Chemical reactions or functions, enzymatic activities, and metabolic pathways of living things.
The study of the composition, chemical structures, and chemical reactions of living things.
The chemical processes, enzymatic activities, and pathways of living things and related temporal, dimensional, qualitative, and quantitative concepts.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Complete or partial surgical removal of the prostate. Three primary approaches are commonly employed: suprapubic - removal through an incision above the pubis and through the urinary bladder; retropubic - as for suprapubic but without entering the urinary bladder; and transurethral (TRANSURETHRAL RESECTION OF PROSTATE).
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
An examination of chemicals in the blood.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.
Cellular processes, properties, and characteristics.
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
Errors in metabolic processes resulting from inborn genetic mutations that are inherited or acquired in utero.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to water and oxygen. It is present in many animal cells. A deficiency of this enzyme results in ACATALASIA.
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
Proteins that catalyze the unwinding of duplex DNA during replication by binding cooperatively to single-stranded regions of DNA or to short regions of duplex DNA that are undergoing transient opening. In addition DNA helicases are DNA-dependent ATPases that harness the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate DNA strands.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.2.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
A hydroxylated form of the imino acid proline. A deficiency in ASCORBIC ACID can result in impaired hydroxyproline formation.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.

The fractal geometry of nutrient exchange surfaces does not provide an explanation for 3/4-power metabolic scaling. (1/86)

BACKGROUND: A prominent theoretical explanation for 3/4-power allometric scaling of metabolism proposes that the nutrient exchange surface of capillaries has properties of a space-filling fractal. The theory assumes that nutrient exchange surface area has a fractal dimension equal to or greater than 2 and less than or equal to 3 and that the volume filled by the exchange surface area has a fractal dimension equal to or greater than 3 and less than or equal to 4. RESULTS: It is shown that contradicting predictions can be derived from the assumptions of the model. When errors in the model are corrected, it is shown to predict that metabolic rate is proportional to body mass (proportional scaling). CONCLUSION: The presence of space-filling fractal nutrient exchange surfaces does not provide a satisfactory explanation for 3/4-power metabolic rate scaling.  (+info)

Estimating cerebral oxygen metabolism from fMRI with a dynamic multicompartment Windkessel model. (2/86)

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Different types of cell-to-cell connections mediated by nanotubular structures. (3/86)

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Solution NMR structure determination of proteins revisited. (4/86)

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Astrocytes as the glucose shunt for glutamatergic neurons at high activity: an in silico study. (5/86)

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Effect of novel negative allosteric modulators of neuronal nicotinic receptors on cells expressing native and recombinant nicotinic receptors: implications for drug discovery. (6/86)

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Elementary mode analysis: a useful metabolic pathway analysis tool for characterizing cellular metabolism. (7/86)

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Metabolism of echinacoside, a good antioxidant, in rats: isolation and identification of its biliary metabolites. (8/86)

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Method for checking the conversion capacity of a catalytic element for converting ozone where the catalytic element is provided as a vehicle radiator with a catalytic coating and the method of checking uses ozone sensors upstream and downstream of the radiator. The check is only carried out if predetermined enable conditions are satisfied. Only then are the values emitted by the sensors recorded and compared with one another. A variable which represents an uncorrected value for the quality of the conversion capacity is derived from this comparison. This variable is weighted as a function of at least one operating parameter of the vehicle. The weighted variable is compared with a predetermined threshold value, and, if the threshold value is exceeded, it is concluded that the conversion capacity of the radiator is insufficient.
This model originates from BioModels Database: A Database of Annotated Published Models (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/biomodels/). It is copyright (c) 2005-2011 The BioModels.net Team ...
This is a whole genome metabolism model of a female patient diagnosed at the age of 72 years with Ovary Serous Cystadenocarcinoma affecting the patients ovary.. This model was automatically generated by tINIT (Agren, R., et al. (2014). Identification of anticancer drugs for hepatocellular carcinoma through personalized genome-scale metabolic modeling. Mol Syst Biol; 10(3), 721.) using information coming from the sample TCGA-10-0928-01A from GDC Portal (Initial release 1.0, accessed via GDC API) and, where relevant, augmented with metabolic pathway information extracted from Human Metabolic Atlas.. This model has been produced by Human Pathology Atlas project ( Uhlen, M., et al.; A pathology atlas of the human cancer transcriptome. Science.) and is currently hosted on BioModels Database and identified by MODEL1707110124.. To cite BioModels, please use: V Chelliah et al; BioModels: ten-year anniversary. Nucleic Acids Res 2015; 43 (D1): D542-D548.. To the extent possible under law, all copyright ...
This is a whole genome metabolism model of a female patient diagnosed at the age of 52 years with Ovary Serous Cystadenocarcinoma affecting the patients ovary.. This model was automatically generated by tINIT (Agren, R., et al. (2014). Identification of anticancer drugs for hepatocellular carcinoma through personalized genome-scale metabolic modeling. Mol Syst Biol; 10(3), 721.) using information coming from the sample TCGA-61-2088-01A from GDC Portal (Initial release 1.0, accessed via GDC API) and, where relevant, augmented with metabolic pathway information extracted from Human Metabolic Atlas.. This model has been produced by Human Pathology Atlas project ( Uhlen, M., et al.; A pathology atlas of the human cancer transcriptome. Science.) and is currently hosted on BioModels Database and identified by MODEL1707111048.. To cite BioModels, please use: V Chelliah et al; BioModels: ten-year anniversary. Nucleic Acids Res 2015; 43 (D1): D542-D548.. To the extent possible under law, all copyright ...
This is a whole genome metabolism model of a female patient diagnosed at the age of 59 years with Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Endocervical Adenocarcinoma affecting the patients cervix.. This model was automatically generated by tINIT (Agren, R., et al. (2014). Identification of anticancer drugs for hepatocellular carcinoma through personalized genome-scale metabolic modeling. Mol Syst Biol; 10(3), 721.) using information coming from the sample TCGA-EX-A1H5-01A from GDC Portal (Initial release 1.0, accessed via GDC API) and, where relevant, augmented with metabolic pathway information extracted from Human Metabolic Atlas.. This model has been produced by Human Pathology Atlas project ( Uhlen, M., et al.; A pathology atlas of the human cancer transcriptome. Science.) and is currently hosted on BioModels Database and identified by MODEL1707115035.. To cite BioModels, please use: V Chelliah et al; BioModels: ten-year anniversary. Nucleic Acids Res 2015; 43 (D1): D542-D548.. To the extent ...
The most concise & comprehensive OCR A-level Biology notes you will find. Our notes are compiled by top designers, academic writers and illustrators to ensure they are the highest quality so your learning is made simple. Our notes walk you through specifi
Thread in the Seeds forum forum by CapeCodGardener: Hi-- ANyone familiar with the BioDome seed starting system? Ive used the system for three years, wit...
Provided is a technique of effectively removing a metallic element that has catalytic action in terms of the crystallization of a semiconductor film and remains in a semiconductor film obtained using the metallic element. With the technique of the present invention, to remove a catalytic element used to crystallize a semiconductor film having an amorphous structure, gettering is completed by forming a region or a semiconductor film, to which a rare gas element is added, and by having the catalytic element move to the formed region or semiconductor film.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dynamic biochemical reaction process analysis and pathway modification predictions. AU - CONEJEROS RISCO, RAUL JORGE. AU - Vassiliadis, Vassilios S.. PY - 2000/5/5. Y1 - 2000/5/5. N2 - Recently, the area of model predictive modification of biochemical pathways has received attention with the aim to increase the productivity of microbial systems. In this study, we present a generalization of previous work, where, using a sensitivity study over the fermentation as a dynamic system, the optimal selection of reaction steps for modification (amplification or attenuation) is determined. The influence of metabolites in the activity of enzymes has also been considered (through activation or inhibition). We further introduce a new concept in the dynamic modeling of biochemical reaction systems including a generalized continuous superstructure in which two artificial multiplicative terms are included to account for: (a) enzyme overexpression or underexpression (attenuation or ...
STOCHASTIC MODELS + STOCHASTIC SIMULATION (PROBABILITY THEORY); STOCHASTISCHE MODELLE + STOCHASTISCHE SIMULATION (WAHRSCHEINLICHKEITSRECHNUNG); BIOCHEMICAL REACTIONS, METABOLIC REACTIONS; MODELLRECHNUNG UND SIMULATION IN BIOCHEMIE UND MOLEKULARBIOLOGIE; MATHEMATICAL MODELING AND SIMULATION IN BIOCHEMISTRY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY; BIOCHEMISCHE REAKTIONEN, METABOLISCHE ...
Publisher: University of Delaware. Date Issued: 2018. Abstract: At the level of individual living cells, key species such as genes, mRNAs, and proteins are typically present in small numbers. Consequently, the biochemical reactions involving these species are inherently noisy and result in considerable cell-to-cell variability. This thesis outlines two mathematical tools to quantify stochasticity in these biochemical reaction systems: (i) a novel computational method that provides exact lower and upper bounds on statistical moments of population counts of important species, and (ii) a first-passage time framework to study noise in the timing of a cellular event that occurs when population count of an underlying regulatory protein attains a critical threshold. ☐ The method to compute bounds on moments builds upon the well-known linear dynamical system that describes the time evolution of statistical moments. However, except for some ideal cases, this dynamical system is not closed in the sense ...
Michael Mackey is an associate professor in the Departments of Biomedical Engineering and Radiology. For the past several years, he has been developing a framework for mathematical modeling of biochemical reaction networks. During his Obermann residency, he will be developing a textbook titled Modeling Biochemical Reaction Networks, which will be used as an advanced undergraduate/graduate-level text in the Biomedical Engineering course Systems Biology for Biomedical Engineers to be taught in Spring 2020. ...
Buy, download and read Thermodynamics of Biochemical Reactions ebook online in PDF format for iPhone, iPad, Android, Computer and Mobile readers. Author: Robert A. Alberty. ISBN: 9780471623557. Publisher: Wiley. Thermodynamics of Biochemical Reactions emphasizes the fundamental equations of thermodynamics and the application of these equations to systems of biochemical reactions. This emphasis leads to new th
Title: Stochastic analysis of biochemical reaction networks with absolute concentration robustness Abstract: It has recently been shown that structural conditions on the reaction network, rather than a fine-tuning of system parameters, often suffice to impart absolute concentration robustness on a wide class of biologically relevant, deterministically modeled mass-action systems [Shinar and Feinberg, Science, 2010]. Many biochemical networks, however, operate on a scale insufficient to justify the assumptions of the deterministic mass-action model, which raises the question of whether the long-term dynamics of the systems are being accurately captured when the deterministic model predicts stability. I will discuss recent results that show that fundamentally different conclusions about the long-term behavior of such systems are reached if the systems are instead modeled with stochastic dynamics and a discrete state space. Specifically we characterize a large class of models which exhibit ...
In a challenging and provocative paper Gillooly et al. (2001) have proposed that the metabolism of all organisms can be described by a single equation, * Q = b0M3/4e−E/kT, where Q = metabolic rate, M = body mass, E = the activation energy of metabolism (defined as the average activation energy for the rate-limiting enzyme catalysed biochemical reactions of metabolism), T = absolute temperature, k = Boltzmanns constant and b0 is a normalization constant independent of M and T. In deriving this equation Gillooly et al. (2001) start from the premise that metabolic rate scales with body mass as Q ∝ M3/4, based on the fractal-like design of exchange surfaces and distribution networks in plants and animals (West, Brown & Enquist 1997, 1999a,b). These arguments have stimulated some criticism (see for example Dodds, Rothman & Weitz 2001) but here I will concentrate on the derivation of the second part of the equation, namely the temperature dependence term. Gillooly et al. (2001) called the ...
Recent development of high-throughput analytical techniques has made it possible to qualitatively identify a number of metabolites simultaneously. Correlation and multivariate analyses such as principal component analysis have been widely used to analyse those data and evaluate correlations among the metabolic profiles. However, these analyses cannot simultaneously carry out identification of metabolic reaction networks and prediction of dynamic behaviour of metabolites in the networks. The present study, therefore, proposes a new approach consisting of a combination of statistical technique and mathematical modelling approach to identify and predict a probable metabolic reaction network from time-series data of metabolite concentrations and simultaneously construct its mathematical model. Firstly, regression functions are fitted to experimental data by the locally estimated scatter plot smoothing method. Secondly, the fitted result is analysed by the bivariate Granger causality test to determine which
Navigate the complexities of biochemical thermodynamics with Mathematica(r) Chemical reactions are studied under the constraints of constant temperature and constant pressure; biochemical reactions are studied under the additional constraints of pH and, perhaps, pMg or free concentrations of other metal ions. As more intensive variables are specified, more thermodynamic properties of a system are defined, and the equations that represent thermodynamic properties as a function of independent variables become more complicated. This sequel to Robert Albertys popular Thermodynamics of Biochemical Reactions describes how researchers will find Mathematica(r) a simple and elegant tool, which makes it possible to perform complex calculations that would previously have been impractical. Biochemical Thermodynamics: Applications of Mathematica(r) provides a comprehensive and rigorous treatment of biochemical thermodynamics using Mathematica(r) to practically resolve thermodynamic issues. Topics covered ...
A freeze-thaw valve is provided using a Peltier heat pump where the thermal short-circuit path between a cooled thermal mass and a heated thermal mass is reduced or absent and the valve state transition time is minimized. The freeze-thaw valve comprises a Peltier heat pump mounted to a heat exchange surface that comprises a cross-drilled copper water jacket or manifold. The Peltier heat pump is operated to maintain a cooled thermal mass at a substantially constant low temperature. A resistance heating element is used to produce a heated thermal mass. The freeze-thaw segment of a fluid conduit is commutated to contact either the heated or the cooled thermal mass to thaw and therefore open the valve or cool and thus close the valve. The operation of the Peltier heat pump at a constant temperature avoids problems inherent in the use of a Peltier heat pump to both heat and cool a freeze thaw segment.
Rutile has an aerodynamic shape, It is four times longer than wide. Two types of fins are noticed:. unpaired fins, They include the dorsal and caudal fins.. paired fins, They are forming symmetrical pairs, They include pelvic fins at the rear and at the front flippers.. The first give the fish stability in water. The latter are used for guidance.. Rutile has four pairs of gills arranged on both sides having a hair whose function is to keep out foreign particles. Galls form a V arrangement. there are also openings in the guts that are used as heat exchange surface to extract oxygen from water.. The heart is next to the gills, allowing blood to be pumped through the gills with considerable pressure. The circulatory system is in other respects quite simple. Deoxygenated blood through the heart only once.. ...
Development and plasticity of alveolar type 1 cells[3] Alveolar type 1 (AT1) cells cover ,95% of the gas exchange surface and are extremely thin to facilitate passive gas diffusion. The development of these highly specialized cells and its coordination with the formation of the honeycomb-like alveolar structure are poorly understood. Using new marker-based stereology and single-cell imaging methods, we show that AT1 cells in the mouse lung form expansive thin cellular extensions via a non-proliferative two-step process while retaining cellular plasticity. In the flattening step, AT1 cells undergo molecular specification and remodel cell junctions while remaining connected to their epithelial neighbors. In the folding step, AT1 cells increase in size by more than 10-fold and undergo cellular morphogenesis that matches capillary and secondary septa formation, resulting in a single AT1 cell spanning multiple alveoli. Furthermore, AT1 cells are an unexpected source of VEGFA and their normal ...
Development and plasticity of alveolar type 1 cells[3] Alveolar type 1 (AT1) cells cover ,95% of the gas exchange surface and are extremely thin to facilitate passive gas diffusion. The development of these highly specialized cells and its coordination with the formation of the honeycomb-like alveolar structure are poorly understood. Using new marker-based stereology and single-cell imaging methods, we show that AT1 cells in the mouse lung form expansive thin cellular extensions via a non-proliferative two-step process while retaining cellular plasticity. In the flattening step, AT1 cells undergo molecular specification and remodel cell junctions while remaining connected to their epithelial neighbors. In the folding step, AT1 cells increase in size by more than 10-fold and undergo cellular morphogenesis that matches capillary and secondary septa formation, resulting in a single AT1 cell spanning multiple alveoli. Furthermore, AT1 cells are an unexpected source of VEGFA and their normal ...
Bistability (coexistence of two stable steady states in a dynamical system) is a key mechanism of cellular decision-making and has been observed in many biochemical reaction networks such as mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. Theoretical studies have shown that bistability can arise in a single two-site MAPK phosphorylation and dephosphorylation cycle. However, the bistable behavior mostly relies on the kinetic mechanisms and parameters of this two-site modification. In exploring the system-level properties of MAPK regulation, most models to date focus on two limiting reaction regimes, distributive and processive, and are characterized by high levels of parametric uncertainty. Here, we developed a combined kinetic method which applies a continuous spectrophotometric enzyme-coupled assay incorporated with the viscosity approach, to perform detailed kinetic analyses of p38α MAPK dual phosphorylation by MKK6. Almost all kinetic rate constants for the first and second ...
http://www.cygn.com/032201b.html The GlucoWatch Biographer uses technology that has never been available before, differing from conventional blood glucose testing devices in several ways. Most significantly, it is non-invasive, measuring glucose collected through the skin, not from blood. It measures and displays glucose levels automatically, as often as every twenty minutes, for up to twelve hours. It also creates an electronic diary, storing up to 4,000 values that can be reviewed at the touch of a button, helping to detect trends and track patterns in glucose levels. In addition, users can set personal glucose alert levels so that an alarm sounds if readings are too high or too low, or if readings decline rapidly. The GlucoWatch Biographer uses an extremely low electric current to pull glucose through the skin. The glucose is then collected and transformed into an electric signal that is converted into a glucose reading. The system consists of two integrated parts, the Biographer and the ...
I would think it a safe guess that Petraeuss timing can be attributed to his awareness that his privacy and freedom of movement was about to be greatly diminished, once his CIA personal security detail started keeping close track of him from his first day on the job as CIA Director, Sept. 6, 2011.. 32. On or about October 26, 2012, defendant DAVID HOWELL PETRAEUS was interviewed by two FBI special agents. … [He] was advised that the special agents were conducting a criminal investigation. … PETRAEUS stated that (a) he had never provided any classified information to his biographer, and (b) he had never facilitated the provision of classified information to his biographer. These statements were false. Defendant DAVID HOWELL PETRAEUS then and there knew that he previously shared the Black Books with his biographer. [emphasis added]. Lying to the FBI? No problem. As Expose Facts blogger Marcy Wheeler immediately commented: For lying to the FBI - a crime that others go to prison for for ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Non-linear reduction for kinetic models of metabolic reaction networks. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Markov chain aggregation; Rule-based modeling of reaction networks; Site-graphs; 60J10; 60J20; 60J27; 60J28; 92B; 92D20; 68Q42; ...
Prevalence of deficiency zero reaction networks under an Erdos-Renyi framework Reaction network models, which are used to model many types of systems in biology, have grown dramatically in popularity over the past decade. This popularity has translated into a number of mathematical results that relate the topological features of the network to different qualitative behaviors of the associated dynamical system. One of the main topological features studied in the field is deficiency of a network. A reaction network which has strong connectivity in its connected components and a deficiency of zero is stable in both the deterministic and stochastic dynamical models. This leads to the question: how prevalent are deficiency zero models among all such network models. In this talk, I will quantify the prevalence of deficiency zero networks among random reaction networks generated under an Erdos-Renyi framework. Specifically, with n being the number of species, I will uncover a threshold function r(n) ...
Im at this workshop: • Programming with Chemical Reaction Networks: Mathematical Foundations, Banff International Research Station, 8-13 June 2014. Luca Cardelli wrote about computation with chemical reactions in Part 26 of the network theory series here on this blog. So, its nice to meet him and many other researchers, learn more, and try to solve…
On 5 February 2016, the Luxembourg Caisse de Consignation published Frequently Asked Questions regarding the Law of 28 July 2014 on the immobilisation of bearer shares and bearer units.. The FAQs provide useful guidance on some of the practical steps that Luxembourg companies and Luxembourg investment funds must take with respect to the cancellation of bearer shares and bearer units that will not have been deposited with a depositary before 18 February 2016. The FAQs gives some information in particular on (i) the list of documents that the Caisse de Consignation must receive upon deposit of assets (ii) the level of fees and expenses charged during the period of deposit and (iii) the procedure that the holder of certificates must follow when claiming a refund of assets that have been deposited with the Caisse de Consignation.. Click here to access the text of the FAQs in French or unofficial translation in English and in German.. Related documents:. - the text of law of 28 July 2014 in French or ...
Acute encephalopathy includes rapid deterioration and has a poor prognosis. Early intervention is essential to prevent progression of the disease and subsequent neurologic complications. However, in the acute period, true encephalopathy cannot easily be differentiated from febrile seizures, especially febrile seizures of the complex type. Thus, an early diagnostic marker has been sought in order to enable early intervention. The purpose of this study was to identify a novel marker candidate protein differentially expressed in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of children with encephalopathy using proteomic analysis. For detection of biomarkers, CSF samples were obtained from 13 children with acute encephalopathy and 42 children with febrile seizure. Mass spectral data were generated by surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS) technology, which is currently applied in many fields of biological and medical sciences. Diagnosis was made by at least two
Conventional methane gas sensors based on catalytic combustion have the drawbacks of high working temperature, low thermal stability and small measurement range. To improve their performance, cerium, which possesses high oxygen storage and release ability, was introduced via nanotechnology to prepare Ce-contained nanostructure elements. Three kinds of elements with different carriers: Al2O3, n-Al2O3 and n-Ce-Al2O3 were prepared and separately fabricated (Pt-Pd/Al, Pt-Pd/n-Al, Pt-Pd/n-Ce-Al). The performances of Wheatstone Bridges with three different catalytic elements were tested and compared. The results indicated that the cerium-containing element exhibited better performance than other elements regarding activity, anti-sulfur ability and thermal stability. Moreover, a constant temperature circuit was also applied in this system. The measurement range was extended from 4% to 10% by automatically decreasing the working current in a reasonable range. The maximum error for 0%-10% CH4 was controlled
Driving tips for Luxembourg, speed limits in Luxembourg, alcohol limits in Luxembourg, Luxembourg motorway (autoroute) tolls. Distance charts. Age limits and seat belt laws for driving in Luxembourg. Self-drive holidays with Drive-Alive. Plan online.
Interview with Joseph Weyland, Director in the Economic Relations and Cooperation Directorate of the Luxembourg Foreign Ministry from 1979 to 1983, Permanent Representative of Luxembourg to the United Nations in New York from 1983 to 1984, Permanent Representative of Luxembourg to the European Communities in Brussels from 1984 to 1991, General Secretary in the Luxembourg Foreign Ministry from 1991 to 1992, Ambassador in London for the United Kingdom, Ireland and Iceland from 1993 to 2002, Ambassador in Brussels for Belgium and Permanent Representative of Luxembourg to NATO from 2003 to 2005 and Ambassador in Washington for the United States, Canada and Mexico from 2005 to 2008, carried out by the Centre Virtuel de la Connaissance sur lEurope (CVCE) on 19 February and 27 April 2010 at the CVCEs base at the Château de Sanem. The interview was conducted by François Klein, Scientific Collaborator at the CVCE, and particularly focuses on the milestones in Weylands diplomatic career and the changing
The mammalian placenta consists of different trophoblast cell types that assist in the variety of functions required for the maintenance of pregnancy. In rodents, labyrinthine trophoblasts of the placenta are especially important, because they are capable of differentiating into fused labyrinthine cells, which form the feto-maternal exchange surface. Even though the molecular signals triggering labyrinthine trophoblast differentiation are poorly understood, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) has been shown to be present in the placental environment and alter trophoblast development. In this study, we investigated the effects of TGF-β on the differentiation of the labyrinthine trophoblast stem cell lines SM10 and HRP-1. RT-PCR analyses demonstrated that while the molecular expression of labyrinthine-specific lineage markers (Esx1, Tfeb, and Tec) was maintained in TGF-β-treated SM10 and HRP-1 cells, TGF-β induced the down-regulation of trophoblast stem cell markers Id2 and Cdx2. In contrast, TGF-β
The ctenidium consists of a row of gill filaments that hang into the mantle cavity. These filaments considerably enlarge the exchange surface for oxygen and carbondioxide (CO2). To obtain a efficient respiration with the gill, the water in the mantle cavity has to be refreshed constantly: water enters at the left side (where the inhalend siphon is situated), flows over the osphradius (smell organ), then over the gill and the renal aperture (urine opening) and then leaves the mantle cavity trough the exhalend siphon, after passing the anus. This constant water flow in the mantlecavity is created by the cilia on the surface of the snail skin. ...
Modeling the complex interactions between biochemical reactions and hydrodynamics is the key to optimize biofiltration systems performance. In this work, biological kinetics expressions were implemented into Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model as transport equations, including convective and diffusive terms. Previously, activity within the biofilm of a flat plate bioreactor (FPB) was experimentally investigated measuring dissolved oxygen (DO) profiles by means of microsensors and under common operating conditions. Moreover, a mathematical model to describe mass transport and metabolic activity in the FPB was developed and their parameters were fitted from experimental results. Then, a CFD model, combining hydrodynamics and biochemical reactions, was developed and solved to simulate local transient flow and dynamic behaviors of biofilm growth and substrate (glucose) biodregradation in the FPB. The CFD simulation results were evaluated by studying hydrodynamics characterization in the FPB and ...
Mechanistic models are becoming more and more popular in Systems Biology; identification and control of models underlying biochemical pathways of interest in oncology is a primary goal in this field. Unfortunately the scarce availability of data still limits our understanding of the intrinsic characteristics of complex pathologies like cancer: acquiring information for a system understanding of complex reaction networks is time consuming and expensive. Stimulus response experiments (SRE) have been used to gain a deeper insight into the details of biochemical mechanisms underlying cell life and functioning. Optimisation of the input time-profile, however, still remains a major area of research due to the complexity of the problem and its relevance for the task of information retrieval in systems biology-related experiments. We have addressed the problem of quantifying the information associated to an experiment using the Fisher Information Matrix and we have proposed an optimal experimental design
0261]The following references are incorporated herein in their entirety: [0262]1. Scriver, C. 2000. The Metabolic and Molecular Bases oflnherited Disease. McGraw-Hill Professional. [0263]2. Jamshidi, N., and B. O. Palsson. 2008. Top-down analysis of temporal hierarchy in biochemical reaction networks. PLoS Comput BioI4:e1000177. [0264]3. Bruggeman, F. J., J. de Haan, H. Hardin, J. Bouwman, S. Rossell, K. van Eunen, B. M. Bakker, and H. V. Westerhoff. 2006. Time-dependent hierarchical regulation analysis: deciphering cellular adaptation. Systems biology 153:318-322. [0265]4. Famili, I., R. Mahadevan, and B. O. Palsson. 2005. k-Cone analysis: determining all candidate values for kinetic parameters on a network scale. Biophys J 88:1616-1625. [0266]5. Jamshidi, N., and B. O. Palsson. 2008. Formulating genome-scale kinetic models in the post-genome era. Molecular systems biology 4: 171. [0267]6. Maurya, M. R., and S. Subramaniam. 2007. A kinetic model for calcium dynamics in RAW 264.7 cells: I. ...
Luxembourg Imports from Luxembourg of Tanning, dyeing extracts, tannins, derivatives, pigments was US$4.89 Million during 2018, according to the United Nations COMTRADE database on international trade.
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As mentioned, there is a state-funded healthcare system in Luxembourg, which provides basic dental care for all citizens. The countrys Caisse de Maladie oversees this. This healthcare system is funded by taxes from employees and employed citizens. There is a cap on these contributions, which is EUR 6,625. The employees and employer pay half of the amount each. If you are self-employed, you will need to pay the full amount by yourself. However, the total amount that you are required to pay depends on your profession. Any dependent family members will be covered by the healthcare contributions you make as well. This applies to both employed and self-employed individuals.. It is important to note that there are no public dental clinics in Luxembourg. Instead, all dentists are registered with public insurance, enabling them to treat you under the public healthcare system. You are free to register with a dentist of your choice. Before choosing a dentist, it is vital to ensure they are registered ...
Luxembourg - Harmonised index of consumer prices (HICP): Hire of equipment and accessories for culture was 105.14 points in July of 2021, according to the EUROSTAT. Historically, Luxembourg - Harmonised index of consumer prices (HICP): Hire of equipment and accessories for culture reached a record high of 105.14 points in July of 2021 and a record low of 97.86 points in April of 2015. Trading Economics provides the current actual value, an historical data chart and related indicators for Luxembourg - Harmonised index of consumer prices (HICP): Hire of equipment and accessories for culture - last updated from the |a href=https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat target=blank>EUROSTAT|/a> on September of 2021.
Methylation? What exactly is methylation? It is an overlooked, extremely important biochemical reaction and an essential biochemical reaction that takes place in every single cell of our body. Without methylation, we would cease to exist. It is estimated that a billion methylation reactions occur in our bodies every second! It is probably the second most important biochemical reaction in the human body besides oxidative reactions which are responsible for producing energy in our cells. Furthermore, the methylation process in our bodies is interlinked to several other important biochemical reactions. As a matter of fact, you can think of these biochemical pathways as a machine that contains several gears that intermesh with each other. If one gear is not functioning or out of line it effects all the other gears. So, essentially if the methylation cycle or pathway is not working properly it has widespread effects in the function of the body and can have multiple symptoms that go along with this ...
machinery, a famous dentist, a great Puritan divine, a Romanising bishop, the Colonel Newcome of the old reformers, and a once brilliant dramatist. I do not think that my dip into one volume has produced a result differing much from the average. My readers must judge whether it goes to justify my statement. To me it seems that at every haul one finds some specimens which, though they require the reader to do his part, are full of suggestions to the moderately thoughtful reader. What a knowledge of human nature you must have acquired! has been said to me, with a touch, I know, of sarcasm. Perhaps I might, if the Bs had not tended to turn the As out of my head, and if a succinct record of a mans main performances were the same thing as a knowledge of the man himself. But this I may say; that I have received innumerable suggestions for thought, and had many vignettes presented to my imagination, which to a man of any thought or imagination should have been full of interest. If, that is, I had ...
The 1993 documentary film above, Michel Foucault: Beyond Good and Evil, explores the philosopher and his complex and controversial life through interviews with colleagues and biographers and re-enactments of Foucaults storied exploits in the American counterculture. Biographer James Miller points out that Foucault was preoccupied with exploring states that were beyond normal everyday experience… drugs, certain forms of eroticism, as a way to reconfigure the world and his place in it. In this, says anthropologist Paul Rabinow, Foucault sought to resurrect the questions that sober analytic philosophy had largely abandoned: questions about what it means to be human, beyond the social categories we take as natural and given ...
The identification of kinetic models for multiphase reaction systems is complex due to the simultaneous effect of chemical reactions and mass transfers. The extentbased incremental approach simplifies the modeling task by transforming the reaction system into variant states called vessel extents, one for each rate process. This transformation is carried out from the measured numbers of moles (or concentrations) and requires as many measured species as there are rate processes. Then, each vessel extent can be modeled individually, that is, independently of the other dynamic effects. This paper presents a modified version of the extent-based incremental approach that can be used to identify multiphase reaction systems in the presence of instantaneous equilibria. Different routes are possible depending on the number and type of measured species. The approach is illustrated via the simulated example of the oxidation of benzyl alcohol by hypochlorite in a batch reactor.. ...
(The following statement was released by the rating agency)LONDON, April 14 (Fitch) Fitch Ratings has affirmed LuxembourgsLong-TermForeign- And Local-Currency Issuer Default Ratings (IDRs) atAAA. The Outlooksare Stable. The issue ratings on Luxembourgs senior unsecuredlocal-currencybonds have also been affirmed at AAA. The Country Ceiling hasbeen affirmed atAAA and the Short-Term Foreign- and Local-Currency IDRs atF1+.KEY RATING DRIVERSLuxembourgs AAA IDRs reflect strong governance metrics, highincome percapita, and solid growth potential and public finances, whichoffset theweaknesses from high structural unemployment and heavyconcentration of theeconomy in the financial services sector.Public finances are a key strength for Luxembourg, with afive-year averagefiscal surplus of 1.2% of GDP compared with a 0.3% of GDPdeficit for the AAAmedian. The general government surplus for 2016 improvedmarginally to 1.6% ofGDP in 2016 (2015:1.5%) due to under-spending, partly due to thelater
Step 1: Definition of all proteins, binding domains as well as binding and modification processes that shall be included to the model.. Example: In the considered example the model will comprise the molecules A, B, C and D with their binding domains as depicted in Figure 3A. The occurring processes are usually labelled or numbered like indicated in Figure 3A. In the example we consider eight different processes, namely binding of A to B (process 1), phosphorylation of B at different domains (processes 2, 3 and 7), binding of C to B (process 4), phosphorylation of C at two distinct domains (processes 5 and 6) as well as binding of D (process 8).. Step 2: In a second step one has to define all occurring process interactions and whether these are uni- or bidirectional. These process interactions have to be consistent with both measured kinetic data of the involved proteins and the thermodynamic constraints as discussed in Ederer et al. and Conzelmann et al. [38, 28]. These constraints for instance ...
M.I.T. theses are protected by copyright. They may be viewed from this source for any purpose, but reproduction or distribution in any format is prohibited without written permission. See provided URL for inquiries about permission ...
Peru and Luxembourg compared side by side. Various facts, figures, measures and indicators are listed allowing similarities and differences to quickly be examined.
Compare the health profile and population dynamics of Hungary and Luxembourg side by side and choose from 190 countries to compare to.
The cheapest way to get from Luxembourg to Pesaro and Urbino costs only €69, and the quickest way takes just 9½ hours. Find the travel option that best suits you.
France and Luxembourg lost their battle to apply reduced VAT rates to ebooks on Thursday when a top European court agreed with EU regulators that only paper books qualified for lower taxes.
Even a partial list of significant inventions and innovations achieved by KARL STORZ in the past seven decades reveals an extensive and impressive chronology of success. KARL STORZ | Luxembourg
Dr Groß Flohsamenschalen 250g Psyllium Luxembourg Flohsamenschalen werden gelegentlich als pflanzliches Quellmittel oder Stuhlaufweicher bezeichnet und dementsprechend als Darmregulans eingesetzt, wobei sie sowohl bei Verstopfung als auch bei Durchfall helfen können Husk Luxemburg healthy fit indien india organic bio
Training provision by employers has increased in Luxembourg, although most small companies are still not offering employees formal training courses. According to two reports published in 2014, men attend training courses more than women, and employees in managerial and executive positions tend to receive more training.
Geschäfte cocaine luxembourg, By the end of his first 100 days, he was still looking. But this morning, before Frist set out on.
In 2018, Number of Practising Physicians in Cardiology in Luxembourg was 10 Units (Health Professionnals) Per Hundred Thousand Persons. Discover more data with NationMaster!
The Bourse Group is made up of the Luxembourg Stock Exchange (LuxSE) the leading listing venue for international securities and Fundsquare, its wholly-owned subsidiary specialized in delivering to the fund industry an efficient and standardized infrastructure for the exchange of information.. ...
Childrens special anatomic and pathological characteristics require instruments that are appropriately adapted to them in every respect - because children are more than just little adults. KARL STORZ | Luxembourg
Lactualité de la section Day: «Habay, une occasion unique de travailler avec Sam Petit» sur lÉdition digitale de Luxembourg
For the first time in history, Luxembourg will organize a Fed Cup regional group phase. From 6-9 February 2019, the Group II Europe/Africa encounters will...
In 2019, Import of Fresh or Chilled Boneless Sheep Cuts to Luxembourg was 1119063 US Dollars. Discover more data with NationMaster!
Luxembourgs Prince Félix is engaged to Claire Lademacher, the Grand Ducal household has confirmed. In a statement on Thursday the Grand Ducal family confirmed what had already been rumoured earlier this month. The official statement reads: The Grand Duke and Grand Duchess have the…
A decade of work has revealed that abnormalities in LLPS play a key role in the development of ALS, and scientists believe that targeting LLPS may help slow the progression of not only ALS but also other neurodegenerative diseases and even cancer as scientists have linked all these conditions to abnormal condensate formation. Its why the pharmaceutical industry-including giants like Merck & Co. as well as small start-ups like Dewpoint Therapeutics and Aquinnah Pharmaceuticals-has developed a major interest in condensates over the last several years. The challenge, says Jason Imbriglio, director of chemical biology at Merck, is to develop the tools to study condensates in real time in cells to identify molecules that can modulate their formation and dissolution. Dewpoints chief scientific officer, Mark Murcko, says that, whether scientists are studying condensates or targeting them therapeutically, working with the structures requires a whole different mindset.. ...
The formation of polyps in the colon is common and can arise for a variety of reasons ranging from lifestyle choices, including diet and obesity, to genetic predispositions. Polyps are typically detected upon routine endoscopy and the percentage of adults presenting with one or more polyps increases significantly above the age of 50. Polyps can be benign or malignant and in
Bacterial replicases are complex, tripartite replicative machines. They contain a polymerase, Pol III, a β(2) processivity factor and a DnaX complex ATPase that loads β(2) onto DNA and chaperones Pol III onto the newly loaded β(2). Many bacteria encode both a full length τ and a shorter γ form of Dn …
JSTOR Particularly after download. process: In considering the according rev, the small Causality surveys always explained. survived audiences: languages with no original Terms coming traced to the biographer.
In glancing over the somewhat incoherent series of Memoirs with which I have endeavoured to illustrate a few of the mental peculiarities of my friend Mr. Sherlock Holmes, I have been struck by the difficulty which I have experienced in picking out examples which shall in every way answer my purpose. For in those cases in which Holmes has performed some tour de force of analytical reasoning, and has demonstrated the value of his peculiar methods of investigation, the facts themselves have often been so slight or so commonplace that I could not feel justified in laying them before the public. On the other hand, it has frequently happened that he has been concerned in some research where the facts have been of the most remarkable and dramatic character, but where the share which he has himself taken in determining their causes has been less pronounced than I, as his biographer, could wish. The small matter which I have chronicled under the heading of A Study in Scarlet, and that other later one ...
Patrick Flanery was born in California, raised in Nebraska, and in recent years has spent significant time in South Africa. His first novel, Absolution, is set there. It focuses on Clare Wald, a reclusive writer, opening up about her past to her biographer, Sam Leroux. So far, so familiar. But Flanerys trick is to tell his tale from four varying perspectives that ultimately converge and contradict, leading us to question the reliability of the characters and the validity of their confessions. To what extent is a writer engaged in professional lying? How are we all complicit in the problems of the countries we live in? Can we ever fully obliterate, or atone for, our past crimes? Flanerys debut is a fascinatingly multi-faceted novel which impresses the more it perplexes. I wanted to learn more about writer and book and so interviewed him. He was in South Africa, I in Berlin, and so the following was done by email. The Millions: First of all I have to apologize. Sam Leroux mentions his ...
When he was fifty-two, Stephen returned to the more relative form of the hermits life, and admitted disciples once more. Many came to him for healing. He was a lover of animals and is portrayed, like St Francis, with his shoulders and arms covered with birds. The doves, starlings and deer fed out of his hand. His compassion for the lowly black worms that crawled through his hermitage prompted him to gather them into a spot where they would be safe from being trampled on. His biographer and disciple Leontius wrote about Stephen: Whatever help, spiritual or material, he was asked to give, he gave. He received and honoured all with the same kindness. He possessed nothing and lacked nothing. In total poverty he possessed all things ...
This video is about Not everything always goes to plan. I Matt Wilkie has a go towards the trolls but he trolls everyone disagree with him, even more those who dont care about him. Today, Evan, his official biographer honor him with another clip dedicated to all trolls and none on the net, appealing at the same time to all vloggers for the election Matt as the president of the trollogy department of youTube institute. Viva Matt Wilkie! viva El trolls!. ...
The editor criticized for dumbing down the great American poets work gets a fairer assessment from literary biographer Wineapple (Hawthorne, 2003, etc.).
Vanity Fair contributing editor, Guardian columnist, Rupert Murdoch biographer and self-described obnoxious know-it-all Michael Wolff joined HuffPost L...
Simplification of mathematical models of chemical reaction systems. Genetically engineered whole-cell sensing systems: coupling biological recognition with reporter genes
Chemically, oxidation is defined as the removal of electrons and reduction as the gain of electrons. Thus, oxidation of a molecule (the electron donor) is always accompanied by reduction of a second molecule (the electron acceptor). This principle of oxidation-reduction applies equally to biochemical systems and is an important concept underlying understanding of the nature of biologic oxidation. Note that many biologic oxidations can take place without the participation of molecular oxygen, for example, dehydrogenations. The life of higher animals is absolutely dependent upon a supply of oxygen for respiration, the process by which cells derive energy in the form of ATP from the controlled reaction of hydrogen with oxygen to form water. In addition, molecular oxygen is incorporated into a variety of substrates by enzymes designated as oxygenases; many drugs, pollutants, and chemical carcinogens (xenobiotics) are metabolized by enzymes of this class, known as the cytochrome P450 system. ...
Biochemical process of fermentation of sucrose[edit]. A laboratory vessel being used for the fermentation of straw ... Related processes[edit]. Main article: Fermentation (biochemistry). Fermentation of sugar to ethanol and CO2 can also be done ... Ethanol fermentation, also called alcoholic fermentation, is a biological process which converts sugars such as glucose, ... Next, each glucose molecule is broken down into two pyruvate molecules in a process known as glycolysis.[2] Glycolysis is ...
Biochemical Engineering. *Applied Chemistry. *Industrial Catalysis. *Chemical Process Equipment. *Control Theory and Control ...
Biological process. • protein catabolic process. • autophagy. • collagen catabolic process. • antigen processing and ... "The Biochemical Journal. 117 (3): 601-7. doi:10.1042/bj1170601. PMC 1178965 . PMID 5419752.. ... processing of enzyme activators and inhibitors, brain antigen processing and regulation of programmed cell death.[17][18][19][ ... "The Biochemical Journal. 155 (1): 117-25. doi:10.1042/bj1550117. PMC 1172808 . PMID 938470.. ...
and its antifungal, anticancer and antimetastatic activities". Sustainable Chemical Processes. 2 (1): 8. doi:10.1186/2043-7129- ... 2-8. Freeman, G.G.; Morrison, R.I. (1949). "Metabolic products of Trichothecium roseum Link". Biochemical Journal. 45 (2): 191- ...
Cellular Dynamics: biochemical and biophysical analysis of cellular processes; visualizing biological systems at all scales: ...
... in the ability to measure interactions between DNA and protein is a requirement to fully understand the biochemical processes. ... Biochemical interaction methods[edit]. DNA-protein crosslinking can be caused by a variety of chemical and physical agents, ... This process appears to be quite efficient. Even though one or two unrepaired crosslinks are sufficient to inactivate a cell, a ... Cole et al.[22] and Sinden and Cole[23] presented evidence that a homologous recombinational repair process requiring the ...
Scientists do know that during this process, the level of cytoplasmic vesicles is significantly reduced, which is thought to be ... Wang, Z. (2003). "Gene discovery in the Entamoeba invadens genome". Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology. 129 (1): 23-31. doi ... Welter, Brenda (2017). "Flow cytometric characterization of encystation in Entamoeba invadens". Molecular and Biochemical ... Segovia-Gamboa, Norma Cristina (2010). "Entabmoeba Invadens, encystation process and enolase". Experimental Parasitology. 125 ( ...
Hochachka, P.W.; Somero, G. N (2002). "Biochemical Adaptation. Mechanism and Process in Physiological Evolution". Oxford: ...
Process Biochemistry. 45 (6): 874-98. doi:10.1016/j.procbio.2010.02.007. Wang H, Ng TB (2003). "A ribonuclease with distinctive ... features from the wild green-headed mushroom Russulus virescens". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 312 (4 ... and collectively they play a critical role in many biological processes. A RNase from R. virescens was shown to be ...
is a convenient, readily applicable technique which is used extensively ... study of biochemical radical processes. The ...
Jukes, T. H.; Holmquist, R. (1972). "Evolution of transfer RNA molecules as a repetitive process". Biochemical and Biophysical ... Morgan GJ (February 2003). "Historical review: viruses, crystals and geodesic domes". Trends in Biochemical Sciences. 28 (2): ... Crick and Koch proposed that consciousness seems so mysterious because it involves very short-term memory processes that are as ... Crick's suggestion that there might someday be a new science of "biochemical theology" seems to have been realized under an ...
"Controlling EDTA treatment to produce permeable with normal metabolic processes". Biochemical and Biophysical Research ...
Biochemical and Processing Aspects. CRC Press. pp. 241-. ISBN 978-1-4200-1287-3. Bauer R, Khan IA, Wagner H. Echinacea-Drogen, ...
Enzymes are biochemical catalysts used in converting processes from one substance to another. They are also involved in ... The processes are as old as adding vinegar for pickling or as an emulsifier for emulsion mixtures like mayonnaise. These are ... Food chemistry is the study of chemical processes and interactions of all biological and non-biological components of foods.[1] ... Physical Chemistry of Food Processes, Advanced Techniques, Structures and Applications.1994. van Nostrand-Reinhold vols.1-2., ...
... or biochemical processes. Like most other physical features, however functional, vestigial features in a given species may ... The shift in human diet towards soft and processed food over time caused a reduction in the number of powerful grinding teeth, ... The emergence of vestigiality occurs by normal evolutionary processes, typically by loss of function of a feature that is no ... Vestigiality is the retention during the process of evolution of genetically determined structures or attributes that have lost ...
Nodes involved in the same biochemical process are highly interconnected.[34] Evolution[edit]. The evolution of interactome ... Welch, G. Rickey (January 2009). "The 'fuzzy' interactome". Trends in Biochemical Sciences. 34 (1): 1-2. doi:10.1016/j.tibs. ... The genes were grouped based on similar function so as to build a functional map of the cell's processes. Using this method the ... Some of the goals of these networks are: develop a functional map of a cell's processes, drug target identification, and to ...
In this process antibodies to Aβ are used to decrease cerebral plaque levels. This is accomplished by promoting microglial ... A number of genetic, cell biology, biochemical and animal studies support the concept that Aβ plays a central role in the ... These aggregate processes can also be studied on lipid bilayer constructs. TPM21 Vivekanandan S, Brender JR, Lee SY, ... Tabaton M, Zhu X, Perry G, Smith MA, Giliberto L (January 2010). "Signaling effect of amyloid-beta(42) on the processing of A ...
Calder, Philip C. (2017-10-15). "Omega-3 fatty acids and inflammatory processes: from molecules to man". Biochemical Society ... Angiogenesis is a process where tumors have their own blood supply in order to feed growing cancer cells. The alliinase ... The "Western pattern diet" consists of high-fat, high-sugar, low-fiber meals with surfeit of salt and highly processed food, ... The role of proteins as enzymes and/or hormones is imperative for cell function and physiological processes as simple as growth ...
Lutwak-Mann C (December 1942). "The effect of salicylate and cinchophen on enzymes and metabolic processes". The Biochemical ...
... its developmental processes; its biochemical and physiological properties; its behavior, and the products of behavior, for ...
... to purify processing bodies from human epithelial cells. From these purified processing bodies they were able to use mass ... Kulkarni, M.; Ozgur, S.; Stoecklin, G. (2010). "On track with P-bodies". Biochemical Society Transactions. 38 (Pt 1): 242-251. ... P-bodies, or processing bodies are distinct foci formed by phase separation within the cytoplasm of the eukaryotic cell ... took a proximity labeling approach called BioID to identify and predict the processing body proteome. They engineered cells to ...
"Increase of the Fe effective charge in hemoproteins during oxygenation process". Biochemical and Biophysical Research ... This process also produces one molecule of carbon monoxide for every molecule of heme degraded.[73] Heme degradation is one of ... This process occurs in the pulmonary capillaries adjacent to the alveoli of the lungs. The oxygen then travels through the ... A schematic visual model of oxygen-binding process, showing all four monomers and hemes, and protein chains only as ...
Spliceosomal splicing and self-splicing involve a two-step biochemical process. Both steps involve transesterification ... "Trends in Biochemical Sciences. 35 (3): 169-78. doi:10.1016/j.tibs.2009.10.004. PMC 2834840. PMID 19959365.. ... RNA splicing, in molecular biology, is a form of RNA processing in which a newly made precursor messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) ... The maturation process of the primary RNA transcript to remove intron sequences (not present in the mature form) and joining ...
Additionally, a processed NAA10 gene duplication NAA11 (ARD2) has been identified that is expressed in several human cell lines ... The Biochemical Journal. 386 (Pt 3): 433-43. doi:10.1042/bj20041071. PMC 1134861. PMID 15496142. Park JH, Seo JH, Wee HJ, Vo TT ... Chang HH, Falick AM, Carlton PM, Sedat JW, DeRisi JL, Marletta MA (August 2008). "N-terminal processing of proteins exported by ... Trends in Biochemical Sciences. 37 (4): 152-61. doi:10.1016/j.tibs.2012.02.003. PMID 22405572. Pruitt KD, Tatusova T, Maglott ...
Watson N, Apirion D (November 1981). "Ribonuclease F, a putative processing endoribonuclease from Escherichia coli". ... Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 103 (2): 543-51. doi:10.1016/0006-291X(81)90486-1. PMID 6277308. ... A putative processing endoribonuclease from Escherichia coli". European Journal of Biochemistry. 124 (3): 553-9. doi:10.1111/j. ...
Actin remodeling is a biochemical process in cells. In the actin remodeling of neurons, the protein actin is part of the ... Actin exists in two states in the axonal and dendritic processes: globular or G-actin and filament/filamentous or F-actin. G- ... Actin treadmilling is the process of turnover of actin filaments where F-actin is rapidly assembled and disassembled. G-actin ... process to change the shape and structure of dendritic spines. G-actin is the monomer form of actin, and is uniformly ...
Process Biochemistry. 41 (3): 653-8. doi:10.1016/j.procbio.2005.08.014. Bartnicki Garcia, S (1963). "Symposium on Biochemical ... Biochemical Engineering Journal. 39 (2): 383-8. doi:10.1016/j.bej.2007.10.009. Sharifia, Mahnaz; Karimi, Keikhosro; Taherzadeh ...
He collaborated with John Edsall on the book Biothermodynamics: The Study of Biochemical Processes at Equilibrium . He was ... Edsall JT, Gutfreund H (1983). Biothermodynamics: The Study of Biochemical Processes at Equilibrium. Wiley-Blackwell. "Herbert ... Gutfreund H (1999). "Rapid-flow techniques and their contributions to enzymology". Trends in Biochemical Sciences. 24: 458-460 ... "Biochemical Society - Honorary Members". Biochemistry.org. Retrieved 1 November 2018.. ...
Sensory processing[edit]. Early models of sensory processing understood within a theoretical framework are credited to Horace ... Some models are also tracking biochemical pathways at very small scales such as spines or synaptic clefts. ... Koch, Christof (1999). Biophysics of computation: information processing in single neurons. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford ... Neural Information Processing Systems (NIPS)- a leading annual conference covering other machine learning topics as well. ...
Learning to eat is a messy process for children, and children often do not master neatness or eating etiquette until they are 5 ... Physiological and Biochemical Zoology. 76 (2): 165-179. doi:10.1086/367950. PMID 12794670.. ... They can therefore tolerate either a slower collection process (carnivores that feed on larger vertebrates) or a slower ... complex digestive process of an herbivore. Larger animals, on the other hand, generate more heat and less of this heat is lost ...
Some of the biochemical diagnostic tests used include salivary and blood serum cortisol testing, 24-hour urinary free cortisol ... Diagnosing Cushing's disease is a multidisciplinary process involving doctors, endocrinologists, radiologists, surgeons, and ... A corticotropin gradient sample via BIPSS is required to confirm diagnosis when pituitary MRI imaging and biochemical ...
Disturbances in neuromodulatory processes acting on ion channels, receptors, and second messengers have been associated with ... the pre-Bötzinger complex is also capable of integrating sensory information from changes in the biochemical environment, ... Transient A-type potassium currents are more common in neurons that are involved in the inspiration process. When A-type ...
It has been seen that this process can reduce sound waves by up to 50 decibels. Although this mechanism can decrease the sound ... With regards to listening fatigue, the relevant mechanical and biochemical mechanisms primarily deal with inner ear and cochlea ...
Each process activated by the proteins of the cell cycle engine involve a cascade of many reactions. The longest subsystem ... A control system constructed using biochemical and genetic logic circuitry organizes the timing of initiation of each of these ...
The process of phototransduction occurs in the retina.[13] The retina has many layers of various cell types.[13] The best-known ... organisms such as insects and molluscs are different in both their morphological organization and their underlying biochemical ... Color experience is calculated from these three distinct signals, perhaps via an opponent process.[5] The three types of cone ... The rods are narrower than the cones and distributed differently across the retina, but the chemical process in each that ...
During this process, TGF-β can stimulate differentiation into either chondrocytes or osteoblasts via FGF, Msx1, and Ctgf ... It is thought that through a combination of biochemical and biophysical stimuli, the uncommitted stem cells of the embryo will ... osteoblastic condensations are closer to epithelial surfaces so they will be exposed to more biophysical and biochemical ...
Biological process. • regulation of apoptotic process. • pronephros development. • regulation of metanephric nephron tubule ... "The Biochemical Journal. 341 (1): 89-93. doi:10.1042/0264-6021:3410089. PMC 1220333. PMID 10377248.. ... sulfur compound metabolic process. • metanephric S-shaped body morphogenesis. • metanephros development. • cellular response to ... negative regulation of apoptotic process involved in metanephric nephron tubule development. • S-shaped body morphogenesis. • ...
Biological process. • regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • cell-cell signaling. • negative regulation of gene ... Biochemical assays showed that the +331G/A polymorphism increases transcription of the PR gene, favoring production of hPR-B in ... Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 143 (2): 740-8. doi:10.1016/0006-291X(87)91416-1. PMID 3551956.. ...
366 in pre-processed form) PiS is caused by a glutamate to valine mutation at position 264 (288 in pre-processed form) Other ... Biochemical Society Transactions. 30 (2): 89-92. doi:10.1042/BST0300089. PMID 12023831. Kalsheker N, Morley S, Morgan K (April ... Evidence has shown that cigarette smoke can result in oxidation of methionine 358 of α1-antitrypsin (382 in the pre-processed ... "Biochemical, molecular characterization, and glycoproteomic analyses of alpha(1)-proteinase inhibitor products used for ...
Unfortunately, the process of antagonistic pleiotropy may result in an altered evolutionary path with delayed adaptation, in ... "Genetic control of biochemical reactions in Neurospora" (PDF). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 27 (11): 499-506. doi:10.1073/pnas. ... Domesticated chickens underwent a rapid selection process that led to unrelated phenotypes having high correlations, suggesting ...
... is an applied science which studies the biochemical process of fermentation and its practical uses. Common topics include the ...
Although the precise role of amelogenin(s) in regulating the mineralization process is unknown, it is known that amelogenins ... From forensics to quality control in clinical and biochemical genomics". Clin Chim Acta. 386 (1-2): 53-6. doi:10.1016/j.cca. ...
Unit processes (such as nitration and oxidation) involve the conversion of material by biochemical, thermochemical and other ... a unit process is the chemical equivalent of a unit operation. Along with unit operations, unit processes constitute a process ... Process design and analysisEdit. Main article: Process design. A unit operation is a physical step in an individual chemical ... Chemical engineers responsible for these are called process engineers.[33]. Process design requires the definition of equipment ...
The selection process is deterministic, although it may be based on earlier preferences established by the same process. ... and desires are fixed by our genetic endowment and our biochemical makeup, the latter of which is affected by both genes and ... but is inferred from various cues through an intricate mental process, authorship processing. Although many interpret this work ... Deliberative indeterminism asserts that the indeterminism is confined to an earlier stage in the decision process.[61][62] This ...
As well as directly increasing glucose availability, cortisol also suppresses the highly demanding metabolic processes of the ... as well as increased appetite for biochemical energy storage. In contemporary society, the endurance of the HPA axis and early ... that controls reactions to stress and regulates many body processes, including digestion, the immune system, mood and emotions ... Sensory information arriving at the lateral aspect of the amygdala is processed and conveyed to the amygdala's central nucleus ...
DNA metabolic process. • telomere organization. • positive regulation of DNA ligation. • cellular response to alkaloid. • ... stabilizes the adjacent Rad51 filaments suggesting that cross-talk between these two recombinases may affect their biochemical ... replication fork processing. • cellular response to ionizing radiation. • cellular response to cisplatin. • chromosome ... Biological process. • regulation of protein phosphorylation. • strand invasion. • mitotic recombination-dependent replication ...
At least twenty chemical elements are known to be required to support human biochemical processes by serving structural and ... Required for processing ATP and for bones Spinach, legumes, nuts, seeds, whole grains, peanut butter, avocado[22] ... One element, cobalt, is available for use by animals only after having been processed into complex molecules (e.g., vitamin B12 ... A component of bones (see apatite), cells, in energy processing, in DNA and ATP (as phosphate) and many other functions Red ...
A process in which a series of electron carriers operate together to transfer electrons from donors to any of several different ... Biochemical Society Transactions 31 (pt 6): 1095-1105. doi:10.1042/BST0311095 PMID 14641005 ...
The process leading to β-1,6 linkages is poorly understood: although genes important in the process have been identified, not ... "Biochemical Journal. 135 (1): 19-30. doi:10.1042/bj1350019. PMC 1165784. PMID 4359920.. ...
Hurley LH (March 2002). "DNA and its associated processes as targets for cancer therapy". Nature Reviews. Cancer. 2 (3): 188- ... Tripathi, G. (2010). Cellular and Biochemical Science. New Delhi: I.K. International Publishing House Pvt. Ltd. pp. 373-374. ... Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 153 (2): 741-7. doi:10.1016/S0006-291X(88)81157-4. PMID 3382401.. ... the toxicity of these drugs have pushed scientists to explore other processes related to DNA that could be targeted instead. In ...
This process therefore helps ensure that transcription is not interrupted.. Repressed genes[edit]. Three histone modifications ... their work on the biochemical characteristics of individual histones did not reveal how the histones interacted with each other ... This process has been involved in the activation of gene expression by making the modified histones less tightly bound to DNA ... In metazoans the increase in the rate of histone synthesis is due to the increase in processing of pre-mRNA to its mature form ...
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Eleonora Paparelli, Silvia Gonzali, Sandro Parlanti, Giacomo Novi, Federico M. Giorgi, Francesco Licausi, Monika Kosmacz, Regina Feil, John E. Lunn, Henrike Brust, Joost T. van Dongen, Martin Steup, Pierdomenico Perata ...
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Circulating FGF21 proteolytic processing mediated by fibroblast activation protein Eugene Y. Zhen; Eugene Y. Zhen 1 ... FGF21 processing in plasma with FAP inhibitor or FAP immunodepleted. (A) Structure of FAP inhibitor. (B) FGF21 was spiked into ... FGF21 processing in plasma with FAP inhibitor or FAP immunodepleted. (A) Structure of FAP inhibitor. (B) FGF21 was spiked into ... The newly formed ΔC10 form was further processed sequentially to a form with an m/z of 17939. The mass difference between m/z ...
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Typically, these graphical notations are geared towards conventional biochemical pathway diagrams. They permit the user to ... Thus, Co-dependence models explicitly capture, for instance, signal processing structures and the influence of exogenous ... transformation as well as biological information processing. Narrator is a software tool facilitating the development and ... factors or events affecting certain parts of a biological system or process. This combined set of features provides the system ...
Physiological process in human pregnancy that result in initiation of parturition & onset of labor : poorly defined Retreat ... 2. Processes -. 2.1. introduction to processes. 2.1.1. the process model 2.1.2. process creation 2.1.3. process termination 2.1 ... process hierarchies 2.1.5. process states 2.1.6. implementation of processes 2.1.7. threads. 2.1 the process ... Physiological & Biochemical Process regulating Parturition*Physiological process in human pregnancy that result in initiation ...
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The purpose of this review is to present biochemical and ultrastructural evidence which demonstrate that differences exist ... between the binding, internalization and intracellular processing of insulin... ... Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis and Intracellular Processing of Insulin: Ultrastructural and Biochemical Evidence for Cell- ... In Biochemical Actions of Hormones, Vol VIII, edited by Litwack G, p 273. New York, Academic Press, Inc, 1981Google Scholar ...
Calreticulin, a multi-process calcium-buffering chaperone of the endoplasmic reticulum. Marek Michalak, Jody Groenendyk, Eva ... Calreticulin, a multi-process calcium-buffering chaperone of the endoplasmic reticulum. Marek Michalak, Jody Groenendyk, Eva ... Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Biochemical Journal Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see this ... Regulation of Ca2+ homoeostasis and ER Ca2+ buffering by calreticulin might be the key to explain its multi-process property. ...
Development of biological effect assays for GPCR mediated processes in yeast. P. D. Koks, J. Keijer ... Development of biological effect assays for GPCR mediated processes in yeast Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page ... Biochemical Society Transactions Oct 01, 2000, 28 (5) A268; DOI: 10.1042/bst028a268 ... Your Name) thought you would like to see this page from the Biochemical Society Transactions web site. ...
  • The biochemical pathway map example "Key metabolic processes" was created using the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software extended with the Biology solution from the Science and Education area of ConceptDraw Solution Park. (conceptdraw.com)
  • Typically, these graphical notations are geared towards conventional biochemical pathway diagrams. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Human macrophage foam cells degrade the atherosclerotic plaques though cathepsin K mediated processes, resulting in increase in levels of CTX-I. Serum CTX-I was not elevated in women with aortic calcification, likely due to the contribution of CTX-I from osteoclastic bone resorption which involves Cathepsin-K. The human macrophage model system may be used to identify important pathway leading to excessive proteolytic plaque remodeling and plaque rupture. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Vassiliadis, Vassilios S. / Dynamic biochemical reaction process analysis and pathway modification predictions . (pucv.cl)
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  • A biochemical and proteomic platform was generated to explore the biological phenomena associated with LR and its active component shikonin. (hindawi.com)
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  • This spans atom-level basics of relevant chemical phenomena, process level models and design practices that can be integrated into sustainable metals processing plants. (aalto.fi)
  • It is natural that as the field of biochemical dynamics has achieved new levels of refinement its students have increasingly adopted the concepts and methods of transition. (wrcch2016.com)
  • It wasn't until 1928 when Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin that the field of biochemical engineering was established. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biochemical and bioprocess engineering is concerned with the design of processes which involve biological transformations to manufacture a range of bio-based chemicals, biopharmaceuticals and biofuels. (coursera.org)
  • Biochemical engineering, also known as bioprocess engineering, is a field of study with roots stemming from chemical engineering and biological engineering. (wikipedia.org)
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  • The components involved in this complex process have been identified using a molecular genetic approach in Arabidopsis and classified into genetically separable pathways. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • Biochemical Pathways of Heavy Metals Poisoning BIO101 (Principles of Biology) 6 July 2012 Abstract The biochemical pathways of heavy metal poisoning are routes by which the metals pass in the body as they impair and destroy normal cellular and organ activity. (bartleby.com)
  • Biochemical Pathways Research. (wiley.com)
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  • The major Sustainable Metals Processing is a specialist field that deals with the extraction of metals and mineral products from primary and secondary resources through the application of scientific principles. (aalto.fi)
  • Sustainable Metals Processing is a fully integrated study program that combines metals and mineral processing technology based on scientific and engineering principles with economy and society. (aalto.fi)
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  • Our Chemical Engineering degrees teach students how to apply scientific and engineering principles to the design and analysis of chemical process equipment and flow sheets. (lboro.ac.uk)
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  • User-defined sets of proteins, protein families, annotation terms or taxonomic groups can be selected and compared, allowing for the analysis of distribution of biological processes and molecular activities over different taxonomic groups. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For example, it becomes possible to identify the distribution of particular protein families or particular biological processes and molecular activities along the taxonomic or phylogenetic tree. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The concept of bioprocess integration is treated at various levels, including integration at the molecular, biological, bioreactor and plant levels, but also accounting for the integration of separation and mass transfer operations and biology, fluid dynamics and physiology, as well as basic science and process technology. (academicbooks.dk)
  • To obtain molecular insight into how ERK signaling controls multiple biological processes in vivo through substrates, we devised an integrated bioinformatic, genetic, and biochemical approach by using C. elegans germ-line development as the model system. (pnas.org)
  • Xiaohong Wang is a material scientist with extensive knowledge in biomineralization, including the molecular mechanisms underlying this process. (rsc.org)
  • The research topics aims to extend the state of the art in multi-scale modeling of chemical and biochemical processes by integrating molecular, kinetic, thermodynamic, morphological, population balance and fluid dynamics models into a unified computational approach. (europa.eu)
  • It mainly deals with the design, construction, and advancement of unit processes that involve biological organisms or organic molecules and has various applications in areas of interest such as biofuels, food, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, and water treatment processes. (wikipedia.org)
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  • Stuehr, Lu and their team show for the first time precisely how the important calcium-binding protein calmodulin facilitates the production of NO by the NO synthases, which are enzymes that help control innumerable biological processes, including blood pressure, memory and immune defense. (bgsu.edu)
  • Microorganisms are able to carry out different biochemical activities with the ease of different enzymes. (bartleby.com)
  • This study field includes diverse multidisciplinary areas, spanning from theoretical metallurgy, experimental studies and process engineering to knowledge-intensive design and optimization of the processes, equipment, plant operations and product applications. (aalto.fi)
  • Techno-economic evaluation (TEE) is an approach that helps holistic decision-making during development and optimization of manufacturing processes in food, pharma, chemical, and bio-based industries. (xpure-systems.com)
  • As an outcome of the product, process, and economic overviews, a techno-economic optimization strategy can be derived according to Figure 4, further leading to a techno-economically viable manufacturing process. (xpure-systems.com)
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  • The remaining parts explore the posttranslational processing, regulation, metabolism, biosynthesis, and gene expression of these neuropeptides, with a particular emphasis on their triggering mechanism and the control of release. (elsevier.com)
  • Biochemical genetic testing and newborn screening are essential laboratory services for the screening, detection, diagnosis, and monitoring of inborn errors of metabolism or inherited metabolic disorders. (cdc.gov)
  • We systematically investigated human FGF21 protein processing using mass spectrometry. (portlandpress.com)
  • The requirement of FAP for FGF21 proteolysis at the C-terminus was independently demonstrated by in vitro digestion, immunodepletion of FAP in human plasma, administration of an FAP-specific inhibitor and by human FGF21 protein processing patterns in FAP knockout mouse plasma. (portlandpress.com)
  • In recent years, calreticulin has been implicated to play a role in many biological systems, including functions inside and outside the ER, indicating that the protein is a multi-process molecule. (biochemj.org)
  • During batch fermentation, the rate of ethanol production per milligram of cell protein is maximal for a brief period early in this process and declines progressively as ethanol accumulates in the surrounding broth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent proteins (FPs) engineered from bacterial phytochrome photoreceptors (BphPs) have become invaluable probes for in vivo imaging, and also allow the visualization of several biological processes by multiplexing with traditional fluorescent probes developed from FPs of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) family. (rsc.org)
  • Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc. (NYSE: BIO and BIOb), a global leader of life science research and clinical diagnostic products, today announced the launch of two new chromatography media for process protein purification: CHT Ceramic Hydroxyapatite XT Media and Nuvia HP-Q Resin. (the-scientist.com)
  • The study will consist of a clinical component and a scientific component consisting of laboratory investigations of potentially useful biochemical (lipid and protein) markers. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • and Ph.D. graduates in technology work in diverse positions in Finland's largest industrial sectors, in the metal and electronics industry, wood processing industries as well as chemical, pharmaceutical, biotechnology and food industries. (aalto.fi)
  • This course will cover the key enabling technologies that underpin biotechnology research including enzyme discovery and engineering, systems and synthetic biology and biochemical and process engineering. (coursera.org)
  • Give examples of industrial biotechnology products and processes and their application in healthcare, agriculture, fine chemicals, energy and the environment. (coursera.org)
  • One of the primary focuses of biotechnology is in the medical field, where biochemical engineers work to design pharmaceuticals, artificial organs, biomedical devices, chemical sensors, and drug delivery systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • The study of cell cultures is widely used in biochemical engineering and biotechnology due to its many applications in developing natural fuels, improving the efficiency in producing drugs and pharmaceutical processes, and also creating cures for disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other medical applications of biochemical engineering within biotechnology are genetics testing and pharmacogenomics. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, cheese 2 was more effective in increase the genetic toxicity than cheese 1.The present results revealed that use of tri-sodium citrate and sodium polyphosphate in cheese processing increased the oxidative stress in male mice that increased the toxicity response on genetic materials, liver and kidney functions. (scialert.net)
  • Studying the physio chemical properties of resultant cheese and potential genetic and biochemical toxicity in male mice was also a target. (scialert.net)
  • Laboratories that perform biochemical genetic testing are required by CLIA regulations to meet the general quality systems requirements for nonwaived testing and the personnel requirements for high-complexity testing. (cdc.gov)
  • As the number of inherited metabolic diseases that are included in state-based newborn screening programs continues to increase, ensuring the quality of performance and delivery of testing services remains a continuous challenge not only for public health laboratories and other newborn screening facilities but also for biochemical genetic testing laboratories. (cdc.gov)
  • These recommendations are intended for laboratories that perform biochemical genetic testing to improve the quality of laboratory services and for newborn screening laboratories to ensure the quality of laboratory practices for inherited metabolic disorders. (cdc.gov)
  • These recommendations also are intended as a resource for medical and public health professionals who evaluate laboratory practices, for users of laboratory services to facilitate their collaboration with newborn screening systems and use of biochemical genetic tests, and for standard-setting organizations and professional societies in developing future laboratory quality standards and practice recommendations. (cdc.gov)
  • Integrated Bioinformatic, Genetic, and Biochemical Analysis Identifies 30 in Vivo ERK Substrates. (pnas.org)
  • Oxford, England: Third edition View all editions and formats Summary: A complete reference for fermentation engineers engaged in commercial chemical and pharmaceutical production, Fermentation and Biochemical Engineering Handbook emphasizes the operation, development and design of manufacturing processes that use fermentation, separation and purification techniques. (linawycatuzy.gq)
  • 2018. "Identifiability and Reconstruction of Biochemical Reaction Networks from Population Snapshot Data. (mdpi.com)
  • Almost 35 years later, his faith in his alma mater was reconfirmed when he found at Bowling Green just the expert he needed to continue his research into the critical biological process of nitric oxide (NO) production. (bgsu.edu)
  • Ethanol fermentation , also called alcoholic fermentation , is a biological process which converts sugars such as glucose , fructose , and sucrose into cellular energy , producing ethanol and carbon dioxide as by-products. (wikipedia.org)
  • The purpose of this review is to present biochemical and ultrastructural evidence which demonstrate that differences exist between the binding, internalization and intracellular processing of insulin and other types of ligands such as LDL and alpha-2-macroglobulin. (springer.com)
  • Rascio N, Ramina A, Masia A, Carlotti C (1987) Leaf abscission in peach, Prunus persica (L.) Batsch: Ultrastructural and biochemical aspects. (springer.com)
  • The Co-dependence Methodology complements the representation of species transport and transformation together with an explicit mechanism to express biological information processing. (biomedcentral.com)
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  • Abstract A process for treating sewage containing ammoniacal nitrogen of catalytic cracking catalyst includes physiochemically pretreating, filtering to remove suspended substance, optional regulation of pH value to 11-11.5 and reverse stripping, mixing it with house sewage, adding methanol, and anaerobic denitrifying and aerobic nitrating. (brandsproducts.net)
  • The radiative transfer process within plant canopies is one of the key drivers that regulate canopy photosynthesis. (biogeosciences.net)
  • To model leaf-level and canopy-level photosynthesis, leaf light absorption is then linked to the biochemical process of gas diffusion through leaf stomata. (biogeosciences.net)
  • We link the radiative transfer process with the biochemical diffusion process to model canopy photosynthesis. (biogeosciences.net)
  • Inference of biochemical network models from experimental data is a crucial problem in systems and synthetic biology that includes parameter calibration but also identification of unknown interactions. (mdpi.com)
  • The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) Web site [ 1 ] lists more than 100 such tools, all of which adhere to the SBML standard, facilitating the exchange of biochemical reaction network models. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This module will give an appreciation of the key role biochemical engineering has in translating discoveries coming from life sciences and synthetic biology, such as improved microbial platforms for product expression, into economically viable full scale production processes. (coursera.org)
  • Biochemical conversion processes include anaerobic digestion or decomposition and anaerobic fermentation. (ca.gov)
  • Biochemical correlates of adaptation processes in isolated frog photoreceptor membranes. (rupress.org)
  • Because in his download biochemical adaptation the helpful mobile director is a thiourea-catalyzed one! (windhover.org)
  • Our MSc in Advanced Chemical Engineering with Process Systems Engineering begins with taught modules which run from the beginning of term until the end of May. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • Students will be introduced to the applications of software packages such as such as Hysys, Aspen Plus or PRO/II for simulating main unit operations related to chemical engineering processes. (uaeu.ac.ae)
  • Having established a firm interest in process control and the associated economic benefits, he returned to Stellenbosch University, completing an MSc and a PhD in chemical engineering with a focus on non-linear process control. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Biochemical engineering is not a major offered by most universities and is instead an area of interest under the chemical engineering major in most cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • refining of biomasses, including enzymatic processing of biopolymers, and valorization of industrial side streams for the production of biochemicals and valuable side products. (oulu.fi)
  • Therefore, a process required must enable purification of liquid streams or extraction of valuable components from the solid stream into a liquid stream and further purification. (xpure-systems.com)
  • The project brings together all aspects of the degree, including initial technology selection and flowsheet development, detailed design of individual unit operation, process optimisation, safety and operability analysis and finally full economic evaluation. (lboro.ac.uk)
  • Hence plants have evolved several biochemical and morphological responses to Pi starvation that both enhance uptake and conserve use. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Researchers at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) have examined how this working memory functions on the biochemical level in the case of Drosophila melanogaster . (eurekalert.org)
  • Due to the ability of several naturally occurring microorganisms to generate hydrogen through varying metabolic processes, biological hydrogen has become an attractive alternative energy and fuel source. (usf.edu)
  • Because microbial communities associated with hydrogen production are capable of exhibiting a number of phenotypes, attempts to apply metabolic engineering concepts have been restricted due to limited information regarding complex metabolic processes and regulatory networks involved in expression of microbial traits associated with biohydrogen production. (usf.edu)
  • Process Modelling and Simulation in Chemical, Biochemical and Environmental Engineering explores effective modeling and simulation approaches for solving equations. (worldcat.org)
  • This specialised stream enables you to develop an understanding of the mathematics relevant to systems engineering and gives an advanced treatment of control theory and modelling, along with their application to the field of process systems engineering. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • The Process Systems Engineering (PSE) course allows students to develop an understanding of the mathematics relevant to systems engineering and gives an advanced treatment of control theory, modelling, and design and management techniques, along with their application to the field of process systems engineering. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • The lignin portion of biomass is also difficult to convert via biochemical processes, and is typically considered for use as boiler fuel or as a feedstock for thermochemical conversion to other fuels and products. (ca.gov)
  • There are no known hydrolysis and fermentation systems operating on MSW feedstock but research has been done showing potential for this process. (ca.gov)
  • The primary overview for conceptualizing a feasible process is a feedstock and product overview. (xpure-systems.com)
  • The overview can involve five generic blocks, which include the type of industry, feedstock used by the particular industry, physical properties of the feedstock, required production process, and the final product. (xpure-systems.com)
  • The feedstock and product overview presents the process targets depending on the specifications of feedstock and the product's market requirements. (xpure-systems.com)
  • The primary block involves understanding a generic or existing process for manufacturing a specific product from a feedstock. (xpure-systems.com)
  • Tissue turnover may be assessed by biochemical markers of tissue degradation[ 23 , 24 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Biochemical markers of tissue turnover are increasingly used in both basic and clinical research, for diagnostic, prognostic and efficacy purposes[ 24 , 25 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In addition, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), essentially a cradle to grave analysis, is used to investigate environmental impacts of processes. (uclouvain.be)
  • The ability of these phenotype-centric comparative network analysis tools to identify both known and potentially new biochemical process is important for providing further understanding and insights into metabolic networks and system controls involved in the expression of microbial traits. (usf.edu)
  • Interactive Biochemical Modeling and Analysis. (rand.org)
  • Past studies have necessarily relied on cells that can be obtained in large numbers for biochemical analysis. (pnas.org)
  • Rare APCs, such as dendritic cells, could have specialized antigen-processing mechanisms not easily amenable to study by current techniques, and for many antigens and most cells, a kinetic and spatial analysis of the formation of class II complexes involving specific peptide has not been possible. (pnas.org)
  • Topics covered include global and local water resources, water quality and analysis, technical and economic analysis of major desalination processes such as multi-stage flash, reverse osmosis, multiple-effect distillation and electrodialysis. (uaeu.ac.ae)
  • Alcohols, such as ethanol and butanol, are the primary energy product from hydrolysis and fermentation processes. (ca.gov)
  • Chapter 3 Nutritional Requirements in Fermentation Processes. (linawycatuzy.gq)
  • Biochemical conversion research focuses on intensification of bioprocesses by developing high throughput bioprocessing methods, improving the mass transfer management in bioreactors, and by increasing the value of industrial side products. (oulu.fi)
  • To bridge this gap, this dissertation focuses on identification of phenotype-related biochemical processes within sets of phenotype-expressing organisms. (usf.edu)
  • Written by experts who have made important contributions to the European Science, Foundation Program on Process Integration in Biochemical Engineering, the volume focuses on the progress made and the major opportunities, and in addition on the limitations and the challenges in bioprocess integration that lie ahead. (academicbooks.dk)
  • Examples could include: combining pretreatment and hydrolysis, heat recycle between pretreatment and distillation processes, developing water recycle schemes, and integrated co-fermentation and product recovery. (aiche.org)
  • Cellulosic feedstocks, including a large portion of the organic fraction of MSW, need hydrolysis pretreatment (acid, enzymatic, or hydrothermal hydrolysis) to break down cellulose and hemicellulose to simple sugars needed by the yeast and bacteria for the fermentation process. (ca.gov)
  • The overarching process design converts corn stover to ethanol by dilute-acid pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, and co-fermentation. (energy.gov)
  • This update reflects NREL's current vision of the biochemical ethanol process and includes the latest research in the conversion areas (pretreatment, conditioning, saccharification, and fermentation), optimizations in product recovery, and our latest understanding of the ethanol plant's back end (wastewater and utilities). (energy.gov)
  • These chemical changes can impact biochemical conversion through inhibitor formation and altering degradability during pretreatment. (intechopen.com)
  • Through applying knowledge of process constraints, which are usually described mathematically, biochemical engineers are able to design a series of integrated process steps or "unit operations" which together make up a bioprocess. (coursera.org)
  • Key engineering concepts and the problem solving approach required for the design of bioprocesses will be taught by a group of biochemical engineers from The University of Manchester, University College London and Technical University of Denmark. (coursera.org)
  • Today, biochemical engineers can be found working in a variety of industries, from food to pharmaceuticals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biochemical engineers use their knowledge of chemical processes in biological systems in order to create tangible products that improve people's health. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biochemical engineers primarily focus on designing systems that will improve the production, processing, packaging, storage, and distribution of food. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biochemical engineers also work to improve the nutritional value of food products, such as in golden rice, which was developed to prevent vitamin A deficiency in certain areas where this was an issue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, Co-dependence models explicitly capture, for instance, signal processing structures and the influence of exogenous factors or events affecting certain parts of a biological system or process. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Learn more about how biological processes and structures are illuminated through (bio)chemical detection with this poster from The Scientist and Azure Biosystems! (the-scientist.com)
  • These days much of the imaging that goes on in a lab occurs beyond the oculars and takes advantage of sophisticated chemistry to "see" biological processes and structures. (the-scientist.com)
  • The evaluation of conventional processes in the chemical industry (e.g., (hetero)azeotropic, pressure-swing, extractive distillation) involving chemical reactions and equilibrium, combined with separation processes (hybrid processes), is carried out by means of computational tools such as Aspen Engineering Suite. (uclouvain.be)
  • Include the topics covered balance, movement and operations fluid flow, interactions and separation processes. (uaeu.ac.ae)
  • This session deals with the biochemical conversions of plant-based biomass to liquid fuel and chemicals. (aiche.org)
  • While fermentation of starch and sugar-based feedstocks (i.e., corn and sugar cane) into ethanol is common, cellulosic biomass feedstocks are more difficult to process with fermentation. (ca.gov)
  • Building on design reports published in 2002 and 1999, NREL, together with the subcontractor Harris Group Inc., performed a complete review of the process design and economic model for the biomass-to-ethanol process. (energy.gov)
  • The major covers the whole life cycle of materials linking product and process design, materials engineering, recycling, energy recovery, environment protection, economy and society. (aalto.fi)
  • Process integration has been one of the most active research fields in Biochemical Engineering over the last decade and it will continue to be so if bioprocessing is to become more rational, efficient and productive. (academicbooks.dk)
  • This online Fermentation and Biochemical Engineering Handbook : tells the periodic activity mechanisms under the read of Exploring a classy computational background between guidelines and review pages. (htccompany.com)
  • The online Fermentation and Biochemical Engineering Handbook : will omit issued to your Kindle bereavement. (htccompany.com)
  • Login or date an online Fermentation and Biochemical Engineering Handbook : to share a count. (htccompany.com)
  • Purchase Fermentation and Biochemical Engineering Handbook - 3rd Edition. (linawycatuzy.gq)
  • Similar Items Related Subjects: Fermentation and biochemical engineering handbook. (linawycatuzy.gq)
  • The practical asp This is a well-rounded handbook of fermentation and biochemical engineering presenting techniques for the commercial production of chemicals and pharmaceuticals via fermentation. (linawycatuzy.gq)
  • You will choose a research topic from a list of areas relevant to process systems engineering in November. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • Up to this point, biochemical engineering hadn't developed as a field yet. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the present study we report that a previously uncharacterized transcription factor, BHLH32, acts as a negative regulator of a range of Pi starvation-induced processes in Arabidopsis. (gla.ac.uk)
  • This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. (springer.com)
  • To extend our knowledge about these processes we conducted four studies using experimental animal models and performed clinical studies on acute pulmonary embolism. (morebooks.shop)
  • In our book we present the used materials and methods, describe and discuss our results as well as give conclusions to understand the pathophysiological background of pulmonary embolism induced biochemical changes in experimental models and in the clinical setting. (morebooks.shop)
  • In the first method, the Dense ENriched Subgraph Enumeration (DENSE) algorithm, partial "prior knowledge" about the proteins involved in phenotype-related processes are utilized to identify dense, enriched sets of known phenotype-related proteins in Clostridium acetobutylicum. (usf.edu)
  • Like mentioned in Figure 1, a purification process can result in plant-based nutraceuticals, sugars, proteins etc. of different market values and economic potential. (xpure-systems.com)
  • Chemical and Biochemical Applications of Lasers aims to give a general introduction to as well as an evaluation of the successful application of lasers in various areas, especially in the fields of chemistry and biochemistry. (elsevier.com)
  • To investigate the role of the nutrition and dietary intake on the progression of the different stages of the healing process among burned patients in Gaza strip. (msf.org)
  • Pretested interview questionnaires, Food Frequency Questionnaires, 24 hour dietary recall, anthropometric measures, and biochemical tests were used to assess dietary, health, and healing score among burned patients. (msf.org)
  • Consumption of healthy food is very important for healing process among burned patients. (msf.org)
  • This study is designed to measure the impact of Satraplatin plus radiation therapy to the bed of the prostate in patients who have developed biochemical failure of their prostate cancer. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • For most of these patients, recurrence will be defined by biochemical recurrence (BCR), a rise in PSA with no other documented evidence of recurrence. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This study evaluates the efficacy of the addiction of Cyclophosphamide to Revlimid- low dose dexamethasone (Rd) in relapsed/refractory Multiple Myeloma patients, who experienced a biochemical progression, without CRAB, during Rd treatment. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This protocol is a phase II multicenter, open label study designed to determine whether the addiction of Cyclophosphamide to Rd (CRd) treatment significantly increases response rates and prolonged the outcome (PFS, OS) in patients who experienced a biochemical relapse, without CRAB under Rd treatment. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Experienced dedicated pituitary neurosurgeons have been reported to achieve a higher rate of biochemical remission with primary surgery than those with less experience, ranging from 85% to 91% of patients with microadenomas and 40% to 66% for patients with macroadenomas, results that are similar comparing different surgical techniques. (medscape.com)
  • [ 17 , 18 ] Among options for patients with persistent disease, consecutive surgeries and/or radiation therapy may result in biochemical control as well as reduction or stabilization of tumor remnants. (medscape.com)
  • Enter your Biochemical Journal username. (biochemj.org)
  • Biochemical Journal , 405(1), pp. 191-198. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal. (jcdr.net)
  • The editorial process and peer-review workflow for each journal are taken care of by a team of Senior Editors and Editorial Advisory Board Members (EABMs) who have expertise in their specific fields. (benthamscience.com)
  • The relevant physiological process, a decrease of sodium permeability by illumination, is assayed as light suppression of outer segment swelling in a modified Ringer's solution. (rupress.org)
  • Software tools that model and simulate the dynamics of biological processes and systems are becoming increasingly important. (biomedcentral.com)
  • One goal of investigating the dynamic behavior of biochemical systems and processes is to understand biological causality in terms of regulation and control mechanisms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Men who have biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer are invited to test 68Ga PSMA. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In the search for life elsewhere in the solar system, we have some expectations about what life might look like: It will likely involve carbon chemistry, and a spatial segregation of organic compounds in a way that simple chemical processes would not permit. (nap.edu)
  • It is at the core of sustainable manufacturing processes and an attractive alternative to traditional manufacturing technologies to commercially advance and transform priority industrial sectors yielding more and more viable solutions for our environment in the form of new chemicals, new materials and bioenergy. (coursera.org)
  • In this article, we will present three major overviews, which can help in structuring the development path for translating optimal technological outcomes into economically viable industrial processes . (xpure-systems.com)
  • This course aims at studying industrial desalination processes. (uaeu.ac.ae)
  • The sample container, including the card and the reagent containers necessary for the various tests, are then introduced into the analyzer and the reaction process is started. (google.es)
  • In said analyzer, sample fluid from the sample container and in each case reagent and optionally solvent are brought into the vicinity of the flexible cell and the reaction process of the particular test is photometrically measured. (google.es)
  • Biochemical and Clinical Aspects of Neuropeptides: Synthesis, Processing, and Gene Structure covers the proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Macromolecular Synthesis: Biochemical and Clinical Aspects of Neuropeptides, held in Blankenese, Hamburg, Germany. (elsevier.com)
  • The focus areas of the education are the sustainable use and processing of natural resources and new materials, including their technical applications. (aalto.fi)
  • Sustainable Metals Processing combines metals and mineral processing technology with economy and society. (aalto.fi)
  • Circular economy requires more sustainable, efficient, environmentally friendly and economic metals processing. (aalto.fi)
  • The major study subject of Sustainable Metals Processing answers to these demands. (aalto.fi)
  • Sustainable Metals Processing offers you interesting and diverse career opportunities in multidisciplinary international teams in research and industry working on the challenges to make our world a better place. (aalto.fi)
  • The major Sustainable Metals Processing is the only integrated major study program in Finland focusing on production and recycling of metals and minerals using primary and secondary resources. (aalto.fi)
  • After graduation you can act as a metallurgical processing expert in multidisciplinary international teams, capable of evaluating equipment and process designs and designing feasible and sustainable metals processing. (aalto.fi)
  • Professor Alex Conradie is the Head of Group for Sustainable Process Technologies (SPT) Research Group. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • In addition, other data will show that there is substantial cell-specific heterogeneity among different cell types in the processing of the insulin-receptor complex. (springer.com)
  • Within the context of this work, we define species transformation as the alteration or change of species participating in biochemical processes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Kluyveromyces lactis or Kluyveromyces lipolytica ) will oxidize pyruvate completely to carbon dioxide and water in a process called cellular respiration , hence these species of yeast will produce ethanol only in an anaerobic environment (not cellular respiration). (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, for progress in applied thermodynamics, exergy analyses are combined with technical viability studies in order to evaluate the sustainability of current processes in the industry and the real applicability of new technologies. (uclouvain.be)
  • Here, we present structural and biochemical analyses of three monomeric, spectrally distinct phytochrome-based NIR FPs, termed miRFPs. (rsc.org)
  • A process for performing sample analyses wherein reagents are filled portionwise into closed containers that comprise cells and carry codes identifying the reagent contained therein. (google.es)
  • This invention relates to a process for performing sample analyses, in which parts of a sample and optionally solvents and reagents are added in portionwise manner into closed containers carrying a code identifying the reagent. (google.es)
  • In connection with a known process of this type, Du Pont de Nemours (Deutschland) GmbH markets under the trade name "aca SYSTEM" an analyzer enabling various clinical analyses to be performed on a sample fluid taken from a patient. (google.es)
  • The problem of the present invention is to considerably simplify an analytical process and in particular to obviate the need for the filling and identification operations relative to the partial samples hitherto required for performing different analyses on a sample. (google.es)
  • This book is composed of seven parts encompassing 23 chapters, and begins with an introduction of the proteolytic mechanisms involved in proprotein processing, their intracellular localization, and their roles in generating a diverse assortment of secreted products in a variety of neuroendocrine cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Several unanswered questions in T cell immunobiology relating to intracellular processing or in vivo antigen presentation could be approached if convenient, specific, and sensitive reagents were available for detecting the peptide-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I or class II ligands recognized by αβ T cell receptors. (pnas.org)
  • They cross-react with a small subset of I-A k molecules loaded with self peptides but can nonetheless be used for flow cytometry, immunoprecipitation, Western blotting, and intracellular immunofluorescence to detect specific HEL peptide-MHC class II complexes formed by either peptide exposure or natural processing of native HEL. (pnas.org)