polythioesters, polyphosphate, polyhydroxymethionine, polyketides, natural polyacetals, biodegradation of a wide range of synthetic polymers.
This volume focuses on biosynthesis, metabolism, biodegradation, functions, properties and applications of miscellaneous polymers, such as hemozoin, thymine-containing styrene polymers, polythioesters, polyphosphate, polyhydroxymethionine, polyketides, natural polyacetals, biodegradation of a wide range of synthetic polymers.
Disclosed are methods for assembling a consortium of specific degraders of a xenobiotic compound of interest. A first population of microorganisms is provided, the first population being isolated from a first source containing the xenobiotic compound of interest. The first population of microorganisms is then incubated under conditions appropriate for growth with media containing the xenobiotic compound of interest as a carbon source. The population of then screened for the ability to initiate degradation of the xenobiotic compound of interest. Accumulating intermediate are identified in the degradation pathway of the xenobiotic compound of interest. A second population of microorganisms is then isolated from a source containing the accumulating intermediate in the xenobiotic degradation pathway, or structural homologs thereof. The second population of microorganisms is then incubated under conditions appropriate for growth with media containing the
Chlorinated organic compounds are extensively employed in industry and agriculture. These chemicals are considered among the most severe public health issues, due to their widespread and uncontrolled release in the environment combined to the recalcitrance to degradation and tendency to bio-accumulate. 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA) is one of the most widespread chlorinated pollutants. This solvent is a key intermediate in the production of PVC. The public health concern and environmental safety issues related to 1,2-DCA, have fueled the scientific interested on the application of feasible and effective bioremediation strategies, on the identification of microorganisms able to efficiently and rapidly degrade it. 1,2-DCA can undergo microbial-mediated degradation through several aerobic or anaerobic metabolic processes. Due to the typical presence of this pollutant in anoxic environments research has been focused on the anaerobic dehalogenation process based on reductive dechlorination in which ...
Our goal was to tackle the biological conversion of hydrocarbons in an aqueous environment. The basis of the project was generating a "biological chassis", which provides the framework for varying and multiple characteristics needed for the conversion of hydrocarbons, including considerations like conversion ability, hydrocarbon tolerance/solubility and halo (salt) tolerance. This chassis could than be used in for example specifically the biological degradation of oil particles in oil sands tailing water. ...
Cyanotoxins are often found in surface waters worldwide. If contaminated water is consumed, they can bioaccumulate in the liver and cause death in high doses. They can also poison other animals and plants, causing a real threat to life and increasing the potential of disruption in drinking water supply in affected areas. Among all cyanotoxins, microcystin (MC) is the most studied. Herein, Maghsoudi and colleagues report a new bacterium isolate that degrade these toxins and present a study on some factors involved on its biodegradation activity.. MCs are small cyclic toxins composed of seven peptides and, as a result of structural variation, 89 analogues have been identified to date. Their hepatotoxicity is due to the presence of the unique amino acid, Adda, in their structure. They are resistant to enzymatic and physico-chemical breakdown owing to their small cyclic structure. However, they can be biodegraded by a few genus of bacteria.. The majority of studies that have focused on MC ...
The Western Waters Digital Library (WWDL) provides free public access to digital collections of significant primary and secondary resources on water in the western United States. These collections have been made available by research libraries belonging to the Greater Western Library Alliance (GWLA) and other academic library partners. The WWDL is a valuable resource for researchers, policy makers, scholars, Native American tribes, professionals working in various fields, and others interested in contemporary and historic water issues.. ...
Purchase Biotransformations: Microbial Degradation of Health-Risk Compounds, Volume 32 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780444819772, 9780080544922
There is growing interest in the enhancement of microbial degradative activities as a means of bringing about the in situ cleanup of contaminated soils and ground water. The halogenated organic compounds are likely to be prime targets for such biotechnological processes because of their widespread utilisation and the biodegradability of many of the most commonly used compounds. The aim of this review is to consider the potential for microbiological cleanup of haloorganic-contaminated sites. The technologies available involve the provision of suitable environmental conditions to facilitate maximum biodegradation rates either in the subsurface or in on-site bioreactors. Methodologies include the supply of inorganic nutrients, the supply of oxygen gas, the addition of degradative microbial inocula and the introduction of co-metabolic substrates. The potential efficiencies and limitations of the methods are critically discussed from a microbiological viewpoint with respect to substrate degradability and
Manufacturer of Bio-Augmentation Products - Roetech 106 PS Microbial Culture, Roetech 302 Microbial Culture, Bio Augmentation Biomass Developement offered by Sudarshan Chemical Industries Limited, Pune, Maharashtra
OSE II is an environmentally safe clean-up method for waste spills because it uses natures own bioremediation processes to effectively eliminate hazardous materials. It is listed on the US Environmental Protection Agencys national contingency plan (NCP) for oil spills.. OSE II is non-toxic to humans, animals, plants and marine life. It is non-poisonous, even if accidentally ingested, and non-irritating to the most sensitive skin. OSE II contains no allergens known to cause skin, respiratory or other allergic reactions.. OSE II is 100%-biodegradable and has a five-year shelf life when stored at temperatures below 120ºF. Freezing does not harm OSE II, however cold temperatures slow its reaction rate somewhat. The product is completely stable and reactive in a pH environment of 3.5pH to 11.7pH.. ...
M. Subba Rao*, G. Kishore and C. RambabuDepartment of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Acharya Nagarjuna University-Dr.M.R.Appa Row Campus, Nuzvid-521 201, Krishna District, A.P. India.*For Correspondence - [email protected]
Urbanization in the world increased the pollution levels in the environment making it for worsen life. General awareness about pollution is increasing today. To control pollution levels, biological methods are eco-safe and economical. In this study a wild strain of Bacillus species was isolated and optimized for bioremediation studies of ammonia in flask cultures. Strategy was tried to develop for ammonia bioremediation in a single stage aerobic nitrification and denitrification. The results reveal that the optimum pH for the isolated Bacillus species was 7 and optimum temperature was 30°C. At optimum pH and temperature this organism was able to remove 99.2% of ammonia in flask cultures supplemented with 5g/L of ammonium sulphate. The biomass obtained after bioremediation studies was 0.3g/L which is very low. The study on ammonia toxicity revealed that toxicity was due to pH and osmolarity.
Phytoremediation is the use of plants to clean up contaminated soil and water. The pollutants can be stored in the plant (phytoextraction), volatized by the plant (phytovolatization) or metabolized by plant derived-enzymes (phytodegradation). Click on the type of phytoremediation you wish to observe.
The toxic and carcinogenic compound 1,2-dichloropropane (DCP) is widely used in industry and agriculture. DCP shows a low chemical reactivity. It is only moderately soluble in aqueous systems and almost recalcitrant to microbial degradation under aerobic conditions. As a consequence DCP accumulates in groundwater, sediments and soil, thus endangering humans and animals via the food chain. To efficiently transform DCP to harmless organic compounds microbial mixed cultures have been enriched from sediments and were subsequently transferred into a fluidized bed bioreactor. This process allowed a continuous anaerobic dechlorination of DCP to propene. Bioreactor processes using complex microbiota represent a promising technology for transformation of chlorinated compounds. However, the composition of the used population is usually unknown, hence hindering both optimization and control of the degradation process. Subject of this work was the analysis of the microbial diversity of the ...
Using Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) to chart the disintegration of nanoparticles in living tissue could aid the development of safe na
The objective of this research project was to further develop a software system called BESS (Biodegradation Evaluation and Simulation System), which can predict the biodegradability of a compound based on the structural features of that compound and the prevailing environmental conditions. The approach pursued in the development of BESS is based on the iterative use of plausible enzymatic transformations that are hierarchically organized based on knowledge of microbial physiology and ecology. This organization reduces the potentially large number of enzymatic transformations that could apply to a compound, making the approach computationally feasible. Further, only those enzymatic transformations that are most likely to provide anabolic intermediates or energy to microorganisms and thus have evolved through processes of natural selection are used. This further reduces the complexity. BESS employs a fundamentally different approach to the prediction of whether a given chemical will undergo ...
For in-depth characterization and culture optimization of microorganisms for industrial biotech applications, TWB and Hamilton have developed a unique and custom made microbial culture robot.
Principal Investigator:KONISHI Yasuhiro, Project Period (FY):1998 - 1999, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:資源開発工学
Natural selection is typically more effective at the level of the individual than the group, because individuals replicate faster and can invade other groups. Consequently, there will inevitably be selection for non‐detoxifying mutants who pay a reduced or no cost of detoxification but still reap the benefits provided by their detoxifying counterparts. This fitness advantage may facilitate invasion of detoxifying groups, which can impose a large growth cost on the group as a whole, in a microbial "Tragedy of the Commons" scenario (see Sidebar A). The net result is reduced bioremediation efficiency.. The problem of common, vital, and limited resources has been extensively modeled in a wide range of scenarios from car traffic to greenhouse gas emissions to show how pursuing individual benefits contrary to the best interests of the group leads to the collapse of societal function. A few studies have recently addressed the Tragedy of the Commons scenario in the specific context of bioremediation. ...
Abstract A feasibility study was conducted to evaluate the capability of bacterial strains to degrade crude oil under in vitro conditions. Pseudomonas strain PS-I could degrade alk..
A bacterial culture capable of degrading ethers, especially branched alkylethers including MTBE, under aerobic conditions has been prepared.
The fermentation of sugar (C6H12O6) to form ethanol (C2H5OH) and carbon dioxide (CO2) occurs according to the following equation: C6H12O6(aq) ¡ú 2 C2H5OH(aq) + 2 CO2(g) kJ mol¨C1 ¦¤Hf (C6H12O6(s)) is ¨C1275 ¦¤Hf (C2H5OH(l ...
PNNL scientists find that electron donor source influences reduction of radionuclides by Anaeromyxobacter. Results could influence bioremediation strategies for subsurface contamination.
Bioremediation of Pharmaceutical Wastes: 10.4018/978-1-5225-2325-3.ch016: The astounding increase in the use of pharmaceuticals in the last decade has raised concerns over their occurrence in the soils and wastewaters posing
SEMINAR PRESENTATION ONGREEN POLYMERS PRESENTED BY: GAUTAM AHUJA M.TECH- POLYMER TECHNOLOGY 1st Year ROLL NO: 2k11/PTE/02 WHAT ...
BioMoGo : Is the worlds first fully biodegradable midsole foam for footwear. Once a pair of Brooks shoes with BioMoGo has reached an enclosed landfill, it will begin to biodegrade. In roughly 20 years the midsoles will be completely converted by common soil microbes into useful humus and nutrients. Thats about 50 times faster than a standard midsole degradation : MoGo : Offers 40 percent more cushioning and gives a runner 22 percent more return of energy - the "spring" in ones step - than Brooks former midsole. Substance 257. MoGo not only represents a giant leap forward in midsole material performance for Brooks, it also entails an evolved method of production. Compression Molded Preform (CMP) is an efficient, precise production process in which, rather than being cut out of large sheets of material in the traditional method, midsoles are cast in individual molds, resulting in 50% less waste. The CMP process also increases consistency by an incredible 200%. Less variability between midsoles ...
Biodegradable Products Institute provides certification services for compostable products. BPI-certified products meet ASTM D6400 or D6868 testing standards to certify they will biodegrade in a managed compost facility.
The main symptoms of finger gout are sudden severe pain in the joint, redness and swelling at the joint and lingering discomfort after the initial attack, according to Mayo Clinic. There may also be...
The natural attenuation of groundwater pesticides by biological degradation, is widely accepted to occur at concentrations > 1 mg 1-1. However from observations of groundwater monitoring data it can be indicated that the occurrence of pesticides in groundwater is primarily at trace μg 1-1 concentrations, with 45 % of UK groundwater samples that failed the EC Drinking Water Directives PV of 0.1 μg 1-1 between 1995 - 2000, accounting for an average concentration of 64 μg 1-1. However, there are limited directed studies of in situ biological degradation of pesticides at μg concentrations. Therefore, this work was designed provided an insight as to whether any prevalent microbial adaptation can occur to degrade atrazine at μg 1-1 concentrations in groundwater. Laboratory batch studies were performed using a groundwater exposed to 0.2 μg 1-1 of the herbicide atrazine, for an excess of 10 years. Bacterial enrichment using a glucose minimal salts medium resulted in no biological degradation of ...
ResearchMoz.us include new market research report"Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether,S-Ropivacaine Mesylate,Succinylcholine Chloride and Tulobuterol HCl Industry 2014 " to its huge collection of research reports.Global And China Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) Industry 2014 Deep Research Report http://www.researchmoz.us/global-and-china-methyl-tert-butyl-ether-mtbe-industry-2014-deep-research-report-report.htmlThe report provides a basic overview of the industry including definitions, applications and industry chain structure. Global market analysis and Chinese domestic market analysis are provided with a focus on history, developments, trends and competitive landscape of the market. A comparison between the international and Chinese situation is also offered.2014 Deep Research Report on Global And China Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether(MTBE) Industry also focuses on development policies and plans for the industry as well as a consideration of a cost structure analysis. Capacity production, market share ...
2015 Market Research Report on Global Methyl tert-butyl ether Industry> was a professional and depth research report on Global Methyl tert-butyl ether industry that you would know the worlds major regional market conditions of Methyl tert-butyl ether industry, the main region including North American, Europe and Asia etc, and the main country including United States ,Germany ,Japan and China etc.
Biological degradation of phenol by Alcaligenes faecalis with high biodegradation activity and high tolerance was investigated at 25C. Phenol could be utilized by the bacteria as the sole carbon and energy sources. The cell growth and substrate degradation of phenol as single substrates for Alcaligenes faecalis in batch cultures (shaking flasks) were investigated at different initial phenol concentrations. Phenol was observed to be an inhibitory compound. Particularly, when free cells grew on a high concentration of phenol, substrate inhibition was observed and the higher the concentration of phenol, the longer was the lag period. The lag time and whole required time for phenol biodegradation was considerably decreased by immobilized cells due to improvement of cells resistance against high Phenol concentration by cell immobilization compared to free cells. Required time for completely degrade initial phenol of 700 and 1000 ppm by free and immobilized cells is 56, 101 and 35, 72 hours ...
Sarin (o-isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate), one of the several highly toxic chemical warfare agents, can be readily neutralized in sodium hydroxide solution forming large quantities of brine solution containing IMPA (o-isopropyl methylphosphonic acid) and sodium fluoride that must be further processed and disposed. Two mixed cultures were successfully acclimated to use IMPA as a phosphorus source. The medium formula was chosen to provide the reactors with adequate alternative carbon sources so that the only limiting factor of the bacterial growth is phosphorus. Kinetic studies of the two cultures both in suspended and encapsulated forms were done with the initial IMPA concentrations ranged from 15 mg/L to 1,280 mg/L. Kinetic parameters were estimated based on IMPA and biomass concentrations measured over time using Monod equation and the least square method. For both cultures IMPA was not inhibitive under the tested conditions. For the free cells, n{sub max} was 131.3 mg/l/day for the APG ...
The performance of a fluidized bed reactor using immobilized Phanerochaete chrysosporium to remove 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) from aqueous solution was investigated. The contribution of lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) secreted by Phanerochaete chrysosporium to the 2,4-DCP degradation was examined. Results showed that Lip and Mnp were not essential to 2,4-DCP degradation while their presence enhanced the degradation process and reaction rate. In sequential batch experiment, the bioactivity of immobilized cells was recovered and improved during the culture and the maximum degradation rate constant of 13.95 mg (Ld)−1 could be reached. In continuous bioreactor test, the kinetic behavior of the Phanerochaete chrysosporium immobilized on loofa sponge was found to follow the Monod equation. The maximum reaction rate was 7.002 mg (Lh)−1, and the saturation constant was 26.045 mg L−1. ...
This paper reports the isolation of phenoloxidase-negative mutants of the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium and the results of a survey of idiophasic functions among these mutants. The mutant strains were isolated from a medium containing o-anisidine after gamma irradiation of wild-type spores and fell into four classes, divided by the manner in which they mineralized 14C-lignin wheat lignocellulose. Examples are strain LMT7, which degraded lignin at a rate similar to that of the wild type; strain LMT26, in which degradation was enhanced; strain LMT16, whose degradation rate was apparently unaffected, although the onset of lignin attack was delayed compared with that in the wild type; and strain LMT24, which was unable to evolve significant amounts of 14CO2 from the radiolabeled substrate. The mutants were not necessarily defective in other functions associated with idiophasic activities (intracellular cyclic AMP levels, sporulation, extracellular glucan production, veratryl alcohol ...
article{211356, abstract = {The bacterial community composition of a linuron-degrading enrichment culture and the role of the individual strains in linuron degradation have been determined by a combination of methods, such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of the total 16S rRNA gene pool, isolation and identification of strains, and biodegradation assays. Three strains, Variovorax sp. strain WDL1, Delftia acidovorans WDL34, and Pseudomonas sp. strain WDL5, were isolated directly from the linuron-degrading culture. In addition, subculture of this enrichment culture on potential intermediates in the degradation pathway of linuron (i.e., N,O-dimethylhydroxylamine and 3-chloroaniline) resulted in the isolation of, respectively, Hyphomicrobium sulfionivorans WDL6 and Comamonas testosteroni WDL7. Of these five strains, only Variovorax sp. strain WDL1 was able to use linuron as the sole source of C, N, and energy. WDL1 first converted linuron to 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA), which transiently ...

International Conference on Environmental Biodegradation and Biodegradable Pollutants in July 2021 in OttawaInternational Conference on Environmental Biodegradation and Biodegradable Pollutants in July 2021 in Ottawa

Environmental Biodegradation and Biodegradable Pollutants scheduled on July 12-13, 2021 in July 2021 in Ottawa is for the ... Biodegradation in waters. Practical methods for estimating environmental biodegradation rates. Assessment of environmental ... Environmental biodegradation. Biodegradation. Biodegradation phases. Factors affecting rate. Detergents. Plastics. ... Environmental Biodegradation and Biodegradable Pollutants. ICEBBP 2021: 15. International Conference on Environmental ...
more infohttps://waset.org/environmental-biodegradation-and-biodegradable-pollutants-conference-in-july-2021-in-ottawa

Understanding Microbial Biodegradation of Environmental Contaminants - Digital LibraryUnderstanding Microbial Biodegradation of Environmental Contaminants - Digital Library

Fortunately, there are microorganisms capable of degrading or transforming environmental contaminants. The present dissertation ... Vilo Muñoz, Claudia Andrea. Understanding Microbial Biodegradation of Environmental Contaminants, dissertation, May 2015; ... Fortunately, there are microorganisms capable of degrading or transforming environmental contaminants. The present dissertation ... Fortunately, there are microorganisms capable of degrading or transforming environmental contaminants. The present dissertation ...
more infohttps://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc801956/

Microbial Biodegradation  News  on Environmental XPRTMicrobial Biodegradation News on Environmental XPRT

... the worlds largest environmental industry marketplace and information resource. ... Get the latest microbial biodegradation news on Environmental XPRT, ... About Environmental XPRT. Environmental XPRT is a global environmental industry marketplace and information resource. Online ... The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced in late 2016 that 1,4-dioxane was included on the list of the first 10 ...
more infohttps://www.environmental-expert.com/news/keyword-microbial-biodegradation-6276

Plastic Biodegradation Testing  Articles  on Environmental XPRTPlastic Biodegradation Testing Articles on Environmental XPRT

... the worlds largest environmental industry marketplace and information resource. ... Find plastic biodegradation testing articles on Environmental XPRT, ... plastic biodegradation testing Articles. Related terms for "plastic biodegradation testing ": plastic biodegradation articles ... About Environmental XPRT. Environmental XPRT is a global environmental industry marketplace and information resource. Online ...
more infohttps://www.environmental-expert.com/articles/keyword-plastic-biodegradation-testing-50520

International Journal of Environmental Bioremediation & BiodegradationInternational Journal of Environmental Bioremediation & Biodegradation

... ISSN (Print): 2333-8628 ISSN (Online): 2333-8636 Website ... International Journal of Environmental Bioremediation & Biodegradation will be a peer-reviewed, open access journal that ... provides rapid publication of articles in all areas of Environment, Bioremediation, Biodegradation and Pollution. The goal of ...
more infohttp://www.sciepub.com/journal/ijebb/AimsAndScope

Session: Microbial Hydrocarbon Formation and Biodegradation: Organisms, Pathways, Environmental Limitations, and Isotope...Session: Microbial Hydrocarbon Formation and Biodegradation: Organisms, Pathways, Environmental Limitations, and Isotope...

Microbial Hydrocarbon Formation and Biodegradation: Organisms, Pathways, Environmental Limitations, and Isotope Signatures. GSA ... MOUSER, Paula J.1, DALY, Rebecca A.2, WOLFE, Richard2 and WRIGHTON, Kelly C.2, (1)Civil, Environmental and Geodetic Engineering ... of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Rd. Rm ... LINKING MICROBIAL COMMUNITY PRESENCE AND DIVERSITY TO FORMATION WATER GEOCHEMISTRY, CRUDE OIL BIODEGRADATION, AND ...
more infohttps://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2015AM/webprogram/Session37884.html

Biodegradation of petroleum compounds and Environmental Meta-GenomicsBiodegradation of petroleum compounds and Environmental Meta-Genomics

... Bei der Büchersuchmaschine eurobuch.com können Sie ... Biodegradation and Environmental Meta-Genome biotechnology Biodegradation and Environmental Meta-Genome biotechnology Bücher > ... Detailangaben zum Buch - Biodegradation of petroleum compounds and Environmental Meta-Genomics. EAN (ISBN-13): 9783838393414. ... Biodegradation and Environmental Meta-Genome biotechnology Buch (fremdspr.) Bücher>Fremdsprachige Bücher>Englische Bücher, LAP ...
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Biodegradation of Polyester Polyurethane by Endophytic Fungi | Applied and Environmental MicrobiologyBiodegradation of Polyester Polyurethane by Endophytic Fungi | Applied and Environmental Microbiology

Biodegradation. Biodegradation of Polyester Polyurethane by Endophytic Fungi. Jonathan R. Russell, Jeffrey Huang, Pria Anand, ... Biodegradation of Polyester Polyurethane by Endophytic Fungi. Jonathan R. Russell, Jeffrey Huang, Pria Anand, Kaury Kucera, ... Biodegradation of Polyester Polyurethane by Endophytic Fungi. Jonathan R. Russell, Jeffrey Huang, Pria Anand, Kaury Kucera, ... Biodegradation of Polyester Polyurethane by Endophytic Fungi Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ...
more infohttps://aem.asm.org/content/77/17/6076.full

Bacterial biosensors for rapid and effective monitoring of biodegradation of organic pollutants in wastewater effluents -...Bacterial biosensors for rapid and effective monitoring of biodegradation of organic pollutants in wastewater effluents -...

Journal of Environmental Monitoring. Bacterial biosensors for rapid and effective monitoring of biodegradation of organic ... Bacterial biosensors for rapid and effective monitoring of biodegradation of organic pollutants in wastewater effluents A. O. ... and for in situ monitoring of biodegradation. This has great potential to offer a risk assessment strategy in predicting the ...
more infohttp://pubs.rsc.org/en/Content/ArticleLanding/EM/2008/B805055D

Biodegradation of xenobiotics- a way for environmental detoxification | International Journal of Development Research (IJDR)Biodegradation of xenobiotics- a way for environmental detoxification | International Journal of Development Research (IJDR)

Biodegradation of xenobiotics- a way for environmental detoxification. International Journal of Development Research ... Better understanding of metabolic pathways for the biodegradation of specific organic compounds as well as more thorough ... The physical and chemical characteristics of the compounds, as well as environmental factors, may influence their ... microorganisms and their successive adaptation to a naturally persistent compound might be a powerful means for environmental ...
more infohttp://www.journalijdr.com/biodegradation-xenobiotics-way-environmental-detoxification

Indigenous 14C-phenanthrene biodegradation in pristine woodland and grassland soils from Norway and the United Kingdom -...Indigenous 14C-phenanthrene biodegradation in "pristine" woodland and grassland soils from Norway and the United Kingdom -...

Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts. Indigenous 14C-phenanthrene biodegradation in "pristine" woodland and grassland ... Indigenous 14C-phenanthrene biodegradation in "pristine" woodland and grassland soils from Norway and the United Kingdom U. V. ...
more infohttp://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2017/em/c7em00242d

Kinetics and Yields of Pesticide Biodegradation at Low Substrate Concentrations and under Conditions Restricting Assimilable...Kinetics and Yields of Pesticide Biodegradation at Low Substrate Concentrations and under Conditions Restricting Assimilable...

Biodegradation of chemicals of environmental concern. Science 211:132-138. doi:10.1126/science.7444456. ... Environmental relevance.It is clearly important to investigate growth-linked biodegradation of trace pollutants at low, ... Biodegradation. Kinetics and Yields of Pesticide Biodegradation at Low Substrate Concentrations and under Conditions ... Thermodynamic yield predictions for biodegradation through oxygenase activation reactions. Biodegradation 12:265-281. doi: ...
more infohttps://aem.asm.org/content/80/4/1306.full

Bio)chemische techniekBio)chemische techniek

Ozonation and Biodegradation in Environmental Engineering: Dynamic Neural Network Approach gives a unified point-of-view on the ... application of DNN to estimate and control the application of ozonation and biodegradation in chemical and environmental ... The book addresses bio-based feedstocks, production processes, packaging types, recent trends in packaging, the environmental ... The book describes a green technology for abating environmental crisis an... Lees verder ...
more infohttp://www.vanstockum.nl/boeken/technische-wetenschappen-algemeen/biochemische-techniek/

Biodegradation tests of mercaptocarboxylic acids, their esters, related divalent sulfur compounds and mercaptans, Environmental...Biodegradation tests of mercaptocarboxylic acids, their esters, related divalent sulfur compounds and mercaptans, Environmental...

Environmental Science and Pollution Research" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with ... "Biodegradation tests of mercaptocarboxylic acids, their esters, related divalent sulfur compounds and mercaptans, ... functional group enhances biodegradation compared to a methyl group or to an H atom. 2. A rule of thumb for biodegradation of ... functional group enhances biodegradation compared to a methyl group or to an H atom. 2. A rule of thumb for biodegradation of ...
more infohttps://www.deepdyve.com/lp/springer_journal/biodegradation-tests-of-mercaptocarboxylic-acids-their-esters-related-YqL2HCX0uH

Hisako Masuda: Indiana University KokomoHisako Masuda: Indiana University Kokomo

Bacterial biodegradation of environmental contaminants *Tupa, P. and H. Masuda. 2018. Comparative proteomic analysis of propane ... Biodegradation of tetrahydrofuran and 1,4-dioxane by soluble diiron monooxygenase in Pseudonocardia sp. strain ENV478. J Mol ... Aerobic biodegradation of N-nitrosodimethylamine by the propanotroph Rhodococcus ruber ENV425. Appl Envir Microbiol. 15:5088. ... Biodegradation of Ether Pollutants by Pseudonocardia sp. Strain ENV478. Appl Envir Microbiol. 72:5218. ...
more infohttps://www.iuk.edu/academic-affairs/faculty-senate/masuda-hisako.html

Singlet Oxygen, UV-A and Ozone, Vol 319. Methods in EnzymologySinglet Oxygen, UV-A and Ozone, Vol 319. Methods in Enzymology

Ozonation and Biodegradation in Environmental Engineering * Book. * 548 Pages *. €160EUR$188USD£147GBP ...
more infohttps://www.researchandmarkets.com/reports/1763390/singlet_oxygen_uva_and_ozone_vol_319_methods

Basis for the resistance of several algae to microbial decomposition.Basis for the resistance of several algae to microbial decomposition.

Biodegradation, Environmental. Carotenoids / analysis. Cell Fractionation. Cell Wall / analysis, metabolism. Chromatography, ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Basis-resistance-several-algae-to/808166.html

Biodegradable plastic - WikipediaBiodegradable plastic - Wikipedia

"Environmental biodegradation of polyethylene". Polym. Deg. Stab 81, 441-452 (2003). *^ Jakubowicz, Ignacy; Yarahmadi, Nazdaneh ... Environmental concernsEdit. Oxo-biodegradation: There are allegations that biodegradable plastic bags may release metals, and ... Environmental impactsEdit. Environmental benefitsEdit. Microbial degradation: The primary purpose of biodegradable plastics is ... Factors affecting biodegradationEdit. Chemical compositionEdit. *Least to greatest resistance to biodegradation: *n-alkanes , ...
more infohttps://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biodegradable_plastics

Strategies used to enhance the sustainability of polyhy | Open-iStrategies used to enhance the sustainability of polyhy | Open-i

Environmental impact and in particular (bio)degradation of aliphatic polyesters, polyamides and related copolymer structures ... Environmental impact and in particular (bio)degradation of aliphatic polyesters, polyamides and related copolymer structures ... of these attractive polymer families are outlined.Environmental impact and in particular (bio)degradation of aliphatic ... of these attractive polymer families are outlined.Environmental impact and in particular (bio)degradation of aliphatic ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC4307263_ijms-16-00564-g004&req=4

Xenobiotics in the Soil Environment | SpringerLinkXenobiotics in the Soil Environment | SpringerLink

Environmental pollution Biomonitoring Bioremediation Biodegradation of Xenobiotics Antibiotics in soil Atmospheric pollutants ... Environmental Biodegradation of Xenobiotics: Role of Potential Microflora Manoj Kumar, Ram Prasad, Pankaj Goyal, Priyanku ... Accordingly, the book offers a valuable guide for scientists in the fields of environmental ecology, soil and food sciences, ... biodegradation by fungi; and the use of enzymes and potential microbes in biotransformation. ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-3-319-47744-2

HKU Scholars Hub: Microbial degradation of polymeric coatings measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopyHKU Scholars Hub: Microbial degradation of polymeric coatings measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

Biodegradation. en_US. dc.subject.mesh. Aspergillus - Metabolism. en_US. dc.subject.mesh. Biodegradation, Environmental. en_US ... This paper reports results of biodegradation studies of polyimide coatings exposed to a mixed fungal culture using ... This paper reports results of biodegradation studies of polyimide coatings exposed to a mixed fungal culture using ... Biodegradation, 1998, v. 9 n. 1, p. 39-45 How to Cite?. ... Biodegradation, 1998, v. 9 n. 1, p. 39-45. en_US. dc.identifier ...
more infohttp://hub.hku.hk/handle/10722/178616

While conserved peptides can be used to assess Geobacte | Open-iWhile conserved peptides can be used to assess Geobacte | Open-i

Biodegradation, Environmental. *Biomarkers. *Groundwater/microbiology. *Molecular Sequence Data. *Phylogeny. *Sequence ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC3815795_mbt0004-0055-f5&req=4

These Very Hungry Caterpillars Can Eat Your Plastic TrashThese Very Hungry Caterpillars Can Eat Your Plastic Trash

S Bonhomme, A Cuer, A-M Delort, J Lemaire, M Sancelme, G Scott (2003). Environmental biodegradation of polyethylene, Polymer ... Jun Yang, Yu Yang, Wei-Min Wu, Jiao Zhao, and Lei Jiang (2014). Evidence of Polyethylene Biodegradation by Bacterial Strains ... Paolo Bombelli, Christopher J. Howe and Federica Bertocchini (2017). Polyethylene bio-degradation by caterpillars of the wax ... "Me and my collaborators had been talking about plastic bio-degradation for a while, a few years in fact, although each of us ...
more infohttps://www.forbes.com/sites/grrlscientist/2017/04/24/these-caterpillars-can-eat-your-plastic-trash/

Conferences in December 2020 in New YorkConferences in December 2020 in New York

ICEBP 2020: Environmental Biodegradation Phases Conference, New York (Dec 10-11, 2020) ... ICEBESE 2020: Environmental, Biological, Ecological Sciences and Engineering Conference, New York (Dec 10-11, 2020) ... ICEGPAD 2020: Environmental Geomechanics: Prediction, Analysis and Design Conference, New York (Dec 10-11, 2020) ... ICUEDUP 2020: Urban Environmental Degradation and Urban Planning Conference, New York (Dec 10-11, 2020) ...
more infohttps://waset.org/conferences-in-december-2020-in-new-york
  • The physical and chemical characteristics of the compounds, as well as environmental factors, may influence their biodegradability. (journalijdr.com)
  • Better understanding of metabolic pathways for the biodegradation of specific organic compounds as well as more thorough knowledge of degrading microorganisms will make purposeful application of biodegradation possible. (journalijdr.com)
  • Kümmerer, Klaus 2018-04-17 00:00:00 Mercaptocarboxylic acids and their esters, a class of difunctional compounds bearing both a mercapto and a carboxylic acid or ester functional group, are industrial chemicals of potential environmental concern. (deepdyve.com)
  • Biodegradation of such compounds was systematically investigated here, both by literature search and by experiments (Closed Bottle Test OECD 301D and Manometric Respirometry Test OECD 301F). (deepdyve.com)
  • It is therefore of interest to better under- Analytical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Suez Canal stand the environmental impact of this class of chemicals, both University, Ismailia 41522, Egypt of the parent compounds and of any transformation products. (deepdyve.com)
  • Bruno Bock Thiochemicals, 21436 Marschacht, Germany 18394 Environ Sci Pollut Res (2018) 25:18393-18411 The present study should help to obtain a general view of biodegradation of monofunctional compound classes, the these compounds' biodegradation behaviour, by comparing problem of biodegradation of difunctional or even more com- literature data with our own experimental data to be generated. (deepdyve.com)
  • The PAH concentrations in the soil tested, postbioremediation, were lower than their regulatory maximum allowable concentrations (MACs), with the exception of the higher molecular weight PAHs (BaA, BkF, BbF, BaP, and IcdP), most of which did not undergo significant biodegradation. (zfin.org)
  • Thereby, an existing rule of thumb for biodegradation of carboxylic acids/esters was supported by experimental data, and a rule of thumb could be formulated for mercaptans. (deepdyve.com)
  • Mercaptocarboxylic acids Mercaptocarboxylic acid esters Mercaptans Biodegradation rules of thumb Introduction minimise the release of persistent chemicals into the envi- ronment. (deepdyve.com)
  • However, there is also some use in consumer products, [email protected] e.g. several thousand tons per year of thioglycolic acid and its 1 salts go into cosmetic and cleaning formulations and are there- Institute of Sustainable and Environmental Chemistry, Leuphana fore released to the environment directly or indirectly via sew- University Lüneburg, Universitätsallee 1, 21335 Lüneburg, Germany 2 age treatment plants. (deepdyve.com)
  • Standard biodegradation tests aimed at measuring these parameters generally ignore the ubiquitous occurrence of assimilable organic carbon (AOC) in experimental systems which can be present at concentrations exceeding the concentration of the target substrate. (asm.org)
  • Oxo-biodegradation of polymer material has been studied in depth at the Technical Research Institute of Sweden and the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. (wikipedia.org)
  • To receive news and publication updates for Journal of Environmental and Public Health, enter your email address in the box below. (hindawi.com)
  • A peer-reviewed report of the work shows 91% biodegradation in a soil environment within 24 months, when tested in accordance with ISO 17556. (wikipedia.org)
  • The biodegradation studies using UV-Vis spectrophotometry, HPLC, FTIR, and LC-MS indicated the production of the following metabolites: 2-chloro-5-methyl thiazole (CMT), methyl nitroguanidine (MNG), methyl 3-[thiazole-yl], and methyl guanidine (TMG). (hindawi.com)