Receptors, OX40: A tumor necrosis family receptor with specificity for OX40 LIGAND. It is found on the surface of activated T-LYMPHOCYTES where it plays a role in enhancing cytokine production and proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)OX40 Ligand: A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member that is expressed on activated antigen-presenting cells such as B-LYMPHOCYTES and MACROPHAGES. It signals T-LYMPHOCYTES by binding the OX40 RECEPTOR.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Fas Ligand Protein: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that was originally discovered on cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage, including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS. It plays an important role in immune homeostasis and cell-mediated toxicity by binding to the FAS RECEPTOR and triggering APOPTOSIS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Tumor Necrosis Factors: A family of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to cause NECROSIS of NEOPLASMS. Their necrotic effect on cells is mediated through TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTORS which induce APOPTOSIS.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.RANK Ligand: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B and OSTEOPROTEGERIN. It plays an important role in regulating OSTEOCLAST differentiation and activation.Orexin Receptors: G-protein-coupled NEUROPEPTIDE RECEPTORS that have specificity for OREXINS and play a role in appetite control, and sleep-wake cycles. Two principle receptor types exist, each having a specificity for OREXIN A and OREXIN B peptide subtypes.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.CD30 Ligand: A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Receptors, Neuropeptide: Cell surface receptors that bind specific neuropeptides with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Many neuropeptides are also hormones outside of the nervous system.TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand: A transmembrane-protein belonging to the TNF family of intercellular signaling proteins. It is a widely expressed ligand that activates APOPTOSIS by binding to TNF-RELATED APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND RECEPTORS. The membrane-bound form of the protein can be cleaved by specific CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES to form a soluble ligand form.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.4-1BB Ligand: A membrane bound member of the TNF superfamily that is expressed on activated B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; and DENDRITIC CELLS. The ligand is specific for the 4-1BB RECEPTOR and may play a role in inducing the proliferation of activated peripheral blood T-LYMPHOCYTES.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled: The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind TUMOR NECROSIS FACTORS and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Antigens, CD27: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily found on most T-LYMPHOCYTES. Activation of the receptor by CD70 ANTIGEN results in the increased proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Mice, Inbred C57BLPromoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Radioligand Assay: Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Surface Plasmon Resonance: A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Programmed Cell Death 1 Ligand 2 Protein: A costimulatory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 RECEPTOR. It is closely-related to CD274 antigen; however, its expression is restricted to DENDRITIC CELLS and activated MACROPHAGES.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.Mice, Inbred BALB CNuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Receptors, TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand: Tumor necrosis factor receptor family members that are widely expressed and play a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. The receptors are specific for TNF-RELATED APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND and signal via conserved death domains that associate with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Cricetulus: A genus of the family Muridae consisting of eleven species. C. migratorius, the grey or Armenian hamster, and C. griseus, the Chinese hamster, are the two species used in biomedical research.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Protein Multimerization: The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.Heme: The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.Allosteric Regulation: The modification of the reactivity of ENZYMES by the binding of effectors to sites (ALLOSTERIC SITES) on the enzymes other than the substrate BINDING SITES.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Lectins: Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.Neuropeptides: Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.Nerve Tissue ProteinsReceptors, sigma: A class of cell surface receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Sigma receptors were originally considered to be opioid receptors because they bind certain synthetic opioids. However they also interact with a variety of other psychoactive drugs, and their endogenous ligand is not known (although they can react to certain endogenous steroids). Sigma receptors are found in the immune, endocrine, and nervous systems, and in some peripheral tissues.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular: NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Cross-Linking Reagents: Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Integrins: A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs: Protein modules with conserved ligand-binding surfaces which mediate specific interaction functions in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and the specific BINDING SITES of their cognate protein LIGANDS.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Calorimetry: The measurement of the quantity of heat involved in various processes, such as chemical reactions, changes of state, and formations of solutions, or in the determination of the heat capacities of substances. The fundamental unit of measurement is the joule or the calorie (4.184 joules). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Gibberellins: A class of plant growth hormone isolated from cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi, a fungus causing Bakanae disease in rice. There are many different members of the family as well as mixtures of multiple members; all are diterpenoid acids based on the gibberellane skeleton.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesApoptosis Regulatory Proteins: A large group of proteins that control APOPTOSIS. This family of proteins includes many ONCOGENE PROTEINS as well as a wide variety of classes of INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS such as CASPASES.Drug Design: The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.BenzoxazolesJurkat Cells: A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.Molecular Docking Simulation: A computer simulation technique that is used to model the interaction between two molecules. Typically the docking simulation measures the interactions of a small molecule or ligand with a part of a larger molecule such as a protein.Histidine: An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Calcium-Binding Proteins: Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Immunoprecipitation: The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.PhosphoproteinsSequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Aptamers, Nucleotide: Nucleotide sequences, generated by iterative rounds of SELEX APTAMER TECHNIQUE, that bind to a target molecule specifically and with high affinity.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Receptors, Notch: A family of conserved cell surface receptors that contain EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR repeats in their extracellular domain and ANKYRIN repeats in their cytoplasmic domains. The cytoplasmic domain of notch receptors is released upon ligand binding and translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it acts as transcription factor.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.Zinc: A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Carbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy: A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.Organometallic Compounds: A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Tumor Necrosis Factor Ligand Superfamily Member 13: A member of tumor necrosis factor superfamily found on MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It occurs as transmembrane protein that can be cleaved to release a secreted form that specifically binds to TRANSMEMBRANE ACTIVATOR AND CAML INTERACTOR PROTEIN; and B CELL MATURATION ANTIGEN.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.Allosteric Site: A site on an enzyme which upon binding of a modulator, causes the enzyme to undergo a conformational change that may alter its catalytic or binding properties.
Feline immunodeficiency virus
4,5) CD134 is predominantly found on activated T cells and binds to OX40 ligand, causing T-cell stimulation, proliferation, ... First the SU glycoprotein binds to CD134, a receptor on the host cell. This initial binding changes the shape of the SU protein ... Hu, Quiong-Ying (2012). "Mapping of Receptor Binding Interactions with the Fiv surace Glycoprotein (SU); Implications Regarding ...
The ligand of OX40, called OX40 ligand (OX40L, TNFSF4, gp34), which is expressed by antigen presenting cells, binds to OX40 on ... A combined protein, OX40-immunoglobulin (OX40-Ig), a human-made fusion protein, prevents OX40 ligand from reaching OX40 on T ... 2009). "Simvastatin reduces OX40 and OX40 ligand expression in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and in patients with ... By blocking the OX40 receptor on T cells, researchers were able to prevent the development of the most serious flu symptoms in ...
OX40 also plays a crucial role in both Th1 and Th2 mediated reactions in vivo. OX40 binds TRAF2, 3 and 5 as well as PI3K by an ... OX40 is a secondary co-stimulatory immune checkpoint molecule, expressed after 24 to 72 hours following activation; its ligand ... OX40L binds to OX40 receptors on T-cells, preventing them from dying and subsequently increasing cytokine production. OX40 has ... OX40-immunoglobulin (OX40-Ig), prevents OX40 from reaching the T-cell receptors, thus reducing the T-cell response. Experiments ...
Th 9 cells
IRF4 binds to the promoter of Il-9 gene in TH9 cells and it is dependent on STAT6. BATF has been also shown to bind to the Il-9 ... TNFRSF4 or OX40), and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP). The role of TH9 cells is not absolutely clear yet but so far it ... programmed cell death ligand (PD-L2), cyclooxy- genase (COX)-2, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP ... STAT5, downstream factor of IL-2, induce TH9 cells IL-9. STAT5 directly bind to Il-9 gene promoter, although it has not yet ...
OX40 - This molecule, also called CD134, has OX40L, or CD252, as its ligand. Like CD27, OX40 promotes the expansion of effector ... Binding with its two ligands are CD80 and CD86, expressed on dendritic cells, prompts T cell expansion. CD28 was the target of ... CD137 - When this molecule, also called 4-1BB, is bound by CD137 ligand, the result is T-cell proliferation. CD137-mediated ... The pharma company AstraZeneca has three drugs in development targeting OX40: MEDI0562 is a humanised OX40 agonist; MEDI6469, ...
Thymic stromal lymphopoietin
Liu YJ (2007). "Thymic stromal lymphopoietin and OX40 ligand pathway in the initiation of dendritic cell-mediated allergic ... After binding STAT5 phosphorylation is induced resulting in the expression of upstream transcription factors. TSLP expression ... 2005). "Human TSLP promotes CD40 ligand-induced IL-12 production by myeloid dendritic cells but maintains their Th2 priming ...
Loo DT, Chalupny NJ, Bajorath J, Shuford WW, Mittler RS, Aruffo A (1997). "Analysis of 4-1BBL and laminin binding to murine 4- ... Arch RH, Thompson CB (Jan 1998). "4-1BB and Ox40 are members of a tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-nerve growth factor receptor ... 4-1BB ligand Urelumab GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000049249 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ... Arch RH, Thompson CB (1998). "4-1BB and Ox40 are members of a tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-nerve growth factor receptor ...
Kawamata S, Hori T, Imura A, Takaori-Kondo A, Uchiyama T (Mar 1998). "Activation of OX40 signal transduction pathways leads to ... This protein is one of the components of a multiple protein complex which binds to tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor ... a new member of the EPLG gene family encoding ligands of EPH-related protein-tyrosine kinase receptors". Genomics. 41 (1): 17- ... Kawamata S, Hori T, Imura A, Takaori-Kondo A, Uchiyama T (Mar 1998). "Activation of OX40 signal transduction pathways leads to ...
The initial checkpoints targeted are PD-1, TIM3, LAG3, TIGIT, VISTA and OX40. Enumeral was founded in 2009 to bring together ... nor did they appear to compete with PD-1's ligand, PD-L1. These potentially allosteric antibodies also produced more interferon ... reported that it had used its platform to raise anti-PD-1 antibodies that did not compete with Keytruda or Opdivo for binding ...
Tumor necrosis factor superfamily
"Molecular characterization of murine and human OX40/OX40 ligand systems: identification of a human OX40 ligand as the HTLV-1- ... Such membrane-bound TNF ligands frequently signal back to the immune cells when they contact and bind their cognate receptors ... Peitsch MC, Jongeneel CV (February 1993). "A 3-D model for the CD40 ligand predicts that it is a compact trimer similar to the ... Suda T, Takahashi T, Golstein P, Nagata S (December 1993). "Molecular cloning and expression of the Fas ligand, a novel member ...
Although these signals require this pre-TCR at the cell surface, they are independent of ligand binding to the pre-TCR. These ... Other receptors are expressed upon activation of the T cell, such as OX40 and ICOS, but these largely depend upon CD28 for ... The cytosolic domains bind an adapter BCL10 via CARD (Caspase activation and recruitment domains) domains; that then binds ... The first signal is provided by binding of the T cell receptor to its cognate peptide presented on MHCII on an APC. MHCII is ...
... they are independent of ligand binding to the pre-TCR. These thymocytes will then express both CD4 and CD8 and progress to the ... Other receptors are expressed upon activation of the T cell, such as OX40 and ICOS, but these largely depend upon CD28 for ... The cytosolic domains bind an adapter BCL10 via CARD (Caspase activation and recruitment domains) domains; that then binds ... The first signal is provided by binding of the T cell receptor to its cognate peptide presented on MHCII on an APC. MHCII is ...
"T cell proliferation by direct cross-talk between OX40 ligand on human mast cells and OX40 on human T cells: comparison of gene ... The binding of ligands - either in the form of adjuvant used in vaccinations or in the form of invasive moieties during times ... As of 2016 several TLR ligands were in clinical development or being tested in animal models as potential adjuvants. Aluminium ... Toussi DN, Massari P Immune Adjuvant Effect of Molecularly-defined Toll-Like Receptor Ligands. Vaccines (Basel). 2014 Apr 25;2( ...
Limfocyty T regulatorowe, wolna encyklopedia
TCR ligand density and affinity determine peripheral induction of Foxp3 in vivo. „J Exp Med". 207 (8), s. 1701-1711, sierpień ... Tregs utilize beta-galactoside-binding protein to transiently inhibit PI3K/p21ras activity of human CD8+ T cells to block their ... CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells suppress mast cell degranulation and allergic responses through OX40-OX40L interaction. „Immunity ... Cell contact-dependent immunosuppression by CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells is mediated by cell surface-bound transforming ...
... they are independent of ligand binding to the pre-TCR. If the pre-TCR forms, then the cell downregulates CD25 and is termed a ... Other receptors are expressed upon activation of the T cell, such as OX40 and ICOS, but these largely depend upon CD28 for ... The cytosolic domains bind an adapter BCL10 via CARD (Caspase activation and recruitment domains) domains; that then binds ... The first signal is provided by binding of the T cell receptor to its cognate peptide presented on MHCII on an APC. MHCII is ...
OX40 Ligand/TNFSF4 Proteins: Novus Biologicals
Browse our OX40 Ligand/TNFSF4 Protein catalog backed by our Guarantee+. ... OX40 Ligand/TNFSF4 Proteins available through Novus Biologicals. ... Applications: Binding Activity, Bioactivity. view datasheet<\/a ... OX40 Ligand/TNFSF4 Proteins. We offer OX40 Ligand/TNFSF4 Peptides and OX40 Ligand/TNFSF4 Proteins for use in common research ... Alternate Names for OX40 Ligand/TNFSF4 Proteins. OX40 Ligand/TNFSF4 protein, TNFSF4 protein, CD134 ligand protein, CD134L ...
OX40 Ligand/TNFSF4 Products: R&D Systems
View our 31 OX40 Ligand/TNFSF4 products for your research including OX40 Ligand/TNFSF4 Primary Antibodies, Proteins and Enzymes ... membrane-bound OX40 Ligand exists as a homotrimer. OX40L binds to OX40 (CD134), a member of the TNF receptor superfamily, which ... OX40 Ligand/TNFSF4: Products. OX40 Ligand (OX40L), also known as gp34, is a member of the TNF superfamily. Human OX40L shares ...
Feline immunodeficiency virus - Wikipedia
4,5) CD134 is predominantly found on activated T cells and binds to OX40 ligand, causing T-cell stimulation, proliferation, ... First the SU glycoprotein binds to CD134, a receptor on the host cell. This initial binding changes the shape of the SU protein ... Hu, Quiong-Ying (2012). "Mapping of Receptor Binding Interactions with the Fiv surace Glycoprotein (SU); Implications Regarding ...
Cytokine storm - Wikipedia
The ligand of OX40, called OX40 ligand (OX40L, TNFSF4, gp34), which is expressed by antigen presenting cells, binds to OX40 on ... A combined protein, OX40-immunoglobulin (OX40-Ig), a human-made fusion protein, prevents OX40 ligand from reaching OX40 on T ... 2009). "Simvastatin reduces OX40 and OX40 ligand expression in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and in patients with ... By blocking the OX40 receptor on T cells, researchers were able to prevent the development of the most serious flu symptoms in ...
CD134 (OX40) antibodies, mouse - Primary antibodies - Antibodies - MACS Flow Cytometry - Products - Miltenyi Biotec - Nederland
The OX40 receptor binds to the OX40 ligand (CD252) to provide a costimulatory signal which is independent of CD28. Additional ... OX40 is a secondary costimulatory molecule, which is expressed after 24 to 72 hours following activation. It is expressed on ... also known as OX40 receptor, a 50 kDa type I membrane glycoprotein of the tumor necrosis factor/nerve growth factor receptor ( ... information: Clone REA625 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. - Nederland ...
Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells Regulate Th Cell Responses through OX40 Ligand and Type I IFNs | The Journal of Immunology
... the OX40 ligand: induction of c-jun and c-fos mRNA expression through gp34 upon binding of its receptor, OX40. J. Immunol. 163: ... OX40 (CD134) and OX40 ligand interaction plays an adjuvant role during in vivo Th2 responses. Eur. J. Immunol. 33:2372. ... Several studies have pointed to the role of the OX40-OX40 ligand (OX40L) pathway, which selectively regulates Th2 cell ... Critical role for OX40 ligand in the development of pathogenic Th2 cells in a murine model of asthma. Eur. J. Immunol. 33:861. ...
Table of Contents - September 15, 1999, 163 (6) | The Journal of Immunology
... the OX40 Ligand: Induction of c-jun and c-fos mRNA Expression Through gp34 upon Binding of Its Receptor, OX40 Yumi Matsumura, ... Fc-Mediated Nonspecific Binding Between Fibronectin-Binding Protein I of Streptococcus pyogenes and Human Immunoglobulins Eva ... SLP-76 Binding to p56lck: A Role for SLP-76 in CD4-Induced Desensitization of the TCR/CD3 Signaling Complex Ralf Sanzenbacher, ... The Mode of Ligand Recognition by Two Peptide:MHC Class I-Specific Monoclonal Antibodies Ilhem Messaoudi, Joël LeMaoult and ...
Frontiers | ILC2s-Trailblazers in the Host Response Against Intestinal Helminths | Immunology
Binding of OX40L to OX40 on CD4 T cells was required for the development of both Th2 and GATA3+/- Treg responses in the lungs ... tissue-specific ILC2s were shown to represent a critical source of the co-stimulatory molecule OX40 ligand (OX40L) in response ... VIP is produced by pulmonary neurons and can bind to the vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 2 (VPAC2) present on ILC2s (53 ... a DR3 ligand, induced ILC2 expansion and DR3 deficient mice are unable to expel Nb -highlighting this cytokine as a possible ...
Modulation of Tumor Immunity by Soluble and Membrane-Bound Molecules at the Immunological Synapse
... which interact with the ligands CD28 (binds both CD80 and CD86), CD40L, OX40 (CD134), 4-1BB (CD137), and GITR, respectively, ... A. I. Chen, A. J. McAdam, J. E. Buhlmann et al., "Ox40-ligand has a critical costimulatory role in dendritic cell:T cell ... T cells from binding TCR/pMHC ligands that bear optimal interaction kinetics . Although yet not observed for tumor cells, ... "Modulation of immunological synapse by membrane-bound and soluble ligands," Cytokine and Growth Factor Reviews, vol. 18, no. 1- ...
Stimulatory Signaling Pathways
Upon binding with its ligand (OX40L) on APCs, OX40 both activates and amplifies T cell responses by promoting T cell ... CD137 binding to its ligand CD137L on CD8+ T cells leads to markedly enhanced activation, proliferation and survival of ... OX40L + OX40 OX40, another member of the TNF receptor family, is expressed on activated cytotoxic and Treg cells. ... OX40 also aids in T cell differentiation into memory T cells. OX40 has been shown to inhibit the reproduction, ...
JCI - Imaging activated T cells predicts response to cancer vaccines
A member of the TNF receptor superfamily, OX40 binds the ligand OX40L, found on activated antigen-presenting cells (APCs), ... Scale bar: purple = low OX40 expression; yellow = high OX40 expression. (C) Quantitation of OX40 mean fluorescence intensity ( ... using a competitive cell-binding assay, we were able to show that the endogenous OX40 ligand (OX40L) and the mAb used for ... 64Cu-DOTA-AbOX40 binding correlated well with cell activation and OX40 expression, as measured by flow cytometry (Figure 1, C ...
Frontiers | DNA damage response and evasion from immunosurveillance in CLL: new options for NK cell-based immunotherapies |...
Additionally, following activation NK cells express OX40 ligand (OX40L) and CD86 on the cell surface, which can bind to the co- ... increased levels of ligands for inhibitory receptors ILT2 and NKG2A/B, (3) shedding by MMPs and production of soluble ligands ... Tumor cells downregulate the expression of the ligands for NKG2D and release soluble ligands upon induced shedding by matrix ... The first construct of this kind was ULBP2-BB4, which links NK cells and CD138+ tumor cells through the ULBP2 ligand and the ...
OX40/TNFRSF4 Antibody (7D6) [Alexa Fluor® 405] (NB100-64375AF405): Novus Biologicals
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-OX40/TNFRSF4 Antibody (7D6) [Alexa Fluor® 405]. Validated: WB, Flow. Tested Reactivity: Feline. 100% ... CD134 has been identified as the receptor for the OX40 ligand, CD252, expressed by activated B cells, acting as a co- ... CD134 has also been identified as a binding receptor for Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), acting along with CXC chemokine ... Home » OX40/TNFRSF4 » OX40/TNFRSF4 Antibodies » OX40/TNFRSF4 Antibody (7D6) [Alexa Fluor® 405] ...
WO2000041508A2 - Combination therapy of cancer by the activation of co-stimulatory molecules expressed by immune cells and...
TNFR) superfamily that binds to OX-40 ligand (OX-40L) expressed on antigen presenting cells, such as activated B-cells and ... 4- IBB glycoprotein is a member of the TNFR superfamily that binds to a high affinity ligand (4- IBB ligand) expressed on ... Examples of ligands for co-stimulatory molecules expressed on activated T-cells, referred to herein as ligand or ligands, ... Examples of ligands for co-stimulatory molecules expressed on activated T-cells, referred to herein as ligand or ligands, ...
OX40 Ligand Fusion Protein Delivered Simultaneously With the BCG Vaccine Provides Superior Protection Against Murine ...
... which can be replaced by reagents binding inducible T-cell costimulators. ... OX40 Ligand Fusion Protein Delivered Simultaneously With the BCG Vaccine Provides Superior Protection Against Murine ... We show that the interaction between T-cell-expressed OX40 and OX40L on antigen-presenting cells is critical for effective ... However, because OX40L is lost rapidly from antigen-presenting cells following BCG vaccination, maintenance of OX40-expressing ...
TNFSF4 (101-M681): ReliaTech
Similar to other TNF superfamily members, membrane-bound OX40 Ligand exists as a homotrimer. OX40L binds to OX40 (CD134), a ... TNFSF4; GP34; CD252; OX4OL; TXGP1; CD134L; OX-40L; Ox 40 Ligand. Description. OX40 Ligand (OX40L), also known as gp34, is a ... also called Ox40 ligand. The IgG fraction of culture supernatant was purified by Protein G affinity chromatography. ...
New Insights into the Role of the Immune Microenvironment in Breast Carcinoma
... whereas its ligand OX40L is expressed on activated APC, B cells, and macrophages . Binding of OX40 to the OX40L enhances ... OX-40: OX-40 is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily that needs T-cell activation to be expressed . OX- ... Finally, another immunogenic molecule is OX40. It is elucidated that signaling through OX40 and OX40L enhances antitumor ... Binding of CD40 with its CD40 ligand (CD40L) or CD154 acts on APC and T cells mediating both cellular and humoral responses. ...
Differential Utilization of CD134 as a Functional Receptor by Diverse Strains of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus | Journal of...
CD134L or OX40 ligand).. The interaction between HIV and CD4 induces a conformational change in gp120 that results in the ... Given that BerACT35 binds specifically to feline CD134, we examined the effect of infection with subtype A, B, and C viruses on ... Amino acids 1 to 86 comprise CRD1 and part of CRD2 and encompass the region known to form the binding domain for gD on HveA. To ... However, CD4 is not the primary receptor for FIV, as the primary receptor was recently revealed to be CD134 (OX40) (48), a ...
Patent US6391637 - Use of CD40 ligand, a cytokine that binds CD40, to stimulate hybridoma cells - Google Patents
More particularly, this invention provides isolated human and murine CD40-L polypeptides that bind to the extracellular binding ... disclosed are methods of simulating hybridoma cells to increase monoclonal antibody production by administering a CD40 ligand ... T cell antigen OX40 (Mallett et al., EMBO J. 9:1063, 1990), human Fas antigen (Itoh et al., Cell 66:233, 1991) and murine 4-1BB ... Preferably, conjugation of the ligand binding molecule does not substantially interfere with the ability of the ligand binding ...
Use of Oligonucleotide Aptamer Ligands to Modulate the Function of Immune Receptors | Clinical Cancer Research
2B). Using a similar approach, we have also shown that dimeric OX40-binding aptamers were as effective as an anti-OX40 antibody ... In summary, aptamer ligands can be generated that bind to and modulate the function of immune receptors expressed on the ... We have recently developed a new class of inhibitory (CTLA-4) and agonistic (4-1BB and OX-40) ligands composed of short ... In vitro selection of RNA molecules that bind specific ligands. Nature 1990;346:818-22. ...
OX-40 ligand | Ligand page | IUPHAR/BPS Guide to IMMUNOPHARMACOLOGY
OX-40 ligand ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs. ... OX40L (CD252) is the ligand for tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 4 (TNFRSF4, a.k.a. OX40 or CD134). OX40 is a ... An antibody binding mouse OX40L. Gene/Precursor Gene symbol. Gene name. Species. Precursor protein name. Synonyms. ... The OX40/OX40L pair is involved in late T-cell costimulatory signaling and both are transiently expressed following antigen ...
Definition of agonistic anti-OX40 monoclonal antibody MEDI6383 - NCI Drug Dictionary - National Cancer Institute
Upon administration, anti-OX40 monoclonal antibody MEDI6383 selectively binds to and activates the OX40 receptor, by mimicking ... An agonistic monoclonal antibody against receptor OX40 (CD134), with potential immunostimulatory activity. ... by mimicking the action of endogenous OX40 ligand (OX40L). OX40 receptor activation induces proliferation of memory and ... Upon administration, anti-OX40 monoclonal antibody MEDI6383 selectively binds to and activates the OX40 receptor, ...
Inherited human OX40 deficiency underlying classic Kaposi sarcoma of childhood | Garvan Institute of Medical Research
OX40 is a co-stimulatory receptor expressed on activated T cells. Its ligand, OX40L, is expressed on various cell types, ... The mutant OX40 protein was poorly expressed on the cell surface and failed to bind OX40L, resulting in complete functional ... Together, these findings suggest that human OX40 is necessary for robust CD4(+) T cell memory and confers apparently selective ... We report here autosomal recessive OX40 deficiency in an otherwise healthy adult with childhood-onset classic KS. ...
OX40 polyclonal antibody - BV-3890 - Axxora
OX40 plays an important role in CD4+ and CD8+T-cells and B-cells response. Binding of OX40 to its ligand, OX40L provides co- ... The antibody recognizes the 50 kDa full length as well as the 30 kDa and 20 kDa subunits of OX40 in Reacts with rat. Other ... OX40 is also known as CD134 is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily (TNFR). ...
Recombinant mouse CD252 protein (ab168092) | Abcam
Recombinant Rhesus macaque TNFRSF4 protein, His-tagged TNFRSF4-103M - Creative BioMart
Immobilized Rhesus macaque OX40, His Tag at 2 μg/mL (100 μl/well) can bind Human OX40 Ligand, Fc Tag with a linear range of 0.2 ... OX40. OX40/TNFRSF4 contains four TNFR-Cys repeats. TNFRSF4 is receptor for TNFSF4/OX40L/GP34 and can interacts with TRAF2, ... Rhesus macaque OX40, His Tag on SDS-PAGE under reducing (R) condition. The gel was stained overnight with Coomassie Blue. The ...
AU2016203329A1 - Live and in-vivo tumor specific cancer vaccine system developed by co-administration of three of the following...
24, 2009 Sisters of Methods for using OX-40 ligand to Providence in enhance an antigen specific immune Oregon response U.S. Pat ... the immune response to a tumor antigen by engaging the OX-40 receptor on the surface of T-cells by a OX-40 receptor binding ... Anti-OX40 antibodies and methods of use thereof US20180118798A1 (en) * 2015-05-07. 2018-05-03. H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center And ... the use of MHC class II ligands or MHC class Il-like ligands as adjuvants for vaccines, in order to boost an antigen specific ...
Mechanisms of Hypersensitivity | Springer for Research & Development
Mediator release may occur via cross-linking of cell-bound IgE by... ... Allergic reactions to drugs are not always the result of the drugs protein-binding capacity, biotransformation, or degradation ... The receptor OX-40, also known as CD134, and its ligand OX-40L are seen as secondary co-stimulatory molecules expressed after T ... As well as binding IgE in both its secreted and B cell-bound form, CD23 binds CD21 (also known as complement receptor 2), CD18/ ...
CHECKPOINT REGULATOR ANTAGONISTS - GENSUN BIOPHARMA INC.
Checkpoint regulator antagonists that bind specifically to TIGIT, PD-1 and/or PD-L1 are disclosed. Also disclosed are methods ... A Tie2 receptor binding antagonist binds to the Tie2 tyrosine kinase receptor or one of its angiopoietin (Ang) ligands (i.e., ... Toll ligand receptor, OX40, CD2, CD7, CD27, CD28, CD30, CD40, CDS, ICAM-1, LFA-1 (CD11a/CD18), 4-1BB (CD137), B7-H3, CDS, ICAM- ... The Tie2 receptor binding antagonist binds to the Tie2 tyrosine kinase receptor or one of its angiopoietin (Ang) ligands (i.e ...
NCI Drug Dictionary - National Cancer Institute
Upon intravenous administration, anti-OX40 monoclonal antibody MEDI6469 selectively binds to and activates OX40. OX40 ... by mimicking the action of endogenous OX40 ligand (OX40L). OX40 receptor activation induces proliferation of memory and ... Upon administration, anti-OX40 monoclonal antibody MEDI6383 selectively binds to and activates the OX40 receptor, ... Upon administration, agonistic anti-OX40 monoclonal antibody INCAGN01949 selectively binds to and activates OX40 on activated T ...
AntibodyGP34CD252ProteinTNFRSF4MoleculeGlycoproteinDendriticAntigen preseCD40LRecombinantCytokine productionCD28MoleculesAgonistMember of the TNF receptorCognateCD27EndogenousPathwayMembrane-boundMurineStimulationProvides co-stimulatoryEffector cellsApoptosis-Inducing LigandTumor cellsExpressed on activatedTumorsAPCsCD137PolypeptideCellHumanSelectively bindsImmunotherapyInflammation
- There are currently no images for OX40/TNFRSF4 Antibody (NB100-64375AF405). (novusbio.com)
- This antibody war produced from a hybridoma (mouse myeloma fused with spleen cells from a mouse) immunized with human TNFSF4, also called Ox40 ligand. (reliatech.de)
- Also disclosed are methods of simulating hybridoma cells to increase monoclonal antibody production by administering a CD40 ligand polypeptide that stimulates B cell proliferation. (google.com.au)
- Upon administration, anti-OX40 monoclonal antibody MEDI6383 selectively binds to and activates the OX40 receptor, by mimicking the action of endogenous OX40 ligand (OX40L). (cancer.gov)
- The antibody recognizes the 50 kDa full length as well as the 30 kDa and 20 kDa subunits of OX40 in Reacts with rat. (axxora.com)
- 7. A bispecific checkpoint regulator antagonist, comprising: an antigen binding domain comprising the antigen-binding portion of the antibody of claim 1. (freepatentsonline.com)
- 8. A bispecific checkpoint regulator antagonist, comprising: an antigen binding domain comprising the antigen-binding portion of the antibody of claim 2. (freepatentsonline.com)
- 9. A nucleic acid encoding the antibody, or an antigen-binding portion thereof, of claim 1. (freepatentsonline.com)
- A murine IgG1 monoclonal anti-idiotype antibody, containing a variable antigen-binding region that functionally mimics the three-dimensional structure of a specific epitope on the ovarian cancer tumor-associated antigen CA-125, with potential antineoplastic activity. (cancer.gov)
- An antibody against OX40 has shown significant and long-lasting antitumor activity in a mouse model of ovarian cancer when paired with an anti-PD-1 antibody. (gpremium.ru)
- The anti-OX40 monoclonal antibody (mAb) GSK3174998 has entered Phase 1 clinical trial (alone or in combination with the immune checkpoint inhibiting mAb pembrolizumab ) as a novel anti-tumour therapy (see NCT02528357 ). (guidetopharmacology.org)
- The donor and acceptor can be grafted covalently onto multiple partners that can associate, among others, two dimerizing proteins, two DNA strands, an antigen and an antibody, or a ligand and its receptor. (cisbio.com)
- Human OX40 antibody (MOXR0916 analog) efficacy experiment was performed with B-hOX40 mice. (biocytogen.com)
- Recombinant human Anti-OX40 competitive antibody recognizing the OX40 binding region. (bpsbioscience.com)
- Yervoy (ipilimumab) is an antibody that binds to cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4), causing increased T-cell activation ( PMID: 28891423 ). (jax.org)
- A second pathway of DC maturation is initiated by the receptors for the Fc portion of IgG (FcRs), which bind antibody-opsonized pathogens ( 38 ). (rupress.org)
- Glenmark Pharmaceuticals, a global pharmaceutical company, today announced data from a Phase 2a, proof-of-concept study of GBR 830, an investigational, anti-OX40 monoclonal antibody being studied for the treatment of moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis (AD), that were presented at the International Investigative Dermatology Meeting (IID) in Orlando, Florida. (pharmiweb.com)
- FS120 mAb 2 , a dual agonist bispecific antibody targeting CD137 and OX40, activated both CD4 + and CD8 + T cells in an FcγR-independent mechanism, dependent on concurrent binding. (aacrjournals.org)
- A combination trial with utomilumab and PF-04518600 (an OX40 agonist antibody) is underway ( NCT02315066 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- TNFRSF antibodies typically have no or low intrinsic agonist activity and require secondary crosslinking of antibody-receptor complexes to induce sufficient receptor clustering and activation, thereby mimicking the TNFSF ligand superclusters ( 15 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Innovent Biologics, Inc., a world-class China-based biopharmaceutical company that develops and commercializes high quality drugs, announced today that its IND application for IBI101, a recombinant fully human anti-OX40 monoclonal antibody (mAb) drug candidate, has been approved by the US Food & Drug Administration (FDA), and plans to initiate the US phase I clinical trial based on results from the China phase I study in patients with advanced solid tumors. (pharmaceutical-tech.com)
- Innovent is the first Chinese biopharmaceutical company to receive clinical trial approval from FDA for an anti-OX40 monoclonal antibody. (pharmaceutical-tech.com)
- The FDA IND approval of anti-OX40 monoclonal antibody once again demonstrates Innovent's research and development capability. (pharmaceutical-tech.com)
- IBI101 is a recombinant fully human anti-OX40 (tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 4) monoclonal antibody. (pharmaceutical-tech.com)
- Agonistic OX40 candidates will be used in combination with other immunomodulation agents, including anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody (IBI308) and other drugs in Innovent's R&D pipeline, to meet more unmet medical needs of cancer patients. (pharmaceutical-tech.com)
- OX40 Ligand (OX40L), also known as gp34, is a member of the TNF superfamily. (rndsystems.com)
- The ligand of OX40, called OX40 ligand (OX40L, TNFSF4, gp34), which is expressed by antigen presenting cells, binds to OX40 on T cells, preventing them from dying and subsequently increasing cytokine production. (wikipedia.org)
- Tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 4 (TNFSF4) is also known as glycoprotein Gp34, OX40 ligand (OX40L), TAX transcriptionally-activated glycoprotein 1 and CD252, which belongs to the tumor necrosis factor family. (proteinkinase.biz)
- The OX40 and its ligand gp34, which are induced by HTLV-I infection and directly mediate the adhesion between HTLV-I-infected T cells and vascular endothelial cells, may be critically involved in the localization and proliferation of HTLV-I-infected cells in vivo. (nih.gov)
- The ligand (muOX40L) is a type II membrane protein with significant identity to human gp34 (gp34), a protein whose expression on HTLV-1-infected human leukemic T cells is regulated by the tax gene. (elsevier.com)
- The predicted structures of muOX40L and gp34 are similar to, but more compact than, those of other ligands of the TNF family. (elsevier.com)
- cDNAs for human OX40 receptor were cloned by cross-hybridization with muOX40, and gp34 was found to bind the expressed human receptor. (elsevier.com)
- In addition, the HTLV-1 regulation of gp34 suggests a possible connection between virally induced pathogenesis and the OX40 system. (elsevier.com)
- The OX40 receptor binds to the OX40 ligand (CD252) to provide a costimulatory signal which is independent of CD28. (miltenyibiotec.com)
- OX40L (CD252) is the ligand for tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 4 (TNFRSF4, a.k.a. (guidetoimmunopharmacology.org)
- The interaction between OX40 and its binding partner, OX40L (CD252) plays an important role in antigen-specific T-cell expansion and survival. (creative-biolabs.com)
- Each OX40 Ligand/TNFSF4 Peptide and OX40 Ligand/TNFSF4 Protein is fully covered by our Guarantee+, to give you complete peace of mind and the support when you need it. (novusbio.com)
- This initial binding changes the shape of the SU protein to one that facilitates interaction between SU and the chemokine receptor CXCR4. (wikipedia.org)
- A combined protein, OX40-immunoglobulin (OX40-Ig), a human-made fusion protein, prevents OX40 ligand from reaching OX40 on T cells, thus reducing the T cell response. (wikipedia.org)
- The mutant OX40 protein was poorly expressed on the cell surface and failed to bind OX40L, resulting in complete functional OX40 deficiency. (garvan.org.au)
- Allergic reactions to drugs are not always the result of the drug's protein-binding capacity, biotransformation, or degradation. (springer.com)
- protein binds and sequesters proapoptotic proteins, limiting their ability to initiate apoptosis. (abbviescience.com)
- Upon subcutaneous administration, abaloparatide acts similar to PTHrP and targets, binds to and activates parathyroid hormone 1 (PTH1) receptor (PTH1R), a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) expressed in osteoblasts and bone stromal cells. (cancer.gov)
- 2. Song Y, Margolles-Clark E, Bayer A, Buchwald P. (2014) Small-molecule modulators of the OX40-OX40 ligand co-stimulatory protein-protein interaction. (guidetopharmacology.org)
- CD137L is a two directional signal transducer that has a role as a ligand to TNFRSF9 aka 4-1BBR, which is a co-stimulation receptor protein in T lymphocytes. (prospecbio.com)
- Tax protein of HTLV-I, which is considered oncogenic, binds to transcription factors or other cytoplasmic cellular molecules involved in the fundamental cell function and thereby induces cellular changes. (nih.gov)
- The tumor necrosis factor superfamily member TNFSF4 is a type II membrane bound, non-covalently linked homotrimeric protein. (thermofisher.com)
- Human genetic studies have identified the neuronal RNA binding protein, Rbfox1, as a candidate gene for autism spectrum disorders. (infona.pl)
- Improvement of the pathological epidermal phenotype in GBR 830 treated patients was shown by reduction of skin thickness, reduced expression of hyper proliferation biomarker K16 mRNA and Ki67 expressing cells, as well as reduced protein expression of OX40 and its ligand OX40L. (pharmiweb.com)
- Synthetic metal-binding protein surface domains for metal ion-dependent interaction chromatography. (termsreign.ga)
- Here, we have reconstituted the pathway in cell lines and identified IKKα and IRF7 as specific targets of the MV V protein (MV-V). Binding of MV-V to IKKα resulted in phosphorylation of V on the expense of IRF7 phosphorylation by IKKα in vitro and in living cells. (asm.org)
- One mechanism inhibiting the innate response is the presence of the macrophage inhibitory molecule, signal regulatory protein-α (SIRPα), on tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and its cognate ligand cluster of differentiation 47 (CD47) on tumor cells in the tumor microenvironment. (hep.com.cn)
- Cytokine that binds to TNFRSF4. (abcam.com)
- OX40/TNFRSF4 contains four TNFR-Cys repeats. (creativebiomart.net)
- OX40 , also known as TNFRSF4 (Tumor necrosis factor receptor super family, member 4), is mainly expressed on the surface of activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and its binding with the OX40 ligand can stimulate CD8+ T Cell Activation. (biocytogen.com)
- OX40 is a secondary costimulatory molecule, which is expressed after 24 to 72 hours following activation. (miltenyibiotec.com)
- OX40 is a secondary co-stimulatory immune checkpoint molecule expressed on activated T cells (requiring CD28 co-stimulatory signal), and OX40L is expressed on activated dendritic cells. (guidetoimmunopharmacology.org)
- 1. A stem cell or differentiated cell genetically modified to express a chimeric molecule comprising an extracellular component comprising a tag cassette that specifically binds an exogenous cognate binding molecule (ExoCBM). (patents.com)
- 5. A stem cell or differentiated cell of claim 1 wherein the extracellular component further includes a tag sequence that specifically binds an endogenous cognate binding molecule (EndoCBM). (patents.com)
- Dr. Croft said emerging data on the role of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) super family of molecules in fueling inflammatory diseases, including his own finding on OX40 Ligand and its receptor's action in triggering inflammation in asthma, prompted him to take a close look at fellow TNF molecule, LIGHT. (innovations-report.com)
- 2. The nucleic acid molecule of claim 1, wherein said co-stimulatory domain comprises at least one TRAF-binding motif. (freepatentsonline.com)
- 3. The nucleic acid molecule of claim 2, wherein said TRAF-binding motif is selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs: 10, 9, and 11. (freepatentsonline.com)
- 4. The nucleic acid molecule of claim 1, wherein said co-stimulatory domain comprises two TRAF-binding motifs separated by a spacer sequence. (freepatentsonline.com)
- 6. The nucleic acid molecule of claim 1, wherein said co-stimulatory domain comprises two TRAF-binding motifs selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs: 10, 9, and 11 separated by a spacer sequence, wherein said spacer sequence is selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs: 15 and 12-14. (freepatentsonline.com)
- 22. The nucleic acid molecule of claim 21, wherein said inducible regulatory construct further comprises a binding domain that allows two of said inducible regulatory constructs to dimerize, wherein dimerization initiates a co-stimulatory signal to a cell. (freepatentsonline.com)
- Productive interaction between activated T and B cells requires binding of T cell receptor (TCR) to an antigenic peptide presented on the major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) molecule of the corresponding B cell. (umich.edu)
- However, how variation in antigen load, TCR affinity and costimulatory molecule/ligand expression affects T/B cell interactions in vivo and the resulting B cell response has not been thoroughly addressed. (umich.edu)
- The CD4 and CD8 molecules then bind to the MHC molecule too, stabilising the whole structure. (debuglies.com)
- This molecule on the T cell binds to one of two molecules on the APC - B7.1 (CD80) or B7.2 (CD86) - and initiates T-cell proliferation. (debuglies.com)
- In contrast, COPD was specifically characterised by a decreased expression of the anti-inflammatory co-stimulatory molecule PD-L1 on pDCs and an increased expression of the pro-inflammatory co-stimulatory molecule OX40 ligand (OX40L) on mDCs. (biomedcentral.com)
- The virus attaches via a high-affinity interaction with CD4, resulting in a conformational change in the envelope glycoprotein (Env) and exposing the binding site for the chemokine receptor ( 30 ). (asm.org)
- OX40, a cell surface glycoprotein and member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family, is expressed on T-lymphocytes and provides a co-stimulatory signal for the proliferation and survival of activated T cells. (cancer.gov)
- Because OX40 ligand is expressed on dendritic cells, the OX40 costimulation pathway may be involved in the physiological regulation of Th cell development by augmenting the differentiation of IL-4-producing cells. (bloodjournal.org)
- By binding to its CD154 ligand, it acts as a co-stimulator for activation of B cells, dendritic cells, monocytes, and other antigen presenting cells. (autozygosity.org)
- We have recently identified a new TNF-like ligand, called BAFF (for B cell activating factor belonging to the TNF family), which is expressed by dendritic cells and possibly T cells and binds primarily to B cells ( 23 ). (rupress.org)
- Binding with its two ligands are CD80 and CD86 , expressed on dendritic cells, prompts T cell expansion. (blogspot.com)
- OX40L strongly inhibited the generation of IL-10-producing Tr1 cells induced by two physiologic stimuli, the inducible costimulatory ligand and immature dendritic cells. (abcam.com)
- 3) Mechanisms targeting dendritic cells include binding of CTLA‐4 on Treg cells to CD80/CD86 on DCs (dendritic cells), inhibiting DC‐mediated Teff‐cell activation. (els.net)
- Upon binding of the TCR to cognate peptide-MHC complexes presented on the surface of antigen presenting cells (APCs), a specialized supramolecular structure known as the immunological synapse (IS) assembles at the T cell-APC interface. (hindawi.com)
- We show that the interaction between T-cell-expressed OX40 and OX40L on antigen-presenting cells is critical for effective immunity to BCG. (ovid.com)
- However, because OX40L is lost rapidly from antigen-presenting cells following BCG vaccination, maintenance of OX40-expressing vaccine-activated T cells may not be optimal. (ovid.com)
- Abatacept binds CD80 and CD86 on antigen presenting cells (APCs), blocking interaction with CD28 on T lymphocytes, which initiates a co-stimulatory signal required for full activation of T lymphocytes. (cancer.gov)
- Binding to its ligand (OX40L, TNFSF4) on antigen presenting cells gives to the T cell costimulatory signal, and this interaction results also in B cell proliferation and influences T cell memory pool. (exbio.cz)
- There are a number of markers found on both tumor cells and antigen presenting cells that can downregulate or suppress T cells once the corresponding ligand is bound. (biolegend.com)
- 2015) IgE and IgA produced by OX40-OX40L or CD40-CD40L interaction in B cells-mast cells re-activate FcεRI or FcαRI on mast cells in mouse allergic asthma. (miltenyibiotec.com)
- To provide the essential functions in priming naive T cells in lymphoid tissues, PDCs require CD40 ligands (CD40L), which are delivered from T cells and cause the terminal maturation of DCs ( 3 , 4 ). (jimmunol.org)
- Its ligand, CD40L, is primarily expressed on helper T cells and other immune effector cells shortly following T cell activation. (healio.com)
- CD40-CD40L binding on activated T cells stimulates cytokine secretion from B cells, which subsequently enhances T cell activation and anti-tumor immunity. (healio.com)
- Here, DCs receive further activating signals from cognate Th cells, which express CD40 ligand (CD40L) ( 16 ), OX40 ( 17 )( 18 ), and TNF-related activation-induced cytokine (TRANCE) ( 19 )( 20 )( 21 )( 22 ). (rupress.org)
- Communication between appropriate T and B cells also depends on the interactions between costimulatory molecules expressed on one of the cells with their corresponding ligands on the other cell (such as CD40L/CD40, OX40/OX40L and ICOSL/ICOS interactions). (umich.edu)
- Upon binding with its ligand (OX40L) on APCs, OX40 both activates and amplifies T cell responses by promoting T cell proliferation, function, survival and cytokine production. (healio.com)
- In addition to T cells, the OX40/OX40L pathway is also involved in NK cell activation, cytokine production, cytotoxicity and enhancement of NK's cell lysis function. (healio.com)
- OX40 and OX40L also regulate cytokine production from T cells and modulate cytokine receptor signaling. (creative-biolabs.com)
- The coactivation of OX40/OX40L enhances T cell function, including cytokine production, proliferation and T cell survival. (biocytogen.com)
- Like CD27, OX40 promotes the expansion of effector and memory T cells, however it is also noted for its ability to suppress the differentiation and activity of T-regulatory cells, and also for its regulation of cytokine production. (blogspot.com)
- 1999) CD28-independent costimulation of T cells by OX40 ligand and CD70 on activated B cells. (miltenyibiotec.com)
- The second but primary signal of the costimulatory pathway involved in T cell activation occurs when CD28 on the T-cell surface binds to one or both of the B7 molecules, B7-1 (CD80) and B7-2 (CD86), on the APC. (healio.com)
- Binding of OX40 to its ligand, OX40L provides co-stimulatory signal to effector T-cells without CD28 activation. (axxora.com)
- For example, chimeric CD28 and OX40 can be used with CD3-zeta to transmit a proliferative/survival signal, or all three can be used together. (creative-biolabs.com)
- The effects of OX40 costimulation on Th cell differentiation are observed in the presence of optimal and suboptimal CD28 stimulation. (bloodjournal.org)
- Effector T cells express co-stimulatory molecules such as CD28, CD137, GITR, OX40 that enhance their proliferation and survival. (nih.gov)
- CR3 is a human cell surface receptor, found on polymorphonuclear leukocytes (mostly neutrophils), NK cells, and mononuclear phagocytes like macrophages, which is capable of recognizing and binding to many molecules found on the surfaces of invading bacteria. (advancedcancerresearchinstitute.com)
- In contrast, the B polypeptides of the two classes of HLT exhibit significant divergence in amino acid sequence, which imparts upon the molecules the range of receptor binding specificities observed for the enterotoxins ( 20 ). (asm.org)
- These tumor cells express stress-induced molecules such as surface calreticulin, tumor antigens in context of MHC class I molecules, and/or NKG2D ligands recognized by CD8 + effector cells and NK cells, respectively. (nih.gov)
- T cells must recognise foreign antigen strongly and specifically to mount an effective immune response and those that do are given survival signals by several molecules, including ICOS , 4-1BB and OX40 . (debuglies.com)
- These molecules are found on the T-cell surface and are stimulated by their respective ligands which are typically found on APCs. (debuglies.com)
- It was the aim of the present study, therefore, to study major co-stimulatory molecules such as programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) or OX40 ligand (OX40L) and other function-associated surface molecules on circulating DCs of patients with COPD for the first time, and to compare the findings with control groups of asymptomatic smokers and never-smokers. (biomedcentral.com)
- ABBV-621 is a Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL) receptor agonist. (abbviescience.com)
- an anti-GITR agonist) and INCAGN1949 (an anti-OX40 agonist). (gpremium.ru)
- An OX40 agonist can reduce regulatory T cells (Tregs) and improve anti-tumor activity. (biocytogen.com)
- Research has shown that when OX40 is treated with agonist Treg function is impaired and Welsh and his team hypothesize that radiation and OX40 agonist may make an effective partnership in stimulating the immune system and promoting tumor regression. (mdanderson.org)
Member of the TNF receptor2
- The OX40/OX40L pathway is being investigated for the development of novel anti-inflammatory therapeutics and anti-cancer drugs. (guidetoimmunopharmacology.org)
- Activating mutations in components of the noncanonical nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway are implicated in various cancers, and ligands that stimulate this pathway are increased in abundance in autoimmune inflammation, which makes this pathway an attractive therapeutic target. (sciencemag.org)
- Similar to other TNF superfamily members, membrane-bound OX40 Ligand exists as a homotrimer. (rndsystems.com)
- Generation and biological characterization of membrane-bound, uncleavable murine tumor necrosis factor. (patentgenius.com)
- TNF-R, like their ligand, can be cleaved from the cell surface by TACE but soluble TNF-R are believed to be present only in small amounts relative to membrane-bound TNF-R. (hopkinsarthritis.org)
- More particularly, this invention provides isolated human and murine CD40-L polypeptides that bind to the extracellular binding region of a CD40 receptor. (google.com.au)
- The vector of DNAM-1 based chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) is constructed for the engineering of T cells to target murine DNAM-1 ligands. (creative-biolabs.com)
- IL-3-treated PDCs expressed OX40L, but produced almost no IFN-α in response to T cell stimulation (CD40 ligand or T cell interaction), resulting in the preferential priming of Th2 cells through OX40L-dependent mechanisms. (jimmunol.org)
- Attenuated vaccines may therefore lack sufficient innate stimulation to maintain vaccine-specific T cells, which can be replaced by reagents binding inducible T-cell costimulators. (ovid.com)
- We hypothesize that primed T cells more rapidly and stronger upregulated OX40 leading to greater benefit during enforced OX40 stimulation. (gpremium.ru)
- CD137 stimulation preferentially stimulates CD8 + T cells when compared with CD4 + T cells and OX40 stimulation preferentially stimulates CD4 + T cells when compared with CD8 + T cells ( 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- We show here that ligation of OX40 Ag, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNF-R) family, on activated umbilical cord blood CD4 + T cells upregulates IL-4 production at priming and thereby promotes their development into effector cells producing high levels of the type 2 cytokines IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13. (bloodjournal.org)
- TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL), a cytokine that induces apoptosis [ PMID: 8777713 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
- Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand in T cell development: sensitivity of human thymocytes. (embl-heidelberg.de)
- TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) is a recently identified member of the tumor necrosis factor cytokine superfamily. (embl-heidelberg.de)
Expressed on activated2
- And the vector product was designed for the treatment of DNAM-1 ligands positive tumors. (creative-biolabs.com)
- Modulating PD-L1 and OX40 receptor signaling combined with intratumoral ADU S-100 administration enhanced HER-2-specific CD8 + T-cell activity, clearing tumors in 40% of neu/N mice. (aacrjournals.org)
- γδ T cells can also recognize and kill tumors expressing NKG2D ligands (MICA/B in humans). (nih.gov)
- 4-1BBL also called 4-1BB Ligand and CD137L, CD137 Ligand, TNFSF9 binds to 4-1BBR also called 4-1bb Receptor and CD137, TNFRSF9. (prospecbio.com)
- The expression patterns of OX40 and CD137 are overlapping, but distinct with expression of OX40 higher on CD4 + T cells and that of CD137 higher on CD8 + T cells ( 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- ligand polypeptide having a CD154 Domain III and a TNF.alpha. (patentgenius.com)
- The polypeptide ligands are characterized by a common core sequence predicted to contain 10 b-sheet forming sequences, and include TNF-a, lymphotoxin-aand -b, Fas ligand, CD40 ligand and others (Table I below). (hopkinsarthritis.org)
- OX40 also aids in T cell differentiation into memory T cells. (healio.com)
- OX40 has been shown to inhibit the reproduction, immunosuppressive effects and suppressive function of Tregs on T cell activation, thereby aiding in the attenuation of autoimmune reactions. (healio.com)
- The OX40/OX40L pair is involved in late T-cell costimulatory signaling and both are transiently expressed following antigen recognition, and blocking OX40/OX40L is reported to prevent the development of disease in in vivo autoimmune and inflammatory disease models [ 4 ]. (guidetoimmunopharmacology.org)
- Together, these findings suggest that human OX40 is necessary for robust CD4(+) T cell memory and confers apparently selective protective immunity against HHV-8 infection in endothelial cells. (garvan.org.au)
- Mediator release may occur via cross-linking of cell-bound IgE by di-(multi-) valent free drug. (springer.com)
- OX40 cosignaling in CAR improve redirected T-cell effector functions and enhance anti-tumor activity. (creative-biolabs.com)
- It transmits an activation signal to the T cell after antigen is bound. (creative-biolabs.com)
- They turned to a new class of immunotherapy drugs known as OX40 agonists-drugs that bind to and activate OX40, potently ramping up T-cell activity. (gpremium.ru)
- OX40 engagement and chemotherapy combination provides potent antitumor immunity with concomitant regulatory T cell apoptosis. (gpremium.ru)
- Binding to the receptor causes phagocytosis and destruction of the foreign cell. (advancedcancerresearchinstitute.com)
- 4-1BB participates along with OX40 on activated T cells, establishing a complex that prevents Treg and CD8+ T cell production. (prospecbio.com)
- Costimulatory signals are essential for T cell activity, and binding between OX40 and OX40L is a biomarker for the severity of autoimmune diseases. (pharmiweb.com)
- T-cell antigen OX40, the receptor for the OX40L cytokine. (expasy.org)
- PD1 (Programmed Cell Death) is expressed on CD8+ and CD4+ T cells that bind to both ligands PDL1/PDL2. (mdanderson.org)
- The T cell receptor (TCR) on both CD4 + helper T cells and CD8 + cytotoxic T cells binds to the antigen as it is held in a structure called the MHC complex, on the surface of the APC. (debuglies.com)
- This initial binding between a T cell specific for one antigen and the antigen-MHC it matches sets the whole response in motion. (debuglies.com)
- No. SIA-H5225 ) can bind to Jurkat cell expressing CD47. (acrobiosystems.cn)
- Click on the receptor/ligand or cytokine names below in order to learn more about their cell distribution, function, and therapeutic role in treating cancer. (biolegend.com)
- Activation of PD-1/CD279 signaling via binding to its ligands (PD-L1, PD-L2) leads to downstream signaling that results in cell death. (biolegend.com)
- 4) Cytolysis mechanisms include granzyme secretion by Treg cells and FasL binding to Fas on Teff cells, both inducing Teff‐cell apoptosis. (els.net)
- Immobilized Rhesus macaque OX40, His Tag at 2 μg/mL (100 μl/well) can bind Human OX40 Ligand, Fc Tag with a linear range of 0.2-25 ng/mL (QC tested). (creativebiomart.net)
- however, these agents, particularly the anti The human OX40 homolog: cDNA structure, expression and chromosomal assignment of the ACT35 antigen. (gpremium.ru)
- No. BAF-H4268) at 10 μg/mL (100 μL/well) can bind FITC-Labeled Human BCMA, Fc Tag (Cat. (proteinkinase.biz)
- Human OX40 was exclusively detectable in T cells of homozygous B-hOX40/h4-1BB mice but not WT mice. (biocytogen.com)
- The aim of this study was to examine the expression and function of B7-H2 in human airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells and compare them with those of CD40 or OX40 ligand (OX40L). (termsreign.ga)
- Figure 3.The purity of trimer Human OX40 ligand (Cat.No. OXL-H52Q8 ) was>90%as determined by SEC-HPLC. (acrobiosystems.com)
- The purity of trimer Human OX40 ligand (Cat. (acrobiosystems.cn)
- No. SIA-H5251 ) at 5 μg/mL (100 μL/well) can bind Human CD47, His Tag (Cat. (acrobiosystems.cn)
- FACS analysis shows that the binding of Human SIRP alpha, His Tag (HPLC-verified) (Cat. (acrobiosystems.cn)
- It is believed that GBR 830 may inhibit the dual activities of OX40 and OX40L binding in both activated T cells and regulatory T cells, thus potentially reducing inflammation associated with symptoms of atopic dermatitis. (pharmiweb.com)
- The clinical significance of elevated MAdCAM-1 expression is supported by studies showing that immunoneutralization of MAdCAM-1, or its ligands reduce inflammation and mucosal damage in models of colitis. (biomedcentral.com)