Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
Phenols substituted with one or more chlorine atoms in any position.
The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
An antiseptic and disinfectant aromatic alcohol.
Complex petroleum hydrocarbons consisting mainly of residues from crude oil distillation. These liquid products include heating oils, stove oils, and furnace oils and are burned to generate energy.
A widely used industrial solvent.
A greasy substance with a smoky odor and burned taste created by high temperature treatment of BEECH and other WOOD; COAL TAR; or resin of the CREOSOTE BUSH. It contains CRESOLS and POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS which are CARCINOGENS. It has been widely used as wood preservative and in PESTICIDES and had former use medicinally in DISINFECTANTS; LAXATIVES; and DERMATOLOGIC AGENTS.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
A bacterial genus of the order ACTINOMYCETALES.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria characterized by an outer membrane that contains glycosphingolipids but lacks lipopolysaccharide. They have the ability to degrade a broad range of substituted aromatic compounds.
Benzoic acid or benzoic acid esters substituted with one or more chlorine atoms.
Adverse effect upon bodies of water (LAKES; RIVERS; seas; groundwater etc.) caused by CHEMICAL WATER POLLUTANTS.
Organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen in the form of an unsaturated, usually hexagonal ring structure. The compounds can be single ring, or double, triple, or multiple fused rings.
A genus of GREEN ALGAE in the family Scenedesmaceae. It forms colonies of usually four or eight cylindrical cells that are widely distributed in freshwater and SOIL.
A highly volatile inhalation anesthetic used mainly in short surgical procedures where light anesthesia with good analgesia is required. It is also used as an industrial solvent. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of the vapor can lead to cardiotoxicity and neurological impairment.
An insecticide and herbicide that has also been used as a wood preservative. Pentachlorphenol is a widespread environmental pollutant. Both chronic and acute pentachlorophenol poisoning are medical concerns. The range of its biological actions is still being actively explored, but it is clearly a potent enzyme inhibitor and has been used as such as an experimental tool.
Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.
Toxic chlorinated unsaturated hydrocarbons. Include both the 1,1- and 1,2-dichloro isomers. Both isomers are toxic, but 1,1-dichloroethylene is the more potent CNS depressant and hepatotoxin. It is used in the manufacture of thermoplastic polymers.
Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.
A genus in the family BURKHOLDERIACEAE, comprised of many species. They are associated with a variety of infections including MENINGITIS; PERITONITIS; and URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS.
Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
A gas that has been used as an aerosol propellant and is the starting material for polyvinyl resins. Toxicity studies have shown various adverse effects, particularly the occurrence of liver neoplasms.
An organochlorine insecticide that has been used as a pediculicide and a scabicide. It has been shown to cause cancer.
Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
An herbicide with irritant effects on the eye and the gastrointestinal system.
The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A family of bracket fungi, order POLYPORALES, living in decaying plant matter and timber.
Non-heme iron-containing enzymes that incorporate two atoms of OXYGEN into the substrate. They are important in biosynthesis of FLAVONOIDS; GIBBERELLINS; and HYOSCYAMINE; and for degradation of AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.
Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.
A saturated 12-carbon fatty alcohol obtained from coconut oil fatty acids. It has a floral odor and is used in detergents, lubricating oils, and pharmaceuticals. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Discarded animal and vegetable matter from a kitchen or the refuse from food preparation. (From Random House College Dictionary, 1982)
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.
Volative flammable fuel (liquid hydrocarbons) derived from crude petroleum by processes such as distillation reforming, polymerization, etc.
A family of isomeric, colorless aromatic hydrocarbon liquids, that contain the general formula C6H4(CH3)2. They are produced by the destructive distillation of coal or by the catalytic reforming of petroleum naphthenic fractions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
An effective soil fumigant, insecticide, and nematocide. In humans, it causes severe burning of skin and irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract. Prolonged inhalation may cause liver necrosis. It is also used in gasoline. Members of this group have caused liver and lung cancers in rodents. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), 1,2-dibromoethane may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
A derivative of acetic acid, N(CH2COOH)3. It is a complexing (sequestering) agent that forms stable complexes with Zn2+. (From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed.)
A genus of asporogenous bacteria isolated from soil that displays a distinctive rod-coccus growth cycle.
The sodium salt of BENZOIC ACID. It is used as an antifungal preservative in pharmaceutical preparations and foods. It may also be used as a test for liver function.
Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.
Salts and esters of the 10-carbon monocarboxylic acid-decanoic acid.
A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.
Eight-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.
A group of different species of microorganisms that act together as a community.
A copper-containing oxidoreductase enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of 4-benzenediol to 4-benzosemiquinone. It also has activity towards a variety of O-quinols and P-quinols. It primarily found in FUNGI and is involved in LIGNIN degradation, pigment biosynthesis and detoxification of lignin-derived products.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Toxic, chlorinated, saturated hydrocarbons. Include both the 1,1- and 1,2-dichloro isomers. The latter is considerably more toxic. It has a sweet taste, ethereal odor and has been used as a fumigant and intoxicant among sniffers. Has many household and industrial uses.
Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.
Organic polymeric materials which can be broken down by naturally occurring processes. This includes plastics created from bio-based or petrochemical-based materials.
A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.
A 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, which is an explosive chemical that can cause skin irritation and other toxic consequences.
Two-ring crystalline hydrocarbons isolated from coal tar. They are used as intermediates in chemical synthesis, as insect repellents, fungicides, lubricants, preservatives, and, formerly, as topical antiseptics.
A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)
The discarding or destroying of liquid waste products or their transformation into something useful or innocuous.
The discarding or destroying of garbage, sewage, or other waste matter or its transformation into something useful or innocuous.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
A genus of fungi in the family Corticiaceae, order Stereales, that degrades lignin. The white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium is a frequently used species in research.
Benzoic acid or benzoic acid esters substituted with one or more bromine atoms.
Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.
Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.
A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised of chemoheterotrophs and chemoautotrophs which derive nutrients from decomposition of organic material.
Release of oil into the environment usually due to human activity.
Implants constructed of materials designed to be absorbed by the body without producing an immune response. They are usually composed of plastics and are frequently used in orthopedics and orthodontics.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
A family of gram-negative, asporogenous rods or ovoid cells, aerobic or facultative anaerobic chemoorganotrophs. They are commonly isolated from SOIL, activated sludge, or marine environments.
A hydrocarbon used as an industrial solvent. It has been used as an aerosal propellent, as a refrigerant and as a local anesthetic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p1403)
A genus of the family BRUCELLACEAE comprising obligately aerobic gram-negative rods with parallel sides and rounded ends.
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It cannot utilize FRUCTOSE; GLUCOSE; or MALTOSE for energy.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
A genus of basidiomycetous fungi, family POLYPORACEAE, order POLYPORALES, that grows on logs or tree stumps in shelflike layers. The species P. ostreatus, the oyster mushroom, is a choice edible species and is the most frequently encountered member of the genus in eastern North America. (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, p531)
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Substances that are energetically unstable and can produce a sudden expansion of the material, called an explosion, which is accompanied by heat, pressure and noise. Other things which have been described as explosive that are not included here are explosive action of laser heating, human performance, sudden epidemiological outbreaks, or fast cell growth.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Organisms in this genus had originally been classified as members of the PSEUDOMONAS genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings indicated the need to separate them from other Pseudomonas species, and hence, this new genus was created.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
Partially saturated 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene compounds.
Derivatives of adipic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,6-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.
A genus of gram-positive BACTERIA in the family Gordoniaceae, isolated from soil and from sputa of patients with chest disorders. It is also used for biotransformation of natural products.
Drugs and their metabolites which are found in the edible tissues and milk of animals after their medication with specific drugs. This term can also apply to drugs found in adipose tissue of humans after drug treatment.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A selective triazine herbicide. Inhalation hazard is low and there are no apparent skin manifestations or other toxicity in humans. Acutely poisoned sheep and cattle may show muscular spasms, fasciculations, stiff gait, increased respiratory rates, adrenal degeneration, and congestion of the lungs, liver, and kidneys. (From The Merck Index, 11th ed)
Industrial chemicals which have become widespread environmental pollutants. Each aroclor is a mixture of chlorinated biphenyls (1200 series) or chlorinated terphenyls (5400 series) or a combination of both (4400 series).
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.
Tricyclic ethylene-bridged naphthalene derivatives. They are found in petroleum residues and coal tar and used as dye intermediates, in the manufacture of plastics, and in insecticides and fungicides.
A genus of fungi in the family Coriolaceae.
Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.
The extraction and recovery of usable or valuable material from scrap or other discarded materials. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed.)
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
A family of gram-negative aerobic bacteria in the class BETA PROTEOBACTERIA, encompassing the acidovorans rRNA complex. Some species are pathogenic for PLANTS.
Heterocyclic rings containing three nitrogen atoms, commonly in 1,2,4 or 1,3,5 or 2,4,6 formats. Some are used as HERBICIDES.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in wet soil containing decaying organic material and in water. Cells tend to be pleomorphic if grown on media containing succinate or coccoid if grown in the presence of an alcohol as the sole carbon source. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
A group of compounds that has the general structure of a dicarboxylic acid-substituted benzene ring. The ortho-isomer is used in dye manufacture. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, motile bacteria that occur in water and soil. Some are common inhabitants of the intestinal tract of vertebrates. These bacteria occasionally cause opportunistic infections in humans.
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. This subclass contains the DECARBOXYLASES, the ALDEHYDE-LYASES, and the OXO-ACID-LYASES. EC 4.1.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of catechol to muconic acid with the use of Fe3+ as a cofactor. This enzyme was formerly characterized as EC and EC
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A vinyl polymer made from ethylene. It can be branched or linear. Branched or low-density polyethylene is tough and pliable but not to the same degree as linear polyethylene. Linear or high-density polyethylene has a greater hardness and tensile strength. Polyethylene is used in a variety of products, including implants and prostheses.
The body of a fungus which is made up of HYPHAE.
Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.
The study of microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, algae, archaea, and viruses.
Disposal, processing, controlling, recycling, and reusing the solid, liquid, and gaseous wastes of plants, animals, humans, and other organisms. It includes control within a closed ecological system to maintain a habitable environment.
Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.
Sulfonic acid derivatives that are substituted with an aliphatic hydrocarbon group.
Liquid water present beneath the surface of the earth.
An herbicide with strong irritant properties. Use of this compound on rice fields, orchards, sugarcane, rangeland, and other noncrop sites was terminated by the EPA in 1985. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in SOIL and WATER. Its organisms are also found in raw meats, MILK and other FOOD, hospital environments, and human clinical specimens. Some species are pathogenic in humans.
Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.
Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.
Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Unctuous combustible substances that are liquid or easily liquefiable on warming, and are soluble in ether but insoluble in water. Such substances, depending on their origin, are classified as animal, mineral, or vegetable oils. Depending on their behavior on heating, they are volatile or fixed. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Chemical substances that are foreign to the biological system. They include naturally occurring compounds, drugs, environmental agents, carcinogens, insecticides, etc.
A gram-positive organism found in dairy products, fresh and salt water, marine organisms, insects, and decaying organic matter.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A carbamate insecticide and parasiticide. It is a potent anticholinesterase agent belonging to the carbamate group of reversible cholinesterase inhibitors. It has a particularly low toxicity from dermal absorption and is used for control of head lice in some countries.
An organochlorine insecticide.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.
A copolymer of polyethylene and polypropylene ether glycol. It is a non-ionic polyol surface-active agent used medically as a fecal softener and in cattle for prevention of bloat.
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of WASTE WATER to provide potable and hygienic water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies.
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
Liquid, solid, or gaseous waste resulting from mining of radioactive ore, production of reactor fuel materials, reactor operation, processing of irradiated reactor fuels, and related operations, and from use of radioactive materials in research, industry, and medicine. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A genus of gram-negative, strictly aerobic, non-spore forming rods. Soil and water are regarded as the natural habitat. They are sometimes isolated from a hospital environment and humans.
A methylpentose whose L- isomer is found naturally in many plant glycosides and some gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides.
Flammable, amorphous, vegetable products of secretion or disintegration, usually formed in special cavities of plants. They are generally insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol, carbon tetrachloride, ether, or volatile oils. They are fusible and have a conchoidal fracture. They are the oxidation or polymerization products of the terpenes, and are mixtures of aromatic acids and esters. Most are soft and sticky, but harden after exposure to cold. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)
Phenols substituted in any position by an amino group.
Testing for the amount of biodegradable organic material in a water sample by measuring the quantity of oxygen consumed by biodegradation of those materials over a specific time period.
The force acting on the surface of a liquid, tending to minimize the area of the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.
Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)
The type species in the genus RALSTONIA. It is often found in the hospital ward as a contaminant of antiseptic and disinfectant solutions.
A colorless liquid made by oxidation of aliphatic hydrocarbons that is used as a solvent and chemical intermediate.
Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, motile, rod-shaped bacteria formerly classified as part of the genus XANTHOMONAS.
Cyclic amide of caproic acid used in manufacture of synthetic fibers of the polyamide type. Can cause local irritation.
A highly poisonous substance that was formerly used as an insecticide. The manufacture and use has been discontinued in the U.S. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Herbaceous biennial plants and their edible bulbs, belonging to the Liliaceae.
Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.
The gradual destruction of a metal or alloy due to oxidation or action of a chemical agent. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Organic esters or salts of sulfonic acid derivatives containing an aliphatic hydrocarbon radical.
A selective pre- and post-emergence herbicide. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The spectrum of different living organisms inhabiting a particular region, habitat, or biotope.
A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.
The enrichment of a terrestrial or aquatic ECOSYSTEM by the addition of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, that results in a superabundant growth of plants, ALGAE, or other primary producers. It can be a natural process or result from human activity such as agriculture runoff or sewage pollution. In aquatic ecosystems, an increase in the algae population is termed an algal bloom.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
Fibrous proteins secreted by INSECTS and SPIDERS. Generally, the term refers to silkworm fibroin secreted by the silk gland cells of SILKWORMS, Bombyx mori. Spider fibroins are called spidroins or dragline silk fibroins.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The Arctic Ocean and the lands in it and adjacent to it. It includes Point Barrow, Alaska, most of the Franklin District in Canada, two thirds of Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Lapland, Novaya Zemlya, and Northern Siberia. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p66)
A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic rods formerly called Pseudomonas testosteroni. It is differentiated from other Comamonas species by its ability to assimilate testosterone and to utilize phenylacetate or maleate as carbon sources.
Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.
An organochlorine insecticide that is slightly irritating to the skin. (From Merck Index, 11th ed, p482)
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
A non-taxonomic term for unicellular microscopic algae which are found in both freshwater and marine environments. Some authors consider DIATOMS; CYANOBACTERIA; HAPTOPHYTA; and DINOFLAGELLATES as part of microalgae, even though they are not algae.
Microbial, plant, or animal cells which are immobilized by attachment to solid structures, usually a column matrix. A common use of immobilized cells is in biotechnology for the bioconversion of a substrate to a particular product. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
An organochlorine insecticide that is carcinogenic.
Aminobenzenesulfonic acids. Organic acids that are used in the manufacture of dyes and organic chemicals and as reagents.
Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.
A man-made compound previously used to control termites and other insects. Even though production of heptachlor was phased out of use in the United States during the late 1980's it remains in soil and hazardous waste sites. It is clearly toxic to animals and humans but, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has determined that heptachlor is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans. (From ATSDR Public Heath Statement, April 1989)
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
Compounds with a benzene ring fused to a thiazole ring.
Compounds which contain the methyl radical substituted with two benzene rings. Permitted are any substituents, but ring fusion to any of the benzene rings is not allowed.
An extensive order of basidiomycetous fungi whose fruiting bodies are commonly called mushrooms.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.

Complete sequence of a 184-kilobase catabolic plasmid from Sphingomonas aromaticivorans F199. (1/3156)

The complete 184,457-bp sequence of the aromatic catabolic plasmid, pNL1, from Sphingomonas aromaticivorans F199 has been determined. A total of 186 open reading frames (ORFs) are predicted to encode proteins, of which 79 are likely directly associated with catabolism or transport of aromatic compounds. Genes that encode enzymes associated with the degradation of biphenyl, naphthalene, m-xylene, and p-cresol are predicted to be distributed among 15 gene clusters. The unusual coclustering of genes associated with different pathways appears to have evolved in response to similarities in biochemical mechanisms required for the degradation of intermediates in different pathways. A putative efflux pump and several hypothetical membrane-associated proteins were identified and predicted to be involved in the transport of aromatic compounds and/or intermediates in catabolism across the cell wall. Several genes associated with integration and recombination, including two group II intron-associated maturases, were identified in the replication region, suggesting that pNL1 is able to undergo integration and excision events with the chromosome and/or other portions of the plasmid. Conjugative transfer of pNL1 to another Sphingomonas sp. was demonstrated, and genes associated with this function were found in two large clusters. Approximately one-third of the ORFs (59 of them) have no obvious homology to known genes.  (+info)

Purification and characterization of gentisate 1,2-dioxygenases from Pseudomonas alcaligenes NCIB 9867 and Pseudomonas putida NCIB 9869. (2/3156)

Two 3-hydroxybenzoate-inducible gentisate 1,2-dioxygenases were purified to homogeneity from Pseudomonas alcaligenes NCIB 9867 (P25X) and Pseudomonas putida NCIB 9869 (P35X), respectively. The estimated molecular mass of the purified P25X gentisate 1, 2-dioxygenase was 154 kDa, with a subunit mass of 39 kDa. Its structure is deduced to be a tetramer. The pI of this enzyme was established to be 4.8 to 5.0. The subunit mass of P35X gentisate 1, 2-dioxygenase was 41 kDa, and this enzyme was deduced to exist as a dimer, with a native molecular mass of about 82 kDa. The pI of P35X gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase was around 4.6 to 4.8. Both of the gentisate 1,2-dioxygenases exhibited typical saturation kinetics and had apparent Kms of 92 and 143 microM for gentisate, respectively. Broad substrate specificities were exhibited towards alkyl and halogenated gentisate analogs. Both enzymes had similar kinetic turnover characteristics for gentisate, with kcat/Km values of 44.08 x 10(4) s-1 M-1 for the P25X enzyme and 39.34 x 10(4) s-1 M-1 for the P35X enzyme. Higher kcat/Km values were expressed by both enzymes against the substituted gentisates. Significant differences were observed between the N-terminal sequences of the first 23 amino acid residues of the P25X and P35X gentisate 1,2-dioxygenases. The P25X gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase was stable between pH 5.0 and 7.5, with the optimal pH around 8.0. The P35X enzyme showed a pH stability range between 7.0 and 9.0, and the optimum pH was also 8.0. The optimal temperature for both P25X and P35X gentisate 1, 2-dioxygenases was around 50 degrees C, but the P35X enzyme was more heat stable than that from P25X. Both enzymes were strongly stimulated by 0.1 mM Fe2+ but were completely inhibited by the presence of 5 mM Cu2+. Partial inhibition of both enzymes was also observed with 5 mM Mn2+, Zn2+, and EDTA.  (+info)

Effect of phenylurea herbicides on soil microbial communities estimated by analysis of 16S rRNA gene fingerprints and community-level physiological profiles. (3/3156)

The effect of three phenyl urea herbicides (diuron, linuron, and chlorotoluron) on soil microbial communities was studied by using soil samples with a 10-year history of treatment. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was used for the analysis of 16S rRNA genes (16S rDNA). The degree of similarity between the 16S rDNA profiles of the communities was quantified by numerically analysing the DGGE band patterns. Similarity dendrograms showed that the microbial community structures of the herbicide-treated and nontreated soils were significantly different. Moreover, the bacterial diversity seemed to decrease in soils treated with urea herbicides, and sequence determination of several DGGE fragments showed that the most affected species in the soils treated with diuron and linuron belonged to an uncultivated bacterial group. As well as the 16S rDNA fingerprints, the substrate utilization patterns of the microbial communities were compared. Principal-component analysis performed on BIOLOG data showed that the functional abilities of the soil microbial communities were altered by the application of the herbicides. In addition, enrichment cultures of the different soils in medium with the urea herbicides as the sole carbon and nitrogen source showed that there was no difference between treated and nontreated soil in the rate of transformation of diuron and chlorotoluron but that there was a strong difference in the case of linuron. In the enrichment cultures with linuron-treated soil, linuron disappeared completely after 1 week whereas no significant transformation was observed in cultures inoculated with nontreated soil even after 4 weeks. In conclusion, this study showed that both the structure and metabolic potential of soil microbial communities were clearly affected by a long-term application of urea herbicides.  (+info)

Anaerobic oxidation of o-xylene, m-xylene, and homologous alkylbenzenes by new types of sulfate-reducing bacteria. (4/3156)

Various alkylbenzenes were depleted during growth of an anaerobic, sulfate-reducing enrichment culture with crude oil as the only source of organic substrates. From this culture, two new types of mesophilic, rod-shaped sulfate-reducing bacteria, strains oXyS1 and mXyS1, were isolated with o-xylene and m-xylene, respectively, as organic substrates. Sequence analyses of 16S rRNA genes revealed that the isolates affiliated with known completely oxidizing sulfate-reducing bacteria of the delta subclass of the class Proteobacteria. Strain oXyS1 showed the highest similarities to Desulfobacterium cetonicum and Desulfosarcina variabilis (similarity values, 98.4 and 98.7%, respectively). Strain mXyS1 was less closely related to known species, the closest relative being Desulfococcus multivorans (similarity value, 86.9%). Complete mineralization of o-xylene and m-xylene was demonstrated in quantitative growth experiments. Strain oXyS1 was able to utilize toluene, o-ethyltoluene, benzoate, and o-methylbenzoate in addition to o-xylene. Strain mXyS1 oxidized toluene, m-ethyltoluene, m-isoproyltoluene, benzoate, and m-methylbenzoate in addition to m-xylene. Strain oXyS1 did not utilize m-alkyltoluenes, whereas strain mXyS1 did not utilize o-alkyltoluenes. Like the enrichment culture, both isolates grew anaerobically on crude oil with concomitant reduction of sulfate to sulfide.  (+info)

Involvement of two plasmids in the degradation of carbaryl by Arthrobacter sp. strain RC100. (5/3156)

A bacterium capable of utilizing carbaryl (1-naphthyl N-methylcarbamate) as the sole carbon source was isolated from carbaryl-treated soil. This bacterium was characterized taxonomically as Arthrobacter and was designated strain RC100. RC100 hydrolyzes the N-methylcarbamate linkage to 1-naphthol, which was further metabolized via salicylate and gentisate. Strain RC100 harbored three plasmids (designated pRC1, pRC2, and pRC3). Mutants unable to degrade carbaryl arose at a high frequency after treating the culture with mitomycin C. All carbaryl-hydrolysis-deficient mutants (Cah-) lacked pRC1, and all 1-naphthol-utilization-deficient mutants (Nat-) lacked pRC2. The plasmid-free strain RC107 grew on gentisate as a carbon source. These two plasmids could be transferred to Cah- mutants or Nat- mutants by conjugation, resulting in the restoration of the Cah and Nah phenotypes.  (+info)

Purification and characterization of a novel peroxidase from Geotrichum candidum dec 1 involved in decolorization of dyes. (6/3156)

A peroxidase (DyP) involved in the decolorization of dyes and produced by the fungus strain Geotrichum candidum Dec 1 was purified. DyP, a glycoprotein, is glycosylated with N-acetylglucosamine and mannose (17%) and has a molecular mass of 60 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of 3.8. The absorption spectrum of DyP exhibited a Soret band at 406 nm corresponding to a hemoprotein, and its Na2S2O4-reduced form revealed a peak at 556 nm that indicates the presence of a protoheme as its prosthetic group. Nine of the 21 types of dyes that were decolorized by Dec 1 cells were decolorized by DyP; in particular, anthraquinone dyes were highly decolorized. DyP also oxidized 2,6-dimethoxyphenol and guaiacol but not veratryl alcohol. The optimal temperature for DyP activity was 30 degrees C, and DyP activity was stable even after incubation at 50 degrees C for 11 h.  (+info)

Decolorization and detoxification of extraction-stage effluent from chlorine bleaching of kraft pulp by Rhizopus oryzae. (7/3156)

Rhizopus oryzae, a zygomycete, was found to decolorize, dechlorinate, and detoxify bleach plant effluent at lower cosubstrate concentrations than the basidiomycetes previously investigated. With glucose at 1 g/liter, this fungus removed 92 to 95% of the color, 50% of the chemical oxygen demand, 72% of the adsorbable organic halide, and 37% of the extractable organic halide in 24 h at temperatures of 25 to 45 degrees C and a pH of 3 to 5. Even without added cosubstrate the fungus removed up to 78% of the color. Monomeric chlorinated aromatic compounds were removed almost completely, and toxicity to zebra fish was eliminated. The fungal mycelium could be immobilized in polyurethane foam and used repeatedly to treat batches of effluent. The residue after treatment was not further improved by exposure to fresh R. oryzae mycelium.  (+info)

Degradation of chloronitrobenzenes by a coculture of Pseudomonas putida and a Rhodococcus sp. (8/3156)

A single microorganism able to mineralize chloronitrobenzenes (CNBs) has not been reported, and degradation of CNBs by coculture of two microbial strains was attempted. Pseudomonas putida HS12 was first isolated by analogue enrichment culture using nitrobenzene (NB) as the substrate, and this strain was observed to possess a partial reductive pathway for the degradation of NB. From high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance analyses, NB-grown cells of P. putida HS12 were found to convert 3- and 4-CNBs to the corresponding 5- and 4-chloro-2-hydroxyacetanilides, respectively, by partial reduction and subsequent acetylation. For the degradation of CNBs, Rhodococcus sp. strain HS51, which degrades 4- and 5-chloro-2-hydroxyacetanilides, was isolated and combined with P. putida HS12 to give a coculture. This coculture was confirmed to mineralize 3- and 4-CNBs in the presence of an additional carbon source. A degradation pathway for 3- and 4-CNBs by the two isolated strains was also proposed.  (+info)

This three-day symposium was organized by the US EPA, the USAF AL/EQ, Tyndall AFB FL, and the US AFCEE Technology Transfer Division, Brooks AFB TX. Natural attenuation, the biodegradation or chemical destruction or stabilization of contaminants, can reduce contaminants to levels protective of human health and ecosystems. The symposium was intended to increase understanding of the natural attenuation process and to review methods for screening sites and making decisions to determine the feasibility of natural attenuation at chlorinated solvent-contaminated sites. The symposium obtained feedback from the regulatory and industrial communities on the appropriate application of natural attenuation and the developing protocol for natural attenuation of chlorinated organics. The symposium featured invited platform presentations covering both laboratory studies and field demonstrations conducted in support of natural attenuation at government and industry sites. The theory and principles of methods for
Abstract. The sinks of hydrocarbons in the atmosphere are usually described by oxidation reactions in the gas and aqueous (cloud) phases. Previous lab studies suggest that in addition to chemical processes, biodegradation by bacteria might also contribute to the loss of organics in clouds; however, due to the lack of comprehensive data sets on such biodegradation processes, they are not commonly included in atmospheric models. In the current study, we measured the biodegradation rates of phenol and catechol, which are known pollutants, by one of the most active strains selected during our previous screening in clouds (Rhodococcus enclensis). For catechol, biodegradation transformation is about ten times faster than for phenol. The experimentally derived biodegradation rates are included in a multiphase box model to compare the chemical loss rates of phenol and catechol in both the gas and aqueous phases to their biodegradation rate in the aqueous phase under atmospheric conditions. Model results ...
Application of Screening Effect when Sampling Suspension in Bioremediation Process, Ukpaka CP1 and Igwe FU2
by B. Lekhlif, G. Hébrard, N. Dietrich, A. Kherbeche, J. Echaabi. Afr. J. Environ. Sci. Technol.. The present paper reports an experimental work of the influence of initial substrate concentration on the adaptability of bacterial cells and the biodegradation kinetics of the substrate in a submerged aerobic fixed-film reactor, by studying some physicochemical parameters. The bioreactor used in this study is gotten from the biological aerated filter (BAF), but the used filter media is made of plastic of a large size than that used usually in BAF and with a high specific surface. For this purpose, various synthetic wastewaters were prepared based on a non-toxic substrate, in this case, glycerol, and some salts of nitrogen, phosphorus and some oligo-elements with different initial chemical oxygen demand (COD) of: 330 MgO2/L (S1), 480 MgO2/L (S2), 860 MgO2/L (S3) and 1120 MgO2/L (S4). Experiments have been carried out at laboratory scale in a cylindrical reactor, made of PVC (height of 1 m and ...
Detail záznamu - Chapter 11: Biodegradation of Aromatic Pollutants by Ligninolytic Fungal Strains - Detail záznamu - Knihovna Akademie věd České republiky
Significant (65%) degradation was observed in a Closed Bottle test utilising a test concentration of 2 mg/L. A modified MITI test using a high test concentration of 100 mg/L resulted in low biodegradability. The higher degree of biodegradation observed in tests with a lower initial test substance concentration indicates limited bioavailability. It is possible that the rate of biodegradation may be limited by the rate of hydrolysis of the test substance and/or the rate with which the substance dissolves. Modelling of possible biodegradation pathways indicate that aerobic degradation is likely, the first steps in this being hydrolysis to trimellitic acid and octanol, both of which have been shown to be readily biodegradable. Tests with a structural analogue of the substance, a trimellitate ester with mixed C8 -C10 side chains, showed significant biodegradation and, while not readily biodegradable, this analogue can be considered to be inherently biodegradable. The differences observed in tests on ...
Author(s): Hunt, JR; Holden, PA; Firestone, MK | Abstract: Volatile organic chemicals present at Superfund sites preferentially partition into the soil gas and may be available for microbial degradation. A simple mass transfer model for biodegradation for volatile substrates has been developed for the aerobic decomposition of aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. The mass transfer analysis calculates diffusive fluxes from soil gas through water and membrane films and into the cell. This model predicts an extreme sensitivity of potential biodegradation rates to the air-water partition coefficients of the compounds. Aromatic hydrocarbons are removed rapidly while the aliphatic hydrocarbons are much slower by orders of magnitude. Furthermore, oxygen transfer is likely to limit aromatic hydrocarbon degradation rates. The model presents results that cast doubt on the practicality of using methane or propane for the co-metabolic destruction of trichloroethylene in a gas phase bioreactor. Toluene as a primary
Video created by Rice University for the course Natural Attenuation of Groundwater Contaminants: New Paradigms, Technologies, and Applications. In this series of lectures, we will learn when biodegradation can or cannot occur and what ...
Microorganisms have a high biodegradative potential and a broad, naturally occurring catabolic diversity. During the past decades a high number of microbial strains that specifically degrade certain natural and xenobiotic compounds has been isolated by the use of classical enrichment methods. Within this chapter, a short practical overview is given that explains the most crucial steps during enrichment and isolation of xenobiotic- degrading microorganisms.. ...
No data are available for the target substance C12 -14 AAPB. A Zahn-Wellens/EMPA Test on inherent biodegradability is available for the source substance C12 -18 AAPB. Aerobic as well as anaerobic biodegradation screening tests on ready biodegradation are available for the source substances C8-18 AAPB and C8-18 and C18 unsatd. AAPB (Coco AAPB). A justification for read-across is given in IUCLID section 5.2. Aerobic biodegradation C8 -18 and C18 unsatd. AAPB A variety of different screening studies for C8-18 and C18 unsatd. AAPB are available, confirming the readily biodegradability. One reliable study (Klimisch 1) was selected as key study and described in more detail. The ready biodegradability of C8-18 and C18 unsatd. AAPB was investigated in a study conducted according to EPA OPPTS 835.3120 (Sealed Vessel Carbon Dioxide Production Test) and ISO/DIS 14593 over a period of 28 days and using activated sludge as inoculum. The biodegradation rate was determined by measurement of CO2 evolution. ...
An additional benefit of hydrogen peroxide and Fentons Reagent is the temporary increase of oxygen levels in and around the treatment area. The increased oxygen levels at the fringes of the treatment area can enhance naturally occurring aerobic biodegradation processes that reduce contaminant mass. While there may be concerns about oxidizing hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in the chemical oxidation treatment area, many studies have shown that soil cannot be readily sterilized by Fentons Reagent and that microbial populations rapidly rebound following chemical oxidation treatment. ...
The increasing sensitivity of PCR has meant that in the last two decades PCR has emerged as a major tool in diet studies, enabling us to refine our understanding of trophic links and to elucidate the diets of predators whose prey is as yet uncharacterized. The achievements and methods of PCR-based diet studies have been reviewed several times, but here we review an important development in the field: the use of PCR enrichment techniques to promote the amplification of prey DNA over that of the predator. We first discuss the success of using group-specific primers either in parallel single reactions or in multiplex reactions. We then concentrate on the more recent use of PCR enrichment techniques such as restriction enzyme digests, peptide nucleic acid clamping, DNA blocking and laser capture microdissection. We also survey the vast literature on enrichment techniques in clinical biology, to ascertain the pitfalls of enrichment techniques and what refinements have yielded some highly sensitive ...
Dichloromethane (DCM) is a toxic pollutant showing prolonged persistence in water. So far, biodegradation of DCM has only been reported in soils and freshwater systems. Herein, we studied whether or not biodegradation of DCM could occur in estuarine waters. Results showed over 90% mineralization of DCM in natural estuarine waters supplemented with DCM. Biodegradation of DCM in estuarine waters occurred by association of different bacterial species. Generally, two bacterial species participated in DCM degradation. Two bacterial consortia were obtained. Consortia were able to degrade around 80% of DCM in about 6 days. The species involved in the process were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing; a consortium was constituted by Pseudomonas sp. and Brevundimonas sp. and a second consortium was formed by Pseudomonas sp. and an Acinetobacter sp. Our results showed that DCM can be readily biodegraded in estuarine waters ...
This patent search tool allows you not only to search the PCT database of about 2 million International Applications but also the worldwide patent collections. This search facility features: flexible search syntax; automatic word stemming and relevance ranking; as well as graphical results.
Electrochemical Remediation Technologies (ECRTs) use a proprietary AC/DC electrical signal to mineralize organic compounds (e.g. volatile organic compounds (VOCs)), and to mobilize and remove metal contaminants. Proprietary AC/DC converters produce a low-voltage, low-amperage electrical field that polarizes the soil or sediment (soil), causing soil particles to charge and discharge electricity. This causes redox reactions that occur at all interfaces within the soil-groundwater-contaminant-electrode system, mineralizing organics and increasing the mobilization of metals. Metals migrate to the electrodes where they are deposited and removed with the electrodes. There are several distinctions between ECRTs and traditional electrokinetics. First, relatively low energy input is required to perform remediation. Second, ECRTs generally are effective within months, instead of years, and they can be performed in-situ or ex-situ. Third, metals generally migrate to and deposit at both electrodes, unlike ...
Electrochemical Remediation Technologies (ECRTs) use a proprietary AC/DC electrical signal to mineralize organic compounds (e.g. volatile organic compounds (VOCs)), and to mobilize and remove metal contaminants. Proprietary AC/DC converters produce a low-voltage, low-amperage electrical field that polarizes the soil or sediment (soil), causing soil particles to charge and discharge electricity. This causes redox reactions that occur at all interfaces within the soil-groundwater-contaminant-electrode system, mineralizing organics and increasing the mobilization of metals. Metals migrate to the electrodes where they are deposited and removed with the electrodes. There are several distinctions between ECRTs and traditional electrokinetics. First, relatively low energy input is required to perform remediation. Second, ECRTs generally are effective within months, instead of years, and they can be performed in-situ or ex-situ. Third, metals generally migrate to and deposit at both electrodes, unlike ...
Release Date: 05/02/2001. Many Superfund sites are contaminated with mixtures of hazardous substances and designing strategies to remediate them has proven to be a major challenge. To a great extent, the development of remediation processes has focused not on mixtures, but on single contaminants. In order to apply our knowledge to mixtures, we need tools to understand, describe, and predict the interactions of contaminants during remediation processes. Engineers at Colorado State University (CSU) are investigating the bacterial degradation of mixtures of aromatic hydrocarbons. Their goal is to use data from simple experimental systems to develop mathematical models that can predict the complex kinetics of biodegradation of chemical mixtures by multiple species of bacteria. This information is fundamental to both the design of bioreactors for remediation and the prediction of the fate of pollutants in the environment. The CSU researchers measured the biodegradation rates of single and mixed ...
Cascade has both the expertise and chemical remediation technology for a wide range of options including in situ chemical oxidation and bioremediation.
1. Rhizosphere biodegradation. In this process, the plant releases natural substances through its roots, supplying nutrients to microorganisms in the soil. The microorganisms enhance biological degradation.. 2. Phyto-stabilization. In this process, chemical compounds produced by the plant immobilize contaminants, rather than degrade them.. 3. Phyto-accumulation (also called phyto-extraction). In this process, plant roots sorb the contaminants along with other nutrients and water. The contaminant mass is not destroyed but ends up in the plant shoots and leaves. This method is used primarily for wastes containing metals. At one demonstration site, water-soluble metals are taken up by plant species selected for their ability to take up large quantities of lead (Pb). The metals are stored in the plantÍs aerial shoots, which are harvested and either smelted for potential metal recycling/recovery or are disposed of as a hazardous waste. As a general rule, readily bioavailable metals for plant uptake ...
Note: Some acronyms have more than one meaning. Multiple meanings are listed, separated by semi-colons.. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z. A. A&I: Alternative and Innovative (Wastewater Treatment System). AA: Accountable Area; Adverse Action; Advices of Allowance; Assistant Administrator; Associate Administrator; Atomic Absorption. AAEE: American Academy of Environmental Engineers. A&C: Abatement and Control. ACF: Area Cost Factors. ACBM: Asbestos-Containing Building Material. ACE: Any Credible Evidence. ADP: AHERA Designated Person; Automated Data Processing. ADR: Alternate Dispute Resolution. AEA: Atomic Energy Act. AEC: Associate Enforcement Counsels; Army Environmental Center. AEERL: Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory. AES: Auger Electron Spectrometry. AFB: Air Force Base. AFCEE:Air Force Center for Engineering and the Environmental. AFW-ERPIMS: Air Force Wide-Environmental Resource Program Information Management System. ALA: Delta-Aminolevulinic Acid. ALA-O: ...
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X, Y, & Z Abandoned Well: A well whose use has been permanently discontinued or which is in a state of such disrepair that it cannot be used for its intended purpose. Abatement: Reducing the degree or intensity of, or eliminating, pollution. Abatement Debris: Waste from remediation activities. Absorbed Dose: In exposure assessment, the amount of a substance that penetrates an exposed organisms absorption barriers (e.g. skin, lung tissue, gastrointestinal tract) through physical or biological processes. The term is synonymous with internal dose. Absorption: The uptake of water , other fluids, or dissolved chemicals by a cell or an organism (as tree roots absorb dissolved nutrients in soil.) Absorption Barrier: Any of the exchange sites of the body that permit uptake of various substances at different rates (e.g. skin, lung tissue, and gastrointestinal-tract wall) Accident Site: The location of an unexpected occurrence, failure or loss, either at a ...
Plastics - Determination of the ultimate anaerobic biodegradation and disintegration under high-solids anaerobic-digestion conditions - Method by analysis of released biogas - Technical Corrigendum 1
Get this from a library! Environmental monitoring and remediation technologies II : 20-22 September, 1999, Boston, Massachusetts. [Tuan Vo-Dinh; Robert L Spellicy; Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers.; Air & Waste Management Association. Optical Sciences Division.; SPIE Digital Library.;]
Polylactic acid (PLA) is a biodegradable polymer with numerous applications in tissue regeneration and repair. The degree of crystallinity governs the rate of degradation in vitro and in vivo. In this project, the effect of the microstructure on the degradation of Polylactic Acid (PLA) is studied.. PLA samples were crystallised to 40% crystallinity at various temperatures between 90°C and 140°C and then subjected to enzymatic degradation using the enzyme Proteinase K. Hot stage microscopy showed that on increasing the crystallisation temperature an increase in the growth rate of spherulites and a decrease in spherulite nucleation was observed. Short-term (five day) and preliminary long-term (ten week) biodegradation studies were conducted on samples crystallised to 40% at 90°C, 108°C and 118°C. DSC and FT-IR analysis in short-term degradation studies showed little difference in samples before and after degradation. However, it is seen that as the crystallisation temperature increased there ...
NUTRIPLEX® is a probiotic formulation of complexing systems, organic acids, nutrients, natural biological systems, buffers, and energy systems which enhances biological degradation. It provides nutrients and energy to support probiotic bioremediation systems.. ...
Biodegradation definition, to decay and become absorbed by the environment: toys that will biodegrade when theyre discarded. See more.
Also a benificial addition in long term bioremediation of lakes and ponds. When alkalinity (calcium buffer) in a pond has been reduced by the addition of nitrifiers,and this reduction and the resulting low alkalinity has become the limiting factor.. Eco-Impact Buffer will increase alkalinity, restoring the balance required by the microbes in the bioremediation process... Product Sales of Eco-Impact Buffer. ...
PubMed journal article Organic Contaminant Biodegradation by Oxidoreductase Enzymes in Wastewater Treatmen were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone or iPad.
Science and Education Publishing, publisher of open access journals in the scientific, technical and medical fields. Read full text articles or submit your research for publishing.
Fellow Environmental Scientist/Engineer, GZA GeoEnvironmental, Inc. (GZA) is hosting a bioremediation discussion group (BioGroup) on the Internet. The BioGroup consists of an unmoderated mailing list serving over 900 members worldwide. The BioGroup was established to provide a global forum for the scientific and engineering community to discuss intrinsic/enhanced bioremediation topics. GZA hopes this forum provides a medium to transfer technology, standardize biotreatability protocols, and advance the science and engineering of bioremediation technologies. GZA expects the forum to be a springboard for the pursuit of innovative approaches to bioremediation engineering. Because the success of the BioGroup is a function of the participation of its members, GZA invites anyone with experience and/or interest in bioremediation to join the BioGroup. Due to the complexities of biogeochemical processes which control contaminant biotransformation, we welcome input from environmental engineers, ...
Fellow Environmental Scientist/Engineer, GZA GeoEnvironmental, Inc. (GZA) is hosting a bioremediation discussion group (BioGroup) on the Internet. The BioGroup consists of an unmoderated mailing list serving over 800 members worldwide. The BioGroup was established to provide a global forum for the scientific and engineering community to discuss intrinsic/enhanced bioremediation topics. GZA hopes this forum provides a medium to transfer technology, standardize biotreatability protocols, and advance the science and engineering of bioremediation technologies. GZA expects the forum to be a springboard for the pursuit of innovative approaches to bioremediation engineering. Because the success of the BioGroup is a function of the participation of its members, GZA invites anyone with experience and/or interest in bioremediation to join the BioGroup. Due to the complexities of biogeochemical processes which control contaminant biotransformation, we welcome input from environmental engineers, ...
Introduction. Membrane bioreactors (MBR) combine a biological degradation process with the direct separation of activated sludge and liquid-solid by filtration membranes [1]. In addition, MBRs have important advantages such as space reduction relative to conventional activated sludge process, which leads to a decrease in their environmental impact, the capability of operating with higher concentrations of suspended solids, and the production of better quality effluent. However, one of the main drawbacks of MBR is membrane fouling. Despite the high cost of commonly used ceramic membranes (made of alumina, zirconia or titania), it is known that they are more hydrophilic than polymeric membranes, which means that ceramic membranes have a lower membrane fouling rate. Ceramic membranes are also more chemically, mechanically and thermally resistant. Other characteristics that influence membrane fouling are pore size and configuration (tubular, flat or hollow fiber) [2,3]. Currently, polymeric hollow ...
This chapter discusses the aspects of bioremediation that are related to metabolism of recalcitrant chemicals by bacteria, leaving out also detoxification and immobilization of metal ions and metalloids. The most frequent types of sites amenable to bioremediation include soil, freshwater, seawater, and sediments. The chapter talks about the instances where recalcitrant and/or xenobiotic compounds are endowed with chemical properties that cause a deleterious effect on the catalytic microorganisms present in the site-regardless of whether they can be ultimately metabolized. The chemicals at stake include metals, chaotropic agents, aromatics, and hydrophobic compounds. These stressors can be grouped based on their effect on bacterial metabolism. Heat shock-like stress and oxidative damage are certainly the two more prevalent conditions endured by environmental bacteria during in situ biodegradation of chemical waste. This is true for singular stressors as well as for mixtures of them, the most frequent
Contaminated Land: Applications in Real Environments (CL:AIRE) is a respected independent not-for-profit organisation established in 1999 to stimulate the regeneration of contaminated land in the UK by raising awareness of, and confidence in, practical and sustainable remediation technologies. Since 1999, CL:AIRE has grown into an organisation that does more than just demonstrate remediation technologies
Contaminated Land: Applications in Real Environments (CL:AIRE) is a respected independent not-for-profit organisation established in 1999 to stimulate the regeneration of contaminated land in the UK by raising awareness of, and confidence in, practical and sustainable remediation technologies. Since 1999, CL:AIRE has grown into an organisation that does more than just demonstrate remediation technologies
Terpeneliteracy.com is a multi-platform publisher of news and information. Terpeneliteracy.com has earned a reputation as the leading provider of Terpene news and information that improves the quality of life of its readers by focusing on Terpene issues ...
Principal Investigator:AZUMA Jun-ichi, Project Period (FY):1995 - 1997, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A), Section:一般, Research Field:生物資源科学
I am a dedicated PhD with expertise in the field environmental science. The last 10 years of my work has been focused on improving soil and water remediation technologies either by using plants or bacteria to remove organic contaminants and heavy metals from contaminated sites. More specifically, I have worked on removing oil droplet from produced water discharged by oil platforms, reducing the risk associated with organics contaminants by biodegradation and sequestration in the soil, and removing heavy metals in contaminated soil by using plants (phytoremediation). I have managed research projects, planned and carried out experimental assays, managed and analysed large data sets. I have gained good results with peer-reviewed articles and scientific reports plus given presentations at several international conferences. With my masters in environmental science I have a wide interdisciplinary knowledge of biological, physical and chemical processes and I collaborate well across scientific fields ...
Sturm, B., Cheng., Y., Lane, R., Adams, C., Carter, R. (2011) Impact of sludge residence time on the relative biodegradation and biosorption of sulfonamide antibiotics in activated sludge, ACS 241st National Meeting, Anaheim, CA (March 2011).. ...
Article Enhanced Bioremediation of Chlorinated Solvents (PDF). Enhanced in situ bioremediation of chlorinated solvents in groundwater has been successfully demonstrated at many sites by supplying lactic acid as an electron donor. The source of lactat...
A study was carried out on biodegradation of soil contaminated with used motor oil in aerobic fixed bed bioreactors. Six treatments, labeled TR1 to TR6, were investigated..
The survival of the inoculated microbial culture is critical for successful bioaugmentation but impossible to predict precisely. As an alternative strategy, bioaugmentation of a group of...
Researchers based at Princeton University found that Earths terrestrial ecosystems have absorbed 186 billion to 192 billion tons of carbon since the mid-20th century, which has significantly contained the global temperature and levels of carbon in the atmosphere.
Article The Use of Hydrogen Release Compound (HRC) for CAH Bioremediation.. Hydrogen Release Compound (HRC™) is a simple, passive, low-cost and long-term option for the anaerobic bioremediation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) via a reduc...
The experts at EAG Laboratories conduct comprehensive environmental fate testing to determine a substances metabolism rate and identify metabolites.
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Addresses a Global Challenge to Sustainable Development. Advances in Biodegradation and Bioremediation of Industrial Waste examines and compiles the latest information on the industrial waste biodegradation process and provides a comprehensive review. Dedicated to reducing pollutants generated by agriculturally contaminated soil, and plastic waste from various industries, this text is a book that begs the question: Is a pollution-free environment possible? The book combines with current available data with the expert knowledge of specialists from around the world to evaluate various aspects of environmental microbiology and biotechnology. It emphasizes the role of different bioreactors for the treatment of complex industrial waste and provides specific chapters on bioreactors and membrane process integrated with biodegradation process. It also places special emphasis on phytoremediation and the role of wetland plant rhizosphere bacterial ecology and the bioremediation of complex industrial ...
Motivation: Current methods for the prediction of biodegradation products and pathways of organic environmental pollutants either do not take into account domain knowledge or do not provide probability estimates. In this article, we propose a hybrid knowledge- and machine learning-based approach to overcome these limitations in the context of the University of Minnesota Pathway Prediction System (UM-PPS). The proposed solution performs relative reasoning in a machine learning framework, and obtains one probability estimate for each biotransformation rule of the system. As the application of a rule then depends on a threshold for the probability estimate, the trade-off between recall (sensitivity) and precision (selectivity) can be addressed and leveraged in practice.. Results: Results from leave-one-out cross-validation show that a recall and precision of ∼0.8 can be achieved for a subset of 13 transformation rules. Therefore, it is possible to optimize precision without compromising recall. ...
Microorganism. The organism, Pseudomonas putida DSM 548 (pJP4), was maintained by weekly subculturing with 2% (w/v) nutrient agar slants that were stored in a refrigerator at 4ºC and the organism was activated by incubation at 28ºC, for 24 hrs. o-cresol biodegradation was performed by using recombinant P. putida. The plasmid pJP4 was purified from Ralstonia eutropha JMP134 (formerly Alcaligenes) and the transformation of the related plasmid was executed chemically with 0.1 MCaCl2 solutions in our work previously (unpublished data). Pseudomonas putida DSM 548 and Ralstonia eutropha were obtained from the DSMZ (Deuthsche Sammlung Von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen GmbH, Braunschweig), Germany.. Medium and culture conditions. The bacteria were grown on nutrient agar (NA), OXOID CM3. For adaptation experiments of the cells to o-cresol, which was also used as a sole carbon source, a simple minimal salts medium (MSM) was used (Mamma et al. 2004). Cells were grown in a synthetic mineral salt medium ...
The intrinsic biodegradability of hydrocarbons and the distribution of proficient degrading microorganisms in the environment are very crucial for the implementation of bioremediation practices. Among others, one of the most favorable methods that can enhance the effectiveness of bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated environment is the application of biosurfactant producing microbes. In the present study, the biodegradation capacities of native bacterial consortia towards total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) with special emphasis to poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined. The purpose of the study was to isolate TPH degrading bacterial strains from various petroleum contaminated soil of Assam, India and develop a robust bacterial consortium for bioremediation of crude oil of this native land. From a total of 23 bacterial isolates obtained from three different hydrocarbons contaminated samples 5 isolates, namely KS2, PG1, PG5, R1 and R2 were selected as efficient crude oil degraders with
Previously... Re: [SANET-MG] Beneficial Soil Microbia] The question is how to get information on IM or IMOs, Indigenous Microorganisms. Well, there is a seminar on Indigenous Microorganisms at the Ecological Farming Conference in California, Jan. 22-25. Gil Carandang, a farmer from the Phillipines, will demonstrate some of the special cultures. http://www.eco-farm.org/efc/efc_main.html Concepts and practices on Indigenous Microorganisms, IM or IMO, originate with Han Kyu Cho and the Korean Natural Farming Association, or KNFA, going back 35 to 40 years. Yet, this knowledge has only come into English language in the last few years. There is one book in English, yet it is not available for-sale from any distributor that I can determine. Korean Natural Farming: Indigenous Microorganisms and Vital Power of Crop/Livestock Han Kyu Cho and Atsushi Koyama Korean Natural Farming Association, 1997. 172 p. Here is an address for KNFA: Korean Natural Farming Association (KNFA) 209-2 Woongok-ri, ...
D5988 - 12 Standard Test Method for Determining Aerobic Biodegradation of Plastic Materials in Soil , aerobic, biodegradation, degree (of biodegradation), mineralization, plastics, soil,
TY - JOUR. T1 - Quantitative structure-activity relationships for primary aerobic biodegradation of organic chemicals in pristine surface waters. T2 - starting points for predicting biodegradation under acclimatization. AU - Nolte, Tom M.. AU - Pinto-Gil, Kevin. AU - Hendriks, A. Jan. AU - Ragas, Ad M. J.. AU - Pastor, Manuel. PY - 2018/1. Y1 - 2018/1. KW - ACTIVITY-RELATIONSHIP MODELS. KW - MICROBIAL-DEGRADATION. KW - BIOTRANSFORMATION MODELS. KW - EMERGING CONTAMINANTS. KW - BACTERIAL CONSORTIUM. KW - ENVIRONMENT. KW - FATE. KW - PHARMACEUTICALS. KW - TRANSFORMATION. KW - KINETICS. U2 - 10.1039/c7em00375g. DO - 10.1039/c7em00375g. M3 - Article. VL - 20. SP - 157. EP - 170. JO - Environmental Science - Processes & Impacts. JF - Environmental Science - Processes & Impacts. SN - 2050-7887. IS - 1. ER - ...
We present a study of the culturable PAH-degrading bacteria associated with the rhizosphere of several salt marsh plant species in contaminated and uncontaminated estuarine sediments. In addition, a pasteurization method was successful in isolating spore-forming bacteria. Numerous studies have demonstrated the importance of the rhizosphere effect on degradation of organic contaminants. Most of these studies have examined terrestrial plants and agricultural chemicals (1, 2, 27); few have looked at the influence of plant-associated microorganisms on the fate of PCBs (15, 16) and PAHs (34, 39). There have been a limited number of studies on PAH degradation involving wetland or salt marsh ecosystems, but none have studied the diversity of PAH-degrading microorganisms present (28, 30, 49).. Recently, more studies have focused on PAH degradation in marine and estuarine ecosystems (3, 11, 12, 13, 17, 20, 21, 46). No studies have been conducted on the PAH-degrading microorganisms associated with salt ...
17 EVALUATION OF TOXIC ORGANICS REMOVAL BY SIMULTANEOUS ADSORPTION AND BIODEGRADATION Frieda Orshansky and Nava Narkis Environmental and Water Resources Engineering Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000, Israel ABSTRACT Simultaneous adsorption and biodegradation processes were investigated. Three toxic organic compounds, nitrobenzene, aniline, and phenol were selected to be studied individually and in mixtures as a model of polluted toxic industrial wastewaters. Their behavior was assessed separately in adsorption, biotreatment, as well as in combined systems, by physicochemical and respirometric methods. Powdered activated carbon (PAC) was used as an adsorbent in these experiments. In the adsorption systems, in single, bi- and trisolute solutions, the limiting adsorption capacities, Q and b, the energy of adsorption related constants, were determined from the linearized forms of Langmuir adsorption isotherms. Q values for aniline and phenol were found to be similar and ...
TY - JOUR AU - Nikolić, V. AU - Lončarević, Branka AU - Popović, Aleksandar R. PY - 2018 UR - http://cer.ihtm.bg.ac.rs/handle/123456789/2411 AB - Biodegradation of methacrylic acid and starch graft copolymers was investigated for the first time in this manuscript. Synthesized copolymer was characterized by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and elemental analysis. Copolymers with different percentage of grafting, G (%), were buried in three different types of soil. Biodegradation was monitored by measuring mass loss of the samples and using FTIR and SEM. The highest weight loss was in soil for the orchid growth (all samples had biodegradation higher than 89%), followed by soil for the cactus growth (mass loss higher than 70%) and soil rich in humus where some of the samples had biodegradation rate near or less than 50%. The correlation between G (%) and percent of weight loss after ...
Monooxygenation is an important route of nitroaromatic compound (NAC) biodegradation and it is widely found for cometabolic transformations of NACs and other aromatic pollutants. We investigated the C and N isotope fractionation of nitrophenol monooxygenation to complement the characterization of NAC (bio)degradation pathways by compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA). Because of the large diversity of enzymes catalyzing monooxygenations, we studied the combined C and N isotope fractionation and the corresponding C-13- and N-15-apparent kinetic isotope effects (AKIEs) of four nitrophenol-biodegrading microorganisms (Bacillus spharericus JS905, Pseudomonas sp. 1A, Arthrobacter sp. JS443, Pseudomonas putida B2) in the pH range 6.1-8.6 with resting cells and crude cell extracts. While the extent of C and N isotope fractionation and the AKIE-values varied considerably for the different organisms, the correlated C and N isotope signatures (delta N-15 vs delta C-13) revealed trends, indicative of ...
The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of combining an electro-Fenton pre-treatment and a biological treatment to remove azo dyes from aqueous effluents. The electro-Fenton reaction was performed in a two-compartment system involving a reference (saturated calomel electrode), a platinum anode and a graphite felt cathode. For the three considered dyes, high discoloration (in the range 77.1-97.8%) and low mineralization (in the range 7.7-18.8%) after 4-h reaction were in favor of the hybrid process, which was confirmed during subsequent experiments with methyl red sodium salt (MRSS) as a model dye. When potential-controlled electrolysis at −0.5 V/SCE was performed with a carbon-felt cathode surface of 378 cm2 and a catalytic amount of ferric iron of 1 mmol L−1, less than 1-h reaction was needed for an almost total discoloration (90.5%); while mineralization and oxidation remained low even after 48-h reaction, 11.1 and 57.2%, respectively. High discoloration level concomitantly to low
In 1984, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) named a hazardous waste site in the state of Louisiana to the National Priority List (NPL). It was estimated at the time that the site held approximately eight million cubic feet of contaminated materials. A computer model was constructed for the site that would simulate the contaminant movement in the subsurface. Modeling efforts resulted in a successful negotiation with the EPA for monitored natural attenuation as the accepted remediation alternative. (Natural attenuation refers to the reduction, weakening, and eventual elimination of toxic substances in the soil and groundwater by natures own processes.) This EPA determination was a milestone for the site. Previously a pump-and-treat system, which was based on an initial groundwater model developed to simulate hydraulic containment, had cost millions of dollars to install, operate, and maintain. A carbon absorption system was used to treat the contaminated water recovered. By July ...
Study of the aerobic biodegradation of coke wastewater in a two and three-step activated sludge process.: A laboratory-scale biological plant composed of two ae
The hypothesis that artificial oxic conditions will lead to MTBE biodegradation by indigenous microorganisms in anoxic, gasoline-contaminated aquifers was examined by adding oxygen in the form of a metal peroxide slurry to an anoxic part of gasoline-contaminated aquifer in South Carolina. Field observations of relatively rapid aerobic MTBE biodegradation following oxygen addition suggest that the indigenous bacteria have become acclimated not only to mg/L concentrations of MTBE in the gasoline plume, but also to periodic delivery of oxygen by recharge events. Significant natural attenuation of MTBE could occur if the oxygen limitations naturally associated with gasoline releases can be removed, either under natural conditions where discharging anoxic groundwater comes into contact with oxygen, or artificial conditions where oxygen can be added to aquifers containing mg/L concentrations of MTBE. This final solution might be an effective strategy for intercepting characteristically long MTBE plumes,
The influence of thermal pretreatment on degradation properties of organics in kitchen waste (KW) was investigated. The kinetics results showed that thermal pretreatment could enhance the degradation efficiency of crude protein (CP), fat, oil and grease (FOG), volatile solid (VS) and volatile fatty acids (VFA). Thermal pretreatment showed no significant difference in the final concentration of protein but could decrease the FOG degradation potential (7-36%), while increased the lag phase for degradation of protein and FOG respectively by 35-65% and 11-82% compared with untreated KW. Cumulative biogas yield increased linearly and exponentially with the removal efficiency of VS and other organics (CP and FOG) respectively. Additionally, the reduction of CP increased exponentially with FOG removal efficiency. The calculating methods of biogas yield, organics reduction and corresponding appropriate digestion retention based on FOG and CP reduction amount and pretreatment parameters were ...
Teen uses microbes to biodegrade plastic bags, an article on Bruce Clement - Read all about Teen uses microbes to biodegrade plastic bags here.
D6340-98(2007) Standard Test Methods for Determining Aerobic Biodegradation of Radiolabeled Plastic Materials in an Aqueous or Compost Environment (Withdrawn 2016)
TY - GEN. T1 - The potential of hydrocarbon biodegradation. AU - Uzukwu, Chukwuemeka Chinaka. AU - Dionisi, Davide. PY - 2016. Y1 - 2016. M3 - Conference contribution. BT - The Industrial Biotechnology Innovation Centre (IBioiC) 2nd annual conference, 28-29 January. CY - Glasgow. T2 - The Industrial Biotechnology Innovation Centre (IBioIC)s 2nd Annual Conference on Realising the Opportunity Y2 - 28 January 2016 through 29 January 2016. ER - ...
After adding 14C-paromomycin to the fermentation broth we observed a varying course of decomposition of the antibiotic, which is dependent on the intensity of paromomycin biosynthesis running simultaneously. At a reduced rate of antibiotic biosynthesis, the activity of alkaline phosphatase is lower than with an increased rate of production. This applies for mycelium as well as for broth. ...
This study evaluated the chronic impact of erythromycin, a macrolide antibiotic, on microbial activities, mainly focusing on changes in process kinetics induced on substrate biodegradation and all related biochemical processes of microbial metabolism. Experiments involved two fill/draw reactors sustained at steady state at two different sludge ages of 10 and 2.0 days, fed with peptone mixture and continuous erythromycin dosing of 50 mg/L. Oxygen uptake rate profiles were generated in a series of parallel batch reactors seeded with biomass from fill/draw systems at selected periods of steady-state operation. Experimental data were evaluated by model calibration reflecting inhibitory effect on process kinetics: continuous erythromycin dosing inhibited microbial growth, reduced the rate of hydrolysis, blocked substrate storage and accelerated endogenous respiration. Adverse impact was mainly due to changes inflicted on the composition of microbial community. Interruption of erythromycin feeding ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Functional genes to assess nitrogen cycling and aromatic hydrocarbon degradation. T2 - Primers and processing matter. AU - Ryan Penton, C.. AU - Johnson, Timothy A.. AU - Quensen, John F.. AU - Iwai, Shoko. AU - Cole, James R.. AU - Tiedje, James M.. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - Targeting sequencing to genes involved in key environmental processes, i.e., ecofunctional genes, provides an opportunity to sample natures gene guilds to greater depth and help link community structure to process-level outcomes. Vastly different approaches have been implemented for sequence processing and, ultimately, for taxonomic placement of these gene reads. The overall quality of next generation sequence analysis of functional genes is dependent on multiple steps and assumptions of unknown diversity. To illustrate current issues surrounding amplicon read processing we provide examples for three ecofunctional gene groups. A combination of in silico, environmental and cultured strain sequences was used ...
We are studying a representative of a large group of chlorobenzoate degrading bacteria active in uncontaminated systems - Burkholderia phytofirmans OLGA172. Now we know that anthropogenic chemicals have not always been the driving selective force behind the evolution of chloro-organic degradative genes, we are looking for the natural selectors for these capabilities, initially by looking at the environmental triggers and mobile genetic elements that affect chloroaromatic degradative gene expression. The recent genome sequencing of OLGA172 in the lab has expanded this endeavour.. In addition, my lab carries out research on the species composition of bacterial communities in both natural and contaminated systems. These include waste water treatment systems, contaminated soils, rhizospheric communities and the hyporheic zones of streams.. The UTSC campus is heavily infested with an invasive species known as Dog Strangling Vine. My lab has recently begun research into the microbial associations of ...
Hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifers can be successfully remediated through enhanced biodegradation. However, in situ monitoring of the treatment by piezometers is expensive and invasive and might be insufficient as the information provided is restricted to vertical profiles at discrete locations. An alternative method was tested in order to improve the robustness of the monitoring. Geophysical methods, electrical resistivity (ER) and induced polarization (IP), were combined with gas analyses, CO2 concentration, and its carbon isotopic ratio, to develop a less invasive methodology for monitoring enhanced biodegradation of hydrocarbons. The field implementation of this monitoring methodology, which lasted from February 2014 until June 2015, was carried out at a BTEX-polluted site under aerobic biotreatment. Geophysical monitoring shows a more conductive and chargeable area which corresponds to the contaminated zone. In this area, high CO2 emissions have been measured with an isotopic signature demonstrating
YAO, Haiyan; REN, Yuan; WEI, Chaohai y YUE, Siyang. Biodegradation characterisation and kinetics of m-cresol by Lysinibacillus cresolivorans. Water SA [online]. 2011, vol.37, n.1, pp.15-20. ISSN 1816-7950.. A novel strain of m-cresol-degrading bacterium, named as Lysinibacillus cresolivorans, was isolated from aerobic sludge from a coking wastewater treatment plant. This bacterium is able to utilise m-cresol as its sole source of carbon and energy. The optimal pH for growth is 6.8 ~ 7.3 and the optimal temperature is 35ºC. Compared to organic nitrogen sources, inorganic nitrogen sources were easily utilised for the m-cresol biodegradation. The degradation rate of m-cresol at different starting concentrations was analysed with zero-order kinetic characteristics. When the initial concentration of m-cresol was 224.2 mg·ℓ-1, the reaction rate reached a maximum at 46.80 mg·(ℓ·h)-1.The cell growth kinetics was also investigated with initial m-cresol concentrations varying from 0 to 1 200 ...
Leakage of trichloroethene (TCE) from a neutralization pond at a former manufacturing facility near Niagara Falls, N.Y. during 1950-87 into the Guelph Formation of the Lockport Group, a fractured dolomite aquifer, created a plume of TCE and its metabolites that, by 1990, extended about 4,300 feet south of the facility. A smaller plume of dense, nonaqueous-phase liquids (DNAPL) probably serves as a continuing source of TCE. The presence of the TCE metabolites cis-1,2-dichloroethene (DCE), vinyl chloride (VC), and ethene in the plume, and the results of previous laboratory microcosm studies, indicate that the TCE is being degraded by naturally occurring microorganisms. Biodegradation rates of TCE and its metabolites were estimated through simulation with BIOMOC, a solute-transport model that represents multispecies reactions through Monod kinetics. A fracture zone in the Guelph Formation was represented as a porous medium containing an extensive, 3-foot thick layer with several interconnected fractures;
During biodegradation processes in Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTP), bacteria play an important role, and associations of bacteria with microalgae have the potential to remediate wastewater by reducing pollutants. This work aimed to identify bacteria present in wastewater and to analyze their interaction with C. vulgaris to favor their phytoremediation.  The physicochemical and microbiological characterization of the wastewater from the Alseseca-Sur WWTP was carried out, identifying the b
2014. Chapleur O., et al., Co-inoculating ruminal content neither provides active hydrolytic microbes nor improves methanization of 13C-cellulose in batch digesters. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 2014. 87(3): p. 616-629. Desmond-Le Quéméner, E. & Bouchez, T., A thermodynamic theory of microbial growth. The ISME Journal, 2014.. Driss-Limam, R., et al., Members of the uncultured bacterial candidate division WWE1 are implicated in anaerobic digestion of cellulose. MicrobiologyOpen, 2014. 3(2): p.157-167.. Lü, F., et al., Metaproteomics of cellulose methanisation under thermophilic conditions reveals a surprisingly high proteolytic activity. The ISME Journal, 2014. 8: p. 88-102.. Hoyos-Hernandez, C., et al., Elucidation of the thermophilic phenol biodegradation pathway via benzoate during the anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste. Chemosphere, 2014. 97: p. 115-119.. Bridier, A., & Briandet, R. Contribution of confocal laser scanning microscopy in deciphering biofilm tridimensional structure ...
The purpose of this study is to compare natural attenuation models to predict transport and fate of chlorinated solvents in saturated groundwater Systems. This work was realised within the framework of the research program TRANSPOL. This program was created in order to bring a better and common practice of the use of transport models concerning various pollutants the most encountered. Real case study, Real Case 3, concerns chlorinated solvents fate and transport in groundwater.
EARTH scientists have long recognized(1-4) that the soluble organic acids excreted by soil biota enhance rates of mineral weathering, thereby chemically stratifying the soil and affecting the biodegradation pathways of organic matter, including pollutants(5). Multidentate organic ligands(6,7) also exist in industrial waste waters(8) and can enhance the mobility of heavy elements, including radionuclides(9). Here we examine whether rate coefficients for ligand-promoted disolution of minerals can be predicted from existing studies of dissolved metal complexes. We have performed dissolution experiments on bunsenite (NiO) to compare with published studies of ligand exchange around dissolved Ni(lI)-ligand complexes(10-12). The hypothesis is confirmed with surprising detail: the dissolution rate coefficient increases with the number of ligand functional groups coordinated to the surface metal, as do the exchange rate coefficients(10-12). Furthermore, we find that the dissolution rate coefficients can be
Given that over 80 million barreis of crude oil are consumed daily worldwide, it is unsurprising that petroleumhydrocarbons (PHCs) are among the most common contaminants of soils and groundwater. PHCs are water immiscible, i.e. they occur in the form of light nonaqueous phase liquids (LNAPL), and commonly display limited water solubilities and relatively high toxicities. Because of this they are difficult to remove from porous media once emplaced and have the potential to be long-lasting sources of ground water contamination. Biodegradation is widely favored as a technique for the treatment of PHC contamination. It offers cost advantages and has the ability to destroy contaminants instead of simply transferring them between media. Furthermore, it can be applied in situ such that treatment can occur with minimal disturbance to existing structures, be they natural or man made. This thesis seeks to shed light on some of the factors which infiuence the effectiveness of biodegradation in the ...
Pyrolysis has been used for the last ten years to study the chemical nature of humic substances. However, obtaining data is hampered by analytical limitations. One of these is that carboxylic acids other than fatty acids are not usually present amongst pyrolysis products. To overcome this problem, a novel method - pyrolysis/methylation - is applied. Simultaneous pyrolysis/derivatization with tetramethylammonium hydroxide protects the carboxyl groups by formation of methyl esters. At the same time, partial methylation of hydroxyl groups occurs. This method permits the identification of a suite of carboxyl-containing aromatic and aliphatic compounds, not previously observed in conventional pyrolysis, providing useful information on the biodegradation processes of plant materials leading to macromolecular humic substances. , Pyrolysis has been used for the last ten years to study the chemical nature of humic substances. However, obtaining data is hampered by analytical limitations. One of these is ...
Biotechnology Conferences 2020 Rome and Bioengineering Conferences 2020 Rome are accredited scientific conferences scheduled in 2020 during June 18-20 is international biotechnology experts gathering
The metabolism of monoaromatic hydrocarbons by an iron-reducing bacterial enrichment culture originating from diesel-contaminated groundwater was examined using d 7 -propylbenzene as a model hydrocarbon. Sequence analysis of the 16S rDNA gene showed that the dominant part (10 of 10 clones) of the enrichment culture consisted of a bacterium closely related to clones found in benzene-contaminated groundwater and to the iron-reducing β- proteobacterium, Rhodoferax ferrireducens (similarity values were 99.5% and 98.3%, respectively). In degradation studies conducted over 18 weeks, d 7 -propylphenols were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) as intra-cellular metabolites concomitant with cell growth in the cultures. The amount of propylphenols increased during the exponential growth phase, and by the end of this phase 4 × 10 -14 moles of ferric iron were reduced and 3 × 10 -15 moles propylphenol produced for every cell formed. During the stationary growth phase the cell density was
Accepted April 2, 2014.. Abstract. In this research, a diesel-degrading bacterium (strain KJ629314) was isolated from a mining soil contaminated with total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and properly characterized using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) molecular technique. The 16s rDNA sequence analysis allowed to identify KJ629314 as a strain of Bacillus sp. Experimental phase was conducted to assess the aerobic biodegradation of diesel; to determine the removal effciency and the corresponding microbial growth; diesel was used as a substrate - electron donor - carbon source; and oxygen (via aeration) as the electron acceptor. Tests were conducted in microcosms with sterile sand with nutrients according to the Nitrogen:Phosphorus ratio of 15:1 at different diesel concentrations (10,000; 20,000; 30,000; 40,000 and 50,000 mg/kg soil). Results showed that the strain of Bacillus sp KJ629314 has a high potential in the biodegradation of diesel at the evaluated concentrations, and it was demonstrated ...
The number of approaches to evaluate the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) within contaminated aquifers is limited. Here, we demonstrate the applicability of a novel method based on the combination of in situ and laboratory microcosms using 13C-labelled PAHs as tracer compounds.. The biodegradation of four PAHs (naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, and acenaphthene) was investigated in an oxic aquifer at the site of a former gas plant. In situ biodegradation of naphthalene and fluorene was demonstrated using in situ microcosms (BACTRAP®s). BACTRAP®s amended with either [13C6]-naphthalene or [13C5/13C6]-fluorene (50:50) were incubated for a period of over two months in two groundwater wells located at the contaminant source and plume fringe, respectively. Amino acids extracted from BACTRAP®-grown cells showed significant 13C-enrichments with 13C-fractions of up to 30.4% for naphthalene and 3.8% for fluorene, thus providing evidence for the in situ biodegradation and ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [J L Castro-Mayorga, A Martínez-Abad, M J Fabra, Catarina Olivera, M Reis, J M Lagarón].
Approximately 500 Tg of isoprene are emitted to the atmosphere annually, an amount similar to that of methane, and despite its significant effects on the climate, very little is known about the biological degradation of isoprene in the environment. Isolation and characterisation of isoprene degraders at the molecular level has allowed the development of probes targeting isoA encoding the α-subunit of the isoprene monooxygenase. This enzyme belongs to the soluble diiron centre monooxygenase family and catalyses the first step in the isoprene degradation pathway. The use of probes targeting key metabolic genes is a successful approach in molecular ecology to study specific groups of bacteria in complex environments. Here, we developed and tested a novel isoA PCR primer set to study the distribution, abundance, and diversity of isoprene degraders in a wide range of environments. The new isoA probes specifically amplified isoA genes from taxonomically diverse isoprene-degrading bacteria including members
Gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS) has made it possible to analyze natural stable isotope ratios (e.g., 13C/12C, 15N/14N, 2H/1H) of individual organic contaminants in environmental samples. They may be used as fingerprints to infer contamination sources, and may demonstrate, and eve Journal of Environmental Monitoring Top Cited Papers 2009 and 2010
Marić, Petra; Ahel, Marijan; Babić, Olivera; Simeunović, Jelica; Smital, Tvrtko (2020) Ecotoxicological profiling of selected cyanobacterial strains using multi-endpoint effect-directed analysis. Ecotoxicology, 2020 . ISSN 0963-9292 Kostanjevečki, Petra; Petrić, Ines; Lončar, Jovica; Smital, Tvrtko; Ahel, Marijan; Terzić, Senka (2019) Aerobic biodegradation of tramadol by pre- adapted activated sludge culture: Cometabolic transformations and bacterial community changes during enrichment. Science of the Total Environment, 687 . pp. 858-866. ISSN 0048-9697 Kostanjevečki, Petra; Sviličić Petrić, Ines; Lončar, Jovica; Smital, Tvrtko; Ahel, Marijan; Terzić, Senka (2019) Biodegradation study of methadone by adapted activated sludge: Elimination kinetics, transformation products and ecotoxicological evaluation. Chemosphere, 214 . pp. 719-728. ISSN 0045-6535 Terzic, Senka; Udiković-Kolić, Nikolina; Jurina, Tamara; Krizman-Matasic, Ivona; Senta, Ivan; Mihaljević, Ivan; Lončar, Jovica; ...
This volume focuses on biosynthesis, metabolism, biodegradation, functions, properties and applications of miscellaneous polymers, such as hemozoin, thymine-containing styrene polymers, polythioesters, polyphosphate, polyhydroxymethionine, polyketides, natural polyacetals, biodegradation of a wide range of synthetic polymers.
This volume focuses on biosynthesis, metabolism, biodegradation, functions, properties and applications of miscellaneous polymers, such as hemozoin, thymine-containing styrene polymers, polythioesters, polyphosphate, polyhydroxymethionine, polyketides, natural polyacetals, biodegradation of a wide range of synthetic polymers.
"OPA responds to MacArthur report , Symphony Environmental Technologies Plc". Symphony Environmental Technologies Plc. 13 ... biodegradation of up to 91% has been obversed in a soil environment within 24 months, when tested in accordance with ISO 17556 ... In relation to timescales for biodegradation, the OPA said it was not useful to examine how long it took for particular ... OXO-degradation has been studied at the Eurofins laboratory in Spain, where on 25 July 2017 they noted 88.9% biodegradation in ...
Bioremediation, Biotechnology, Environmental microbiology, Environmental soil science, Soil contamination, Biodegradation, ... Biodegradation Bioremediation Biotransformation Bioavailability Chemotaxis Microbiology Environmental microbiology Industrial ... 2008). "Genomic Insights into Oil Biodegradation in Marine Systems". In Díaz E (ed.). Microbial Biodegradation: Genomics and ... Heider J, Rabus R (2008). "Genomic Insights in the Anaerobic Biodegradation of Organic Pollutants". Microbial Biodegradation: ...
September 2011). "Biodegradation of polyester polyurethane by endophytic fungi". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 77 (17 ... Environmental soil science, Environmental engineering, Environmental terminology, Conservation projects, Ecological restoration ... a prospective environmental friendly technique of bioseparation and dewatering of domestic wastewater sludge". Environmental ... The levels of adsorption of the phenolic and PAHs were negligible with 99% biodegradation being observed in the case of benzo-α ...
Cerniglia, C. E. (1992). "Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons". Biodegradation. 3 (2-3): 351-368. doi:10.1007/ ... Environmental data and emission sources analysis for Cl-PAHs reveal that the dominant process of generation is by reaction of ... Ohura, T. (2007). "Environmental Behavior, Sources, and Effects of Chlorinated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons". The ... and toxic contaminants that have been reported to occur in a wide variety of environmental and biological matrixes. Cl-PAHs ...
New Zealand's Environmental Reporting Series: Our fresh water). New Zealand's Environmental Reporting Series. ISSN 2382-0179. ... Biodegradation. 7 (5). Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 February 2022. Retrieved 17 May 2021. Kim, Young-Nam; et al. ( ... Horswell moved to New Zealand in 1997 and took up a position as Scientist, Environmental Health Effects, at the Institute of ... Jacqueline Horswell is an English-born New Zealand environmental microbiologist who specialises in research into the waste ...
The environmental approach can be defined as "the exploitation of the environmental sensitivity of the dry rot fungus for its ... International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation. Volume 33 Issue 2, pp 115 - 128. Palfreyman, J. W. & Bruce, A. (1994) ... emphasis on the use of chemical fungicides Environmental - emphasis on controlling the fungus by controlling environmental ... Indeed, this environmental sensitivity may account for why it is so unsuccessful in the wild and may be used against it when ...
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Environmental Pollution. 151 (3): 669-77. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2007.02.018. PMID 17482734. Gu, J., Han, B., Duan, S., Zhao, Z ... Biodegradation. 63 (4): 450-455. doi:10.1016/j.ibiod.2008.12.004.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list ( ... such as bioremediation of environmental contaminants. This is significant as its metabolic mechanisms can be utilized in ...
C6H12O6 → 3 H2O + C6H6O3 Hydroxyquinol is a common intermediate in the biodegradation of many aromatic compounds. These ... Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part B. 41 (8): 1361-1382. doi:10.1080/03601230600964159. PMID 17090498. S2CID ... Hydroxyquinol commonly occurs in nature as a biodegradation product of catechin, a natural phenol found in plants (e.g. by soil ... Biodegradation. 8 (3): 159-165. doi:10.1023/A:1008254812074. S2CID 41221044. (CS1 maint: uses authors parameter, ECHA InfoCard ...
Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part C, Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews. 31 (2): 99-144. doi: ... Cvančarová M, Křesinová Z, Filipová A, Covino S, Cajthaml T (September 2012). "Biodegradation of PCBs by ligninolytic fungi and ... The environmental fate of PCBs is complex and global in scale. Because of their low vapour pressure, PCBs accumulate primarily ... "Environmental Diseases from A to Z". Archived from the original on 15 March 2006. Jacobson JL, Jacobson SW (September 1996). " ...
Third, low biodegradation rate. Compared to the traditional deposition way, the biodegradation for polymer has a longer ... "2012 Academic Award". United States Environmental Protection Agency. 2013-03-20. Archived from the original on 10 July 2015. ... Complete biodegradation is said to occur when there are no oligomers or monomers left. The breakdown of these polymers depend ... The first involves aerobic biodegradation, where oxygen is present and important. In this case, the general equation seen below ...
Bonhomme, S; Cuer, A; Delort, A-M; Lemaire, J; Sancelme, M; Scott, G (January 2003). "Environmental biodegradation of ... Oxo-biodegradation of low-density polyethylene containing a proprietary manganese-salt-based additive showed 91% biodegradation ... and assessment of environmental risks, in specific open environments such as soils, rivers and oceans testing of biodegradation ... Oxo-biodegradation: There are allegations that biodegradable plastic bags may release metals, and may require a great deal of ...
Sims, G.K.; L.E. Sommers (1985). "Biodegradation of pyridine derivatives in soil suspensions". Environmental Toxicology and ... Biodegradation of 2-methyl, 2-ethyl, and 2-hydroxypyridine by an Arthrobacter sp. isolated from subsurface sediment. ... 2-methypyridine and 4-methypyridine are more readily degraded and exhibit less volatilization loss from environmental samples ... 2-methylpyridine is often reported as an environmental contaminant associated with facilities processing oil shale or coal, and ...
Azo dyes have been determined to be xenobiotic compounds that have characteristics that defer biodegradation. Due to this ... Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 68 (8): 3948-3955. doi:10.1128/AEM.68.8.3948-3955.2002. ISSN 0099-2240. PMC 123998. ... Approximately 6.79 percent of the organism's genes contribute to Xenobiotic biodegradation and metabolism. Specifically, the ... Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 68 (8): 3948-3955. doi:10.1128/AEM.68.8.3948-3955.2002. PMC 123998. PMID 12147495. ...
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JS1661". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 80 (24): 7725-31. doi:10.1128/AEM.02752-14. ISSN 0099-2240. PMC 4249229. PMID ... Fida, Tekle Tafese; Shannu Palamuru; Gunjan Pandey; Jim C. Spain (2014). "Aerobic biodegradation of 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) ...
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Environmental isotopes in biodegradation and bioremediation. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press. ISBN 978-1-4200-1261-3. {{cite ... 2-Dichloroethane Biodegradation". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 72 (6): 4411-4418. doi:10.1128/AEM.02576-05. PMC ... Vasileva, E.; Petrov, K.; Beschkov, V. (15 April 2014). "Biodegradation of Monochloroacetic Acid by Immobilization of GJ10 in ... ISBN 0-387-25495-1. Janssen, Martin H. Agteren, Sytze Keuning, Dick B. (1998). Handbook on Biodegradation and Biological ...
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"Biodegradation of polyester polyurethane by Aspergillus tubingensis". Environmental Pollution. 225: 469-480. doi:10.1016/j. ... "Biodegradation of polyester polyurethane by endophytic fungi". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 77 (17): 6076-6084. ... For instance UV or c-ray irradiation treatments, have been used to heighten the degree of biodegradation of certain plastics. ... Dela Torre, Denisse Yans Z.; Delos Santos, Lee A.; Reyes, Mari Louise C.; Baculi, Ronan Q. (2018). "Biodegradation of low- ...
... for Biodegradation of N-Heterocycles: A Complementary Approach to Predict Biodegradability". Environmental Science & Technology ... The biodegradation of pyridines proceeds via multiple pathways. Although pyridine is an excellent source of carbon, nitrogen, ... Sims, G. K.; Sommers, L.E. (1985). "Degradation of pyridine derivatives in soil". Journal of Environmental Quality. 14 (4): 580 ... doi:10.2134/jeq1985.00472425001400040022x. Sims, G. K.; Sommers, L.E. (1986). "Biodegradation of Pyridine Derivatives in Soil ...
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"Evaluation of Biodegradation-Promoting Additives for Plastics". Environmental Science & Technology. 49 (6): 3769-3777. Bibcode: ... yet, biodegradation-promoting additives for polymers have been shown not to significantly increase biodegradation. Although ... Agencies such as the US Environmental Protection Agency and US Food and Drug Administration often do not assess the safety of ... In a study published by Environmental Science & Technology, Schmidt et al (2017) calculated that 10 rivers: two in Africa (the ...
"Polymer Biodegradation and Biodegradable Polymers-a Review." Polish Journal of Environmental Studies 2nd ser. 19.2010 (2012): ... Biodegradation of this blend was tested and was found that by the second day the degraded carbon had already attained about 100 ... "Biodegradation is a chemical degradation of materials provoked by the action of microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, and ... The environmental impacts of athletic shoe degradation in landfills "are inextricably connected to the nature of the materials ...
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"Biodegradation of plastics: current scenario and future prospects for environmental safety". Environmental Science and ... Andrady, Anthony L. (February 1994). "Assessment of Environmental Biodegradation of Synthetic Polymers". Journal of ... DRLP Fact Sheets Environmental Protection Agency Frequently Asked Questions about Recycling and Waste Management "The price of ... Recycling is an important part of creating more sustainable economies, reducing the cost and environmental impact of raw ...
Environmental Microbiology. 6 (3): 274-287. doi:10.1111/j.1462-2920.2004.00568.x. ISSN 1462-2920. PMID 14871211. "Global ... Biodegradation, Hydrogen biology, Sewerage). ...
Galvão TC, Mohn WW, de Lorenzo V (October 2005). "Exploring the microbial biodegradation and biotransformation gene pool". ... Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 71 (7): 3978-86. Bibcode:2005ApEnM..71.3978V. doi:10.1128/AEM.71.7.3978-3986.2005. PMC ... Environmental Microbiology. 7 (12): 1868-82. doi:10.1111/j.1462-2920.2005.00966.x. PMID 16309386. Archived (PDF) from the ... these reactions are particularly important in microbial biodegradation of pollutants and the bioremediation of contaminated ...
Cell growth in bioreactors depends on a wide range of environmental and physiological conditions such as substrate ... Marrot, B.; Barrios-Martinez, A.; Moulin, P.; Roche, N. (2006-06-01). "Biodegradation of high phenol concentration by activated ... where one of the most studied biodegradation substrates are the toxic phenols. Due to their toxicity, there is a large interest ... Biodegradation. 114: 31-38. doi:10.1016/j.ibiod.2016.05.017. ISSN 0964-8305. Clarke, Kim Gail (2013). Bioprocess engineering. ...
Dermal exposure to this aflatoxin in particular environmental conditions can lead to major health risks. The liver is the most ... "Detection and estimation of aflatoxin B1 in feeds and its biodegradation by bacteria and fungi". Egyptian Journal of Natural ... Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. 51 (2): 156-63. doi:10.1002/em.20518. PMC 6359889. PMID 19642212. Geissler, Francis; ... Environmental Health Perspectives. 113 (12): 1779-1783. doi:10.1289/ehp.8384. JSTOR 3436751. PMC 1314920. PMID 16330363. ...
The biodegradation processes that occurs is provided by the bacteria themselves. In order for this to work, sufficient oxygen ... Plants are usually chosen which are indigenous in that location for environmental reasons and optimum workings of the system. ...
They are as follows: The dissolution of collagen depends on time, temperature and environmental pH. At high temperatures, the ... and bio-degradation. Chemical changes affect crystallinity. Mechanisms of chemical change, such as the uptake of F− or CO3− may ... of bone exposed to environmental conditions, especially moisture. This is accomplished by the exchange of natural bone ...
Environmental Science. Energy & Environmental Science, Royal Society of Chemistry. 4 (10): 4306. doi:10.1039/C1EE01876K. ... 0110". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Crawford, R. L. (1981). Lignin biodegradation and ... Environmental Science. 5 (7): 7797. doi:10.1039/C2EE21679E. Czernik, S.; Bridgwater, A. V. (2004). "Overview of Applications of ... Environmental Science. 5 (7): 7864. doi:10.1039/C2EE21305B. Gibson LJ (2013). "The hierarchical structure and mechanics of ...
However, because of the stability of PET, it is also highly resistant to biodegradation, posing a significant environmental ... Ltd, Dongguan Xinhai Environmental Protection Material Co., Ltd., Hangzhou Ruijiang Chemical Co., Ltd., and Jiangsu Torise ... International Journal of Environmental Studies. 73 (3): 462-468. doi:10.1080/00207233.2015.1108607. S2CID 101024423. Jaime ...
Biodegradation 2009, 20:411-418. Dijksterhuis J, Sanders M, Gorris LG, Smid EJ: Antibiosis plays a role in the context of ... The score is based on the number of genes which afford bacteria abilities to communicate and process environmental information ... a myriad of individual environmental measurements at different locations, their internal states and their phenotypic and ...
As compared to organic polymers, inorganic polymers in general possess improved performance and environmental compatibility (no ... and the rate of their biodegradation can be tuned with the addition of different substituents from full decomposition within ...
Fiji passed the Environmental Management Bill in December 2020. Imports of polystyrene products was banned in January 2021. In ... Yang Y, Yang J, Wu WM, Zhao J, Song Y, Gao L, Yang R, Jiang L (October 2015). "Biodegradation and Mineralization of Polystyrene ... The Hong Kong Food and Environmental Hygiene Department recently reviewed the safety of serving various foods in polystyrene ... Polystyrene Biodegradation - BioSphere Plastic (Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from November 2017, Webarchive ...
... s cause biodegradation of natural materials, which can be unwanted when it becomes food spoilage or damage to property. ... The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) currently recommends that relative humidity be maintained below 60%, ... ISBN 978-0-19-517227-0. Indoor Environmental Quality: Dampness and Mold in Buildings Archived 2020-05-07 at the Wayback Machine ... Environmental Health Perspectives. 110 (12): A781-6. doi:10.1289/ehp.021100781. ISSN 0091-6765. PMC 1241132. PMID 12460818. ...
... but biodegradation is the primary route of DCPA degradation leading to MTP and TPA. Environmental Protection Agency testing in ... "Disruption of Mitosis" (PDF). The United States Environmental Protection Agency. "Regulatory Determination 2 for Contaminants ... Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 15 (2): 80-84. doi:10.1002/etc.5620150202. "Summary from the Health Advisory (HA) for ... United States Environmental Protection Agency. May 2008. Retrieved 2022-09-24. Farmalinx. "DYNAMO 750 g/kg Chlorthal Dimethyl ...
He is a reviewer for Applied and Environmental Microbiology and a member of the editorial board of the journal Biodegradation. ... Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 68 (8): 3759-3770. Bibcode:2002ApEnM..68.3759R. doi:10.1128/AEM.68.8.3759-3770.2002. ...
... enzymatic biodegradation, and photocatalysis have been tested for the elimination of diazinon from aqueous solutions. The ... International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 15 (6): 1301-1312. doi:10.1007/s13762-017-1469-x. S2CID ... DDT was found to be such an environmental danger that developed countries and eventually world-level organizations banned the ... Environmental Science & Technology. 45 (11): 4980-4987. Bibcode:2011EnST...45.4980K. doi:10.1021/es1042386. PMID 21539304. ...
Hydrogen gas inhibits biodegradation and acetogens use up these hydrogen gases in the anaerobic environment to favor the ... Energy biotechnology / Environmental biotechnology. 18 (3): 200-206. doi:10.1016/j.copbio.2007.03.008. ISSN 0958-1669. PMID ... Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 82 (14): 4056-4069. Bibcode:2016ApEnM..82.4056S. doi:10.1128/aem.00882-16. ISSN 0099- ... Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 82 (14): 4056-4069. Bibcode:2016ApEnM..82.4056S. doi:10.1128/AEM.00882-16. ISSN 0099- ...
Strain BSAR-1 for Bioprecipitation of Uranium from Alkaline Solutions" (PDF). Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 74 (17): ... "In-vitro study of interaction between photooxidation and biodegradation of 2-methylphenanthrene by Sphingomonas sp 2MPII". ... from bioremediation of environmental contaminants to production of extracellular polymers such as sphingans (e.g., gellan, ... is an alcoholic beverage that is sensorially characterized by micro-bacteria and a host of other environmental factors. While ...
Bonifacho also references sexuality both overt and covert, in the context of global bio-degradation, nuclear devastation, and ... The themes of war, nuclear holocausts, environmental devastation, and human vulnerability have dominated much of Bonifacho's ... only played a locative role but was also a means of coming to grips with memories of war-ravaged landscapes and environmental ...
While the environmental friendliness of the biodegradation byproducts of the surfactants most commonly used today varies, the ... Environmental Risks and Bioaccumulation Potential". International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 12 (5): ... "Safer Choice." EPA, Environmental Protection Agency, 21 Feb. 2020, www.epa.gov/saferchoice. "Soaps". www.fs.fed.us. Retrieved ... Another environmental issue with synthetic detergents is the addition of phosphates to these cleaning products. Phosphates are ...
Cells then can revert to a yellow to green colour when environmental conditions become less harsh . Through even more in-depth ... Microbial Biodegradation and Bioremediation, Elsevier, pp. 519-537, doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-800021-2.00023-6, ISBN 978-0-12- ... Sizes of the cells vary with environmental conditions such as light, salinity, and nutrient availability . Their two equal- ... very little is known about their exact ecological dynamic with specific environmental conditions and with other organisms. They ...
Antarctic Environmental Research INCT -APA and support projects related with Brazilian National Institute of cryospheric ... "Phenotypic and molecular aspects of bacteria isolated from the environment and involved in biodegradation Biphenyls (PCBs)". ...
1. United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Environmental Monitoring and Support ... "Selective Biodegradation of S and N Heterocycles by a Recombinant Rhodococcus erythropolis Strain Containing Carbazole ... A 2008 programmatic environmental impact statement issued by the US Bureau of Land Management stated that surface mining and ... United States Environmental Protection Agency. August 2000. pp. 3/1-3/11. Retrieved 21 June 2010. Raukas, Anto (2004). "Opening ...
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has concluded that ziram poses a low toxicity risk to mammals, a moderate risk to ... which means biodegradation is rather slow. If ziram reaches the bottom of a body of water, it may stay there for months. ... United States Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved April 26, 2015. "Ziram". Extension Toxicology Network Pesticide ... and the University of California at Davis and the Institute for Environmental Toxicology, Michigan State University. Retrieved ...
The United States Environmental Protection Agency maintains regulatory control over triclocarban and triclosan. On September 2 ... This entails low degrees of bioaccumulation and rapid, clean biodegradation in existing wastewater treatment facilities. A ... Discharge of effluent from these treatment plants and disposal of sludge on land is the primary route of environmental exposure ... Brausch John; Rand Gary (2011). "A review of personal care products in the aquatic environment: Environmental concentrations ...
Although it was first applied in agriculture in the 1950s, at least two biodegradation pathways have evolved. One pathway ... In California, the Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment has determined that 1,3-dichloropropene is a carcinogen, ...
Environmental Modelling & Software 30, 102-114. Yeh, G.T. and V.S. Tripathi, 1989, A critical evaluation of recent developments ... and the biodegradation of chemicals in landfills. When applied to the study of contaminants in the environments, they are known ... ISBN 9781608053063 Zhu, C. and G. Anderson, 2002, Environmental Applications of Geochemical Modeling. Cambridge University ...
... has been implicated in the biodegradation of buried plastics such as polyester polyurethane. It is capable of ... Ruisi, Serena (2007). "Fungi in Antarctica". Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology. 6: 127-141. doi:10.1007/ ... Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 73 (18): 5817-5824. doi:10.1128/AEM.01083-07. PMC 2074895. PMID 17660302. Barratt, S.R ... and able to survive and grow in the presence of multiple environmental stressors. This species is generally regarded to be ...
World Health Organization. Regional Office for the Western Pacific (‎WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific, 1995)‎ ...
... ISSN (Print): 2333-8628 ISSN (Online): 2333-8636 Website ...
Environmental biodegradation of polyethylene.. Polym. Degrad. Stab. 2003; 81: 441-452. View in Article *Scopus (336) ... However, no production of ethylene glycol from the biodegradation was described. The authors reported that PE biodegradation ... Evidence of polyethylene biodegradation by bacterial Strains from the guts of plastic-eating waxworms.. Environ. Sci. Tech. ... Evidence of polyethylene biodegradation by bacterial Strains from the guts of plastic-eating waxworms.. Environ. Sci. Tech. ...
This review aims to present a general overview of the current state of knowledge in areas that relate to biodegradation of ... an overview of the potential for biodegradation of conventional polymers and biodegradable polymers already in production. ... PET is highly resistant to environmental biodegradation and, thus, causes many and varied environmental concerns associated ... Table 4. Biodegradation rate and EdK of a range of biodegradable polymers (values taken from Guo et al. [82].) ...
Environmental fate & pathways Biodegradation in water and sediment: simulation tests. Currently viewing: S-01 , Summary. 001 ... The biodegradation of the test item in freshwater sediment was tested in a pond water/sediment according to OECD 308. The test ... Biodegradation in sediment (OECD 308). The half-life, DT50, of the parent compound in freshwater sediment was determined to be ... The biodegradation of the test item in freshwater sediment was tested in a river water/sediment system according to OECD 308. ...
Environmental fate & pathways Biodegradation in soil. Currently viewing: S-01 , Summary. 001 No specified study adequacy , No ...
Environmental Chemistry Group. ETH, Switzerland. Predicting Microbial Biodegradation. Volker Hammen. Department of Community ... Modelling Environmental. Fate of Chemicals. Diederik Schowanek. Procter & Gamble, Western Europe. Modelling Environmental. Fate ... Predictive Biodegradation Workshop 3 Participants. [Workshop Home] [Participants] [Prework] [Summary] [Acknowledgements] [ ... QSAR modeling of biodegradation reactions Andreas Schmid. Chemical Biotechnology. University of Dortmundi, Germany. Design of ...
We provide a disciplinary and multidisciplinary research programme aimed at advanced understanding of environmental problems ... The microbial activity for micropollutants biodegradation depends on the availability of degradable DOC, electron acceptors, ... and flow rate on microbial activity to identify the suitable conditions for micropollutant biodegradation. Lab scale studies ...
Biodegradation is a significant environmental process in soil.. Biologic changes. The chemical changes causing damage to ... Environmental fate and transport [see fate and transport]. Environmental Media Evaluation Guides (EMEGs). ATSDR comparison ... Environmental sampling data. Data obtained by sampling environmental media, such as soil, water, air, or biota (plants and ... For environmental scientists, this typically refers to a physical quantity of an environmental medium - soil, water, air, and ...
Environmental fate & pathways Biodegradation in soil. Currently viewing: S-01 , Summary. 001 No specified study adequacy , No ... In accordance with REACH Regulation 1907/2006, Annex IX, Column 2, simulation testing on biodegradation in soil does not need ...
... understanding of the CNM oxidation and biodegradation and could yield benefits in terms of human health and environmental ... Environmental-hazards; Environmental-contamination; Catalysis; Chemical-structure; Hazardous-materials; Waste-disposal ... For example, armed with an understanding of how and why CNMs undergo enzyme-catalyzed oxidation and biodegradation, researchers ... We also communicate our current understanding of the mechanism for the enzymatic oxidation and biodegradation. Finally, we ...
Biodegradation, Environmental [‎1]‎. Bioethics [‎2]‎. Biography [‎1]‎. Biological Factors [‎1]‎. Biological Products [‎1]‎. ...
Biodegradation, Environmental * Chlorhexidine / administration & dosage * Chlorhexidine / adverse effects * Chlorhexidine / ...
Preparing a Claim of Categorical Exclusion or an Environmental Assessment for Submission to Center for Food Safety and Applied ... Nutrition - Environmental Assessment Technical Handbook Table of Contents ... Aerobic Biodegradation in Water. 3.12. Aerobic Biodegradation in Soil. 4.00. TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE DOCUMENTS--ENVIRONMENTAL ... STEP-BY-STEP GUIDANCE FOR PREPARING ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTS. 3.00. TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE DOCUMENTS--ENVIRONMENTAL FATE TESTING ...
Environmental Working Group is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit corporation, EIN 52-2148600. Copyright 2007-2022, Environmental Working ... Moderate Concern: biodegradation; Some Concern: developmental/endocrine/reproductive effects, damage to vision ... Top Scoring Factors: Poor disclosure; May contain ingredients with potential for respiratory effects; biodegradation; nervous ... Some Concern: skin irritation/allergies/damage, acute aquatic toxicity, respiratory effects, biodegradation; Disclosure Concern ...
... there is a potential for defluorination and biodegradation of PFCs that contributes significantly to their environmental fate, ... Biodegradation of perfluorinated compounds.. *J. Parsons, M. Sáez, J. Dolfing, P. de Voogt ... Aerobic biodegradation of dichloroethenes by indigenous bacteria isolated from contaminated sites in Africa.. *A. Olaniran, D. ... Perchloroethene (PCE) is a pollutant of major environmental concern at hazardous waste sites worldwide. PCE and trichloroethene ...
Biodegradation; Soil analysis; Environmental contamination; Petroleum; Ground water; Chemicals; Environmental monitoring. ... Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimated that 100,000-400,000 USTs are currently leaking, mainly due to corrosion of the ...
Biodegradation, Environmental. G06 - Biochemical Phenomena, Metabolism, and Nutrition. Adolescent Nutrition. Adolescent ...
... the worlds largest environmental industry marketplace and information resource. ... Handbook of Biodegradation, Biodeterioration, and Biostabilization, 2nd Edition This book is about protection of materials and ... About Environmental XPRT. Environmental XPRT is a global environmental industry marketplace and information resource. Online ... U.S. Environmental Industry Datapack The data package includes data tables for the US environmental industry. (Some of the ...
The environmental risks of engineered nanoparticles have attracted attention. However, little is known regarding the effects of ... 2. Heavy metal-immobilizing organoclay facilitates polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon biodegradation in mixed-contaminated soil ... 6. Using chemical desorption of PAHs from sediment to model biodegradation during bioavailability assessment ... We investigated the impacts of pristine and oxidized multiwalled CNTs on the atrazine biodegradation rate and efficiency using ...
Environmental Isotopes in Biodegradation and Bioremediation. 2009. b/w illus. tabs. 288 p. gr8vo. Hardcover. ...
EES 2020 Environmental Engineering Fundamentals II. EES 4010 Environmental Engineering. EES 4370/6370 Biodegradation and ... He owns and operates Finneran Environmental, LLC, which support clients on the most difficult or problematic environmental ... EES 8510 Biological Principles in Environmental Engineering. Selected Publications. Deaver, J.A., Soni, M.N., Diviesti, K.I., ... His expertise is environmental remediation using combined microbial-chemical reactions. He is a Kavli Fellow of the National ...
Potential for biodegradation of microplastics in thermophilic anaerobic digesters. Lund Nielsen, J., Pedersen, N. K., Peydaei, ...
Remarkable biodegradation rate and extents were observed on PVC and, to less extents, on PE (LDPE, LLDPE) and PP plastic films ... Biodegradation potential and specificity towards polyethylene (PE; and its variants Low Density PE - LDPE - and Linear Low ... Site-specific measures for mitigating plastic pollution and improving the environmental status of Aegean Sea. Result type. * ... Exploitable results - Lab- and pilot-scale bioaugmentation protocols to improve native biodegradation of plastics under actual ...
Biodegradation Characteristics of Wastewaters. Batch treatment for Colour Removal from a Coffee Factory Effluent using a ... ISBN: N/A Categories: 2012, Environmental and Agricultural Research Summaries, Environmental Sciences, Nova, Special Topics ... Enhancing Environmental Planning through the Use of the Thermodynamic Quantity Exergy. Environmental Planning Inputs by the ... Environmental Considerations into Strategic and Tactical Planning of Supply Chains. The Links between Environmental Regulation ...
Green Sustainable Process for Chemical and Environmental Engineering and Science: Biosurfactants for the Bioremediation of ... and kinetics of key factors supporting the biodegradation process after treatment with biosurfactants 5. Environmental impact ... He was recently appointed as the Director for International Affiliation and Training Centre for Environmental and Public Health ... Green Sustainable Process for Chemical and Environmental Engineering and Science. Biosurfactants for the Bioremediation of ...
His area of expertise includes environmental biotechnology focusing on bioremediation and phytoremediation technologies for the ... LLE/IWI - Biodegradation of C-C Backbone Plastics and Microplastics in the Marine Environment (Nicolas Kalogerakis, Technical ... In this presentation we focus on the determination of biodegradation and fragmentation rates of polystyrene and polyethylene ... Laboratory results on the biodegradation of plastics show great variability. An important question, which remains unanswered, ...
2001). Environmental monitoring in four European museums. Atmospheric Environment, 35, 127-140. ... International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 63, 626-629.. Article CAS Google Scholar *. Miller, J. D., & Young, J. C. ( ...
There is an incomplete understanding of environmental fate- and time-related exposure, and of consumer- and worker-related ... and environmental (HSE) aspects during production, manipulation, storage, incorporation, and disposal of carbon nanomaterials ... Environmental fate. Biodegradation, hydrolysis, atmospheric oxidation, bioaccumulation*. (Nonmandatory):. *. Results of tests ... Copenhagen K: Danish Environmental Protection Agency; 2014 Environmental Project No. 1594. *59. Friedlander SK, Pui DYH. ...
  • Environmental Isotopes in Biodegradation and Bioremediation. (koeltz.com)
  • Green Sustainable Process for Chemical and Environmental Engineering and Science: Biosurfactants for the Bioremediation of Polluted Environments explores the use of biosurfactants in remediation initiatives, reviewing knowledge surrounding the creation and application of biosurfactants for addressing issues related to the release of toxic substances in ecosystems. (bokkilden.no)
  • The question remains as to whether there is a potential for defluorination and biodegradation of PFCs that contributes significantly to their environmental fate, and the possibility that bacteria will adapt to utilize this source of energy, although evolving mechanisms to overcome the kinetic barriers to degradation of these compounds may take some time. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Gibbs free energy of formation of chlordecone and potential degradation products: implications for remediation strategies and environmental fate. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The degradation processes and products must be understood to detect and evaluate potential environmental hazards. (rsc.org)
  • Some attention has been drawn to additives and persistent organic pollutants that sorb to the plastic surface, but so far the chemicals generated by degradation of the plastic polymers themselves have not been well studied from an environmental perspective. (rsc.org)
  • We extrapolate that information to likely pathways and possible degradation products under environmental conditions found on the oceans' surface. (rsc.org)
  • Smaller polymer fragments formed by chain scission are more susceptible to biodegradation and therefore abiotic degradation is expected to precede biodegradation. (rsc.org)
  • When heteroatoms are present in the main chain of a polymer, degradation proceeds by photo-oxidation, hydrolysis, and biodegradation. (rsc.org)
  • In February 2014 she started her PhD studies at the Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry at Stockholm University, Sweden and is focusing on chemical pollutants released to the marine environment by degradation of plastic debris. (rsc.org)
  • Confirmation of malathion degradation to malathion mono, diacids, and phosphorus moiety was performed by Q-TOF-MS analysis , and a pathway of biodegradation was proposed. (bvsalud.org)
  • Coal degradation/conversion technology by native bacterial and fungal species has great potential in agricultural development, chemical industry production, and environmental rehabilitation. (fh-aachen.de)
  • These studies show that, while DEHP is rapidly photodegraded in the atmosphere, aerobic biodegradation is slow, and anaerobic degradation is even slower. (who.int)
  • The production and use of conventional plastics are linked to environmental degradation because there is an emission of Greenhouse gases related to plastics' production and use. (ourlovelyearth.com)
  • Excellent course to provide a broad understanding of scientific concepts and current applications of degradation processes and programs critical to modern environmental remediation programs. (coursera.org)
  • Microorganisms in Environmental Management - a survey of recent scientific progress in usefully applying microbes to both environmental management and biotechnology - is informed by acknowledgement of the polluting effects on the world around us of soil erosion, the unwanted migration of sediments, chemical fertilizers and pesticides, and the improper treatment of human and animal wastes. (nhbs.com)
  • Edited by recognized leaders in the field, Microorganisms in Environmental Management is a penetrating assessment of our progress to date in deploying microorganisms to the advantage of environmental management and biotechnology which will be widely welcomed. (nhbs.com)
  • This review puts forward a comprehensive vision of coal biodegradation and bioprocessing by microorganisms native to coal environments for determining their biotechnological potential and possible applications. (fh-aachen.de)
  • In water, soil, or sediment, microorganisms may break down the chemicals (a process known as biodegradation). (cdc.gov)
  • International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation. (hw.ac.uk)
  • Influence of short- and long-term exposure on the biodegradation capacity of activated sludge microbial communities in ready biodegradability tests. (uva.nl)
  • Chlorinated compounds are ubiquitous environmental pollutants due to their extensive use in industry, agriculture, and private households. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Besides, oxygenases are involved in biodegradation of hydrocarbons and related compounds that, due to their improper storage, use, and disposal have been released into the environment, where they are considered environmental pollutants. (scielo.org.mx)
  • Phytoremediation of Multiple Persistent Pollutants Co-Contaminated Soil by Hhssb Transformed Plant, Environmental Research, 197, 110959. (dergipark.org.tr)
  • 2022). Biodegradation and non-enzymatic hydrolysis of poly(Lactic- co -glycolic acid) (plga12/88 and plga6/94). (uva.nl)
  • no. 103) 1.Solvents - adverse effects 2.Solvent - toxicity 3.Environmental exposure I.Series ISBN 92 4 151103 6 (NLM Classification: QV 633) ISSN 0259-7268 The World Health Organization welcomes requests for permission to reproduce or translate its publications, in part or in full. (inchem.org)
  • Superior biodegradation and reduced bioaccumulation and toxicity to marine organisms compared to conventional mineral-based oils can help mitigate the impact of oil leaks. (castrol.com)
  • Lab and pilot-scale bioaugmentation protocols for intensifying (micro) plastics biodegradation in soils, composting/anaerobic waste treatment facilities and marine environments. (europa.eu)
  • Aerobic biodegradation of dichloroethenes by indigenous bacteria isolated from contaminated sites in Africa. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In accordance with REACH Regulation 1907/2006, Annex IX, Column 2, simulation testing on biodegradation in soil does not need to be conducted as direct or indirect exposure of the aquatic and terrestrial compartments for this substance are unlikely. (europa.eu)
  • Environmental impact assessment of polluted soil using biosurfactants 6. (bokkilden.no)
  • Correlating Biodegradation Kinetics of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic Acid (2,4,5-T) to the Dynamics of Microbial Communities Originating From Soil in Vietnam Contaminated With Herbicides. (uva.nl)
  • The opening sections characterize the behaviour of DEHP in different environmental media and summarize data indicating concentrations detected in air, precipitation, water, sediment, soil, biota, food, and the workplace environment. (who.int)
  • Adsorption Characteristics of Layered Soil as Delay Barrier of Some Organic Contaminants: Experimental and Numerical Modeling, Environmental Modelling & Software, 110, 95-106. (dergipark.org.tr)
  • Effect on Herbicide Adsorption of Organic Forestry Waste Products Used for Soil Remediation, Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part B Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes, 54, 5, 407-415. (dergipark.org.tr)
  • Optimization, modelling, prediction, and kinetics of key factors supporting the biodegradation process after treatment with biosurfactants 5. (bokkilden.no)
  • SUMMARY AND EVALUATION 2.1 Environmental transport, distribution and transformation 2.2 Environmental levels and human exposure 2.3 Kinetics and metabolism 2.4 Effects on laboratory and in vitro systems 2.5 Effects on humans 2.6 Effects on other organisms in the laboratory and field 3. (inchem.org)
  • Biodegradation of perfluorinated compounds. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Release of these toxic compounds into the natural environment poses a significant environmental problem associated with the disposal of solid waste. (advbiores.net)
  • It is shown that the content of oil products, chlorides, heavy metals and other compounds in the bottom sediments is within the environmental standards characteristic of the Khanty-Mansiysk autonomous district. (oil-industry.net)
  • This includes an outline of the problems associated with plastic pollution in the marine environment, a description of the properties, commercial manufacturing and degradability of PET, an overview of the potential for biodegradation of conventional polymers and biodegradable polymers already in production. (mdpi.com)
  • Site-specific measures for mitigating plastic pollution and improving the environmental status of Aegean Sea. (europa.eu)
  • Environmental Pollution 309, 119776. (ukm.my)
  • Environmental science and pollution research international. (utah.edu)
  • Other than waste accumulation, plastic accumulation lead to negative environmental issues such as pollution and rising global temperatures. (ourlovelyearth.com)
  • The report concludes that adverse effects on environmental organisms are likely in areas where water and sediment are highly contaminated. (who.int)
  • There is an incomplete understanding of environmental fate- and time-related exposure, and of consumer- and worker-related risks and hazards. (intechopen.com)
  • His research program is focused on novel measurement and modeling techniques to study human and ecological exposure to environmental contaminants. (rsc.org)
  • CURRENT REGULATIONS, GUIDELINES, AND STANDARDS 7.1 Previous evaluations by international bodies 7.2 Exposure limit values 7.3 Labelling, packaging and transport BIBLIOGRAPHY INTRODUCTION The Environmental Health Criteria (EHC) monographs produced by the International Programme on Chemical Safety include an assessment of the effects on the environment and on human health of exposure to a chemical or combination of chemicals, or physical or biological agents. (inchem.org)
  • Latif, M.T. The Influence of Environmental Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Exposure on DNA Damage among School Children in Urban Traffic Area, Malaysia. (ukm.my)
  • J. Field and Seow, J. , " Review of Fluorotelomer Sulfonates: Properties, Analysis, and Sources of Human and Ecosystem Exposure " , Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology , vol. 47, no. 8, pp. 643 - 691, 2017. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Long-term evaluation of biodegradation products of tar sands crude oil from spill sites using laboratory and field microcosms. (gvsu.edu)
  • Contamination of soils and groundwaters with chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) is one of the most serious environmental problems in the DOE system and in the nation at large. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Plastics are synthetic polymers derived from fossil oil and largely resistant to biodegradation. (cell.com)
  • This review aims to present a general overview of the current state of knowledge in areas that relate to biodegradation of polymers, especially poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). (mdpi.com)
  • namely abiotic oxidation, which breaks down the polymers into low molecular-weight products, and biodegradation. (materialstoday.com)
  • he received his Ph.D. in microbiology in 2001 at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst and a BS in Environmental Sciences from Rutgers University in 1996. (clemson.edu)
  • Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 54 (4). (caltech.edu)
  • Applied and environmental microbiology. (usda.gov)
  • https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlehtml/2021/e. (utah.edu)
  • The ex vitro, in vitro, and in vivo data presented in this Account provide fundamental insights into the biopersistence of CNMs, such as carbon nanotubes and graphene, and their oxidation/biodegradation processes as catalyzed by peroxidase enzymes. (cdc.gov)
  • However, little is known regarding the effects of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on the biodegradation and persistence of organic contaminants in water. (usda.gov)
  • Thus the aim of this project is the understand the impact of groundwater composition (Redox conditions, DOC quality, micropollutant concentration) and flow rate on microbial activity to identify the suitable conditions for micropollutant biodegradation. (sense.nl)
  • Cleaning up the large number of groundwater contamination sites is a significant and complex environmental challenge. (coursera.org)
  • We will build upon basic environmental science and environmental engineering principles to discover how to best implement MNA as a viable treatment for groundwater contamination plumes. (coursera.org)
  • We also communicate our current understanding of the mechanism for the enzymatic oxidation and biodegradation. (cdc.gov)
  • 2009. (Springer Praxis Books / Environmental Sciences). (koeltz.com)
  • Berit Gewert studied Environmental Sciences at the University of Greifswald, Germany. (rsc.org)
  • Merle Plassmann studied Environmental Sciences at the University of Lueneburg, Germany. (rsc.org)
  • Journal of Environmental Sciences. (utah.edu)
  • The microbial activity for micropollutants biodegradation depends on the availability of degradable DOC, electron acceptors, and nutrients. (sense.nl)
  • She did an internship and her master thesis at the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research in Leipzig, Germany. (rsc.org)
  • After a three year postdoctoral fellowship at the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research in Leipzig, Germany, she went back to Stockholm University for a second postdoctoral project. (rsc.org)
  • International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology , 11 (5), 1387-1398. (hig.se)
  • For example, armed with an understanding of how and why CNMs undergo enzyme-catalyzed oxidation and biodegradation, researchers can tailor the structure of CNMs to either promote or inhibit these processes. (cdc.gov)
  • and mathematical modeling of environmental processes. (utoronto.ca)
  • Environmental Science Processes & Impacts , 23 (12), 1997-2006. (uva.nl)
  • She studies the basics of biofilm and granular sludge formation processes, and microbial population dynamics in environmental systems, and their applications in bioreactors for industrial wastewater treatment, and centralized and decentralized municipal wastewater treatment. (ualberta.ca)
  • Environmental biodegradation of polyethylene. (cell.com)
  • Evidence of polyethylene biodegradation by bacterial Strains from the guts of plastic-eating waxworms. (cell.com)
  • In this presentation we focus on the determination of biodegradation and fragmentation rates of polystyrene and polyethylene films naturally weathered on beach sand as well as polypropylene films weathered in seawater mesocosms. (utoronto.ca)
  • These health concerns have been associated - to a large extent - with the reported long "life-span" of SWCNT in the lung thus necessitating exploration of possible metabolic pathways leading to their biodegradation. (cdc.gov)
  • Microbial Fermentation of Biowastes summarizes new advances in the development of various strategies for enhanced microbial fermentation for organic waste conversion to bioenergy/biochemicals, and for biodegradation of plastic waste. (elsevier.com)
  • BioProtect® Industrial Treatment is an environmentally safe and user-friendly biological treatment for the control of odour and rapid biodegradation of organic material. (bioprotect.bio)
  • Perchloroethene (PCE) is a pollutant of major environmental concern at hazardous waste sites worldwide. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Methane biodegradation and enhanced methane solubilization by the filamentous fungi Fusarium solani. (uandes.cl)
  • However, there are environmental issues with the cultivation of plants for bioplastics. (bioplasticsnews.com)
  • Part I. Accumulation, Trophic Transfer, Biodegradation and Migration. (epa.gov)
  • His expertise is environmental remediation using combined microbial-chemical reactions. (clemson.edu)
  • He owns and operates Finneran Environmental, LLC, which support clients on the most difficult or problematic environmental remediation projects. (clemson.edu)
  • The environmental industry is continuously looking for remediation methods that are both effective and cost-efficient. (coursera.org)
  • Any professional working in the environmental remediation industry will benefit from this in-depth study of MNA. (coursera.org)
  • Journal of Environmental Biology. (who.int)
  • In nanomedical applications such as drug delivery, the incorporation of carboxylate functional groups could facilitate biodegradation of the nanomaterial after delivery of the cargo. (cdc.gov)
  • Of particular interest was the significant retention of the TrOCs on the gel layer of enzyme on the membrane surface, and their subsequent biodegradation. (edu.au)
  • Moreover, myeloperoxidase (MPO), an abundant enzyme of inflammatory cells (neutrophils), - involved in the principal defense mechanisms of innate immunity -was also effective in oxidative biodegradation of CNT in biochemical models and in cells yielding the products that did not cause pulmonary inflammation in mice [14] . (cdc.gov)
  • The target readership includes occupational health services, those in ministries, governmental agencies, industry, and trade unions who are involved in the safe use of chemicals and the avoidance of environmental health hazards, and those wanting more information on this topic. (inchem.org)
  • We investigated the impacts of pristine and oxidized multiwalled CNTs on the atrazine biodegradation rate and efficiency using Arthrobacter sp. (usda.gov)
  • Researchers in the fields of waste treatment, environmental engineering, and biochemical engineering. (elsevier.com)
  • Finally, we outline potential future directions that could enhance our mechanistic understanding of the CNM oxidation and biodegradation and could yield benefits in terms of human health and environmental safety. (cdc.gov)
  • Laboratory results on the biodegradation of plastics show great variability. (utoronto.ca)
  • Castrol BioStat offers superior marine biodegradation and reduced bioaccumulation compared to conventional mineral based oils. (castrol.com)
  • He has extensive research experience in multidisciplinary fields of analytical chemistry, materials chemistry, electrochemistry, renewable energy, and environmental science. (bokkilden.no)
  • Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology , 7 (1), 107-121. (uva.nl)
  • Matthew MacLeod is Associate Professor in the Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry at Stockholm University, Sweden. (rsc.org)
  • Reproducibility and sensitivity of 36 methods to quantify the SARS-CoV-2 genetic signal in raw wastewater: findings from an interlaboratory methods evaluation in the U.S. Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology. (utah.edu)
  • Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology. (nottingham.edu.cn)