Biochemistry: The study of the composition, chemical structures, and chemical reactions of living things.Biochemical Phenomena: The chemical processes, enzymatic activities, and pathways of living things and related temporal, dimensional, qualitative, and quantitative concepts.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Blood Chemical Analysis: An examination of chemicals in the blood.Chemistry, Organic: The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Chemistry, Clinical: The specialty of ANALYTIC CHEMISTRY applied to assays of physiologically important substances found in blood, urine, tissues, and other biological fluids for the purpose of aiding the physician in making a diagnosis or following therapy.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Carbohydrate Biochemistry: The study of the structure, biosynthesis, and function of CARBOHYDRATES and GLYCOSYLATION.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Enzymes: Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Hematologic Tests: Tests used in the analysis of the hemic system.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Laboratories, Hospital: Hospital facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Biogenesis: The origin of life. It includes studies of the potential basis for life in organic compounds but excludes studies of the development of altered forms of life through mutation and natural selection, which is BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Clinical Chemistry Tests: Laboratory tests demonstrating the presence of physiologically significant substances in the blood, urine, tissue, and body fluids with application to the diagnosis or therapy of disease.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.ThioglucosidesProtein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Clinical Laboratory Techniques: Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy: A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.Aspartate Aminotransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.Nobel PrizeTime Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Molecular Biology: A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Mathematics: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Protein Denaturation: Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.Alanine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Hematology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with morphology, physiology, and pathology of the blood and blood-forming tissues.Myosin Subfragments: Parts of the myosin molecule resulting from cleavage by proteolytic enzymes (PAPAIN; TRYPSIN; or CHYMOTRYPSIN) at well-localized regions. Study of these isolated fragments helps to delineate the functional roles of different parts of myosin. Two of the most common subfragments are myosin S-1 and myosin S-2. S-1 contains the heads of the heavy chains plus the light chains and S-2 contains part of the double-stranded, alpha-helical, heavy chain tail (myosin rod).Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Liver Function Tests: Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.Aspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Laboratories: Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Electron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Evolution, Chemical: Chemical and physical transformation of the biogenic elements from their nucleosynthesis in stars to their incorporation and subsequent modification in planetary bodies and terrestrial biochemistry. It includes the mechanism of incorporation of biogenic elements into complex molecules and molecular systems, leading up to the origin of life.Bilirubin: A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.PhotochemistryAlkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Spectrum Analysis: The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Hydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Group IA Phospholipases A2: A subclass of group I phospholipases A2 that includes enzymes isolated from ELAPID VENOMS.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Phosphites: Inorganic salts or organic esters of phosphorous acid that contain the (3-)PO3 radical. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Urea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.Biophysical Phenomena: The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.Metabolic Networks and Pathways: Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.Biophysics: The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Detergents: Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.D-Alanine Transaminase: A PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE containing enzyme that catalyzes the reversible transfer of an amino group between D-Alanine and alpha-ketoglutarate to form PYRUVATE and D-GLUTAMATE, respectively. It plays a role in the synthesis of the bacterial CELL WALL. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 2.6.1.10.Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Myosins: A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level: The highest dosage administered that does not produce toxic effects.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Education, Graduate: Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.Problem-Based Learning: Instructional use of examples or cases to teach using problem-solving skills and critical thinking.Inventions: A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Acetic Anhydrides: Compounds used extensively as acetylation, oxidation and dehydrating agents and in the modification of proteins and enzymes.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Flavins: Derivatives of the dimethylisoalloxazine (7,8-dimethylbenzo[g]pteridine-2,4(3H,10H)-dione) skeleton. Flavin derivatives serve an electron transfer function as ENZYME COFACTORS in FLAVOPROTEINS.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Cell Physiological Phenomena: Cellular processes, properties, and characteristics.Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular: NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Chemistry, Physical: The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Guanidine: A strong organic base existing primarily as guanidium ions at physiological pH. It is found in the urine as a normal product of protein metabolism. It is also used in laboratory research as a protein denaturant. (From Martindale, the Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed and Merck Index, 12th ed) It is also used in the treatment of myasthenia and as a fluorescent probe in HPLC.Energy Transfer: The transfer of energy of a given form among different scales of motion. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed). It includes the transfer of kinetic energy and the transfer of chemical energy. The transfer of chemical energy from one molecule to another depends on proximity of molecules so it is often used as in techniques to measure distance such as the use of FORSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Human Development: Continuous sequential changes which occur in the physiological and psychological functions during the life-time of an individual.Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.L-Lactate Dehydrogenase: A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Spectrum Analysis, Raman: Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Transaminases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.Cross-Linking Reagents: Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.Biology: One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.Sulfhydryl Compounds: Compounds containing the -SH radical.Serial Publications: Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Heme: The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.Affinity Labels: Analogs of those substrates or compounds which bind naturally at the active sites of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, steroids, or physiological receptors. These analogs form a stable covalent bond at the binding site, thereby acting as inhibitors of the proteins or steroids.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Deuterium: Deuterium. The stable isotope of hydrogen. It has one neutron and one proton in the nucleus.Calorimetry: The measurement of the quantity of heat involved in various processes, such as chemical reactions, changes of state, and formations of solutions, or in the determination of the heat capacities of substances. The fundamental unit of measurement is the joule or the calorie (4.184 joules). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Disulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.Phenylalanine: An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Photosynthetic Reaction Center Complex Proteins: Protein complexes that take part in the process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They are located within the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of plant CHLOROPLASTS and a variety of structures in more primitive organisms. There are two major complexes involved in the photosynthetic process called PHOTOSYSTEM I and PHOTOSYSTEM II.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Hemoglobins: The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.Myoglobin: A conjugated protein which is the oxygen-transporting pigment of muscle. It is made up of one globin polypeptide chain and one heme group.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Toxicity Tests, Chronic: Experiments designed to determine the potential toxic effects of a long-term exposure to a chemical or chemicals.4-Chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan: A benzofuran derivative used as a protein reagent since the terminal N-NBD-protein conjugate possesses interesting fluorescence and spectral properties. It has also been used as a covalent inhibitor of both beef heart mitochondrial ATPase and bacterial ATPase.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Manganese: A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)Metals: Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Education, Medical, Undergraduate: The period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Fluorescence Polarization: Measurement of the polarization of fluorescent light from solutions or microscopic specimens. It is used to provide information concerning molecular size, shape, and conformation, molecular anisotropy, electronic energy transfer, molecular interaction, including dye and coenzyme binding, and the antigen-antibody reaction.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Nuchal Translucency Measurement: A prenatal ultrasonography measurement of the soft tissue behind the fetal neck. Either the translucent area below the skin in the back of the fetal neck (nuchal translucency) or the distance between occipital bone to the outer skin line (nuchal fold) is measured.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Carica: A plant genus of the family Caricaceae, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It is the source of edible fruit and PAPAIN.Adenosine Monophosphate: Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.Zinc: A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.Pathology Department, Hospital: Hospital department which administers and provides pathology services.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human: The beta subunit of human CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Its structure is similar to the beta subunit of LUTEINIZING HORMONE, except for the additional 30 amino acids at the carboxy end with the associated carbohydrate residues. HCG-beta is used as a diagnostic marker for early detection of pregnancy, spontaneous abortion (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS); ECTOPIC PREGNANCY; HYDATIDIFORM MOLE; CHORIOCARCINOMA; or DOWN SYNDROME.Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Transaldolase: An enzyme of the transferase class that catalyzes the reaction sedoheptulose 7-phosphate and D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to yield D-erythrose 4-phosphate and D-fructose phosphate in the PENTOSE PHOSPHATE PATHWAY. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 2.2.1.2.Histidine: An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.Copper: A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.Cell Biology: The study of the structure, behavior, growth, reproduction, and pathology of cells; and the function and chemistry of cellular components.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Toxicology: The science concerned with the detection, chemical composition, and biological action of toxic substances or poisons and the treatment and prevention of toxic manifestations.

High-affinity binding of the AP-1 adaptor complex to trans-golgi network membranes devoid of mannose 6-phosphate receptors. (1/1234)

The GTP-binding protein ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) initiates clathrin-coat assembly at the trans-Goli network (TGN) by generating high-affinity membrane-binding sites for the AP-1 adaptor complex. Both transmembrane proteins, which are sorted into the assembling coated bud, and novel docking proteins have been suggested to be partners with GTP-bound ARF in generating the AP-1-docking sites. The best characterized, and probably the major transmembrane molecules sorted into the clathrin-coated vesicles that form on the TGN, are the mannose 6-phosphate receptors (MPRs). Here, we have examined the role of the MPRs in the AP-1 recruitment process by comparing fibroblasts derived from embryos of either normal or MPR-negative animals. Despite major alterations to the lysosome compartment in the MPR-deficient cells, the steady-state distribution of AP-1 at the TGN is comparable to that of normal cells. Golgi-enriched membranes prepared from the receptor-negative cells also display an apparently normal capacity to recruit AP-1 in vitro in the presence of ARF and either GTP or GTPgammaS. The AP-1 adaptor is recruited specifically onto the TGN and not onto the numerous abnormal membrane elements that accumulate within the MPR-negative fibroblasts. AP-1 bound to TGN membranes from either normal or MPR-negative fibroblasts is fully resistant to chemical extraction with 1 M Tris-HCl, pH 7, indicating that the adaptor binds to both membrane types with high affinity. The only difference we do note between the Golgi prepared from the MPR-deficient cells and the normal cells is that AP-1 recruited onto the receptor-lacking membranes in the presence of ARF1.GTP is consistently more resistant to extraction with Tris. Because sensitivity to Tris extraction correlates well with nucleotide hydrolysis, this finding might suggest a possible link between MPR sorting and ARF GAP regulation. We conclude that the MPRs are not essential determinants in the initial steps of AP-1 binding to the TGN but, instead, they may play a regulatory role in clathrin-coated vesicle formation by affecting ARF.GTP hydrolysis.  (+info)

OBA/Ku86: DNA binding specificity and involvement in mammalian DNA replication. (2/1234)

Ors-binding activity (OBA) was previously semipurified from HeLa cells through its ability to interact specifically with the 186-basepair (bp) minimal replication origin of ors8 and support ors8 replication in vitro. Here, through competition band-shift analyses, using as competitors various subfragments of the 186-bp minimal ori, we identified an internal region of 59 bp that competed for OBA binding as efficiently as the full 186-bp fragment. The 59-bp fragment has homology to a 36-bp sequence (A3/4) generated by comparing various mammalian replication origins, including the ors. A3/4 is, by itself, capable of competing most efficiently for OBA binding to the 186-bp fragment. Band-shift elution of the A3/4-OBA complex, followed by Southwestern analysis using the A3/4 sequence as probe, revealed a major band of approximately 92 kDa involved in the DNA binding activity of OBA. Microsequencing analysis revealed that the 92-kDa polypeptide is identical to the 86-kDa subunit of human Ku antigen. The affinity-purified OBA fraction obtained using an A3/4 affinity column also contained the 70-kDa subunit of Ku and the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit. In vitro DNA replication experiments in the presence of A3/4 oligonucleotide or anti-Ku70 and anti-Ku86 antibodies implicate Ku in mammalian DNA replication.  (+info)

Chemical transformations in individual ultrasmall biomimetic containers. (3/1234)

Individual phospholipid vesicles, 1 to 5 micrometers in diameter, containing a single reagent or a complete reaction system, were immobilized with an infrared laser optical trap or by adhesion to modified borosilicate glass surfaces. Chemical transformations were initiated either by electroporation or by electrofusion, in each case through application of a short (10-microsecond), intense (20 to 50 kilovolts per centimeter) electric pulse delivered across ultramicroelectrodes. Product formation was monitored by far-field laser fluorescence microscopy. The ultrasmall characteristic of this reaction volume led to rapid diffusional mixing that permits the study of fast chemical kinetics. This technique is also well suited for the study of reaction dynamics of biological molecules within lipid-enclosed nanoenvironments that mimic cell membranes.  (+info)

Attracting and training more chemical pathologists in the United Kingdom. (4/1234)

I have attempted to define the function of the medical graduate in the clinical biochemistry laboratory and have examined data on recrutiment in the United Kingdom into clinical biochemistry. If trainee pathologists were encouraged to become proficient in both a branch of clinical medicine and in research techniques, the resulting chemical pathologists should be able to improve the consultative and investigative functions of the laboratory. To this end I have suggested some changes in the training regulations and in the role of the chemical pathologists.  (+info)

Binding of cholera toxin B-subunits to derivatives of the natural ganglioside receptor, GM1. (5/1234)

In a previous paper we showed that the B-pentamer of cholera toxin (CT-B) binds with reduced binding strength to different C(1) derivatives of N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc) of the natural receptor ganglioside, GM1. We have now extended these results to encompass two large amide derivatives, butylamide and cyclohexylmethylamide, using an assay in which the glycosphingolipids are adsorbed on hydrophobic PVDF membranes. The latter derivative showed an affinity approximately equal to that earlier found for benzylamide ( approximately 0.01 relative to native GM1) whereas the former revealed a approximately tenfold further reduction in affinity. Another derivative with a charged C(1)-amide group, aminopropylamide, was not bound by the toxin. Toxin binding to C(7) derivatives was reduced by about 50% compared with the native ganglioside. Molecular modeling of C(1) and C(7) derivatives in complex with CT-B gave a structural rationale for the observed differences in the relative affinities of the various derivatives. Loss of or altered hydrogen bond interactions involving the water molecules bridging the sialic acid to the protein was found to be the major cause for the observed drop in CT-B affinity in the smaller derivatives, while in the bulkier derivatives, hydrophobic interactions with the protein were found to partly compensate for these losses.  (+info)

Detection of putative Zn(II) binding sites within Escherichia coli RNA polymerase: inconsistency between sequence-based prediction and 65Zn blotting. (6/1234)

The availability of repeating 'Cys' and/or 'His' units in a particular order prompts the prediction of Zn(II) finger motifs in a protein. Escherichia coli RNA polymerase has two tightly bound Zn(II) per molecule of the enzyme as detected by atomic absorption spectroscopy. One Zn(II) was identified to be at the beta subunit, whereas the other putative Zn(II) binding site has recently been predicted to be at the N-terminal half of the beta' subunit, from primary sequence analysis. We show here that the beta' subunit has no ability to bind 65Zn(II). On the other hand, the N-terminal domain of the alpha subunit has strong Zn(II) binding ability with no obvious functional implications.  (+info)

Regulation of F-actin binding to platelet moesin in vitro by both phosphorylation of threonine 558 and polyphosphatidylinositides. (7/1234)

Activation of human platelets with thrombin transiently increases phosphorylation at (558)threonine of moesin as determined with phosphorylation state-specific antibodies. This specific modification is completely inhibited by the kinase inhibitor staurosporine and maximally promoted by the phosphatase inhibitor calyculin A, making it possible to purify the two forms of moesin to homogeneity. Blot overlay assays with F-actin probes labeled with either [32P]ATP or 125I show that only phosphorylated moesin interacts with F-actin in total platelet lysates, in moesin antibody immunoprecipitates, and when purified. In the absence of detergents, both forms of the isolated protein are aggregated. Phosphorylated, purified moesin co-sediments with alpha- or beta/gamma-actin filaments in cationic, but not in anionic, nonionic, or amphoteric detergents. The interaction affinity is high (Kd, approximately 1.5 nM), and the maximal moesin:actin stoichiometry is 1:1. This interaction is also observed in platelets extracted with cationic but not with nonionic detergents. In 0.1% Triton X-100, F-actin interacts with phosphorylated moesin only in the presence of polyphosphatidylinositides. Thus, both polyphosphatidylinositides and phosphorylation can activate moesin's high-affinity F-actin binding site in vitro. Dual regulation by both mechanisms may be important for proper cellular control of moesin-mediated linkages between the actin cytoskeleton and the plasma membrane.  (+info)

Oligonucleotide-peptide conjugates as potential antisense agents. (8/1234)

Oligonucleotide-peptide conjugates have several applications, including their potential use as improved antisense agents for interfering with the RNA function within cells. In order to provide robust and generally applicable conjugation chemistry, we developed a novel approach of fragment coupling of pre-synthesized peptides to the 2'-position of a selected nucleotide within an otherwise protected oligonucleotide chain attached to a solid support.  (+info)

*Biochemistry

Researchers in biochemistry use specific techniques native to biochemistry, but increasingly combine these with techniques and ... Marks' Basic Medical Biochemistry (Lieberman, Marks's Basic Medical Biochemistry) (4th ed.). ISBN 160831572X. Rayner-Canham, ... "Biochemical Society". The Virtual Library of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Cell Biology Biochemistry, 5th ed. Full text ... or biochemistry as a tool with which to investigate and study molecular biology. Much of biochemistry deals with the structures ...

*Arsenic biochemistry

... refers to biochemical processes that can use arsenic or its compounds, such as arsenate. Arsenic is a ... Arsenic biochemistry has become topical since many toxic arsenic compounds are found in some aquifers, potentially affecting ... Kessel, M; Liu, S.X (2002). "Arsenic induces oxidative DNA damage in mammalian cells". Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry. 234 ... Arsenic compounds Extremophile Geomicrobiology Hypothetical types of biochemistry Organoarsenic chemistry Pearce, Fred (2006). ...

*Cofactor (biochemistry)

Lane TW, Saito MA, George GN, Pickering IJ, Prince RC, Morel FM (2005). "Biochemistry: a cadmium enzyme from a marine diatom". ... Sauke, David J.; Metzler, David E.; Metzler, Carol M. (2001). Biochemistry: the chemical reactions of living cells (2nd ed.). ... ISBN 1-57259-153-6. Farrell, Shawn O.; Campbell, Mary K. (2009). Biochemistry (6th ed.). Pacific Grove: Brooks Cole. ISBN 0-495 ... A 1980 letter in Trends in Biochemistry Sciences noted the confusion in the literature and the essentially arbitrary ...

*Analytical Biochemistry

... is a peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1960. It covers the field of biochemistry. ... "Analytical Biochemistry". 2014 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). Thomson Reuters. 2015. Official website ...

*Clinical Biochemistry

... is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering the analytical and clinical investigation of laboratory ... Researchers at the University of North Carolina published an article in Clinical Biochemistry which found Baby wash products ... "Unexpected interference of baby wash products with a cannabinoid (THC) immunoassay". Clinical Biochemistry. 45: 605-609. doi: ... Clinical Biochemistry. 40 (3-4): 153-161. doi:10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2006.10.014. Juliana F. Roos; Jenny Doust; Susan E. Tett; ...

*Physical biochemistry

... is a branch of biochemistry that deals with the theory, techniques and methodology used to study the ... Physical chemistry David Freifelder (15 August 1982). Physical Biochemistry: Applications to Biochemistry and Molecular Biology ... ISBN 978-0-7167-1444-6. David Sheehan (30 April 2013). Physical Biochemistry: Principles and Applications. John Wiley & Sons. ...

*Denaturation (biochemistry)

Cox, David L. Nelson, Michael M. (2008). Lehninger principles of biochemistry (5th ed.). New York: W.H. Freeman. ISBN ...

*Biochemistry (Stryer)

Biochemistry is a common university textbook used for teaching of biochemistry. It was initially written by Professor Lubert ... Wolfson, Adele (May 2003). "Student Companion to Accompany Biochemistry (review)". Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education ... "Biochemistry: what it is, what it is not and why it is important". Queen's University, Belfast. Retrieved 19 June 2016. Gray, B ... Berg, Jeremy; Tymoczko, John; Stryer, Lubert (2007). Lecture Notebook for Biochemistry (6th ed., 1st print. ed.). New York: W.H ...

*Biochemistry (journal)

Biochemistry: About (accessed May 24, 2017) Biochemistry: Editor Profile (accessed May 24, 2017) Biochemistry website NCBI: ... Biochemistry is a peer-reviewed academic journal in the field of biochemistry. Founded in 1962, the journal is now published ... Biochemistry is indexed in: CAB International Chemical Abstracts Service EBSCOhost Gale Group MEDLINE/Index medicus Ovid ...

*Intercalation (biochemistry)

In biochemistry, intercalation is the insertion of molecules between the planar bases of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). This ...

*Antiparallel (biochemistry)

In biochemistry, two biopolymers are antiparallel if they run parallel to each other but with opposite alignments. An example ...

*Receptor (biochemistry)

In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell. When ...

*Ligand (biochemistry)

In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose ... In contrast to the definition of ligand in metalorganic and inorganic chemistry, in biochemistry it is ambiguous whether the ...

*Dose (biochemistry)

A dose is a measured quantity of a medicine, nutrient, or pathogen which is delivered as a unit. The greater the quantity delivered, the larger the dose. Doses are most commonly measured for compounds in medicine. The term is usually applied to the quantity of a drug or other agent administered for therapeutic purposes, but may be used to describe any case where a substance is introduced to the body. In nutrition, the term is usually applied to how much of a specific nutrient is in a person's diet or in a particular food, meal, or dietary supplement. For bacterial or viral agents, dose typically refers to the amount of the pathogen required to infect a host. For information on dosage of toxic substances, see Toxicology. For information on excessive intake of pharmaceutical agents, see Drug overdose. A 'dose' of any chemical or biological agent (active ingredient) has several factors which are critical to its effectiveness. The first is concentration, that is, how much of the agent is being ...

*KRP (biochemistry)

KRP stands for kinesin related proteins. bimC is a subfamily of KRPs and its function is to separate the duplicated centrosomes during mitosis ...

*Turn (biochemistry)

A turn is an element of secondary structure in proteins where the polypeptide chain reverses its overall direction. According to one definition, a turn is a structural motif where the Cα atoms of two residues separated by few (usually 1 to 5) peptide bonds are close (less than 7 Å [0.70 nm]), while the residues do not form a secondary structure element such as an alpha helix or beta sheet with regularly repeating backbone dihedral angles. Although the proximity of the terminal Cα atoms usually correlates with formation of a hydrogen bond between the corresponding residues, a hydrogen bond is not a requirement in this turn definition. That said, in many cases the hydrogen-bonding and Cα-distance definitions are equivalent. Turns are classified according to the separation between the two end residues: In an α-turn the end residues are separated by four peptide bonds (i → i ± 4). In a β-turn (the most common form), by three bonds (i → i ± 3). In a γ-turn, by two bonds (i → i ± 2). ...

*Bilin (biochemistry)

Bilins, bilanes or bile pigments are biological pigments formed in many organisms as a metabolic product of certain porphyrins. Bilin (also called bilichrome) was named as a bile pigment of mammals, but can also be found in lower vertebrates, invertebrates, as well as red algae, green plants and cyanobacteria. Bilins can range in color from red, orange, yellow or brown to blue or green. In chemical terms, bilins are linear arrangements of four pyrrole rings (tetrapyrroles). In human metabolism, bilirubin is a breakdown product of heme. Hydroxymethyl bilane is a major anabolic product, from the biosynthetic reaction of porphobilinogen (PBG) and uroporphyrinogen I synthase (known as porphobilinogen deaminase). Examples of bilins are found in animals, and phycocyanobilin, the chromophore of the photosynthetic pigment phycocyanin in algae and plants. In plants, bilins also serve as the photopigments of the photoreceptor protein phytochrome. An example of an invertebrate bilin is micromatabilin, ...

*CCPA (biochemistry)

2-Chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CCPA) is a specific receptor agonist for the Adenosine A1 receptor. It is similar to N6-cyclopentyladenosine. Karl-Norbert Klotz; Martin J. Lohse; Ulrich Schwabe; Gloria Cristalli; Sauro Vittori; Mario Grifantini (1989). "2-Chloro-N6-[3H]cyclopentyladenosine ([3HCCPA) - a high affinity agonist radioligand for A1 adenosine receptors". Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology. 340: 679-683. doi:10.1007/BF00717744 ...

*Outline of biochemistry

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to biochemistry: Biochemistry - study of chemical ... Animal biochemistry Plant biochemistry Molecular biology Cell biology Metabolism Immunology Genetics Enzymology Biotechnology, ... Biochemistry governs all living organisms and living processes. Testing Ames test - salmonella bacteria is exposed to a ... Biochemistry, 2nd ed. Full text of Garrett and Grisham.. ... Toxicology History of biochemistry Major categories of bio- ...

*Hill equation (biochemistry)

In biochemistry and pharmacology, the binding of a ligand to a macromolecule is often enhanced if there are already other ... Nelson, David L.; Cox, Michael M. (2013). Lehninger principles of biochemistry (6th ed.). New York: W.H. Freeman. pp. 158-162. ... doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1975.tb03931.x. Voet, Donald; Voet, Judith G. Biochemistry. Weiss, J. N. (1997). "The Hill equation ...

*Fundamentals of Biochemistry

... : Life at the Molecular Level is a biochemistry textbook written by Donald Voet, Judith G. Voet and ... Wood, E.J. (1 October 1999). "Book review: Biochemistry in a nutshell - Fundamentals of Biochemistry by Donald Voet, Judith G. ... Published by John Wiley & Sons, it is a common undergraduate biochemistry textbook. As of 2016, the book has been published in ... Fundamentals of Biochemistry: Life at the Molecular Level. John Wiley & Sons. 2016. ISBN 1118918401. ...

*Master of Biochemistry

A Master in Biochemistry (MBiochem or MBioch) degree is a specific master's degree for courses in the field of Biochemistry. In ... In Germany, the Master of Biochemistry is usually a graduate degree following a bachelor. It is offered by a few universities ... Examples are the Master of Biochemistry (M.Sc.) in Bochum and Tübingen. In terms of course structure, MBiochem degrees have the ...

*Journal of Biochemistry

The Journal of Biochemistry is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that covers research on biochemistry, molecular biology, cell ... "Biochemistry and Molecular Biology". The Journal of Biochemistry publishes Regular Papers (original scientific work), Rapid ... Biochemistry and Molecular Biology". 2014 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). Thomson Reuters. 2015. ...

*Cell Biochemistry & Function

... is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Wiley-Blackwell. Its 2010 impact factor is ... Cell Biochemistry & Function is abstracted and indexed in: Abstracts on Hygiene and Communicable Diseases AgBiotech News and ... Fisheries Abstracts Elsevier BIOBASE Biochemistry & Biophysics Citation Index Biological Abstracts BIOSIS Previews Botanical ...

*Textbook of Biochemistry

... is divided into the following chapters: Introduction Introduction to the concept of biochemistry, and ... A review of the present status of immunological biochemistry, and applications of biochemistry in industry. Treat B. Johnson, ... Textbook of Biochemistry", Journal of Chemical Education, 6(1), p 182 "Reviews: A Textbook of Biochemistry," The British ... Textbook of Biochemistry, being the first concise and authoritative work in its field, became a standard text. By 1948, it had ...
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A position of a research assistant within the Specialist series (Junior Specialist) is available in the laboratories of Dr. Sihem Cheloufi and Dr. Jernej Murn at the Department of Biochemistry at the University of California, Riverside. Both laboratories collaborate closely and share research interests in the areas of stem cells, neuroscience and cancer biology with a particular focus on chromatin and RNA biochemistry.. A strong candidate will have a BA or BS in biology or a related field and have some experience in biochemistry, molecular biology, cell biology and genetics. A successful applicant will conduct closely-supervised research and provide technical assistance to both labs. Competitive salary and benefits will be provided. The initial appointment will be for one or two years with a possible extension for a longer period.. The position is available starting immediately. Interested candidates should contact Dr. Cheloufi ([email protected]) or Dr. Murn ([email protected]) by ...
Research Fellow, Molecular Biology Department, Cancer center and Center for Regenerative Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, 2011- ...
Translation produces proteins in the cell that are the major determinants of cellular functions. The unexpected gap between the expression of the genome at the level of transcriptome and proteome demonstrates the pervasiveness and importance of translational regulation. Regulation at the translational level not only provides a fine-tuned control in gene expression, but also offers the cell an opportunity to rapidly respond to internal cellular cues and external stimuli without invoking nuclear events that involve transcription, messenger RNA processing and transport. In all organisms, translation is catalyzed in the ribosome, an extraordinary molecular machine in every living cell. Ribosome consists of two asymmetrical subunits that carry out different, but closely related functions. The small subunit (40S) decodes the genetic information in mRNAs, and the large subunit (60S) makes peptide bonds in proteins. Translation is a complex, multistep cellular process generally divided into four stages: ...
The research goal of this laboratory is to identify all of the eukaryotic translation initiation factors and determine their sequential utilization in the initiation pathway. A secondary goal is to characterize how the initiation pathway is regulated and the different consequences depending on the exact point of regulation. Current research is focusing on two major aspects of translation initiation, cap-dependent and cap-independent (or internal) initiation. Although much of the gross work has been determined using hemoglobin mRNA as a model mRNA, it has become clear that other elements influence both the regulation and mechanism of translation initiation in mammalian systems. Within the realm of cap-dependent translation, we are examining the influence of individual initiation factors on both overall affect on translation initiation and the affect of increased or decreased levels of initiation factors on start site selection in mRNAs containing in frame start sites which yield two proteins, one ...
Snijder, B., R. Sacher, P. Ramo, P. Liberali, K. Mench, N. Wolfrum, L. Burleigh, C.C. Scott, M.H. Verheije, J. Mercer, S. Moese, T. Heger, K. Theusner, A. Jurgeit, D. Lamparter, G. Balistreri, M. Schelhaas, C.A. De Haan, V. Marjomaki, T. Hyypia, P.J. Rottier, B. Sodeik, M. Marsh, J. Gruenberg, A. Amara, U. Greber, A. Helenius, and L. Pelkmans. 2012. Single-cell analysis of population context advances RNAi screening at multiple levels. Mol Syst Biol. 8:579 ...
Metabolic pathways with a mechanistic perspective including regulation and control of carbohydrate, lipid, amino acid, and nucleotide catabolism and anabolism. Oxidative- and photo-phosphorylation. The biochemistry and molecular biology of signal transduction, replication, DNA repair, transcription, translation, and gene regulation. Credit will only be granted for one of BIOC 305 or BIOL 319. [3-0-0 ...
William Norman Bigler, American chemistry educator, biochemist. Achievements include research in biochemistry of cell division, regulatory enzymes; effects of ionizing radiation and slime molds; high pressure liquid chromatography; von Hipple-Lindau syndrome. National Institutes of Health fellow University California, Los Angeles, 1968-1970.
Any international student with an F-1 Visa employed by any company in the form of an internship, co-op, or practicum must enroll in a CPT course. The CPT experience is to be complimentary training to the students curriculum and should contribute substantially to his/her learning experience. Students must have an offer of employment from a company prior to registering for this course. The CPT must be approved by the Department Head, Director of International Student Services, and the students advisor. Students are required to submit a report at the conclusion of the employment to his/her instructor to receive a grade for the CPT experience. ...
How do bacteria cope when exposed to toxic mercury and how can they be killed using so-called suicide inhibitors? These are a few of the many research topics US biochemist Christopher Walsh has devoted his career as a scientist to. On Thursday, 25 April, Walsh will be honored for his achievements in Braunschweig, Germany: The Harvard professor will receive the 5,000 Euro Inhoffen Medal, the most renowned German award in the field of natural compound chemistry.
Michael Heidelberger, a biochemist credited with discovering that antibodies are proteins, died of a stroke Tuesday in New York. He was 103. Mr. Heidelberger began his research career in 1912 at the
Sherman Beychok, a Columbia University biochemist active in research on the principal blood protein hemoglobin, has died of a heart attack at age 54. Mr. Beychok, who died here last Wednesday, had
Note: Some of these links may no longer be valid. If you discover broken links, please let Dr. Light know at [email protected]) ...
The undergraduate program leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Biochemistry connects the ever-growing important interface between biology and chemistry. Training emphasizing advanced experimental and theoretical principles is provided in both the biological and chemical sciences, as a foundation for a variety of career paths, including further training in biology, chemistry or biochemistry; molecular biology; and medical or dental school. Students successfully completing the biochemistry curriculum may have their degrees certified by the American Chemical Society. Biochemistry majors are urged to consult with advisers from both the Biology Department and the Chemistry and Biochemistry Department to formulate appropriate programs of study and to explore the numerous career paths available.. ...
The Chemistry and Biochemistry Department offers a course major in Chemistry, a special Major in Biochemistry and a special major in Chemical Physics. Each of these three majors can also be completed as part of the Honors Program. Swarthmore College also offers a major in Educational Studies and Chemistry (with teacher certification) as described on the Educational Studies
Biochemistry department dons [pictured from Left Dr. Esther Kanduma, Dr. Martin Mulinge, Dr. Ezekiel Mecha, {Facilitator}, Dr. Patrick Wanjohi, Dr Victor Mobegi, Dr. Christine Adhiambo and Dr. Caroline Wasonga] were trained on pedagogy facilitated by Prof Digolo Obonyo who is the Director of the Centre of Pedagogy and Andragogy.. ...
The Department continues to rank highly for NIH funding among all Biochemistry departments in the US. In 2014, the Department secured 16.4 million in federal funding and ranks 5th.
CHEMISTRY & BIOCHEMISTRY DEPARTMENT. CAL POLY STATE UNIVERSITY. SAN LUIS OBISPO CONSENT FOR THE USE OF REGULATED CARCINOGENS Chemical Name of Carcinogen Amount granted by this document ________________________________ ___________________________ Intended use of the above chemical : ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Instructor requesting the Regulated Materials listed above : _______________________ To be used in Chem _________ by _____________________________ (student ). Granting of this consent is conditional. All users of the above chemicals agree to the following : 1. All uses and operations with the carcinogens above shall be performed within a laboratory exhaust fume hood. Operations include but are not limited to pouring, measuring, heating, cooling, distilling, vacuum distilling, subliming, refluxing, ...
Explore Calvins renowned Chemistry and Biochemistry Department. Learn about our 6 majors and minors, student research, and real-world approach to education.
Taylor Universitys Chemistry and Biochemistry Department engages you in meaningful learning and provides study abroad, research and internship opportunities.
December 1994 Warmest Holiday Greetings to All, The Biochemistry Department had no major changes in 1994, but there was a lot of activity in many areas, as usual. Our newest professors, Brad Olwin and Clint Chappie, are quickly building their research groups and have settled into their labs and their new homes in the community. Brad and his wife, Jennifer Martin, also welcomed their second child, Katherine, into the family last December, so their lives have been quite hectic (including a recent bout of chickenpox in the children). Another milestone was celebrated in two ways this fall. Barney and Sara Axelrod both turned 80 in October and observed their 60th wedding anniversary last summer (and they say teenage marriages dont last!). Their daughter, Judy, organized a big family and friends dinner in October in their honor, and on November 11-12 the Department recognized Barney with a dinner and minisymposium. Old friends Harry Beevers, Don Carlson, Jack Dixon, and Joe Villafranca joined us to ...
Biochemistry department dons [pictured from Left Dr. Esther Kanduma, Dr. Martin Mulinge, Dr. Ezekiel Mecha, {Facilitator}, Dr. Patrick Wanjohi, Dr Victor Mobegi, Dr. Christine Adhiambo and Dr. Caroline Wasonga] were trained on pedagogy facilitated by Prof Digolo Obonyo who is the Director of the Centre of Pedagogy and Andragogy.. ...
The MSUM Chemistry & Biochemistry Department offers scholarships for students majoring in chemistry or biochemistry & biotechnology that nearly match the universitys automatic freshman scholarships for students who meet class rank and ACT guidelines.
... for college juniors enrolled full-time at Angelo State University College of Sciences Chemistry and Biochemistry Department majoring in Physics, Mathematics, Chemistry, or Biochemistry. Students must be transfer students. Deadlines and award amounts may vary.. ...
Professor Emeritus of Berkeleys Biochemistry Department (now a part of Molecular and Cell biology), Roger David Cole, passed away at age 91 in Santa Barbara on March 13, 2016. Cole worked at Berkeley from 1958 until 1992, when he retired as Assistant Dean in the College of Letters and Science. Read more.... ...
Andrew, Hi. The Registry file produced by the database I work at, Chemical Abstracts Service, allows you to do family searches for various types (basic, aromatic, etc.) of hydrophobic/hydrophilic amino acids. You can search our database of 331,000 polypeptide sequences (all the sequences in GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ plus many patent, modified, synthetic, obscure journal sequences not found in other databases). Were not a free database, but the science librarian at your university should know if you already have an STN/CAS account at your school. Well, I hope this helps. Good luck! Roger Roger Granet Phone: (614) 447-3600, ext. 2346 Associate Scientific Information Analyst Internet: rgranet at cas.org Biochemistry Department Chemical Abstracts Service P.O. box 3012 Columbus, OH 43210 The views given here are mine only and do not necessarily represent those of anyone else, Chemical Abstracts Service, or the American Chemical Society ...
Dr. Murray Junop and his team of researchers, located in the biochemistry department at Western University, are studying how preventing genetic instability can be used in combination with other types of cancer treatment to provide more effective methods of cancer therapy. Read more in The Londoner.
My research interests lie in the mathematical modelling of gene regulation and am developing computational methods aimed at unpicking the mechanisms involved in governing gene expression. I am supervised by Andrew Angel and Jane Mellor in the Biochemistry department.. ...
BSc Biochemistry with Molecular Biology and Biotechnology follows a similar structure to the BSc Biochemistry course, but the choice of options allows you to develop your knowledge and research skills in topics relevant to molecular biology and biotechnology.. Options include Fundamentals of Molecular Microbiology and Disease and Defence. In addition to the core lectures and project work in your third year you have the opportunity to study specialist, cutting-edge aspects of biochemistry, such as synthetic biology, DNA-protein interactions and protein science in therapy and technology.. ...
Full contact details of 9 qualified BiochemistsStarting with alphabet D or Search from 81 different category of specialist doctors in India
The fourth year Biochemistry course is made up of several modules, which together add up to a total of 60 ECTS, and which are examined either by continuous assessment (CA) or by formal exams in Semester 1 or 2. The learning is done through a variety of formats through the four different types of components listed below. During the course we will also have occasional lectures on various topics in a professional skills programme. This will not be examined, but will include skills that will be valuable for completion of some of your modules and for your future professional career.. • Lecture modules (BI429, BI445, BI448, BI449 ...
Although I am fully convinced of the truth of the views given in this volume, I by no means expect to convince experienced naturalists whose minds are stocked with a multitude of facts all viewed, during a long course of years, from a point of view directly opposite to mine. It is so easy to hide our ignorance under such expressions as "plan of creation," "unity of design," etc., and to think that we give an explanation when we only restate a fact. Any one whose disposition leads him to attach more weight to unexplained difficulties than to the explanation of a certain number of facts will certainly reject the theory. ...
Antoine van Oijens research centers on the development and use of single-molecule biophysical tools to study complex biochemical systems, an area in which he has made pioneering contributions. As a PhD student, he provided the first experimental demonstration of the ability to use the fluorescence of individual molecules to beat the classical diffraction limit (Chem. Phys. Lett. 1998). More than a decade later, this approach has become a key ingredient of single-molecule based PALM and STORM super-resolution techniques. Further, he performed the first high-resolution spectroscopic study of an individual protein (Science 1999). Since then, his research has focused on the development of single-molecule methods and their application to unravel biological mechanisms. He has developed tools to massively parallelize mechanical experiments on DNA (Science 2003), to combine mechanical experiments on DNA with the fluorescence imaging of single, DNA-bound proteins (PNAS 2011, PNAS 2014), and to visualize ...
Daily News How Gaining and Losing Weight Affects the Body Millions of measurements from 23 people who consumed extra calories every day for a month reveal changes in proteins, metabolites, and gut microbiota that accompany shifts in body mass.. ...
MATLAB Central contributions by Giuseppe Cardillo. Im a biochemist with a PhD in Biotechnologies Professional Interests: Biochemestry and Molecular Biology
Vanderbilt biochemist Martin Egli, Ph.D. is trying to make sense of evolution of DNA by studying its chemistry. He asks some very interesting questions: On
Vernon Ingram (1924-2006) was a protein biochemist who spent his career studying the causes and impacts of misshapen proteins, and their relevance to human disease
New discoveries are being made at a pretty stunning rate, suggesting its possible to CRISPR genomes without unintended edits, said Harvard biochemist David Liu.
A feeling of distress, suffering, or agony caused by stimulation of specialized nerve endings. The sensation we feel as pain is produced through a number of complex biochemical interactions. These interactions can be likened to a battle between the
This module introduces students the definition of biochemistry and offers knowledge that biochemistry is essential to all life sources and normal biochemical forces in the view of the basis of health. It also reveals the chemical composition of human body, carbon as a major elements and complex biomolecules such as proteins, fats, carbohydrates, water and minerals. Then, students will learn the cell as the basis unit of biology, major intracellular organelles and their functions, subcellular fractionation, the experimental approach to isolation of molecules, determination of the structure of biomolecules, analysis and preparations that leads to study biochemical processes ...
Dr Lothar Schermelleh, Representing biochemistry research at Oxford University, Advanced cellular imaging to study functional nuclear organization
Welcome to the Department of Biochemistry. We use the latest technologies and experimental systems to address the molecular, cellular, and genetic mechanisms of biological processes, including many that relate to human disease ...
Please Note, The ebooks are not always PDF format, you might receive epub/kindle formats after purchase. This is Digital Version of (Ebook) 978-1
Biochemistry test refers to the chemical identification of a particular enzyme or protein in bodily fluid samples like blood or urine.
GATE Biochemistry online test series contains questions important for upcoming GATE exams.So improve your chances of selection with our best online
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உயிர்வேதியியல் (Biochemistry) என்பது உயிரினங்களுக்குள்ளும் உயிரினங்கள் தொடர்பாகவும் நிகழும் வேதியியல் செயல் முறைகள் பற்றிய அறிவியல் துறை ஆகும் [1].. உயிர்வேதியியல் சமிக்ஞையால் கிடைக்கும் தக்வல்களைக் கட்டுப்படுத்துவதனாலும், வளர்சிதை மாற்றத்தின் மூலமும் கிடைக்கும் வேதியியல் ஆற்றலினாலும், உயிர்வேதியியல் செயல்முறைகள் வாழ்க்கையின் சிக்கலான நிலைக்குத் தள்ளப்படுகின்றன. ...
... publishes original work, review articles and mini-reviews in broad areas of biology, including biochemistry, enzymology, molecular and cell...
This is the Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Department at Indiana University Bloomington website. Information you can find on this website includes Biochemistry Graduate Program, faculty, research, and other resources.
Zymeworks Doses First Patient in Phase 1 Trial of ZW25, a Novel Bi-Specific Antibody. Vancouver, BC, September 26, 2016--Zymeworks Inc., a biopharmaceutical company discovering and developing innovative multi-functional protein-based therapeutics, including bi-specific antibodies and drug conjugates for the treatment of cancer, announced today that the first patient was dosed in a Phase 1 clinical trial of ZW25 for treatment of HER2-expressing tumors.
books.google.comhttps://books.google.com/books/about/Victor_C_Myers_clinical_biochemist.html?id=9aNqAAAAMAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareVictor C. Myers, clinical biochemist ...
Sumaira received her Masters from University of Punjab (Lahore, Pakistan), Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechynology working on the purification and characterization of S-Layer protein as a nanocarrier in diagnostic assays. After her Master thesis, she stayed at the same institute as a Lecturer, and worked on several projects such as isolation of biotechnology-relevant enzymes, pathogenic bacteria, diagnostics development, and the development of nano-carriers as vaccine delivery systems.. She joined the Stauber Group as a PhD student in 2017 to study the cell physiological role of anion transport. ...
The three universities of Berlin,Freie Universität Berlin - Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin - Technische Universität Berlin,the Fritz-Haber-Institut of Max-Planck-Gesellschaft,UniCat and BASF SElinvite you on the occasion of the award of theGERHARD ERTL LECTURE 2016 LECTURE"Enigmatic Molecules of Helium and Molecules in Enigmatic Helium"by the awardee 2016Professor Dr. J. Peter ToenniesMax Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization,Göttingen, GennanyFriday, December 9th 2016, 16:00 hoursHarnack Building • Hahn Lecture HallIhnestraße 16-2014195 Berlin-Dahlem invitation (pdf) ...
Honors and Awards. 1992 Schoeller-Junkmann Award (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Endokrinologie). 1994 Gerhard-Hess Research Award of the DFG. 1999 Dr. Heinrich Baur Research Award (TU München). 2001 Research Award of the Bund der Freunde der TU München. Outstanding Cooperative Research Activities. BMBF-Sicherheitsforschung: "Carry-over of Bt-corn-Genes" 2001-2003. DFG-Forschergruppe „Embryo-maternal Communication" 2002-2008. DFG-Forschergruppe „Probiotics in the Pig" 2004-2007. BMBF FUGATO project: REMEDY energy deficiency in cows 2008-2011. DFG SFB 852 Pig Nutrition and Microbiota 2010-2013. International and Conference Organization. Organization of International Workshops and Conferences in Chile. European siRNA Workshop (Ambion). Host-Institute for Exchange Scientists from Eastern Europe, Africa, South-America and Asia. Editor of International Journals and Panel Membership. Editorial Board of the Journal of European Food Research and Technology. Editorial Board of the Journal of Animal ...
DALLAS Sept. 29 2004 Dr. Steven McKnight chairman of biochemistry ...The award $500000 per year for five years is in its inaugural ye...Dr. McKnight the only winner from Texas is one of nine researcher... There is nothing about science that captivates me more than the sh...One of the most significant turns Dr. McKnight took in his career w...,UT,Southwestern,biochemist,honored,with,NIH,Directors,Pioneer,Award,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
Highlights Energy II. 1. Metabolic pathways (metabolism = chemical reactions of cells) are usually either catabolic (large molecules broken down to smaller ones) or anabolic (smaller molecules built up into larger ones).. 2. Catabolic pathways usually involve oxidation and release energy. Anabolic pathways usually involve reduction and require energy.. 3. NAD+ gains electrons from an oxidation reaction to become NADH. Electron carriers are essential for biological oxidations. FAD gains electrons from an oxidation reaction to become FADH2. 4. For every oxidation (loss of electrons) there is a reduction (gain of electrons). NAD+, NADP+, and FAD are common acceptors of electrons. Biological molecules are common sources of electrons (as well as acceptors of electrons, depending on the reaction).. 5. Electron carriers must be recycled in the cell.. Highlights Carbohydrates. 1. Carbohydrates are sugar-related compounds (also called saccharides). They are polyhydroxyaldehydes and polyhydroxyketones ...
Highlights Lipids II. 1. Steroids are compounds with ring structures that are made from cholesterol. Steroids include sex hormones (androgens, estrogens, etc.) and in animals are derived from cholesterol. Cholesterol is an important constituent of animal membranes, giving them integrity.. 2. Glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids form lipid bilayers, not micelles. 3. Cellular membranes are sensitive to temperature. The higher the temperature, the more fluid the membrane. The fluidity of a membrane is related to the fatty acids in it. Membranes with shorter and more unsaturated fatty acids are fluid at lower temperatures than membranes with longer and more saturated fatty acids. The higher the temperature, the more disorder in a lipid bilayer.. 4. Cholesterol fits into the non-polar portion of the lipid bilayer.. 5. In addition to lipids, membranes also contain proteins. Integral membrane proteins project through both sides of the lipid bilayer. Associated membrane proteins are found near, but ...
Marshall Warren Nirenberg, American biochemist and corecipient, with Robert William Holley and Har Gobind Khorana, of the 1968 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. He was cited for his role in deciphering the genetic code. He demonstrated that, with the exception of
Download clinical biochemistry by Allan Gaw,Michael Murphy,Rajeev Srivastava,Robert Cowan,Denis OReilly for Biochemistry students University of Nigeria [clinical biochemistry,core biochemistry,hyponatraemia,hypernatraemia - 95]
... , Skill:Good team player null : Job Requirements :Location: Lagos Available Slot: 6 Type: Permanent Juan Industries is one of the proud leading chemical industry with both locally and internationally recognition and standards. We are engaged in
Liz Bonnin is a biochemist, wild animal biologist, and BBC television presenter, known for hosting various science, nature, and wildlife programming. Her new show, Mission Galápagos, is due to air this spring
The average analytical biochemist salary in District of Columbia, United States is $83,720 or an equivalent hourly rate of $40. Salary estimates based on salary survey data collected directly from employers and anonymous employees in District of Columbia, United States.
Biochemistry instructors are inundated with various representations from which to choose to depict biochemical phenomena. Because of the immense amount of visual know-how needed to be an expert biochemist in the 21st century, there have been calls for instructors to develop biochemistry students' visual literacy. However, visual literacy has multiple aspects, and determining which area to develop can be quite daunting. Therefore, the goals of this study were to determine what visual literacy skills biochemistry instructors deem to be most important and how instructors develop and assess visual literacy skills in their biochemistry courses. In order to address these goals, a needs assessment was administered to a national sample of biochemistry faculty at four-year colleges and universities. Based on the results of the survey, a cluster analysis was conducted to group instructors into categories based on how they intended to develop visual literacy in their courses. A
FACULTY POSITIONS/TEMPORARY FACULTY/ACADEMIC POSITIONS. ********************. California University of Pennsylvania, Organic Chemistry/Biochemist. Application Due: 11/11/2004. This is a tenure track faculty appointment. Salary and rank are competitive and commensurate with academic preparation and experience. An excellent fringe benefits package is included. The position is for an organic chemist with the ability to teach a biochemistry course or courses. Duties for the position will include teaching 24 credit hours per academic year in introductory and advanced courses in chemistry and will require hires to actively participate in ACS Certification of the Chemistry program. A Ph.D. in the chemical sciences is required and applicants must excel in teaching organic chemistry. Successful candidates for the position must have a strong motivation to teach at the undergraduate level, interest in developing integrated lecture/laboratory courses, a desire to enhance the laboratory experience for ...
Aim: To investigate relationship between serum TSH and lipid parameters in subjects with different levels of TSH. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Clinical Biochemistry Department of Kasturba Medical College, Hospital Mangalore, between January 2014 to June 2014. Methodology: 348 subjects were screened of which 194 were selected. Lipid parameters, TSH, T3, T4 and glycemic status were determined. Association between TSH and serum lipids were studied by categorizing subjects into three groups based on their thyroid status. Group 1 [TSH= 0.27-2.5 mIU/L], Group 2 [TSH= 2.6-4.12 mIU/L] and Group 3 [TSH= 4.13-9.9mIU/L].Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA followed by Tukeys multiple comparison test. The relationships between TSH and different parameters were evaluated by Pearsons correlation analysis. Results: TSH showed a significant positive linear correlation with total cholesterol (r=0.288; P = 0.001), Triglycerides (r=0.129; P=0.016), LDL cholesterol ...
I have started a new web site, http://www.biochemist.com, as a hobby. Great you say..... well im about to graduate from MSU with my BS in Biochemistry, and after many hours on the web I have yet to find a site dedicated to the publishing and/or discussion of topics pertaining to Biochemistry (eg. protein biosynthesis).. So if there is anyone out there who is looking for a FREE place to publish please feel free to email me or visit my web site. michael biochemist at biochemist.com ...
Chemistry and Biochemistry Department is to provide students with an excellent foundation in chemistry, encompassing both theoretical concepts and practical applications, and to prepare them for the next step in their chosen career paths.
Challenging courses like Physical Chemistry prepared me for my job where I am expected to quickly learn complex information, such as the anatomy of the human brain. The laboratory skills I developed in Advanced Biochemistry Lab are very likely what enabled me to land the job I have. I also gained independence and confidence through my undergraduate research and experience presenting my research at both Suffolk and the American Chemical Society (ACS meeting) in San Francisco. The support I had from my research advisor, Dr. Denyce Wicht, and my CHEM 428/429 professor and classmates were invaluable. The strong positive female role models I had in the Chemistry and Biochemistry department have inspired me greatly. I am so proud to be an alumna of the department.. ...
Education and training Undergraduate 9/78-6/82 University of California, Davis B.S. 1982 Biochemistry Department of Biochemistry cum laude Davis, CA GRADUATE 9/82-987 University of California, Berkeley Ph. D. 1987 Microbial Genetics/ Department of Microbiology and Pathogenic Mechanisms Immunology Berkeley, CA Advisor: Dennis E. Ohman, Ph. D. POST-GRADUATE Post-doctoral fellow 10/87-6/90 Research Institute of Scripps Clinic Microbial Genetics/ Department of Molecular Biology Vaccine Development La Jolla, CA Advisor: Magdalene So, Ph. D. Research Associate Howard Hughes Medical Institute Immunology/Microbial 6/90-12/93 Albert Einstein College of Medicine Pathogenesis Bronx, NY Advisor: Barry R. Bloom, Ph. D.. ...
The Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry is approved by the American Chemical Society providing students a curriculum to earn an ACS-certified degree in chemistry in addition to their undergraduate degrees in chemistry and biochemistry. There are also numerous graduate programs offered including a combined BS/MS and an MS in Chemistry with an optional concentration in Biochemistry. Our graduate programs prepare students to advance the frontiers of knowledge and to assume positions of leadership within the scientific and business communities.. Located in Richardson Hall, we have teaching laboratories for introductory, general, organic, physical, analytical and biochemistry courses. Research and instrument labs fill the remaining spaces, used for both coursework and faculty and student research. When using the labs it is important to know the safety protocols, information found on the Safety Manuals & Resources page. We also abide by the principals or green chemistry, both in our teachings and ...
Dr. Tattersall received his B.Sc. in Molecular Biology from the University of Glasgow, Scotland in 1968, and his doctorate from University College, London, England, in 1971, for studies on parvoviral DNA structure, replication and S-phase dependence, carried out at the Imperial Cancer Research Fund (ICRF), now Cancer UK. Then followed two years of postdoctoral fellowship at the Roche Institute of Molecular Biology, in Nutley, New Jersey, where he worked out the structural protein strategy of these viruses, and then two further years in Yale Universitys Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry Department, where he formulated the rolling hairpin model for parvoviral DNA replication. In 1975, he returned to the UK, working at the ICRFs Mill Hill Laboratories on parvoviral interactions with differentiating cells. He moved back to Yale University in 1979, initially on the faculty of the Department of Genetics and then in Laboratory Medicine, where he was appointed professor in 1993. His laboratory ...
The Brandeis University Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Facility (BrUNMR) is open to all members of the Brandeis research community who require solution state NMR for their work. It is comprised of four well-equipped spectrometers ranging in magnetic fields from 400 to 800 MHz.. Varian Inova 400 is primarily used by the chemistry department as a walk-up instrument for small molecule analysis.. Varian Inova 500 and 600 are heavily used by the chemistry and biochemistry departments for multidimensional structural and dynamic studies of biomolecules.. Bruker Avance 800 (located in the Landsman Research Facility) is a state-of-the-art regional facility instrument available to all NIH-funded researchers.. ...
Stem cells are not a fad, there are those who have been working for two decades in this field, and therefore the union between this esteemed university and this young and talented biotech company is good news for the country, for the world and for science-everyone should applaud.". A meeting to confirm the Asia-Pacific Symposium alliance was attended by Kevin Maisey, Ph.D., and Jorge LaPorte, Ph.D., both representing the Biology and Biochemistry Department of the University of Santiago. University Dean Silvia Ferrada Vergara has validated the agreement, which will be announces at the Asia-Pacific Conference in July.. For more information, visit the Global Stem Cells Group website, email bnovas(at)stemcellsgroup(dot)com, or call +1 305 560 5337.. About Global Stem Cell Group:. Global Stem Cells Group, Inc. is the parent company of six wholly owned operating companies dedicated entirely to stem cell research, training, products and solutions. Founded in 2012, the company combines dedicated ...
The Preclinical Pharmacology Core is located in two contiguous labs (L4.244/L4.245) on the 4th floor of the Green Science Building ("L" Building) within the Biochemistry Department.. ...
Indoor patient attendants at the Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, will not have to scurry around to collect laboratory reports of the biochemistry department to show them to doctors on rounds, as by September-end, these will be made available online to the physicians and could be seen on smart phones.
The irreducibly complex biochemical systems that I have discussed in this book did not have to be produced recently. It is entirely possible, based simply on an examination of the systems themselves, that they were designed billions of years ago and that they have been passed down to the present by the normal processes of cellular reproduction. Perhaps a speculative scenario will illustrate the point. Suppose that nearly four billion years ago the designer made the first cell, already containing all of the irreducibly complex biochemical systems discussed here and many others. (One can postulate that the designs for systems that were to be used later, such as blood clotting, were present but not turned on. In present-day organisms plenty of genes are turned off for a while, sometimes for generations, to be turned on at a later time.) Additionally. suppose the designer placed into the cell some other systems for which we cannot adduce enough evidence to conclude design. The cell containing the ...
The speaker for our June 8, 2019 meeting will be Adam Cohen, MD, Penn Medicine. Dr. Cohen will give us an overview of immunotherapy and its role in the treatment of multiple myeloma. As you probably know, there has been tremendous progress recently in the use immunotherapy to treat many forms of cancer, including multiple myeloma. ...
CBstat is a statistics program dedicated to the field of clinical biochemistry. The main areas covered are method evaluation and comparison, estimation of reference intervals, and diagnostic test evaluation, inclusive ROC plots. Additionally, general statistical routines are available for description and comparison of data. Modern computerized statistical procedures are included for estimation of standard errors, e.g. the jackknife and bootstrap principles.
Review Graduate Program details of Clinical Biochemistry in Colchester United Kingdom from University of Essex. |p|The University of Essex is one of the UK´s leading academic institutions, ranked ninth nationally for research excellence following the last Research Assessment Exercise...
The primary mission of the Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry is to serve the public interest in health care by providing leadership in clinical laboratory science to national professional societies, the diagnostics ...
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The Beginners Guides are an ongoing series of feature articles in the magazine, each one covering a key technique and offering the scientifically literate but not necessarily expert audience a background briefing on the underlying science of a technique that is (or will be) widely used in molecular bioscience. The series will cover a mixture of techniques, including some that are well established amongst a subset of our readership but not necessarily familiar to those in different specialisms. This is a Beginners Guide to imaging in vivo tumour biochemistry. ...
X-ray crystallography is a technique used by biochemist to determine the three dimensional structure of an enzyme, protein, molecule, etc. Although the technique requires the molecule to be able to be crystallized it has helped scientist discover how drugs can prevent certain enzyme from reacting. By determining the three dimensional structure of the protein or enzyme scientists can determine how enzyme folds and binds. From that information, scientists can design certain drugs that only stop that enzyme. For example, scientists used x-ray crystallography to determine the structure of the COX enzyme that is responsible for arthritis. Now that the scientists know the three dimensional structure of the COX enzyme, they can create drugs that would be able to stop it, such as aspirin. Therefore X-ray crystallography is a powerful tool that biochemist and scientists can use to discover new drugs that can prevent certain enzymes from activating.. ...
By Emma Pettengale, Commissioning Editor, Portland Press Why the molecular? Molecular biosciences explore the structure and function of biomolecules within your cells and the processes that allow cells to live, reproduce and communicate with each other. Biomolecules are the building blocks for all life on Earth, from the simplest viruses, through bacteria to complex eukaryotic organisms…
Lead a drug metabolism lab focusing on the assessment of cellular disposition mechanisms and kinetics in support of all therapeutic modalities (small molecules, oligonucleotides and therapeutic proteins) by using state-of-the-art in vitro models to reduce animal experiments (3R). Evaluate, develop and implement a wide variety of experimental cellular systems including primary cells, micropatterned and microfluidic cell systems to generate cellular kinetic data which enable the translation to in vivo pharmacokinetic parameters and the quantitative prediction of the fate of compounds in different human populations Evaluate the results and their relevance, document in form of internal/regulatory reports and publications, as well as communicate them to various stakeholders Build and maintain close relationship with the different stakeholders across mechanistic ADME and Safety, the DMPK project leader group, Modeling and Simulation and other relevant functions within Pharmaceutical Sciences and pRED Basel.
The miniaturization of the current technology of storage media is hindered by fundamental limits of quantum mechanics. A new approach consists in using so-called spin-crossover molecules as the smallest possible storage unit. Similar to normal hard drives, these special molecules can save information via their magnetic state. A research team from Kiel University has now managed to successfully place a new class of spin-crossover molecules onto a surface and to improve the molecules storage capacity. The storage density of conventional hard drives could therefore theoretically be increased by more than one hundred fold. The study has been published in the scientific journal Nano Letters. ...
By Derry K Mercer, Principal Scientist at Novabiotics Ltd & member of the Biochemical Society Policy Advisory Panel From cradle to grave, antimicrobials have become pivotal in safeguarding the overall health of human societies. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one of the biggest threats to global health today. Recently,…
Heres a recent JBC article I wrote about for my biochemistry course. Its about Parkinsons Disease (PD). Ill give you some background here. PD is a neurodegenerative disease involving dopaminergic neurons. What does that mean? Well, dopaminergic neurons produce the neurotransmitter dopamine, which is involved in mood, reward, and inhibiting or stopping motion. People with…
I lecture Biochemistry at a small University in Oporto. Although originally raised as an experimental Biochemist, I have since changed my research into theoretical and computational chemistry and biochemistry. In this blog, I will mostly commment on recent (or not so recent...) research papers that happen to have called my attention. I hope someone will find it interesting/useful :-). ...
Introduction. HemoglobinLab will allow you to study the biochemistry of hemoglobin and the relationship of hemoglobin structure and function to the structure and function of human red blood cells. You can be a biochemist who will use techniques such as gel electrophoresis, peptide sequencing, and computer modeling to study hemoglobin structure. Or you can be a molecular biologist and study the relationship between DNA sequence, polypeptide sequence, and hemoglobin structure. ...
Fehling solutions are vital reagent for Biochemist and Chemists for qualitative and quantitative analysis of carbohydrates in the laboratory. It was first prepared by Hermann Von Fehling. ...
Im a chemist turned biochemist turned science writer. Im interested in an eclectic mix of subjects including physical and life sciences, languages, literature, music ...
Our dedicated teachers offer all relevant topics of Biochemistry for Veterinarians in the main lecture Vorlesung Biochemie I + II (2. + 3. Semester). Complementing the subjects studied in the main lecture, students perform seven different experiments in the Practical Course in Biochemistry (Biochemisches Praktikum). An online examination in the electronic system Blackboard supports students in self-assessment before individual oral examinations (6 tests in groups of 4 students per instructor).. Elective subjects such as Principles of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology of Reproduction, Biotechnology in Veterinary Science, lectured in small groups, complete the biochemistry curriculum.. PhD students of the postgraduate Ph.D. program in Biomedical Sciences of the Dahlem Research School (DRS) may attend seminars on Current Biomedical Methods or Preparing Scientific Poster-Presentations.. ...
BIOM 415 - Microbial Dvrsty Eclgy & Evltn. 3 Credits.. Offered spring. Prereq., BIOB 260, 272, BIOM 360-361 or consent of instr. A broad overview of the physiological, phylogenetic and genomic diversity and ecology of microorganisms within a framework of general ecological principles. Focuses on microbial interactions with their environment at the level of the individual, population and community, including intimate associations with plants and animals. Surveys current methods for studying microbial ecology and diversity in the environment.. ...
Progress in Physical Organic Chemistry is dedicated to reviewing the latest investigations into organic chemistry that use quantitative and mathematical methods. These reviews help readers understand the importance of individual discoveries and what they mean to the field as a whole. Moreover, the authors, leading experts in their fields, offer unique and thought-provoking perspectives on the current state of the science and its future directions. With so many new findings published in a broad range of journals, Progress in Physical Organic Chemistry fills the need for a central resource that presents, analyzes, and contextualizes the major advances in the field.. The articles published in Progress in Physical Organic Chemistry are not only of interest to scientists working in physical organic chemistry, but also scientists working in the many subdisciplines of chemistry in which physical organic chemistry approaches are now applied, such as biochemistry, pharmaceutical chemistry, and materials ...
Daniel, E., 1992. Lipids in the eggs of captive Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus). B.Sc. (Hons) Thesis, Biochemistry Department, Memorial University of Newfoundland. Evans, R.P., 1994. Biochemical composition and phospholipase A2 activity in the eggs of captive Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus). B.Sc. (Hons) Thesis, Biochemistry Department, MUN. Qingjun, L., 1994. Lipid class and carbohydrate concentrations in marine colloids. M.Sc. Thesis, Chemistry Department, MUN. Yang, Z., 1995. Development of a gas chromatographic method for profiling neutral lipids in marine samples. M.Sc. Thesis, Chemistry Department, MUN. Zhu, P., 1998. Biochemical composition of eggs and larvae of captive Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus). M.Sc. Thesis, Biochemistry Department, MUN Budge, S.M., 1999. Fatty acid biomarkers in a cold water marine environment. Ph.D. Thesis, Chemistry Department, MUN (Awarded title of Fellow of the School of Graduate Studies in recognition of her outstanding ...
Once youve decided on a place for your on-going chemistry experiments, you must have a smell at all. Love is a compatibility with each other, almost destined to be exposed to flames must also be safe to use. Factories and research centers including schools, colleges and universities pay attention to these factors when they feel he loves them and learn your womans cycle and recognize the lipids organic chemistry at this time of heightened sexual activity, and take the lipids organic chemistry to establish their Fullerene Chemistry as a man is going to miss out on sexual chemistry.. Additionally, when it comes to dating. Before we explore what dating chemistry is about how the lipids organic chemistry are produced? To understand the lipids organic chemistry are used to store chemical solvents and solutes for a tutor - whether online or face-to-face who can gauge your learning requirements and plug the lipids organic chemistry in knowledge to comprehend all of your intentions, you can accomplish ...
Applicants must have completed preparatory science courses in biological, chemical, and statistical sciences.. Biological science courses must include an introductory biology or zoology course sequence, a physiology course (animal, exercise, or human), and a minimum of three upper-level biological science courses (cell biology, cell physiology, endocrinology, genetics, histology, immunology, microbiology, molecular biology, neurobiology, and/or related disciplines).. Chemical science courses must include an introductory chemistry course sequence, at least one semester of organic chemistry, and at least one semester of biochemistry. They may not include courses at the survey level or a combined organic/biochemistry course.. Statistical science courses can be any course with a statistical focus, such as biostatistics, and general, introductory, psychological, or business statistics.. The admissions committee gives special attention to applicants performance in science courses. Some successful ...
OBJECTIVES. For the last decades, anti-Leishmania antibodies have been detected in sera from dogs living in areas of leishmaniosis endemicity (1). The presence of anti-Leishmania antibodies has also been described in aqueous humor and cerebrospinal fluid (2). Nevertheless, a review of the literature failed to identify the detection of anti-Leishmania antibodies in dog urine samples. The aim of this study was to determine the presence or absence of anti-Leishmania antibodies in the urine of dogs suffering from leishmaniosis.. MATERIALS. Fifty dog urine samples collected from patients examined at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of UAB from year 2000 since 2002, were obtained from the sample bank of the Veterinarian Clinical Biochemistry Service of Autonomous University of Barcelona (UAB). The urine samples were analyzed at the Veterinarian Clinical Biochemistry Service for protein-to-creatinine ratios. Their clinicopathological data were obtained from the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of UAB. ...
of the Slovak´s Society of Clinical Biochemistry. Assoc. Prof. Ingrid Schusterova is the Head of the Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Children University Hospital, P J Š University in Košice, Slovakia. At the same time, she is the Head Physician in the Tertiary Center for Valvular and Congenital Heart Defects, Eastern Slovak Institute of Cardiac and Vascular Diseases. She took specialization exam from Adult and Pediatric Cardiology at National Institute of Cardiac and Vascular Diseases in Bratislava, Slovak Republic. After Graduation, she took part in Fellowship Training at Ottawa Civic Hospital, and later on performed research work in the area of Cardiology at University of Ottawa in Canada. In the period from 11/1999 till 7/2004, she completed her training at Cardiologic Department, II. Internal Medicine Clinic, General Hospital, Vienna under supervision of Professor Dr Gerald Maurer. Later in 2005, she broadened her professional knowledge and skills at Cardiac Surgery ...

American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular BiologyAmerican Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

... Join Renew About Us Search Sign In ... The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology helps you excel at all stages of your scientific career through ...
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Berry College  Chemistry and BiochemistryBerry College Chemistry and Biochemistry

Berry College offers a Biochemistry BS degree approved by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.. Visit ... CHEMISTRY AND BIOCHEMISTRY. Modern chemistry is a broadly diverse science positioned at the interface of physics, biology and ... The Chemistry and Biochemistry Department secured funding from the National Science Foundation to bring a high-field nuclear ... The chemistry and biochemistry curriculum at Berry College combines a solid background in the fundamental principles of ...
more infohttps://www.berry.edu/academics/science/chemistry/

The Rockefeller University » Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular BiologyThe Rockefeller University » Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Robert G. Roeder. Arnold and Mabel Beckman Professor ...
more infohttp://lab.rockefeller.edu/roeder/

Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology | IntechOpenBiochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology | IntechOpen

Alimentology (5)Biochemistry (8)Bionanotechnology (1)Bioorganic Chemistry (40)Bromatology (5)Cell Biology (6)Conservation ... Life SciencesAgricultural and Biological Sciences (261)Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology (216)Environmental Sciences ...
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Biochemistry - Online CourseBiochemistry - Online Course

Explore the impact of biochemistry on bioenergy and health, discovering why graduates are in demand; with the Biochemical ... Biochemistry: the Molecules of Life Explore the impact of biochemistry on bioenergy and health, discovering why graduates are ... Get an introduction to biochemistry. This free online biochemistry course will outline the background and history of the field ... Thank you for such an amazing course, it is definitely made me realise that biochemistry is the course that I want to study in ...
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Biochemistry (Molecular and Cellular) | University of OxfordBiochemistry (Molecular and Cellular) | University of Oxford

Furthermore, advances in biochemistry are largely responsible for the breakdown of traditional boundaries between cell biology ... Typically about 60% of our biochemistry graduates go on to do research or further study, mostly in the biochemistry field, ... Further details of careers in biochemistry can be found on the UK Biochemical Society website www.biochemistry.org. ... A suggested reading list for prospective Biochemistry applicants can be found on the Biochemistry website. ...
more infohttps://www.ox.ac.uk/admissions/undergraduate/courses-listing/biochemistry-molecular-and-cellular?wssl=1

BiochemistryBiochemistry

The biochemistry of cell metabolism and the endocrine system has been extensively described. Other areas of biochemistry ... Biochemistry is the study of chemical processes in living organisms. Biochemistry governs all living organisms and living ... Much of biochemistry deals with the structures and functions of cellular components such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, ... Biochemistry studies the chemical properties of important biological molecules, like proteins, and in particular the chemistry ...
more infohttp://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Biochemistry.html

BiochemistryBiochemistry

Medicine and Bio-chemistry), T. Y. Chang (Biochemistry), C. N. Cole (Biochemistry and Genetics), D. A. Compton (Biochemistry), ... Biochemistry), J. J. Loros (Biochemistry and Genetics), R. A. Maue (Physiology and Biochemistry), N. A. Speck (Biochemistry), B ... L. Trumpower (Biochemistry), W. T. Wickner (Biochemistry), L. A. Witters (Medicine and Biochemistry); Professor Emeritus O. A. ... Biochemistry), F. J. Kull (Chemistry), L. C. Myers (Biochemistry), S. Supattapone (Biochemistry and Medicine). ...
more infohttps://www.dartmouth.edu/~regarchive/catalog/desc2004/bioc.html

BiochemistryBiochemistry

The final term of a year-long graduate-level course in biochemistry, cell and molecular biology. A continuation of Biochemistry ... Biochemistry 259, Actin Cytoskeleton. Biochemistry 260, Structural Biology (Identical to Chemistry 264-Students should enroll ... Each year Biochemistry 118 will focus on a different topic in genetics. Emphasis on reading and analyzing material from the ... Prerequisites: Biochemistry 101 and Genetics 102 or permission of the instructor. Not open to undergraduate students. Three ...
more infohttp://www.dartmouth.edu/~regarchive/catalog/desc2009/bioc.html

Biochemistry - WikipediaBiochemistry - Wikipedia

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Biochemistry.. At Wikiversity, you can learn more and teach others about Biochemistry at ... Marks Basic Medical Biochemistry (Lieberman, Markss Basic Medical Biochemistry) (4th ed.). ISBN 160831572X.. ... Researchers in biochemistry use specific techniques native to biochemistry, but increasingly combine these with techniques and ... The Virtual Library of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Cell Biology. *Biochemistry, 5th ed. Full text of Berg, Tymoczko, ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biochem

Courses | BiochemistryCourses | Biochemistry

BIOCH 670 Recent Advances in Biochemistry A seminar course on topics of current interest in biochemistry. Students will ... BIOCH 671 Recent Advances in Biochemistry A seminar course on topics of current interest in biochemistry. Students will ... BIOCH 555 Biochemistry of Lipids and Lipoproteins Advanced course focusing on specific aspects of the regulation of lipid and ... BIOCH 530 Biochemistry of Eukaryotic Gene Expression The organization and expression at the molecular level of information ...
more infohttps://www.ualberta.ca/biochemistry/graduate/courses.html

Biochemistry | SpringerLinkBiochemistry | SpringerLink

Alanin Amino acid DNA Glycogen Nucleotide Oxidation Purine Pyrimidine RNA biochemistry chemistry enzymes metabolism proteins ... 1.Department of Biochemistry and Molecular BiologyUniversity of OklahomaOklahoma CityUSA ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-1-4612-4200-0

Chemistry & BiochemistryChemistry & Biochemistry

Welcome to the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry at the University of Oklahoma. Our mission is to serve the citizens of ... Chemistry & Biochemistry. 101 Stephenson Parkway. SLSRC, Rm 1000. Norman OK 73019-5251. Phone: (405) 325-4811 ... through creating and disseminating new research-based understanding of chemistry and biochemistry, through providing expert ... part of the general education programs of the College of Arts and Sciences to understand the role of chemistry and biochemistry ...
more infohttp://www.ou.edu/cas/chemistry

Ligand (biochemistry) - WikipediaLigand (biochemistry) - Wikipedia

In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose ... In contrast to the definition of ligand in metalorganic and inorganic chemistry, in biochemistry it is ambiguous whether the ... This article is about ligands in biochemistry. For ligands in inorganic chemistry, see Ligand. For other uses, see Ligand ( ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ligand_(biochemistry)&oldid=890442371#Receptor.2Fligand_binding_ ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ligand_binding

BiochemistryBiochemistry

... is a vibrant field of study and majors are encouraged to get involved in research with Biochemistry Program ... Bowdoins Biochemistry Program draws upon Chemistry and Biology offerings to present a course of study examining the structure ... The major in Biochemistry enables students to explore a broad diversity of related disciplines through elective courses, ...
more infohttp://www.bowdoin.edu/biochemistry/index.shtml

BiochemistryBiochemistry

Graduate Program in Biochemistry. The graduate program in biochemistry leading to the degree of doctor of philosophy is ... Does NOT satisfy the concentration requirement in biochemistry.. Directed scholarship on selected topics in biochemistry for ... A student may graduate with a double concentration in biochemistry and biology, or in biochemistry and chemistry, if the ... BCHM 98a Readings in Biochemistry. Prerequisites: BIBC 22a (formerly BIOL 21b); BCHM 100a or 102a; and one year of organic ...
more infohttp://www.brandeis.edu/registrar/bulletin/1999-2000/BCHM99.html

Chemistry - Biochemistry | BritannicaChemistry - Biochemistry | Britannica

Biochemistry: As understanding of inanimate chemistry grew during the 19th century, attempts to interpret the physiological ... processes of living organisms in terms of molecular structure and reactivity gave rise to the discipline of biochemistry. ... Biochemistry. As understanding of inanimate chemistry grew during the 19th century, attempts to interpret the physiological ... The investigation of natural polymers overlaps considerably with biochemistry, but the synthesis of new polymers, the ...
more infohttps://www.britannica.com/science/chemistry/Biochemistry

soil biochemistry - Wiktionarysoil biochemistry - Wiktionary

soil biochemistry (uncountable). *The subdiscipline of soil science that studies chemical reactions, activities and products of ... Retrieved from "https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=soil_biochemistry&oldid=42535888" ...
more infohttps://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/soil_biochemistry

Biochemistry Seminar | CaltechBiochemistry Seminar | Caltech

CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY1200 EAST CALIFORNIA BOULEVARD, PASADENA, CALIFORNIA 91125Site content Copyright © 2018 California Institute of Technology ...
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Biochemistry BSc (Hons)Biochemistry BSc (Hons)

Department of Biology & Biochemistry. Location. University of Bath. Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY. Course code. C700. ... Biochemistry involves solving biological problems through an understanding of the molecular basis of life. You will develop ... "I knew straight away that Biochemistry was for me. Using chemistry to understand the fundamentals of life has given me the ... Your application, especially your personal statement, should demonstrate your enthusiasm for studying biochemistry. This might ...
more infohttp://www.bath.ac.uk/courses/undergraduate-2019/biosciences/bsc-biochemistry/

BiochemistryBiochemistry

A Major in Biochemistry will prepare students for graduate work in chemistry or biochemistry; teaching chemistry in secondary ... The Bachelor of Science in Biochemistry will prepare students for graduate work in chemistry or biochemistry; teaching ... CHE 451 Biochemistry Laboratory I (1).. Prerequisites: CHE 230, CHE 312, and CHE 313, or CHE 316 and CHE 317; Corequisite: CHE ... PHY 122 may be substituted for PHY 132 by students in the biochemistry option and by non-chemistry majors, with consent of ...
more infohttps://www.csudh.edu/university-catalog/2015-16/biochemistry/

Biochemistry (Moscow) | HomeBiochemistry (Moscow) | Home

... is the journal that includes research papers in all fields of biochemistry as well as biochemical aspects of molecular biology ... Biochemistry (Moscow) is the journal that includes research papers in all fields of biochemistry as well as biochemical aspects ... Biochemistry (Moscow) is a peer reviewed journal. We use a single blind peer review format. Our team of reviewers includes over ... Coverage also extends to new experimental methods in biochemistry, theoretical contributions of biochemical importance, reviews ...
more infohttps://www.springer.com/journal/10541?detailsPage=societies

BiochemistryBiochemistry

A Major in Biochemistry will prepare students for graduate work in chemistry or biochemistry; teaching chemistry in secondary ... The Bachelor of Science in Biochemistry will prepare students for graduate work in chemistry or biochemistry; teaching ... CHE 450 Biochemistry I (4).. Prerequisites: CHE 230, CHE 312 and CHE 313, or CHE 316 and CHE 317, and concurrent enrollment in ... CHE 451 Biochemistry Laboratory I (1).. Prerequisites: CHE 230, CHE 312, and CHE 313, or CHE 316 and CHE 317, and concurrent ...
more infohttp://www.csudh.edu/university-catalog/2013-2014-catalog/biochemistry/index
  • Much of biochemistry deals with the structures and functions of cellular components such as proteins , carbohydrates , lipids , nucleic acids and other biomolecules although increasingly processes rather than individual molecules are the main focus. (princeton.edu)
  • Biochemistry studies the chemical properties of important biological molecules, like proteins, and in particular the chemistry of enzyme - catalyzed reactions . (princeton.edu)
  • Much of biochemistry deals with the structures, functions and interactions of biological macromolecules , such as proteins , nucleic acids , carbohydrates and lipids , which provide the structure of cells and perform many of the functions associated with life. (wikipedia.org)
  • This three-week futurelearn course has been developed in collaboration with the biochemical society and will explore how biochemistry impacts on these important topics for society. (futurelearn.com)
  • Further details of careers in biochemistry can be found on the UK Biochemical Society website www.biochemistry.org . (ox.ac.uk)
  • As a scientific discipline in its own right, biochemistry has a major impact on all areas of the life sciences and biochemists are in high demand among employers. (futurelearn.com)
  • discuss where biochemistry will play a role in future scientific advances, such as bioenergy, pharmaceuticals and synthetic biology. (futurelearn.com)
  • Recent developments within biochemistry have the potential to develop new forms of bioenergy and deepen our understanding of how natural products may improve our potential for healthy living. (futurelearn.com)
  • This course will show how a training in biochemistry leads to excellent practical abilities problem-solving, literacy and numeracy skills, highlighting that biochemistry graduates are in high demand by employers. (futurelearn.com)
  • Typically about 60% of our biochemistry graduates go on to do research or further study, mostly in the biochemistry field, while others find employment in industry, commerce or other areas, such as finance and the law. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Recent biochemistry graduates include a PhD researcher in clinical medicine, a financial analyst, a market research executive, and a research assistant at a Chinese university. (ox.ac.uk)
  • 2 courses from the ' Foundations of Biosciences Series ' of the Interdisciplinary Program, comprising either a basic or advanced Biochemistry course and a course on Molecular and Cell Biology. (temple.edu)
  • Explore the wide range of jobs and career opportunities that become possible with a training in biochemistry. (futurelearn.com)
  • An important aspect of the Oxford Biochemistry course is its fourth-year project, lasting 18 full-time weeks, which allows you to explore in detail both laboratory-based research and specific recent advances in biochemistry. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Over the last 40 years biochemistry has become so successful at explaining living processes that now almost all areas of the life sciences from botany to medicine are engaged in biochemical research. (princeton.edu)
  • Today the main focus of pure biochemistry is in understanding how biological molecules give rise to the processes that occur within living cells which in turn relates greatly to the study and understanding of whole organisms. (princeton.edu)
  • Biochemistry is closely related to molecular biology , the study of the molecular mechanisms by which genetic information encoded in DNA is able to result in the processes of life. (wikipedia.org)
  • The biochemistry major is designed to equip students with a broad understanding of the chemical and molecular events involved in biological processes. (brandeis.edu)
  • The graduate program in biochemistry leading to the degree of master of science is designed to give students a substantial understanding of the chemical and molecular events in biological processes and experience in research. (brandeis.edu)
  • In your second and third years you will focus on applications of biochemistry for understanding human disease, the biochemical and biophysical techniques used in understanding biological processes and the relationship between protein structure and function. (kcl.ac.uk)
  • Arsenic biochemistry refers to biochemical processes that can use arsenic or its compounds, such as arsenate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arsenic biochemistry has become topical since many toxic arsenic compounds are found in some aquifers, potentially affecting many millions of people via biochemical processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1. Satisfactory completion of an intensive three-term course in general biochemistry, a one-term teaching assignment, and a three-term course in laboratory biochemistry. (dartmouth.edu)
  • These techniques allowed for the discovery and detailed analysis of many molecules and metabolic pathways of the cell, such as glycolysis and the Krebs cycle (citric acid cycle), and led to an understanding of biochemistry on a molecular level. (wikipedia.org)
  • She says: 'My degree not only gave me the knowledge and qualification necessary for a career in Clinical Biochemistry, but the methods of teaching employed at Oxford University have helped me develop an investigative and independent way of thinking, perfect for this career which applies scientific principles to clinical situations. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Principles of the biochemistry of cell communication and signal transduction through receptor activation, the generation of second messengers, and the control of protein modifications. (ualberta.ca)
  • Evaluate where biochemistry will play a key role in scientific advances in the future. (futurelearn.com)
  • However, biochemistry as a specific scientific discipline has its beginning sometime in the 19th century , or a little earlier, depending on which aspect of biochemistry is being focused on. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depending on the exact definition of the terms used, molecular biology can be thought of as a branch of biochemistry, or biochemistry as a tool with which to investigate and study molecular biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • At its broadest definition, biochemistry can be seen as a study of the components and composition of living things and how they come together to become life, in this sense the history of biochemistry may therefore go back as far as the ancient Greeks . (wikipedia.org)
  • Frequently, symptoms can be alleviated by drugs , and the discovery, mode of action, and degradation of therapeutic agents is another of the major areas of study in biochemistry. (britannica.com)
  • Applicants for admission to the biochemistry Ph.D. program are also required to take the Graduate Record Examination. (brandeis.edu)
  • Funding for NREL's Redox Biochemistry R&D is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences Program, and the Biological and Electron Transfer and Catalysis EFRC, an Energy Frontiers Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science. (nrel.gov)
  • Beloit College's biochemistry program is unique in the nation. (beloit.edu)
  • The Statement of Goals should be approximately 500-1,000 words and should include the following elements: the applicant's interest in Temple's Biochemistry program, research goals, future career goals, and academic and research achievements. (temple.edu)
  • Graduate credits from an accredited institution may be transferred into the Biochemistry graduate program. (temple.edu)
  • The Department of Biochemistry participates in the " Interdisciplinary Program in Biomedical Sciences " at the Temple University School of Medicine. (temple.edu)
  • In contrast to the definition of ligand in metalorganic and inorganic chemistry , in biochemistry it is ambiguous whether the ligand generally binds at a metal site, as is the case in hemoglobin . (wikipedia.org)
  • The biochemistry concentration provides a foundation for careers in medicine, biotechnology, or research in all branches of the biological sciences. (brandeis.edu)
  • Biochemistry involves solving biological problems through an understanding of the molecular basis of life. (bath.ac.uk)
  • 6 credits in Biochemistry, Life Science, or Chemistry chosen by the student and approved by the student's advisory committee. (temple.edu)
  • Furthermore, advances in biochemistry are largely responsible for the breakdown of traditional boundaries between cell biology, medicine, physics and chemistry as their applications become increasingly wide reaching. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Coverage also extends to new experimental methods in biochemistry, theoretical contributions of biochemical importance, reviews of contemporary biochemical topics, and mini-reviews ( News in Biochemistry ). (springer.com)
  • Prerequisites: Biochemistry 101 and 102 or permission of the instructor. (dartmouth.edu)
  • Some argued that the beginning of biochemistry may have been the discovery of the first enzyme , diastase (today called amylase ), in 1833 by Anselme Payen , while others considered Eduard Buchner 's first demonstration of a complex biochemical process alcoholic fermentation in cell-free extracts in 1897 to be the birth of biochemistry. (wikipedia.org)