Ionophores: Chemical agents that increase the permeability of biological or artificial lipid membranes to specific ions. Most ionophores are relatively small organic molecules that act as mobile carriers within membranes or coalesce to form ion permeable channels across membranes. Many are antibiotics, and many act as uncoupling agents by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.Lasalocid: Cationic ionophore antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces lasaliensis that, among other effects, dissociates the calcium fluxes in muscle fibers. It is used as a coccidiostat, especially in poultry.Nigericin: A polyether antibiotic which affects ion transport and ATPase activity in mitochondria. It is produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Monensin: An antiprotozoal agent produced by Streptomyces cinnamonensis. It exerts its effect during the development of first-generation trophozoites into first-generation schizonts within the intestinal epithelial cells. It does not interfere with hosts' development of acquired immunity to the majority of coccidial species. Monensin is a sodium and proton selective ionophore and is widely used as such in biochemical studies.Valinomycin: A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies.Calcimycin: An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.Ionomycin: A divalent calcium ionophore that is widely used as a tool to investigate the role of intracellular calcium in cellular processes.Potassium Ionophores: Chemical agents that increase the permeability of CELL MEMBRANES to POTASSIUM ions.EthersSodium Ionophores: Chemical agents that increase the permeability of CELL MEMBRANES to SODIUM ions.Carbonyl Cyanide m-Chlorophenyl Hydrazone: A proton ionophore. It is commonly used as an uncoupling agent and inhibitor of photosynthesis because of its effects on mitochondrial and chloroplast membranes.Carbonyl Cyanide p-Trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone: A proton ionophore that is commonly used as an uncoupling agent in biochemical studies.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Gramicidin: A group of peptide antibiotics from BACILLUS brevis. Gramicidin C or S is a cyclic, ten-amino acid polypeptide and gramicidins A, B, D are linear. Gramicidin is one of the two principal components of TYROTHRICIN.Furans: Compounds with a 5-membered ring of four carbons and an oxygen. They are aromatic heterocycles. The reduced form is tetrahydrofuran.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.ButylaminesBiological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Ion-Selective Electrodes: Electrodes which can be used to measure the concentration of particular ions in cells, tissues, or solutions.Proton Ionophores: Chemical agents that increase the permeability of CELL MEMBRANES to PROTONS.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Potentiometry: Solution titration in which the end point is read from the electrode-potential variations with the concentrations of potential determining ions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)MethylaminesRuminants: A suborder of the order ARTIODACTYLA whose members have the distinguishing feature of a four-chambered stomach, including the capacious RUMEN. Horns or antlers are usually present, at least in males.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Veterinary Drugs: Drugs used by veterinarians in the treatment of animal diseases. The veterinarian's pharmacological armamentarium is the counterpart of drugs treating human diseases, with dosage and administration adjusted to the size, weight, disease, and idiosyncrasies of the species. In the United States most drugs are subject to federal regulations with special reference to the safety of drugs and residues in edible animal products.Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide: A carbodiimide that is used as a chemical intermediate and coupling agent in peptide synthesis. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Salicylanilides: 2-Hydroxy-N-phenylbenzamides. N-phenyl substituted salicylamides. Derivatives have been used as fungicides, anti-mildew agents and topical antifungal agents. In concentrated form may cause irritation of skin and mucous membranes.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.2,4-Dinitrophenol: A toxic dye, chemically related to trinitrophenol (picric acid), used in biochemical studies of oxidative processes where it uncouples oxidative phosphorylation. It is also used as a metabolic stimulant. (Stedman, 26th ed)Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Coccidiostats: Agents useful in the treatment or prevention of COCCIDIOSIS in man or animals.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Calcium Ionophores: Chemical agents that increase the permeability of CELL MEMBRANES to CALCIUM ions.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Arsenazo III: Metallochrome indicator that changes color when complexed to the calcium ion under physiological conditions. It is used to measure local calcium ion concentrations in vivo.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Potassium Cyanide: A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes, but has been shown to be an especially potent inhibitor of heme enzymes and hemeproteins. It is used in many industrial processes.PyransAmmonium Chloride: An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.Clioquinol: A potentially neurotoxic 8-hydroxyquinoline derivative long used as a topical anti-infective, intestinal antiamebic, and vaginal trichomonacide. The oral preparation has been shown to cause subacute myelo-optic neuropathy and has been banned worldwide.Lanthanum: Lanthanum. The prototypical element in the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol La, atomic number 57, and atomic weight 138.91. Lanthanide ion is used in experimental biology as a calcium antagonist; lanthanum oxide improves the optical properties of glass.Rumen: The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Uncoupling Agents: Chemical agents that uncouple oxidation from phosphorylation in the metabolic cycle so that ATP synthesis does not occur. Included here are those IONOPHORES that disrupt electron transfer by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Cations, Divalent: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Carboxylic Acids: Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.Egtazic Acid: A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Arsenates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of arsenic acid.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Dinitrophenols: Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.Cations: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Terpenes: A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.Eubacterium: A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of man and animals, animal and plant products, infections of soft tissue, and soil. Some species may be pathogenic. No endospores are produced. The genus Eubacterium should not be confused with EUBACTERIA, one of the three domains of life.Aminoquinolines: Quinolines substituted in any position by one or more amino groups.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Electrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.Edetic Acid: A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.Gastrointestinal Contents: The contents included in all or any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Macrolides: A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Verapamil: A calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Lysosomes: A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Ions: An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Zinc: A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.Thapsigargin: A sesquiterpene lactone found in roots of THAPSIA. It inhibits CA(2+)-TRANSPORTING ATPASE mediated uptake of CALCIUM into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Histamine Release: The secretion of histamine from mast cell and basophil granules by exocytosis. This can be initiated by a number of factors, all of which involve binding of IgE, cross-linked by antigen, to the mast cell or basophil's Fc receptors. Once released, histamine binds to a number of different target cell receptors and exerts a wide variety of effects.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Azides: Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Chloroquine: The prototypical antimalarial agent with a mechanism that is not well understood. It has also been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and in the systemic therapy of amebic liver abscesses.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Proteolipids: Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.Digestion: The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Chelating Agents: Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Oligomycins: A closely related group of toxic substances elaborated by various strains of Streptomyces. They are 26-membered macrolides with lactone moieties and double bonds and inhibit various ATPases, causing uncoupling of phosphorylation from mitochondrial respiration. Used as tools in cytochemistry. Some specific oligomycins are RUTAMYCIN, peliomycin, and botrycidin (formerly venturicidin X).Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Stimulation, Chemical: The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Proton-Translocating ATPases: Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Lactococcus lactis: A non-pathogenic species of LACTOCOCCUS found in DAIRY PRODUCTS and responsible for the souring of MILK and the production of LACTIC ACID.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Phorbol Esters: Tumor-promoting compounds obtained from CROTON OIL (Croton tiglium). Some of these are used in cell biological experiments as activators of protein kinase C.Arachidonic Acid: An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.Electrodes: Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.Ouabain: A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Vacuoles: Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
  • Ionomycin, a calcium ionophore, causes rapid mitochondrial accumulation of actin filaments followed by Drp1 accumulation at the fission site, and increases fission rate. (nih.gov)
  • Desensitization of substance P-induced InsP3 was not affected by the Ca2+ ionophore ionomycin, nor was it dependent on Ca2+ mobilization. (biochemj.org)
  • The Ca2+ ionophore ionomycin (1 × 10(−6)-3.2 × 10(−6) mol l-1 on the mucosal surface) increased both unidirectional Ca2+ fluxes and caused Ca2+ to accumulate within the epithelium. (biologists.org)
  • Dihydropicrotoxinin binding was rapid, reversible, and proportional to protein concentration. (aspetjournals.org)
  • This binding, like that of γ-aminobutyric acid, was enriched in sarcolemma fractions, being present at 6-8 pmoles/mg of protein or per gram of wet muscle. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Protein binding is approximately 73% for methohexital. (wikipedia.org)
  • The transcriptional coactivators CREB-binding protein and p300 regulate inducible transcription in multiple cellular processes and during the establishment of inflammatory and immune response. (jimmunol.org)
  • Several viruses have been shown to interfere with CREB-binding protein/p300 function, modulating their transcriptional activity. (jimmunol.org)
  • The p300 and CREB-binding protein (CBP) 3 are pivotal regulators of the inducible transcription of eukaryotic cells ( 1 ), and were first identified as proteins interacting with the transcription factor CREB ( 2 ) and the adenoviral protein E1A ( 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • On one hand, they act as a molecular bridge to connect the transcription factors with the transcriptional machinery, including TATA binding protein, transcription factor II B, transcription factor II D, and RNA polymerase II ( 4 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) is an alternative method to dialysis and ultrafiltration for the determination of plasma protein binding (PPB) of drugs. (springer.com)
  • Determination of drug plasma protein binding by solid phase microextraction. (springer.com)
  • The researchers then showed that PTOX (recombinant GFP-bound protein) is fairly equally distributed in a network-like structure in leaves incubated in high light. (cea.fr)
  • An Hsp70-like protein in the ER: identity with the 78 kd glucose-regulated protein and immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns[4, 2 ) pools that bind pleckstrin homology (PH) domains were visualized by cellular expression of a phospholipase C (PLC)δ PH domain-green fluorescent protein fusion construct and analysis of confocal images in living cells. (rupress.org)
  • Similarly, the PH domain of the Akt protein kinase appears to bind PtdIns(3,4)P 2 but not PtdIns(4,5)P 2 ( 13 ). (rupress.org)
  • The increase in F-actin during capacitation depends upon inactivation of the actin severing protein, gelsolin, by its binding to phosphatydilinositol-4, 5-bisphosphate (PIP2) and its phosphorylation on tyrosine-438 by Src. (wseas.org)
  • Actin filaments bind purified Drp1 and increase GTPase activity in a manner that is synergistic with the mitochondrial protein Mff, suggesting a role for direct Drp1/actin interaction. (nih.gov)
  • Bole, Posttranslational association of immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein with nascent heavy chains in nonsecreting and secreting hybridomas. (xenbase.org)
  • Protein binding of zonisamide is unaffected in the presence of therapeutic concentrations of phenytoin, phenobarbital or carbamazepine. (drugs.com)
  • Mac-2 antigen, a 32-kDa murine macrophage cell-surface protein expressed on thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal exudate cells at higher levels than other macrophages, is a member of the S-(soluble) galactoside-binding lectin family with homologies to carbohydrate-binding proteins of other cell types. (nih.gov)
  • The extent of this translocation closely paralleled release of the specific granule marker, vitamin B12-binding protein. (rupress.org)
  • Carbon dots were synthesized and integrated into nanosensors containing a pH-indicator, an analyte-binding ligand (ionophore), and a charge-balancing additive. (rsc.org)
  • The binding affinity of this central metal could be controlled by the surrounding porphyrin ring as well as the fifth or sixth ligand attached to the metal. (mdpi.com)
  • As expected, wild-type sperm must undergo capacitation in order to bind the zona pellucida and undergo a Ca 2+ ionophore-induced acrosome reaction. (biologists.org)
  • By contrast, GalT I-null sperm behave as though they are precociously capacitated, in that they demonstrate maximal binding to the zona pellucida and greatly increased sensitivity to ionophore-induced acrosome reactions without undergoing capacitation in vitro. (biologists.org)
  • The fertility of GalT I-null mice suggests that sperm binding to the zona pellucida requires a GalT-ZP3-independent interaction ( Rodeheffer and Shur, 2004 ). (biologists.org)
  • Sperm from homozygotes have increased binding to unfertilized eggs, bind ZP3 (zona pellucida glycoprotein 3) less and demonstrate poor zona pellucida penetration when compared to sperm from wild-type controls. (jax.org)
  • Although able to undergo normal acrosomal exocytosis induced by calcium ionophore, homozygous sperm do not exhibit acrosome reaction to zona pellucida glycoproteins or anti-galactosyltransferase antibodies. (jax.org)
  • Carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, which is a proton ionophore that collapses the sodium motive force in this organism at neutral pH, also inhibited the assembly. (nih.gov)
  • Upon elevation of internal concentration of sodium, there is increase in sodium binding to catalytic alpha subunit of Na,K-pump which undergoes phosphorylation-induced conformational change. (mcmaster.ca)
  • Recent biochemical evidence has indicated that this ionophore enhanced secretion of the specific granule enzyme, lysozyme, from human neutrophils, thus implicating calcium in the induction of its release (Estensen et al. (docme.ru)
  • In this study we demonstrated that platelet lysate depleted of the antigen through adsorption by an AAP2-solidified affinity column was bound by MAbs against CD62 and CD42 but not by MAb 5.6E against CD31 or AAP2 on the immunoblot. (ahajournals.org)
  • These results suggest that AAP2 binds to a special epitope of CD31 on platelets and that CD31 is involved in platelet aggregation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Using it to study its interaction with platelets, we found that AAP2 had increased binding to activated platelets and inhibited platelet aggregation induced by agonists. (ahajournals.org)
  • The binding was inhibited by picrotoxinin analogues in the same order of potency shown by these compounds in convulsant activity or in inhibition of γ-aminobutyric acid synaptic responses: picrotoxinin and tutin were slightly more active than dihydropicrotoxinin in all systems, whereas picrotin was less active and picrotoxinin acetate and alkali-hydrolyzed picrotoxinin were inactive. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Siderophore - Fe3+ binding compounds, found in microbes and grasses Bakker E1, Bühlmann P, Pretsch E. (1997). (wikipedia.org)
  • The invention provides chromoionophore compounds comprising a triazacryptand (TAC) K+ ionophore conjugated to at least a first chromophoric moiety (e.g., xanthylium dyes and derivatives thereof). (google.com)
  • 3 H]α-Dihydropicrotoxinin, a biologically active analogue of the γ-aminobutyric acid synaptic antagonist picrotoxin, was found to bind to a small quantity of saturable, high-affinity ( K D , 1 µM) sites in crayfish muscle homogenates. (aspetjournals.org)
  • This decrease of TBPS binding derived from a reduced density of binding sites, rather than from affinity changes. (muscimol.xyz)
  • Scatchard analysis of [ 3 H]AVM B 1a binding reveals high- and low-affinity sites with K D values of 5 and 815 nM, respectively. (aspetjournals.org)
  • It has been shown that the nature of the ionophore-anion interaction is influenced by the charge of the central metal ion from the porphyrin structure. (mdpi.com)
  • The molecule, e.g., 2,2-bis[3,4-(15-crown-5)-2-nitrophenylcarbamoxymethyl]tetradecanol-14, has at least one binding site and is provided with a fluorophore. (google.com)
  • We pair this ionophore with our already established nanosensor platform, and demonstrate in vitro and in vivo monitoring of histamine levels. (mdpi.com)
  • The PH domains of several proteins have been shown to bind phosphoinositides in a specific manner with micromolar affinities in vitro ( 29 , 31 ). (rupress.org)
  • However, despite their inability to bind ZP3, GalT I-null sperm are still able to bind to the egg coat and fertilize eggs in vitro, albeit at very low efficiency ( Lu and Shur, 1997 ). (biologists.org)
  • Similarly, sperm from males devoid of all GalT I, or devoid of just the surface isoform of GalT I, fail to bind ZP3 or undergo a ZP3-induced acrosome reaction. (biologists.org)
  • Typical ionophore-based nanosensors incorporate nile-blue derivative pH indicators but suffer from photobleaching while quantum dot alternatives pose a potential toxicity risk. (rsc.org)
  • Thus we conclude that the process of Na(+) influx through the channel, including Na(+) binding, is essential for the assembly of the stator complex to the flagellar motor as well as for torque generation. (nih.gov)