A class of animal lectins that bind specifically to beta-galactoside in a calcium-independent manner. Members of this class are distiguished from other lectins by the presence of a conserved carbohydrate recognition domain. The majority of proteins in this class bind to sugar molecules in a sulfhydryl-dependent manner and are often referred to as S-type lectins, however this property is not required for membership in this class.
A galectin found abundantly in smooth muscle (MUSCLE, SMOOTH) and SKELETAL MUSCLE and many other tissues. It occurs as a homodimer with two 14-kDa subunits.
A galectin found preferentially expressed in the gastrointestinal tract. The protein occurs as a homodimer with two 14-kDa subunits.
A galectin found in the small and large intestine and the stomach. It occurs as a homodimer with two 36-kDa subunits and is localized to sites of cell adhesion where it may play role in assembly of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS.
Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.
A family of calcium-binding alpha-globulins that are synthesized in the LIVER and play an essential role in maintaining the solubility of CALCIUM in the BLOOD. In addition the fetuins contain aminoterminal cystatin domains and are classified as type 3 cystatins.
Glycosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of galactose with an alcohol to form an acetal. They include both alpha- and beta-galactosides.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A genus of velvety smooth SPONGES in the family Suberitidae, characterized by the ectosomal and choanosomal skeletons dominated by tylostyles (pin-like spicules with a pinched bulbous end).
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The family of true toads belonging to the order Anura. The genera include Bufo, Ansonia, Nectophrynoides, and Atelopus.
The bones of the free part of the lower extremity in humans and of any of the four extremities in animals. It includes the FEMUR; PATELLA; TIBIA; and FIBULA.
The phylum of sponges which are sessile, suspension-feeding, multicellular animals that utilize flagellated cells called choanocytes to circulate water. Most are hermaphroditic. They are probably an early evolutionary side branch that gave rise to no other group of animals. Except for about 150 freshwater species, sponges are marine animals. They are a source of ALKALOIDS; STEROLS; and other complex molecules useful in medicine and biological research.
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing neurological disease in pigs.
A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.
Endogenous glycoproteins from which SIALIC ACID has been removed by the action of sialidases. They bind tightly to the ASIALOGLYCOPROTEIN RECEPTOR which is located on hepatocyte plasma membranes. After internalization by adsorptive ENDOCYTOSIS they are delivered to LYSOSOMES for degradation. Therefore receptor-mediated clearance of asialoglycoproteins is an important aspect of the turnover of plasma glycoproteins. They are elevated in serum of patients with HEPATIC CIRRHOSIS or HEPATITIS.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A genus of saprobic mushrooms in the family Bolbitiaceae that grow in grass, dung, garden mulch, or in woods.
Common name for an order (Anguilliformes) of voracious, elongate, snakelike teleost fishes.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
In horses, cattle, and other quadrupeds, the joint between the femur and the tibia, corresponding to the human knee.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A genus of white-spored mushrooms in the family Tricholomataceae. They form symbiotic partnerships (MYCORRHIZAE) with trees.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
SUGARS containing an amino group. GLYCOSYLATION of other compounds with these amino sugars results in AMINOGLYCOSIDES.
Copies of DNA sequences which lie adjacent to each other in the same orientation (direct tandem repeats) or in the opposite direction to each other (INVERTED TANDEM REPEATS).
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Phylum in the domain Eukarya, comprised of animals either with fully developed backbones (VERTEBRATES), or those with notochords only during some developmental stage (CHORDATA, NONVERTEBRATE).
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Any blood or formed element especially in invertebrates.
Major component of chondrocyte EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of various tissues including bone, tendon, ligament, SYNOVIUM and blood vessels. It binds MATRILIN PROTEINS and is associated with development of cartilage and bone.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from a nucleoside diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
PROTEOGLYCANS-associated proteins that are major components of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of various tissues including CARTILAGE; and INTERVERTEBRAL DISC structures. They bind COLLAGEN fibers and contain protein domains that enable oligomer formation and interaction with other extracellular matrix proteins such as CARTILAGE OLIGOMERIC MATRIX PROTEIN.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL).
A family of structurally related collagens that form the characteristic collagen fibril bundles seen in CONNECTIVE TISSUE.
The head of a long bone that is separated from the shaft by the epiphyseal plate until bone growth stops. At that time, the plate disappears and the head and shaft are united.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.
The phenomenon by which dissociated cells intermixed in vitro tend to group themselves with cells of their own type.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of helminths.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Inflammation of a synovial membrane. It is usually painful, particularly on motion, and is characterized by a fluctuating swelling due to effusion within a synovial sac. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A multifunctional galactin initially discovered as a macrophage antigen that binds to IMMUNOGLOBULIN E, and as 29-35-kDa lectin that binds LAMININ. It is involved in a variety of biological events including interactions with galactose-containing glycoconjugates, cell proliferation, CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and APOPTOSIS.
The inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint. It is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes SYNOVIAL FLUID.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE. It contains mucin, albumin, fat, and mineral salts and serves to lubricate joints.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.
The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.
Endometrial implantation of EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN at the BLASTOCYST stage.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
"Removal of sialic acid involving Klotho causes cell-surface retention of TRPV5 channel via binding to galectin-1". Proceedings ... 89 (1): 7-14. doi:10.1038/labinvest.2008.114. PMC 4292907. PMID 19029978. Silve C, Beck L (June 2002). "Is FGF23 the long ... 285 (1): E1-9. doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00016.2003. PMID 12791601. Fukagawa M, Nii-Kono T, Kazama JJ (July 2005). "Role of ... 373 (Pt 1): 271-9. doi:10.1042/BJ20030287. PMC 1223479. PMID 12678920. This article incorporates text from the United States ...
"Removal of sialic acid involving Klotho causes cell-surface retention of TRPV5 channel via binding to galectin-1". Proceedings ... 18 (1): 65-8. doi:10.3346/jkms.2003.18.1.65. PMC 3055000. PMID 12589089. Ji W, Foo JN, O'Roak BJ, Zhao H, Larson MG, Simon DB, ... 1 (1): 21-8. doi:10.4161/chan.3707. PMID 19170254. Liu Z, Wang HR, Huang CL (May 2009). "Regulation of ROMK channel and K+ ... 76 (1): 38-46. doi:10.1124/mol.109.055780. PMC 2701452. PMID 19349416. Nanazashvili M, Li H, Palmer LG, Walters DE, Sackin H ( ...
"Removal of sialic acid involving Klotho causes cell-surface retention of TRPV5 channel via binding to galectin-1". Proceedings ... 275 (1): 47-52. doi:10.1006/bbrc.2000.3227. PMID 10944439. Müller D, Hoenderop JG, Meij IC, van den Heuvel LP, Knoers NV, den ... 35 (Pt 1): 115-9. doi:10.1042/BST0350115. PMID 17233615. TRPV5+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical ... 67 (1): 48-53. doi:10.1006/geno.2000.6203. PMID 10945469. Clapham DE, Julius D, Montell C, Schultz G (December 2005). " ...
Hadari YR, Arbel-Goren R, Levy Y, Amsterdam A, Alon R, Zakut R, Zick Y (Jul 2000). "Galectin-8 binding to integrins inhibits ... Otey CA, Vasquez GB, Burridge K, Erickson BW (Oct 1993). "Mapping of the alpha-actinin binding site within the beta 1 integrin ... Loo DT, Kanner SB, Aruffo A (Sep 1998). "Filamin binds to the cytoplasmic domain of the beta1-integrin. Identification of amino ... binds to a conserved and functionally important NPXY sequence motif of beta1 integrin". The Journal of Cell Biology. 138 (5): ...
At the heart of GALTOR is galectin-8, a member of β-galactoside binding superfamily of cytosolic lectins termed galectins, ... The FKBP12-rapamycin complex binds directly to the FKBP12-Rapamycin Binding (FRB) domain of mTOR, inhibiting its activity. mTOR ... At this stage another galectin, galectin-3, interacts with TRIM16 to guide selective autophagy of damaged lysosomes. TRIM16 ... "TRIMs and Galectins Globally Cooperate and TRIM16 and Galectin-3 Co-direct Autophagy in Endomembrane Damage Homeostasis". ...
Wada J, Kanwar YS (February 1997). "Identification and characterization of galectin-9, a novel beta-galactoside-binding ... "T cell immunoglobulin mucin-3 crystal structure reveals a galectin-9-independent ligand-binding surface". Immunity. 26 (3): 311 ... The binding of HMGB1 can interfere with nucleic acid stimulation and suppresses activation of innate immune response. The role ... In addition to galectin-9, a couple other ligands have been identified, such as phosphatidylserine (PtdSer), High Mobility ...
... and a soluble carbohydrate-binding protein, Galectin-1, are reported as factors that maintain such properties of NSC in stem ... Among inhibitory factors, oligodendrocyte and myelin-derived inhibitory ligands are membrane-bound, meaning that, in the case ... The inhibitory ligands bind to growth cone receptors on a damaged neuron, which causes repulsion and collapse of the growth ... Type 1 cells in the hippocampus are multipotent in vitro. However, although there is evidence that both new neurons and glia ...
Galectin-3 then acts on transcription factors AP-1 to increase expression of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan versican and SP-1 ... Bhattacharyya S, Solakyildirim K, Zhang Z, Chen ML, Linhardt RJ, Tobacman JK (2010). "Cell-bound IL-8 increases in bronchial ... The studies showed that decrease of ARSB leads to increase in free galectin-3, which attaches more strongly to less sulfated ... Another mechanism by which reduced ARSB is associated with carcinogenesis is through increased binding of SHP2 to more sulfated ...
Different galectins have distinct binding specificities for binding oligosaccharides depending on the tissue in which they are ... Tandem galectins include galectin-4, -6, -8, -9 and -12. The final galectin is galectin-3 which is the only galectin found in ... They can also hinder adhesion by binding to two glycans on the same cell, which blocks the integrin binding site. Galectin-8 is ... Due to the nature of the binding pocket, galectins can bind terminal sugars or internal sugars within a glycan. This allows ...
Human galectin-9 is encoded by the LGALS9 gene. The protein has N- and C- terminal carbohydrate-binding domains connected by a ... "Entrez Gene: LGALS9 lectin, galactoside-binding, soluble, 9 (galectin 9)". Daley D, Mani VR, Mohan N, Akkad N, Ochi A, Heindel ... Wada J, Kanwar YS (February 1997). "Identification and characterization of galectin-9, a novel beta-galactoside-binding ... Galectin-9, through its regulation of AMPK, a kinase that negatively regulates mTOR, cooperates with Galectin-8-based effects ...
Galectins are beta-galactoside-binding animal lectins with conserved carbohydrate recognition domains. The galectins have been ... It has been shown that the binding of galectin-8 to the damaged vacuole can recruit autophagy adaptors such as NDP52 leading to ... Hadari YR, Arbel-Goren R, Levy Y, Amsterdam A, Alon R, Zakut R, Zick Y (July 2000). "Galectin-8 binding to integrins inhibits ... Hadari YR, Arbel-Goren R, Levy Y, Amsterdam A, Alon R, Zakut R, Zick Y (July 2000). "Galectin-8 binding to integrins inhibits ...
Companies have developed galectin modulators that block the binding of galectins to carbohydrate structures. The galectin-3 ... Pecta-Sol C binds to galectin-3 binding sites on the surfaces of cells as a preventative measure created by Isaac Eliaz in ... Galectin-3 is approximately 30 kDa and, like all galectins, contains a carbohydrate-recognition-binding domain (CRD) of about ... The roles of galectins and galectin-3, in particular, in cancer have been heavily investigated. Of note, galectin-3 has been ...
The galectins are a family of beta-galactoside-binding proteins implicated in modulating cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions ... Dimers are non-covalently bound and will spontaneously disassociate in low concentration. Galectin 1 does not bind glycans when ... This non-traditional secretion requires a functional glycan binding site. Galectin 1 contains a single carbohydrate recognition ... Galectin-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LGALS1 gene. LGALS1 contains four exons. The galectin-1 protein is 135 ...
... the variable domain which binds the RAGE ligands, and two constant domains.[citation needed] RAGE is able to bind several ... Galectin-3 (AGE-R3) LOX-1 (Lectin-like oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor-1) CD36 ENSG00000206320, ENSG00000231268, ... RAGE exists in the body in two forms: a membrane-bound form known as mRAGE, and a soluble form, known as sRAGE. mRAGE has three ... Penumutchu SR, Chou RH, Yu C (2014). "Structural insights into calcium-bound S100P and the V domain of the RAGE complex". PLOS ...
It is both structurally and functionally related to the galectin family of beta-galactoside binding proteins. It may be ... identifies it as a new member of the carbohydrate-binding family of galectins". Structure. 3 (12): 1379-93. doi:10.1016/S0969- ... Galectin-10 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CLC gene. Lysophospholipases are enzymes that act on biological ... "CLC Charcot-Leyden crystal galectin [ Homo sapiens (human) ]". Human CLC genome location and CLC gene details page in the UCSC ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LGALS4 gene. The galectins are a family of beta-galactoside-binding ... Recommended name:Galectin-4, Short name: Gal-4 Alternative name(s): Antigen NY-CO-27 L-36 lactose-binding protein, Short name: ... Ideo H, Seko A, Yamashita K (2005). "Galectin-4 binds to sulfated glycosphingolipids and carcinoembryonic antigen in patches on ... Gal 4 belongs to the family of galectin. Among various structure of galectins like dimeric, tandem or chimera, Gal-4 is tandem ...
2001). "Association of galectin-1 and galectin-3 with Gemin4 in complexes containing the SMN protein". Nucleic Acids Res. 29 ( ... 2001). "The exon 2b region of the spinal muscular atrophy protein, SMN, is involved in self-association and SIP1 binding". Hum ... 2002). "Gemin5, a novel WD repeat protein component of the SMN complex that binds Sm proteins". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (7): 5631-6 ... 2001). "SMN, the product of the spinal muscular atrophy gene, binds preferentially to dimethylarginine-containing protein ...
Park JW, Voss PG, Grabski S, Wang JL, Patterson RJ (Sep 2001). "Association of galectin-1 and galectin-3 with Gemin4 in ... binds preferentially to dimethylarginine-containing protein targets". Molecular Cell. 7 (5): 1111-7. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(01) ... a novel WD repeat protein component of the SMN complex that binds Sm proteins". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (7): ... 237 (1): 63-9. doi:10.1006/excr.1997.3750. PMID 9417867. Kambach C, Walke S, Young R, Avis JM, de la Fortelle E, Raker VA, ...
This is because the ligand binding site is lack of key residue for binding beta-galactoside. It is a galectin-like protein. The ... Su J, Wang Y, Si Y, Gao J, Song C, Cui L, Wu R, Tai G, Zhou Y (January 2018). "Galectin-13, a different prototype galectin, ... The monomer of this protein has structural similarity to several members of the beta-galactoside-binding S-type lectin family, ... Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: Q9UHV8 (Human Galactoside-binding soluble lectin ...
The authors suggest that the ratio of galectin-3 binding protein to galectin 3 influences the cleavage and shedding of PTPkappa ... Kim YS, Jung JA, Kim HJ, Ahn YH, Yoo JS, Oh S, Cho C, Yoo HS, Ko JH (2011). "Galectin-3 binding protein promotes cell motility ... Shedding of PTPkappa may also be regulated by the presence of galectin-3 binding protein, as has been shown in WiDr cells. ... PTPkappa only mediates binding between cells expressing PTPkappa (i.e. homophilic), and will not mediate cell aggregation ...
As receptors for phosphatidylserine, TIM proteins bind many families of viruses [filovirus, flavivirus, New World arenavirus ... "The Tim-3 ligand galectin-9 negatively regulates T helper type 1 immunity". Nature Immunology. 6 (12): 1245-1252. doi:10.1038/ ... Recently, TIM-1 has been shown to be a receptor or cofactor for Ebola virus entry. TIM-1 binds to Ebola virus glycoproteins (GP ... TIM-1 and TIM-4 enhanced viral entry more than TIM-3. TIM-1 has been identified as an attachment factor for exosome-packaged ...
... which binds to the binding site in the mIndy promoter) and thereby rise of citrate uptake and hepatic lipogenesis. Intranasally ... Gordon-Alonso M, Bruger AM, van der Bruggen P (August 2018). "Extracellular galectins as controllers of cytokines in ... comprising the extracellular portion of the receptor can bind IL-6 with a similar affinity as the membrane bound IL-6R. The ... IL-6 signals through a cell-surface type I cytokine receptor complex consisting of the ligand-binding IL-6Rα chain (CD126), and ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a soluble beta-galactoside binding lectin. The encoded protein is found as a homodimer and ... 2006). "Genotype of galectin 2 (LGALS2) is associated with insulin-glucose profile in the British Women's Heart and Health ... 2007). "Human galectin-1, -2, and -4 induce surface exposure of phosphatidylserine in activated human neutrophils but not in ... Sturm A, Lensch M, Andre S, Kaltner H, Wiedenmann B, Rosewicz S, Dignass AU, Gabius HJ (Sep 2004). "Human galectin-2: novel ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LGALS7 gene. The galectins are a family of beta-galactoside-binding ... "Entrez Gene: LGALS7 lectin, galactoside-binding, soluble, 7 (galectin 7)". Bonaldo MF, Lennon G, Soares MB (1997). " ... 2006). "Galectin 7 (p53-induced gene 1): a new prognostic predictor of recurrence and survival in stage IV hypopharyngeal ... 2003). "Galectin-7 as a potential mediator of corneal epithelial cell migration". Arch. Ophthalmol. 121 (1): 82-6. doi:10.1001/ ...
The ligand for ST2 is the cytokine interleukin-33 (IL-33). Binding of IL-33 to the ST2 receptor, in response to cardiac disease ... and galectin-3. One study indicated that discrimination is independent of age, body mass index, history of heart failure, ... This cardioprotective IL-33 signal is counterbalanced by the level of soluble ST2, which binds IL-33 and makes it unavailable ... and a membrane-bound receptor form (referred to as the ST2 receptor or ST2L). When the myocardium is stretched, the ST2 gene is ...
So CCDS's gene number prediction represents a lower bound on the total number of human protein-coding genes. The following is a ... Galectin-related protein LEPQTL1: Leptin, serum levels of MEMO1: Mediator of cell motility 1 MPHOSPH10: M-phase phosphoprotein ... Xin actin-binding repeat-containing protein 2 ZNF142: zinc finger protein 142 The following diseases and traits are related to ... SH3 domain-binding protein 4 SLC9A4: solute carrier family 9 member A4 SLC40A1: solute carrier family 40 (iron-regulated ...
poly-N-acetyllactosamine groups which are involved in interactions with selectin and other glycan-binding proteins LAMP1 and ... some cancer cells to the extracellular matrix is mediated by interactions between LAMP1 and LAMP2 and E-selectin and galectins ... and Mac-2 binding protein (Mac-2-BP) on the prognosis of pancreatic carcinoma". Cancer. 94 (1): 228-239. doi:10.1002/cncr.10162 ... "A di-leucine-based motif in the cytoplasmic tail of LIMP-II and tyrosinase mediates selective binding of AP-3". The EMBO ...
Park JW, Voss PG, Grabski S, Wang JL, Patterson RJ (September 2001). "Association of galectin-1 and galectin-3 with Gemin4 in ... a novel WD repeat protein component of the SMN complex that binds Sm proteins". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (7): 5631-6. doi:10.1074/jbc ... Park JW, Voss PG, Grabski S, Wang JL, Patterson RJ (2001). "Association of galectin-1 and galectin-3 with Gemin4 in complexes ... 152 (1): 75-85. doi:10.1083/jcb.152.1.75. PMC 2193649. PMID 11149922. Wiemann S, Weil B, Wellenreuther R, Gassenhuber J, Glassl ...
"Elucidation of the mechanism of interaction of sheep spleen galectin-1 with splenocytes and its role in cell-matrix adhesion". ... "Evaluation of the stoichiometry and energetics of carbohydrate binding to Ricinus communis agglutinin: a calorimetric study". ... 14 (1): 50-54. doi:10.1007/BF00233298. PMID 24194227. Shalini SHARMA, Satish BHARADWAJ, Avadhesha SUROLIA, Sunil Kumar PODDER ( ... Sunil Kumar Podder (born 1 February 1939) is an Indian molecular biologist and biophysicist, known for his biophysical studies ...
2000). "CD43-mediated signals induce DNA binding activity of AP-1, NF-AT, and NFkappa B transcription factors in human T ... "Restricted receptor segregation into membrane microdomains occurs on human T cells during apoptosis induced by galectin-1". J. ... 1998). "Ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) proteins bind to a positively charged amino acid cluster in the juxta-membrane cytoplasmic ... 1992). "CD43, a molecule defective in Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, binds ICAM-1". Nature. 354 (6350): 233-5. Bibcode:1991Natur.354 ...
GTP binding. • ربط بروتيني. • structural molecule activity. • GTPase activity. • protein complex scaffold activity. • binding, ... v2 is a parkin-binding protein". Brain Research. Molecular Brain Research. 117 (2): 179-89. PMID 14559152. doi:10.1016/S0169- ... SEPT5‏ (Septin 5) هوَ بروتين يُشَفر بواسطة جين SEPT5 في الإنسان.[1][2][3] ... CDCrel-1". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 97 (24): 13354-9. PMC 27228. . PMID ...
When galectin-8 binds to a damaged vacuole, it recruits autophagy adaptor such as NDP52 leading to the formation of an ... This complex then moves to the lysosomal membrane-bound protein that will recognise and bind with the CMA receptor, allowing it ... Its binding by WIPI2 recruits it to the phagophore and mediates its activity.[45]. The first of the two ubiquitin-like ... The generated PtdIns(3)P is used as a docking point for proteins harboring a PtdIns(3)P binding motif. WIPI2, a PtdIns(3)P ...
Nancy L. Perillo, Christel H. Uittenbogaart, Julie T. Nguyen, ja Linda G. Baum, Galectin-1, an Endogenous Lectin Produced by ... monoclonal antibody to high molecular weight keratins exclusively binds to Hassall's corpuscles., ... Nancy L. Perillo, Christel H. Uittenbogaart, Julie T. Nguyen, ja Linda G. Baum, Galectin-1, an Endogenous Lectin Produced by ... 1982;151(1):70-3., (vaadatud 2.01.2015) *↑ M. A. Ross ja V. Korenchevsky, The thymus of the rat and sex hormones, The Journal ...
protein domain specific binding. • protein binding. • enzyme binding. Cellular component. • integral component of membrane. • ... LAMP2, along with LAMP1, interact with E-selectin and galectins to mediate the adhesion of some cancer cells to the ECM. The ... ficolin-1-rich granule membrane. • membrane raft. • lysosomal matrix. Biological process. • regulation of protein stability. • ... 365 (1): 75-82. doi:10.1006/abbi.1999.1147. PMID 10222041.. *. Nishino I, Fu J, Tanji K, Yamada T, Shimojo S, Koori T, Mora M, ...
Secreted IgD Amplifies Humoral T Helper 2 Cell Responses by Binding Basophils via Galectin-9 and CD44. Immunity. 2018-10, roč. ... 1, s. 86-97. Dostupné online [cit. 2019-02-04]. ISSN 0896-8411. DOI:10.1016/j.jaut.2010.03.003.. ... Relativní molekulová hmotnost rozpustného IgD je 186 kD a poločas rozpadu je 2,8 dne.[1] Rozpustný IgD je produkován jako ... Imunoglobulin D (IgD) je izotyp protilátky, který tvoří asi 1 % proteinů plazmatických membrán nezralých B lymfocytů, kde je ...
January 2013). "A unique galectin signature in human prostate cancer progression suggests galectin-1 as a key target for ... All medications for CRPC block androgen receptor (AR) signaling via direct or indirect targeting of the AR ligand binding ... Galectin-3 is another potential target. Aberrant glycan profiles have been described in prostate cancer, and studies have found ... July 2019). "Galectins in prostate and bladder cancer: tumorigenic roles and clinical opportunities". Nature Reviews. Urology. ...
The infecting coronavirus is an enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus which enters its host cell by binding to ... BCoV S1-NTD does not recognize galactose as galectins do. Instead, it recognizes 5-N-acetyl-9-O-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5, ... "Taxonomy browser (Betacoronavirus 1)". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2020-02-29. Lim, Yvonne Xinyi; Ng, Yan Ling; Tam, James ... 25 (1): 35-48. doi:10.1016/j.tim.2016.09.001. ISSN 0966-842X. PMC 7111218. PMID 27743750. Wevers, Brigitte A.; Van Der Hoek, ...
When galectin-8 binds to a damaged vacuole, it recruits an autophagy adaptor such as NDP52 leading to the formation of an ... often directed by galectins such as galectin-3 and galectin-8, which in turn recruit receptors such as TRIM16. and NDP52 plus ... This complex then moves to the lysosomal membrane-bound protein that will recognise and bind with the CMA receptor. Upon ... "TRIMs and Galectins Globally Cooperate and TRIM16 and Galectin-3 Co-direct Autophagy in Endomembrane Damage Homeostasis". ...
... and binds with calmodulin. Taken together, these suggest that MP19 functions in some way as a junctional component, possibly ... joins the list of ligands of galectin-3". BMC Cell Biol. 2: 17. doi:10.1186/1471-2121-2-17. PMC 48140. PMID 11532191. Pras E, ... 20 (1): 67-9. doi:10.1007/BF02257488. PMID 8197479. S2CID 45812361. Kerscher S, Church RL, Boyd Y, Lyon MF (1996). "Mapping of ... Some of them have been shown to be involved in the formation of cataracts, e.g., crystalline-gamma-1 (CRYG1; MIM 123660). The ...
Following binding to TL1A, TNFRSF25 signaling increases the sensitivity of T cells to endogenous IL-2 via the IL-2 receptor and ... "TNFRSF25 agonistic antibody and galectin-9 combination therapy controls herpes simplex virus-induced immunoinflammatory lesions ... membrane bound isoforms, and is thought to be involved in controlling lymphocyte proliferation induced by T-cell activation. ... 6 (1): 79-88. doi:10.1016/S1074-7613(00)80244-7. PMID 9052839. Kitson J, Raven T, Jiang YP, Goeddel DV, Giles KM, Pun KT, ...
... represents a functional carbohydrate-binding galectin". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 371 (3): 350-5. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc. ... Galectin-related protein, also known as HSPC159, is a human gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000119862 - Ensembl, May ... "Entrez Gene: HSPC159 galectin-related protein". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Ahmed H, Vasta GR (2007). "Unlike ... 1 (3): 287-92. doi:10.1093/embo-reports/kvd058. PMC 1083732. PMID 11256614. Hartley JL, Temple GF, Brasch MA (2001). "DNA ...
The key to GALTOR's action are galectins, sugar-binding cytosolic proteins, which can detect glycoconjugates exposed on the ... "TRIMs and Galectins Globally Cooperate and TRIM16 and Galectin-3 Co-direct Autophagy in Endomembrane Damage Homeostasis". ... In a recent paper in Molecular Cell, this group has shown that a novel system termed GALTOR, based on Galectin-8, interacts ... This occurs by Galectin-9-dependent activation of the ubiquitination systems on damaged lysosomes resulting in K63- ...
However, only pilocytic astrocytomas and ependymomas stain positively for Galectin-3. The subtype of ependymoma can also be ... as well as radial glial specific markers RC2 and brain lipid binding protein (BLBP/FABP7). Tumorspheres with radial glial ... "Galectin-3 expression: A useful tool in the differential diagnosis of posterior fossa tumors in children". Child's Nervous ... 94 (1): 27-32. doi:10.3171/jns.2001.94.1.0027. PMID 11147894. Tabori, U; Wong, V; Ma, J; Shago, M; Alon, N; Rutka, J; Bouffet, ...
... galectin, and SIGLEC immune receptors that bind carbohydrates: CD1, T cell receptor, and anti-carbohydrate antibodies GBPs of ... The easiest way to search through all CFG-related information is to enter a keyword (e.g. "galectin-1", "sialic acid", etc.) or ... From 2001-2009, Core F generated 26 total and conditional knockout mouse lines deficient in glycan-binding proteins or ... December 2004). "Printed covalent glycan array for ligand profiling of diverse glycan binding proteins". Proceedings of the ...
... are composed of an eosinophilic lysophospholipase binding protein called Galectin -10. They vary in ... J. Y. Su: A Brief History of Charcot-Leyden Crystal Protein/Galectin-10 Research. Molecules, 2018, 23(11), 2931. Tulane Lung ... Charcot-Leyden crystals are microscopic crystals composed of eosinophil protein galectin-10 found in people who have allergic ... 1) confirm anecdotal evidence that CLCs are a key feature of severe asthma and chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps. They ...
The encoded protein mediates cell adhesion via homophilic as well as heterophilic binding to other proteins of the subgroup. ... "Identification of CD66a and CD66b as the major galectin-3 receptor candidates in human neutrophils". Journal of Immunology. 163 ... 274 (1): 335-44. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.1.335. PMID 9867848. Feuk-Lagerstedt E, Jordan ET, Leffler H, Dahlgren C, Karlsson A ( ... 274 (1): 335-44. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.1.335. PMID 9867848. Kirshner J, Schumann D, Shively JE (December 2003). "CEACAM1, a cell- ...
"Secreted IgD Amplifies Humoral T Helper 2 Cell Responses by Binding Basophils via Galectin-9 and CD44". Immunity. 49 (4): 709- ... IgD may have some role in allergic reactions.[citation needed] Recently, IgD was found to bind to basophils and mast cells and ... C-terminal regions are rich in lysine, glutamate and arginin residues modificated with O-glycosylation for binding a putative ... 35 (1): 86-97. doi:10.1016/j.jaut.2010.03.003. ISSN 0896-8411. PMID 20456921. Zhai, Guan-Ting; Wang, Hai; Li, Jing-Xian; Cao, ...
... which galectin-3 binds. Furthermore, galectin-3 bound to glycans of luteal beta 1 integrin. The decreased cell viability of ... Galectin-3 Contributes to Luteolysis by Binding to Beta 1 Integrin in the Bovine Corpus Luteum. ... The overall findings suggest that the secreted galectin-3 stimulated by PGF plays a role in structural luteolysis by binding to ... The expression of galectin-3 in the bovine CL was higher at the regressed stage than at the other luteal stages. Galectin-3 was ...
GnT-Vb-mediated glycosylation of RPTPbeta promotes galectin-1 binding and RPTPbeta levels of retention on the cell surface. N- ... Protein Binding / physiology * Protein Modification, Translational / physiology* * Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases ... showing that galectin-1 binding contributes to the increased retention after GnT-Vb expression. These results place GnT-Vb as a ... Activity and Signaling Are Attenuated by Glycosylation and Subsequent Cell Surface galectin-1 Binding J Biol Chem. 2008 Nov 28; ...
The glycan-binding profile of a β-galactoside-binding 15 kDa lectin (Galectin-1) purified from the oocytes of the American ... Abstract: The glycan-binding profile of a β-galactoside-binding 15 kDa lectin (Galectin-1) purified from the oocytes of the ... Glycan-Binding Profile and Cell Adhesion Activity of American Bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) Oocyte Galectin-1. Author(s): Sarkar ... Title: Glycan-Binding Profile and Cell Adhesion Activity of American Bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) Oocyte Galectin-1 ...
... but the percentage bound to galectin-1 was lower for IgM and higher for haptoglobin: about 50% (range 20-80) in cancer sera and ... but the percentage bound to galectin-1 was lower for IgM and higher for haptoglobin: about 50% (range 20-80) in cancer sera and ... but the percentage bound to galectin-1 was lower for IgM and higher for haptoglobin: about 50% (range 20-80) in cancer sera and ... In conclusion, galectin-1 detects a new type of functional biomarker for cancer: a specific type of glycoform of haptoglobin, ...
Traditionally, galectins have been defined as a subfamily of lectins that selectively bind β-galactosides, and all galectins ... 2005) Galectins bind to the multivalent glycoprotein asialofetuin with enhanced affinities and a gradient of decreasing binding ... is the simplest carbohydrate to which galectins bind and one that has been used most often to delineate galectin function and ... High-resolution structures of glycan-galectin interactions have been limited to galectin bound to lactose, N-acetyl-lactosamine ...
14 kDa Laminin Binding Protein or 14 kDa Lectin or Beta Galactoside Binding Lectin L 14 I or Galaptin or HBL ... Laminin Binding Protein or 14 kDa Lectin or Beta Galactoside Binding Lectin L 14 I or Galaptin or HBL or HPL or Lactose Binding ... Laminin Binding Protein or 14 kDa Lectin or Beta Galactoside Binding Lectin L 14 I or Galaptin or HBL or HPL or Lactose Binding ... Galectin Therapeutics Inc 25. GlycoMimetics Inc 26. PepTx Inc 27. Galectin 1 (14 kDa Laminin Binding Protein or 14 kDa Lectin ...
Glycans and Glycan-Binding Proteins in Brain: Galectin-1-Induced Expression of Neurotrophic Factors in Astrocytes. Author(s): ... Title: Glycans and Glycan-Binding Proteins in Brain: Galectin-1-Induced Expression of Neurotrophic Factors in Astrocytes ... Tamao Endo, " Glycans and Glycan-Binding Proteins in Brain: Galectin-1-Induced Expression of Neurotrophic Factors in Astrocytes ... The effect of galectin-1 is astrocyte-specific and does not have any effect on neurons. Prevention of neuronal loss during CNS ...
Analysis of the binding kinetics revealed a 1:1 Langmuir association with a rate constant (ka ) of ≈6.5 × 103 Ms−1, whereas the ... as well as other members of the galectin family [galectin-3 (29, 30)], is also involved in both neuronal and vascular ... suggesting an important role for galectins in basic cellular mechanisms. Galectins can be secreted and, depending on the cell ... Galectin-1 is essential in tumor angiogenesis and is a target for antiangiogenesis therapy. Victor L. J. L. Thijssen, Ruben ...
A carbohydrate-binding protein called galectin-1 is released by a variety of tumors and promotes their growth and metastasis. A ... If the same holds true in humans, drugs targeting galectin-1 could provide new treatment options for patients with KS. These ... group of researchers at the University of Buenos Aires in Argentina now finds that blocking galectin-1 in mice bearing ...
Galectins are a family of highly conserved β-galactoside-binding lectins that function in cell growth regulation, cell-cell ... To determine whether binding was carbohydrate dependent, we used lactose, a cognate ligand for galectin-1, and sucrose, which ... can form intramolecular disulfide bonds and prevent saccharide ligand binding, we prepare and store galectin-1 in a DTT buffer ... Cells were washed three times with PBS and bound galectin-1 was detected using streptavidin-conjugated Alexa 488 (Invitrogen ...
Structural aspects of binding of-linked digalactosides to human galectin-1. Michelle C. Miller, João P. Ribeiro, Virginia ... Structural aspects of binding of-linked digalactosides to human galectin-1. / Miller, Michelle C.; Ribeiro, João P.; Roldós, ... By definition, adhesion/growth-regulatory galectins are known for their ability to bind β-galactosides such as Gal(1 → 4)Glc ( ... N2 - By definition, adhesion/growth-regulatory galectins are known for their ability to bind β-galactosides such as Gal(1 → 4) ...
We found that galectin-1 was upregulated in the lung of mice during influenza virus infection. There was a positive correlation ... Galectin-1, which belongs to S-type lectins, contains a conserved carbohydrate recognition domain that recognizes galactose- ... As the envelope proteins of influenza virus are highly glycosylated, we studied the role of galectin-1 in influenza virus ... Galectin-1 Binds to Influenza Virus and Ameliorates Influenza Pathogenesis. *檢視 ...
... .noexiste{ color: #000; } . ... Nuclear Factor NF-kB controls expression of the immunoregulatory glycan-binding protein galectin-1; Elsevier; Molecular ... Galectin-1 (Gal-1), an endogenous lectin found in peripheral lymphoid organs and inflammatory sites, elicits a broad spectrum ... Using in silico studies and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis we have identified a functional NF-κB binding site within ...
Lectin that binds beta-galactoside and a wide array of complex carbohydrates. Plays a role in regulating apoptosis, cell ... identical protein binding Source: Ensembl. *laminin binding Source: GO_CentralInferred from biological aspect of ancestori*. " ... lactose binding Source: Ensembl. *laminin binding Source: GO_CentralInferred from biological aspect of ancestori*. " ... "Galectin-9 binding to cell surface protein disulfide isomerase regulates the redox environment to enhance T-cell migration and ...
It further provides compositions and methods for modulating the expression of galectin-8, and galectin-8-like proteins, ... The present invention provides compositions that enhance or inhibit the interactions of galectin-8 and galectin-8-like proteins ... Binding of serum proteins to GST-galectin-8 GST-galectin-8 or GST (0.5 mg each) were immobilized on 200 μl Glutathione-Agarose ... galectin-3 binds to laminin. It is known to plays a role in inflammation by binding to both IgE and IgE receptor thereby ...
Galectins are carbohydrate binding proteins (lectins), which characteristically bind β-galactosides. Galectins play a role in ... Galectins are carbohydrate binding proteins (lectins), which characteristically bind β-galactosides. Galectins play a role in ... Thermodynamic evaluation displays binding affinity of lactulose against the galectin-1 and galectin-3 carbohydrate recognition ... There is need for inhibitors (antagonists) that are specific for distinct galectins and that can interfere with galectin- ...
Binding to galectin-1 and -3 (Gal-1 and -3) was determined by Biolayer Interferometry. Inflammation-related proteins and Gal-1 ... CPI-GC from different clinical isolates varied in their ability to bind Gal-1 and Gal-3, which were constitutively expressed by ... Mutant trichomonads that failed to bind Gal-1 and Gal-3 showed higher proinflammatory activity suggesting a role for the CPI-GC ... Results CPI-GC activated NF-κB and upregulated cFos, COX-2, IL-8, MIP-3α, IL-6, IL-1β and VEGF in a MEK1/2 dependent manner. In ...
Galectin-3 binds to a complement of T cell surface glycoprotein receptors distinct from that recognized by galectin-1. Of these ... Galectin-3 binds to a complement of T cell surface glycoprotein receptors distinct from that recognized by galectin-1. Of these ... Galectin-3 binds to a complement of T cell surface glycoprotein receptors distinct from that recognized by galectin-1. Of these ... Galectin-3 binds to a complement of T cell surface glycoprotein receptors distinct from that recognized by galectin-1. Of these ...
Hodgkins Lymphoma Reed Sternberg Cells over Express the T-Cell Inhibitory Carbohydrate-Binding Lectin, Galectin 1: Role of AP- ... Hodgkins Lymphoma Reed Sternberg Cells over Express the T-Cell Inhibitory Carbohydrate-Binding Lectin, Galectin 1: Role of AP- ... carbohydrates, galectin 1, hodgkins disease, lectin, reed-sternberg cells, t-lymphocytes, transcription factor ap-1, tumor ... In addition, mutation of the AP1 binding site in the GAL1 enhancer abolished its activity. Since the AP1 components, cJUN and ...
Here, we show that activation of rat PSCs in vitro is associated with increased expression of galectin-1 (gal-1) and that gal-1 ... Galectin-1 is an inductor of pancreatic stellate cell activation Cell Signal. 2005 Oct;17(10):1240-7. doi: 10.1016/j.cellsig. ... Here, we show that activation of rat PSCs in vitro is associated with increased expression of galectin-1 (gal-1) and that gal-1 ... Brit Fitzner 1 , Hermann Walzel, Gisela Sparmann, Jörg Emmrich, Stefan Liebe, Robert Jaster ...
Dynamin 1: −6.9 fold). The results of the present study provide clues as to possible mechanisms underlying the atypical ... with significant downregulation of apoptotic proteins Galectin 7 and Cathepsin B, and upregulation of the neurotrophic factor ... with significant downregulation of apoptotic proteins Galectin 7 and Cathepsin B, and upregulation of the neurotrophic factor ... Neurogenin 1 and the antioxidant proteins Aldose reductase and Carbonyl reductase 3. Phosphodiesterase 10A, a signaling protein ...
Compare Galectin 1 ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, and more. ... LGALS1, lectin, galactoside-binding, soluble, 1. *. Detection Range: 3.12 ng/mL-200 ng/mL ... Galectin 1 ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a widely used application for detecting and quantifying ... Human ovarian cancer ascites samples were tested for presence of Galectin-1 protein. Depending on the donor, ascites samples ...
CA125 binds to galectin-1 and mesothelin [2,11]. CA125 from human peritoneal fluid was shown to enhance the invasiveness of a ... 400 μL of serum was prepared (containing approximately 300 U = 1.2 μg of CA125) and added to the washed beads with bound anti- ... Based on PNA and SBA binding, these O-glycans are Galβ1-3GalNAc and (Galβ1-3GlcNAcβ1-6) GalNAc [14]. ... OC125 antibody exhibits a reduced binding after treatment with Peptide -N-Glycosidase F (PNGase F) and currently available anti ...
Purine-rich element binding protein A. PURA. 35221_at. −1.5. Protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, C. PTPRC. 40520_g_at ... galectin 1). LGALS1. 33412_at. −1.5. Colony-stimulating factor 3 receptor (granulocyte). CSF3R. 596_s_at. −1.6. ... Calcium and integrin binding 1 (calmyrin). CIB1. 1020_s_at. −1.9. RAS p21 protein activator (GTPase-activating protein) 1. ... CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), gamma. CEBPG. 39219_at. −1.8. RAS p21 protein activator (GTPase-activating protein) 1. ...
Gal1 bound to core 2 O-glycans on CD45, favoring retention of this glycoprotein on the microglial cell surface and augmenting ... Here, we identified Galectin-1 (Gal1), an endogenous glycan-binding protein, as a pivotal regulator of M1 microglial activation ... Nonspecific binding determined with isotype-matched control antibodies is shown for treatment at t = 1 min. Numbers outside ... Galectin-1 deactivates classically activated microglia and protects from inflammation-induced neurodegeneration.. Starossom SC1 ...
... different for each galectin. Galectins bind to sugar molecules on the surface of cells. All galectins bind lactose and other β- ... Galectin-3C Galectin-3C is a truncated form of galectin-3 that contains the carboxy-terminus carbohydrate-binding domain. ... Galectin-3 Galectin-3, also called Mac-2, L29, CBP35 and εBP, is a chimera galectin that is expressed in tumor cells, ... Galectins are a family of animal carbohydrate binding proteins; the name is from their description as β-galactoside-specific ...
This medication is known to target galectin-1, heat-labile enterotoxin b chain, neurocan core protein, and lactose permease. ... Binding Properties. 4. Galectin-1. Kind. Protein. Organism. Humans. Pharmacological action. Unknown ... Hyaluronic acid binding. Specific Function. May modulate neuronal adhesion and neurite growth during development by binding to ... UGalectin-1. Not Available. Humans. Absorption. Not Available. Volume of distribution. Not Available. Protein binding. Not ...
Galectin-3 binding to mucin-1 increases transendothelial invasion, decreasing metastasis-free survival in an experimental ... Galectin-3 binding to mucin-1 increases transendothelial invasion, decreasing metastasis-free survival in an experimental ... Galectin-3 presence enhances migration and/or invasion of many tumors. Galectin-3-dependent clustering of integrins promotes ... Galectin-3 presence enhances migration and/or invasion of many tumors. Galectin-3-dependent clustering of integrins promotes ...
This chapter describes the diversity of the galectin family and presents an overview of what is known about their biosynthesis ... galectins represent a group of proteins that are the most widely expressed class of lectins in all organisms. ... Galectins typically bind β-galactose-containing glycoconjugates and share primary structural homology in their carbohydrate- ... Galectin-8 binding to CD44v is high affinity (Kd of 6 nM). Galectin-9 binds to TIM-3, which is a membrane-bound T-cell ...
Secretion of the galectin family of mammalian carbohydrate-binding proteins. Biochim Biophys Acta 1999;1473:172-85. ... Galectins: a family of animal beta-galactoside-binding lectins. Cell 1994;76:597-8. ... Galectins are members of a large carbohydrate-binding lectins that share a highly conserved carbohydrate recognition domain ( ... Differential expression of galectin 3 and galectin 1 in colorectal cancer progression. Gastroenterology 1997;113:1906-15. ...
  • Previously we reported that galectin-1, a member of the family of β-galactoside-binding proteins, induced astrocyte differentiation, and the differentiated astrocytes greatly enhanced their production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). (eurekaselect.com)
  • Tamao Endo, " Glycans and Glycan-Binding Proteins in Brain: Galectin-1-Induced Expression of Neurotrophic Factors in Astrocytes", Current Drug Targets (2005) 6: 427. (eurekaselect.com)
  • gal-1 belongs to a family of carbohydrate-binding proteins that share a conserved carbohydrate recognition domain of ≈130 aa ( 7 - 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • This involves cytoskeletal remodeling, using actin polymerization/depolymerization in cooperation with actin-binding proteins to reorganize the actin cytoskeleton ( 3 , 4 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • As the envelope proteins of influenza virus are highly glycosylated, we studied the role of galectin-1 in influenza virus infection in vitro and in mice. (npust.edu.tw)
  • Inflammation-related proteins and Gal-1 and 3 were measured by a multiplex immunoassay in supernatants from human cervical and vaginal epithelial cells infected with T. vaginalis or exposed to CPI-GC from different clinical isolates. (bmj.com)
  • It further provides compositions and methods for modulating the expression of galectin-8, and galectin-8-like proteins, particularly to novel antisense oligonucleotides. (google.com)
  • The present invention relates to compositions that enhance or inhibit the interactions of galectin-8 and galectin-8-like proteins with other extracellular matrix proteins or cell surface receptors, to the use thereof as physiological modulators of cell adhesion and in treatment of tumors, either in vivo or ex vivo. (google.com)
  • This group embodies proteins such as thrombospondin, tenascin, and hevin that do not serve as integral components of matrix elements but rather function through binding to matrix proteins as well as to cell surface receptors. (google.com)
  • Lectins are proteins that are defined by their ability to bind carbohydrates specifically and to agglutinate cells. (google.com)
  • Galectins are carbohydrate binding proteins (lectins), which characteristically bind β-galactosides. (rcsb.org)
  • Galectins are a family of mammalian β-galactoside-binding proteins that positively and negatively regulate T cell death. (elsevier.com)
  • In adults, protein changes were generally suggestive of a neurotrophic and neuroprotective effect of paroxetine, with significant downregulation of apoptotic proteins Galectin 7 and Cathepsin B, and upregulation of the neurotrophic factor Neurogenin 1 and the antioxidant proteins Aldose reductase and Carbonyl reductase 3. (frontiersin.org)
  • The galectins are a family of beta-galactoside-binding proteins implicated in modulating cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Previously termed S-type lectins, galectins represent a group of proteins that are the most widely expressed class of lectins in all organisms. (nih.gov)
  • There is a single hydrophobic transmembrane α-helix region present in the CD69 polypeptide (amino acids 41-61, Fig. 1 ), which classifies CD69 as a member of type II transmembrane proteins. (springer.com)
  • Galectin-1, a member of a family of carbohydrate binding proteins, is synthesized by thymic epithelial cells in normal juvenile thymus, and mediates adhesion of immature T cells to thymic epithelium. (springer.com)
  • Galectin-binding glycans deliberately displayed on key membrane proteins along with their glyco-enzyme regulators have a profound effect on the capacity of T and B cells to differentiate and function in adaptive immune responses and on the virulency of malignant melanoma. (harvard.edu)
  • Glycosylation of proteins during their passage through the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi compartments is controlled by the activity of multiple glycosyltransferases, glycosidases, and their interacting partners ( 1 ⇓ - 3 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Rabinovich, G. A., The coming of age of galectins as immunomodulatory agents: impact of these carbohydrate binding proteins in T cell physiology and chronic inflammatory disorders. (montana.edu)
  • Galectins are β-galactoside-binding proteins. (mdpi.com)
  • As carbohydrate-binding proteins, they participate in intracellular trafficking, cell adhesion, and cell-cell signaling. (mdpi.com)
  • Galectin refers to a family of proteins found in the body. (prospecbio.com)
  • These proteins are defined thanks to the way they bind specifically with beta-galactoside sugars. (prospecbio.com)
  • Sugars like this are bound to proteins via N-linked or O-linked glycosylation. (prospecbio.com)
  • Lectins, of either plant or animal origin, are carbohydrate binding proteins that interact with glycoprotein and glycolipids on the surface of animal cells. (mpbio.com)
  • Nonetheless, even such subtle changes to protein sequences often have a dramatic effect on protein function ( 2 - 4 ) and can serve as initiating or key steps in the proteolytic control of signaling cascades, such as cytokine activation and removal of inhibitory binding proteins ( 5 - 7 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Galectins are a family of proteins that have become a promising source of cancer research in recent years. (innovations-report.com)
  • Among these relevant factors, galectin-1 is a member of a family of evolutionarily-conserved glycan-binding proteins with both extracellular and intracellular effects, playing important roles in immune cell processes and inflammatory responses. (jcircadianrhythms.com)
  • Additionally, two secreted proteins, galectin-1 and progestagen-associated protein 14, known to have immunomodulatory functions, were selectively expressed in dNK cells. (rupress.org)
  • Aptamers are single-stranded oligonucleotides (DNA or RNA), which can bind to a wide variety of targets, such as ions, peptides, proteins, organic and inorganic molecules, with high affinity and specificity. (usp.br)
  • The majority of proteins in this class bind to sugar molecules in a sulfhydryl-dependent manner and are often referred to as S-type lectins, however this property is not required for membership in this class. (curehunter.com)
  • 1 Proteins involved in interaction with carbohydrates are known as lectins. (bmj.com)
  • Mammalian galectins at present comprise nine proteins sharing the property of secretion via a non-classic pathway and cation independent binding capacity to β-galactosides, including histoblood A and B group saccharides and poly-N-acetyl-lactosamines. (bmj.com)
  • Researchers from the Medical University of Vienna have been looking into the role of proteins called galectins, which are prevalent in the joint cartilage of patients with osteoarthritis (OA). (acsh.org)
  • Galectins are a family of carbohydrate binding proteins that mediate cell-cell or cell-matrix (outer environment) interactions. (acsh.org)
  • A more novel biomarker is galectin-3, a member of the lectin family of proteins that bind carbohydrates, found both in the circulation and different intracellular locations in many cell types. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Galectins are a group of carbohydrate-binding proteins which are used both inside and outside the cell for signalling and regulation. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The role of galectins in parasite-host cell interactions is a fascinating but under-explored area, and more research should provide a clearer pattern of the importance of these glycan binding proteins in mitigating parasitic infections. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Recently, it has been shown that MUC16 cytoplasmic tail, which contains a polybasic aminoacid sequence, interacts with cytoskeleton through ERM (ezrin/radixin/moesin) actin-binding proteins. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • The IMP (IGFII mRNA-binding protein) family comprises a group of three RNA-binding proteins involved in the regulation of cytoplasmic mRNA-fate. (ebscohost.com)
  • Galectin-9 belongs to a large family of beta-galactoside-binding proteins. (perkinelmer.com)
  • Galectins comprise a family of multifunctional carbohydrate-binding proteins with specificity for N-acetyl-lactosamine-containing glycoproteins. (rndsystems.com)
  • Caveolae/rafts ( 4 - 8 ) and scaffolding proteins for activated Ras, such as SUR-8 ( 9 ), Spred ( 10 ), and Galectin-1 ( 8 ), may be involved in signal transduction. (pnas.org)
  • Galectins are proteins of 30 kDa that can be found in the cellular nucleus, the cytosol and also in the extracellular space. (biovendor.com)
  • They are members of the lectin family, a group of β-galactoside binding proteins. (biovendor.com)
  • Galectin-1, a member of carbohydrate-binding proteins with an affinity for b-galactoside, was found strong expressed in the isolated activated PSCs. (biovendor.com)
  • Traditionally, galectins have been defined as a subfamily of lectins that selectively bind β-galactosides, and all galectins share significant amino acid sequence conservation within their CRD (carbohydrate-recognition domain) [ 1 ]. (biochemj.org)
  • Galectin-1, which belongs to S-type lectins, contains a conserved carbohydrate recognition domain that recognizes galactose-containing oligosaccharides. (npust.edu.tw)
  • We have previously determined that CPI-GC lacks mannose but contains polylactosamine repeats representing potential ligands for animal lectins called galectins, implicated in HIV pathogenesis. (bmj.com)
  • Together, our data implicate gal-1 in PSC activation and suggest further studies to analyse the role of endogenous lectins in the development of pancreatic fibrosis in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • Galectins comprise a family of animal lectins defined by their ability to recognize β-galactoside-containing glycoconjugates through a conserved carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD). (frontiersin.org)
  • The galectins were originally referred to as S-type lectins to denote their sulfhydryl dependency, the presence of cysteine residues, their solubility, and their shared primary sequence, in much the same way that the designation C-type denotes Ca ++ dependency and shared primary structure for that class of lectins. (nih.gov)
  • Galectins are members of a large carbohydrate-binding lectins that share a highly conserved carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) that is responsible for β-galactoside binding ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Galectins are beta-galactoside-binding animal lectins with conserved carbohydrate recognition domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Galectins are b-galactoside binding, Ca 2+ -independent lectins. (montana.edu)
  • Wang, J. L., Galectins-A Family of Animal Beta-Galactoside-Binding Lectins. (montana.edu)
  • Galectins are animal lectins defined by an affinity for β -galactosides and a highly conserved carbohydrate recognition domain of about 130 amino acids [ 2 ]. (jcancer.org)
  • Often, galectins are called S-type lectins because they're highly dependent on disulphide bonds. (prospecbio.com)
  • The Galectins are lectins that recognize and interact with β-galactoside moieties. (mpbio.com)
  • Galectins are a family of animal lectins defined by shared characteristic amino-acid sequences and affinity for β-galactose-containing oligosac-charides (PMID: 8063692). (ptglab.com)
  • A class of animal lectins that bind specifically to beta-galactoside in a calcium-independent manner. (curehunter.com)
  • investigated a role for galectins, lectins that are best known to bind to glycans extracellularly, in stimulating autophagy in Salmonella -infected HeLa cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Based on structural analysis of the carbohydrate recognition domains, animal lectins are currently classified into five categories: C type, I type, P type, galectins, and pentraxins. (bmj.com)
  • Galectin-1 [GAL-1] is a prototypical member of the galectin family of lectins. (biovendor.com)
  • Indications for affinity of human galectin-1 to α-linked digalactosides pose questions on the interaction profile with such bound ligands and selection of the galactose moiety for CH-π stacking. (elsevier.com)
  • Galectins may also bind intracellular noncarbohydrate ligands and have intracellular regulatory roles in processes such as RNA splicing, apoptosis, and, suggested most recently, the cell cycle. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The canonical CRD of galectins has approximately 130 amino acids, although only a small number of residues within the CRD directly contact glycan ligands. (nih.gov)
  • My Laboratory is making pioneering observations in two seemingly diverse research areas studying the roles of galectin-1, -3 and -9 and their glycoprotein ligands in adaptive immunity and in melanoma progression. (harvard.edu)
  • 5 , 6 , 7 Galectin-3 is a chimera galectin with one carbohydrate-binding domain that binds to galactose, lactose, and N -acetyllactosamine (LacNAc) ligands and a proline/glycine-rich, collagen-like domain (Figure 1). (montana.edu)
  • Overall, our results indicate that varying the display of low and high affinity ligands alters galectin binding in predictable ways. (montana.edu)
  • Melanoma Cell Galectin-1 Ligands Functionally Correlate with Malignant Potential. (harvard.edu)
  • Our findings can serve the development of high-affinity ligands of the protein Galectin-1 and thus of new drugs," said Clemens Grimm. (innovations-report.com)
  • 2 5 Functionally, galectins have been proposed to have crucial biological roles by recognising carbohydrate ligands on intracellular and extracellular compartments and glycoproteins of the extracellular matrix, thus contributing to cell-cell and cell-matrix interaction, 6-8 regulation of cell growth, 9 10 and programmed cell death. (bmj.com)
  • Additionally, the report provides an overview of key players involved in Galectin 1 (14 kDa Laminin Binding Protein or 14 kDa Lectin or Beta Galactoside Binding Lectin L 14 I or Galaptin or HBL or HPL or Lactose Binding Lectin 1 or Lectin Galactoside Binding Soluble 1 or Putative MAPK Activating Protein PM12 or S Lac Lectin 1 or LGALS1) targeted therapeutics development and features dormant and discontinued projects. (globalmarketsdirect.com)
  • Using in silico studies and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis we have identified a functional NF-κB binding site within the first intron of the LGALS1 gene. (conicet.gov.ar)
  • Galectin-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LGALS1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Galectin-1 (Gal-1) is a 14-kDa homodimeric prototype of galectins laminin-binding galectin encoded by LGALS1 gene ( GeneBank Accession#: NM_002305). (jcancer.org)
  • Many of these actions have been studied through the use of mice with a null mutation in the galectin-1 (Lgals1) gene. (jcircadianrhythms.com)
  • To further analyze the role of endogenous galectin-1 in vivo, we aimed to characterize the circadian behavior of galectin-1 null (Lgals1 -/- ) mice. (jcircadianrhythms.com)
  • Beta 1 integrin, a target protein of galectin-3, was expressed in bovine CL and possessed glycans, which galectin-3 binds. (bioone.org)
  • Furthermore, galectin-3 bound to glycans of luteal beta 1 integrin. (bioone.org)
  • The N-glycans of each fraction were analyzed by mass spectrometry, and the structural differences and galectin-1 mutants were used to identify possible galectin-1 binding sites. (lu.se)
  • gal-1 (galectin-1) mediates cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix adhesion, essentially by interacting with β-galactoside-containing glycans of cell-surface glycoconjugates. (biochemj.org)
  • Although most structural studies with gal-1 have investigated its binding to simple carbohydrates, in particular lactose and N -acetyl-lactosamine, this view is limited, because gal-1 functions at the cell surface by interacting with more complex glycans that are heterogeneous in size and composition. (biochemj.org)
  • Galectin-3 has high affinity for β-1,6- N -acetylglucosamine branched glycans, which are formed by the action of the β1,6- N -acetylglucosaminyltransferase V (Mgat5). (frontiersin.org)
  • Gal1 bound to core 2 O-glycans on CD45, favoring retention of this glycoprotein on the microglial cell surface and augmenting its phosphatase activity and inhibitory function. (nih.gov)
  • Galectin 1 contains a single carbohydrate recognition domain through which it can bind glycans both as a monomer and as a homodimer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Galectin 1 does not bind glycans when oxidized. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Thomsen-Friedenreich (TF or T) antigen, Galβ1-3GalNAcα1-O-Ser/Thr, is the core 1 structure of O-linked mucin type glycans appearing in tumor-associated glycosylation. (rcsb.org)
  • Human galectin-9 binding to glycans has been studied by a variety of techniques including glycan microarray analysis and frontal affinity chromatography. (functionalglycomics.org)
  • While both domains bound well to short sulfated glycans, such as 3-O-sulfated galactose in short LacNAc structures, only the N-terminal domain bound well to many glycans expressing blood group A-related sequences and to the Forssman glycolipid-like glycans, whereas the C-terminal domain bound less well to the blood group related structures, but showed binding to a linear sialylated poly-N-acetyllactosamine pentasaccharide. (functionalglycomics.org)
  • In frontal affinity chromatography, recombinant human galectin-9 was found to preferentially bind to both branched N-glycans (Kd = 0.16 μM toward tetraantennary N-glycans terminating in galactose) and glycans with poly-N-acetyllactosamine sequences (Kd = 0.09 μM toward octasaccharides with 4 repeating LacNAc groups, and this was found for both the N- and C-terminal domains. (functionalglycomics.org)
  • Glycan microarray analyses in microarrays with relatively short glycan species [11] , showed that both the recombinant full-length human galectin-9 and the N-terminal domain displayed very similar binding patterns, and both bound to LacNAc sequences and even better to short fucosylated glycans with terminal blood group A and B trisaccharide sequences. (functionalglycomics.org)
  • To this end, we have discovered that glycosyltransferase, GCNT2, which catalyzes the synthesis of I-antigen (or I-branched glycans), is a critical negative regulator of Gal-3- and Gal-9-binding activity that profoundly influences B cell immunity and melanoma progression. (harvard.edu)
  • PROJECT NARRATIVE for HMS Scholar-in-Medicine student [Open - 12/1/15 - 12/1/19] Cancer cells display aberrant levels of cell surface glycans that often facilitate malignant behavior. (harvard.edu)
  • Galectins will bind to glycans that include galactose and other derivatives of galactose. (prospecbio.com)
  • Recruitment of galectin 8 to damaged SCVs did not depend on Salmonella components, but on the exposure of host glycans within the vesicle membrane. (sciencemag.org)
  • Based on these results, the researchers hypothesize that Gal-1 may recognize and bind to glycans on the heart cell surface used for parasite invasion, preventing parasite attachment and probably activating the immune response to the parasite by cytokine release. (medicalxpress.com)
  • In this study, we show that galectin-1 induces a phenotypic and functional maturation in human monocyte-derived DCs (MDDCs) similar to but distinct from the activity of the exogenous pathogen stimuli, LPS. (jimmunol.org)
  • Integrins, expressed on cell surface, change membrane distribution upon interaction with an ECM receptor and this clustering induces signaling involved in cytoskeletal remodeling and actin binding ( 4 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The present study suggest a novel regulatory loop by which NF-κB induces expression of Gal-1, which in turn may lead to negative control of NF-κB signaling. (conicet.gov.ar)
  • Extracellular galectin-1 directly induces death of T cells and thymocytes, while intracellular galectin-3 blocks T cell death. (elsevier.com)
  • In contrast to the antiapoptotic function of intracellular galectin-3, we demonstrate that extracellular galectin-3 directly induces death of human thymocytes and T cells. (elsevier.com)
  • The HL cell lines overexpressed galectin-1 (GAL1), a carbohydrate-binding lectin that selectively induces the apoptosis of cytotoxic T cells. (ashpublications.org)
  • Galectin-1 induces the differentiation of Dendritic cells towards a phenotype which dampens T helper 1 cells and T helper 17 cells and dampens inflammation via interleukin-10 and interleukin-27. (wikipedia.org)
  • Galectin-1 induces vascular permeability through the neuropilin-1/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 complex. (ebscohost.com)
  • Galectin-9, as an immuno oncology checkpoint biomarker, induces cellular apoptosis in part by direct binding to TIM-3. (perkinelmer.com)
  • Independent of its lectin properties, Galectin-9 induces the maturation of dendritic cells which promote Th1 polarization (9). (rndsystems.com)
  • Galectin-9 induces cellular apoptosis in part by direct binding to TIM-3 (10, 11). (rndsystems.com)
  • Galectin-1-binding glycoforms of haptoglobin with altered intracellular trafficking, and increase in metastatic breast cancer patients. (lu.se)
  • However, after uptake there was a dramatic difference in intracellular targeting, with the galectin-1 non-binding fraction going to a LAMP-2 positive compartment (lysosomes), while the galectin-1 binding fraction went to larger galectin-1 positive granules. (lu.se)
  • Although galectins in general can have intracellular functions (e.g. modulating proliferation, apoptosis and pre-mRNA splicing), they are best known for their extracellular activities in mediating cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion and migration by interacting with various glycan groups of cell-surface glycoproteins and/or glycolipids [ 2 ]. (biochemj.org)
  • Immunohistochemistry revealed vesicular uptake of anginex by EC within 2 h ( Fig. 1 A ). Electron microscopy showed anginex located at the membrane of intracellular vesicles, suggesting receptor-mediated uptake ( Fig. 1 B ). To identify this receptor, yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) analysis was performed. (pnas.org)
  • Extracellular galectins crosslink cell-surface and extracellular glycoproteins and may thereby modulate cell adhesion and induce intracellular signals. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • As knockout experiments of galectin-8 leads to more successful cytosolic replication by S. enterica serovar Typhimurium, it is thought that galectin-8 acts as a danger receptor in defence against intracellular pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • The N-terminal region of this polypeptide forms a short cytoplasmatic tail (amino acids 1 to 40, Fig. 1 ) that is able to generate and transduce intracellular signals. (springer.com)
  • Studies of infected heart tissue cells showed that T. cruzi increased Gal-1 release outside of the cells, without affecting the intracellular expression. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The small G protein Ras, an oncogene product, works as a binary switch in many important intracellular signaling pathways ( 1 , 2 ) and, therefore, has been one of the focal targets of signal-transduction investigations and drug development. (pnas.org)
  • GAL-1 is present both inside and outside cells, and has both intracellular and extracellular functions. (biovendor.com)
  • Galectin-1 bound in the extracellular matrix can induce cell death of adherent T cells at a ten-fold lower concentration than soluble galectin-1. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • NF-κB-activating stimuli increased Gal-1 expression on T cells, an effect which could be selectively prevented by inhibitors of NF-κB signaling. (conicet.gov.ar)
  • There is need for inhibitors (antagonists) that are specific for distinct galectins and that can interfere with galectin-carbohydrate interactions during cancer progression. (rcsb.org)
  • Here, we propose that lactulose, a non-digestible galactose-fructose disaccharide, presents a novel inhibitor scaffold for design of inhibitors against galectins. (rcsb.org)
  • Nilsson, U. J., Structural and thermodynamic studies on cation - II interactions in lectin-ligand complexes: High-affinity galectin-3 inhibitors through fine-tuning of an arginine-arene interaction. (montana.edu)
  • Several molecules have been developed as galectin inhibitors. (mdpi.com)
  • Herein, we provide an in-depth review on the development of galectin inhibitors, aiming at the dissection of the structure-activity relationship to demonstrate how inhibitors interact with galectin(s). (mdpi.com)
  • Successful antiproteolytic therapies include those targeting angiotensin convertase in heart disease, dipeptidyl-peptidase IV in diabetes, and human immunodeficiency virus protease-1 in AIDS ( 12 ), whereas some, such as matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 1 inhibitors in cancer, have failed ( 13 , 14 ). (mcponline.org)
  • The present application relates generally to cancer treatment and, in particular, to checkpoint regulator antagonists, including anti-T cell Ig and ITIM domain (TIGIT) inhibitors, PD-1 inhibitors, PD-L1 inhibitors capable of modulating pathways associated with antitumor immunity, including bispecific and trispecific checkpoint regulator antagonists thereof. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Galectins can be secreted and, depending on the cell type or state of differentiation, they have been found in the nucleus, cytoplasm, or extracellular matrix. (pnas.org)
  • Microarray analysis revealed that in addition to modulating many of the same DC maturation genes as LPS, galectin-1 also uniquely up-regulated a significant subset of genes related to cell migration through the extracellular matrix (ECM). (jimmunol.org)
  • Galectin-1 is found in the extracellular matrix and has been shown to interact with laminin. (google.com)
  • Depending on the cell type, galectin-3 can be localized in the extracellular matrix, the cell surface, in the cytoplasm, or in the nucleus. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Although the majority of Gal-1 is secreted into the extracellular matrix through a unconventional pathway, independent of the endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi route ( 4-7 ), it can also be found in the cytoplasm and the nucleus ( 2 , 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • BACKGROUND Galectin-3 (Gal-3) mediates extracellular matrix remodeling in heart failure, but its role in AF progression remains unexplored. (semanticscholar.org)
  • 10 , 11 Galectin-3 interactions with the extracellular matrix (ECM) may be more significant for cancer cells than for normal cells because of the aberrant glycosylation patterns that are present on cancer cells. (montana.edu)
  • Upon examination of samples of knee joint cartilage from 29 subjects, the researchers observed that once galectin-1 was bound to the chondrocyte cell surface there was a subsequent increase in the expression of factors that cause the breakdown of the extracellular matrix (the material that fills the space between the cells of tissues). (acsh.org)
  • It has been proposed that gal-1 mediates cell adhesion and migration ( 12 ) and is involved in several processes, including proliferation ( 13 ), apoptosis ( 14 ), and even mRNA splicing ( 15 ). (pnas.org)
  • Galectins are involved in physiological and pathological events, such as cell proliferation and differentiation, apoptosis, immune response, cell differentiation, and tumor progression. (frontiersin.org)
  • It is a versatile 29-35 kDa protein that participates in several biological processes: cell adhesion, cell activation and chemoattraction, cell growth and differentiation, cell cycle, and apoptosis ( 1 - 4 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • 11 Galectin-1 may play a significant role in cancer through apoptosis, cell adhesion and migration, regulation of the cell cycle, and tumor evasion of immune responses. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Intracellularly, galectin-3 acts to prevent apoptosis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Galectin-1 (Gal-1), a carbohydrate-binding protein whose secretion is enhanced by hypoxia, promotes tumor aggressiveness by promoting angiogenesis and T-cell apoptosis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • It has been suggested that Gal-1 is involved in various pathologic processes such as tumor cell proliferation ( 17 ), aggregation ( 18 ), adhesion ( 19 ), migration ( 10 ), cytoskeletal reorganization ( 20 ), and apoptosis ( 21, 22 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Consequently, it is deduced that a primary function of galectins is to play a vital role in apoptosis. (prospecbio.com)
  • Apoptosis is regulated by galectins thanks to the control of T cells in the thymus. (prospecbio.com)
  • Galectin-1 is a multifunctional protein that is involved in cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, apoptosis, inflammation, tumour transformation and growth (PMID:15785741). (ptglab.com)
  • Gal-1 was demonstrated to mitigate cellular parasite infection and prevent early signs of heart cell apoptosis but did not bind to the parasite itself. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Furthermore, the functions of galectin-3 were analyzed with respect to the proliferation, cell cycle,apoptosis, migration, and invasion of HCC cell lines. (ebscohost.com)
  • Galectin-3 knockdown by siRNA significantly inhibited cell growth, migration, and invasion, and induced apoptosis in HCC cells in vitro, whereas galectin-3 overexpression promoted cell growth, migration, and invasion. (ebscohost.com)
  • The observed regulation of cell apoptosis was accompanied by the galectin-3-mediated modulation of caspase3 signaling pathways in HCC cells. (ebscohost.com)
  • Galectin-1 is widely distributed in many normal and pathological tissues and appears to be functionally polyvalent, such as regulating cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis, mediating tumor transformation, growth and so on. (biovendor.com)
  • This complex scenario of stimulatory and inhibitory genes has been enriched with the finding that galectin-1, a 14.5 kDa β-galactoside-binding protein, is able to induce apoptosis of immature cortical thymocytes and mature T cells by cross-linking cell surface glycoconjugates. (hindawi.com)
  • In the present article we will discuss the implications of galectin-1-induced apoptosis in T-cell physiopathology in an attempt to validate its therapeutic potential in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. (hindawi.com)
  • Our findings show that galectin-1 is a novel endogenous activator of human MDDCs that up-regulates a significant subset of genes distinct from those regulated by a model exogenous stimulus (LPS). (jimmunol.org)
  • Galectin-1 (Gal-1), an endogenous lectin found in peripheral lymphoid organs and inflammatory sites, elicits a broad spectrum of biological functions predominantly by acting as a potent anti-inflammatory factor and as a suppressive agent for T-cell responses. (conicet.gov.ar)
  • Here, we identified Galectin-1 (Gal1), an endogenous glycan-binding protein, as a pivotal regulator of M1 microglial activation that targets the activation of p38MAPK-, CREB-, and NF-κB-dependent signaling pathways and hierarchically suppresses downstream proinflammatory mediators, such as iNOS, TNF, and CCL2. (nih.gov)
  • Recombinant galectin-3C competes with endogenous galactin-3 for carbohydrate binding sites and acts as a negative inhibitor of galectin-3 16 in promoting cell adhesion 17 and cell signaling. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The observation demonstrates that this recognition mode is commonly adopted by TF-binding galectins, either as endogenous or exogenous ones. (rcsb.org)
  • Four hours after the last OVA challenge, rGal-1 markedly increased Gal-1 endogenous levels in the conjunctiva, and provoked eosinophilia, which persisted at 24 hours. (arvojournals.org)
  • In electrophoretic mobility studies, AP1 bound to the predicted GAL1 enhancer element in a cell-type specific manner. (ashpublications.org)
  • In addition, mutation of the AP1 binding site in the GAL1 enhancer abolished its activity. (ashpublications.org)
  • G) Effect of stimulation of astrocytes with LPS (10 ng/ml), IFN-γ (10 ng/ml), IL-17A (10 ng/ml), IL-4 (10 ng/ml), TGF-β 1 (5 ng/ml) and recombinant Gal1 (5 g/ml) on Gal1 mRNA expression and secretion. (nih.gov)
  • Cells treated with recombinant human galectin-1 generated lower viral yields after influenza virus infection. (npust.edu.tw)
  • 12 , 13 Recombinant human galectin-3 is grown from E. coli cells and purified in our labs using technology provided to us from Dr. Avraham Raz. (montana.edu)
  • Recombinant human Galectin-1 is a 14.5 kDa protein containing 134 amino acid residues. (mpbio.com)
  • Recombinant Human Galectin-9 supports the adhesion of Jurkat human acute T cell leukemia cells. (rndsystems.com)
  • The glycan-binding profile of a β-galactoside-binding 15 kDa lectin (Galectin-1) purified from the oocytes of the American bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana, was studied using 61 pyridyl-aminated oligosaccharides by frontal affinity chromatography. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Sera from 25 metastatic breast cancer patients and 25 healthy controls were subjected to affinity chromatography using immobilized galectin-1. (lu.se)
  • Galectin-1 binding and non-binding fractions were separated by affinity chromatography from pooled haptoglobin from healthy sera. (lu.se)
  • Galectin-1 was purified by affinity chromatography on asialofetuin-Sepharose and it also required reducing conditions to maintain activity. (nih.gov)
  • gal-1 is overexpressed in endothelial cells of different human tumors. (pnas.org)
  • An adequate vasculature is a prerequisite for tumors to grow, and the need for neovessel formation (or angiogenesis) provides a target for treatment of cancer ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • We provide direct functional evidence that gal-1 is required for tumor angiogenesis and outgrowth of tumors. (pnas.org)
  • A carbohydrate-binding protein called galectin-1 is released by a variety of tumors and promotes their growth and metastasis. (quantumday.com)
  • Galectin-3 presence enhances migration and/or invasion of many tumors. (frontiersin.org)
  • Galectin-3C has been found to be effective in reducing metastases and tumor volumes and weights in primary tumors in an orthotropic nude mouse model of human breast cancer. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In contrast, angiogenesis, as assessed by microvessel density count, was similar between tumors with divergent Gal-1 levels when examined at a comparable size. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In lung cancer, increased Gal-1 expression is closely associated with larger tumors, more nodal metastasis, and lower overall survival ( 14 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In addition, we noted an inverse relationship between tumor Gal-1 protein expression and the level of intratumoral T cells in these tumors, suggesting that Gal-1 is a negative regulator of T-cell activation and survival in human tumors ( 26 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Clinicopathological analyses revealed that increased expression of galectin-3 in tumors was closely associated with a poor prognosis. (ebscohost.com)
  • It is widely reported that Galectin-1 is overexpressed in many different types of digestive systém tumors, including gastric cancer, colorectal cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma. (biovendor.com)
  • This gene encodes a member of the galectin family. (wikipedia.org)
  • GnT-Vb-mediated glycosylation of RPTPbeta promotes galectin-1 binding and RPTPbeta levels of retention on the cell surface. (nih.gov)
  • It is a type-1 glycopotein with heavy O- and N-type glycosylation. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Galectin-1 is a member of the conserved β-galactoside-binding lectin family that binds galactoside residues on cell surface glycoconjugates. (jimmunol.org)
  • In this report, we focus on a member of the animal lectin family of the galectins. (bmj.com)
  • Background Galectin-3, a member of the beta-galactoside-binding lectin family, is a multifunctional protein with various biological functions, including the proliferation and differentiation of tumor cells, angiogenesis, cancer progression, and metastasis. (ebscohost.com)
  • In addition, gal-1 binding to GRG disrupts inter-glycan interactions and decreases glycan-mediated solution viscosity, a glycan decongestion effect that may help explain why gal-1 promotes membrane fluidity and lateral diffusion of glycoconjugates within cell membranes. (biochemj.org)
  • Overall, these findings reveal that the type of-linkage in digalactosides has an impact on maintaining CH-π interactions and the pattern of hydrogen bonding, explaining preference for the (1 → 3) linkage. (elsevier.com)
  • Crystal structures of galectin-1 and galectin-3 in complex with lactulose reveal for the first time the molecular basis of the galectin-lactulose interactions. (rcsb.org)
  • 19 It binds to a subset of cell surface integrins to modulate ECM-integrin interactions. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Lin, C.-H. Dissecting the Structure-Activity Relationship of Galectin-Ligand Interactions. (mdpi.com)
  • Chan Y-C, Lin H-Y, Tu Z, Kuo Y-H, Hsu S-TD, Lin C-H. Dissecting the Structure-Activity Relationship of Galectin-Ligand Interactions. (mdpi.com)
  • SHOE enables users to explore potential interactions between transcription factors and target genes via multiple data views, discover transcription factor binding motifs on top of gene co-expression, and visualize genes as a network of gene and transcription factors on its native gadget GeneViz, the CellDesigner pathway analyzer, and the Reactome database to search the pathways involved. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Some galectins are found to help with the mediation between intercellular interactions, cell-matrix adhesion, and transmembrane signalling. (prospecbio.com)
  • The longer the sugar is that galectins bind to, the stronger their interactions will be. (prospecbio.com)
  • This is due to the fact that Van Der Waals interactions can occur more frequently between sugars and a binding pocket. (prospecbio.com)
  • Researchers from the INGEBI and IBYME Institutes in Argentina explored the effect of glycan binding protein interactions between the human host and Typanosoma cruzi parasite. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Based on molecular architecture, the 15 members of the galectin family are divided into 3 main groups: (1) prototype galectins, (2) tandem repeat galectins, and (3) chimera galectins. (frontiersin.org)
  • Galectins play a role in tumour progression through involvement in proliferation, metastasis, angiogenesis, immune evasion and drug resistance. (rcsb.org)
  • Galectin-3 binding to mucin-1 increases transendothelial invasion, decreasing metastasis-free survival in an experimental metastasis model. (frontiersin.org)
  • In conclusion, this review aims to describe the processes of tumor progression and metastasis involving extracellular galectin-3 and its expression and regulation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Galectin-1 has been implicated in metastasis and aggregation of cancer cells based on its association with the glycoprotein 90K. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Galectin-3 is known to play a role in tumor growth, metastasis, and cell-to-cell adhesion. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Comparing Gal-1-deficient mice as hosts for Lewis lung carcinoma cells where Gal-1 levels were preserved or knocked down, we found that tumor Gal-1 was more critical than host Gal-1 in promoting tumor growth and spontaneous metastasis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Enhanced growth and metastasis associated with Gal-1 related to its immunomodulatory function, insofar as the benefits of Gal-1 expression to Lewis lung carcinoma growth were abolished in immunodeficient mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Gal-1 is expressed in many tumor types including astroctyoma, melanoma, and protstate, thyroid, colon, bladder, and ovary carcinomas ( 8, 9 ), and its expression correlates with tumor aggressiveness and metastasis ( 10-13 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The roles of external galectin-3 in cancer include mediation of processes such as angiogenesis, cellular aggregation, tumor invasion and metastasis. (montana.edu)
  • However, the 5-year survival rate of EOC is still unsatisfied due to extensive local tumor invasion and metastasis, early systemic dissemination [ 1 ]. (jcancer.org)
  • Galectin-3 plays an important role in tumor cell survival, new blood vessel growth, cell proliferation and tumor metastasis, which is the spread of cancer beyond its primary site. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Galectin-9 suppresses tumor cell metastasis by interfering with the associations between hyaluronic acid and CD44 and between VCAM-1 and Integrin alpha 4 beta 1 (13). (rndsystems.com)
  • When cultured LSCs were exposed to prostaglandin F 2alpha (PGF) for 48 h, the expression and secretion of galectin-3 increased. (bioone.org)
  • This non-traditional secretion requires a functional glycan binding site. (wikipedia.org)
  • This chapter describes the diversity of the galectin family and presents an overview of what is known about their biosynthesis, secretion, and biological activities. (nih.gov)
  • In contrast, Rubinstein and colleagues showed that the level of Gal-1 secretion in cultured supernatant correlated with the extent of tumor-induced T-cell death in both murine and human melanoma cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We have previously found that Gal-1 secretion is significantly enhanced under hypoxia in tumor cells and its tissue expression could be used to assess treatment outcome in a large cohort of head and neck cancer patients. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Generation of s-NE-4C cells and their fate after implantation into the brain.Neural stem cell transplantation attenuates behavioral deficits.Neural stem cell implantation reduces lesion size and hippocampal CA3 neuronal death.Neural stem cells attenuate oligodendrocyte precursor cell death and white matter injury.Gal-1 suppresses secretion of NO and TNF-a in activated microglia. (cns.org)
  • For the very first time our study showed that galectin-1 triggers inflammation rather than the inflammation triggering secretion of this protein," according to Dr. Stefan Togel , one of the study's authors. (acsh.org)
  • We used 15 N- 1 H-HSQC (heteronuclear single quantum coherence) NMR experiments with 15 N-enriched gal-1 to identify the GRG-binding region on gal-1 and found that this region covers a large surface area on gal-1 that includes the quintessential lactose-binding site and runs from that site through a broad valley or cleft towards the dimer interface. (biochemj.org)
  • Furthermore, even though terminal motifs on GRG are Gal-β(1→4)-Gal rather than the traditional Gal-β(1→4)-Glc/GlcNAc (where GlcNAc is N -acetylglucosamine), we show that the disaccharide Gal-β(1→4)-Gal can bind gal-1 at the lactose-binding domain. (biochemj.org)
  • By definition, adhesion/growth-regulatory galectins are known for their ability to bind β-galactosides such as Gal(1 → 4)Glc (lactose). (elsevier.com)
  • Gal-1-dependent collagen synthesis was blocked by lactose but not by cellobiose, suggesting that gal-1 acts on PSCs through targeting beta-galactoside-containing glycoconjugates. (nih.gov)
  • All galectins bind lactose and other β-galactosides, but they differ in their affinity for more complex saccharides. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • This medication is known to target galectin-1, heat-labile enterotoxin b chain, neurocan core protein, and lactose permease. (drugbank.ca)
  • Lactose was required to isolate the mammalian lectin , now termed galectin-1, from macromolecular glycoconjugates in calf heart/lung extracts. (nih.gov)
  • T cell binding was inhibited by the addition of the β-galactosides lactose and thiodigalactoside, suggesting that galectin-1 on the thymoma cells and a saccharide ligand on the T cells participated in cell-cell adhesion. (springer.com)
  • We have synthesized galactose, N -acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), and lactose functionalized dendrimers for binding to galectin-3. (montana.edu)
  • Inhibition ELLAs (enzyme linked lectin assays) in which the glycodendrimers were attached to polystyrene plates and binding of galectin-3 to the glycodendrimer-functionalized surfaces was inhibited by lactose were performed. (montana.edu)
  • Galectin-3 recruitment was highest for dendrimers bearing the most lactose (the higher affinity monomer) and was lowest for dendrimers bearing galactose (the lower affinity monomer). (montana.edu)
  • For the binding to be as strong as possible, it's suggested that lactose or N-acetyllactosamine are present. (prospecbio.com)
  • Other activities of galectin-1 include cell differentiation and inhibition of CD45 protein phosphatase activity. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • A lack of regulatory T cell function is a critical factor in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Ligation of the complement regulatory protein CD46 facilitates the differentiation of T helper 1 (T H 1) effector cells into interleukin-10 (IL-10)-secreting type 1 regulatory T cells (Tr1 cells), and this pathway is defective in MS patients. (sciencemag.org)
  • Therefore, CA125 is useful for monitoring progression and regression, rather than for early diagnosis [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • This lectin is found in the tumor stroma, suggesting a role for microenvironmental galectin-3 in tumor progression. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, the importance of tumor versus host Gal-1 in tumor progression is undefined. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Here we offer evidence that implicates tumor Gal-1 and its modulation of T-cell immunity in progression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our findings establish that tumor rather than host Gal-1 is responsible for mediating tumor progression through intratumoral immunomodulation, with broad implications in developing novel targeting strategies for Gal-1 in cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Specifically, progression of liver disease to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) 1 has been associated with changes in the expression of glycosyltransferases, including α-1,6-mannosylglycoprotein 6-β- N -acetylglucosaminyltransferase, and with changes in architecture of the organ ( 7 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Rabinovich, G. A., Galectins as modulators of tumour progression. (montana.edu)
  • We previously reported that Galectin-1 (Gal-1) played a role in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) progression. (jcancer.org)
  • Our results suggest that Gal-1 is associated with poor outcome in EOC and Galectin-1 promotes tumor progression via NF-κB pathway activation in EOC. (jcancer.org)
  • Thus, we concluded that Gal-1 might play an important role in tumor progression in EOC. (jcancer.org)
  • This is the first description of Mgat5b in prostate cancer indicating a significant biologic importance of β(1,6)-branched oligosaccharides for prostate cancer progression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Although these results show a significant biologic importance of β(1,6)-branched oligosaccharides for prostate cancer progression, the prognostic effect of PHA-L is not strong enough to add independent information to the established clinicopathologic variables. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Conclusions These data suggest that galectin-3 plays an important part in HCC progression and may serve as a prognostic factor for HCC. (ebscohost.com)
  • Further information can be found in the GBP Molecule Page for human and mouse Galectin-9 in the CFG database. (functionalglycomics.org)
  • Prospect's lead product candidate, GCS-100, is a carbohydrate molecule designed to inhibit the activity of galectin-3, a protein found in high concentration in a broad range of human cancers and whose over-expression is associated with poor prognosis in cancer patients. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Scientists from the University of Würzburg have synthesized a complex sugar molecule which specifically binds to the tumor protein Galectin-1. (innovations-report.com)
  • Like a spaceship, the complex sugar molecule (coloured) lands exactly on the tumor protein galectin-1, which here looks like a meteorite and is shown in black and white. (innovations-report.com)
  • In addition, the scientists have described the binding of their molecule to galectin-1 with high-resolution X-ray structure analyzes. (innovations-report.com)
  • KB cells expressing H- or K-Ras fused with YFP (donor) were microinjected with the fluorescent GTP analogue BodipyTR-GTP (acceptor), and the epidermal growth factor-induced binding of BodipyTR-GTP to YFP-(H or K)-Ras was monitored by single-molecule FRET. (pnas.org)
  • For example, the effector molecule Raf-1 kinase is activated by Ras, but how this activation occurs is unknown, although a dimerization mechanism through Ras dimers and other protein factors has been proposed ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • Treatment of the cells with 1 μM latrunculin B was carried out under the microscope at 37°C, and the single-molecule observation was started 2 min after the addition of latrunculin B and completed within 5 min. (pnas.org)
  • Of these glycoprotein receptors, CD45 and CD71, but not CD29 and CD43, appear to be involved in galectin-3-induced T cell death. (elsevier.com)
  • Following galectin-3 binding, CD45 remains uniformly distributed on the cell surface, in contrast to the CD45 clustering induced by galectin-1. (elsevier.com)
  • Galectin-1 binds CD45, CD3, and CD4 in addition to b-galactoside. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • CD45 has also been reported to bind galectin-1. (biolegend.com)
  • Galectin-1 is an animal lectin that has been shown to interact with CD3, CD4, and CD45. (mpbio.com)
  • Galectin-8, also known as prostate carcinoma tumor antigen 1 (PCTA1) in human, is a tandem repeat-type galectin. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Galectin-3, the only chimera galectin found in vertebrates, is one of the best-studied galectins. (frontiersin.org)
  • The only chimera galectin currently identified (galectin-3) contains one CRD connected to a non-lectin domain. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The decreased cell viability of cultured LSCs by galectin-3 was suppressed by beta 1 integrin antibody. (bioone.org)
  • 7. A bispecific checkpoint regulator antagonist, comprising: an antigen binding domain comprising the antigen-binding portion of the antibody of claim 1. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 8. A bispecific checkpoint regulator antagonist, comprising: an antigen binding domain comprising the antigen-binding portion of the antibody of claim 2. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 9. A nucleic acid encoding the antibody, or an antigen-binding portion thereof, of claim 1. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • METHODS Immunoblot analysis using either a rabbit polyclonal or a mouse monoclonal antibody against galectin-3 was employed to detect galectin-3 in tear fluid. (bmj.com)
  • Galectin-3 expression in tissue specimens was detected by immunocytochemistry employing A1D6 mouse monoclonal antibody, and galectin-3 reactive glycoligands were visualised by lectin histochemistry using labelled galectin-3. (bmj.com)
  • In an AlphaLISA assay, a Biotinylated Anti-Analyte Antibody binds to the Streptavidin-coated Alpha Donor beads, while another Anti-Analyte Antibody is conjugated to AlphaLISA Acceptor beads. (perkinelmer.com)
  • The first galectin found (variously termed electrolectin, β-galactoside-binding lectin, galaptin, L-14, etc., depending on its source) was renamed galectin-1. (nih.gov)
  • Part of the highly conserved sequence motif used to identify galectins is shown in Figure 33.1 , along with a comparison of several human galectins. (nih.gov)
  • These findings provide the intrinsic structural elements for regulating the TF-binding activity of Gal-1 in some special conditions and also show certain target and approach for mediating some tumor-related bioactivities of human galectins. (rcsb.org)
  • Galectins typically bind β-galactose-containing glycoconjugates and share primary structural homology in their carbohydrate -recognition domains (CRDs). (nih.gov)
  • 1. A method for inhibiting cell adhesion, comprising exposing the cells to a pharmaceutical composition comprising as an active ingredient anti-galectin-8 antibodies. (google.com)
  • Because cell adhesion molecules are proposed to play a role in the thymic hyperplasia and neoplasia seen in the autoimmune disease myasthenia gravis, we examined the expression of galectin-1 in myasthenic thymi. (springer.com)
  • Along with this, galectins are able to prevent integrin-mediated cell adhesion, as well as promoting it. (prospecbio.com)
  • Galectin-3 was localized on luteal steroidogenic cells (LSCs). (bioone.org)
  • Our results using SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells indicate that GnT-Vb activity promotes the addition of the O-mannosyl-linked HNK-1 modification found on the developmentally regulated and neuron-specific receptor protein-tyrosine phosphatase beta (RPTPbeta). (nih.gov)
  • N-Acetyllactosamine, but not sucrose, treatment of cells results in decreased RPTP retention, showing that galectin-1 binding contributes to the increased retention after GnT-Vb expression. (nih.gov)
  • R. catesbeiana oocyte galectin adhered to human rhabdomyosarcoma cells dose dependently and the activity was specifically cancelled by the neoglycoprotein. (eurekaselect.com)
  • In conclusion, galectin-1 detects a new type of functional biomarker for cancer: a specific type of glycoform of haptoglobin, and possibly other serum glycoproteins, with a different function after uptake into tissue cells. (lu.se)
  • Galectin-1 is known to play a role in immune regulation via action on multiple immune cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • CPI-GC from different clinical isolates varied in their ability to bind Gal-1 and Gal-3, which were constitutively expressed by vaginal and cervical epithelial cells and released at higher levels in the extracellular space during exposure to live trichomonas and CPI-GC. (bmj.com)
  • Thus, extracellular galectin-3 and galectin-1 induce death of T cells through distinct cell surface events. (elsevier.com)
  • Hodgkin's Lymphoma Reed Sternberg Cells over Express the T-Cell Inhibitory Carbohydrate-Binding Lectin, Galectin 1: Role of AP-1 and Likely Mechanism of Tumor Immune Escape. (ashpublications.org)
  • Galectins bind to sugar molecules on the surface of cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • High levels of circulating galectin-8 have been shown to correlate with lung carcinomas, certain forms of prostate carcinomas, as well as other tumor cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Galectin-1 expression in Hodgkin Lymphoma has also been shown to mediate immunosuppression of CD8+ T-cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Galectin-1 is expressed by the endometrial stromal cells throughout the menstrual cycle, however significantly increases during implantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Galectin-1, a beta-galactoside-binding lectin in Chinese hamster ovary cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • More recently, 2 exciting new functions of Gal-1 in tumor cells have emerged. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Thijssen and colleagues have showed that an antiangiogenic peptide (anginex) binds to Gal-1 in endothelial cells and this interaction resulted in a reduction of endothelial cell proliferation and migration ( 24 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Because of the fact that neuroblasts derived in the SVZ migrate through the rostral migratory stream (RMS) en route to the OB, the existence of candidate neural stem cells within the RMS was long overlooked. (jneurosci.org)
  • Stimulation of the complement regulatory protein CD46 on T cells triggers the conversion of inflammatory effector cells into interleukin-10 (IL-10)-secreting type 1 regulatory T (Tr1) cells, a process that is defective in MS patients. (sciencemag.org)
  • We detected abundant galectin-1 expression in thymic epithelial cells in 27 hyperplastic and neoplastic thymi from patients with myasthenia gravis. (springer.com)
  • Expression of galectin-1 by thymic epithelial cells may play a role in the thymic pathology seen in myasthenia gravis. (springer.com)
  • Recombinant Gal-1 had no effect on eosinophil activation, as evidenced by the similar pattern of peroxidase eosinophil expression between cells of rGal-1-treated and untreated AC groups. (arvojournals.org)
  • May mediate with the alpha-3, beta-1 integrin the stimulation by CSPG4 of endothelial cells migration. (uniprot.org)
  • In vitro experiments were further performed to reveal the function and mechanisms of Gal-1 in invasion and migration of EOC cells. (jcancer.org)
  • The abilities of migration and invasion for EOC cells were significantly reduced after Gal-1 knocked-down in human EOC cell line HO8910, which was accompanied with the suppression of NF-κb pathway activation and with the matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 down-regulation. (jcancer.org)
  • We also found that over expression of Gal-1 significantly increased the migration and invasion abilities of human ovarian cancer cell line OVCAR-3 cells [ 7 ]. (jcancer.org)
  • Control neural stem cells (NE-4C) or cells carrying the secretory form of gal-1 (s-NE-4C) were implanted into the corpus callosum and striatum of adult mouse brains 1 hour after controlled cortical impact, a well-established model of TBI. (cns.org)
  • Gal-1 treatment protected cultured oligodendrocyte progenitor cells against excitotoxicity and reduced the production of tumor necrosis factor-a and nitric oxide after lipopolysaccharide stimulation in microglial cell cultures. (cns.org)
  • Our novel findings suggest that implantation of neural stem cells carrying the secreted form of gal-1 provides potent neuroprotection against TBI by targeting gray matter, white matter, and microglial function. (cns.org)
  • Among other things, it is known that galectin-1 hides the tumor cells from the immune system," explains Professor Jürgen Seibel of the Institute of Organic Chemistry at the Julius-Maximilians-Universität (JMU) Würzburg in Bavaria, Germany. (innovations-report.com)
  • Recent studies have shown that when Galectin-1 is blocked, the immune system can recognize the tumor and attack it with T cells. (innovations-report.com)
  • In pregnancy, hemiallogeneic fetal cells invade the maternal decidua but remain spared from attack by the maternal immune system, posing a great unsolved paradox of immunology ( 1 ). (rupress.org)
  • Starving Dictyostelium discoideum cells secrete AcbA, an acyl coenzyme A-binding protein (ACBP) that lacks a conventional signal sequence for entering the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • previously reported that interleukin-1β, which lacks a signal sequence for targeting to the ER, was secreted from cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Knockdown of galectin 8, but not other galectins, resulted in increased proliferation of bacteria compared with that in control cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Galectin 8 physically associated with NDP52 in vitro, and many SCVs in infected HeLa cells contained both galectin 8 and NDP52. (sciencemag.org)
  • Indeed, osmotic damage of endosomes or lysosomes in uninfected cells also resulted in the recruitment of galectin 8, which was dependent on its N-terminal carbohydrate-recognition domain. (sciencemag.org)
  • Galectins 3, 8, and 9 also accumulated on other types of bacteria in infected cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Together, these data suggest that galectin 8 provides an early alternative response to infection of cells by bacteria by sensing damage of vesicular membranes and stimulating the autophagic response. (sciencemag.org)
  • For flow cytometry, the suggested use of this reagent is 1-5 µl per 10^6 cells in 100 µl volume. (uscnk.com)
  • Inflammatory leucocytes and goblet cells found in galectin-3 containing tear fluid also expressed galectin-3. (bmj.com)
  • Galectin-3 binding sites were detected on the surface of conjunctival and corneal epithelial cells co-localising with desmoglein. (bmj.com)
  • Galectin-3 is a protein of M r of 29 000-35 000 depending on the animal species, which is expressed and secreted by various types of cells, especially monocytes, macrophages, mast cells, and epithelial cells including corneal epithelium. (bmj.com)
  • According to the feature article, with regard to OA, galectin-1 is a master regulator of the degeneration of cartilage cells, chondrocytes, by activating a pro-inflammatory pathway known as nuclear factor-ĸB (NFĸB). (acsh.org)
  • They found that a glycan binding protein expressed in humans modified the infection in cells of the heart muscle, showing the importance of galectins in the response to parasite infection. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Previous research has indicated their involvement in parasite infections, and the galectin Gal-1 has been shown to be up-regulated in heart cells exposed to low oxygen or undergoing inflammation. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Conversely, T. cruzi may alter surface glycophenotype of cardiac cells, restricting Gal-1 interaction. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Galectin-1 Prevents Infection and Damage Induced by Trypanosoma cruzi on Cardiac Cells, PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases (2015). (medicalxpress.com)
  • Correlation analysis of galectin-3 expression and micro-vessel density (MVD) showed that galectin-3 expression in tumor cells stimulates angiogenesis. (ebscohost.com)
  • Galectin-1 triggers epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Galectin-9 is expressed in a variety of cells such as T cells, PMNs, astrocytes, fibroblasts and endothelial cells. (perkinelmer.com)
  • GAL-1 is produced by a variety of vascular, interstitial, epithelial, and immune cells. (biovendor.com)
  • Galectins require fulfillment of two criteria: affinity for β-galactosides and significant sequence similarity in the carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) (Hirabayashi J & Kasai K 1991 J Biol Chem 266:23648-23653). (google.com)
  • Thermodynamic evaluation displays binding affinity of lactulose against the galectin-1 and galectin-3 carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD). (rcsb.org)
  • Nagae M, Nishi N, Nakamura-Tsuruta S, Hirabayashi J, Wakatsuki S, Kato R. Structural analysis of the human galectin-9 N-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain reveals unexpected properties that differ from the mouse orthologue. (functionalglycomics.org)
  • Nagae M, Nishi N, Murata T, Usui T, Nakamura T, Wakatsuki S, Kato R. Crystal structure of the galectin-9 N-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain from Mus musculus reveals the basic mechanism of carbohydrate recognition. (functionalglycomics.org)
  • Galectin-9 is the best-studied of the tandem-repeat galectins and the crystal structure of the N-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) is known. (functionalglycomics.org)
  • On the CFG glycan microarray, the individual N- and C-terminal domains of recombinant dog (Canis lupus) galectin-9, generated as GST (glutathione-S-transferase) chimeras, showed similarities in glycan recognition, but also distinct differences [9] . (functionalglycomics.org)
  • The carbohydrate recognition domain of galectin-3. (montana.edu)
  • Galectin-1 contains one carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) and occurs as a monomer as well as a non-covalent homodimer (PMID: 16840800). (ptglab.com)
  • At least 14 mammalian Galectins share structural similarities in their carbohydrate recognition domains (CRD), forming three groups: prototype (one CRD), tandem-repeat (two CRDs), and chimeric (one CRD, unique N-terminus) (1, 2). (rndsystems.com)
  • Structural features for α-galactomannan binding to galectin-1. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Plasma galectin-3 predicts clinical outcomes after catheter ablation in persistent atrial fibrillation patients without structural heart disease. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The detailed structural comparisons between Gal-1 and Gal-3 CRD and mutagenesis experiments reveal that a pentad residue motif ((51)AHGDA(55)) at the loop (g1-L4) connecting β-strands 4 and 5 of Gal-1 produces a serious steric hindrance for TF binding. (rcsb.org)
  • This motif is the main structural basis for Gal-1 with the low affinity to TF antigen. (rcsb.org)
  • Structural features of galectin-9 and galectin-1 that determine distinct T cell death pathways. (functionalglycomics.org)
  • The nomenclature for galectins was systematized in 1994. (nih.gov)
  • Galectin-3C is a truncated form of galectin-3 that contains the carboxy-terminus carbohydrate-binding domain. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We describe that galectin-1 (gal-1) is a receptor for the angiogenesis inhibitor anginex, and that the protein is crucial for tumor angiogenesis. (pnas.org)
  • Furthermore, we show that gal-1 is the target for the potent angiogenesis inhibitor anginex, thus establishing gal-1 as an important target for anticancer therapy. (pnas.org)
  • Stored serum samples were available for 296 subjects and analyzed for interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-6 receptor, IL-18, hs-CRP, matrix metalloproteinase-9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), galectin-3, and high-sensitivity troponin T. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) for CHD per SD increase in biomarker were estimated using Cox regression. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Human blood type-A-hexasaccharide (GalNAcα1-3(Fucα1-2)Galβ1-4GlcNAcβ1-4Galβ1-4Glc) was found to exhibit the strongest ligand binding to the galectin while Forssman antigen (GalNAcα1-3GalNAcβ1-3Galα1- 4Galβ1-4Glc) and type-A-tetrasaccharide (GalNAcα1-3(Fucα1-2)Galβ1-4GlcNAcβ1-4Glc) were also extensively recognized. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Galectin-3-dependent clustering of integrins promotes ligand-induced integrin activation, leading to cell motility. (frontiersin.org)
  • This section documents what is currently known about Galectin-9, its carbohydrate ligand(s), and how they interact to mediate cell communication. (functionalglycomics.org)
  • Since 2011, there has been a revolutionary shift in the treatment of cancer owing to immune checkpoint blockade, including anti-programmed cell death (PD)-1, anti-PD ligand (PD-L)-1, and anticytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein (CTLA)-4 targeted agents, which successfully demonstrated durable responses in a range of tumor types. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The first galectins found in vertebrates were isolated in 1976 from chick muscle and from extracts of calf heart and lung. (nih.gov)
  • CA125 is the most widely used serum marker in the detection and management of the disease [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Effects of persistent atrial fibrillation on serum galectin-3 levels. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In our previous study, a significant difference was detected in serum Gal-1 between EOC patients with non-metastatic and those with metastatic disease. (jcancer.org)
  • OBJECTIVE To study whether serum galectin-3 and other biomarkers of inflammation predict coronary heart disease (CHD) in subjects with long-standing childhood-onset type 1 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The AlphaLISA ® immunoassay kit for human galectin-9 enables the quantitative determination of human galectin-9 (Gal-9) in serum, buffered solution, and cell culture media using a homogeneous AlphaLISA assay (no wash steps). (perkinelmer.com)
  • This kit has been designed for the detection of human Galectin-9 in serum, cell lysate, and cell culture supernatants. (perkinelmer.com)
  • Indeed, compared with LPS, galectin-1-treated human MDDCs exhibited significantly better chemotactic migration through Matrigel, an in vitro ECM model. (jimmunol.org)
  • Here, we show that activation of rat PSCs in vitro is associated with increased expression of galectin-1 (gal-1) and that gal-1 modulates PSC function. (nih.gov)
  • WELLESLEY HILLS, Mass., June 15 /PRNewswire/ -- Joseph F. Finn, Jr., C.P.A. ("Finn") announced today that in vitro studies have demonstrated that GCS-100 binds to and blocks the effects of galectin-3. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Galectin-8 is a protein of the galectin family that in humans is encoded by the LGALS8 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The researchers also examined mice lacking the gene for Gal-1 and found that these mice had increased parasitemia and decreased survival rate following T. cruzi (Tulahuén strain) infection compared with wild type mice. (medicalxpress.com)
  • B-cell translocation gene 1 (BTG1) was identified as one of genes downregulated in GC tissues from our microarray data. (biomedsearch.com)
  • While prototype galectins are usually homodimers with two polypeptides containing a CRD each, tandem repeat galectins are monomers presenting two CRDs, connected by a linker region. (frontiersin.org)
  • 2 The galectins have been classified into three classes, prototype, chimera, and tandem-repeat galectins. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The tandem-repeat galectins (-4, -6, -8, -9, -12) consist of two CRDs joined by a linker peptide. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Over a dozen mammalian galectins have been described ( 10 , 11 ), and members of this family are expressed in a wide range of species, suggesting an important role for galectins in basic cellular mechanisms. (pnas.org)
  • Galectin-1 and galectin-3 are the best characterized of the mammalian galectins. (google.com)
  • However, the molecular pathways underlying Gal-1 expression and function remain poorly understood. (conicet.gov.ar)
  • Galectin-1 and -2 are homodimers with subunit molecular weight of ˜14 kDa, that are not subjected to post-translational modifications (Tracey B M et al. (google.com)
  • Galectin-9, also known as LGLAS9, Ecalectin and UAT, is a mammalian lectin with a molecular weight around 50 kD. (perkinelmer.com)
  • Galectin-1 (Gal-1) is a β-galactoside-binding lectin that regulates endothelial cell migration, proliferation, and adhesion. (ebscohost.com)
  • One unique effect of galectin-1 is to increase DC migration through the ECM, suggesting that galectin-1 may be an important component in initiating an immune response. (jimmunol.org)
  • Mutant trichomonads that failed to bind Gal-1 and Gal-3 showed higher proinflammatory activity suggesting a role for the CPI-GC -galectin binding in suppressing innate immune responses. (bmj.com)
  • Galectin-1 is thought to play a role in creating immune tolerance in pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • These results suggest that Gal-1 contributes to tumor immune privilege by modulating survival of T-cell subsets. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Galectin (Gal)-1, a lectin found at sites of immune privilege with critical role in the inflammation, has been poorly investigated in the ocular inflammatory diseases. (arvojournals.org)
  • To reveal whether the immune mediator and lipopolysaccharide binding galectin-3 is present in tears, tear samples were collected from eyes in healthy and pathological states. (bmj.com)
  • 11 In the immune system they modulate different steps of the inflammatory cascade, 12 13 The only chimera-type galectin, galectin-3, deserves special attention in this context. (bmj.com)
  • Galectin-9 binds to carbohydrate moieties of IgE, thereby preventing immune complex formation, mast cell degranulation, and asthmatic and cutaneous anaphylaxis reactions (8). (rndsystems.com)
  • Galectin-1 is present not only in central and peripheral lymphoid organs, but also at sites of immune privilege. (hindawi.com)
  • It was concluded that galectin-1 from R. catesbeiana oocytes possesses different and rare glycan-binding properties from typical members in galectin family. (eurekaselect.com)
  • In the present study we used NMR spectroscopy to investigate the interaction of human gal-1 with a large (120 kDa) complex glycan, GRG (galactorhamnogalacturonate glycan), that contains non-randomly distributed mostly terminal β(1→4)-linked galactose side chains. (biochemj.org)
  • The major bound glycoproteins were α-2-macroglobulin, IgM and haptoglobin. (lu.se)
  • It binds a variety of matrix glycoproteins including laminin and fibronectin. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The galectin-1 protein is 135 amino acids in length and highly conserved across species. (wikipedia.org)
  • We aimed to clarify if expression of galectin-3 is related to the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients, and to explore the possible mechanisms of galectin-3 in hepatocellular carcinoma. (ebscohost.com)
  • Finally, we analyzed galectin-3 expression and micro-vessel density (MVD) by immunohistochemistry (IHC) to find its correlation with angiogenesis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma. (ebscohost.com)
  • Galectin-1 deactivates classically activated microglia and protects from inflammation-induced neurodegeneration. (nih.gov)
  • 1 Medical Research Council (MRC) Centre for Inflammation Research, University of Edinburgh, Queen's Medical Research Institute, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ, UK. (sciencemag.org)
  • Gal-1 has an important role in ocular allergic inflammation and represents a potential target for the development of new therapeutic strategies in eye diseases. (arvojournals.org)
  • Recently featured as a " Research Highlight " in the journal Nature Reviews Rheumatology , the work of scientists from the University Department of Orthopedics has revealed that the protein, galectin-1, is positively correlated with the level of degeneration propagated by the inflammation of OA. (acsh.org)
  • With the (1 → 4) disaccharide, however, the typical CH-π interaction is significantly diminished, yet binding appears to be partially compensated for by hydrogen bonding. (elsevier.com)
  • The galectin 3 binding protein/galectin-3 interaction appears to play a critical role in venous thrombosis formation in animal models. (guidetopharmacology.org)