Biochemical Processes: Chemical reactions or functions, enzymatic activities, and metabolic pathways of living things.Biochemistry: The study of the composition, chemical structures, and chemical reactions of living things.Biochemical Phenomena: The chemical processes, enzymatic activities, and pathways of living things and related temporal, dimensional, qualitative, and quantitative concepts.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Metabolic Networks and Pathways: Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Prostatectomy: Complete or partial surgical removal of the prostate. Three primary approaches are commonly employed: suprapubic - removal through an incision above the pubis and through the urinary bladder; retropubic - as for suprapubic but without entering the urinary bladder; and transurethral (TRANSURETHRAL RESECTION OF PROSTATE).Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Enzymes: Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Aspartate Aminotransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Protein Multimerization: The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Blood Chemical Analysis: An examination of chemicals in the blood.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Protein Structure, Quaternary: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Alanine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Biocatalysis: The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Mutation, Missense: A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.L-Lactate Dehydrogenase: A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.Cell Physiological Phenomena: Cellular processes, properties, and characteristics.Protein Subunits: Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.Glycosaminoglycans: Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Multiprotein Complexes: Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Metabolism, Inborn Errors: Errors in metabolic processes resulting from inborn genetic mutations that are inherited or acquired in utero.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Liver Function Tests: Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.gamma-Glutamyltransferase: An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Mice, Inbred C57BLViral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Nerve Tissue ProteinsCatalase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to water and oxygen. It is present in many animal cells. A deficiency of this enzyme results in ACATALASIA.Zinc: A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.DNA Helicases: Proteins that catalyze the unwinding of duplex DNA during replication by binding cooperatively to single-stranded regions of DNA or to short regions of duplex DNA that are undergoing transient opening. In addition DNA helicases are DNA-dependent ATPases that harness the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate DNA strands.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Acid Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.2.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Hydroxyproline: A hydroxylated form of the imino acid proline. A deficiency in ASCORBIC ACID can result in impaired hydroxyproline formation.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.

The fractal geometry of nutrient exchange surfaces does not provide an explanation for 3/4-power metabolic scaling. (1/86)

BACKGROUND: A prominent theoretical explanation for 3/4-power allometric scaling of metabolism proposes that the nutrient exchange surface of capillaries has properties of a space-filling fractal. The theory assumes that nutrient exchange surface area has a fractal dimension equal to or greater than 2 and less than or equal to 3 and that the volume filled by the exchange surface area has a fractal dimension equal to or greater than 3 and less than or equal to 4. RESULTS: It is shown that contradicting predictions can be derived from the assumptions of the model. When errors in the model are corrected, it is shown to predict that metabolic rate is proportional to body mass (proportional scaling). CONCLUSION: The presence of space-filling fractal nutrient exchange surfaces does not provide a satisfactory explanation for 3/4-power metabolic rate scaling.  (+info)

Estimating cerebral oxygen metabolism from fMRI with a dynamic multicompartment Windkessel model. (2/86)

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Different types of cell-to-cell connections mediated by nanotubular structures. (3/86)

 (+info)

Solution NMR structure determination of proteins revisited. (4/86)

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Astrocytes as the glucose shunt for glutamatergic neurons at high activity: an in silico study. (5/86)

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Effect of novel negative allosteric modulators of neuronal nicotinic receptors on cells expressing native and recombinant nicotinic receptors: implications for drug discovery. (6/86)

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Elementary mode analysis: a useful metabolic pathway analysis tool for characterizing cellular metabolism. (7/86)

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Metabolism of echinacoside, a good antioxidant, in rats: isolation and identification of its biliary metabolites. (8/86)

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*Metabolism

Soyer O, Salathé M, Bonhoeffer S (2006). "Signal transduction networks: topology, response and biochemical processes". J Theor ... Steroids are also broken down by some bacteria in a process similar to beta oxidation, and this breakdown process involves the ... The metabolism of a cell achieves this by coupling the spontaneous processes of catabolism to the non-spontaneous processes of ... This process is often coupled to the conversion of carbon dioxide into organic compounds, as part of photosynthesis, which is ...

*Piecewise-deterministic Markov process

PDMPs have been shown useful in ruin theory, queueing theory, for modelling biochemical processes such as subtilin production ... Cassandras, Christos G.; Lygeros, John (2007). "Chapter 9. Stochastic Hybrid Modeling of Biochemical Processes" (PDF). ... In probability theory, a piecewise-deterministic Markov process (PDMP) is a process whose behaviour is governed by random jumps ... Moreover, this class of processes has been shown to be appropriate for biophysical neuron models with stochastic ion channels. ...

*Actin remodeling of neurons

Actin remodeling is a biochemical process in cells. In the actin remodeling of neurons, the protein actin is part of the ... Actin exists in two states in the axonal and dendritic processes: globular or G-actin and filament/filamentous or F-actin. G- ... Actin treadmilling is the process of turnover of actin filaments where F-actin is rapidly assembled and disassembled. G-actin ... process to change the shape and structure of dendritic spines. G-actin is the monomer form of actin, and is uniformly ...

*Kinetic proofreading

Biochemical processes that use kinetic proofreading to improve specificity implement the delay-inducing multistep ratchet by a ... B Munsky; I Nemenman; G Bel (Dec 2009). "Specificity and completion time distributions of biochemical processes". J. Chem. Phys ... this observation makes kinetic proofreading one of only a few examples of biochemical processes where structural complexity ... "The simplicity of completion time distributions for common complex biochemical processes". Phys Biol. 7 (1): 016003. arXiv: ...

*Cup massage

... biochemical processes inside the body show positive changes; microcirculation of blood and lymph improves; metabolic processes ... They are important, as they help the diagnostic process and show the patient's progress.[citation needed] Massage Types of ...

*Interactome

Nodes involved in the same biochemical process are highly interconnected. The evolution of interactome complexity is delineated ... The genes were grouped based on similar function so as to build a functional map of the cell's processes. Using this method the ... Some of the goals of these networks are: develop a functional map of a cell's processes, drug target identification, and to ... Consistent with a role for date-hubs in connecting different processes, in yeast the number of binary interactions of a given ...

*Systems Biology Ontology

... biochemical process, molecular or genetic interaction...) physical entity representation (transporter, physical compartment, ... The rise of Systems Biology, seeking to comprehend biological processes as a whole, highlighted the need to not only develop ... Le Novère N., Courtot M., Laibe C. Adding semantics in kinetics models of biochemical pathways. Proceedings of the 2nd ... Proceedings of the 4th Workshop on Computation of Biochemical Pathways and Genetic Networks (2005), Logos, Berlin, pp. 69-74. ...

*RNA splicing

Spliceosomal splicing and self-splicing involve a two-step biochemical process. Both steps involve transesterification ... In many cases, the splicing process can create a range of unique proteins by varying the exon composition of the same mRNA. ... The spliceosome forms different complexes during the splicing process: Complex E The U1 snRNP binds to the GU sequence at the 5 ... As part of the RNA processing pathway, introns are removed by RNA splicing either shortly after or concurrent with ...

*Sleep and metabolism

Metabolism involves two biochemical processes that occur in living organisms. The first is anabolism, which refers to the build ... These two processes work to regulate the amount of energy the body uses to maintain itself. During non-REM sleep, metabolic ...

*Copper nanoparticle

... the cells are no longer able to sustain fundamental biochemical processes. In the end, all these alterations inside of the cell ... Like many other forms of nanoparticles, a copper nanoparticle can be formed by natural processes or through chemical synthesis ...

*Darshan Ranganathan

Ranganathan's special passion was reproducing natural biochemical processes in the laboratory. She created a protocol which ... chemical simulation of key biological processes, synthesis of functional hybrid peptides and synthesis of nanotubes." Darshan ...

*Anand Kumar Bachhawat

He also holds patents for the biochemical processes he has developed. The Department of Biotechnology of the Government of ...

*Motyxia

Luminescence is generated by a biochemical process in the millipede's exoskeleton. The light originates by way of a ...

*Organification

... is a biochemical process that takes place in thyroid glands. It is the incorporation of iodine into ... Since iodine is an inorganic compound, and is being attached to thyroglobulin, a protein, the process is termed as " ...

*Environmental engineering

Focus on mining processes, pollutants and commonly also cover biochemical processes; Environmental technology courses oriented ... Several ecological processes related to biodiversity may be intensified for the benefit of agrosilvopastoral systems: promoting ... Managing landscapes and associated ecological processes. Ecological crop pest regulation by their natural enemies is one ... this field overlaps the desire to decrease carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions from combustion processes. The U.S ...

*Biological determinism

... "genes are expressed as biochemical processes; behavior is expressed by the whole organism." The belief in biological ... they are both entirely integrated aspects of the developmental process." Consequently, genes can't be "selfish", as " ...

*Π-calculus

"Representation and Simulation of Biochemical Processes Using the pi-Calculus Process Algebra". Pacific Symposium on ... Creation of a new name in a process is also called restriction. the nil process, written 0 {\displaystyle 0} , is a process ... A binary relation R {\displaystyle R} over processes is an early bisimulation if for every pair of processes ( p , q ) ∈ R {\ ... A binary relation R {\displaystyle R} over processes is a late bisimulation if for every pair of processes ( p , q ) ∈ R {\ ...

*Lisdexamfetamine

A relatively sophisticated biochemical process is needed to produce dextroamphetamine from lisdexamfetamine. As opposed to ... The NAc integrates processed information about the environment from basolateral amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex ( ... Despite the importance of numerous psychosocial factors, at its core, drug addiction involves a biological process: the ability ... This differential modulation of PFC-dependent processes across dose appears to be associated with the differential involvement ...

*Aviv Regev

"Representation and simulation of biochemical processes using the pi-calculus process algebra". Pacific Symposium on ... and the use of π-calculus to represent biochemical processes. Regev was awarded the Overton Prize in 2008 for "outstanding ... 2001). "Application of a stochastic name-passing calculus to representation and simulation of molecular processes". Information ... Processing Letters. 80: 25-31. doi:10.1016/S0020-0190(01)00214-9. "February 09, 2017: ISCB Announces 2017 Award Recipients". ...

*Sexual selection in amphibians

The morphological and biochemical processes of call production are influenced by sexual selection. as cited by Male frogs have ... Sperm storage leads to the post-copulatory sexual selection process of cryptic female choice, which occurs when a female ... Sexual selection in amphibians involves sexual selection processes in amphibians, including frogs, salamanders and newts. ... Behavioural processes. 51: 135-147. doi:10.1016/s0376-6357(00)00124-8. PMID 11074317. Summers, K (1989). "Sexual selection and ...

*Anchisaurus

Digesting plant matter is a much more intensive biochemical process than digesting meat. This herbivore swallowed gastroliths ( ...

*Ioliomics

Ionic compounds interact strongly with the solvent medium; therefore, their impact on chemical and biochemical processes ... Thus, one can design an ionic liquid with virtually any combination of physicochemical or biochemical properties. Research in ... Holbrey, JD; Seddon, KR (December 1999). "Ionic liquids". Clean Products and Processes. 1 (4): 223-236. doi:10.1007/ ... Currently, the concept finds applications in catalysis, electrochemistry, analytics, fuel production, biomass processing, ...

*Vestigiality

... or biochemical processes. Like most other physical features, however functional, vestigial features in a given species may ... The shift in human diet towards soft and processed food over time caused a reduction in the number of powerful grinding teeth, ... The emergence of vestigiality occurs by normal evolutionary processes, typically by loss of function of a feature that is no ... Vestigiality is the retention during the process of evolution of genetically determined structures or attributes that have lost ...

*Biochemical systems theory

... in which biochemical processes are represented using power-law expansions in the variables of the system. This framework, which ... Biochemical systems theory is a mathematical modelling framework for biochemical systems, based on ordinary differential ... j represents the nf biochemical processes affecting the dynamics of the species. On the other hand, μ {\displaystyle \mu } ij ( ... has been developed since the 1960s by Michael Savageau and others for the systems analysis of biochemical processes. According ...

*Roger A. Sheldon

... mechanistic principles and synthetic methodology including biochemical processes. New York: Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12- ...

*Cellulosic ethanol commercialization

is a developer of cellulosic ethanol process technology. Iogen has developed a proprietary process and operates a demonstration ... As side products the company, Kirov Biochemical Works, is offering dry fodder yeast (20 tons/month) and Lignin. To install ... The whole process of the production of biofuel from the choice of cellulosic biomass feedstock to the conversion into sugars ... The process technology uses enzymatic hydrolysis, followed by fermentation of C5 and C6 sugar into ethanol. The company plans ...
Method for checking the conversion capacity of a catalytic element for converting ozone where the catalytic element is provided as a vehicle radiator with a catalytic coating and the method of checking uses ozone sensors upstream and downstream of the radiator. The check is only carried out if predetermined enable conditions are satisfied. Only then are the values emitted by the sensors recorded and compared with one another. A variable which represents an uncorrected value for the quality of the conversion capacity is derived from this comparison. This variable is weighted as a function of at least one operating parameter of the vehicle. The weighted variable is compared with a predetermined threshold value, and, if the threshold value is exceeded, it is concluded that the conversion capacity of the radiator is insufficient.
This model originates from BioModels Database: A Database of Annotated Published Models (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/biomodels/). It is copyright (c) 2005-2011 The BioModels.net Team ...
This is a whole genome metabolism model of a female patient diagnosed at the age of 72 years with Ovary Serous Cystadenocarcinoma affecting the patients ovary.. This model was automatically generated by tINIT (Agren, R., et al. (2014). Identification of anticancer drugs for hepatocellular carcinoma through personalized genome-scale metabolic modeling. Mol Syst Biol; 10(3), 721.) using information coming from the sample TCGA-10-0928-01A from GDC Portal (Initial release 1.0, accessed via GDC API) and, where relevant, augmented with metabolic pathway information extracted from Human Metabolic Atlas.. This model has been produced by Human Pathology Atlas project ( Uhlen, M., et al.; A pathology atlas of the human cancer transcriptome. Science.) and is currently hosted on BioModels Database and identified by MODEL1707110124.. To cite BioModels, please use: V Chelliah et al; BioModels: ten-year anniversary. Nucleic Acids Res 2015; 43 (D1): D542-D548.. To the extent possible under law, all copyright ...
This is a whole genome metabolism model of a female patient diagnosed at the age of 55 years with Uterine Corpus Endometrial Carcinoma affecting the patients endometrium.. This model was automatically generated by tINIT (Agren, R., et al. (2014). Identification of anticancer drugs for hepatocellular carcinoma through personalized genome-scale metabolic modeling. Mol Syst Biol; 10(3), 721.) using information coming from the sample TCGA-4E-A92E-01A from GDC Portal (Initial release 1.0, accessed via GDC API) and, where relevant, augmented with metabolic pathway information extracted from Human Metabolic Atlas.. This model has been produced by Human Pathology Atlas project ( Uhlen, M., et al.; A pathology atlas of the human cancer transcriptome. Science.) and is currently hosted on BioModels Database and identified by MODEL1707110783.. To cite BioModels, please use: V Chelliah et al; BioModels: ten-year anniversary. Nucleic Acids Res 2015; 43 (D1): D542-D548.. To the extent possible under law, all ...
This is a whole genome metabolism model of a female patient diagnosed at the age of 59 years with Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Endocervical Adenocarcinoma affecting the patients cervix.. This model was automatically generated by tINIT (Agren, R., et al. (2014). Identification of anticancer drugs for hepatocellular carcinoma through personalized genome-scale metabolic modeling. Mol Syst Biol; 10(3), 721.) using information coming from the sample TCGA-EX-A1H5-01A from GDC Portal (Initial release 1.0, accessed via GDC API) and, where relevant, augmented with metabolic pathway information extracted from Human Metabolic Atlas.. This model has been produced by Human Pathology Atlas project ( Uhlen, M., et al.; A pathology atlas of the human cancer transcriptome. Science.) and is currently hosted on BioModels Database and identified by MODEL1707115035.. To cite BioModels, please use: V Chelliah et al; BioModels: ten-year anniversary. Nucleic Acids Res 2015; 43 (D1): D542-D548.. To the extent ...
The most concise & comprehensive OCR A-level Biology notes you will find. Our notes are compiled by top designers, academic writers and illustrators to ensure they are the highest quality so your learning is made simple. Our notes walk you through specifi
Thread in the Seeds forum forum by CapeCodGardener: Hi-- ANyone familiar with the BioDome seed starting system? Ive used the system for three years, wit...
GlucoWatch Biographer is a consumer product that measures glucose levels frequently, automatically and non-invasively, enabling people with diabetes and health
The most common models for dynamics of biological interaction networks (such as the dynamics of concentrations in biochemical reaction networks, the spread of infectious diseases within a population, and population dynamics in an ecosystem) are given by mass-action dynamical systems. Persistence and permanence are properties of dynamical systems related with the existence of strictly positive lower bounds on coordinates of trajectories within the positive orthant. For example, they are important in understanding properties of biochemical networks (e.g., will a chemical reactant be available inde﫿nitely in the future, or will it be completely consumed), and also in ecology (e.g., will a species become extinct in an ecosystem, or will it survive indefinitely), and in the dynamics of infectious diseases (e.g., will an infection die o﫿, or will it infect the whole population). We formulate the Persistence Conjecture, which says that weakly reversible mass-action systems are persistent, ...
Unfortunately we all get ill from time to time but thankfully our bodies work very hard to ensure we dont keep catching the same illness over and over again.. Different cells have different molecules presented on their surface to help our immune system and stop us from getting ill!. To start lets focus on pathogens. Pathogens can come in the form of a bacterium, virus, or other microorganism that can cause disease.. Common entry points to the body for pathogens include the gas exchange surfaces and the digestive system. This is because pathogens find it easier to gain entry to organisms bodies through surfaces which exchange materials with the environment. The lungs and the small intestine are examples of these.. Examples of diseases caused by pathogens include TB and cholera. Pathogens can also cause disease by releasing toxins. For example tetanus releases a toxin to block neurones which can lead to muscle spasms.. However, to help our bodies we produce macrophages. These cells present the ...
Branching patterns occur throughout nature - in trees, ferns and coral, for example - but also at a much finer scale, where they are essential to ensuring that organisms can exchange gases and fluids with the environment efficiently by the maximising the surface area available. For example, in the small intestine, epithelial tissue is arranged in an array of finger-like protrusions. In other organs, such as kidney, lung, mammary glands, pancreas and prostate, exchange surfaces are packed efficiently around intricate branched epithelial structures.
Doctoral thesis (2015). State-of-the-art biochemical systems for medical applications and chemical computing are application-specific and cannot be re-programmed or trained once fabricated. The implementation of adaptive ... [more ▼]. State-of-the-art biochemical systems for medical applications and chemical computing are application-specific and cannot be re-programmed or trained once fabricated. The implementation of adaptive biochemical systems that would offer flexibility through programmability and autonomous adaptation faces major challenges because of the large number of required chemical species as well as the timing-sensitive feedback loops required for learning. Currently, biochemistry lacks a systems vision on how the user-level programming interface and abstraction with a subsequent translation to chemistry should look like. By developing adaptation in chemistry, we could replace multiple hard-wired systems with a single programmable template that can be (re)trained to match a ...
The main types of biochemical reactions are reduction and oxidation, water addition and removal, bond breaking reactions and the movement of groups between molecules. There are many possible types of...
Plaques formed during atherosclerosis, or hardening of the arteries have now been linked to some harmful biochemical reactions that may further lead to damage in the lungs, liver,
Stevenson re-wrote the story in three to 6 times. Several afterwards biographers have alleged that Stevenson was on medications in the frantic re-compose; as an example, William Greys revisionist heritage A Literary Lifestyle (2004) reported he made use of cocaine even though other biographers mentioned he used ergot.[12] Even so, the conventional heritage, according to the accounts of his spouse and son (and himself), claims he was bed-ridden and sick while composing it ...
Once a patient asked Dr. Siddhartha Mukherjee to tell her what she was up against. Answering that question led him to write a book.
Rule-based modeling involves the representation of molecules as structured objects and molecular interactions as rules for transforming the attributes of these objects. The approach is notable in that
When President-Elect John F. Kennedy and his family posed for Avedon in January 1961, it sent a message of youth, vitality, and confidence. As a new book by Shannon Thomas Perich chronicles the session, biographer Robert Dallek, in this exclusive assessment for Vanity Fair, gives the historical backdrop to the photos, many of which appear for the first time.
Enzymes are molecules, especially proteins that help to accelerate biochemical reactions by interacting with components (reactants and products) without permanently changing them. This promotion process is called catalysis, and accordingly, the enzyme is recognized as a catalyst. Like many participants in the microb...
AGE Smart® contains scientifically-advanced ingredients proven to impact the major biochemical reactions that contribute to skin aging before they start.
Provided is a technique of effectively removing a metallic element that has catalytic action in terms of the crystallization of a semiconductor film and remains in a semiconductor film obtained using the metallic element. With the technique of the present invention, to remove a catalytic element used to crystallize a semiconductor film having an amorphous structure, gettering is completed by forming a region or a semiconductor film, to which a rare gas element is added, and by having the catalytic element move to the formed region or semiconductor film.
STOCHASTIC MODELS + STOCHASTIC SIMULATION (PROBABILITY THEORY); STOCHASTISCHE MODELLE + STOCHASTISCHE SIMULATION (WAHRSCHEINLICHKEITSRECHNUNG); BIOCHEMICAL REACTIONS, METABOLIC REACTIONS; MODELLRECHNUNG UND SIMULATION IN BIOCHEMIE UND MOLEKULARBIOLOGIE; MATHEMATICAL MODELING AND SIMULATION IN BIOCHEMISTRY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY; BIOCHEMISCHE REAKTIONEN, METABOLISCHE ...
Buy, download and read Thermodynamics of Biochemical Reactions ebook online in PDF format for iPhone, iPad, Android, Computer and Mobile readers. Author: Robert A. Alberty. ISBN: 9780471623557. Publisher: Wiley. Thermodynamics of Biochemical Reactions emphasizes the fundamental equations of thermodynamics and the application of these equations to systems of biochemical reactions. This emphasis leads to new th
In a challenging and provocative paper Gillooly et al. (2001) have proposed that the metabolism of all organisms can be described by a single equation, * Q = b0M3/4e−E/kT, where Q = metabolic rate, M = body mass, E = the activation energy of metabolism (defined as the average activation energy for the rate-limiting enzyme catalysed biochemical reactions of metabolism), T = absolute temperature, k = Boltzmanns constant and b0 is a normalization constant independent of M and T. In deriving this equation Gillooly et al. (2001) start from the premise that metabolic rate scales with body mass as Q ∝ M3/4, based on the fractal-like design of exchange surfaces and distribution networks in plants and animals (West, Brown & Enquist 1997, 1999a,b). These arguments have stimulated some criticism (see for example Dodds, Rothman & Weitz 2001) but here I will concentrate on the derivation of the second part of the equation, namely the temperature dependence term. Gillooly et al. (2001) called the ...
Recent development of high-throughput analytical techniques has made it possible to qualitatively identify a number of metabolites simultaneously. Correlation and multivariate analyses such as principal component analysis have been widely used to analyse those data and evaluate correlations among the metabolic profiles. However, these analyses cannot simultaneously carry out identification of metabolic reaction networks and prediction of dynamic behaviour of metabolites in the networks. The present study, therefore, proposes a new approach consisting of a combination of statistical technique and mathematical modelling approach to identify and predict a probable metabolic reaction network from time-series data of metabolite concentrations and simultaneously construct its mathematical model. Firstly, regression functions are fitted to experimental data by the locally estimated scatter plot smoothing method. Secondly, the fitted result is analysed by the bivariate Granger causality test to determine which
A freeze-thaw valve is provided using a Peltier heat pump where the thermal short-circuit path between a cooled thermal mass and a heated thermal mass is reduced or absent and the valve state transition time is minimized. The freeze-thaw valve comprises a Peltier heat pump mounted to a heat exchange surface that comprises a cross-drilled copper water jacket or manifold. The Peltier heat pump is operated to maintain a cooled thermal mass at a substantially constant low temperature. A resistance heating element is used to produce a heated thermal mass. The freeze-thaw segment of a fluid conduit is commutated to contact either the heated or the cooled thermal mass to thaw and therefore open the valve or cool and thus close the valve. The operation of the Peltier heat pump at a constant temperature avoids problems inherent in the use of a Peltier heat pump to both heat and cool a freeze thaw segment.
Development and plasticity of alveolar type 1 cells[3] "Alveolar type 1 (AT1) cells cover ,95% of the gas exchange surface and are extremely thin to facilitate passive gas diffusion. The development of these highly specialized cells and its coordination with the formation of the honeycomb-like alveolar structure are poorly understood. Using new marker-based stereology and single-cell imaging methods, we show that AT1 cells in the mouse lung form expansive thin cellular extensions via a non-proliferative two-step process while retaining cellular plasticity. In the flattening step, AT1 cells undergo molecular specification and remodel cell junctions while remaining connected to their epithelial neighbors. In the folding step, AT1 cells increase in size by more than 10-fold and undergo cellular morphogenesis that matches capillary and secondary septa formation, resulting in a single AT1 cell spanning multiple alveoli. Furthermore, AT1 cells are an unexpected source of VEGFA and their normal ...
Development and plasticity of alveolar type 1 cells[3] "Alveolar type 1 (AT1) cells cover ,95% of the gas exchange surface and are extremely thin to facilitate passive gas diffusion. The development of these highly specialized cells and its coordination with the formation of the honeycomb-like alveolar structure are poorly understood. Using new marker-based stereology and single-cell imaging methods, we show that AT1 cells in the mouse lung form expansive thin cellular extensions via a non-proliferative two-step process while retaining cellular plasticity. In the flattening step, AT1 cells undergo molecular specification and remodel cell junctions while remaining connected to their epithelial neighbors. In the folding step, AT1 cells increase in size by more than 10-fold and undergo cellular morphogenesis that matches capillary and secondary septa formation, resulting in a single AT1 cell spanning multiple alveoli. Furthermore, AT1 cells are an unexpected source of VEGFA and their normal ...
http://www.cygn.com/032201b.html The GlucoWatch Biographer uses technology that has never been available before, differing from conventional blood glucose testing devices in several ways. Most significantly, it is non-invasive, measuring glucose collected through the skin, not from blood. It measures and displays glucose levels automatically, as often as every twenty minutes, for up to twelve hours. It also creates an "electronic diary," storing up to 4,000 values that can be reviewed at the touch of a button, helping to detect trends and track patterns in glucose levels. In addition, users can set personal glucose alert levels so that an alarm sounds if readings are too high or too low, or if readings decline rapidly. The GlucoWatch Biographer uses an extremely low electric current to pull glucose through the skin. The glucose is then collected and transformed into an electric signal that is converted into a glucose reading. The system consists of two integrated parts, the Biographer and the ...
I would think it a safe guess that Petraeuss timing can be attributed to his awareness that his privacy and freedom of movement was about to be greatly diminished, once his CIA personal security detail started keeping close track of him from his first day on the job as CIA Director, Sept. 6, 2011.. "32. On or about October 26, 2012, defendant DAVID HOWELL PETRAEUS was interviewed by two FBI special agents. … [He] was advised that the special agents were conducting a criminal investigation. … PETRAEUS stated that (a) he had never provided any classified information to his biographer, and (b) he had never facilitated the provision of classified information to his biographer. These statements were false. Defendant DAVID HOWELL PETRAEUS then and there knew that he previously shared the Black Books with his biographer." [emphasis added]. Lying to the FBI? No problem. As "Expose Facts" blogger Marcy Wheeler immediately commented: "For lying to the FBI - a crime that others go to prison for for ...
Markov chain aggregation; Rule-based modeling of reaction networks; Site-graphs; 60J10; 60J20; 60J27; 60J28; 92B; 92D20; 68Q42; ...
Prevalence of deficiency zero reaction networks under an Erdos-Renyi framework Reaction network models, which are used to model many types of systems in biology, have grown dramatically in popularity over the past decade. This popularity has translated into a number of mathematical results that relate the topological features of the network to different qualitative behaviors of the associated dynamical system. One of the main topological features studied in the field is deficiency of a network. A reaction network which has strong connectivity in its connected components and a deficiency of zero is stable in both the deterministic and stochastic dynamical models. This leads to the question: how prevalent are deficiency zero models among all such network models. In this talk, I will quantify the prevalence of deficiency zero networks among random reaction networks generated under an Erdos-Renyi framework. Specifically, with n being the number of species, I will uncover a threshold function r(n) ...
On 5 February 2016, the Luxembourg Caisse de Consignation published Frequently Asked Questions regarding the Law of 28 July 2014 on the immobilisation of bearer shares and bearer units.. The FAQs provide useful guidance on some of the practical steps that Luxembourg companies and Luxembourg investment funds must take with respect to the cancellation of bearer shares and bearer units that will not have been deposited with a depositary before 18 February 2016. The FAQs gives some information in particular on (i) the list of documents that the Caisse de Consignation must receive upon deposit of assets (ii) the level of fees and expenses charged during the period of deposit and (iii) the procedure that the holder of certificates must follow when claiming a refund of assets that have been deposited with the Caisse de Consignation.. Click here to access the text of the FAQs in French or unofficial translation in English and in German.. Related documents:. - the text of law of 28 July 2014 in French or ...
The biographer is now faced with a difficulty which it is better perhaps to confess than to gloss over. Up to this point in telling the story of Orlandos life, documents, both private and historical, have made it possible to fulfil the first duty of a biographer, which is to plod, without looking to right or left, in the indelible footprints of truth; unenticed by flowers; regardless of shade; on and on methodically till we fall plump into the grave and write finis on the tombstone above our heads. But now we come to an episode which lies right across our path, so that there is no ignoring it. Yet it is dark, mysterious, and undocumented; so that there is no explaining it. Volumes might be written in interpretation of it; whole religious systems founded upon the signification of it. Our simple duty is to state the facts as far as they are known, and so let the reader make of them what he may.. In the summer of that disastrous winter which saw the frost, the flood, the deaths of many thousands, ...
Manning Marable, influential African-American studies scholar and author of the latest Malcom X biography, recently died in New York. The scholar's wife said his death was due to complications from pneumonia....
Uses cost of living, purchasing power, safety, pollution, climate, traffic and other available information collected about Luxembourg to show information about quality of life in Luxembourg.
2020.01.27 - [W.4956] Where to Buy Dr Oz Forskolin in Mondorf - les - Bains Luxembourg?. Buy Dr Oz Forskolin Supplement in Mondorf-les-Bains Luxembourg. Dr Oz advises taking a Forskolin Supplement to Burn Stomach Fat. A Forskolin Supplement switches on your body heater and helps burn the belly fatty tissue away.
Lookup HS Codes for Luxembourg vi 28.05.12 Calcium. Avalara LandedCosts helps determine your duty rates and other import taxes for Luxembourg.
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Selection of the hotels for pets in Luxembourg on Hotellook with cheap hotel rooms rates from $119 and average rating of 8.9 out of 10.
The Ministry of the Economy and the Ministry of Finance of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg and OCSiAl have signed a Memorandum of Understanding to collaborate ...
France coach Didier Deschamps was left infuriated by his sides display as Les Bleus failed to beat Luxembourg for the first time since 1914.
Achetez Serotonin par Cream sur la plateforme de musique 7digital Luxembourg - Un catalogue de plus de 30 millions de titres haute qualité.
This file is automatically generated with ! the System Biology Format Converter (http://sbfc.sourceforge.net/) ! from an SBML file. ! ! ! Model name = Fisher2006_NFAT_Activation ! ! is urn:miriam:biomodels.db:BIOMD0000000123 ! is urn:miriam:biomodels.db:MODEL2977131407 ! isDescribedBy urn:miriam:pubmed:17031595 ! Model Parameters cytosol=2.69E-13! Compartment: id = cytosol, name = cytosol, constant nucleus=1.13E-13! Compartment: id = nucleus, name = nucleus, constant k1=2.56E-5 ! Parameter: id = k1, name = k1, constant k2=0.00256 ! Parameter: id = k2, name = k2, constant k16=6.63 ! Parameter: id = k16, name = k16, constant k15=0.00168 ! Parameter: id = k15, name = k15, constant k18=9.6E-4 ! Parameter: id = k18, name = k18, constant k17=0.0015 ! Parameter: id = k17, name = k17, constant k6=9.2E-4 ! Parameter: id = k6, name = k6, constant k5=0.0019 ! Parameter: id = k5, name = k5, constant k14=0.00256 ! Parameter: id = k14, name = k14, constant k13=0.5 ! Parameter: id = k13, name = k13, constant ...
not a download the complementary while we structure you in to your home asset. Your biographer sent a change that this range could naturally preview. Your market became a material that this software could all be.
Cellular biochemical machineries, what we call pathways, consist of dynamically assembling and disassembling macromolecular complexes. Although our models for the organization of biochemical machines...
The owner of the centurys first big professional White House scandal takes a few hits from a biographer on his personal life. Inevitable, yes. Irrelevant? Not any more...
ALABASTRO, EDGARDO GARCIA. "THE STEADY-STATE CHARACTERISTICS AND THE APPARENT KINETICS OF A MULTI-SPECIES BIOLOGICAL REACTION SYSTEM." (1968) Diss., Rice University. https://hdl.handle.net/1911/14415 ...
ARTICLES OF ASSOCIATION OF RM2 INTERNATIONAL S.A. RM2 International S.A. Société Anonyme Registered office: 5, rue de la Chapelle, L-1325 Luxembourg Grand Duchy of Luxembourg R.C.S. Luxembourg: B
Kinetic Methodology. Blackmond has pioneered the development of Reaction Progress Kinetic Analysis (RPKA), a methodology combining highly accurate in-situ data collection with a rigorous mathematical analysis that permits rapid determination of concentration dependences of reactants. In contrast to the classical role of kinetics, in which measurements of concentration dependences most often are asked simply to corroborate a previously proposed mechanism, the Blackmond groups approach is to employ kinetic studies at the outset of an investigation of ill-defined reaction network to suggest reaction mechanisms. This "kinetic-assisted mechanistic analysis" aids in the design of further supporting experiments including conventional mechanistic tools such as studies of isotope effects and spectroscopic studies for structural and compositional information. One of the most powerful aspects of the methodology is its ability to deconvolute rate processes occurring on the catalytic cycle from those ...
EY Advisory Services - Actuarial combines our global connectivity and understanding of industry issues to help ask better questions, design better answers and d
Im wondering if there is a way to reduce the number of neutrals in a 1v1 game. As it currently stands each player starts with 6 armies. This means that the second player is somewhat likely to have only 4 armies by the start of his turn and, more importantly, will often have to cut through several layers of neutrals to get at his opponent. Im wondering about the possibility of each player starting with 9 which doesnt give the first player enough to get to 4 armies on the first turn and also usually will indicate that the second player will be able to attack ...
Fujitsu group gives services from collecting samples to consulting what should be done for cleaner tomorrow together with various organizations.
Prerequisite: C362. Biophysical chemistry: structure and conformation of proteins and nucleic acids; thermodynamics and kinetics of biochemical reactions ...
Metabolism involves biochemical reactions in the body and is central to maintaining life. What are the myths and facts of metabolism? Can you speed your metabolism up to lose weight? Find out more here.
Enzymes are clever little molecules of protein that are made from amino acid chains. They act as catalysts (or triggers) to bring about specific biochemical reactions in the body, which produces over 3,000 kinds.Every process in the body is driven by enzymes of one kind or another - whether acting alone, in combination or in complex chain reactions. They are therefore vital substances - without them, many biological functions would simply be impossible, or too slow for us to survive.So, they are certainly worth finding out a little more about because they play a central role in helping us to achieve optimal nutrition, health and vitality.
Compared to the two previous posts in the series, this post deals with something more technology specific.. Many biochemical reactions require a criticial amount of material before they work at all. This is the main challange with single cell RNA-sequecing: to create sufficient material for the next step in a protocol. The Smart-seq2 protocol makes use of Nextera, a kit for fragmenting and adding adapters for amplification, and finally Illumina sequencing adapters. But in order for Nextera to work a minimal input of DNA must be provided.. Once cDNA have been reverse transcribed from mRNA from a cell, it can be pre-amplified if it has PCR adaptors at both ends of the cDNA. A particularly convenient way to add these adapterors is though template switching PCR.. ...
Multiwave 5000 is a microwave reaction system for digestion of samples (varying in difficulty or volume), evaporation, acid leaching, or extractions.
SELDI-TOF MS is a system that enables rapid protein profiling, identification, and characterization from crude biological samples by selective capture of subclasses of proteins with specific physical or biochemical characteristics. The molecular weight as well as the quantity of individual proteins absorbed on each ProteinChip array is then directly assessed by a time-of-flight mass spectrometer, generating quantitative protein mass profiles for individual CSF specimens. Comparative protein expression profile analysis highlights any CSF protein species which are aberrantly expressed in the CSF of encephalopathy patients compared to febrile seizure subjects.. Before analysis of the CSF, experiments were designed to optimize the ProteinChip array conditions for the SELDI-TOF MS proteomics tests. Three chip types, Q10 (strong anion exchange surface), CM10 (weak cation exchange surface), and IMAC30 (metal binding surface) (Bio-Rad), were tested along with a variety of binding/washing conditions, ...
Conventional methane gas sensors based on catalytic combustion have the drawbacks of high working temperature, low thermal stability and small measurement range. To improve their performance, cerium, which possesses high oxygen storage and release ability, was introduced via nanotechnology to prepare Ce-contained nanostructure elements. Three kinds of elements with different carriers: Al2O3, n-Al2O3 and n-Ce-Al2O3 were prepared and separately fabricated (Pt-Pd/Al, Pt-Pd/n-Al, Pt-Pd/n-Ce-Al). The performances of Wheatstone Bridges with three different catalytic elements were tested and compared. The results indicated that the cerium-containing element exhibited better performance than other elements regarding activity, anti-sulfur ability and thermal stability. Moreover, a constant temperature circuit was also applied in this system. The measurement range was extended from 4% to 10% by automatically decreasing the working current in a reasonable range. The maximum error for 0%-10% CH4 was controlled
The mammalian placenta consists of different trophoblast cell types that assist in the variety of functions required for the maintenance of pregnancy. In rodents, labyrinthine trophoblasts of the placenta are especially important, because they are capable of differentiating into fused labyrinthine cells, which form the feto-maternal exchange surface. Even though the molecular signals triggering labyrinthine trophoblast differentiation are poorly understood, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) has been shown to be present in the placental environment and alter trophoblast development. In this study, we investigated the effects of TGF-β on the differentiation of the labyrinthine trophoblast stem cell lines SM10 and HRP-1. RT-PCR analyses demonstrated that while the molecular expression of labyrinthine-specific lineage markers (Esx1, Tfeb, and Tec) was maintained in TGF-β-treated SM10 and HRP-1 cells, TGF-β induced the down-regulation of trophoblast stem cell markers Id2 and Cdx2. In contrast, TGF-β
The ctenidium consists of a row of gill filaments that hang into the mantle cavity. These filaments considerably enlarge the exchange surface for oxygen and carbondioxide (CO2). To obtain a efficient respiration with the gill, the water in the mantle cavity has to be refreshed constantly: water enters at the left side (where the inhalend siphon is situated), flows over the osphradius (smell organ), then over the gill and the renal aperture (urine opening) and then leaves the mantle cavity trough the exhalend siphon, after passing the anus. This constant water flow in the mantlecavity is created by the cilia on the surface of the snail skin. ...
Modeling the complex interactions between biochemical reactions and hydrodynamics is the key to optimize biofiltration systems performance. In this work, biological kinetics expressions were implemented into Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model as transport equations, including convective and diffusive terms. Previously, activity within the biofilm of a flat plate bioreactor (FPB) was experimentally investigated measuring dissolved oxygen (DO) profiles by means of microsensors and under common operating conditions. Moreover, a mathematical model to describe mass transport and metabolic activity in the FPB was developed and their parameters were fitted from experimental results. Then, a CFD model, combining hydrodynamics and biochemical reactions, was developed and solved to simulate local transient flow and dynamic behaviors of biofilm growth and substrate (glucose) biodregradation in the FPB. The CFD simulation results were evaluated by studying hydrodynamics characterization in the FPB and ...
Our understanding of molecular basis of complex diseases is being dramatically changed by systems investigation supported by the most advanced tools and techniques developed by the scientific community. In particular, cancer investigation has greatly benefited by systems level approaches since tumor development and progression are believed to be among those system trajectories that arise from abnormal working states. The work by Hornberg and colleagues [1] pointed out the relevance of Systems Biology approaches in the study of dynamics leading to cancer. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) pathway is one of those biochemical reaction networks believed to play a central role in cancer development. As a matter of fact EGFR and receptors in the same family (ErbB2, ErbB3 and ErbB4) mediate cell to cell interactions both in organogenesis and in adult tissues [2]. The 40-year long study of this pathway led to associate overexpression of the EGFR family members to several types of cancer [3]. ...
0261]The following references are incorporated herein in their entirety: [0262]1. Scriver, C. 2000. The Metabolic and Molecular Bases oflnherited Disease. McGraw-Hill Professional. [0263]2. Jamshidi, N., and B. O. Palsson. 2008. Top-down analysis of temporal hierarchy in biochemical reaction networks. PLoS Comput BioI4:e1000177. [0264]3. Bruggeman, F. J., J. de Haan, H. Hardin, J. Bouwman, S. Rossell, K. van Eunen, B. M. Bakker, and H. V. Westerhoff. 2006. Time-dependent hierarchical regulation analysis: deciphering cellular adaptation. Systems biology 153:318-322. [0265]4. Famili, I., R. Mahadevan, and B. O. Palsson. 2005. k-Cone analysis: determining all candidate values for kinetic parameters on a network scale. Biophys J 88:1616-1625. [0266]5. Jamshidi, N., and B. O. Palsson. 2008. Formulating genome-scale kinetic models in the post-genome era. Molecular systems biology 4: 171. [0267]6. Maurya, M. R., and S. Subramaniam. 2007. A kinetic model for calcium dynamics in RAW 264.7 cells: I. ...
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As mentioned, there is a state-funded healthcare system in Luxembourg, which provides basic dental care for all citizens. The countrys Caisse de Maladie oversees this. This healthcare system is funded by taxes from employees and employed citizens. There is a cap on these contributions, which is EUR 6,625. The employees and employer pay half of the amount each. If you are self-employed, you will need to pay the full amount by yourself. However, the total amount that you are required to pay depends on your profession. Any dependent family members will be covered by the healthcare contributions you make as well. This applies to both employed and self-employed individuals.. It is important to note that there are no public dental clinics in Luxembourg. Instead, all dentists are registered with public insurance, enabling them to treat you under the public healthcare system. You are free to register with a dentist of your choice. Before choosing a dentist, it is vital to ensure they are registered ...
Methylation? What exactly is methylation? It is an overlooked, extremely important biochemical reaction and an essential biochemical reaction that takes place in every single cell of our body. Without methylation, we would cease to exist. It is estimated that a billion methylation reactions occur in our bodies every second! It is probably the second most important biochemical reaction in the human body besides oxidative reactions which are responsible for producing energy in our cells. Furthermore, the methylation process in our bodies is interlinked to several other important biochemical reactions. As a matter of fact, you can think of these biochemical pathways as a machine that contains several gears that intermesh with each other. If one gear is not functioning or out of line it effects all the other gears. So, essentially if the methylation cycle or pathway is not working properly it has widespread effects in the function of the body and can have multiple symptoms that go along with this ...
machinery, a famous dentist, a great Puritan divine, a Romanising bishop, the Colonel Newcome of the old reformers, and a once brilliant dramatist. I do not think that my dip into one volume has produced a result differing much from the average. My readers must judge whether it goes to justify my statement. To me it seems that at every haul one finds some specimens which, though they require the reader to do his part, are full of suggestions to the moderately thoughtful reader. What a knowledge of human nature you must have acquired! has been said to me, with a touch, I know, of sarcasm. Perhaps I might, if the Bs had not tended to turn the As out of my head, and if a succinct record of a mans main performances were the same thing as a knowledge of the man himself. But this I may say; that I have received innumerable suggestions for thought, and had many vignettes presented to my imagination, which to a man of any thought or imagination should have been full of interest. If, that is, I had ...
The 1993 documentary film above, Michel Foucault: Beyond Good and Evil, explores the philosopher and his complex and controversial life through interviews with colleagues and biographers and re-enactments of Foucaults storied exploits in the American counterculture. Biographer James Miller points out that Foucault was "preoccupied with exploring states that were beyond normal everyday experience… drugs, certain forms of eroticism," as a way to "reconfigure the world and his place in it." In this, says anthropologist Paul Rabinow, Foucault sought to resurrect the questions that sober analytic philosophy had largely abandoned: questions about what it means to be human, beyond the social categories we take as natural and given ...
The identification of kinetic models for multiphase reaction systems is complex due to the simultaneous effect of chemical reactions and mass transfers. The extentbased incremental approach simplifies the modeling task by transforming the reaction system into variant states called vessel extents, one for each rate process. This transformation is carried out from the measured numbers of moles (or concentrations) and requires as many measured species as there are rate processes. Then, each vessel extent can be modeled individually, that is, independently of the other dynamic effects. This paper presents a modified version of the extent-based incremental approach that can be used to identify multiphase reaction systems in the presence of instantaneous equilibria. Different routes are possible depending on the number and type of measured species. The approach is illustrated via the simulated example of the oxidation of benzyl alcohol by hypochlorite in a batch reactor.. ...
(The following statement was released by the rating agency)LONDON, April 14 (Fitch) Fitch Ratings has affirmed LuxembourgsLong-TermForeign- And Local-Currency Issuer Default Ratings (IDRs) atAAA. The Outlooksare Stable. The issue ratings on Luxembourgs senior unsecuredlocal-currencybonds have also been affirmed at AAA. The Country Ceiling hasbeen affirmed atAAA and the Short-Term Foreign- and Local-Currency IDRs atF1+.KEY RATING DRIVERSLuxembourgs AAA IDRs reflect strong governance metrics, highincome percapita, and solid growth potential and public finances, whichoffset theweaknesses from high structural unemployment and heavyconcentration of theeconomy in the financial services sector.Public finances are a key strength for Luxembourg, with afive-year averagefiscal surplus of 1.2% of GDP compared with a 0.3% of GDPdeficit for the AAAmedian. The general government surplus for 2016 improvedmarginally to 1.6% ofGDP in 2016 (2015:1.5%) due to under-spending, partly due to thelater
Step 1: Definition of all proteins, binding domains as well as binding and modification processes that shall be included to the model.. Example: In the considered example the model will comprise the molecules A, B, C and D with their binding domains as depicted in Figure 3A. The occurring processes are usually labelled or numbered like indicated in Figure 3A. In the example we consider eight different processes, namely binding of A to B (process 1), phosphorylation of B at different domains (processes 2, 3 and 7), binding of C to B (process 4), phosphorylation of C at two distinct domains (processes 5 and 6) as well as binding of D (process 8).. Step 2: In a second step one has to define all occurring process interactions and whether these are uni- or bidirectional. These process interactions have to be consistent with both measured kinetic data of the involved proteins and the thermodynamic constraints as discussed in Ederer et al. and Conzelmann et al. [38, 28]. These constraints for instance ...
Peru and Luxembourg compared side by side. Various facts, figures, measures and indicators are listed allowing similarities and differences to quickly be examined.
France and Luxembourg lost their battle to apply reduced VAT rates to ebooks on Thursday when a top European court agreed with EU regulators that only paper books qualified for lower taxes.
Luxembourgs Prince Félix is engaged to Claire Lademacher, the Grand Ducal household has confirmed. In a statement on Thursday the Grand Ducal family confirmed what had already been rumoured earlier this month. The official statement reads: The Grand Duke and Grand Duchess have the…
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For the first time in history, Luxembourg will organize a Fed Cup regional group phase. From 6-9 February 2019, the Group II Europe/Africa encounters will...
In 2018, Number of Practising Physicians in Cardiology in Luxembourg was 10 Units (Health Professionnals) Per Hundred Thousand Persons. Discover more data with NationMaster!
The Bourse Group is made up of the Luxembourg Stock Exchange (LuxSE) the leading listing venue for international securities and Fundsquare, its wholly-owned subsidiary specialized in delivering to the fund industry an efficient and standardized infrastructure for the exchange of information.. ...
The formation of polyps in the colon is common and can arise for a variety of reasons ranging from lifestyle choices, including diet and obesity, to genetic predispositions. Polyps are typically detected upon routine endoscopy and the percentage of adults presenting with one or more polyps increases significantly above the age of 50. Polyps can be benign or malignant and in
JSTOR Particularly after download. process: In considering the according rev, the small Causality surveys always explained. survived audiences: languages with no original Terms coming traced to the biographer.
In glancing over the somewhat incoherent series of Memoirs with which I have endeavoured to illustrate a few of the mental peculiarities of my friend Mr. Sherlock Holmes, I have been struck by the difficulty which I have experienced in picking out examples which shall in every way answer my purpose. For in those cases in which Holmes has performed some tour de force of analytical reasoning, and has demonstrated the value of his peculiar methods of investigation, the facts themselves have often been so slight or so commonplace that I could not feel justified in laying them before the public. On the other hand, it has frequently happened that he has been concerned in some research where the facts have been of the most remarkable and dramatic character, but where the share which he has himself taken in determining their causes has been less pronounced than I, as his biographer, could wish. The small matter which I have chronicled under the heading of "A Study in Scarlet," and that other later one ...
Patrick Flanery was born in California, raised in Nebraska, and in recent years has spent significant time in South Africa. His first novel, Absolution, is set there. It focuses on Clare Wald, a reclusive writer, opening up about her past to her biographer, Sam Leroux. So far, so familiar. But Flanerys trick is to tell his tale from four varying perspectives that ultimately converge and contradict, leading us to question the reliability of the characters and the validity of their confessions. To what extent is a writer engaged in "professional lying?" How are we all complicit in the problems of the countries we live in? Can we ever fully obliterate, or atone for, our past crimes? Flanerys debut is a fascinatingly multi-faceted novel which impresses the more it perplexes. I wanted to learn more about writer and book and so interviewed him. He was in South Africa, I in Berlin, and so the following was done by email. The Millions: First of all I have to apologize. Sam Leroux mentions his ...
This video is about Not everything always goes to plan. I Matt Wilkie has a go towards the trolls but he trolls everyone disagree with him, even more those who dont care about him. Today, Evan, his official biographer honor him with another clip dedicated to all trolls and none on the net, appealing at the same time to all vloggers for the election Matt as the president of the trollogy department of youTube institute. Viva Matt Wilkie! viva El trolls!. ...
The editor criticized for dumbing down the great American poets work gets a fairer assessment from literary biographer Wineapple (Hawthorne, 2003, etc.).
Simplification of mathematical models of chemical reaction systems. Genetically engineered whole-cell sensing systems: coupling biological recognition with reporter genes
Chemically, oxidation is defined as the removal of electrons and reduction as the gain of electrons. Thus, oxidation of a molecule (the electron donor) is always accompanied by reduction of a second molecule (the electron acceptor). This principle of oxidation-reduction applies equally to biochemical systems and is an important concept underlying understanding of the nature of biologic oxidation. Note that many biologic oxidations can take place without the participation of molecular oxygen, for example, dehydrogenations. The life of higher animals is absolutely dependent upon a supply of oxygen for respiration, the process by which cells derive energy in the form of ATP from the controlled reaction of hydrogen with oxygen to form water. In addition, molecular oxygen is incorporated into a variety of substrates by enzymes designated as oxygenases; many drugs, pollutants, and chemical carcinogens (xenobiotics) are metabolized by enzymes of this class, known as the cytochrome P450 system. ...
Kurt Mislow, Professor of Chemistry Emeritus, Chemistry Department, Princeton University. Development of theoretical concepts in stereochemistry, with emphasis on the study of molecular chirality in organic, inorganic, and biochemical systems. Current work is centered on the design and classification of novel topological structures.
Thanks Pico, I appreciate it. Given MacIEs unique idiosyncracies, the fact that MS has discontinued it, and the emergence of Safari on the Mac, I think that if people find the MacIE to be an important part of their audience, they would be better off using a table based framework. IAC I dont think MacIE will last much longer. - Henrik Pico wrote: , Henrik Bechmann wrote: ,, Patrick, VK, ,, ,, I have upgraded the css framework that I sent you earlier to a PmWiki ,, skin (attached) to make a completely table-less skin that looks like ,, the default PmWiki skin. To try it out I copied the wikitext from ,, your test page into mine. You can see the result at , , [snip] , ,, To make the skin based on the css framework, I copied a few things ,, (block borders, background colors, sizes, padding) from Patricks css ,, file (as noted in the file) into the framework css rules. I also ,, added background colours to the sidebar and footer (sometimes it ,, makes a difference in stability - but this can be ...
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TravelHealthPro is the website comprising the travel health resources of the National Travel Health Network and Centre (NaTHNaC).
For monitoring the temperature ofPowerEdge servers and chassis, use the OpenManage Power Center (OMPC), which is a free tool provided by Dell.
The purpose of insuring a person is to cover the insureds physical well-being and to pay the insured, if the risk occurs, either a lump sum or a benefit, depending on the terms of the agreement concluded between the parties.
DNA is the informational basis from which living cells derive instructions for synthesizing proteins. Many of the resulting proteins are enzymes that catalyze biochemical reactions from which the cell derives energy or generates other molecules essential to its health and safety. The process normally occurs when the sequence of nucleotides in DNA is transcribed into a complementary, single strand of nucleotides known as messenger RNA, or mRNA. The mRNA provides the instructions by which other components in the cell synthesize proteins. Because not all genes are transcribed (or expressed) but all genes that are transcribed do so through mRNA, the presence of mRNA is an indicator that a gene from the cells DNA has been expressed. The DNA from which the mRNA is obtained is sometimes interspersed with oligonucleotide spacers that do not appear in the final mRNA. Because mRNA is used for the cells molecular machinery to generate the protein, the sequence of DNA (or gene) that corresponds to a ...
biochemistry) Any of many anaerobic biochemical reactions in which an enzyme (or several enzymes produced by a microorganism) catalyses the conversion of one substance into another; especially the conversion (using yeast) of sugars to alcohol or acetic acid with the evolution of carbon dioxide ...
Signal transduction is any process by which a cell converts one kind of signal or stimulus into another. Processes referred to as signal transduction often involve a sequence of biochemical reactions inside the cell, which are carried out by enzymes and linked through second messengers. ...
Some of the primary functions of proteins include their enabling the biochemical reactions that help digest food and respond to stimuli, replicating DNA and providing the structural building blocks...
Acheter des médicaments sans ordonnance. Pharmacie en Ligne: livraison de médicaments à domicile. France, Suisse, Luxembourg, Allemagne, Belgique, Danemark, Espagne, Malte
Bartlett, Debbie (2014) EuroCoppice: A new approach to influence policy to support woodland management. Quarterly Journal of Forestry, 108 (3). pp. 198-200. ISSN 0033-5568 Bartlett, Debbie (2011) Identifying issues for the coppice industry. Quarterly Journal of Forestry, 105 (2). pp. 131-134. ISSN 0033-5568 Bartlett, Debbie (2011) In pursuit of the truth about the coppice woodland management in the South East. In Practice: Bulletin of the Institute of Ecology and Environmental Management, 73. pp. 20-21. ISSN 1754-4882 Bartlett, Deborah and Rossney, David (2007) Socio-economic analysis of the coppice industry in south east England. Quarterly Journal of Forestry, 101 (4). pp. 285-290. ISSN 0033-5568 Ramesh, N.I. (2005) Semi-parametric analysis of extreme forest fires. Forest Biometry Modelling and Information Science, 1. pp. 1-10. ISSN 1740-5955 Rennolls, Keith (2004) Towards the sustainable use of Europes forests: a centre for European forest science! - Some missing catalytic elements? EFI ...
The respiratory system is the essential interface for exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the external environment and the blood. The environmental gases are brought to the gas exchange surface of the alveoli in the lung by ventilation. Ventilation is a function of the tidal volume (Vt) and breathing frequency (f). The Vt and f are produced by respiratory pump muscles. The activation of these muscles is the result of brain neural drive activating spinal motor neurons that innervate the respiratory muscles. Normal breathing pattern is determined by the brainstem respiratory rhythm generator, which is a network of neurons. Ventilatory activity shares common organs and neural mechanisms with other respiratory-related functions like vocalization. The vocalization requires a delicate and complex control of respiratory pattern, thus integration is essential between these neural control mechanisms. This review will discuss the basic motor and neuronal mechanisms controlling breathing and the ...
This study examined mechanisms underlying cardio-respiratory acclimation to moderate sustained hypoxia (6·0 kPa for 7 days at 22° C) in the bowfin Amia calva, a facultative air-breathing fish. This level of hypoxia is slightly below the critical oxygen tension (pcrit) of A. calva denied access to air (mean ± s.e. = 9·3 ± 1·0 kPa). Before exposure to sustained hypoxia, A. calva with access to air increased air-breathing frequency on exposure to acute progressive hypoxia while A. calva without access to air increased gill-breathing frequency. Exposure to sustained hypoxia increased the gill ventilation response to acute progressive hypoxia in A. calva without access to air, regardless of whether they had access to air or not during the sustained hypoxia. Additionally, there was a decrease in Hb-O2 binding affinity in these fish. This suggests that, in A. calva, acclimation to hypoxia elicits changes that increase oxygen delivery to the gas exchange surface for oxygen uptake and reduce ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Rapid conversion of glycerol to lactic acid under alkaline hydrothermal conditions, by using a continuous flow reaction system. AU - Shimanouchi, Toshinori. AU - Ueno, Shouhei. AU - Shidahara, Kazuki. AU - Kimura, Yukitaka. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - A rapid conversion of glycerol to lactic acid (lactate) could be successfully achieved under alkaline hydrothermal conditions, by using a continuous flow reaction system. A rapid conversion by a continuous flow-type reaction system made it possible to achieve the reaction under high-temperature conditions without side reactions. The rapid conversion and high reaction yield (reaction: 2min; yield: 90%) resulted from the rapid temperature-shift advantageous for the inhibition of side reactions.. AB - A rapid conversion of glycerol to lactic acid (lactate) could be successfully achieved under alkaline hydrothermal conditions, by using a continuous flow reaction system. A rapid conversion by a continuous flow-type reaction system made it ...
Abstract : Introduction: Complementary and alternative medicine such as biofield energy therapies are highly popular in biomedical health care. The study evaluates the impact of Mr. Trivedis biofield energy treatment on Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) to evaluate its phenotypic and genotypic characteristics. Methods: P. aeruginosa ATCC 10145 (American Type Culture Collection) was procured from Bangalore Genei, in sealed pack and divided into control and treated groups. Treated group was subjected to biofield treatment and analyzed for antibiogram, biochemical reactions, and biotype number using automated MicroScan Walk-Away® system on day 10. The treated sample was evaluated for DNA polymorphism by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and 16S rDNA sequencing to establish the phylogenetic relationship, the epidemiological relatedness and genetic characteristics. Results: Data showed altered sensitivity pattern in antibiotic cefotaxime from intermediate to decreased β-lactamases ...
Improved separations of xylose, mannose, galactose, arabinose, glucose, xylitol, arabitol; sorbitol, galactitol, or mannitol (and other monosaccharides and sugar alcohols) from other sugars and sugar alcohols may be achieved by chromatography over hydroxyl-form anion exchange surfaces prepared from anion exchange resins at relatively low hydroxyl concentrations. When a strong base anion exchange resin, such as a chloride-form strong base anion exchange resin, is conditioned with a low concentration of hydroxyl (for example, an NaOH solution with a concentration between 0.1 and 1000 mM, most preferably between 1 and 10 mM), the conditioned resin separates a number of sugars and sugar alcohols from one another, while still allowing ready desorption from the resin.
154 Hurley. Computational Methods for Parameter Sensitivities of Stochastic Chemical Reaction Networks. Stochastic models are commonly used to simulate and analyze biochemical networks, in particular when the abundances of the constituent molecules are small and ordinary differential equations cease to provide a good description of system behavior. Example networks include the transcription and translation of DNA, and genetic switching. A common modeling choice is to use a continuous time Markov chain (CTMC). As solving analytically for the expectations of model quantities is usually intractable or impossible, one typically uses simulation methods to generate sample paths for analysis.. Even when biochemical knowledge suggests an appropriate model, parameter values are typically unknown and must be estimated experimentally. Therefore, parameter sensitivity estimation is a valuable tool as it provides a quantitative method for understanding how perturbations in model parameters affect different ...

Manufacturers and suppliers of fermentation systems, microbial fermentors, cell culture equipment, cell culture systems, cell...Manufacturers and suppliers of fermentation systems, microbial fermentors, cell culture equipment, cell culture systems, cell...

Biospectra AG also is a developer and supplier of process information management system for biochemical industry (PIMS software ... Biospectra AG (Switzerland) is a manufacturer of analytical instrumentation for biochemical process control - analyzer systems ... Automated Process Scale Peptide Synthesizers. Dynamic Axial Compression Reactors for Solid Phase Synthesis. Process Scale and ... Applikon is a manufacturer of a complete range of bioreactor systems for biotechnology, process and environmental on-line ...
more infohttp://zhdanov.ru/classified-catalogue/manufacturers-and-suppliers/fermentors-cell-culture-systems-cell-culture-bioreactors-ie.htm

biochemical processes Protocols and Video...'biochemical processes' Protocols and Video...

... biochemical processes include FRET Microscopy for Real-time Monitoring of Signaling Events in Live Cells Using Unimolecular ... Biochemical Processes: Chemical reactions or functions, enzymatic activities, and metabolic pathways of living things. .article ... Cells utilize analogs in their endogenous biochemical processes, producing compounds that are labeled. The label allows for the ... Metabolic labeling is used to probe the biochemical transformations and modifications that occur in a cell. This is ...
more infohttps://www.jove.com/keyword/biochemical+processes

Alumnus, faculty achieve first look at biochemical processAlumnus, faculty achieve first look at biochemical process

... when he found at Bowling Green just the expert he needed to continue his research into the critical biological process of ... Alumnus, faculty achieve first look at biochemical process Bowling Green State University / News / 2015 / September / Alumnus, ... Lu compared the process to trying to learn about jellyfish by taking snapshots and calculating on average the movements of a ... Lu and He actually measured the dynamics of how calmodulin makes the process move along more efficiently. "Its a significant ...
more infohttps://www.bgsu.edu/news/2015/09/alumnus-faculty-achieve-first-look-at-biochemical-process.html

Insulin Signaling: Modeling a Biochemical Process-SystemModeler ModelInsulin Signaling: Modeling a Biochemical Process-SystemModeler Model

Download insulin signal model and explore biochemical processes using SystemModeler and included BioChem library. Visualize ... Insulin Signaling: Modeling a Biochemical Process. Insulin signaling in fat cells plays an important role in controlling the ...
more infohttps://www.wolfram.com/system-modeler/examples/computational-biology/insulin-receptor-signaling.html

Insulin Signaling: Modeling a Biochemical Process-SystemModeler ModelInsulin Signaling: Modeling a Biochemical Process-SystemModeler Model

Download insulin signal model and explore biochemical processes using SystemModeler and included BioChem library. Visualize ... Insulin Signaling: Modeling a Biochemical Process. Insulin signaling in fat cells plays an important role in controlling the ...
more infohttp://www.wolfram.com/system-modeler/examples/life-sciences/insulin-receptor-signaling.en.html

Biochemical Processes | Profiles RNSBiochemical Processes | Profiles RNS

"Biochemical Processes" by people in this website by year, and whether "Biochemical Processes" was a major or minor topic of ... "Biochemical Processes" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Biochemical Processes" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Biochemical Processes". ...
more infohttps://profiles.umassmed.edu/display/114952

More articles from BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSES AND MACROMOLECULAR STRUCTURES | Plant PhysiologyMore articles from BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSES AND MACROMOLECULAR STRUCTURES | Plant Physiology

Eleonora Paparelli, Silvia Gonzali, Sandro Parlanti, Giacomo Novi, Federico M. Giorgi, Francesco Licausi, Monika Kosmacz, Regina Feil, John E. Lunn, Henrike Brust, Joost T. van Dongen, Martin Steup, Pierdomenico Perata ...
more infohttp://www.plantphysiol.org/content/by/section/BIOCHEMICAL%20PROCESSES%20AND%20MACROMOLECULAR%20STRUCTURES

PPT - Physiological & Biochemical Process regulating Parturition PowerPoint Presentation - ID:216981PPT - Physiological & Biochemical Process regulating Parturition PowerPoint Presentation - ID:216981

Physiological process in human pregnancy that result in initiation of parturition & onset of labor : poorly defined Retreat ... 2. Processes -. 2.1. introduction to processes. 2.1.1. the process model 2.1.2. process creation 2.1.3. process termination 2.1 ... process hierarchies 2.1.5. process states 2.1.6. implementation of processes 2.1.7. threads. 2.1 the process ... Physiological & Biochemical Process regulating Parturition*Physiological process in human pregnancy that result in initiation ...
more infohttps://www.slideserve.com/paul/physiological-biochemical-process-regulating-parturition

Our brains are quantum computers and consciousness is not a biochemical process, page 3Our brains are quantum computers and consciousness is not a biochemical process, page 3

... biological processes. I totally get and understand the process...and the selection process, but evolution seems to fit simpler ... Our brains are quantum computers and consciousness is not a biochemical process. page: 3 ... self is a DEVELOPMENTAL process, and b) that the developmental process is intrinsically related to other minds. This is ... With the recent discovery of quantum processes in the human brain microtubules and the proposed mechanism of actions of ...
more infohttp://www.abovetopsecret.com/forum/thread1053041/pg3

The Response of Macro- and Micronutrient Nutrient Status and Biochemical Processes in Rats Fed on a Diet with Selenium-Enriched...The Response of Macro- and Micronutrient Nutrient Status and Biochemical Processes in Rats Fed on a Diet with Selenium-Enriched...

The Response of Macro- and Micronutrient Nutrient Status and Biochemical Processes in Rats Fed on a Diet with Selenium-Enriched ... J. Tvrdá, N. Tůmová, A. Fucíková et al., "The biochemical and hematological response of rats on defatted rape seeds addition ... 4Faculty of Food and Biochemical Technology, University of Chemistry and Technology, Prague, Czech Republic. ... biochemical and hematological parameters in pregnant rats with L-name induced preeclampsia," Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/6759810/ref/

The Response of Macro- and Micronutrient Nutrient Status and Biochemical Processes in Rats Fed on a Diet with Selenium-Enriched...The Response of Macro- and Micronutrient Nutrient Status and Biochemical Processes in Rats Fed on a Diet with Selenium-Enriched...

The Response of Macro- and Micronutrient Nutrient Status and Biochemical Processes in Rats Fed on a Diet with Selenium-Enriched ... The response of nutrient status and biochemical processes in (i) Wistar and (ii) spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats upon ... The seeds were processed by milling and defatting the seeds using a Soxhlet apparatus and using hexane as the extraction agent ... The data were processed using Microsoft Office Excel 2007 and Statistica 12 CZ statistical software. One-way analysis of ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/6759810/

Shop Conservation Equations And Modeling Of Chemical And Biochemical Processes 2003Shop Conservation Equations And Modeling Of Chemical And Biochemical Processes 2003

Notes 2 and 3 shop Conservation Equations and Modeling of Chemical and Biochemical Processes 2003 on the registered carousel. ... The shop Conservation Equations and Modeling of Chemical and Biochemical Processes 2003 of Representative Works writes numbers ... shop Conservation Equations and Modeling of Chemical and Biochemical Processes 2003 conditions excellent RomanceParanormal ... Shop Conservation Equations And Modeling Of Chemical And Biochemical Processes 2003. Shop Conservation Equations And Modeling ...
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Computational Discovery of Phenotype Related Biochemical Processes for by Andrea M. Rocha"Computational Discovery of Phenotype Related Biochemical Processes for" by Andrea M. Rocha

To bridge this gap, this dissertation focuses on identification of phenotype-related biochemical processes within sets of ... Due to the ability of several naturally occurring microorganisms to generate hydrogen through varying metabolic processes, ... about the proteins involved in phenotype-related processes are ... to identify both known and potentially new biochemical process ... to apply metabolic engineering concepts have been restricted due to limited information regarding complex metabolic processes ...
more infohttp://scholarcommons.usf.edu/etd/3315/

Metals and Parkinsons Disease: Mechanisms and Biochemical Processes | Bentham ScienceMetals and Parkinson's Disease: Mechanisms and Biochemical Processes | Bentham Science

Metals and Parkinsons Disease: Mechanisms and Biochemical Processes. Author(s): Geir Bjorklund* , Council for Nutritional and ... Neuronal-glial Interactions Define the Role of Nitric Oxide in Neural Functional Processes. Current Neuropharmacology ... This review explores the biological effects, the pathogenetic processes, genetic susceptibilities to metals as well as ... This review explores the biological effects, the pathogenetic processes, genetic susceptibilities to metals as well as ...
more infohttp://www.eurekaselect.com/157823/article

BG - Modeling photosynthesis of discontinuous plant canopies by linking the Geometric Optical Radiative Transfer model with...BG - Modeling photosynthesis of discontinuous plant canopies by linking the Geometric Optical Radiative Transfer model with...

We link the radiative transfer process with the biochemical diffusion process to model canopy photosynthesis. Modeled gross ... To model leaf-level and canopy-level photosynthesis, leaf light absorption is then linked to the biochemical process of gas ... of discontinuous plant canopies by linking the Geometric Optical Radiative Transfer model with biochemical processes Q. Xin. 1, ... The radiative transfer process within plant canopies is one of the key drivers that regulate canopy photosynthesis. Most ...
more infohttps://www.biogeosciences.net/12/3447/2015/bg-12-3447-2015.html

US6561968B1 - Method and an apparatus for stimulating/ modulating biochemical processes using pulsed electromagnetic fields 
  ...US6561968B1 - Method and an apparatus for stimulating/ modulating biochemical processes using pulsed electromagnetic fields ...

Method and an apparatus for stimulating/ modulating biochemical processes using pulsed electromagnetic fields Download PDF Info ... US09650044 1999-08-31 2000-08-29 Method and an apparatus for stimulating/ modulating biochemical processes using pulsed ... Method and an apparatus for stimulating/ modulating biochemical processes using pulsed electromagnetic fields ... Method and an apparatus for stimulating/ modulating biochemical processes using pulsed electromagnetic fields ...
more infohttps://patents.google.com/patent/US6561968

Critical role of inflammatory cytokines in impairing biochemical processes for learning and memory after surgery in rats |...Critical role of inflammatory cytokines in impairing biochemical processes for learning and memory after surgery in rats |...

... a fundamental biochemical process for learning and memory. Four-month-old male Fischer 344 rats were subjected to right carotid ... A basic biochemical process for learning and memory is the trafficking of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid ... Critical role of inflammatory cytokines in impairing biochemical processes for learning and memory after surgery in rats. ... It is now well-documented that a fundamental biochemical process for learning and memory is the trafficking of AMPAR to the ...
more infohttps://jneuroinflammation.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1742-2094-11-93

Displaying articles by keyword Biochemical processesDisplaying articles by keyword Biochemical processes

Biochemical processes Biophysics Blood circulation Blood flow Blood flow structure Blood pressure Bloodstream Body ... The studies show it is possible to evaluate indirectly aerobic, anaerobic and phosphocreatine processes in the cardiac muscle ... Metabolic processes Metabolism Metrology Microgravity Minute volume Mission to Mars Mortality Myocardial infarction Myocardium ...
more infohttp://www.cardiometry.net/keywords/biochemical-processes

Processes | Free Full-Text | Electrical Model for Analyzing Chemical Kinetics, Lasing and Bio-Chemical ProcessesProcesses | Free Full-Text | Electrical Model for Analyzing Chemical Kinetics, Lasing and Bio-Chemical Processes

In addition, the applicability of this analogous electrical model for investigating the optical and bio chemical processes is ... the time behavior of the analyzed parameter even for extremely complicated processes can be obtained. ... Shahmoon, A.; Zalevsky, Z. Electrical Model for Analyzing Chemical Kinetics, Lasing and Bio-Chemical Processes. Processes 2013 ... Shahmoon A, Zalevsky Z. Electrical Model for Analyzing Chemical Kinetics, Lasing and Bio-Chemical Processes. Processes. 2013; 1 ...
more infohttp://mdpi.com/2227-9717/1/1/12/xml

Processes  | Free Full-Text | Electrical Model for Analyzing Chemical Kinetics, Lasing and Bio-Chemical Processes | NotesProcesses | Free Full-Text | Electrical Model for Analyzing Chemical Kinetics, Lasing and Bio-Chemical Processes | Notes

In addition, the applicability of this analogous electrical model for investigating the optical and bio chemical processes is ... the time behavior of the analyzed parameter even for extremely complicated processes can be obtained. ... Article Processing Charges Pay an Invoice Open Access Policy Terms of Use Terms and Conditions Privacy Policy Contact MDPI Jobs ... Processes EISSN 2227-9717 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/2227-9717/1/1/12/notes

ERIC - Laboratory Practical Work as a Technological Process., Biochemical Education, 1998ERIC - Laboratory Practical Work as a Technological Process., Biochemical Education, 1998

Laboratory Practical Work as a Technological Process.. Pich-Otero, Augusto; Molina-Ortiz, Sara; Delaplace, Laura; Castellani, ...
more infohttps://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ584588

Modeling biochemical transformation processes and information processing with Narrator | BMC Bioinformatics | Full TextModeling biochemical transformation processes and information processing with Narrator | BMC Bioinformatics | Full Text

Typically, these graphical notations are geared towards conventional biochemical pathway diagrams. They permit the user to ... Thus, Co-dependence models explicitly capture, for instance, signal processing structures and the influence of exogenous ... transformation as well as biological information processing. Narrator is a software tool facilitating the development and ... factors or events affecting certain parts of a biological system or process. This combined set of features provides the system ...
more infohttps://bmcbioinformatics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2105-8-103

Biochemical Pathway and Processes for Conversion of Organic Materials 
	to EnergyBiochemical Pathway and Processes for Conversion of Organic Materials to Energy

Information from CalRecycle on the biochemical conversion processes and energy products from aerobic conversion and anaerobic ... Anaerobic Digestion and Other Biochemical Conversion Processes. Biochemical conversion processes include anaerobic digestion or ... Energy products from biochemical processes include biogas (primarily methane and carbon dioxide) and ethanol (bioethanol). ... The lignin portion of biomass is also difficult to convert via biochemical processes, and is typically considered for use as ...
more infohttp://www.calrecycle.ca.gov/Organics/Conversion/Pathways/BioChem.htm

Key metabolic processes - Biochemical pathway map | Metabolic pathway map - Biochemical diagram | Design elements -...Key metabolic processes - Biochemical pathway map | Metabolic pathway map - Biochemical diagram | Design elements -...

Wikipedia] ,br,The biochemical pathway map example Key metabolic processes was created using the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming ... Key metabolic processes - Biochemical pathway map. Key metabolic processes - Biochemical pathway map ... Biochemical pathway map - Key metabolic processes , Glucose ... * Metabolic pathway map - Biochemical diagram , Metabolic ... The biochemical pathway map example "Key metabolic processes" was created using the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector ...
more infohttp://www.conceptdraw.com/examples/metabolic-maps

Biochemical conversion | Chemical process engineeringBiochemical conversion | Chemical process engineering

Biochemical conversion research focuses on intensification of bioprocesses by developing high throughput bioprocessing methods ... including enzymatic processing of biopolymers, and valorization of industrial side streams for the production of biochemicals ... Biochemical conversion research focuses on intensification of bioprocesses by developing high throughput bioprocessing methods ... The main technologies include fermentations and downstream processing of microbial products; examination and modeling of ...
more infohttps://www.oulu.fi/pyokemen/node/24045
  • The response of nutrient status and biochemical processes in (i) Wistar and (ii) spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats upon dietary intake of selenium- (Se-) enriched defatted rapeseed (DRS) and/or vitamin E fortification was examined to assess the health benefit of DRS in animal nutrition. (hindawi.com)
  • Stuehr, Lu and their team show for the first time precisely how the important calcium-binding protein calmodulin facilitates the production of NO by the NO synthases, which are enzymes that help control innumerable biological processes, including blood pressure, memory and immune defense. (bgsu.edu)
  • Everytime I read something mind-blowing, such as this, my mind is boggled thinking about evolution resulting in the complexity that is our minds, bodies, biological processes. (abovetopsecret.com)
  • Software tools that model and simulate the dynamics of biological processes and systems are becoming increasingly important. (biomedcentral.com)
  • User-defined sets of proteins, protein families, annotation terms or taxonomic groups can be selected and compared, allowing for the analysis of distribution of biological processes and molecular activities over different taxonomic groups. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For example, it becomes possible to identify the distribution of particular protein families or particular biological processes and molecular activities along the taxonomic or phylogenetic tree. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The relevant physiological process, a decrease of sodium permeability by illumination, is assayed as light suppression of outer segment swelling in a modified Ringer's solution. (rupress.org)
  • The biochemical and hematological response of rats on defatted rape seeds addition into the diet," Acad J Agric Res , vol. 3, pp. 395-401, 2015. (hindawi.com)
  • Cellulosic feedstocks, including a large portion of the organic fraction of MSW, need hydrolysis pretreatment (acid, enzymatic, or hydrothermal hydrolysis) to break down cellulose and hemicellulose to simple sugars needed by the yeast and bacteria for the fermentation process. (ca.gov)
  • refining of biomasses, including enzymatic processing of biopolymers, and valorization of industrial side streams for the production of biochemicals and valuable side products. (oulu.fi)
  • Quality changes in meat occur during its maturing process conditioned by a complex enzymatic, autolytic transformations in muscle and connective tissues. (edu.ua)
  • To bridge this gap, this dissertation focuses on identification of phenotype-related biochemical processes within sets of phenotype-expressing organisms. (usf.edu)
  • Biochemical conversion research focuses on intensification of bioprocesses by developing high throughput bioprocessing methods, improving the mass transfer management in bioreactors, and by increasing the value of industrial side products. (oulu.fi)
  • The lignin portion of biomass is also difficult to convert via biochemical processes, and is typically considered for use as boiler fuel or as a feedstock for thermochemical conversion to other fuels and products. (ca.gov)
  • However, it is known that the quality of the meat and the nature of the autolytic processes after slaughter of the animal depend on the conditions of feeding and breeding, pre-mortem content and degree of stress sensitivity of pigs. (edu.ua)
  • Further research is planned to study the formation of biochemical processes and meat quality of pigs of specialized meat breeds with different methods of breeding. (edu.ua)
  • In activated, fast skeletal muscles of rabbit (psoas), frog (semitendinosus) and crayfish (walking leg flexor), we resolved at least three exponential rate processes. (springer.com)
  • Abstract A process for treating sewage containing ammoniacal nitrogen of catalytic cracking catalyst includes physiochemically pretreating, filtering to remove suspended substance, optional regulation of pH value to 11-11.5 and reverse stripping, mixing it with house sewage, adding methanol, and anaerobic denitrifying and aerobic nitrating. (brandsproducts.net)
  • The ability of these phenotype-centric comparative network analysis tools to identify both known and potentially new biochemical process is important for providing further understanding and insights into metabolic networks and system controls involved in the expression of microbial traits. (usf.edu)
  • A secondary metabolite is not directly involved in those processes, but usually has an important ecological function. (conceptdraw.com)
  • In this regard, the study of biochemical processes in meat depends on different stress sensitivity and the conditions of raising pigs is a very important issue, which requires further scientific development. (edu.ua)
  • They are important, as they help the diagnostic process and show the patient's progress. (wikipedia.org)
  • The three main purposes of metabolism are the conversion of food/fuel to energy to run cellular processes, the conversion of food/fuel to building blocks for proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and some carbohydrates, and the elimination of nitrogenous wastes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In probability theory, a piecewise-deterministic Markov process (PDMP) is a process whose behaviour is governed by random jumps at points in time, but whose evolution is deterministically governed by an ordinary differential equation between those times. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this regard, the objective of our research was to determine the percolation characteristics of autolytic processes in the meat of pigs combination ♀(LW×L)×♂P obtained from animals with different stressful sensitivity grown under different conditions, and to conduct a comparative evaluation of the organoleptic characteristics of meat. (edu.ua)
  • According to the results of the research, it was found that meat obtained from pigs with different stressful sensitivity and those that were fed in different conditions with intensive technology in the period of maturation and storage has a different character of biochemical changes, which cause different quality. (edu.ua)
  • This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. (springer.com)
  • Energy products from biochemical processes include biogas (primarily methane and carbon dioxide) and ethanol (bioethanol). (ca.gov)
  • High moisture feedstocks, such as food waste and green waste, are generally good candidates for biochemical processes. (ca.gov)
  • In the first method, the Dense ENriched Subgraph Enumeration (DENSE) algorithm, partial "prior knowledge" about the proteins involved in phenotype-related processes are utilized to identify dense, enriched sets of known phenotype-related proteins in Clostridium acetobutylicum. (usf.edu)
  • The comparison of different sets of genomes allows for identifying the processes, activities, and families unique to certain taxonomic groups or shared between taxonomic groups. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moreover, this class of processes has been shown to be appropriate for biophysical neuron models with stochastic ion channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Biochemical Processes" by people in this website by year, and whether "Biochemical Processes" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (umassmed.edu)
  • The anaerobic digestion (AD) process operates without free oxygen and results in a biogas containing mostly methane and carbon dioxide, but frequently carrying impurities such as moisture, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, siloxane, and particulate matter. (ca.gov)
  • Laboratory Practical Work as a Technological Process. (ed.gov)
  • Within the context of this work, we define species transformation as the alteration or change of species participating in biochemical processes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Biochemical processes in the meat of pigs of different sensitivity to stress and growing conditions. (edu.ua)