Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Drug Resistance, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Drug Resistance, Multiple: Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Drug Resistance, Fungal: The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antifungal agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Disease Resistance: The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance phenotype may be attributed to multiple gene mutation.P-Glycoprotein: A 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. It serves as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a variety of chemicals, including many ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of this glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance (see DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Antitubercular Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant: Tuberculosis resistant to chemotherapy with two or more ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS, including at least ISONIAZID and RIFAMPICIN. The problem of resistance is particularly troublesome in tuberculous OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS associated with HIV INFECTIONS. It requires the use of second line drugs which are more toxic than the first line regimens. TB with isolates that have developed further resistance to at least three of the six classes of second line drugs is defined as EXTENSIVELY DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Antimalarials: Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)HIV Protease: Enzyme of the human immunodeficiency virus that is required for post-translational cleavage of gag and gag-pol precursor polyproteins into functional products needed for viral assembly. HIV protease is an aspartic protease encoded by the amino terminus of the pol gene.Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins: A sequence-related subfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that actively transport organic substrates. Although considered organic anion transporters, a subset of proteins in this family have also been shown to convey drug resistance to neutral organic drugs. Their cellular function may have clinical significance for CHEMOTHERAPY in that they transport a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of proteins in this class by NEOPLASMS is considered a possible mechanism in the development of multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although similar in function to P-GLYCOPROTEINS, the proteins in this class share little sequence homology to the p-glycoprotein family of proteins.Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.HIV Reverse Transcriptase: A reverse transcriptase encoded by the POL GENE of HIV. It is a heterodimer of 66 kDa and 51 kDa subunits that are derived from a common precursor protein. The heterodimer also includes an RNAse H activity (RIBONUCLEASE H, HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS) that plays an essential role the viral replication process.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters: A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.R Factors: A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Genes, MDR: Genes for MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that confer resistance to toxic compounds. Several superfamilies of these multidrug export proteins are known and found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Tetracycline Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of TETRACYCLINE which inhibits aminoacyl-tRNA binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit during protein synthesis.Penicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.Streptomycin: An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Fungal: The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance phenotype may be attributed to multiple gene mutations.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Doxorubicin: Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.Tetracycline: A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors: Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.Chloroquine: The prototypical antimalarial agent with a mechanism that is not well understood. It has also been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and in the systemic therapy of amebic liver abscesses.Isoniazid: Antibacterial agent used primarily as a tuberculostatic. It remains the treatment of choice for tuberculosis.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Plasmodium falciparum: A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.Parasitic Sensitivity Tests: Tests that demonstrate the relative effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents against specific parasites.Rifampin: A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)Mutation, Missense: A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Pyrimethamine: One of the FOLIC ACID ANTAGONISTS that is used as an antimalarial or with a sulfonamide to treat toxoplasmosis.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Kanamycin: Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kanamyceticus from Japanese soil. Comprises 3 components: kanamycin A, the major component, and kanamycins B and C, the minor components.beta-Lactam Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of the beta-lactam antibiotics. Mechanisms responsible for beta-lactam resistance may be degradation of antibiotics by BETA-LACTAMASES, failure of antibiotics to penetrate, or low-affinity binding of antibiotics to targets.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Treatment Failure: A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.HIV Protease Inhibitors: Inhibitors of HIV PROTEASE, an enzyme required for production of proteins needed for viral assembly.Resistance Training: A type of strength-building exercise program that requires the body muscle to exert a force against some form of resistance, such as weight, stretch bands, water, or immovable objects. Resistance exercise is a combination of static and dynamic contractions involving shortening and lengthening of skeletal muscles.Inhibitory Concentration 50: The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Chloramphenicol Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of CHLORAMPHENICOL, a potent inhibitor of protein synthesis in the 50S ribosomal subunit where amino acids are added to nascent bacterial polypeptides.Malaria, Falciparum: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Sulfadoxine: A long acting sulfonamide that is used, usually in combination with other drugs, for respiratory, urinary tract, and malarial infections.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Ampicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of a microbe to the action of ampicillin, a penicillin derivative that interferes with cell wall synthesis.Tetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction 7,8-dihyrofolate and NADPH to yield 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate and NADPH+, producing reduced folate for amino acid metabolism, purine ring synthesis, and the formation of deoxythymidine monophosphate. Methotrexate and other folic acid antagonists used as chemotherapeutic drugs act by inhibiting this enzyme. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 188.8.131.52.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Antibiotics, Antineoplastic: Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.pol Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the POL GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Ethambutol: An antitubercular agent that inhibits the transfer of mycolic acids into the cell wall of the tubercle bacillus. It may also inhibit the synthesis of spermidine in mycobacteria. The action is usually bactericidal, and the drug can penetrate human cell membranes to exert its lethal effect. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p863)Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Erythromycin: A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.P-Glycoproteins: A subfamily of transmembrane proteins from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that are closely related in sequence to P-GLYCOPROTEIN. When overexpressed, they function as ATP-dependent efflux pumps able to extrude lipophilic drugs, especially ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, from cells causing multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although P-Glycoproteins share functional similarities to MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS they are two distinct subclasses of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS, and have little sequence homology.Chloramphenicol: An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)Azoles: Five membered rings containing a NITROGEN atom.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Anti-Retroviral Agents: Agents used to treat RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.Candida albicans: A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).Dihydropteroate Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of dihydropteroate from p-aminobenzoic acid and dihydropteridine-hydroxymethyl-pyrophosphate. EC 184.108.40.206.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Biochemical Processes: Chemical reactions or functions, enzymatic activities, and metabolic pathways of living things.Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Methicillin Resistance: Non-susceptibility of a microbe to the action of METHICILLIN, a semi-synthetic penicillin derivative.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Verapamil: A calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent.beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Fluconazole: Triazole antifungal agent that is used to treat oropharyngeal CANDIDIASIS and cryptococcal MENINGITIS in AIDS.Macrolides: A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.Artemisinins: A group of SESQUITERPENES and their analogs that contain a peroxide group (PEROXIDES) within an oxepin ring (OXEPINS).Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.DNA Gyrase: A bacterial DNA topoisomerase II that catalyzes ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. Gyrase binds to DNA as a heterotetramer consisting of two A and two B subunits. In the presence of ATP, gyrase is able to convert the relaxed circular DNA duplex into a superhelix. In the absence of ATP, supercoiled DNA is relaxed by DNA gyrase.Biochemical Phenomena: The chemical processes, enzymatic activities, and pathways of living things and related temporal, dimensional, qualitative, and quantitative concepts.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Extrachromosomal Inheritance: Vertical transmission of hereditary characters by DNA from cytoplasmic organelles such as MITOCHONDRIA; CHLOROPLASTS; and PLASTIDS, or from PLASMIDS or viral episomal DNA.Vault Ribonucleoprotein Particles: Large cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein particles that have an eight-fold symmetry with a central pore and petal-like structure giving the appearance of an octagonal dome. (The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 2nd ed.)Vancomycin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of VANCOMYCIN, an inhibitor of cell wall synthesis.Tuberculosis, Pulmonary: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Ampicillin: Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Cephalosporin Resistance: Non-susceptibility of an organism to the action of the cephalosporins.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Pyrimidines: A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.Protein Kinase Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.Fluoroquinolones: A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Daunorubicin: A very toxic anthracycline aminoglycoside antineoplastic isolated from Streptomyces peucetius and others, used in treatment of LEUKEMIA and other NEOPLASMS.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Herbicide Resistance: Diminished or failed response of PLANTS to HERBICIDES.Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active: Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Antiprotozoal Agents: Substances that are destructive to protozoans.Folic Acid Antagonists: Inhibitors of the enzyme, dihydrofolate reductase (TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE), which converts dihydrofolate (FH2) to tetrahydrofolate (FH4). They are frequently used in cancer chemotherapy. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.HIV: Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.Nevirapine: A potent, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in combination with nucleoside analogues for treatment of HIV INFECTIONS and AIDS.Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis: Tuberculosis resistant to ISONIAZID and RIFAMPIN and at least three of the six main classes of second-line drugs (AMINOGLYCOSIDES; polypeptide agents; FLUOROQUINOLONES; THIOAMIDES; CYCLOSERINE; and PARA-AMINOSALICYLIC ACID) as defined by the CDC.Kanamycin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the antibiotic KANAMYCIN, which can bind to their 70S ribosomes and cause misreading of messenger RNA.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Sulfonamides: A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Organophosphonates: Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.IndiaCiprofloxacin: A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Mitoxantrone: An anthracenedione-derived antineoplastic agent.DNA Topoisomerases, Type II: DNA TOPOISOMERASES that catalyze ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. These enzymes bring about relaxation of the supercoiled DNA and resolution of a knotted circular DNA duplex.Antibiotics, Antitubercular: Substances obtained from various species of microorganisms that are, alone or in combination with other agents, of use in treating various forms of tuberculosis; most of these agents are merely bacteriostatic, induce resistance in the organisms, and may be toxic.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Aminoglycosides: Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.PiperazinesPaclitaxel: A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Neoplastic Stem Cells: Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Etoposide: A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.Mice, Inbred C57BLZidovudine: A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Genes, pol: DNA sequences that form the coding region for retroviral enzymes including reverse transcriptase, protease, and endonuclease/integrase. "pol" is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.
William S. Dalton
"Resistance to multiple novel antifolates is mediated via defective drug transport resulting from clustered mutations in the ... The Biochemical Journal. 367 (Pt 3): 629-40. doi:10.1042/BJ20020512. PMC 1222932 . PMID 12144527. Liu XY, Matherly LH (August ... Personalized dosing of the drug depending on the patient's genotype may therefore be required. Solute carrier family Folate- ... The Biochemical Journal. 369 (Pt 1): 31-7. doi:10.1042/BJ20020419. PMC 1223057 . PMID 12227830. This article incorporates text ...
The chances of drug resistance can sometimes be minimized by using multiple drugs simultaneously. This works because individual ... "Biochemical and Molecular Analysis of Deltamethrin Resistance in the Common Bed Bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)". Journal of Medical ... Tolerance and Resistance Cosmetics Database HCMV drug resistance mutations tool Combating Drug Resistance - An informative ... "Drug resistance develops naturally, but careless practices in drug supply and use are hastening it unnecessarily." - Center for ...
Phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor
"The phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT1 pathway involvement in drug and all-trans-retinoic acid resistance of leukemia cells". ... "PI3K inhibitors: Targeting multiple tumor progression pathways". 2003. Archived from the original on February 28, 2009. Neri, ... Crabbe, T (2007). "Exploring the potential of PI3K inhibitors for inflammation and cancer". Biochemical Society Transactions. ... These anti-cancer drugs are examples of targeted therapy. There are a number of different classes and isoforms of PI3Ks. Class ...
1987). "Localization of the human multiple drug resistance gene, MDR1, to 7q21.1". Hum. Genet. 77 (2): 142-4. doi:10.1007/ ... 1994). "Clinical and biochemical findings in progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis". J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. ... Multidrug resistance protein 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ABCB4 gene. ABCB4 is associated with progressive ... 2003). "Multidrug resistance 3 gene mutation 1712delT and estrogen receptor alpha gene polymorphisms in Finnish women with ...
London Centre for Nanotechnology
... electrical and electronic engineering, biochemical engineering, materials and earth sciences, and two leading business centres ... to discover new drugs to combat antibiotic resistance. In October 2009 a team at the Science and Technology Facilities ... The LCN's work requires it to draw on the combined skills of multiple departments, including medicine, chemistry, physics, ... measuring nano-electrical, structural, mechanical, rheological, acoustic, thermal and magnetic properties. • Nano-fabrication: ...
Some efflux systems are drug-specific, whereas others may accommodate multiple drugs with small multidrug resistance (SMR) ... Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 453 (2): 254-67. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2014.05.090. PMID 24878531.. ... multiple drug resistance proteins (MDRs)- also referred as P-glycoprotein, multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs), ... Antibiotic resistance. References. *^ Bay, Denice C.; Turner, Raymond J. (2016). Small Multidrug Resistance Efflux Pumps ...
Some efflux systems are drug-specific, whereas others may accommodate multiple drugs with small multidrug resistance (SMR) ... Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 453 (2): 254-67. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2014.05.090. PMID 24878531. Okusu, H; ... multiple drug resistance proteins (MDRs)- also referred as P-glycoprotein, multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs), ... "AcrAB efflux pump plays a major role in the antibiotic resistance phenotype of Escherichia coli multiple-antibiotic-resistance ...
Y. D. Sharma
... resistance to chloroquine and antifolate drugs. He is credited with the identification of P. falciparum strains in India, ... Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology. 153 (2): 178-185. doi:10.1016/j.molbiopara.2007.03.003. CS1 maint: Multiple names: ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Alam MT, Bora H, Singh N, Sharma YD (2008). "High immunogenecity and erythrocyte ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Ahmed A, Sharma YD (2008). "Ribozyme cleavage of Plasmodium falciparum gyrase A ...
Mechanism of action
CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Antony, H.A.; Parija, S.C. (2016). "Antimalarial drug resistance: An overview". ... Direct biochemical methods include methods in which a protein or a small molecule, such as a drug candidate, is labeled and is ... It allows drugs to be combined in such a way that the likelihood of drug resistance emerging is reduced. By knowing what ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Hayardeny, L. (2014). Why is it important to know the mode of action of drugs? ( ...
"ENO1 promotes tumor proliferation and cell adhesion mediated drug resistance (CAM-DR) in Non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas". Experimental ... Peshavaria M, Day IN (Apr 1991). "Molecular structure of the human muscle-specific enolase gene (ENO3)". The Biochemical ... Unlike the other enolase genes, which possess multiple transcription initiation sites, ENO3 possesses a single initiation site ... Peshavaria M, Day IN (Apr 1991). "Molecular structure of the human muscle-specific enolase gene (ENO3)". The Biochemical ...
Mulder LC, Harari A, Simon V (2008). "Cytidine deamination induced HIV-1 drug resistance". PNAS. 105 (14): 5501-6. doi:10.1073/ ... Joao G, Mariana SM (2004). "HIV-1 Vif and APOBEC3G: Multiple roads to one goal". Retrovirology. 1 (28). doi:10.1186/1742-4690-1 ... Neuberger MS, Harris RS, Di Noia J, Petersen-Mahrt SK (2003). "Imunity through DNA deamination". Trends in Biochemical Sciences ... Huthoff H, Malim MH (2005). "Cytidine deamination and resistance to retroviral infection: towards a structural understanding of ...
Primary and secondary antibodies
Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease and they are used for the study of ADME and multi-drug resistance (MDR) of therapeutic ... Secondary antibodies are used in many biochemical assays including: ELISA, including many HIV tests Western blot Immunostaining ... Secondary antibodies help increase sensitivity and signal amplification due to multiple secondary antibodies binding to a ...
Development of analogs of thalidomide
"Immunomodulatory drug CC-5013 overcomes drug resistance and is well tolerated in patients with relapsed multiple myeloma". ... Biochemical Pharmacology. 83 (12): 1583-1590. doi:10.1016/j.bcp.2012.01.001. Schafer, PH; Parton, A; Gandhi, AK; Capone, L; ... In 1998 thalidomide was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM ... Pharmacy and Pharmacology portal Cancer Multiple myeloma Drug design Thalidomide Lenalidomide Pomalidomide Apremilast Organic ...
... gigantica when they have been sensitized with primary patent or drug-abbreviated infection. Resistance to fasciolosis was also ... Lithiasis of the bile duct or gall bladder is frequent and the stones are usually small and multiple. Clinical signs of ... In addition, biochemical and haematological examinations of human sera support the exact diagnosis (eosinophilia, elevation of ... A number of drugs have been used in control fasciolosis in animals. Drugs differ in their efficacy, mode of action, price, and ...
The multidrug efflux transporter NorM from V. parahaemolyticus which mediates resistance to multiple antimicrobial agents ( ... protein family responsible for drug resistance. This gene is one of two members of the MATE transporter family located near ... Biochemical Pharmacology. 74 (2): 359-71. doi:10.1016/j.bcp.2007.04.010. PMID 17509534. Omote H, Hiasa M, Matsumoto T, Otsuka M ... NorM seems to function as drug/sodium antiporter which is the first example of Na+-coupled multidrug efflux transporter ...
This evolution is why cancer recurrences will have cells that have acquired cancer-drug resistance (or in some cases, ... Often, the multiple genetic changes that result in cancer may take many years to accumulate. During this time, the biological ... Rasnick D, Duesberg PH (June 1999). "How aneuploidy affects metabolic control and causes cancer". The Biochemical Journal. 340 ... This is exactly how pathogens such as MRSA can become antibiotic-resistant (or how HIV can become drug-resistant), and the same ...
... which is involved in multi-drug resistance, but the human locus is now thought to be a pseudogene incapable of encoding a ... Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants; however, not all variants have been fully described. ATP-binding ... Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 299 (3): 410-7. doi:10.1016/S0006-291X(02)02658-X. PMID 12445816. Gardiner ...
It possesses the ability to adapt phenotypically to several different antibiotics after exposure to a single drug, which makes ... It is a facultative anaerobic zygomycote and fast-growing, conferring it ability to survive in multiple conditions/locations ... Leathers, TD; Sypherd, PS (June 1985). "Inducible phenotypic multidrug resistance in the fungus Mucor racemosus". Antimicrobial ... racemosus to grow as a yeast and its various abilities to manufacture biochemicals have led to its use in industry. For example ...
tTG expression is elevated in multiple cancer cell types and is implicated in drug resistance and metastasis due to its ability ... McConkey DJ, Orrenius S (Oct 1997). "The role of calcium in the regulation of apoptosis". Biochemical and Biophysical Research ... Multiple Ca2+ can bind to a single tTG molecule. In contrast, the binding of one molecule of GTP or GDP inhibits the ... Fesus L, Piacentini M (Oct 2002). "Transglutaminase 2: an enigmatic enzyme with diverse functions". Trends in Biochemical ...
... the issue of drug resistance remains. Minimizing or postponing this resistance would the necessary dose to eradicate the tumor ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Kumar, Deepak; Lassar, Andrew B. (2009). "The transcriptional activity of Sox9 ... Biochemical genetics. 43 (3): 143-148. doi:10.1007/s10528-005-1507-0. PMID 15932062. Wheeler AP, Ridley AJ (2004). "Why three ... In June 2012, a new drug candidate named "Rhosin" was synthesized by researchers at the Cincinnati Children's Hospital, a drug ...
A number of drugs have been developed to treat Plasmodium infection; however, the parasites have evolved resistance to each ... "Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology. 209 (1-2): 18-25. doi:10.1016/j.molbiopara.2016.01.007. PMC 5154328. PMID 26844642.. ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link). *^ Templeton TJ, Martinsen E, Kaewthamasorn M, Kaneko O (2016). "The ... "Drug resistance in Plasmodium". Nature Reviews Microbiology. 16 (3): 156-170. doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.161. PMC 6371404. PMID ...
Major vault protein
This protein mediates drug resistance, perhaps via a transport process. It is widely distributed in normal tissues, and ... a new multidrug resistance associated protein, is frequently expressed in multiple myeloma". Leukemia & Lymphoma. 34 (3-4): 315 ... Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 278 (1): 125-33. doi:10.1006/bbrc.2000.3782. PMID 11071864. Holzmann K, ... The protein overexpression is a potentially useful marker of clinical drug resistance. This gene produces two transcripts by ...
... also known as the multi-drug resistance 1 transporter (MDR1). GluCer is implicated in post-Golgi trafficking and drug ... Biochemical and". Biophys. Res. Comm. 307 (3): 589-594. doi:10.1016/S0006-291X(03)01070-2. Smith, E. R.; Merrill, A. H.; Obeid ... An increase in in vitro activity of acid SMase has been observed after applying multiple stress stimuli such as ultraviolet (UV ... Inhibition of ceramide synthesis in mice via drug treatments or gene-knockout techniques prevented insulin resistance induced ...
... used by Anderson and coworkers to predict mutations in the active site of a drug target that conferred resistance to a new drug ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Privett, HK; Kiss, G; Lee, TM; Blomberg, R; Chica, RA; Thomas, LM; Hilvert, D; ... Trends in Biochemical Sciences. 14 (7): 304-9. doi:10.1016/0968-0004(89)90070-4. PMID 2672455. Dahiyat, BI; Mayo, SL (October 3 ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Mendes, J; Guerois, R; Serrano, L (August 2002). "Energy estimation in protein ...
"Drug Resistance in the Microaerophilic Parasite Giardia lamblia". PubMed Central. Springer. doi:10.1007/s40475-015-0051-1. ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Joesoef, MR; Schmid, GP; Hillier, SL (Jan 1999). "Bacterial vaginosis: review of ... Gupta, N. K.; Woodley, C. L.; Fried, R. (1970). "Effect of metronidazole on liver alcohol dehydrogenase". Biochemical ... Common adverse drug reactions (≥1% of those treated with the drug) associated with systemic metronidazole therapy include: ...
Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase
"Overexpression of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase 3 Increases Drug Resistance and Early Recurrence in Colon Cancer". The American ... "Regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase activity through phosphorylation at multiple sites". Biochemical Journal. 358 (1): 69-77. ... Therefore, several drugs target PDK4 hoping to treat type II diabetes. PDK1 has shown to have increased activity in hypoxic ... Biochemical Journal. 329 (1): 191-6. PMC 1219031 . PMID 9405293. Korotchkina, Lioubov G.; Patel, Mulchand S. (2001). "Probing ...
However, resistance has developed against some drugs, as a result of mutational changes in DHFR itself. ... "The Biochemical Journal. 347 (Pt 2): 469-73. doi:10.1042/0264-6021:3470469. PMC 1220979. PMID 10749676.. ... Morandi C, Masters JN, Mottes M, Attardi G (April 1982). "Multiple forms of human dihydrofolate reductase messenger RNA. ... Methotrexate, a competitive inhibitor of DHFR, is one such anticancer drug that inhibits DHFR. Other drugs include ...
No biochemical assays directly demonstrating protein function have yet been published. It is likely that in vitro mechanistic ... The in vivo stability of bottromycin must be improved before it can be considered as a drug candidate. Work by Kobayashi and ... It was independently confirmed in 2012 by multiple groups that bottromycin is produced as a ribosomal peptide natural product ... The need to find new antibiotics to combat antibiotic resistance means that biologic and synthetic interest in bottromycin will ...
Simultaneous use of multiple drugs may add to the complexity. As in acetaminophen toxicity, well established, dose-dependent, ... in P-450 metabolism should be considered when patients exhibit unusual sensitivity or resistance to drug effects at normal ... Biochemical markers (e.g. alanine transferase, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin) are often used to indicate liver damage. ... Drug metabolism is usually divided into two phases: phase 1 and phase 2. Phase 1 reaction is thought to prepare a drug for ...
Gene pleiotropy occurs when a gene product interacts with multiple other proteins or catalyzes multiple reactions. ... as the mutation to Hb-S provides the fitness benefit of malaria resistance to heterozygotes, while homozygotes have ... "Genetic control of biochemical reactions in Neurospora" (PDF). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 27 (11): 499-506. doi:10.1073/pnas. ... For drug pleiotropy, see Pleiotropy (drugs).. Simple genotype-phenotype map that only shows additive pleiotropy effects. G1, G2 ...
CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link). *^ Saito Y, Liang G, Egger G, Friedman JM, Chuang JC, Coetzee GA, Jones PA ( ... response to drug. • DNA unwinding involved in DNA replication. • cellular response to hydroxyurea. • replication-born double- ... The Rad51-induced oocyte resistance to apoptosis is likely due to Rad51's central role in homologous recombinational repair of ... stabilizes the adjacent Rad51 filaments suggesting that cross-talk between these two recombinases may affect their biochemical ...
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Research foci: drug resistance; cancer genomics; tumor microenvironment; growth control in mammalian cells; transcriptional and ... thus setting investigators on a course to study the biochemical function of the gene. During World War Two, Demerec directed ... Multiple. Architectural style. Multiple. NRHP reference #. 94000198. Added to NRHP. March 30, 1994. ... In 2011, Christopher Vakoc discovers an important new drug target, BRD4, for a lethal form of Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML); ...
Petrified by the darkness once drug below, white-tailed eagles apparently offer no resistance once caught. However, habitat had ... Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 24 (7-8): 783-791. doi:10.1016/S0305-1978(96)00049-X.. . The authors' reservations about ... pairs of white-tailed eagles often build multiple nests on their home range over time and use them randomly over different ... but was immediately dragged into the water and soon surfaced dying with a broken wing. Similarly, in one anecdote, an ...
Bortezomib is used in the treatment of multiple myeloma. Notably, multiple myeloma has been observed to result in ... The biochemical mechanism that determines product length is not fully characterized. Although the three catalytic β ... Adams J (April 2003). "Potential for proteasome inhibition in the treatment of cancer". Drug Discovery Today. 8 (7): 307-15. ... cells expressing these proteasomes show enhanced resistance to toxicity induced by metallic ions such as cadmium. ...
a b c U.S. Food and Drug Administration: "Listing of Food Additives Status Part I". Archived from the original on January 17, ... "The Biochemical Journal. 26 (3): 865-70. Bibcode:1932Sci....75..357K. doi:10.1126/science.75.1944.357-a. PMC 1260981. PMID ... Plants use multiple pathways to synthesize vitamin C. The major pathway starts with glucose, fructose or mannose (all simple ... "Biosynthesis of Vitamin C by Yeast Leads to Increased Stress Resistance". PLOS ONE. 2 (10): e1092. doi:10.1371/journal.pone. ...
Whilst drug resistance typically involves microbes chemically inactivating an antimicrobial drug or a cell mechanically ... These machines perform multiple biochemical tests simultaneously, using cards with several wells containing different ... Biochemical tests. Fast and relatively simple biochemical tests can be used to identify infectious agents. For bacterial ... In addition to drugs being specific to a certain kind of organism (bacteria, fungi, etc.), some drugs are specific to a certain ...
CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Daly S, Owens R, Hartmann P; Owens; Hartmann (1993). "The short-term synthesis ... The electrical impulse then ascends the posterolateral tract for one or two vertebral levels and synapses with second-order ... Although biochemical markers indicate that Secretory Activation begins about 30-40 hours after birth, mothers do not typically ... Lactation can be induced in humans by a combination of physical and psychological stimulation, by drugs, or by a combination of ...
سرطان پروستات - ویکیپدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
Seruga B, Ocana A, Tannock IF (January 2011). "Drug resistance in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer". Nature ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link). *^ "WHO Disease and injury country estimates". World Health Organization. 2009 ... "Validity of the CAPRA score to predict biochemical recurrence-free survival after radical prostatectomy. Results from a ... "FDA approves new drug for advanced prostate cancer" (Press release). Food and Drug Administration. 15 May 2013. Archived from ...
There is also concern with respect to the numerous well-established interactions of herbs and drugs. In consultation with a ... Multiple factors such as gender, age, ethnicity, education and social class are also shown to have association with prevalence ... but even products made to the same specification may differ as a result of biochemical variations within a species of plant.[44 ... believing that plants are subject to environmental pressures and therefore develop resistance to threats such as radiation, ...
Regulation of genetic engineering
CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link). *^ Hutt, P.B. (1978). "Research on recombinant DNA molecules: the regulatory ... The goal would be to compare overall the biochemical profile of a new food to an existing food to see if the new food's profile ... The manufacturer's data is then assessed by a regulatory agency, such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. That data, ... Can be used for introducing disease resistance in GM breeds.. *Used to create manufacturing products for industry use. ...
... a promising drug target against inflammatory diseases-biochemical and pharmacological regulation". Current Drug Targets. 15 (4 ... Ding XZ, Tong WG, Adrian TE (2003). "Multiple signal pathways are involved in the mitogenic effect of 5(S)-HETE in human ... ALOX5 gene knockout mice demonstrate an enhanced resistance and lessened pathology to Brucella abortus infection and, at ... As a second drug added to corticosteroids, leukotriene inhibitors appear inferior to Beta2-adrenergic agonist drugs in the ...
Other drugs. Main article: Antiparkinson medication. Other drugs such as amantadine and anticholinergics may be useful as ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link). *^ Barreto, George E.; Iarkov, Alexander; Moran, Valentina Echeverria (January ... Rigidity is stiffness and resistance to limb movement caused by increased muscle tone, an excessive and continuous contraction ... The underlying biochemical changes in the brain were identified in the 1950s, due largely to the work of Arvid Carlsson on the ...
CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link). *^ AJ Giannini. Drug Abuse. Los Angeles, Health Information Press, 1999, pp.203 ... Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 306 (2): 544-9. doi:10.1016/S0006-291X(03)00991-4. PMID 12804599.. ... fatigue resistance, and increased muscle strength. ... Drug. production. and trade. Drug. production. *Coca production ... Research, Center for Drug Evaluation and. "Drug Safety and Availability - FDA Drug Safety Communication: Safety Review Update ...
Malaria antigen detection tests
The multiple roles of glutamate in nitrogen balance make it a gateway between free ammonia and the amino groups of most amino ... An accurate diagnosis is becoming more and more important, in view of the increasing resistance of Plasmodium falciparum and ... a putative target for novel antimalarial drugs". J Mol Biol. 349 (3): 597-607. doi:10.1016/j.jmb.2005.03.077. PMID 15878595.. ... Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology. 4 (5-6): 255-264. doi:10.1016/0166-6851(81)90058-X. PMID 7038478.. ...
Drug candidates. Tirilazad is an antioxidant steroid derivative that inhibits the lipid peroxidation that is believed to ... Davies KJ (1995). "Oxidative stress: the paradox of aerobic life". Biochemical Society Symposium. 61: 1-31. doi:10.1042/ ... This detoxification pathway is the result of multiple enzymes, with superoxide dismutases catalysing the first step and then ... a function that is particularly important in stress resistance in plants. Ascorbic acid is present at high levels in all ...
Sometimes, multiple antibiotics are used in case there is resistance to one antibiotic. Antibiotics only work for bacteria and ... Biochemical tests. Biochemical tests used in the identification of infectious agents include the detection of metabolic ... When infection attacks the body, anti-infective drugs can suppress the infection. Several broad types of anti-infective drugs ... Gerhard Domagk developed sulphonamides, the first broad spectrum synthetic antibacterial drugs. Medical specialists. The ...
... inhibitors are attractive targets for cancer therapy because they are less toxic and less likely to lead to drug resistance ... Through binding to VEGFR and other VEGF receptors in endothelial cells, VEGF can trigger multiple cellular responses like ... Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 330 (1): 46-52. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2005.02.116. PMID 15781230.. ... General side effects of drugs. Bleeding. Bleeding is one of the most difficult side effects to manage this ...
"Drug resistance and pseudoresistance: an unintended consequence of enteric coating aspirin". Circulation (published 4 December ... Alfonso LF, Srivenugopal KS, Bhat GJ (2009). "Does aspirin acetylate multiple cellular proteins? (Review)". Molecular Medicine ... Grootveld M, Halliwell B (January 1988). "2,3-Dihydroxybenzoic acid is a product of human aspirin metabolism". Biochemical ... Ravina E (2011). The Evolution of Drug Discovery: From Traditional Medicines to Modern Drugs. John Wiley & Sons. p. 24. ISBN ...
Ehrlich popularized the concepts of "magic bullet" drugs and of systematically improving drug therapies. His laboratory ... Physical characteristics, such as hardness, density, mechanical or tensile strength, abrasion resistance, heat resistance, ... The multiple-step synthesis of complex organic compounds is called total synthesis. Total synthesis of complex natural ... Additionally, they are prevalent in a wide range of biochemical compounds such as alkaloids, vitamins, steroids, and nucleic ...
Drug Target Delivery System Disease Phase Status Company Identifier ALN-VSP02 KSP and VEGF LNP Solid tumours I Completed ... Recent evidence suggests that resistance to RNAi could be broad-spectrum, meaning that resistance to one sequence could confer ... Combining multiple strategies, such as engineering the protein Cry, derived from a bacterium called Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt ... Zhao Y, Srivastava D (April 2007). "A developmental view of microRNA function". Trends in Biochemical Sciences. 32 (4): 189-97 ...
For streamlined swimmers the resistance or drag determines the performance of the organism. This drag or resistance can be seen ... Fit this to a power curve (depending on the stats program, this can be done multiple ways), and it will give an equation with ... Many physiological and biochemical processes (such as heart rate, respiration rate or the maximum reproduction rate) show ... Drug dose scalingEdit. The physiological effect of drugs and other substances in many cases scales allometrically. ...
... tTG expression is elevated in multiple cancer cell types and is implicated in drug resistance and metastasis due to its ability ... "The Biochemical Journal. 368 (Pt 2): 377-96. doi:10.1042/BJ20021234. PMC 1223021. PMID 12366374.. ... Hitomi K, Kojima S, Fesus L (2015). Transglutaminases : multiple functional modifiers and targets for new drug discovery. Tokyo ... "The Biochemical Journal. 373 (Pt 3): 793-803. doi:10.1042/BJ20021084. PMC 1223550. PMID 12737632.. ...
Bed bug control techniques
"Biochemical and Molecular Analysis of Deltamethrin Resistance in the Common Bed Bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)" Journal of Medical ... Drugs. Early research shows that the common drug taken to get rid of parasitic worms, ivermectin (Stromectol), also kills ... the pesticide approach often requires multiple visits and may not always be effective due to pesticide resistance and dispersal ... Pesticide resistance. Bed bugs are largely resistant to various pesticides including DDT and organophosphates. ...
Magnesium in biology
Importance in drug bindingEdit. An article investigating the structural basis of interactions between clinically relevant ... The chemical and biochemical properties of Mg2+ present the cellular system with a significant challenge when transporting the ... Hope, A. B.; Stevens, P. G. (1952). "Electrical potential differences in bean roots on their relation to salt uptake". ... multiple simultaneous interactions with the transport protein at this level might significantly retard the ion in the transport ...
Mir-181 microRNA precursor
miR-181 could acquire a resistance to tamoxifen, the drug is successfully used to treat women with estrogen receptor-positive ... MiRNA signature for multiple myeloma (MM) has been described, including miR-181a and miR-181b, which modulate the expression of ... Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 334 (4): 1351-8. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2005.07.030. PMID 16039986. Conti A, ... These effects are achieved in part by downregulation of multiple phosphatases, which leads to high levels of steadystate ...
ATP-binding cassette transporter
... family is responsible for multiple drug resistance (MDR) against a variety of structurally unrelated drugs. ABCB1 or MDR1 P- ... There is strong biochemical evidence that binding of two ATP molecules can be cooperative, that is, ATP must bind to the two ... Drug Resistance ATPase-1 (Drug RA1) (Putative) Drug Resistance ATPase-2 (Drug RA2) Macrolide Exporter (MacB) Peptide-4 Exporter ... Bacterial drug resistance has become an increasingly major health problem. One of the mechanisms for drug resistance is ...
Rudenski AS, Matthews DR, Levy JC, Turner RC (September 1991). "Understanding "insulin resistance": both glucose resistance and ... Many drugs to combat diabetes are aimed at modifying the function of the beta cell. ... Wang Z, Gleichmann H (January 1998). "GLUT2 in pancreatic islets: crucial target molecule in diabetes induced with multiple low ... Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 179 (1): 1-9. doi:10.1016/0006-291X(91)91325-7. PMID 1679326.. ...
Defects often affect the operation of the mitochondria and multiple tissues more severely, leading to multi-system diseases. ... They may also be the result of acquired mitochondrial dysfunction due to adverse effects of drugs, infections, or other ... explored the role of mitochondria in insulin resistance among the offspring of patients with type 2 diabetes. Other studies ... between the energy generated by the mitochondria and the glycogen capacity is very loose and is mediated by many biochemical ...
Drug Resistance As a Biochemical Target in Cancer Chemotherapy - 1st Edition
Purchase Drug Resistance As a Biochemical Target in Cancer Chemotherapy - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780127022956 ... Flexible - Read on multiple operating systems and devices. Easily read eBooks on smart phones, computers, or any eBook readers ... Drug Resistance As a Biochemical Target in Cancer Chemotherapy 1st Edition. Write a review ... Drug Resistance as a Biochemical Target in Cancer Chemotherapy covers the proceedings of the 13th Bristol-Myers Squibb ...
Combined phylogeny and neighborhood analysis of the evolution of the ABC transporters conferring multiple drug resistance in...
We have analyzed the complex evolution of the pleiotropic drug resistance proteins (Pdrp) subfamily where gene duplications and ... Pleiotropic Drug Resistant transporters (PDR) are members of the ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) subfamily which export antifungals ... Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 1995, 213: 410-418. 10.1006/bbrc.1995.2147.View ArticlePubMedGoogle ... Leonard PJ, Rathod PK, Golin J: Loss of Function Mutation in the Yeast Multiple-Drug Resistance Gene Pdr5 Causes A Reduction in ...
Trade-offs with stability modulate innate and mutationally acquired drug resistance in bacterial dihydrofolate reductase...
Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Biochemical Journal Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see this ... Enter multiple addresses on separate lines or separate them with commas.. You are going to email the following Trade-offs with ... During the evolution of antibiotic resistance, mutations that confer drug resistance often have pleiotropic effects on the ... stability and function can influence innate drug resistance as well as the potential for mutationally acquired drug resistance ...
Expression of human glutathione S-transferases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae confers resistance to the anticancer drugs...
Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Biochemical Journal Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see this ... Enter multiple addresses on separate lines or separate them with commas.. You are going to email the following Expression of ... These data provide direct evidence that the over-expression of GST in cells can confer resistance to anticancer drugs. ... Expression of human glutathione S-transferases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae confers resistance to the anticancer drugs ...
Multiple drug resistance patterns in various phylogenetic groups of uropathogenic E.coli isolated from Faisalabad region of...
A total of 59 isolates were identified by conventional biochemical identification on TSI slants and confirmed by targeting uidA ... Multiple drug resistance patterns in various phylogenetic groups of uropathogenic E.coli isolated from Faisalabad region of ... Drug sensitivity of different phylogenetic groups. The results of drug resistance according to phylogenetic groups are shown in ... As was the case for other drugs, group D was dominant in level of drug resistance. Similar studies indicating relative efficacy ...
The Influence of Coordinate Overexpression of Glutathione Phase II Detoxification Gene Products on Drug Resistance | Journal of...
Data from multiple biochemical or cytotoxicity assays were compared by ANOVA analysis followed by Dunnetts multiple comparison ... or MRP1 enhanced resistance to a number of anticancer drugs. Cotransfection of GSTπ and GCS, gave higher resistance to ... many cell lines selected for resistance to drugs that are part of the MRP1 resistance profile also have increased GSTπ (Tew, ... increase in resistance. The multiple transfectants show some degree of additivity with an approximate 5-fold resistance ...
JCI - Destabilizing NEK2 overcomes resistance to proteasome inhibition in multiple myeloma
Targeting NEK2 overcomes acquired drug resistance in vivo. To correlate endogenous NEK2 levels with drug resistance, we ... Using systemic biochemical in vitro and in vivo approaches, we uncovered NEK2 interacting proteins and determined the mechanism ... Molecular mechanisms in multiple myeloma drug resistance. J Clin Pathol. 2016;69(2):97-101.. View this article via: PubMed ... Because NEK2 confers drug resistance, we tested if NEK2 depletion, using P5091 or INH1, could overcome drug resistance in vivo ...
Cancers | Free Full-Text | Cisplatin as an Anti-Tumor Drug: Cellular Mechanisms of Activity, Drug Resistance and Induced Side...
While a combination-chemotherapy with cisplatin is a cornerstone for the treatment of multiple cancers, the challenge is that ... Thus, understanding of the biochemical mechanisms triggered by cisplatin in tumor cells may lead to the design of more ... Numerous mechanisms of cisplatin resistance were described including changes in cellular uptake, drug efflux, increased ... To minimize cisplatin resistance, combinatorial therapies were developed and have proven more effective to defeat cancers. ...
Aryl Amides Do Not Lead to the Development of Drug Resistance.. When the brains of IND24-treated mice were used to infect CAD5 ... from multiple brain regions of multiple animals enabled direct comparisons. Brains of mice treated with compound 1 had higher ... Biochemical Analysis.. Frozen brains were thawed, and 10% (wt/vol) homogenates were prepared in PBS by bead beater. Detergent ... 2013) Drug resistance confounding prion therapeutics. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 110:E4160-E4169. ...
Selective induction of chemotherapy resistance of mammary tumors in a conditional mouse model for hereditary breast cancer |...
Classical biochemical resistance mechanisms, such as up-regulated drug transporters, appear to be responsible for doxorubicin ... The tumors also respond well to cisplatin but do not become resistant, even after multiple treatments in which tumors appear to ... apoptosis resistance in explaining multidrug resistance against natural product drugs (9-15). ... A hallmark of doxorubicin resistance mediated by P-glycoprotein is cross-resistance to taxanes, because other biochemical ...
Drug resistance - Wikipedia
The chances of drug resistance can sometimes be minimized by using multiple drugs simultaneously. This works because individual ... "Biochemical and Molecular Analysis of Deltamethrin Resistance in the Common Bed Bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)". Journal of Medical ... Tolerance and Resistance Cosmetics Database HCMV drug resistance mutations tool Combating Drug Resistance - An informative ... "Drug resistance develops naturally, but careless practices in drug supply and use are hastening it unnecessarily." - Center for ...
P450 Enzyme Expression Patterns in the NCI Human Tumor Cell Line Panel | Drug Metabolism & Disposition
... that multiple biochemical changes in MDR cells need not correspond to multiple functional determinants for drug resistance. J ... 1995) Generation of a drug resistance profile by quantitation of mdr-1/P- glycoprotein in the cell lines of the National Cancer ... P450 enzyme profiling may thus aid in interpreting the patterns of drug sensitivity and resistance in the NCI tumor cell panel ... In contrast, a negative PCC implies that greater activity of the target enzyme may confer cellular resistance to the given drug ...
Frontiers | Multiple Myeloma Cells Express Key Immunoregulatory Cytokines and Modulate the Monocyte Migratory Response |...
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell disorder that still remains incurable. The immune dysfunction of the host is a striking ... Multiple Myeloma (MM) is a plasma-cell disorder that still remains incurable. The immune dysfunction of the host is a striking ... drug resistance, and tumor-cell migration (2). Over the last decade, several biochemical studies have been conducted with human ... Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell disorder that still remains incurable. The immune dysfunction of the host is a striking ...
Evaluation of Contamination of Hands of the Medical Students in a Medical Teaching Tertiary Care Hospital
Most of the time these potential pathogens exhibit multiple drug resistance. Aim: In view of the above factors, this study was ... Bacterial isolates were identified till species level by performing gram staining and biochemical reactions. Antibiotic ... 1 isolate showed Inducible Clindamycin Resistance (iMLSB phenotype) and 6 isolates showed complete resistance to erythromycin ... and clindamycin (constitutive MLSB phenotype). 1 Staphylococcus aureus which was Inducible Clindamycin Resistance (iMLSB ...
William S. Dalton - Wikipedia
Multiple roles for 14-3-3 proteins in nucleo-cytoplasmic transport | Biochemical Society Transactions | Portland Press
H+-ATPase impair the preferential accumulation of daunomycin in lysosomes and reverse the resistance to anthracyclines in drug- ... Multiple roles for 14-3-3 proteins in nucleo-cytoplasmic transport A. Brunet; A. Brunet ... A. Brunet, F. Kanai, J. Stehn, M. E. Greenberg, M. B. Yaffe; Multiple roles for 14-3-3 proteins in nucleo-cytoplasmic transport ...
Polymorphic Exact Tandem Repeat A (PETRA): a Newly Defined Lineage of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Israel Originating...
We also use the commercial strip test to screen for multiple-drug-resistant status (resistance to both isoniazid and rifampin [ ... Strains with MTC biochemical and physiological characteristics were confirmed as MTC by the AccuProbe (GenProbe) test. Since ... These are (i) the multiple drug resistance-associated Beijing family strains (unpublished data), primarily from former Soviet ... Drug sensitivity test results. No PETRA lineage member was multiple drug resistant (resistant to at least both isoniazid and ...
Multidrug-Resistant Atypical Variants of Shigella flexneri in China - Volume 19, Number 7-July 2013 - Emerging Infectious...
... including 92 strains with multidrug resistance, distinct pulse types, and a novel sequence type. Atypical varieties were ... but the indole-negative variety had different biochemical reactions, more serious drug resistance, and different ST and PTs. ... All variant strains were identified as ST100, a new ST containing multiple other serotypes (e.g., 1a, 2a, 2b, and Y). This ... Antimicrobial drug resistance profiles of variant serotypes of Shigella flexneri isolates recovered from patients with diarrhea ...
Oxford Brookes University
National Polytechnic Institute (IPN). "New biotechnologies to overcome multiple drug resistance in cancer cells". Mexico City, ... Trends in Biochemical Sciences 31 (12) (2006) pp.654-661. ISSN: 0968-0004 eISSN: 0167-7640 Abstract Casein kinase 2 (CK2) is ... Nanoparticles are one class of nanomaterial with multiple applications in medicine, ranging from their use as drug delivery ... Current Cancer Drug Targets 8 (22) (2009) pp.3631-3635. ISSN: 1568-0096 Abstract The mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) ...
By using multiple maspin-transfected cell lines in vitro, we obtained cellular, molecular, and biochemical evidence that ... Results of this study suggest that re-expression of maspin in tumor cells may reverse or reduce drug resistance. It is ... a barrier for designing apoptosis-based therapies is that many types of tumors manifest a substantial drug resistance because ... In summary, our biochemical and molecular analyses identified Bax as a key effector of maspin in the regulation of cellular ...
Reversal of P-glycoprotein-mediated MDR by 5,7,3',4',5'-pentamethoxyflavone and SAR. - NextBio article
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug Drug Resistance, Multiple Enzyme Activation Flavonoids Humans Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute P- ... Biochemical and biophysical research communications. 2004 Jul 30;320(3):672-9 ... PMF appears to have a chemosensitizing effect not only by increasing the intracellular accumulation of the drugs without ... and of having a low possibility of drug interactions at the azidopine-binding site of Pgp. ...
Antifolate-resistant mutants of Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase | PNAS
Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 2002 119 1 *. Tolerance is the key to understanding antimalarial drug resistance ... Indigenous evolution of Plasmodium falciparum pyrimethamine resistance multiple times in Africa. T. Mita, K. Tanabe, N. ... Assessment of drug resistance associated genetic diversity in Mauritanian isolates of Plasmodium vivax reveals limited ... Understanding the Pyrimethamine Drug Resistance Mechanism via Combined Molecular Dynamics and Dynamic Residue Network Analysis ...
DCU Faculties and Centres: School of Biotechnology - DORAS - DCU
Larkin, Anne-marie (2002) The expression of multiple drug resistance (MDR) associated proteins in invasive breast cancer. PhD ... Kilbane, Zelda (2006) A molecular and biochemical study of two recombinant mammalian pyroglutamyl peptidases type 1. PhD thesis ... Redmond, Alice (1991) Multiple drug resistance in human tumor cell lines. PhD thesis, Dublin City University. ... ODriscoll, Lorraine (1994) Investigation of mechanisms of multiple drug resistance using polymerase chain reaction. PhD thesis ...
Dodging antibiotic resistance by curbing bacterial evolution | EurekAlert! Science News
This action speeds antibiotic resistance, including multi-drug resistance. Working on drugs to block Mfd and similar factors ... One target for drug development might be a protein factor, DNA translocase Mfd, that enables bacteria to evolve rapidly by ... also think that Mfds ability to promote multiple mutations may be significant in the development of multi-drug resistance. ... Or it could interfere with other biochemical pathways for fixing DNA. The evolutionary assays in this study tried to mimic the ...
Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - Ci ncia e Sa de desde 1900
Multiple P2X and P2Y receptor subtypes in mouse J774, spleen and peritoneal macrophages. Biochemical Farmacology, 69 (4):641- ... Human Imunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) genotyping in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: assessing subtype and drug-resistance ... Biochemical Genetics 43: 519-530.. Paes MV, Pinhao AT, Barreto DF, Costa SM, Oliveira MP, Nogueira AC, Takiya CM, Farias-Filho ... Drugs, 14 (8): 957-972.. Souza CMOCC, Abrantes SMP, Cavados CFG 2005. Avalia o microsc pica do caf torrado e mo do ...
Insulin Resistance: Practice Essentials, Pathophysiology, Etiology
Insulin resistance is a state in which a given concentration of insulin produces a less-than-expected biological effect. (See ... European Group for the study of Insulin Resistance (EGIR). Drugs. 1999. 58 Suppl 1:7-10; discussion 75-82. [Medline]. ... The clinical heterogeneity can be explained, at least in part, on a biochemical basis. Insulin binds and acts mainly through ... Low-dose glucocorticoid treatment affects multiple aspects of intermediary metabolism in healthy humans: a randomised ...
Targeting cancer cells by ROS-mediated mechanisms: a radical therapeutic approach?
... and recent studies suggest that this biochemical property of cancer cells can be exploited for therapeutic benefits. Cancer ... the upregulation of antioxidant capacity in adaptation to intrinsic oxidative stress in cancer cells can confer drug resistance ... Cancer cells in advanced stage tumours frequently exhibit multiple genetic alterations and high oxidative stress, suggesting ... and recent studies suggest that this biochemical property of cancer cells can be exploited for therapeutic benefits. ...
ABCG2: does resolving its structure elucidate the mechanism? | Biochemical Society Transactions
multidrug resistance; MRP, multidrug resistance-associated protein; NBD, nucleotide-binding domain; P-gp, P-glycoprotein; SUR, ... ABCG2 is one of a few human membrane transporters which display the amazing ability to transport multiple different chemicals ... These multidrug pumps, which have orthologues in all organisms, are important in humans in the context of drug pharmacokinetics ... breast cancer resistance protein; CFTR, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator; ECD, extracellular domain; EM, ...
Dodging antibiotic resistance by curbing bacterial evolution
With many disease-causing bacteria ratcheting up their shields against current drugs, new tactics are vital to protect people ... also think that Mfds ability to promote multiple mutations may be significant in the development of multi-drug resistance. ... Or it could interfere with other biochemical pathways for fixing DNA.. The evolutionary assays in this study tried to mimic the ... Non-antibiotic drugs also speed up the spread of antibiotic resistance. November 16, 2018 New research from The University of ...
Frontiers | The Role of Antibiotic-Target-Modifying and Antibiotic-Modifying Enzymes in Mycobacterium abscessus Drug Resistance...
Among rapidly growing NTM, Mycobacterium abscessus is the most pathogenic and drug resistant opportunistic germ, responsible ... Among rapidly growing NTM, Mycobacterium abscessus is the most pathogenic and drug resistant opportunistic germ, responsible ... structural and biochemical characterization of M. tuberculosis Eis revealed its unprecedented ability to acetylate multiple ... Drug resistance in M. abscessus is conferred by an assortment of mechanisms. Clinically acquired drug resistance is normally ...
MolecularPathwaysPharmacologyGeneticMutationsChemotherapyPhysiologicalMechanismConventional biochemical testsSusceptibilityResistantAnticancerAntibioticsAntimicrobial agentsApoptosisPathogensPathwayBiophysical researchVarious biochemicalEnzymeSociety TransactionsTumor cell linesIntrinsicAntibiotic resistance in mycobacteriumInhibitionMorphologicalGeneTherapeuticTargetsPhenotypicCellsApproachesEmergence of antibiotic resistanceMechanisms of antibiotic resistanceMicrobialMycobacteriumParasitologyPathogenicEfflux pumpsDeterminantsTumorsToxicity
- To investigate the development of chemotherapy resistance of sporadic mouse tumors, we chose the K14cre;Brca1 F/F ;p53 F/F mouse model for hereditary breast cancer, because it shares key morphologic and molecular features with BRCA1-associated breast cancer in humans ( 17 ). (pnas.org)
- Our cellular, molecular, and biochemical studies demonstrate an essential role of Bax in the proapoptotic effect of maspin. (aacrjournals.org)
- Mark N. Ragheb, an M.D./Ph.D. student at the University of Washington School of Medicine, is the lead author of a Molecular Cell paper on the search for anti-evolution drugs to. (eurekalert.org)
- This article reviews the currently elucidated molecular mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in M. abscessus , with a focus on its drug-target-modifying and drug-modifying enzymes. (frontiersin.org)
- Targeted inhibition of the molecular chaperone Hsp90 results in the coordinated blockade of multiple oncogenic signaling pathways in tumor cells and has thus emerged as an attractive avenue for therapeutic intervention in human malignancies. (aacrjournals.org)
- Intensive research into the underlying biologic and molecular basis of NSCLCs has provided critical insights into essential oncogenic pathways that become dysregulated during tumorigenesis and, in turn, has identified important targets for drug development. (aacrjournals.org)
- Therefore, CRISPR locus was investigated following various biochemical and molecular analysis of those bacterial isolates. (scirp.org)
- A focus is placed on the structural similarities and differences of these drug transporters as well as the molecular determinants of their substrate specificities and transport activities. (eurekaselect.com)
- A. Haimeur, G. Conseil, R. G. Deeley and S. P.C. Cole, " (Section A: Molecular, Structural, and Cellular Biology of Drug Transporters) The MRP-Related and BCRP / ABCG2 Multidrug Resistance Proteins: Biology, Substrate Specificity and Regulation", Current Drug Metabolism (2004) 5: 21. (eurekaselect.com)
- To characterize the molecular bases of the patient's relapse, circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) was collected longitudinally during treatment, and a tissue biopsy, obtained before entrectinib treatment, was transplanted in mice (xenopatient), which then received the same entrectinib regimen until resistance developed. (aacrjournals.org)
- Molecular heterogeneity impairs their efficacy by fuelling de novo and acquired resistance. (aacrjournals.org)
- Gaining new knowledge on fatty acid metabolism will not only provide fundamental insight into the molecular bases of Leishmania pathogenesis but also reveal new targets for selective drugs. (hindawi.com)
- We combine novel proteomic approaches, including microfluidics platforms, with molecular virology, biochemical, and genomic approaches to achieve these goals. (stanford.edu)
- Through biochemical and molecular analysis of clinical material, we find that drug resistance is associated with the reactivation of BCR-ABL signal transduction in all cases examined. (sciencemag.org)
- With the advent of new drugs that target specific molecular abnormalities, it is important to know whether the initial oncogenic event continues to play a functional role at later stages of tumor progression and at relapse with the development of chemotherapy resistance. (sciencemag.org)
- The BCR-ABL oncogene is expressed at all stages, but blast crisis is characterized by multiple additional genetic and molecular changes. (sciencemag.org)
- Methicillin resistance in staphylococci: molecular and biochemical basis and clinical implications. (asm.org)
- In addition to such global findings, the study provides new insights into the detailed inner workings of the brain at the molecular level the level at which diseases unfold and therapeutic drugs take action. (bio-medicine.org)
- Sirt1‑Foxp3 signaling-mediated regulation of Bax and p21 mRNA expression was a signature molecular event in TPC1 cells, which showed remarkable resistance to etoposide-induced genotoxic stress. (spandidos-publications.com)
- The drugs bypass healthy cells, accumulate inside tumor cells and attack molecular targets that enable cancer cells to grow and spread. (healthcanal.com)
- The researchers reported in their recent studies, published in a recent issue of Cancer Research, that the new drug carried multiple molecular components, each with a distinct role. (healthcanal.com)
- Nanoconjugates are the latest evolution of molecular drugs designed to enter cells and alter defined targets within them. (healthcanal.com)
- Classical biochemical resistance mechanisms, such as up-regulated drug transporters, appear to be responsible for doxorubicin resistance, rather than alterations in drug-damage effector pathways. (pnas.org)
- Or it could interfere with other biochemical pathways for fixing DNA. (phys.org)
- In addition, this pathway has been shown to cross-talk with mitogenic pathways at multiple levels. (biochemsoctrans.org)
- By investigating pathways of infection and disease development, his team hopes to find natural product compounds with potential as drug scaffolds for new anti-malaria drugs. (ufl.edu)
- Dinglasan's lab wants to preempt eventual drug resistance by focusing on novel biochemical pathways in the parasite that can be targeted by natural product compounds. (ufl.edu)
- Remarkably, although the mechanisms of resistance are genetically heterogeneous, they biochemically converge on key signaling pathways. (aacrjournals.org)
- In this review, we highlight how genetically distinct resistance mechanisms biochemically converge on a limited number of signaling pathways that can be therapeutically intercepted. (aacrjournals.org)
- 8 Mutations in these pathways associated with cell death are responsible for the most common causes of PTX resistance. (dovepress.com)
- Several mechanisms causing primary resistance have been proposed, including quiescence of leukemic progenitor cells ( 13 ), drug efflux ( 14 ), mutations in the imatinib-binding kinase domain ( 15 ), or the activation of alternative pathways, including MAPK ( 16 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Biochemical studies showed inhibition of Ras/Raf/MAPK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathways leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis ( 17 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- In order therefore to use the available financial and patient resource wisely, it is crucial to identify the key important pathways in oncogenesis that in turn may help and prioritize the drugs with the most promise. (intechopen.com)
- Over the years, specific cell-types, multiple genes and biochemical pathways have been reported to contribute to the process of resistance. (cdrjournal.com)
- Further in-depth studies on these miRNAs and the genes and biochemical pathways they regulate will reveal novel and important mechanisms of resistance that may be inhibited to prevent or overcome resistance. (cdrjournal.com)
- Blockage of these respiratory pathways together with inhibition of the uncoupling protein (another potential target for drug design) could lead to increased production of reactive oxygen species, dysfunction of Candida mitochondria, and possibly to oxidative cell death. (scielo.br)
- As natural products, they provide challenging intellectual exercises and surprises with respect to their chemical nature, biosynthetic pathways, evolution, and biochemical mode of action ( 26 , 134 ). (asm.org)
- The first two parts discuss the genetic aspects of multidrug resistance and the proteins involved in drug resistance. (elsevier.com)
- In other aspects of their project, the scientists reported that Mfd depends on certain other proteins that work on the bacteria's genetic machinery in order to carry out its job in antibiotic resistance. (eurekalert.org)
- The mechanisms responsible for insulin resistance syndromes include genetic or primary target cell defects, autoantibodies to insulin, and accelerated insulin degradation. (medscape.com)
- Cancer cells in advanced stage tumours frequently exhibit multiple genetic alterations and high oxidative stress, suggesting that it might be possible to preferentially eliminate these cells by pharmacological ROS insults. (nih.gov)
- MDR sublines have been derived from the J774.2 mouse macrophage-like cell line and utilized to characterize the phenotype at the biochemical and genetic level. (elsevier.com)
- To gain insights into whether other genetic loci contribute to WhiB7-mediated antibiotic resistance, a transposon library of Mycobacterium smegmatis was screened for WhiB7-like drug susceptibility or resistance. (ubc.ca)
- Dorval-Courchesne NM, Parisien A, Wang B. and Lan CQ*, Enhancement of lipid production using biochemical, genetic and transcriptional factor engineering approaches: the promises and challenges, J Biotechnol. (openwetware.org)
- Current Research and Scholarly Interests My lab's goals are to better understand virus-host protein interactions, identify host partners conservatively required by multiple viruses, and develop broad-spectrum host-centered antiviral approaches with a high genetic barrier for resistance. (stanford.edu)
- Scientists at the Allen Institute for Brain Science reported in the latest issue of the journal Nature that human brains share a consistent genetic blueprint and possess enormous biochemical complexity. (bio-medicine.org)
- We have been studying the mechanisms underlying antifungal drug resistance using the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe as a model organism, since it shares many features with some pathogenic fungi and is amenable to genetic analysis. (asm.org)
- have used a range of genetic and biochemical approaches to better understand the production of heme molecules in Plasmodium -infected red blood cells. (elifesciences.org)
- Clinical and haemodynamic classifications have been updated using new evidence on genetic and drug causes. (news-medical.net)
- The genetic data presented here indicate that defects in NADH oxidation cause all of the mutant traits and that an increase in the NADH/NAD + ratio confers INH resistance. (asm.org)
- The phenotype for pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SACE) was discovered in 1973 by R ANK and B ECH -H ANSEN [ 1 ], who reported that single gene mutations were responsible for resistance to multiple drugs of different chemical structures and different targets. (biomedcentral.com)
- Also, the data acquired in this research project seem to show that the role of Mfd in increasing mutations and promoting antibiotic resistance is highly conserved across bacterial species, and is not specific to only a few types of pathogens. (eurekalert.org)
- Combining antibiotics with an anti-evolution drug that reduces the rate of mutations in the pathogen might be one strategy against the development of antimicrobial resistance. (phys.org)
- Exactly how Mfd encourages mutations and antibiotic resistance is still unclear. (phys.org)
- We describe for the first time that p.G595R and p.G667C TRKA mutations drive acquired resistance to entrectinib in colorectal cancers carrying NTRK1 rearrangements. (aacrjournals.org)
- Mutations in KRAS , NRAS , and BRAF and amplification of ERBB2 and MET drive primary ( de novo ) resistance to anti-EGFR treatment. (aacrjournals.org)
- We report the emergence of polyclonal KRAS, NRAS, and BRAF mutations in CRC cells with acquired resistance to EGFR blockade. (sciencemag.org)
- Mutations disrupting any one of the regions led to an inability of WhiB7 to activate resistance. (ubc.ca)
- This photodynamic strategy has the advantage of exploiting host enzymes refractory to resistance-conferring mutations. (elifesciences.org)
- Mutations in inhA also confer resistance to a second drug, ethionamide (ETH), that is a closely related chemical analog of INH ( 3 , 15 ). (asm.org)
- We propose that the increased NADH concentration causes INH resistance by two mechanisms: it may interfere with KatG-mediated peroxidation of the drug (like the ahpC promoter mutations), and/or it may displace the INH-NAD adduct from the InhA active site. (asm.org)
- Drug Resistance as a Biochemical Target in Cancer Chemotherapy covers the proceedings of the 13th Bristol-Myers Squibb Symposium on Cancer Research, entitled ''Drug Resistance as a Biochemical Target in Cancer Chemotherapy'', hosted by the Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research in Tokyo. (elsevier.com)
- This part also considers the alternative clinical approaches against drug failure, including non-crosss-resistant therapies, autologous bone marrow transplantation, dose-intensive therapy, and high-dose chemotherapy. (elsevier.com)
- While a combination-chemotherapy with cisplatin is a cornerstone for the treatment of multiple cancers, the challenge is that cancer cells could become cisplatin-resistant. (mdpi.com)
- This can be seen in cancerous tumors where some cells may develop resistance to the drugs used in chemotherapy. (wikipedia.org)
- These multidrug pumps, which have orthologues in all organisms, are important in humans in the context of drug pharmacokinetics, especially with respect to resistance to chemotherapy. (biochemsoctrans.org)
- Doxil, also known as doxorubicin HCl liposome injection or pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD), is a chemotherapy drug used in cancer treatment. (themmrf.org)
- It is a reformulated version of doxorubicin (Adriamycin), a cancer drug that has been used for many years in traditional chemotherapy regimens in multiple myeloma. (themmrf.org)
- Like many other chemotherapy drugs, Doxil can have a number of different side effects. (themmrf.org)
- Understanding the mechanistic basis and identification of robust biomarkers to predict collateral sensitivity may inform optimal use of chemotherapy in patients receiving multiple lines of treatment. (surrey.ac.uk)
- Mycobacterium tuberculosis is exquisitely sensitive to the drug isoniazid (INH), and this sensitivity has made INH the core of tuberculosis chemotherapy and prophylaxis since the early 1950s ( 1 , 37 ). (asm.org)
- The chemotherapy currently used against these fungi has a number of deficiencies such as low specificity, toxicity, and drug resistance. (scielo.br)
- Is drug-induced toxicity a good predictor of response to neo-adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer? (biomedcentral.com)
- In cases where the drug target is altered, the clinical relevance of the identified resistance mechanism is often unambiguous. (pnas.org)
- In summary, this study is the first to show the mechanism of resistance to menoctone and that menoctone and atovaquone resistance is transmissible through mosquitoes. (asm.org)
- PTX-sensitive cells die by a mechanism known as mitotic catastrophe, a biochemical event characterized by slow and steady degradation of cyclin B (anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome substrate). (dovepress.com)
- In this report, we describe a new mechanism for INH resistance in Mycobacterium smegmatis . (asm.org)
- Mutation of the katG gene is the most common mechanism of INH resistance in M. tuberculosis ( 15 , 27 , 31 , 49 , 55 ). (asm.org)
- Parthanatos (a programmed necrosis from PARP1 hyperactivation) is an untapped death mechanism in oncology, and it offers some ideal features for cancer treatments including immunogenicity and its independence from the drug resistance-ridden p53-apoptosis pathway. (brighttalk.com)
- We now report a serious infection involving a metronidazole-resistant B. fragilis isolate recovered from a patient in Seattle, Washington, and characterize the likely mechanism of resistance. (asm.org)
Conventional biochemical tests1
- Expression was induced by compounds having diverse structures and targets, which did not correlate with drug susceptibility of the whiB7 mutant. (ubc.ca)
- Multi-drug susceptibility was observed in an aspC mutant and an aspB constitutiveexpression strain. (ubc.ca)
- The current study was attempted to investigate the effect of biofield treatment on Shigella flexneri (S. flexneri) with respect of antimicrobial susceptibility assay, biochemical characteristics and biotyping. (omicsonline.org)
- The result suggested that biofield treatment has significant impact on S. flexneri in revived treated cells (Gr. II) on day 10 with respect to antimicrobial susceptibility, MIC, biochemical reactions pattern and biotyping. (omicsonline.org)
- Population movement has as the species of malaria parasites that occur in a introduced resistant parasites to areas previously free given area, their susceptibility to commonly used of drug resistance. (cdc.gov)
- The heterogeneous nature of methicillin resistance confounds susceptibility testing. (asm.org)
- We identified the phb2 + gene, encoding a highly conserved mitochondrial protein, prohibitin (Phb2), as a novel determinant of reduced susceptibility to multiple antifungal drugs. (asm.org)
- Taken together, these results suggest that Phb2 dysfunction results in reduced susceptibility to multiple antifungal drugs by increasing NO and ROS synthesis due to dysfunctional mitochondria, thereby activating the transcription factor Pap1 in fission yeast. (asm.org)
- An inability to rely on stereotypic resistance patterns can lead to alterations in empirical regimens for common infections or require additional susceptibility testing, thereby increasing the costs of medical care. (asm.org)
- Pleiotropic Drug Resistant transporters (PDR) are members of the ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) subfamily which export antifungals and other xenobiotics in fungi and plants. (biomedcentral.com)
- The tumors also respond well to cisplatin but do not become resistant, even after multiple treatments in which tumors appear to regrow from a small fraction of surviving cells. (pnas.org)
- Treatment of metastatic cancer often fails in the end, because tumors are resistant to all drugs available. (pnas.org)
- When an organism is resistant to more than one drug, it is said to be multidrug-resistant. (wikipedia.org)
- Drug-resistant traits are accordingly inherited by subsequent offspring, resulting in a population that is more drug-resistant. (wikipedia.org)
- This protein stimulates the growth of cancer cells which are drug-resistant. (wikipedia.org)
- 1 Staphylococcus aureus which was Inducible Clindamycin Resistance (iMLS B phenotype) was also methicillin resistant. (scirp.org)
- Multiple Drug Resistant (MDR) organisms are microorganisms (predominately bacteria) resistant to more than one class of microbial agents. (scirp.org)
- Even though MRSA (Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus) or VRE (Vancomycin Resistant Enterococcus) are resistant to only one class of antimicrobial agents they are frequently associated with resistance to other classes. (scirp.org)
- In particular, the introduction of multiple-drug-resistant (MDR) M . tuberculosis primarily from former Soviet Union countries (unpublished data) and of the non-MDR but highly infectious central Asian (CAS) spoligotype lineage MT, primarily from sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries (this study), continues to challenge the public health system in Israel. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- After treatment with a Bax-silencing small interfering RNA, maspin-transfected cells became significantly more resistant to drug-induced apoptosis. (aacrjournals.org)
- With many disease-causing bacteria ratcheting up their shields against current drugs, new tactics are vital to protect people from treatment-resistant infections. (eurekalert.org)
- The syndromes of insulin resistance actually make up a broad clinical spectrum, which includes obesity, glucose intolerance, diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome, as well as an extreme insulin-resistant state. (medscape.com)
- Abrogation of such drug-resistant mechanisms by redox modulation could have significant therapeutic implications. (nih.gov)
- Among rapidly growing NTM, Mycobacterium abscessus is the most pathogenic and drug resistant opportunistic germ, responsible for disease manifestations ranging from "curable" skin infections to only "manageable" pulmonary disease. (frontiersin.org)
- Pgp might be involved in protecting the mitochondrial DNA and the components of the electron transport chain from damage due to insecticides, and contributing to the resistance to the deleterious effects of insecticides on the growth of insecticide-resistant H. armigera larvae. (springer.com)
- Rapid emergence of multi-drug resistant bacteria in Bangladesh has become a serious problem. (scirp.org)
- We generated a broad panel of BRAF -mutant resistant cell line models across seven different clinically relevant drug combinations. (aacrjournals.org)
- Combinatorial drug treatments were able to abrogate ERK1/2 phosphorylation in parental-sensitive cells, but not in their resistant counterparts, indicating that resistant cells escaped drug treatments through one or more mechanisms leading to biochemical reactivation of the MAPK signaling pathway. (aacrjournals.org)
- In lab tests, this antibiotic, named taromycin A, impaired the growth of several types of drug-resistant bacteria. (nih.gov)
- He explains that if an infection already contains some drug-resistant microbes, aggressive therapy such as long or high-dose regimens could rapidly eliminate microbes that are susceptible to the drug, leaving behind resistant ones. (nih.gov)
- Alternatives to vancomycin are few due to the multiple drug resistances typical of methicillin-resistant staphylococci. (asm.org)
- Resistant cells remain in block and continue proliferation after drug decay, denoting one of the PTX resistance mechanisms. (dovepress.com)
- Importantly, in PTX-resistant cells, the combination therapy using SPION HT helps to overcome resistance by reducing the number of cells relative to the control. (dovepress.com)
- Researchers around the world have reported finding drug-resistant roundworms-some resistant to multiple classes of standard treatments-in every type of livestock host, including sheep, cattle, and goats. (acs.org)
- Inwardly, though, worms that have mutated to shield themselves from common drugs are shedding eggs that will hatch to create the next generation of resistant worms. (acs.org)
- Considering the selection of drug resistance, a recent study showed that parasites resistant to vinyl sulfone cysteine protease inhibitors could be selected by incubation of cultured parasites with stepwise increases in concentrations of inhibitor. (asmscience.org)
- Drug-resistant bacterial pathogens are posing a major threat to public health, contributing to more than 14 million deaths annually 1 . (nature.com)
- Multiple drug resistant was defined as presence of resistance to three or more classes of antibiotics. (ac.ir)
- In our effort to develop better tuberculosis drugs, we are trying to understand how INH kills sensitive mycobacteria and how mycobacteria become resistant. (asm.org)
- Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) were indicated as important mediators of drug resistant phenotypes in many different cancers. (cdrjournal.com)
- These data provide direct evidence that the over-expression of GST in cells can confer resistance to anticancer drugs. (biochemj.org)
- Increased expression through single cDNA transfection of GSTπ, γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS) (regulatory plus catalytic subunits), or MRP1 enhanced resistance to a number of anticancer drugs. (aspetjournals.org)
- Major advances have been made in understanding drug metabolism and disposition, and how adaptive phase II metabolism can result in altered cytotoxicity to anticancer drugs. (aspetjournals.org)
- The glutathione S -transferase (GST) enzyme system has been implicated in the development of resistance to several anticancer drugs ( O'Brien and Tew, 1996 ). (aspetjournals.org)
- As anticancer drugs, we selected the anthracycline doxorubicin and the taxane docetaxel, which are both frequently used in the clinic to treat breast cancer. (pnas.org)
- Cytochrome P450 (P450) enzyme expression patterns were determined for a panel of 60 human tumor cell lines, representing nine tumor tissue types, used by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Anticancer Drug Screening Program. (aspetjournals.org)
- P450 enzyme profiling may thus aid in interpreting the patterns of drug sensitivity and resistance in the NCI tumor cell panel, and may facilitate the identification of anticancer agents whose activity can be altered via cytochrome P450 metabolism. (aspetjournals.org)
- Anticancer drug resistance is still a major impediment for the successful treatment of cancer. (cdrjournal.com)
- Numerous miRNAs have been identified that modulate the sensitivity of cancer cells for specific anticancer drugs. (cdrjournal.com)
- Moreover, specific miRNAs may be instrumental as biomarker signaling drug resistance or can be exploited as a therapeutic target or anticancer agent. (cdrjournal.com)
- The frequent use of antibiotics is considered the most important factor which promotes multiple drug resistance (MDR) in UPEC in both veterinary and human medicine (14). (scielo.br)
- Patients are inevitably exposed to higher antibiotics and other drugs which may result in further complications. (scirp.org)
- While most efforts against antimicrobial resistance concentrate on producing better antibiotics, the scientists note, "History shows that resistance arises regardless of the nature or potency of new drugs. (eurekalert.org)
- Soil organisms exhibit resistance to a wide range of antibiotics as they either need to protect themselves from endogenous antibiotics or from those present in their soil environment. (rsc.org)
- Preliminary screening of several compounds showed that S. coelicolor had high intrinsic resistance for the fluoroquinolone group of antibiotics. (rsc.org)
- The multiple drug resistance as evident in high MICs of the antibiotics tested could probably be due to abuse/misuse of antibiotics resulting in recurrence of furuncles in the patients. (who.int)
- Antibiotic resistance is often encountered despite multiple antibiotics being used for the treatment of fowl cholera in Jos in central Nigeria, they said. (thepoultrysite.com)
- Antibiotics save countless lives and are among the most commonly prescribed drugs. (nih.gov)
- Here are a few examples of how scientists funded by the National Institutes of Health are working to combat antibiotic resistance, from efforts to discover potential new antibiotics to studies seeking more effective ways of using existing ones. (nih.gov)
- Another way to combat resistance is to improve how we use existing antibiotics. (nih.gov)
- PBP 2a confers cross-resistance to most currently available beta-lactam antibiotics. (asm.org)
- To achieve complete restitution of therapeutic applications of antibiotics, there is a need for more information on the role of environmental microbiomes in the rise of antibiotic resistance. (asm.org)
- Challenges in M. abscessus treatment stem from the bacteria's high-level innate resistance and comprise long, costly and non-standardized administration of antimicrobial agents, poor treatment outcomes often related to adverse effects and drug toxicities, and high relapse rates. (frontiersin.org)
- Nigeria were characterised in relation to their resistance to commonly used antimicrobial agents. (who.int)
- ABSTRACT: Several items containing residual antimicrobial agents are disposed of in dumpsites, placing a pressure on the microbial flora and a potential for development of resistance in these microorganisms. (who.int)
- Emerging problems of resistance to antimicrobial agents make the treatment of bacterial infections an increasing challenge. (asm.org)
- Efflux pumps that contribute to resistance to many classes of antimicrobial agents, including fluoroquinolones, have been described in a number of clinically important bacteria such as Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and others. (thefreelibrary.com)
- In the specific case of antimicrobial agents, the complexity of the processes that contribute to emergence and dissemination of resistance cannot be overemphasized, and the lack of basic knowledge on these topics is one of the primary reasons that there has been so little significant achievement in the effective prevention and control of resistance development. (asm.org)
- Numerous mechanisms of cisplatin resistance were described including changes in cellular uptake, drug efflux, increased detoxification, inhibition of apoptosis and increased DNA repair. (mdpi.com)
- Because induction of apoptosis/senescence is one of the ways in which drugs kill cells, resistance to apoptosis/senescence can also affect the action of these drugs ( 5 - 7 ). (pnas.org)
- How little is known is illustrated by the ongoing discussion of the relevance of drug transporters vs. apoptosis resistance in explaining multidrug resistance against natural product drugs ( 9 - 15 ). (pnas.org)
- Inhibition of LPAAT-β induces growth arrest and apoptosis in cancer cell lines, implicating LPAAT-β as a potential drug target in neoplasia. (aacrjournals.org)
- The common final pathway in the tumor cell death is believed to be apoptosis or programmed cell death and chemotherapeutic drugs like other DNA-damaging agents act on rapidly multiplying cells including both the tumor and the normal cells by following the same common final pathway. (biomedcentral.com)
- Absence or decreased apoptosis has been found to be associated with chemo resistance. (biomedcentral.com)
- Apoptosis is a closely regulated form of active cell death defined by characteristic biochemical and morphological criteria. (biomedcentral.com)
- In the hospital, patients are often exposed to multiple procedures, invasive devices etc., increasing their chances of contracting such potential pathogens. (scirp.org)
- Most of the time these potential pathogens exhibit multiple drug resistance. (scirp.org)
- The rate at which bacterial pathogens are developing drug resistance combined with limited success in the introduction of new antibacterials in clinical practice highlights the need to identify new antibacterial molecules from unique sources 10 , 11 . (nature.com)
- Fortunately, the number existing as functional resistance determinants in pathogens is much smaller. (asm.org)
- In line with the central role of the Bax-mediated mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, maspin sensitized the apoptotic response of breast and prostate carcinoma cells to various drugs, ranging from death ligands to endoplasmic reticulum stress. (aacrjournals.org)
- Combining these approaches allows the lab to target multiple aspects of the pathway from transmission to disease. (ufl.edu)
- Our study demonstrates that trade-offs between structural stability and function can influence innate drug resistance as well as the potential for mutationally acquired drug resistance of an enzyme. (biochemj.org)
- The fact that LPAAT-β expression is tumor specific and that overexpressed LPAAT-β contributes to transformation in vitro have implicated this enzyme as a potential drug target for malignant diseases ( 9 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- This series of protease crystal structures offers insights into the biochemical and structural mechanisms by which the enzyme can overcome inhibition by TL-3 while recovering some of its native catalytic activity. (rcsb.org)
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Tumor cell lines2
- Analysis of tumor samples from patients and of tumor cell lines selected for resistance in vitro has led to the identification of a wide range of resistance mechanisms ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
- The antiproliferative IC 50 in a screen of multiple solid tumor cell lines was in the low nanomolar range ( 17 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- However, the upregulation of antioxidant capacity in adaptation to intrinsic oxidative stress in cancer cells can confer drug resistance. (nih.gov)
- Streptomyces coelicolor , a non-pathogenic soil-dwelling organism, is thus used as a model for the study of intrinsic resistance. (rsc.org)
- WhiB7, a putative transcriptional regulator, is an essential component of intrinsic antibiotic resistance in Mtb. (ubc.ca)
- Amino acid metabolism also contributed to WhiB7-mediated intrinsic resistance. (ubc.ca)
- Intrinsic resistance of the intracellular pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis is one of the main reasonsthat the disease tuberculosis is difficult to treat and why it remains as one of the world's most prevalentand dangerous infectious diseases. (ubc.ca)
- These results revealed a link between intrinsic antibiotic resistance andmetabolism mediated through AspB and AspC. (ubc.ca)
Antibiotic resistance in mycobacterium2
- The finding that Mfd is critical to the development of antibiotic resistance in mycobacterium TB could have potential clinical implications, the researchers noted. (eurekalert.org)
- Since antibiotic resistance in mycobacterium is a complexfunction of its physiology, it is important to screen for tuberculosis drugs under growth conditions thatresemble those found in vivo. (ubc.ca)
- Thirty-one structurally diverse marketed central nervous system (CNS)-active drugs, one active metabolite, and seven non-CNS-active compounds were tested in three P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in vitro assays: transwell assays using MDCK, human MDR1-MDCK, and mouse Mdr1a-MDCK cells, ATPase, and calcein AM inhibition. (aspetjournals.org)
- Inhibition of mycolic acid biosynthesis most likely causes the bactericidal activity of the drug ( 47 ). (asm.org)
- Unless the drug used makes sexual reproduction or cell-division or horizontal gene transfer impossible in the entire target population, resistance to the drug will inevitably follow. (wikipedia.org)
- In three patients, resistance was associated with progressive BCR-ABL gene amplification. (sciencemag.org)
- Unexpectedly, deletion of the phb2 + gene also exhibited antifungal drug resistance. (asm.org)
- Overexpression of the phb2 + gene failed to cause drug resistance when the pap1 + gene, encoding an oxidative stress-responsive transcription factor, was deleted. (asm.org)
- Thus, understanding of the biochemical mechanisms triggered by cisplatin in tumor cells may lead to the design of more efficient platinum derivates (or other drugs) and might provide new therapeutic strategies and reduce side effects. (mdpi.com)
- Increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and an altered redox status have long been observed in cancer cells, and recent studies suggest that this biochemical property of cancer cells can be exploited for therapeutic benefits. (nih.gov)
- Here, we undertook a comprehensive effort to define mechanisms underlying drug resistance with the goal of guiding development of therapeutic strategies to overcome this limitation. (aacrjournals.org)
- A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying antifungal drug resistance will facilitate the development of therapeutic strategies to minimize the evolution of antifungal drug resistance or to increase drug effectiveness and reduce toxicity. (asm.org)
- 3) Identify diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets for cancer and develop drugs for pre-clinical studies and potential clinical applications. (zsr.cc)
- Given that P-gp efflux liability can be a major hurdle for CNS therapeutic drugs to cross the BBB and reach the target, the interactions of CNS compounds with P-gp may lead to the lack of CNS activity as a result of the decreased brain penetration. (aspetjournals.org)
- The successful use of any therapeutic agent is compromised by the potential development of tolerance or resistance to that compound from the time it is first employed. (asm.org)
- A good example is resistance to imatinib (Gleevec), which targets the activated Abelson tyrosine kinase. (pnas.org)
- Hence, the biochemical differences between the host and parasite can be exploited for identification of new targets for rational drug design. (hindawi.com)
- It is also imperative that the probability of developing drug resistance should be less with these targets. (hindawi.com)
- By uncovering the step-by-step details of the recycling process and identifying molecules that trigger resistance, he hopes to find new antibiotic targets that are less likely to be circumvented by microbial evolution. (nih.gov)
- and multiple drugs can be carried on a single platform, making it possible to simultaneously attack several targets," said Julia Y. Ljubimova, M.D. Ph.D., senior author of an article in the current issue of Cancer Research. (healthcanal.com)
- Resistance toward chlorambucil and ethacrynic acid was similar in cells overexpressing either component or overexpressing GST alone. (aspetjournals.org)
- Our results underline the promise of these mouse tumors for the study of tumor-initiating cells and of drug therapy of human cancer. (pnas.org)
- Examples are the natural product drugs that enter cells by passive diffusion. (pnas.org)
- In addition, drug effectiveness can be decreased by other tumor properties, e.g., noncycling cells, poor penetration of drug into the tumor because of increased intratumor fluid pressure, etc. ( 4 , 8 ). (pnas.org)
- In addition, we included the DNA-adduct-forming drug cisplatin, because of its enhanced in vitro cytotoxicity in BRCA1-deficient cells ( 18 , 19 ). (pnas.org)
- P450 expression in tumor cells may lead to the localized production of intracellular drug metabolites, and may thereby either increase or decrease the cytotoxicity of test chemicals being evaluated. (aspetjournals.org)
- [ 12 ] Given that glucose and lipid metabolism largely depend on mitochondria to generate energy in cells, mitochondrial dysfunction may play an important role in the development of insulin resistance and associated complications. (medscape.com)
- ABCG2 is one of a few human membrane transporters which display the amazing ability to transport multiple different chemicals out of cells. (biochemsoctrans.org)
- In tumor cells, increased expression of these drug transporters is associated with resistance to multiple chemotherapeutic agents. (eurekaselect.com)
- However, how tumor cells integrate their signaling and biophysical responses to multiple, distinct motility cues as they progress through the metastatic cascade remains poorly understood. (tufts.edu)
- Cells plated in a monolayer respond much better to cytotoxic therapy than the same cells grown in 3D spheroids, or in xenograft tumors in mice, suggesting that the ECM and stromal cells that make up the tumor microenvironment drive drug resistance. (tufts.edu)
- While there has been work highlighting mechanisms of resistance derived from the release of cytokines from stromal cells, the role of the ECM in this process remains understudied in 3D in vitro systems or in vivo using mouse models. (tufts.edu)
- Mild hyperthermia (HT) triggers mitotic exit of PTX-pretreated cells, overcoming PTX resistance and suggesting HT-forced mitotic exit as a promising strategy to potentiate PTX. (dovepress.com)
- Multiple lines of evidence support the idea that autophagy plays an essential role in the development of drug resistance, self-renewal, differentiation, and tumorigenic potentials of cancer stem cells (CSCs). (qxmd.com)
- Unlike other drugs that target cancer cells from outside and often injure normal cells as a side effect, this therapy consists of multiple drugs chemically bonded to a "transport vehicle. (healthcanal.com)
- and a molecule to open tumor blood vessels and deliver the drugs into the cancer cells for release. (healthcanal.com)
- Injected into mice with implanted human breast cancer cells, the drugs accumulated in the cancer cells and worked together to significantly reduce tumor growth. (healthcanal.com)
- With inventive drug engineering, the antitumor components activate inside tumor cells. (healthcanal.com)
Emergence of antibiotic resistance1
Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance1
- In short, the lack of concerted effort by governments and the pharmaceutical industry, together with the innate capacity of microbes to develop resistance at a rate that outpaces development of new drugs, suggests that existing strategies for developing viable, long-term anti-microbial therapies are ultimately doomed to failure. (wikipedia.org)
- Resistance to chemicals is only one aspect of the problem, another being resistance to physical factors such as temperature, pressure, sound, radiation and magnetism, and not discussed in this article, but found at Physical factors affecting microbial life. (wikipedia.org)
- Community acquired urinary tract infections (UTI) are highly prevalent in developing countries and are usually difficult to eradicate because the pathogenic bacteria have acquired resistance to most of the drugs. (scielo.br)
- Due to indiscriminate use of drugs in developing countries, the pathogenic bacteria are much more dynamic, versatile and 'battle-hardened' as compared with developed countries. (scielo.br)
- Without alternative strategies, the acquisition of drug resistance by pathogenic microorganisms looms as possibly one of the most significant public health threats facing humanity in the 21st century. (wikipedia.org)
- However, most of the antifungal drugs suffer from various drawbacks, such as toxicity or drug resistance ( 3 , 6 , 7 ). (asm.org)
- The clinical response, immunohistochemical response and the drug-induced toxicity were correlated and compared. (biomedcentral.com)
- There was a statistically significant correlation observed between clinical, immunohistochemical response (bcl-2/bax ratio) and the drug-induced toxicity. (biomedcentral.com)