Molecular Sequence Data
Amino Acid Sequence
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
Protein Structure, Secondary
Clinical Chemistry Tests
Protein Structure, Tertiary
Clinical Laboratory Techniques
Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
Liver Function Tests
Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
Group IA Phospholipases A2
Metabolic Networks and Pathways
Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular
Nucleic Acid Conformation
Spectrum Analysis, Raman
Photosynthetic Reaction Center Complex Proteins
Toxicity Tests, Chronic
Education, Medical, Undergraduate
Nuchal Translucency Measurement
Pathology Department, Hospital
Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human
High-affinity binding of the AP-1 adaptor complex to trans-golgi network membranes devoid of mannose 6-phosphate receptors. (1/1234)The GTP-binding protein ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) initiates clathrin-coat assembly at the trans-Goli network (TGN) by generating high-affinity membrane-binding sites for the AP-1 adaptor complex. Both transmembrane proteins, which are sorted into the assembling coated bud, and novel docking proteins have been suggested to be partners with GTP-bound ARF in generating the AP-1-docking sites. The best characterized, and probably the major transmembrane molecules sorted into the clathrin-coated vesicles that form on the TGN, are the mannose 6-phosphate receptors (MPRs). Here, we have examined the role of the MPRs in the AP-1 recruitment process by comparing fibroblasts derived from embryos of either normal or MPR-negative animals. Despite major alterations to the lysosome compartment in the MPR-deficient cells, the steady-state distribution of AP-1 at the TGN is comparable to that of normal cells. Golgi-enriched membranes prepared from the receptor-negative cells also display an apparently normal capacity to recruit AP-1 in vitro in the presence of ARF and either GTP or GTPgammaS. The AP-1 adaptor is recruited specifically onto the TGN and not onto the numerous abnormal membrane elements that accumulate within the MPR-negative fibroblasts. AP-1 bound to TGN membranes from either normal or MPR-negative fibroblasts is fully resistant to chemical extraction with 1 M Tris-HCl, pH 7, indicating that the adaptor binds to both membrane types with high affinity. The only difference we do note between the Golgi prepared from the MPR-deficient cells and the normal cells is that AP-1 recruited onto the receptor-lacking membranes in the presence of ARF1.GTP is consistently more resistant to extraction with Tris. Because sensitivity to Tris extraction correlates well with nucleotide hydrolysis, this finding might suggest a possible link between MPR sorting and ARF GAP regulation. We conclude that the MPRs are not essential determinants in the initial steps of AP-1 binding to the TGN but, instead, they may play a regulatory role in clathrin-coated vesicle formation by affecting ARF.GTP hydrolysis. (+info)
OBA/Ku86: DNA binding specificity and involvement in mammalian DNA replication. (2/1234)Ors-binding activity (OBA) was previously semipurified from HeLa cells through its ability to interact specifically with the 186-basepair (bp) minimal replication origin of ors8 and support ors8 replication in vitro. Here, through competition band-shift analyses, using as competitors various subfragments of the 186-bp minimal ori, we identified an internal region of 59 bp that competed for OBA binding as efficiently as the full 186-bp fragment. The 59-bp fragment has homology to a 36-bp sequence (A3/4) generated by comparing various mammalian replication origins, including the ors. A3/4 is, by itself, capable of competing most efficiently for OBA binding to the 186-bp fragment. Band-shift elution of the A3/4-OBA complex, followed by Southwestern analysis using the A3/4 sequence as probe, revealed a major band of approximately 92 kDa involved in the DNA binding activity of OBA. Microsequencing analysis revealed that the 92-kDa polypeptide is identical to the 86-kDa subunit of human Ku antigen. The affinity-purified OBA fraction obtained using an A3/4 affinity column also contained the 70-kDa subunit of Ku and the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit. In vitro DNA replication experiments in the presence of A3/4 oligonucleotide or anti-Ku70 and anti-Ku86 antibodies implicate Ku in mammalian DNA replication. (+info)
Chemical transformations in individual ultrasmall biomimetic containers. (3/1234)Individual phospholipid vesicles, 1 to 5 micrometers in diameter, containing a single reagent or a complete reaction system, were immobilized with an infrared laser optical trap or by adhesion to modified borosilicate glass surfaces. Chemical transformations were initiated either by electroporation or by electrofusion, in each case through application of a short (10-microsecond), intense (20 to 50 kilovolts per centimeter) electric pulse delivered across ultramicroelectrodes. Product formation was monitored by far-field laser fluorescence microscopy. The ultrasmall characteristic of this reaction volume led to rapid diffusional mixing that permits the study of fast chemical kinetics. This technique is also well suited for the study of reaction dynamics of biological molecules within lipid-enclosed nanoenvironments that mimic cell membranes. (+info)
Attracting and training more chemical pathologists in the United Kingdom. (4/1234)I have attempted to define the function of the medical graduate in the clinical biochemistry laboratory and have examined data on recrutiment in the United Kingdom into clinical biochemistry. If trainee pathologists were encouraged to become proficient in both a branch of clinical medicine and in research techniques, the resulting chemical pathologists should be able to improve the consultative and investigative functions of the laboratory. To this end I have suggested some changes in the training regulations and in the role of the chemical pathologists. (+info)
Binding of cholera toxin B-subunits to derivatives of the natural ganglioside receptor, GM1. (5/1234)In a previous paper we showed that the B-pentamer of cholera toxin (CT-B) binds with reduced binding strength to different C(1) derivatives of N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc) of the natural receptor ganglioside, GM1. We have now extended these results to encompass two large amide derivatives, butylamide and cyclohexylmethylamide, using an assay in which the glycosphingolipids are adsorbed on hydrophobic PVDF membranes. The latter derivative showed an affinity approximately equal to that earlier found for benzylamide ( approximately 0.01 relative to native GM1) whereas the former revealed a approximately tenfold further reduction in affinity. Another derivative with a charged C(1)-amide group, aminopropylamide, was not bound by the toxin. Toxin binding to C(7) derivatives was reduced by about 50% compared with the native ganglioside. Molecular modeling of C(1) and C(7) derivatives in complex with CT-B gave a structural rationale for the observed differences in the relative affinities of the various derivatives. Loss of or altered hydrogen bond interactions involving the water molecules bridging the sialic acid to the protein was found to be the major cause for the observed drop in CT-B affinity in the smaller derivatives, while in the bulkier derivatives, hydrophobic interactions with the protein were found to partly compensate for these losses. (+info)
Detection of putative Zn(II) binding sites within Escherichia coli RNA polymerase: inconsistency between sequence-based prediction and 65Zn blotting. (6/1234)The availability of repeating 'Cys' and/or 'His' units in a particular order prompts the prediction of Zn(II) finger motifs in a protein. Escherichia coli RNA polymerase has two tightly bound Zn(II) per molecule of the enzyme as detected by atomic absorption spectroscopy. One Zn(II) was identified to be at the beta subunit, whereas the other putative Zn(II) binding site has recently been predicted to be at the N-terminal half of the beta' subunit, from primary sequence analysis. We show here that the beta' subunit has no ability to bind 65Zn(II). On the other hand, the N-terminal domain of the alpha subunit has strong Zn(II) binding ability with no obvious functional implications. (+info)
Regulation of F-actin binding to platelet moesin in vitro by both phosphorylation of threonine 558 and polyphosphatidylinositides. (7/1234)Activation of human platelets with thrombin transiently increases phosphorylation at (558)threonine of moesin as determined with phosphorylation state-specific antibodies. This specific modification is completely inhibited by the kinase inhibitor staurosporine and maximally promoted by the phosphatase inhibitor calyculin A, making it possible to purify the two forms of moesin to homogeneity. Blot overlay assays with F-actin probes labeled with either [32P]ATP or 125I show that only phosphorylated moesin interacts with F-actin in total platelet lysates, in moesin antibody immunoprecipitates, and when purified. In the absence of detergents, both forms of the isolated protein are aggregated. Phosphorylated, purified moesin co-sediments with alpha- or beta/gamma-actin filaments in cationic, but not in anionic, nonionic, or amphoteric detergents. The interaction affinity is high (Kd, approximately 1.5 nM), and the maximal moesin:actin stoichiometry is 1:1. This interaction is also observed in platelets extracted with cationic but not with nonionic detergents. In 0.1% Triton X-100, F-actin interacts with phosphorylated moesin only in the presence of polyphosphatidylinositides. Thus, both polyphosphatidylinositides and phosphorylation can activate moesin's high-affinity F-actin binding site in vitro. Dual regulation by both mechanisms may be important for proper cellular control of moesin-mediated linkages between the actin cytoskeleton and the plasma membrane. (+info)
Oligonucleotide-peptide conjugates as potential antisense agents. (8/1234)Oligonucleotide-peptide conjugates have several applications, including their potential use as improved antisense agents for interfering with the RNA function within cells. In order to provide robust and generally applicable conjugation chemistry, we developed a novel approach of fragment coupling of pre-synthesized peptides to the 2'-position of a selected nucleotide within an otherwise protected oligonucleotide chain attached to a solid support. (+info)
The hallmark symptom of RA is an inability to reabsorb these amino acids, leading to their excessive excretion in the urine. This can cause a range of health problems, including:
1. Cystinuria: excessive excretion of cystine in the urine, which can form stones and damage the kidneys.
2. Glutaric aciduria type 1 (GA1): excessive excretion of glutaric acid and other branched-chain amino acids in the urine, which can lead to developmental delays, intellectual disability, and seizures.
3. Aminoaciduria: excessive excretion of various amino acids in the urine, including alanine, glycine, and proline.
4. Kidney damage: chronic exposure to high levels of certain amino acids in the urine can cause damage to the kidneys, leading to chronic kidney disease and potentially end-stage renal disease (ESRD).
5. Other complications: RA can also lead to other health problems, such as electrolyte imbalances, bone disease, and metabolic acidosis.
RA is diagnosed through a combination of clinical evaluation, laboratory tests, and genetic analysis. Treatment typically involves a combination of dietary restrictions, medications, and kidney transplantation in severe cases.
Down syndrome can be diagnosed before birth through prenatal testing, such as chorionic villus sampling or amniocentesis, or after birth through a blood test. The symptoms of Down syndrome can vary from person to person, but common physical features include:
* A flat face with a short neck and small ears
* A short stature
* A wide, short hands with short fingers
* A small head
* Almond-shaped eyes that are slanted upward
* A single crease in the palm of the hand
People with Down syndrome may also have cognitive delays and intellectual disability, as well as increased risk of certain medical conditions such as heart defects, gastrointestinal problems, and hearing and vision loss.
There is no cure for Down syndrome, but early intervention and proper medical care can greatly improve the quality of life for individuals with the condition. Treatment may include speech and language therapy, occupational therapy, physical therapy, and special education programs. With appropriate support and resources, people with Down syndrome can lead fulfilling and productive lives.
1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.
2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.
3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.
4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.
5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.
6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.
7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.
8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.
9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.
10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.
Body weight is an important health indicator, as it can affect an individual's risk for certain medical conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Maintaining a healthy body weight is essential for overall health and well-being, and there are many ways to do so, including a balanced diet, regular exercise, and other lifestyle changes.
There are several ways to measure body weight, including:
1. Scale: This is the most common method of measuring body weight, and it involves standing on a scale that displays the individual's weight in kg or lb.
2. Body fat calipers: These are used to measure body fat percentage by pinching the skin at specific points on the body.
3. Skinfold measurements: This method involves measuring the thickness of the skin folds at specific points on the body to estimate body fat percentage.
4. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive method that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage.
5. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a more accurate method of measuring body composition, including bone density and body fat percentage.
It's important to note that body weight can fluctuate throughout the day due to factors such as water retention, so it's best to measure body weight at the same time each day for the most accurate results. Additionally, it's important to use a reliable scale or measuring tool to ensure accurate measurements.
There are many different types of liver diseases, including:
1. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD): A condition caused by excessive alcohol consumption that can lead to inflammation, scarring, and cirrhosis.
2. Viral hepatitis: Hepatitis A, B, and C are viral infections that can cause inflammation and damage to the liver.
3. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): A condition where there is an accumulation of fat in the liver, which can lead to inflammation and scarring.
4. Cirrhosis: A condition where the liver becomes scarred and cannot function properly.
5. Hemochromatosis: A genetic disorder that causes the body to absorb too much iron, which can damage the liver and other organs.
6. Wilson's disease: A rare genetic disorder that causes copper to accumulate in the liver and brain, leading to damage and scarring.
7. Liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma): Cancer that develops in the liver, often as a result of cirrhosis or viral hepatitis.
Symptoms of liver disease can include fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, abdominal pain, dark urine, pale stools, and swelling in the legs. Treatment options for liver disease depend on the underlying cause and may include lifestyle changes, medication, or surgery. In severe cases, a liver transplant may be necessary.
Prevention of liver disease includes maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle, avoiding excessive alcohol consumption, getting vaccinated against hepatitis A and B, and managing underlying medical conditions such as obesity and diabetes. Early detection and treatment of liver disease can help to prevent long-term damage and improve outcomes for patients.
The definition of DILI has been revised several times over the years, but the most recent definition was published in 2013 by the International Consortium for DILI Research (ICDCR). According to this definition, DILI is defined as:
"A clinically significant alteration in liver function that is caused by a medication or other exogenous substance, and is not related to underlying liver disease. The alteration may be biochemical, morphological, or both, and may be acute or chronic."
The ICDCR definition includes several key features of DILI, including:
1. Clinically significant alteration in liver function: This means that the liver damage must be severe enough to cause symptoms or signs of liver dysfunction, such as jaundice, nausea, vomiting, or abdominal pain.
2. Caused by a medication or other exogenous substance: DILI is triggered by exposure to certain drugs or substances that are not related to underlying liver disease.
3. Not related to underlying liver disease: This means that the liver damage must not be caused by an underlying condition such as hepatitis B or C, alcoholic liver disease, or other genetic or metabolic disorders.
4. May be acute or chronic: DILI can occur as a sudden and severe injury (acute DILI) or as a slower and more insidious process (chronic DILI).
The ICDCR definition provides a standardized way of defining and diagnosing DILI, which is important for clinicians and researchers to better understand the cause of liver damage in patients who are taking medications. It also helps to identify the drugs or substances that are most likely to cause liver injury and to develop strategies for preventing or treating DILI.
There are several types of cholestasis, including:
1. Obstructive cholestasis: This occurs when there is a blockage in the bile ducts, preventing bile from flowing freely from the liver.
2. Metabolic cholestasis: This is caused by a problem with the metabolism of bile acids in the liver.
3. Inflammatory cholestasis: This occurs when there is inflammation in the liver, which can cause scarring and impair bile flow.
4. Idiopathic cholestasis: This type of cholestasis has no identifiable cause.
Treatment for cholestasis depends on the underlying cause, but may include medications to improve bile flow, dissolve gallstones, or reduce inflammation. In severe cases, a liver transplant may be necessary. Early diagnosis and treatment can help to manage symptoms and prevent complications of cholestasis.
The normal range of oxalate in the urine is between 2-5 mg/day. If the level of oxalate in the urine exceeds this range, it can lead to a variety of health problems, including:
1. Kidney stones: Excessive oxalate in the urine can lead to the formation of kidney stones, which can cause severe pain, nausea, and vomiting.
2. Nephrocalcinosis: This is a condition where there is an accumulation of calcium deposits in the kidneys, which can lead to damage and scarring of the kidneys.
3. Chronic kidney disease: Prolonged exposure to high levels of oxalate can cause damage to the kidneys, leading to chronic kidney disease and potentially end-stage renal disease.
4. Gastrointestinal symptoms: Some people with hyperoxaluria may experience gastrointestinal symptoms such as bloating, abdominal pain, and diarrhea.
There are several causes of hyperoxaluria, including:
1. Primary hyperoxaluria: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the liver's ability to produce oxalate.
2. Enteric hyperoxaluria: This occurs when there is an overgrowth of oxalate-producing bacteria in the gut.
3. Dietary factors: Consuming high amounts of oxalate-rich foods can lead to hyperoxaluria.
4. Intestinal diseases: Certain conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis can increase the amount of oxalate in the gut and lead to hyperoxaluria.
The diagnosis of hyperoxaluria typically involves a combination of urine tests and imaging studies, such as a kidney-ureter-bladder (KUB) x-ray or a CT scan. A 24-hour urine oxalate test can measure the amount of oxalate in the urine, while a blood test can check for elevated levels of oxalate in the blood.
Treatment for hyperoxaluria depends on the underlying cause and may include:
1. Dietary modifications: Avoiding oxalate-rich foods and reducing the intake of vitamin C, magnesium, and calcium can help lower oxalate levels.
2. Medications: Drugs such as sodium alginate or potassium citrate can help bind oxalate in the gut and reduce its absorption into the bloodstream.
3. Dialysis: In advanced cases of hyperoxaluria, dialysis may be necessary to remove excess oxalate from the blood.
4. Liver transplantation: In cases of primary hyperoxaluria, a liver transplant may be necessary to correct the underlying genetic defect.
In conclusion, hyperoxaluria is a condition characterized by excessive levels of oxalate in the body, which can lead to kidney damage and other complications. Early detection and treatment are essential to prevent long-term damage and improve outcomes for patients with this condition."
Neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth of cells that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Neoplasms can occur in any part of the body and can affect various organs and tissues. The term "neoplasm" is often used interchangeably with "tumor," but while all tumors are neoplasms, not all neoplasms are tumors.
Types of Neoplasms
There are many different types of neoplasms, including:
1. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the epithelial cells lining organs and glands. Examples include breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Examples include osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and soft tissue sarcoma.
3. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system, specifically affecting the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
4. Leukemias: These are cancers of the blood and bone marrow that affect the white blood cells. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
5. Melanomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Examples include skin melanoma and eye melanoma.
Causes and Risk Factors of Neoplasms
The exact causes of neoplasms are not fully understood, but there are several known risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing a neoplasm. These include:
1. Genetic predisposition: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that increase their risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as radiation and certain chemicals, can increase the risk of developing a neoplasm.
3. Infection: Some neoplasms are caused by viruses or bacteria. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common cause of cervical cancer.
4. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a poor diet can increase the risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
5. Family history: A person's risk of developing a neoplasm may be higher if they have a family history of the condition.
Signs and Symptoms of Neoplasms
The signs and symptoms of neoplasms can vary depending on the type of cancer and where it is located in the body. Some common signs and symptoms include:
1. Unusual lumps or swelling
4. Weight loss
5. Change in bowel or bladder habits
6. Unexplained bleeding
7. Coughing up blood
8. Hoarseness or a persistent cough
9. Changes in appetite or digestion
10. Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the size or color of an existing mole.
Diagnosis and Treatment of Neoplasms
The diagnosis of a neoplasm usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy. A biopsy involves removing a small sample of tissue from the suspected tumor and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.
The treatment of neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Some common treatments include:
1. Surgery: Removing the tumor and surrounding tissue can be an effective way to treat many types of cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Using drugs to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
3. Radiation therapy: Using high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer is located in a specific area of the body.
4. Immunotherapy: Boosting the body's immune system to fight cancer can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
5. Targeted therapy: Using drugs or other substances to target specific molecules on cancer cells can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
Prevention of Neoplasms
While it is not always possible to prevent neoplasms, there are several steps that can reduce the risk of developing cancer. These include:
1. Avoiding exposure to known carcinogens (such as tobacco smoke and radiation)
2. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
3. Getting regular exercise
4. Not smoking or using tobacco products
5. Limiting alcohol consumption
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viruses that are associated with cancer (such as human papillomavirus, or HPV)
7. Participating in screening programs for early detection of cancer (such as mammograms for breast cancer and colonoscopies for colon cancer)
8. Avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight and using protective measures such as sunscreen and hats to prevent skin cancer.
It's important to note that not all cancers can be prevented, and some may be caused by factors that are not yet understood or cannot be controlled. However, by taking these steps, individuals can reduce their risk of developing cancer and improve their overall health and well-being.
Mitochondrial diseases can affect anyone, regardless of age or gender, and they can be caused by mutations in either the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) or the nuclear DNA (nDNA). These mutations can be inherited from one's parents or acquired during embryonic development.
Some of the most common symptoms of mitochondrial diseases include:
1. Muscle weakness and wasting
3. Cognitive impairment
4. Vision loss
5. Hearing loss
6. Heart problems
7. Neurological disorders
8. Gastrointestinal issues
9. Liver and kidney dysfunction
Some examples of mitochondrial diseases include:
1. MELAS syndrome (Mitochondrial Myopathy, Encephalopathy, Lactic Acidosis, and Stroke-like episodes)
2. Kearns-Sayre syndrome (a rare progressive disorder that affects the nervous system and other organs)
3. Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO), which is characterized by weakness of the extraocular muscles and vision loss
4. Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome, which can cause a wide range of symptoms including seizures, developmental delays, and muscle weakness.
5. Mitochondrial myopathy, encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS)
6. Leigh syndrome, which is a rare genetic disorder that affects the brain and spinal cord.
7. LHON (Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy), which is a rare form of vision loss that can lead to blindness in one or both eyes.
8. Mitochondrial DNA mutation, which can cause a wide range of symptoms including seizures, developmental delays, and muscle weakness.
9. Mitochondrial myopathy, encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS)
10. Kearns-Sayre syndrome, which is a rare progressive disorder that affects the nervous system and other organs.
It's important to note that this is not an exhaustive list and there are many more mitochondrial diseases and disorders that can affect individuals. Additionally, while these diseases are rare, they can have a significant impact on the quality of life of those affected and their families.
The condition can be caused by a variety of factors, including excessive alcohol consumption, viral hepatitis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and certain medications. It can also be a complication of other diseases such as hemochromatosis and Wilson's disease.
The symptoms of liver cirrhosis can vary depending on the severity of the disease, but may include fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, abdominal swelling, and pain in the upper right side of the abdomen. As the disease progresses, it can lead to complications such as esophageal varices, ascites, and liver failure, which can be life-threatening.
There is no cure for liver cirrhosis, but treatment options are available to manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. These may include medications to control swelling and pain, dietary changes, and in severe cases, liver transplantation. In some cases, a liver transplant may be necessary if the disease has caused significant damage and there is no other option to save the patient's life.
In conclusion, liver cirrhosis is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition that can cause significant damage to the liver and lead to complications such as liver failure. It is important for individuals to be aware of the risk factors and symptoms of the disease in order to seek medical attention if they suspect they may have liver cirrhosis. With proper treatment and management, it is possible to slow the progression of the disease and improve the patient's quality of life.
The condition is often caused by gallstones or other blockages that prevent the normal flow of bile from the liver to the small intestine. Over time, the scarring can lead to the formation of cirrhosis, which is characterized by the replacement of healthy liver tissue with scar tissue.
Symptoms of liver cirrhosis, biliary may include:
* Jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes)
* Abdominal pain
* Dark urine
* Pale stools
The diagnosis of liver cirrhosis, biliary is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as ultrasound, CT scans, and blood tests.
Treatment for liver cirrhosis, biliary depends on the underlying cause of the condition. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove gallstones or repair damaged bile ducts. Medications such as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory drugs may also be prescribed to help manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. In severe cases, a liver transplant may be necessary.
Prognosis for liver cirrhosis, biliary is generally poor, as the condition can lead to complications such as liver failure, infection, and cancer. However, with early diagnosis and appropriate treatment, it is possible to manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease.
There are two main types of fatty liver disease:
1. Alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD): This type of fatty liver disease is caused by excessive alcohol consumption and is the most common cause of fatty liver disease in the United States.
2. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): This type of fatty liver disease is not caused by alcohol consumption and is the most common cause of fatty liver disease worldwide. It is often associated with obesity, diabetes, and high cholesterol.
There are several risk factors for developing fatty liver disease, including:
* Physical inactivity
* High calorie intake
* Alcohol consumption
* High cholesterol
* High triglycerides
* History of liver disease
Symptoms of fatty liver disease can include:
* Abdominal discomfort
* Loss of appetite
* Nausea and vomiting
* Abnormal liver function tests
Diagnosis of fatty liver disease is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as:
* Liver biopsy
* Imaging studies (ultrasound, CT or MRI scans)
* Blood tests (lipid profile, glucose, insulin, and liver function tests)
Treatment of fatty liver disease depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. Lifestyle modifications such as weight loss, exercise, and a healthy diet can help improve the condition. In severe cases, medications such as antioxidants, fibric acids, and anti-inflammatory drugs may be prescribed. In some cases, surgery or other procedures may be necessary.
Prevention of fatty liver disease includes:
* Maintaining a healthy weight
* Eating a balanced diet low in sugar and saturated fats
* Engaging in regular physical activity
* Limiting alcohol consumption
* Managing underlying medical conditions such as diabetes and high cholesterol.
The symptoms of Alzheimer's disease can vary from person to person and may progress slowly over time. Early symptoms may include memory loss, confusion, and difficulty with problem-solving. As the disease progresses, individuals may experience language difficulties, visual hallucinations, and changes in mood and behavior.
There is currently no cure for Alzheimer's disease, but there are several medications and therapies that can help manage its symptoms and slow its progression. These include cholinesterase inhibitors, memantine, and non-pharmacological interventions such as cognitive training and behavioral therapy.
Alzheimer's disease is a significant public health concern, affecting an estimated 5.8 million Americans in 2020. It is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States, and its prevalence is expected to continue to increase as the population ages.
There is ongoing research into the causes and potential treatments for Alzheimer's disease, including studies into the role of inflammation, oxidative stress, and the immune system. Other areas of research include the development of biomarkers for early detection and the use of advanced imaging techniques to monitor progression of the disease.
Overall, Alzheimer's disease is a complex and multifactorial disorder that poses significant challenges for individuals, families, and healthcare systems. However, with ongoing research and advances in medical technology, there is hope for improving diagnosis and treatment options in the future.
There are several key features of inflammation:
1. Increased blood flow: Blood vessels in the affected area dilate, allowing more blood to flow into the tissue and bringing with it immune cells, nutrients, and other signaling molecules.
2. Leukocyte migration: White blood cells, such as neutrophils and monocytes, migrate towards the site of inflammation in response to chemical signals.
3. Release of mediators: Inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines and chemokines, are released by immune cells and other cells in the affected tissue. These molecules help to coordinate the immune response and attract more immune cells to the site of inflammation.
4. Activation of immune cells: Immune cells, such as macrophages and T cells, become activated and start to phagocytose (engulf) pathogens or damaged tissue.
5. Increased heat production: Inflammation can cause an increase in metabolic activity in the affected tissue, leading to increased heat production.
6. Redness and swelling: Increased blood flow and leakiness of blood vessels can cause redness and swelling in the affected area.
7. Pain: Inflammation can cause pain through the activation of nociceptors (pain-sensing neurons) and the release of pro-inflammatory mediators.
Inflammation can be acute or chronic. Acute inflammation is a short-term response to injury or infection, which helps to resolve the issue quickly. Chronic inflammation is a long-term response that can cause ongoing damage and diseases such as arthritis, asthma, and cancer.
There are several types of inflammation, including:
1. Acute inflammation: A short-term response to injury or infection.
2. Chronic inflammation: A long-term response that can cause ongoing damage and diseases.
3. Autoimmune inflammation: An inappropriate immune response against the body's own tissues.
4. Allergic inflammation: An immune response to a harmless substance, such as pollen or dust mites.
5. Parasitic inflammation: An immune response to parasites, such as worms or fungi.
6. Bacterial inflammation: An immune response to bacteria.
7. Viral inflammation: An immune response to viruses.
8. Fungal inflammation: An immune response to fungi.
There are several ways to reduce inflammation, including:
1. Medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs).
2. Lifestyle changes, such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, stress management, and getting enough sleep.
3. Alternative therapies, such as acupuncture, herbal supplements, and mind-body practices.
4. Addressing underlying conditions, such as hormonal imbalances, gut health issues, and chronic infections.
5. Using anti-inflammatory compounds found in certain foods, such as omega-3 fatty acids, turmeric, and ginger.
It's important to note that chronic inflammation can lead to a range of health problems, including:
3. Heart disease
5. Alzheimer's disease
6. Parkinson's disease
7. Autoimmune disorders, such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis.
Therefore, it's important to manage inflammation effectively to prevent these complications and improve overall health and well-being.
1. Parvovirus (Parvo): A highly contagious viral disease that affects dogs of all ages and breeds, causing symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, and severe dehydration.
2. Distemper: A serious viral disease that can affect dogs of all ages and breeds, causing symptoms such as fever, coughing, and seizures.
3. Rabies: A deadly viral disease that affects dogs and other animals, transmitted through the saliva of infected animals, and causing symptoms such as aggression, confusion, and paralysis.
4. Heartworms: A common condition caused by a parasitic worm that infects the heart and lungs of dogs, leading to symptoms such as coughing, fatigue, and difficulty breathing.
5. Ticks and fleas: These external parasites can cause skin irritation, infection, and disease in dogs, including Lyme disease and tick-borne encephalitis.
6. Canine hip dysplasia (CHD): A genetic condition that affects the hip joint of dogs, causing symptoms such as arthritis, pain, and mobility issues.
7. Osteosarcoma: A type of bone cancer that affects dogs, often diagnosed in older dogs and causing symptoms such as lameness, swelling, and pain.
8. Allergies: Dog allergies can cause skin irritation, ear infections, and other health issues, and may be triggered by environmental factors or specific ingredients in their diet.
9. Gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV): A life-threatening condition that occurs when a dog's stomach twists and fills with gas, causing symptoms such as vomiting, pain, and difficulty breathing.
10. Cruciate ligament injuries: Common in active dogs, these injuries can cause joint instability, pain, and mobility issues.
It is important to monitor your dog's health regularly and seek veterinary care if you notice any changes or abnormalities in their behavior, appetite, or physical condition.
A persistent infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) that can lead to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. HBV is a bloodborne pathogen and can be spread through contact with infected blood, sexual contact, or vertical transmission from mother to child during childbirth.
Chronic hepatitis B is characterized by the presence of HBsAg in the blood for more than 6 months, indicating that the virus is still present in the liver. The disease can be asymptomatic or symptomatic, with symptoms such as fatigue, malaise, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, joint pain, and jaundice.
Chronic hepatitis B is diagnosed through serological tests such as HBsAg, anti-HBc, and HBV DNA. Treatment options include interferon alpha and nucleos(t)ide analogues, which can slow the progression of the disease but do not cure it.
Prevention strategies for chronic hepatitis B include vaccination with hepatitis B vaccine, which is effective in preventing acute and chronic HBV infection, as well as avoidance of risky behaviors such as unprotected sex and sharing of needles.
Control coefficient (biochemistry)
Department of Biochemistry
Fundamentals of Biochemistry
History of biochemistry
Steady state (biochemistry)
Textbook of Biochemistry
Cell Biochemistry & Function
Master of Biochemistry
Journal of Biochemistry
DeLuca Biochemistry Building
Hill equation (biochemistry)
Outline of biochemistry
biotechnology | Biochemistry - McGill University
People - Chemistry & Biochemistry
BMP Seminars | Biochemistry
Frontiers in Biochemistry Seminar | www.caltech.edu
Binita Basukala | Molecular Biology, Cell Biology & Biochemistry Program
Selected publications - Structural Biochemistry - Utrecht University
Biochemistry | The Scientist Magazine®
Conferences - Biochemistry Department - UNIGE
Biochemistry - HORIBA
Top Biochemistry Graduate Programs in Utah 2023+
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry | Cal State LA
Walter Atwood | Molecular Cell Biochemistry - Graduate | Brown University
Biochemistry Faculty | Trine University
William Hsiao - Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry - Simon Fraser University
Publications - School of Biochemistry and Immunology - Trinity College Dublin
Upcoming Events | Biochemistry and Biophysics
African Journal of Biochemistry Research
Biochemistry - Chaminade University of Honolulu
Graduate Programs | Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Regina
Lab technique videos | Chemistry and Biochemistry
L-半胱氨酸 for biochemistry | Sigma-Aldrich
Undergraduate majors/minors - Chemistry and Biochemistry | UW-La Crosse
Victor Busov | Biochemistry and Molecular Biology-PhD | Michigan Tech
NHANES 2001-2002: Standard Biochemistry Profile Data Documentation, Codebook, and Frequencies
Selected Publications | Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry
Course Descriptions | Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry
- The word biochemistry is the sum of two parts: (1) biology and (2) chemistry. (gradschools.com)
- Forensic Chemistry, Biochemistry of Cancer and Biochemistry of Obesity and Diabetes are a few examples. (gradschools.com)
- The Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry is dedicated to providing high-quality education in an environment that encourages hands-on student research training. (calstatela.edu)
- The Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry at Cal State LA continues to be a top choice for freshmen and transfer students interested in molecular science on the basis of its faculty's dedication to providing superior teaching and innovative instruction in small class settings. (calstatela.edu)
- Dr. Scott teaches Biochemistry and conducts research on computational and biological chemistry. (calstatela.edu)
- In Fall 2022, the department celebrated students who received scholarships from the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry. (calstatela.edu)
- Central to all natural sciences, biochemistry lies at the intersection of chemistry, biology, genetics, and medicine from which new disciplines have emerged-bioengineering, immunochemistry, and neurochemistry among others. (chaminade.edu)
- In recent years the significance of the field has been recognized by the Nobel prizes awarded in chemistry and medicine for major innovations in biochemistry. (chaminade.edu)
- As potential biochemistry majors, Chaminade will offer you a unique academic setting where biology and chemistry faculty interact regularly initiating novel ideas in active learning, collaborative research with student participation, as well as being always attentive for any feedback from you. (chaminade.edu)
- Our department offers thesis-based MSc and PhD degrees in chemistry and biochemistry. (uregina.ca)
- The School of Chemistry and Biochemistry has its operations spread over six different building on the GT campus. (gatech.edu)
- And understanding the chemistry that occurs in living organisms-that's biochemistry. (nih.gov)
- The Genetics and Biochemistry Section studies the biochemistry, molecular, and cell biology of meiotic (homologous) recombination in mice and humans. (nih.gov)
- The African Journal of Biochemistry Research covers all areas of the subject such as nutritional biochemistry, analytical biochemistry, clinical biochemistry, human and plant genetics, molecular and cell biology, enzymology, toxicology and plant biochemistry. (academicjournals.org)
- For several years, the Laboratory of Biochemistry, led by Dr. Rodney L. Levine, has focused its research on the identification of oxidative modifications of proteins. (nih.gov)
- To study these modifications, Dr. Levine's laboratory is using a variety of techniques from biochemistry and mass spectrometry to transgenic mouse models with altered enzymatic activity of the reductases. (nih.gov)
- Graduate biochemistry students often spend time in the laboratory to supplement advanced courses. (gradschools.com)
- Biochemistry is an active and laboratory-based branch of science that explores the chemical processes within and related to living organisms. (gradschools.com)
- The NIDDK invites Cooperative Agreement applications for an open competition for the Central Biochemistry Laboratory (CBL) of The Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) consortium. (nih.gov)
- The purpose of this Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) is to support the Central Biochemistry Laboratory for The Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) consortium. (nih.gov)
- CKiD is a consortium composed of two Clinical Coordinating Centers (CCC), a Data Coordinating Center (DCC), and a Central Biochemistry Laboratory (CBL). (nih.gov)
- National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry Laboratory Medicine Practice Guidelines for use of tumor markers in clinical practice: quality requirements. (nih.gov)
- This report presents updated National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry Laboratory Medicine Practice Guidelines summarizing quality requirements for the use of tumor markers. (nih.gov)
- Below is the list of peer and non peer publications from the School of Biochemistry and Immunology. (tcd.ie)
- Biochemistry graduate programs offer a rigorous and broad-based curriculum of research and coursework that could lead to a Master of Science (MS) or Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) degree. (gradschools.com)
- African Journal of Biochemistry Research 12(4): 40-44. (academicjournals.org)
- Claude was a pioneer in the biochemistry of calcium-binding proteins and calcium-dependent signaling. (nih.gov)
- Each biochemistry graduate school has its own set of standards and required components of a completed application. (gradschools.com)
- In her article for Science in 1974, titled 'Selenium Biochemistry,' Thressa reviewed previous literature on selenium in diverse areas of study. (nih.gov)
- A degree in biochemistry is a key to numerous doors: not only will it prepare you for graduate work or a career in the medical field, but it may also offer opportunities in the pharmaceutical and biotech industries. (chaminade.edu)
- Information about supervisors connected with this course can also be found at the Department of Biochemistry website. (ox.ac.uk)
- For this course, the allocation of graduate supervision is the responsibility of the Department of Biochemistry and it is not always possible to accommodate the preferences of incoming graduate students to work with a particular member of staff. (ox.ac.uk)
- Under exceptional circumstances a supervisor may be found outside the Department of Biochemistry. (ox.ac.uk)
- The analytical biochemistry of chromium. (nih.gov)
- Biochemistry research international. (nih.gov)
- The Genetics and Biochemistry Section studies the biochemistry, molecular, and cell biology of meiotic (homologous) recombination in mice and humans. (nih.gov)