The study of the composition, chemical structures, and chemical reactions of living things.
The chemical processes, enzymatic activities, and pathways of living things and related temporal, dimensional, qualitative, and quantitative concepts.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
An examination of chemicals in the blood.
The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The specialty of ANALYTIC CHEMISTRY applied to assays of physiologically important substances found in blood, urine, tissues, and other biological fluids for the purpose of aiding the physician in making a diagnosis or following therapy.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The study of the structure, biosynthesis, and function of CARBOHYDRATES and GLYCOSYLATION.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Tests used in the analysis of the hemic system.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Hospital facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The origin of life. It includes studies of the potential basis for life in organic compounds but excludes studies of the development of altered forms of life through mutation and natural selection, which is BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Laboratory tests demonstrating the presence of physiologically significant substances in the blood, urine, tissue, and body fluids with application to the diagnosis or therapy of disease.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with morphology, physiology, and pathology of the blood and blood-forming tissues.
Parts of the myosin molecule resulting from cleavage by proteolytic enzymes (PAPAIN; TRYPSIN; or CHYMOTRYPSIN) at well-localized regions. Study of these isolated fragments helps to delineate the functional roles of different parts of myosin. Two of the most common subfragments are myosin S-1 and myosin S-2. S-1 contains the heads of the heavy chains plus the light chains and S-2 contains part of the double-stranded, alpha-helical, heavy chain tail (myosin rod).
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Chemical and physical transformation of the biogenic elements from their nucleosynthesis in stars to their incorporation and subsequent modification in planetary bodies and terrestrial biochemistry. It includes the mechanism of incorporation of biogenic elements into complex molecules and molecular systems, leading up to the origin of life.
A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
A subclass of group I phospholipases A2 that includes enzymes isolated from ELAPID VENOMS.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Inorganic salts or organic esters of phosphorous acid that contain the (3-)PO3 radical. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
A PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE containing enzyme that catalyzes the reversible transfer of an amino group between D-Alanine and alpha-ketoglutarate to form PYRUVATE and D-GLUTAMATE, respectively. It plays a role in the synthesis of the bacterial CELL WALL. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 2.6.1.10.
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The highest dosage administered that does not produce toxic effects.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.
Instructional use of examples or cases to teach using problem-solving skills and critical thinking.
A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.
Compounds used extensively as acetylation, oxidation and dehydrating agents and in the modification of proteins and enzymes.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Derivatives of the dimethylisoalloxazine (7,8-dimethylbenzo[g]pteridine-2,4(3H,10H)-dione) skeleton. Flavin derivatives serve an electron transfer function as ENZYME COFACTORS in FLAVOPROTEINS.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Cellular processes, properties, and characteristics.
NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A strong organic base existing primarily as guanidium ions at physiological pH. It is found in the urine as a normal product of protein metabolism. It is also used in laboratory research as a protein denaturant. (From Martindale, the Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed and Merck Index, 12th ed) It is also used in the treatment of myasthenia and as a fluorescent probe in HPLC.
The transfer of energy of a given form among different scales of motion. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed). It includes the transfer of kinetic energy and the transfer of chemical energy. The transfer of chemical energy from one molecule to another depends on proximity of molecules so it is often used as in techniques to measure distance such as the use of FORSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Continuous sequential changes which occur in the physiological and psychological functions during the life-time of an individual.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.
Analogs of those substrates or compounds which bind naturally at the active sites of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, steroids, or physiological receptors. These analogs form a stable covalent bond at the binding site, thereby acting as inhibitors of the proteins or steroids.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Deuterium. The stable isotope of hydrogen. It has one neutron and one proton in the nucleus.
The measurement of the quantity of heat involved in various processes, such as chemical reactions, changes of state, and formations of solutions, or in the determination of the heat capacities of substances. The fundamental unit of measurement is the joule or the calorie (4.184 joules). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Protein complexes that take part in the process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They are located within the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of plant CHLOROPLASTS and a variety of structures in more primitive organisms. There are two major complexes involved in the photosynthetic process called PHOTOSYSTEM I and PHOTOSYSTEM II.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
A conjugated protein which is the oxygen-transporting pigment of muscle. It is made up of one globin polypeptide chain and one heme group.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
Experiments designed to determine the potential toxic effects of a long-term exposure to a chemical or chemicals.
A benzofuran derivative used as a protein reagent since the terminal N-NBD-protein conjugate possesses interesting fluorescence and spectral properties. It has also been used as a covalent inhibitor of both beef heart mitochondrial ATPase and bacterial ATPase.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)
Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Measurement of the polarization of fluorescent light from solutions or microscopic specimens. It is used to provide information concerning molecular size, shape, and conformation, molecular anisotropy, electronic energy transfer, molecular interaction, including dye and coenzyme binding, and the antigen-antibody reaction.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A prenatal ultrasonography measurement of the soft tissue behind the fetal neck. Either the translucent area below the skin in the back of the fetal neck (nuchal translucency) or the distance between occipital bone to the outer skin line (nuchal fold) is measured.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
A plant genus of the family Caricaceae, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It is the source of edible fruit and PAPAIN.
Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
Hospital department which administers and provides pathology services.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The beta subunit of human CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Its structure is similar to the beta subunit of LUTEINIZING HORMONE, except for the additional 30 amino acids at the carboxy end with the associated carbohydrate residues. HCG-beta is used as a diagnostic marker for early detection of pregnancy, spontaneous abortion (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS); ECTOPIC PREGNANCY; HYDATIDIFORM MOLE; CHORIOCARCINOMA; or DOWN SYNDROME.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
An enzyme of the transferase class that catalyzes the reaction sedoheptulose 7-phosphate and D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to yield D-erythrose 4-phosphate and D-fructose phosphate in the PENTOSE PHOSPHATE PATHWAY. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 2.2.1.2.
An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
The study of the structure, behavior, growth, reproduction, and pathology of cells; and the function and chemistry of cellular components.
A course of study offered by an educational institution.
The science concerned with the detection, chemical composition, and biological action of toxic substances or poisons and the treatment and prevention of toxic manifestations.
Societies whose membership is limited to scientists.

High-affinity binding of the AP-1 adaptor complex to trans-golgi network membranes devoid of mannose 6-phosphate receptors. (1/1234)

The GTP-binding protein ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) initiates clathrin-coat assembly at the trans-Goli network (TGN) by generating high-affinity membrane-binding sites for the AP-1 adaptor complex. Both transmembrane proteins, which are sorted into the assembling coated bud, and novel docking proteins have been suggested to be partners with GTP-bound ARF in generating the AP-1-docking sites. The best characterized, and probably the major transmembrane molecules sorted into the clathrin-coated vesicles that form on the TGN, are the mannose 6-phosphate receptors (MPRs). Here, we have examined the role of the MPRs in the AP-1 recruitment process by comparing fibroblasts derived from embryos of either normal or MPR-negative animals. Despite major alterations to the lysosome compartment in the MPR-deficient cells, the steady-state distribution of AP-1 at the TGN is comparable to that of normal cells. Golgi-enriched membranes prepared from the receptor-negative cells also display an apparently normal capacity to recruit AP-1 in vitro in the presence of ARF and either GTP or GTPgammaS. The AP-1 adaptor is recruited specifically onto the TGN and not onto the numerous abnormal membrane elements that accumulate within the MPR-negative fibroblasts. AP-1 bound to TGN membranes from either normal or MPR-negative fibroblasts is fully resistant to chemical extraction with 1 M Tris-HCl, pH 7, indicating that the adaptor binds to both membrane types with high affinity. The only difference we do note between the Golgi prepared from the MPR-deficient cells and the normal cells is that AP-1 recruited onto the receptor-lacking membranes in the presence of ARF1.GTP is consistently more resistant to extraction with Tris. Because sensitivity to Tris extraction correlates well with nucleotide hydrolysis, this finding might suggest a possible link between MPR sorting and ARF GAP regulation. We conclude that the MPRs are not essential determinants in the initial steps of AP-1 binding to the TGN but, instead, they may play a regulatory role in clathrin-coated vesicle formation by affecting ARF.GTP hydrolysis.  (+info)

OBA/Ku86: DNA binding specificity and involvement in mammalian DNA replication. (2/1234)

Ors-binding activity (OBA) was previously semipurified from HeLa cells through its ability to interact specifically with the 186-basepair (bp) minimal replication origin of ors8 and support ors8 replication in vitro. Here, through competition band-shift analyses, using as competitors various subfragments of the 186-bp minimal ori, we identified an internal region of 59 bp that competed for OBA binding as efficiently as the full 186-bp fragment. The 59-bp fragment has homology to a 36-bp sequence (A3/4) generated by comparing various mammalian replication origins, including the ors. A3/4 is, by itself, capable of competing most efficiently for OBA binding to the 186-bp fragment. Band-shift elution of the A3/4-OBA complex, followed by Southwestern analysis using the A3/4 sequence as probe, revealed a major band of approximately 92 kDa involved in the DNA binding activity of OBA. Microsequencing analysis revealed that the 92-kDa polypeptide is identical to the 86-kDa subunit of human Ku antigen. The affinity-purified OBA fraction obtained using an A3/4 affinity column also contained the 70-kDa subunit of Ku and the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit. In vitro DNA replication experiments in the presence of A3/4 oligonucleotide or anti-Ku70 and anti-Ku86 antibodies implicate Ku in mammalian DNA replication.  (+info)

Chemical transformations in individual ultrasmall biomimetic containers. (3/1234)

Individual phospholipid vesicles, 1 to 5 micrometers in diameter, containing a single reagent or a complete reaction system, were immobilized with an infrared laser optical trap or by adhesion to modified borosilicate glass surfaces. Chemical transformations were initiated either by electroporation or by electrofusion, in each case through application of a short (10-microsecond), intense (20 to 50 kilovolts per centimeter) electric pulse delivered across ultramicroelectrodes. Product formation was monitored by far-field laser fluorescence microscopy. The ultrasmall characteristic of this reaction volume led to rapid diffusional mixing that permits the study of fast chemical kinetics. This technique is also well suited for the study of reaction dynamics of biological molecules within lipid-enclosed nanoenvironments that mimic cell membranes.  (+info)

Attracting and training more chemical pathologists in the United Kingdom. (4/1234)

I have attempted to define the function of the medical graduate in the clinical biochemistry laboratory and have examined data on recrutiment in the United Kingdom into clinical biochemistry. If trainee pathologists were encouraged to become proficient in both a branch of clinical medicine and in research techniques, the resulting chemical pathologists should be able to improve the consultative and investigative functions of the laboratory. To this end I have suggested some changes in the training regulations and in the role of the chemical pathologists.  (+info)

Binding of cholera toxin B-subunits to derivatives of the natural ganglioside receptor, GM1. (5/1234)

In a previous paper we showed that the B-pentamer of cholera toxin (CT-B) binds with reduced binding strength to different C(1) derivatives of N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc) of the natural receptor ganglioside, GM1. We have now extended these results to encompass two large amide derivatives, butylamide and cyclohexylmethylamide, using an assay in which the glycosphingolipids are adsorbed on hydrophobic PVDF membranes. The latter derivative showed an affinity approximately equal to that earlier found for benzylamide ( approximately 0.01 relative to native GM1) whereas the former revealed a approximately tenfold further reduction in affinity. Another derivative with a charged C(1)-amide group, aminopropylamide, was not bound by the toxin. Toxin binding to C(7) derivatives was reduced by about 50% compared with the native ganglioside. Molecular modeling of C(1) and C(7) derivatives in complex with CT-B gave a structural rationale for the observed differences in the relative affinities of the various derivatives. Loss of or altered hydrogen bond interactions involving the water molecules bridging the sialic acid to the protein was found to be the major cause for the observed drop in CT-B affinity in the smaller derivatives, while in the bulkier derivatives, hydrophobic interactions with the protein were found to partly compensate for these losses.  (+info)

Detection of putative Zn(II) binding sites within Escherichia coli RNA polymerase: inconsistency between sequence-based prediction and 65Zn blotting. (6/1234)

The availability of repeating 'Cys' and/or 'His' units in a particular order prompts the prediction of Zn(II) finger motifs in a protein. Escherichia coli RNA polymerase has two tightly bound Zn(II) per molecule of the enzyme as detected by atomic absorption spectroscopy. One Zn(II) was identified to be at the beta subunit, whereas the other putative Zn(II) binding site has recently been predicted to be at the N-terminal half of the beta' subunit, from primary sequence analysis. We show here that the beta' subunit has no ability to bind 65Zn(II). On the other hand, the N-terminal domain of the alpha subunit has strong Zn(II) binding ability with no obvious functional implications.  (+info)

Regulation of F-actin binding to platelet moesin in vitro by both phosphorylation of threonine 558 and polyphosphatidylinositides. (7/1234)

Activation of human platelets with thrombin transiently increases phosphorylation at (558)threonine of moesin as determined with phosphorylation state-specific antibodies. This specific modification is completely inhibited by the kinase inhibitor staurosporine and maximally promoted by the phosphatase inhibitor calyculin A, making it possible to purify the two forms of moesin to homogeneity. Blot overlay assays with F-actin probes labeled with either [32P]ATP or 125I show that only phosphorylated moesin interacts with F-actin in total platelet lysates, in moesin antibody immunoprecipitates, and when purified. In the absence of detergents, both forms of the isolated protein are aggregated. Phosphorylated, purified moesin co-sediments with alpha- or beta/gamma-actin filaments in cationic, but not in anionic, nonionic, or amphoteric detergents. The interaction affinity is high (Kd, approximately 1.5 nM), and the maximal moesin:actin stoichiometry is 1:1. This interaction is also observed in platelets extracted with cationic but not with nonionic detergents. In 0.1% Triton X-100, F-actin interacts with phosphorylated moesin only in the presence of polyphosphatidylinositides. Thus, both polyphosphatidylinositides and phosphorylation can activate moesin's high-affinity F-actin binding site in vitro. Dual regulation by both mechanisms may be important for proper cellular control of moesin-mediated linkages between the actin cytoskeleton and the plasma membrane.  (+info)

Oligonucleotide-peptide conjugates as potential antisense agents. (8/1234)

Oligonucleotide-peptide conjugates have several applications, including their potential use as improved antisense agents for interfering with the RNA function within cells. In order to provide robust and generally applicable conjugation chemistry, we developed a novel approach of fragment coupling of pre-synthesized peptides to the 2'-position of a selected nucleotide within an otherwise protected oligonucleotide chain attached to a solid support.  (+info)

The hallmark symptom of RA is an inability to reabsorb these amino acids, leading to their excessive excretion in the urine. This can cause a range of health problems, including:

1. Cystinuria: excessive excretion of cystine in the urine, which can form stones and damage the kidneys.
2. Glutaric aciduria type 1 (GA1): excessive excretion of glutaric acid and other branched-chain amino acids in the urine, which can lead to developmental delays, intellectual disability, and seizures.
3. Aminoaciduria: excessive excretion of various amino acids in the urine, including alanine, glycine, and proline.
4. Kidney damage: chronic exposure to high levels of certain amino acids in the urine can cause damage to the kidneys, leading to chronic kidney disease and potentially end-stage renal disease (ESRD).
5. Other complications: RA can also lead to other health problems, such as electrolyte imbalances, bone disease, and metabolic acidosis.

RA is diagnosed through a combination of clinical evaluation, laboratory tests, and genetic analysis. Treatment typically involves a combination of dietary restrictions, medications, and kidney transplantation in severe cases.

Down syndrome can be diagnosed before birth through prenatal testing, such as chorionic villus sampling or amniocentesis, or after birth through a blood test. The symptoms of Down syndrome can vary from person to person, but common physical features include:

* A flat face with a short neck and small ears
* A short stature
* A wide, short hands with short fingers
* A small head
* Almond-shaped eyes that are slanted upward
* A single crease in the palm of the hand

People with Down syndrome may also have cognitive delays and intellectual disability, as well as increased risk of certain medical conditions such as heart defects, gastrointestinal problems, and hearing and vision loss.

There is no cure for Down syndrome, but early intervention and proper medical care can greatly improve the quality of life for individuals with the condition. Treatment may include speech and language therapy, occupational therapy, physical therapy, and special education programs. With appropriate support and resources, people with Down syndrome can lead fulfilling and productive lives.

1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.

2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.

3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.

4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.

5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.

6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.

7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.

8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.

9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.

10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.

Body weight is an important health indicator, as it can affect an individual's risk for certain medical conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Maintaining a healthy body weight is essential for overall health and well-being, and there are many ways to do so, including a balanced diet, regular exercise, and other lifestyle changes.

There are several ways to measure body weight, including:

1. Scale: This is the most common method of measuring body weight, and it involves standing on a scale that displays the individual's weight in kg or lb.
2. Body fat calipers: These are used to measure body fat percentage by pinching the skin at specific points on the body.
3. Skinfold measurements: This method involves measuring the thickness of the skin folds at specific points on the body to estimate body fat percentage.
4. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive method that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage.
5. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a more accurate method of measuring body composition, including bone density and body fat percentage.

It's important to note that body weight can fluctuate throughout the day due to factors such as water retention, so it's best to measure body weight at the same time each day for the most accurate results. Additionally, it's important to use a reliable scale or measuring tool to ensure accurate measurements.

There are many different types of liver diseases, including:

1. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD): A condition caused by excessive alcohol consumption that can lead to inflammation, scarring, and cirrhosis.
2. Viral hepatitis: Hepatitis A, B, and C are viral infections that can cause inflammation and damage to the liver.
3. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): A condition where there is an accumulation of fat in the liver, which can lead to inflammation and scarring.
4. Cirrhosis: A condition where the liver becomes scarred and cannot function properly.
5. Hemochromatosis: A genetic disorder that causes the body to absorb too much iron, which can damage the liver and other organs.
6. Wilson's disease: A rare genetic disorder that causes copper to accumulate in the liver and brain, leading to damage and scarring.
7. Liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma): Cancer that develops in the liver, often as a result of cirrhosis or viral hepatitis.

Symptoms of liver disease can include fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, abdominal pain, dark urine, pale stools, and swelling in the legs. Treatment options for liver disease depend on the underlying cause and may include lifestyle changes, medication, or surgery. In severe cases, a liver transplant may be necessary.

Prevention of liver disease includes maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle, avoiding excessive alcohol consumption, getting vaccinated against hepatitis A and B, and managing underlying medical conditions such as obesity and diabetes. Early detection and treatment of liver disease can help to prevent long-term damage and improve outcomes for patients.

The definition of DILI has been revised several times over the years, but the most recent definition was published in 2013 by the International Consortium for DILI Research (ICDCR). According to this definition, DILI is defined as:

"A clinically significant alteration in liver function that is caused by a medication or other exogenous substance, and is not related to underlying liver disease. The alteration may be biochemical, morphological, or both, and may be acute or chronic."

The ICDCR definition includes several key features of DILI, including:

1. Clinically significant alteration in liver function: This means that the liver damage must be severe enough to cause symptoms or signs of liver dysfunction, such as jaundice, nausea, vomiting, or abdominal pain.
2. Caused by a medication or other exogenous substance: DILI is triggered by exposure to certain drugs or substances that are not related to underlying liver disease.
3. Not related to underlying liver disease: This means that the liver damage must not be caused by an underlying condition such as hepatitis B or C, alcoholic liver disease, or other genetic or metabolic disorders.
4. May be acute or chronic: DILI can occur as a sudden and severe injury (acute DILI) or as a slower and more insidious process (chronic DILI).

The ICDCR definition provides a standardized way of defining and diagnosing DILI, which is important for clinicians and researchers to better understand the cause of liver damage in patients who are taking medications. It also helps to identify the drugs or substances that are most likely to cause liver injury and to develop strategies for preventing or treating DILI.

There are several types of cholestasis, including:

1. Obstructive cholestasis: This occurs when there is a blockage in the bile ducts, preventing bile from flowing freely from the liver.
2. Metabolic cholestasis: This is caused by a problem with the metabolism of bile acids in the liver.
3. Inflammatory cholestasis: This occurs when there is inflammation in the liver, which can cause scarring and impair bile flow.
4. Idiopathic cholestasis: This type of cholestasis has no identifiable cause.

Treatment for cholestasis depends on the underlying cause, but may include medications to improve bile flow, dissolve gallstones, or reduce inflammation. In severe cases, a liver transplant may be necessary. Early diagnosis and treatment can help to manage symptoms and prevent complications of cholestasis.

The normal range of oxalate in the urine is between 2-5 mg/day. If the level of oxalate in the urine exceeds this range, it can lead to a variety of health problems, including:

1. Kidney stones: Excessive oxalate in the urine can lead to the formation of kidney stones, which can cause severe pain, nausea, and vomiting.
2. Nephrocalcinosis: This is a condition where there is an accumulation of calcium deposits in the kidneys, which can lead to damage and scarring of the kidneys.
3. Chronic kidney disease: Prolonged exposure to high levels of oxalate can cause damage to the kidneys, leading to chronic kidney disease and potentially end-stage renal disease.
4. Gastrointestinal symptoms: Some people with hyperoxaluria may experience gastrointestinal symptoms such as bloating, abdominal pain, and diarrhea.

There are several causes of hyperoxaluria, including:

1. Primary hyperoxaluria: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the liver's ability to produce oxalate.
2. Enteric hyperoxaluria: This occurs when there is an overgrowth of oxalate-producing bacteria in the gut.
3. Dietary factors: Consuming high amounts of oxalate-rich foods can lead to hyperoxaluria.
4. Intestinal diseases: Certain conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis can increase the amount of oxalate in the gut and lead to hyperoxaluria.

The diagnosis of hyperoxaluria typically involves a combination of urine tests and imaging studies, such as a kidney-ureter-bladder (KUB) x-ray or a CT scan. A 24-hour urine oxalate test can measure the amount of oxalate in the urine, while a blood test can check for elevated levels of oxalate in the blood.

Treatment for hyperoxaluria depends on the underlying cause and may include:

1. Dietary modifications: Avoiding oxalate-rich foods and reducing the intake of vitamin C, magnesium, and calcium can help lower oxalate levels.
2. Medications: Drugs such as sodium alginate or potassium citrate can help bind oxalate in the gut and reduce its absorption into the bloodstream.
3. Dialysis: In advanced cases of hyperoxaluria, dialysis may be necessary to remove excess oxalate from the blood.
4. Liver transplantation: In cases of primary hyperoxaluria, a liver transplant may be necessary to correct the underlying genetic defect.

In conclusion, hyperoxaluria is a condition characterized by excessive levels of oxalate in the body, which can lead to kidney damage and other complications. Early detection and treatment are essential to prevent long-term damage and improve outcomes for patients with this condition."

Neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth of cells that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Neoplasms can occur in any part of the body and can affect various organs and tissues. The term "neoplasm" is often used interchangeably with "tumor," but while all tumors are neoplasms, not all neoplasms are tumors.

Types of Neoplasms

There are many different types of neoplasms, including:

1. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the epithelial cells lining organs and glands. Examples include breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Examples include osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and soft tissue sarcoma.
3. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system, specifically affecting the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
4. Leukemias: These are cancers of the blood and bone marrow that affect the white blood cells. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
5. Melanomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Examples include skin melanoma and eye melanoma.

Causes and Risk Factors of Neoplasms

The exact causes of neoplasms are not fully understood, but there are several known risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing a neoplasm. These include:

1. Genetic predisposition: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that increase their risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as radiation and certain chemicals, can increase the risk of developing a neoplasm.
3. Infection: Some neoplasms are caused by viruses or bacteria. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common cause of cervical cancer.
4. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a poor diet can increase the risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
5. Family history: A person's risk of developing a neoplasm may be higher if they have a family history of the condition.

Signs and Symptoms of Neoplasms

The signs and symptoms of neoplasms can vary depending on the type of cancer and where it is located in the body. Some common signs and symptoms include:

1. Unusual lumps or swelling
2. Pain
3. Fatigue
4. Weight loss
5. Change in bowel or bladder habits
6. Unexplained bleeding
7. Coughing up blood
8. Hoarseness or a persistent cough
9. Changes in appetite or digestion
10. Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the size or color of an existing mole.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Neoplasms

The diagnosis of a neoplasm usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy. A biopsy involves removing a small sample of tissue from the suspected tumor and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.

The treatment of neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Some common treatments include:

1. Surgery: Removing the tumor and surrounding tissue can be an effective way to treat many types of cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Using drugs to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
3. Radiation therapy: Using high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer is located in a specific area of the body.
4. Immunotherapy: Boosting the body's immune system to fight cancer can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
5. Targeted therapy: Using drugs or other substances to target specific molecules on cancer cells can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.

Prevention of Neoplasms

While it is not always possible to prevent neoplasms, there are several steps that can reduce the risk of developing cancer. These include:

1. Avoiding exposure to known carcinogens (such as tobacco smoke and radiation)
2. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
3. Getting regular exercise
4. Not smoking or using tobacco products
5. Limiting alcohol consumption
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viruses that are associated with cancer (such as human papillomavirus, or HPV)
7. Participating in screening programs for early detection of cancer (such as mammograms for breast cancer and colonoscopies for colon cancer)
8. Avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight and using protective measures such as sunscreen and hats to prevent skin cancer.

It's important to note that not all cancers can be prevented, and some may be caused by factors that are not yet understood or cannot be controlled. However, by taking these steps, individuals can reduce their risk of developing cancer and improve their overall health and well-being.

Mitochondrial diseases can affect anyone, regardless of age or gender, and they can be caused by mutations in either the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) or the nuclear DNA (nDNA). These mutations can be inherited from one's parents or acquired during embryonic development.

Some of the most common symptoms of mitochondrial diseases include:

1. Muscle weakness and wasting
2. Seizures
3. Cognitive impairment
4. Vision loss
5. Hearing loss
6. Heart problems
7. Neurological disorders
8. Gastrointestinal issues
9. Liver and kidney dysfunction

Some examples of mitochondrial diseases include:

1. MELAS syndrome (Mitochondrial Myopathy, Encephalopathy, Lactic Acidosis, and Stroke-like episodes)
2. Kearns-Sayre syndrome (a rare progressive disorder that affects the nervous system and other organs)
3. Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO), which is characterized by weakness of the extraocular muscles and vision loss
4. Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome, which can cause a wide range of symptoms including seizures, developmental delays, and muscle weakness.
5. Mitochondrial myopathy, encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS)
6. Leigh syndrome, which is a rare genetic disorder that affects the brain and spinal cord.
7. LHON (Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy), which is a rare form of vision loss that can lead to blindness in one or both eyes.
8. Mitochondrial DNA mutation, which can cause a wide range of symptoms including seizures, developmental delays, and muscle weakness.
9. Mitochondrial myopathy, encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS)
10. Kearns-Sayre syndrome, which is a rare progressive disorder that affects the nervous system and other organs.

It's important to note that this is not an exhaustive list and there are many more mitochondrial diseases and disorders that can affect individuals. Additionally, while these diseases are rare, they can have a significant impact on the quality of life of those affected and their families.

The condition can be caused by a variety of factors, including excessive alcohol consumption, viral hepatitis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and certain medications. It can also be a complication of other diseases such as hemochromatosis and Wilson's disease.

The symptoms of liver cirrhosis can vary depending on the severity of the disease, but may include fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, abdominal swelling, and pain in the upper right side of the abdomen. As the disease progresses, it can lead to complications such as esophageal varices, ascites, and liver failure, which can be life-threatening.

There is no cure for liver cirrhosis, but treatment options are available to manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. These may include medications to control swelling and pain, dietary changes, and in severe cases, liver transplantation. In some cases, a liver transplant may be necessary if the disease has caused significant damage and there is no other option to save the patient's life.

In conclusion, liver cirrhosis is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition that can cause significant damage to the liver and lead to complications such as liver failure. It is important for individuals to be aware of the risk factors and symptoms of the disease in order to seek medical attention if they suspect they may have liver cirrhosis. With proper treatment and management, it is possible to slow the progression of the disease and improve the patient's quality of life.

The condition is often caused by gallstones or other blockages that prevent the normal flow of bile from the liver to the small intestine. Over time, the scarring can lead to the formation of cirrhosis, which is characterized by the replacement of healthy liver tissue with scar tissue.

Symptoms of liver cirrhosis, biliary may include:

* Jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes)
* Itching
* Fatigue
* Abdominal pain
* Dark urine
* Pale stools

The diagnosis of liver cirrhosis, biliary is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as ultrasound, CT scans, and blood tests.

Treatment for liver cirrhosis, biliary depends on the underlying cause of the condition. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove gallstones or repair damaged bile ducts. Medications such as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory drugs may also be prescribed to help manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. In severe cases, a liver transplant may be necessary.

Prognosis for liver cirrhosis, biliary is generally poor, as the condition can lead to complications such as liver failure, infection, and cancer. However, with early diagnosis and appropriate treatment, it is possible to manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease.

There are two main types of fatty liver disease:

1. Alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD): This type of fatty liver disease is caused by excessive alcohol consumption and is the most common cause of fatty liver disease in the United States.
2. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): This type of fatty liver disease is not caused by alcohol consumption and is the most common cause of fatty liver disease worldwide. It is often associated with obesity, diabetes, and high cholesterol.

There are several risk factors for developing fatty liver disease, including:

* Obesity
* Physical inactivity
* High calorie intake
* Alcohol consumption
* Diabetes
* High cholesterol
* High triglycerides
* History of liver disease

Symptoms of fatty liver disease can include:

* Fatigue
* Abdominal discomfort
* Loss of appetite
* Nausea and vomiting
* Abnormal liver function tests

Diagnosis of fatty liver disease is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as:

* Liver biopsy
* Imaging studies (ultrasound, CT or MRI scans)
* Blood tests (lipid profile, glucose, insulin, and liver function tests)

Treatment of fatty liver disease depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. Lifestyle modifications such as weight loss, exercise, and a healthy diet can help improve the condition. In severe cases, medications such as antioxidants, fibric acids, and anti-inflammatory drugs may be prescribed. In some cases, surgery or other procedures may be necessary.

Prevention of fatty liver disease includes:

* Maintaining a healthy weight
* Eating a balanced diet low in sugar and saturated fats
* Engaging in regular physical activity
* Limiting alcohol consumption
* Managing underlying medical conditions such as diabetes and high cholesterol.

The symptoms of Alzheimer's disease can vary from person to person and may progress slowly over time. Early symptoms may include memory loss, confusion, and difficulty with problem-solving. As the disease progresses, individuals may experience language difficulties, visual hallucinations, and changes in mood and behavior.

There is currently no cure for Alzheimer's disease, but there are several medications and therapies that can help manage its symptoms and slow its progression. These include cholinesterase inhibitors, memantine, and non-pharmacological interventions such as cognitive training and behavioral therapy.

Alzheimer's disease is a significant public health concern, affecting an estimated 5.8 million Americans in 2020. It is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States, and its prevalence is expected to continue to increase as the population ages.

There is ongoing research into the causes and potential treatments for Alzheimer's disease, including studies into the role of inflammation, oxidative stress, and the immune system. Other areas of research include the development of biomarkers for early detection and the use of advanced imaging techniques to monitor progression of the disease.

Overall, Alzheimer's disease is a complex and multifactorial disorder that poses significant challenges for individuals, families, and healthcare systems. However, with ongoing research and advances in medical technology, there is hope for improving diagnosis and treatment options in the future.

There are several key features of inflammation:

1. Increased blood flow: Blood vessels in the affected area dilate, allowing more blood to flow into the tissue and bringing with it immune cells, nutrients, and other signaling molecules.
2. Leukocyte migration: White blood cells, such as neutrophils and monocytes, migrate towards the site of inflammation in response to chemical signals.
3. Release of mediators: Inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines and chemokines, are released by immune cells and other cells in the affected tissue. These molecules help to coordinate the immune response and attract more immune cells to the site of inflammation.
4. Activation of immune cells: Immune cells, such as macrophages and T cells, become activated and start to phagocytose (engulf) pathogens or damaged tissue.
5. Increased heat production: Inflammation can cause an increase in metabolic activity in the affected tissue, leading to increased heat production.
6. Redness and swelling: Increased blood flow and leakiness of blood vessels can cause redness and swelling in the affected area.
7. Pain: Inflammation can cause pain through the activation of nociceptors (pain-sensing neurons) and the release of pro-inflammatory mediators.

Inflammation can be acute or chronic. Acute inflammation is a short-term response to injury or infection, which helps to resolve the issue quickly. Chronic inflammation is a long-term response that can cause ongoing damage and diseases such as arthritis, asthma, and cancer.

There are several types of inflammation, including:

1. Acute inflammation: A short-term response to injury or infection.
2. Chronic inflammation: A long-term response that can cause ongoing damage and diseases.
3. Autoimmune inflammation: An inappropriate immune response against the body's own tissues.
4. Allergic inflammation: An immune response to a harmless substance, such as pollen or dust mites.
5. Parasitic inflammation: An immune response to parasites, such as worms or fungi.
6. Bacterial inflammation: An immune response to bacteria.
7. Viral inflammation: An immune response to viruses.
8. Fungal inflammation: An immune response to fungi.

There are several ways to reduce inflammation, including:

1. Medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs).
2. Lifestyle changes, such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, stress management, and getting enough sleep.
3. Alternative therapies, such as acupuncture, herbal supplements, and mind-body practices.
4. Addressing underlying conditions, such as hormonal imbalances, gut health issues, and chronic infections.
5. Using anti-inflammatory compounds found in certain foods, such as omega-3 fatty acids, turmeric, and ginger.

It's important to note that chronic inflammation can lead to a range of health problems, including:

1. Arthritis
2. Diabetes
3. Heart disease
4. Cancer
5. Alzheimer's disease
6. Parkinson's disease
7. Autoimmune disorders, such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis.

Therefore, it's important to manage inflammation effectively to prevent these complications and improve overall health and well-being.

1. Parvovirus (Parvo): A highly contagious viral disease that affects dogs of all ages and breeds, causing symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, and severe dehydration.
2. Distemper: A serious viral disease that can affect dogs of all ages and breeds, causing symptoms such as fever, coughing, and seizures.
3. Rabies: A deadly viral disease that affects dogs and other animals, transmitted through the saliva of infected animals, and causing symptoms such as aggression, confusion, and paralysis.
4. Heartworms: A common condition caused by a parasitic worm that infects the heart and lungs of dogs, leading to symptoms such as coughing, fatigue, and difficulty breathing.
5. Ticks and fleas: These external parasites can cause skin irritation, infection, and disease in dogs, including Lyme disease and tick-borne encephalitis.
6. Canine hip dysplasia (CHD): A genetic condition that affects the hip joint of dogs, causing symptoms such as arthritis, pain, and mobility issues.
7. Osteosarcoma: A type of bone cancer that affects dogs, often diagnosed in older dogs and causing symptoms such as lameness, swelling, and pain.
8. Allergies: Dog allergies can cause skin irritation, ear infections, and other health issues, and may be triggered by environmental factors or specific ingredients in their diet.
9. Gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV): A life-threatening condition that occurs when a dog's stomach twists and fills with gas, causing symptoms such as vomiting, pain, and difficulty breathing.
10. Cruciate ligament injuries: Common in active dogs, these injuries can cause joint instability, pain, and mobility issues.

It is important to monitor your dog's health regularly and seek veterinary care if you notice any changes or abnormalities in their behavior, appetite, or physical condition.

A persistent infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) that can lead to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. HBV is a bloodborne pathogen and can be spread through contact with infected blood, sexual contact, or vertical transmission from mother to child during childbirth.

Chronic hepatitis B is characterized by the presence of HBsAg in the blood for more than 6 months, indicating that the virus is still present in the liver. The disease can be asymptomatic or symptomatic, with symptoms such as fatigue, malaise, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, joint pain, and jaundice.

Chronic hepatitis B is diagnosed through serological tests such as HBsAg, anti-HBc, and HBV DNA. Treatment options include interferon alpha and nucleos(t)ide analogues, which can slow the progression of the disease but do not cure it.

Prevention strategies for chronic hepatitis B include vaccination with hepatitis B vaccine, which is effective in preventing acute and chronic HBV infection, as well as avoidance of risky behaviors such as unprotected sex and sharing of needles.

In this sense, the history of biochemistry may therefore go back as far as the ancient Greeks. However, biochemistry as a ... Researchers in biochemistry use specific techniques native to biochemistry, but increasingly combine these with techniques and ... Wikibooks has more on the topic of: Biochemistry Wikimedia Commons has media related to Biochemistry. At Wikiversity, you can ... depending on which aspect of biochemistry is being focused on. Some argued that the beginning of biochemistry may have been the ...
In biochemistry, two biopolymers are antiparallel if they run parallel to each other but with opposite directionality ( ... Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Biochemistry). ...
In biochemistry, denaturation is a process in which proteins or nucleic acids lose the quaternary structure, tertiary structure ... Cox, David L. Nelson, Michael M. (2008). Lehninger principles of biochemistry (5th ed.). New York: W.H. Freeman. ISBN ...
A dose is a measured quantity of a medicine, nutrient, or pathogen which is delivered as a unit. The greater the quantity delivered, the larger the dose. Doses are most commonly measured for compounds in medicine. The term is usually applied to the quantity of a drug or other agent administered for therapeutic purposes, but may be used to describe any case where a substance is introduced to the body. In nutrition, the term is usually applied to how much of a specific nutrient is in a person's diet or in a particular food, meal, or dietary supplement. For bacterial or viral agents, dose typically refers to the amount of the pathogen required to infect a host. For information on dosage of toxic substances, see Toxicology. For information on excessive intake of pharmaceutical agents, see Drug overdose. In clinical pharmacology, dose refers to dosage or amount of dose administered to a person[citation needed], whereas exposure means the time-dependent concentration (often in the circulatory blood or ...
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose ... In contrast to the definition of ligand in metalorganic and inorganic chemistry, in biochemistry it is ambiguous whether the ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ligands (biochemistry). BindingDB, a public database of measured protein-ligand binding ...
... is a branch of biochemistry that deals with the theory, techniques and methodology used to study the ... Physical chemistry David Freifelder (15 August 1982). Physical Biochemistry: Applications to Biochemistry and Molecular Biology ... 10-. ISBN 978-1-118-68748-2. v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Biochemistry, ... ISBN 978-0-7167-1444-6. David Sheehan (30 April 2013). Physical Biochemistry: Principles and Applications. John Wiley & Sons. ...
... refers to biochemical processes that can use arsenic or its compounds, such as arsenate. Arsenic is a ... Arsenic biochemistry has become topical since many toxic arsenic compounds are found in some aquifers, potentially affecting ... Kessel, M; Liu, S.X (2002). "Arsenic induces oxidative DNA damage in mammalian cells". Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry. 234 ... Arsenic compounds Extremophile Geomicrobiology Hypothetical types of biochemistry Organoarsenic chemistry Pearce, Fred (2006). ...
v t e (Proteins, All stub articles, Biochemistry stubs). ...
Compiani M, Capriotti E (Dec 2013). "Computational and theoretical methods for protein folding" (PDF). Biochemistry. 52 (48): ...
Biochemistry is a common university textbook used for teaching of biochemistry. It was initially written by Lubert Stryer and ... Wolfson, Adele (May 2003). "Student Companion to Accompany Biochemistry (review)". Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education ... Mooney-McAuley, Karen (2015-09-23). "Biochemistry: what it is, what it is not and why it is important". Queen's University, ... Berg, Jeremy; Tymoczko, John; Stryer, Lubert (2007). Lecture Notebook for Biochemistry (6th ed., 1st print. ed.). New York: W.H ...
Biochemistry: Editor Profile (accessed May 24, 2017) Biochemistry website NCBI: Biochemistry v t e (Use mdy dates from December ... Biochemistry is a peer-reviewed academic journal in the field of biochemistry. Founded in 1962, the journal is now published ... Biochemistry journals, English-language journals, Weekly journals, All stub articles, Biochemistry journal stubs). ... Biochemistry is indexed in: CAB International Chemical Abstracts Service EBSCOhost Gale Group MEDLINE/Index medicus Ovid ...
In biochemistry, intercalation is the insertion of molecules between the planar bases of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). This ...
In biochemistry and pharmacology, receptors are chemical structures, composed of protein, that receive and transduce signals ...
Biochemistry stubs, Biological pigments, Organic pigments, Tetrapyrroles, Biomolecules). ...
2-Chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CCPA) is a specific receptor agonist for the Adenosine A1 receptor. It is similar to N6-cyclopentyladenosine. Karl-Norbert Klotz; Martin J. Lohse; Ulrich Schwabe; Gloria Cristalli; Sauro Vittori; Mario Grifantini (1989). "2-Chloro-N6-[3H]cyclopentyladenosine ([3HCCPA) - a high affinity agonist radioligand for A1 adenosine receptors". Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology. 340: 679-683. doi:10.1007/BF00717744. v t e (Articles without KEGG source, Articles without UNII source, Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle, Articles containing unverified chemical infoboxes, Chembox image size set, Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Nucleosides, Purines, Organochlorides, Adenosine receptor agonists, Cyclopentanes, All stub articles, Nervous system drug stubs ...
Lane TW, Saito MA, George GN, Pickering IJ, Prince RC, Morel FM (2005). "Biochemistry: a cadmium enzyme from a marine diatom". ... Nelson D (2008). Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company. p. 184. Sauke DJ, Metzler DE, ... ISBN 978-0-85312-307-1. Cox M, Lehninger AL, Nelson DR (2000). Lehninger principles of biochemistry (3rd ed.). New York: Worth ... Vincent JB (April 2000). "The biochemistry of chromium". The Journal of Nutrition. 130 (4): 715-8. doi:10.1093/jn/130.4.715. ...
... is a peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1960. It covers the field of biochemistry. ... "Analytical Biochemistry". 2014 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). Thomson Reuters. 2015. Official website ... Biochemistry journals, Elsevier academic journals, English-language journals, Biweekly journals, All stub articles, ...
... is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering the analytical and clinical investigation of laboratory ... Researchers at the University of North Carolina published an article in Clinical Biochemistry which found Baby wash products ... Official website Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists "CSCC - Clinical Biochemistry". Archived from the original on 2013-03-21 ... Clinical Biochemistry. 40 (5-6): 383-391. doi:10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2006.10.026. PMID 17316593. Atta, H.M.; Mahfouz, S.; Fouad ...
General Properties, Control and Effector Strength". European Journal of Biochemistry. 42 (1): 89-95. doi:10.1111/j.1432- ... doi:10.1016/0025-5564(81)90031-6. (Biochemistry methods, Metabolism, Mathematical and theoretical biology, Systems biology). ...
... may refer to: Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford Department of Biochemistry and ... Johns Hopkins University This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Department of Biochemistry. If an ...
... : Life at the Molecular Level is a biochemistry textbook written by Donald Voet, Judith G. Voet and ... Wood, E.J. (1 October 1999). "Book review: Biochemistry in a nutshell - Fundamentals of Biochemistry by Donald Voet, Judith G. ... Published by John Wiley & Sons, it is a common undergraduate biochemistry textbook. As of 2016, the book has been published in ... Fundamentals of Biochemistry: Life at the Molecular Level (5th ed.). John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9781118918401. v t e (All articles ...
The biochemistry of cell metabolism and the endocrine system has been extensively described. Other areas of biochemistry ... Clarence Peter Berg (1980). The University of Iowa and Biochemistry from Their Beginnings. Iowa Biochemistry. pp. 1-2. ISBN ... The history of biochemistry can be said to have started with the ancient Greeks who were interested in the composition and ... The term biochemistry itself is derived from the combining form bio-, meaning 'life', and chemistry. The word is first recorded ...
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology. 224: 204-209. doi:10.1016/j.cbpb.2017.08.002 ... In biochemistry, steady state refers to the maintenance of constant internal concentrations of molecules and ions in the cells ... D. (2011). Biochemistry. Ferrier, Denise R. (5th ed.). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN ... Lehninger principles of biochemistry. Nelson, David L. (David Lee), 1942-, Lehninger, Albert L., Cox, Michael M. (5th ed.). New ...
... is divided into the following chapters: Introduction Introduction to the concept of biochemistry, and ... A review of the present status of immunological biochemistry, and applications of biochemistry in industry. Treat B. Johnson, ... Textbook of Biochemistry", Journal of Chemical Education, 6(1), p 182 "Reviews: A Textbook of Biochemistry," The British ... Textbook of Biochemistry, being the first concise and authoritative work in its field, became a standard text. By 1948, it had ...
... is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Wiley-Blackwell. Its 2010 impact factor is ... Cell Biochemistry & Function is abstracted and indexed in: Abstracts on Hygiene and Communicable Diseases AgBiotech News and ... Biochemistry journals, Molecular and cellular biology journals, Publications established in 1983, Wiley-Blackwell academic ... Fisheries Abstracts Elsevier BIOBASE Biochemistry & Biophysics Citation Index Biological Abstracts BIOSIS Previews Botanical ...
A Master in Biochemistry (MBiochem or MBioch) degree is a specific master's degree for courses in the field of Biochemistry. In ... In Germany, the Master of Biochemistry is usually a graduate degree following a bachelor. It is offered by a few universities ... Examples are the Master of Biochemistry (M.Sc.) in Bochum and Tübingen. In terms of course structure, MBiochem degrees have the ...
The Journal of Biochemistry is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that covers research on biochemistry, molecular biology, cell ... The Journal of Biochemistry publishes Regular Papers (original scientific work), Rapid Communications (complete, yet brief, ... Biochemistry journals, English-language journals, Monthly journals, Oxford University Press academic journals). ... accounts of work), and Reviews (short reviews solicited by the editorial board). "Journal of Biochemistry". 2020 Journal ...
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In biochemistry and pharmacology, the Hill equation refers to two closely related equations that reflect the binding of ligands ... Nelson, David L.; Cox, Michael M. (2013). Lehninger principles of biochemistry (6th ed.). New York: W.H. Freeman. pp. 158-162. ... Voet, Donald; Voet, Judith G. (2004). Biochemistry. Weiss, J. N. (1997). "The Hill equation revisited: uses and misuses". FASEB ... and are also used in other areas of biochemistry. The Hill equation can be used to describe dose-response relationships, for ...
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to biochemistry: Biochemistry - study of chemical ... Biochemistry, Biology-related lists, Chemistry-related lists, Science-related lists, Biochemistry terminology). ... Animal biochemistry Plant biochemistry Metabolism Enzymology Biotechnology, Bioluminescence, Molecular chemistry, Enzymatic ... Biochemistry governs all living organisms and living processes. Testing Ames test - salmonella bacteria is exposed to a ...
Department of Biochemistry McIntyre Medical Building. 3655 Promenade Sir William Osler Room 905. Montreal, Quebec H3G 1Y6. Tel ...
Arnold, Alexander (Leggy)Professor and Director of the MIDDChemistry & [email protected] Building 372C ... Mirza, ShamaAssociate Professor / Director of the Shimadzu LaboratoryChemistry & [email protected] IRC 2076D ... Gronert, ScottInterim Provost, and ProfessorChemistry and [email protected] Hall 218 ... Kodali, RevathiResearch AssociateChemistry & Biochemistrykodal[email protected] Interdisciplinary Research Complex KEN 2076 ...
Biochemistry and Molecular Biotechnology • 364 Plantation Street Worcester, Massachusetts 01605 Questions or Comments? E-mail: ... Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, UMass Chan Medical School ... Search the Biochemistry and Molecular Biotechnology site. ...
For more information, please contact Prof. Shu-ou Shan / Margot Hoyt by phone at 626-395-3456 or by email at [email protected] ...
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Biochemistry. B.F. Luisi, W.X. Xu,Z. Otwinowski, L.P. Freedman, et al., "Crystallographic analysis of the interaction of the ...
Probing the Curious Chemistry in Micro- and Nanodroplets using ...
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Review requirements for Biochemistry degrees and accredited schools 2023 - 2024 ... What Is Biochemistry?. The word biochemistry is the sum of two parts: (1) biology and (2) chemistry. Biochemistry is an active ... PhD in Biochemistry Programs. A PhD in Biochemistry is a terminal research degree. Biochemistry PhD programs could provide much ... Biochemistry for Distance Learners. Too busy to earn a graduate degree in biochemistry on campus? Online Biochemistry Graduate ...
The Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry at Cal State LA continues to be a top choice for freshmen and transfer students ... Scott teaches Biochemistry and conducts research on computational and biological chemistry. Dr. Andrade teaches Organic ... The Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry is dedicated to providing high-quality education in an environment that encourages ... In Fall 2022, the department celebrated students who received scholarships from the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry. ...
Molecular Biology, Cell Biology, and Biochemistry Graduate Program. Molecular Biology, Cell Biology, and Biochemistry Graduate ...
Specialty: Biochemistry. Faculty Profile. Zoe Swaidner. Science Laboratory Instructor. 260.665.4333. [email protected]. B.S ...
PhD, Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Simon Fraser University. *Postdoctoral Fellow, Institute for Genome Sciences, ...
Below is the list of peer and non peer publications from the School of Biochemistry and Immunolog ... Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry. , 102, (5-6), 2008, p1329 - 1333. Journal Article; Published; Peer Reviewed; Author Profile ... School of Biochemistry and Immunology. Trinity Biomedical Sciences Institute. Trinity College Dublin. 152-160 Pearse Street. ... Below is the list of peer and non peer publications from the School of Biochemistry and Immunology. ...
Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics. 120 Mason Farm Rd, Campus Box 7260. 3rd Floor, Genetic Medicine Building. Chapel ...
The African Journal of Biochemistry Research covers all areas of the subject such as nutritional biochemistry, analytical ... clinical biochemistry, human and plant genetics, molecular and cell biology, enzymology, toxicology and plant biochemistry. ... African Journal of Biochemistry Research 12(4): 40-44. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJBR2016.0881 ...
A degree in biochemistry is a key to numerous doors: not only will it prepare you for graduate work or a career in the medical ... Although the biochemistry major was established less than a decade ago, the great majority of our alumni have gone on to ... As potential biochemistry majors, Chaminade will offer you a unique academic setting where biology and chemistry faculty ... Central to all natural sciences, biochemistry lies at the intersection of chemistry, biology, genetics, and medicine from which ...
BIOCHEMISTRY DATA SUMMARY - HANES I Biochemistry, Serology, Hematology and Peripheral Blood Slides and Urinary Data SUMMARY ... Biochemistry (1971-75). DSN: CC37.HANES1.BIOCHEM ABSTRACT HEALTH AND NUTRITION EXAMINATION SURVEY, 1971-1975 Contents HANES ... BIOCHEMISTRY DATA Tape Positions 283-288, 289-294 Because of the complete loss of the Hemoglobin and Hematocrit data for three ... BIOCHEMISTRY DATA 201-204. Catalogue Number Tape Control Loc. ITEM DESCRIPTION & CODES Counts HANES I Data Source 201- ...
Science Home , Chemistry and Biochemistry Home , Graduate Graduate Programs. MSc and PhD Programs. Our department offers thesis ... MSc and PhD degrees in chemistry and biochemistry. Both degree programs require coursework and research under the supervision ...
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Coulston Foundation Biochemistry Profile method The 21 analytes described in this method constitute the routine biochemistry ... Standard Biochemistry Profile (L40_B) Data File: L40_B.xpt First Published: September 2006. Last Revised: NA ... Standard Biochemistry Profile This battery of measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of certain liver, heart, and ... Collaborative Laboratory Services Biochemistry Profile method The 21 analytes described in this method constitute the routine ...
Pawlowski, N.; Khaminets, A.; Hunn, J. P.; Papic, N.; Schmidt, A.; Uthaiah, R. C.; Lange, R.; Vopper, G.; Martens, S.; Wolf, E. et al.; Howard, J. C.: The activation mechanism of Irga6, an interferon-inducible GTPase contributing to mouse resistance against Toxoplasma gondii. BMC Biology 9, 7, pp. [1] - [15] (2011 ...
Please refer to the OSU course catalogue in order to see the courses offered by our department. You can also view previous syllabi from our CBC syllabus archive.
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  • The word biochemistry is the sum of two parts: (1) biology and (2) chemistry. (gradschools.com)
  • Forensic Chemistry, Biochemistry of Cancer and Biochemistry of Obesity and Diabetes are a few examples. (gradschools.com)
  • The Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry is dedicated to providing high-quality education in an environment that encourages hands-on student research training. (calstatela.edu)
  • The Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry at Cal State LA continues to be a top choice for freshmen and transfer students interested in molecular science on the basis of its faculty's dedication to providing superior teaching and innovative instruction in small class settings. (calstatela.edu)
  • Dr. Scott teaches Biochemistry and conducts research on computational and biological chemistry. (calstatela.edu)
  • In Fall 2022, the department celebrated students who received scholarships from the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry. (calstatela.edu)
  • Central to all natural sciences, biochemistry lies at the intersection of chemistry, biology, genetics, and medicine from which new disciplines have emerged-bioengineering, immunochemistry, and neurochemistry among others. (chaminade.edu)
  • In recent years the significance of the field has been recognized by the Nobel prizes awarded in chemistry and medicine for major innovations in biochemistry. (chaminade.edu)
  • As potential biochemistry majors, Chaminade will offer you a unique academic setting where biology and chemistry faculty interact regularly initiating novel ideas in active learning, collaborative research with student participation, as well as being always attentive for any feedback from you. (chaminade.edu)
  • Our department offers thesis-based MSc and PhD degrees in chemistry and biochemistry. (uregina.ca)
  • The School of Chemistry and Biochemistry has its operations spread over six different building on the GT campus. (gatech.edu)
  • And understanding the chemistry that occurs in living organisms-that's biochemistry. (nih.gov)
  • The Genetics and Biochemistry Section studies the biochemistry, molecular, and cell biology of meiotic (homologous) recombination in mice and humans. (nih.gov)
  • The African Journal of Biochemistry Research covers all areas of the subject such as nutritional biochemistry, analytical biochemistry, clinical biochemistry, human and plant genetics, molecular and cell biology, enzymology, toxicology and plant biochemistry. (academicjournals.org)
  • We use a combination of genetics, biochemistry, molecular biology, and human iPSC-derived neuronal and glial cell types to answer these questions. (nih.gov)
  • Utah Biochemistry Graduate Programs analyze what happens at the molecular levels. (gradschools.com)
  • For several years, the Laboratory of Biochemistry, led by Dr. Rodney L. Levine, has focused its research on the identification of oxidative modifications of proteins. (nih.gov)
  • To study these modifications, Dr. Levine's laboratory is using a variety of techniques from biochemistry and mass spectrometry to transgenic mouse models with altered enzymatic activity of the reductases. (nih.gov)
  • Graduate biochemistry students often spend time in the laboratory to supplement advanced courses. (gradschools.com)
  • Biochemistry is an active and laboratory-based branch of science that explores the chemical processes within and related to living organisms. (gradschools.com)
  • The NIDDK invites Cooperative Agreement applications for an open competition for the Central Biochemistry Laboratory (CBL) of The Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) consortium. (nih.gov)
  • The purpose of this Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) is to support the Central Biochemistry Laboratory for The Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) consortium. (nih.gov)
  • CKiD is a consortium composed of two Clinical Coordinating Centers (CCC), a Data Coordinating Center (DCC), and a Central Biochemistry Laboratory (CBL). (nih.gov)
  • National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry Laboratory Medicine Practice Guidelines for use of tumor markers in clinical practice: quality requirements. (nih.gov)
  • This report presents updated National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry Laboratory Medicine Practice Guidelines summarizing quality requirements for the use of tumor markers. (nih.gov)
  • Below is the list of peer and non peer publications from the School of Biochemistry and Immunology. (tcd.ie)
  • Biochemistry graduate programs offer a rigorous and broad-based curriculum of research and coursework that could lead to a Master of Science (MS) or Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) degree. (gradschools.com)
  • Claude was a pioneer in the biochemistry of calcium-binding proteins and calcium-dependent signaling. (nih.gov)
  • Each biochemistry graduate school has its own set of standards and required components of a completed application. (gradschools.com)
  • In her article for Science in 1974, titled 'Selenium Biochemistry,' Thressa reviewed previous literature on selenium in diverse areas of study. (nih.gov)
  • A degree in biochemistry is a key to numerous doors: not only will it prepare you for graduate work or a career in the medical field, but it may also offer opportunities in the pharmaceutical and biotech industries. (chaminade.edu)
  • Information about supervisors connected with this course can also be found at the Department of Biochemistry website. (ox.ac.uk)
  • For this course, the allocation of graduate supervision is the responsibility of the Department of Biochemistry and it is not always possible to accommodate the preferences of incoming graduate students to work with a particular member of staff. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Under exceptional circumstances a supervisor may be found outside the Department of Biochemistry. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The analytical biochemistry of chromium. (nih.gov)
  • Biochemistry research international. (nih.gov)
  • The Genetics and Biochemistry Section studies the biochemistry, molecular, and cell biology of meiotic (homologous) recombination in mice and humans. (nih.gov)